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Sample records for cantarell oil field

  1. Lacunarity of geophysical well logs in the Cantarell oil field, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arizabalo, Ruben Dario [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Oleschko, Klavdia [Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Juriquilla, Queretaro (Mexico); Korvin, Gabor [King Fahd University, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Lozada, Manuel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Castrejon, Ricardo [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ronquillo, Gerardo [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-04-15

    Lacunarity and fractal variations in geophysical well logs are associated with stratigraphic and petrophysical properties of the naturally fractured Cantarell field in the Gulf of Mexico. Neutron porosity (NPHI), density (RHOB, DRHO, PEF), resistivity (LLD, LLS, MSFL), natural radioactivity (GR, CGR, URAN, POTA, THOR) and caliper (CALI) logs are studied. The resistivity logs yielded remarkably high lacunarity values, especially in the hydrocarbon source- and reservoir rocks. Lacunarity {delta} was found to depend on the resolution and radial depth of penetration of the logging method. It systematically increased in the following order: {delta}(RHOB) < {delta}(CALI) < {delta}(PEF) < {delta}(URAN) < {delta}(GR) < {delta}(NPHI) < {delta}(POTA) < {delta}(CGR) < {delta}(THOR) < {delta}(MSFL) < {delta}(DRHO) < {delta}(LLS) < {delta}(LLD). [Spanish] En este trabajo fueron analizadas las variaciones fractales y de lagunaridad de los registros geofisicos de pozo, con el fin de asociarlos con las propiedades estratigraficas y petrofisicas del yacimiento naturalmente fracturado de Cantarell, en el Golfo de Mexico. Los registros considerados fueron: porosidad neutron (NPHI), densidad (RHOB, DRHO, PEF), resistividad (LLD, LLS, MSFL), radiactividad natural (GR, CGR, URAN, POTA, THOR) y caliper (CALI). Los registros de resistividad produjeron valores de lagunaridad notablemente altos, especialmente en las rocas generadoras y almacenadoras, a diferencia de los demas registros, cuya homogeneidad de traza implico una baja lagunaridad. Los resultados indican que la lagunaridad observada depende de la resolucion y profundidad radial de penetracion del metodo geofisico estudiado y aumenta sistematicamente en el siguiente orden: {delta}(RHOB) < {delta}(CALI) < {delta}(PEF) < {delta}(URAN) < {delta}(GR) < {delta}(NPHI) < {delta}(POTA) < {delta}(CGR) < {delta}(THOR) < {delta}(MSFL) < {delta}(DRHO) < {delta}(LLS) < {delta}(LLD).

  2. Replacement of 13 valves by using an isolation plug in the 20 inches diameter main offshore gas pipeline at Cantarell oil field, Campeche Bay, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvahal Reyes, Jorge Omar; Ulloa Ochoa, Carlos Manuel [PEMEX, Exploracion y Produccion, MX (Mexico)

    2009-12-19

    In 2002 we changed 13 valves on deck of one gas production platform called Nohoch-A-Enlace at Cantarell Offshore Oil Field. The 20'' diameter gas pipeline and 200 km of length, transport and deliver gas for others production platforms in the Gas Lift System, So 2 millions of oil barrels per day depends of the operation of this gas pipeline but there was 13 valves on pig traps to be changed after 20 years of service to high pressure (64 to 63 kg/cm{sup 2}). We could not stop the operation of this pipeline and some little gas leaks were eliminated in some parts of the valves. This pipeline has two risers so the gas can be injected by two sides of the ring of 20 Km. So we found the proper technology in order to isolate one riser nad change 8 valves and the isolate the other and change the 5, and the gas lift system never stop during the plug and maintenance operations on platform. In the first isolation plug operation this tool run 20 mts inside the riser and was actionated and resists 65 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas pressure during 44 hours so we changed 8 valves: 2 of 20'', 2 of 10'', 3 of 4'' and 1 of 8'' diameter. In the second isolation the plug run 30 mts inside the second risers and resist 64 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas during 46 hours and we changed 5 valves of 20'' diameter. In the paper I will describe all the details of this successful operations and procedures. Also the aspects of Health, Security and Environment that we prepared one year before this operations at platform. Pemex save almost 2.5 millions of dollars because the gas lift system never stop and all valves were changed and now we can run cleaning and inspection tools inside the full ring. We used the first isolation plug in Latin America and we want to share this experience to all the pipeline operators in the world as a good practice in pipeline maintenance using plugging technology in the main and large pipelines of high pressure. (author)

  3. Akal field (Cantarell Complex) conditions of exploration, analysis, and prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, A.G.; Torres, A.R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a detailed description of the current conditions of exploitations in the Akal Field (the largest producer in Campeche Sound and Mexico Country). The Akal field, a naturally fractured reservoir, began exploitation in June, 1979 with the well Akal-1A and 34,000 BOPD of production about 22{degree} API. The field development was gradual and in the middle of 1981 had 40 producer wells. Now the field contains 140 wells and has 890,000 BOPD of production with 7,500 BOPD per well on the average and a cumulative production of 4,647 MMSTB, thus classifying it a supergiant reservoir. This field has good conditions for gravity drainage mechanisms: thickness about 2,300 feet, high permeability around of 3--4 Darcy and top relief about of 6,000 feet. It`s important to mention that this field has a gas-cap which has been increasing from 1981; now at May, 1994 the gas-oil contact is at 5,719 feet and one can establish a continuous monitoring with TDT logs. Based in this monitoring it is possible to predict workover and recommend infill-drilling. Finally the authors show the match and prediction behavior of the gas-oil contact through time and different exploitation alternatives performed with a volumetric model.

  4. The Cantarell Breccia System, Southern Gulf Of Mexico: Structural Evolution And Support For An Origin Relarted To The Chixculub Meteorite Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricoy, V.

    2003-04-01

    The Upper Cretaceous within the Campeche Basin, southern Gulf of Mexico hosts a world class petroleum system. Cantarell is the most important reservoir that consists of a complex brecciated carbonate reservoir deposited at or around the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Previous sedimentological studies suggests that the Upper Cretaceous Carbonate breccias found in the Cantarell oilfield system and through the Bay of Campeche, were the result of a catastrophic shelf collapse event triggered by the Chixculub meteorite impact. This work presents new evidence from structural and stratigraphic interpretation of 3D seismic and 2D lines which gives light to features that support the platform collapse model. The reservoir consists of thick (up to 300 m), heterogeneous, monomyctic and polymictic breccias developed at the K-T boundary, and widely distributed throughout the Campeche Basin. The timing, internal architecture, widespread deposition and distance to the platform margin source (over 30 kms) of the breccia unit, combined with a contorted irregular seismic reflector near the base of the Cretaceous carbonate platform, suggests that the geological processes accountable for the emplacement of the breccias relates to the massive catastrophic collapse of the Cretaceous platform as a result of the Chixculub meteorite impact. Structural interpretation of the 3D seismic data, together with well stratigraphic markers unraveled a complex Oligocene-Miocene structural deformation history of the Cantarell field, which resulted in several discrete reservoir blocks partitioned by a complex array of thrusts, normal and reverse faults. It is proposed that the structural deformation of the area controlled to a large extent the distribution of the reservoir properties found in the Cantarell area. This idea is tested using the structural model matched against the well log porosity data.

  5. Giant fields in southwest Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-20

    According to Petroleos Mexicanos southeastern Mexico's Isthmus Saline basin holds five new giant fields - Tonala-El Burro, El Plan, Cinco Presidentes, Oraggio, and Magallanes - producing oil and gas from Tertiary sandstones. Numerous normal faults resulting from salt intrusion have given rise to multiple blocks, each with its own reservoir conditions. Previously discovered basins in the area include the Macuspana, which holds three giant gas- and condensate-producing fields: Jose Colomo, Chilapilla, and Hormiquero. The 3100-mi/sup 2/ Campeche marine platform, extending offshore nearby, contains the Cantarell complex, Mexico's most productive hydrocarbon province.

  6. Tarim Oil Field Company Oil Output Exceeds 5 Million Tons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    PetroChina Tarim Oil Field Company (Tarim Oil Field), located in the hinterland of Takelamagan Desert in Northwest Xinjiang Autonomous Region,produced 5.006 million tons of crude oil in 2002,ranking it as the sixth largest onshore oil field in China. This is the first time Tarim Oil Field has topped 5 million tons for its crude production.

  7. Development of North Sumatra (Rantau Oil Field)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Y.

    1965-09-01

    General conditions of various oil fields in North Sumatra are illustrated. Geologic structure of North Sumatra and that of Rantau Oil Field, the largest among 11 oil fields, is described in detail. Rantau Oil Field has produced more than 14 million kl of crude oil since 1929. It is still going strong and gradually expanding its border to the north. Since 1957, PERMINA (Pertambangan Minjak National) had been the only company with mining right to the oil field, but NSODECO (North Sumatra Oil Development Corporation) joined in development of the oil field since June, 1960. The latter part of this article gives comparison of conditions before and after the participation of NSODECO.

  8. Oil and gas field database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young In; Han, Jung Kuy [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    As agreed by the Second Meeting of the Expert Group of Minerals and Energy Exploration and Development in Seoul, Korea, 'The Construction of Database on the Oil and Gas Fields in the APEC Region' is now under way as a GEMEED database project for 1998. This project is supported by Korean government funds and the cooperation of GEMEED colleagues and experts. During this year, we have constructed the home page menu (topics) and added the data items on the oil and gas field. These items include name of field, discovery year, depth, the number of wells, average production (b/d), cumulative production, and API gravity. The web site shows the total number of oil and gas fields in the APEC region is 47,201. The number of oil and gas fields by member economics are shown in the table. World oil and gas statistics including reserve, production consumption, and trade information were added to the database for the users convenience. (author). 13 refs., tabs., figs.

  9. El campo petrolero Cantarell y la economía mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Romo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los grandes campos de petróleo han jugado un papel fundamental como aporte de hidrocarburos en el mundo, pero la mayoría de ellos está en proceso de declinación. El macro yacimiento Cantarell ha sido el origen de importantes volúmenes de hidrocarburos y grandes beneficios para el país, pero a partir de 2004 inició su proceso de declinación que ha afectado la plataforma de producción de petróleo. Esta investigación estudia el conjunto de elementos que han incidido sobre el desempeño de ese macro yacimiento, los cuales son fundamentales para explicar su situación actual. Se concluye que la administración de Cantarell no fue la óptima durante los tres periodos característicos identificados, toda vez que se sujetó a determinaciones no técnicas, que incidieron en su declinación y en la serie de retos que está enfrentando, mismos que a su vez, podrían atenuarse con el empleo de tecnología.

  10. Kashagan oil field development. Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on our research and field investigations of the Kashagan oil field development and relevant infrastructure in the Atyrau and Mangistau regions of Kazakhstan (cities and vicinities of Aktau, Atash, Atyrau, Bautino, Bolashak, Karabatan and Koshanai) evidence has been collected that raises serious concerns about environmental, social and health effects of this oil field development - such as sulphur emissions and storage which may pose serious threats for the communities close to the Kashagan oil facilities and for the Caspian Sea environment. Furthermore, since becoming the single Operator of the North Caspian Sea Production Sharing Agreement (PSA), the Agip Kazakhstan North Caspian Operating Company N.V. (Agip KCO) has failed to release all information available on the environmental, health and social impacts of its operations in the Kashagan oil field. As requested by the local communities and required by Constitution of Kazakhstan Republic and Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters ratified by Kazakhstan in 2001, such information must be made available. There is also a growing concern among the civil society that the European Commission through its officials is publicly expressing support to European oil companies' members of the Agip KCO despite their failure to fulfil basic environmental regulations. This continued support contradicts the European Union's fundamental values and frequent statements related to Human Rights and Sustainable Development. Thousands of people have already been relocated in the region because of sulphur emissions and other highly poisonous chemicals such as mercaptans, which are present at very high levels in Northern Caspian oil. Unprotected storage of large quantities of sulphur is also recognised as a major cause of acid rain on a global level. This Report implores Agip KCO to release all available and required information on the

  11. El campo petrolero Cantarell y la economía mexicana

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Romo

    2015-01-01

    Los grandes campos de petróleo han jugado un papel fundamental como aporte de hidrocarburos en el mundo, pero la mayoría de ellos está en proceso de declinación. El macro yacimiento Cantarell ha sido el origen de importantes volúmenes de hidrocarburos y grandes beneficios para el país, pero a partir de 2004 inició su proceso de declinación que ha afectado la plataforma de producción de petróleo. Esta investigación estudia el conjunto de elementos que han incidido sobre el desempeño de ese mac...

  12. Chinese Oil Giants Eye Canadian Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ SinoCanada, a subsidiary of Sinopec International Petroleum Exploration and Development Corporation, and Canada-based Synenco Energy Inc announced on May 31 that they have inked a series of agreements to launch a joint venture for common development of the oil sand project located in Athabasca region of Northeast Canada's Alberta Province. Based on the agreements, Sinopec will pay 105 million Canadian dollars (US$84 million) for a stake in Canada's Northern Lights oil sands project while Synenco owns the remaining 60 percent share,and will operate the project as the managing partner.

  13. Oil field redevelopment -- some lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a summary of some oil field redevelopment experiences that resulted in unanticipated expenses or other inconveniences and consequently became learning experiences. Compared with many other types of contaminated properties, oil fields are relatively easy to remediate. The primary contaminant is crude oil ranging in nature from hard and weathered tar to fresh crude with a notable fraction of light end hydrocarbons. Groundwater is usually not impacted due to the low mobility and solubility of crude oil. Crude oil overall has a relatively low toxicity, is not considered a hazardous material and can usually be easily remediated using bioremediation. All of these factors contribute to the notion that oil fields are low risk in terms of cleanup. However, experience has shown that oil field redevelopment does have some risks as is illustrated by examples

  14. Oil and Gas Field Locations, Geographic NAD83, LDNR (2007) [oil_gas_fields_LDNR_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS layer consists of oil and gas field approximate center point locations (approximately 1,800). Oil and gas fields not assigned a center point by the DNR...

  15. Tracers in China oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China has rich oil resources and integrated petroleum industry. The oil industry offers a large market for tracer applications. Nowadays the main stream-most frequently used tracer technologies are introduced. These technologies include tracer 'plating' method for water intake profile measurement on the injection well, inter well tracer test and inter well tracer test for residual oil evaluation. (author)

  16. Field performance of a premium heating oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa, T. [Santa Fuels, Inc., Bridgeport, CT (United States); Jetter, S.M. [Mobil Oil R & D Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)

    1996-07-01

    As part of our ongoing research to provide quality improvements to heating oil, Mobil Oil together with Santa Fuel, Inc., conducted a field trial to investigate the performance of a new premium heating oil. This premium heating oil contains an additive system designed to minimize sludge related problems in the fuel delivery system of residential home heating systems. The additive used was similar to others reported at this and earlier BNL conferences, but was further developed to enhance its performance in oil heat systems. The premium heating oil was bulk additized and delivered to a subset of the customer base. Fuel related, unscheduled service calls were monitored in this test area, as well as in a similar baseline area that did not receive the premium heating oil. Overall, the premium fuel provided a 45% reduction in the occurrence of fuel related, unscheduled service calls as compared to the baseline area. Within this population, there was a reduction of 38% in systems with 275 gallon tanks, and 55% in systems that had >275 gallon tanks showing that the additive is effective in the various configurations of residential oil heat systems. In addition, photographic documentation collected at two accounts supported this improvement by clearly showing that the equipment remained cleaner with the premium heating oil than with regular heating oil. Based on these results, a full marketing trial of this new product has been initiated by Mobil and Santa Fuel, Inc., during the 1995-1996 heating season.

  17. Panorama of PetroChina Jidong Oil Field Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoLu

    2003-01-01

    As the old oil fields in East China are currently facing more and more pressure to keep their crude oil production stable in the past few years owing to the high water cut, PetroChina Jidong Oil Field has become a rising star in the country's oil and gas exploration and production sector. Jidong Oil Field

  18. Removing flaring on the oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnecessary flaring occurs at oil- and gas plants all over the world. It is possible, however, by means of new technology, to achieve the same safety that flaring is meant to provide and yet avoid pollution. The article describes a project in which a system that stops air pollution at an oil field in Abu Dhabi has been delivered by the Norwegian company SAAS System AS. The project is a pilot installation

  19. Field evaluations of marine oil spill bioremediation.

    OpenAIRE

    Swannell, R P; Lee, K; McDonagh, M

    1996-01-01

    Bioremediation is defined as the act of adding or improving the availability of materials (e.g., nutrients, microorganisms, or oxygen) to contaminated environments to cause an acceleration of natural biodegradative processes. The results of field experiments and trials following actual spill incidents have been reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a treatment for oil contamination in the marine environment. The ubiquity of oil-degrading microorganisms in the marine environ...

  20. Methanogenic Oil Degradation in the Dagang Oil Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Núria; Cai, Minmin; Straaten, Nontje; Yao, Jun; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation is one of the main in situ oil transformation processes in subsurface oil reservoirs. Recent studies have provided evidence of biodegradation of residual oil constituents under methanogenic conditions. Methane, like other biogenic gases, may contribute to reduce the viscosity of oil and enhance its flow characteristics (making it more available) but it can also be used as a energy source. So the aim of the present study was to provide reliable information on in situ biotransformation of oil under methanogenic conditions, and to assess the feasibility of implementing a MEOR strategy at this site. For this reason, chemical and isotopic analyses of injection and production fluids of the Dagang oil field (Hebei province, China) were performed. Microbial abundances were assessed by qPCR, and clone libraries were performed to study the diversity. In addition, microcosms with either oil or 13C-labelled hydrocarbons were inoculated with injection or production waters to characterize microbial processes in vitro. Geochemical and isotopic data were consistent with in situ biogenic methane production linked to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation: GC-MS profiles of petroleum samples were nearly devoid of n-alkanes, linear alkylbenzenes, and alkyltoluenes, and light PAH, confirming that Dagang oil is mostly highly weathered. In addition, carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane (δ13CCH4 and δDCH4, respectively), and the bulk isotopic discrimination (Δδ13C) between methane and CO2 (between 32 and 65 ) were in accordance with previously reported values for methane formation during hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, methane-producing Archaea and hydrocarbon-degrading Bacteria were abundant in produced oil-water samples. On the other hand, our laboratory degradation experiments revealed that autochthonous microbiota are capable of significantly degrade oil within several months, with biodegradation patterns resembling those

  1. Amposta oil field (Spanish Mediterranean offshore)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeman, U. (Shell Espana, Madrid (Spain))

    1988-08-01

    The Amposta oil field lies some 20 km off the Mediterranean coast of Spain directly south of the Ebro delta in 70 m of water. The field is operated by Shell in association with Repsol Exploracion (the Spanish national oil company) and Coparex. The field was discovered in 1970 and came on stream in 1972, reaching a maximum production of 40,000 bbl/day. The current cumulative production of 55.7 million bbl is just 300,000 bbl short of the field's expected ultimate primary recovery. Original production was established via a single-buoy mooring system (SBM) with a permanently moored tanker acting as a floating storage vessel. Oil is produced from a fractured, karstified Lower Cretaceous limestone reservoir in a tilted fault-block structure (areal closure is 900 ha), sealed by overlying Miocene clastics. The top of the reservoir is at 1,746 m; the original oil column was 194 m. Designing the optimal production/drainage scheme for a complex reservoir such as the Amposta field with its intricate pore geometry (channels, caves, and fractures) formed an interesting challenge. The field has produced from 7 wells so far. Until recently pressure could be maintained and dry oil produced. Enhanced recovery tests (gas injection) are presently being undertaken. The heavy, undersaturated, high-sulfur crude (17{degree} API, gas-oil ratio of 380 scf/bbl, and 5.5% sulfur) is an early expulsion product generated from a marly/chalky type II source rock sequence of latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous age, underlying the field.

  2. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  3. Venezuela slates second oil field revival round

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Venezuela will accept bids under a second round next year from private foreign and domestic companies for production contracts to operate marginal active as well as inactive oil fields. The first such round came earlier this year, involving about 55 other marginal, inactive fields. It resulted in two contractors signed with domestic and foreign companies. It represented the first time since nationalization of the petroleum industry in Venezuela in 1976 that private companies were allowed to produce oil in the country. A public bid tender was expected at presstime last week

  4. Innovative technologies for managing oil field waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each year, the oil industry generates millions of barrels of wastes that need to be properly managed. For many years, most oil field wastes were disposed of at a significant cost. However, over the past decade, the industry has developed many processes and technologies to minimize the generation of wastes and to more safely and economically dispose of the waste that is generated. Many companies follow a three-tiered waste management approach. First, companies try to minimize waste generation when possible. Next, they try to find ways to reuse or recycle the wastes that are generated. Finally, the wastes that cannot be reused or recycled must be disposed of. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) has evaluated the feasibility of various oil field waste management technologies for the U.S. Department of Energy. This paper describes four of the technologies Argonne has reviewed. In the area of waste minimization, the industry has developed synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs) that have the desired drilling properties of oil-based muds without the accompanying adverse environmental impacts. Use of SBMs avoids significant air pollution from work boats hauling offshore cuttings to shore for disposal and provides more efficient drilling than can be achieved with water-based muds. Downhole oil/water separators have been developed to separate produced water from oil at the bottom of wells. The produced water is directly injected to an underground formation without ever being lifted to the surface, thereby avoiding potential for groundwater or soil contamination. In the area of reuse/recycle, Argonne has worked with Southeastern Louisiana University and industry to develop a process to use treated drill cuttings to restore wetlands in coastal Louisiana. Finally, in an example of treatment and disposal, Argonne has conducted a series of four baseline studies to characterize the use of salt caverns for safe and economic disposal of oil field wastes.

  5. Field evaluations of marine oil spill bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swannell, R P; Lee, K; McDonagh, M

    1996-06-01

    Bioremediation is defined as the act of adding or improving the availability of materials (e.g., nutrients, microorganisms, or oxygen) to contaminated environments to cause an acceleration of natural biodegradative processes. The results of field experiments and trials following actual spill incidents have been reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a treatment for oil contamination in the marine environment. The ubiquity of oil-degrading microorganisms in the marine environment is well established, and research has demonstrated the capability of the indigenous microflora to degrade many components of petroleum shortly after exposure. Studies have identified numerous factors which affect the natural biodegradation rates of oil, such as the origin and concentration of oil, the availability of oil-degrading microorganisms, nutrient concentrations, oxygen levels, climatic conditions, and sediment characteristics. Bioremediation strategies based on the application of fertilizers have been shown to stimulate the biodegradation rates of oil in aerobic intertidal sediments such as sand and cobble. The ratio of oil loading to nitrogen concentration within the interstitial water has been identified to be the principal controlling factor influencing the success of this bioremediation strategy. However, the need for the seeding of natural environments with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria has not been clearly demonstrated under natural environmental conditions. It is suggested that bioremediation should now take its place among the many techniques available for the treatment of oil spills, although there is still a clear need to set operational limits for its use. On the basis of the available evidence, we have proposed preliminary operational guidelines for bioremediation on shoreline environments. PMID:8801437

  6. Crude Production Tops 2 Million Tons at Qinghai Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The crude oil output of Qinghai Oil Field in Qaidam basin of the northwestern China's Qinghai Province topped two million tons at the end of 2000.This is the first time that the annual crude oil output of the oilfield has exceeded two millions, according to Huang Ligong, general manager of Qinghai Oil Field under PetroChina.

  7. Venezuelan oil field revival bids won

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that four private sector companies or combines will operate inactive oil fields in Venezuela under state owned Petroleos de Venezuela's marginal field reactivation program. The award of operating contract to winning bidders marks the first time private companies will be allowed to produce crude oil in Venezuela since nationalization of the industry in 1976. Winning bidders have committed a total of $720 million in investments to the program during the 1990s. Current plans call for drilling 670 appraisals and development wells, conducting 250 workovers and well repairs, and conducting about 2,9000 line km of seismic surveys. Venezuela's energy ministry is targeting a production level of 90,000 b/d by the end of the decade from the reactivated fields

  8. Oil and gas field code master list, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-16

    This document contains data collected through October 1993 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  9. Northern Alaska oil fields and caribou: a commentary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the status of caribou, Rangifer tarandus, herds relative to oil field development in the Prudhoe Bay region of Alaska. The Central Arctic caribou herd, which spends June and July in and around oil fields in the Prudhoe Bay region, has increased since the inception of oil field development and has demographics similar to those of adjacent herds which are not near oil fields. Although oil field development may impact individual caribou through disturbance or impedance of movements, herd-level impacts of the oil fields are not apparent. Caribou populations characteristically fluctuate dramatically, and differentiating human and non-human impacts is difficult or impossible. The herd is the unit of management, and management objectives are being met. The experience in northern Alaska's oil fields indicates resource extraction and wildlife populations can be compatible when managed properly. (Author)

  10. Microbial communities responsible for corrosion and souring in oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voordouw, G. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Jack, T.R. [Novacor Research and Technology Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Foght, J.M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1996-05-01

    Oil field microbial communities and their role in in situ hydrocarbon degradation, oil desulfurization, souring and metal corrosion were discussed. Focus was on molecular biological methods to characterize microbial communities found in oil fields in Western Canada that have moderate resident temperatures. DNA was isolated from samples of different oil fields and was analyzed. It was found that populations differed depending on salinity of oil field production waters. At least 24 different sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), three different fermentative bacteria and six different sulfide oxidizers and microaerophiles were found to be present in oil field production waters. This indicated that sulfate may be the most important electron acceptor in the oil field microbial community. 10 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  11. Enterprise field. Enhanced oil and gas recovery in Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzkanin, A.D.; Layton, F.L.; Lorenz, J.S.; Pollom, R.J.; Tefertiller, R.A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The Enterprise oil field of Missaukee and Roscommon counties is a successful Richfield interval waterflood project, indicated by the fact that oil production has exceeded expected primary production estimates by 42% as of 1975. The reservoir performance is described.

  12. Assessment of microorganisms from Indonesian Oil Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadarwati, S.; Udiharto, M.; Rahman, M.; Jasjfi, E.; Legowo, E.H. [Research and Development Centre for Oil and Gas Technology LEMIGAS, Jakarta Selatan (Indonesia)

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum resources have been the mainstay of the national development in Indonesia. However, resources are being depleted after over a century of exploitation, while the demand continues to grow with the rapid economic development of the country. In facing the problem, EOR has been applied in Indonesia, such as the steamflooding project in Duri field, but a more energy efficient technology would be preferable. Therefore, MEOR has been recommended as a promising solution. Our study, aimed at finding indigenous microorganisms which can be developed for application in MEOR, has isolated microbes from some oil fields of Indonesia. These microorganisms have been identified, their activities studied, and the effects of their metabolisms examined. This paper describes the research carried out by LEMIGAS in this respect, giving details on the methods of sampling, incubation, identification, and activation of the microbes as well as tests on the effects of their metabolites, with particular attention to those with potential for application in MEOR.

  13. Evaluation of fluoroelastomers for oil field service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad range of laboratory testing conditions have been selected which are representative of the media that elastomeric vulcanizates encounter in oil field applications. These media are typical for those found in the drilling, completion, workover and production operations. The simulation of these media under operating conditions has been used to establish the utility of vulcanizates based on fluoroelastomers and nitrile rubber. The results show that in sour media (H2S) and acidic (pH=2) completion fluids, FKM vulcanizates are clearly superior to NBR compounds which embrittle at temperatures as low as 1000C. Studies on the resistance of BOP vulcanizates to stale (peroxidized) diesel fuel used in drilling fluids show that at 940C, NBR compounds embrittled after three days, while a blend of VITON* AHV/E-45 was still functional at the end of the 14-day test

  14. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA's annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series' objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series' approach is to integrate EIA's crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel

  15. Integrated field modelling[Oil and gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarian, Bamshad

    2002-07-01

    This research project studies the feasibility of developing and applying an integrated field simulator to simulate the production performance of an entire oil or gas field. It integrates the performance of the reservoir, the wells, the chokes, the gathering system, the surface processing facilities and whenever applicable, gas and water injection systems. The approach adopted for developing the integrated simulator is to couple existing commercial reservoir and process simulators using available linking technologies. The simulators are dynamically linked and customised into a single hybrid application that benefits from the concept of open software architecture. The integrated field simulator is linked to an optimisation routine developed based on the genetic algorithm search strategies. This enables optimisation of the system at field level, from the reservoir to the process. Modelling the wells and the gathering network is achieved by customising the process simulator. This study demonstrated that the integrated simulation improves current capabilities to simulate the performance of the entire field and optimise its design. This is achieved by evaluating design options including spread and layout of the wells and gathering system, processing alternatives, reservoir development schemes and production strategies. Effectiveness of the integrated simulator is demonstrated and tested through several field-level case studies that discuss and investigate technical problems relevant to offshore field development. The case studies cover topics such as process optimisation, optimum tie-in of satellite wells into existing process facilities, optimal well location and field layout assessment of a high pressure high temperature deepwater oil field. Case study results confirm the viability of the total field simulator by demonstrating that the field performance simulation and optimal design were obtained in an automated process with treasonable computation time. No significant

  16. Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-04

    This is the ninth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1990 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. There are 54,963 field records in this year's Oil and Gas Field Code Master List (FCML). This amounts to 467 more than in last year's report. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes: Field records for each state and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides;field records for each alias field name; fields crossing state boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective state naming authorities.

  17. Dynamic characterization of oil fields, complex stratigraphically using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel methodology is presented in this paper for the characterization of highly heterogeneous oil fields by integration of the oil fields dynamic information to the static updated model. The objective of the oil field's characterization process is to build an oil field model, as realistic as possible, through the incorporation of all the available information. The classical approach consists in producing a model based in the oil field's static information, having as the process final stage the validation model with the dynamic information available. It is important to clarify that the term validation implies a punctual process by nature, generally intended to secure the required coherence between productive zones and petrophysical properties. The objective of the proposed methodology is to enhance the prediction capacity of the oil field's model by previously integrating, parameters inherent to the oil field's fluid dynamics by a process of dynamic data inversion through an optimization procedure based on evolutionary computation. The proposed methodology relies on the construction of the oil field's high-resolution static model, escalated by means of hybrid techniques while aiming to preserve the oil field's heterogeneity. Afterwards, using an analytic simulator as reference, the scaled model is methodically modified by means of an optimization process that uses genetic algorithms and production data as conditional information. The process's final product is a model that observes the static and dynamic conditions of the oil field with the capacity to minimize the economic impact that generates production historical adjustments to the simulation tasks. This final model features some petrophysical properties (porosity, permeability and water saturation), as modified to achieve a better adjustment of the simulated production's history versus the real one history matching. Additionally, the process involves a slight modification of relative permeability, which has

  18. Plans to revive oil fields in Venezuela on track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the three operating units of Venezuela's state owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA which will begin receiving bids Feb. 28 from companies interested in operating 55 inactive oil fields in nine producing areas of Venezuela. Francisco Pradas, Pdvsa executive in charge of the program, the the company expects 88 companies or combines of foreign and domestic private companies to participate in the bidding. The program, announced last year, aims to reactivate production in marginal oil fields. It will involve the first direct participation by private companies in Venezuela's oil production since nationalization in 1976

  19. Coreflood assay using extremophile microorganisms for recovery of heavy oil in Mexican oil fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorena-Cortés, Gladys; Roldán-Carrillo, Teresa; Reyes-Avila, Jesús; Zapata-Peñasco, Icoquih; Mayol-Castillo, Martha; Olguín-Lora, Patricia

    2012-10-01

    A considerable portion of oil reserves in Mexico corresponds to heavy oils. This feature makes it more difficult to recover the remaining oil in the reservoir after extraction with conventional techniques. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has been considered as a promising technique to further increase oil recovery, but its application has been developed mainly with light oils; therefore, more research is required for heavy oil. In this study, the recovery of Mexican heavy oil (11.1°API and viscosity 32,906 mPa s) in a coreflood experiment was evaluated using the extremophile mixed culture A7, which was isolated from a Mexican oil field. Culture A7 includes fermentative, thermophilic, and anaerobic microorganisms. The experiments included waterflooding and MEOR stages, and were carried out under reservoir conditions (70°C and 9.65 MPa). MEOR consisted of injections of nutrients and microorganisms followed by confinement periods. In the MEOR stages, the mixed culture A7 produced surface-active agents (surface tension reduction 27 mN m⁻¹), solvents (ethanol, 1738 mg L⁻¹), acids (693 mg L⁻¹), and gases, and also degraded heavy hydrocarbon fractions in an extreme environment. The interactions of these metabolites with the oil, as well as the bioconversion of heavy oil fractions to lighter fractions (increased alkanes in the C₈-C₃₀ range), were the mechanisms responsible for the mobility and recovery of heavy oil from the porous media. Oil recovery by MEOR was 19.48% of the residual oil in the core after waterflooding. These results show that MEOR is a potential alternative to heavy oil recovery in Mexican oil fields. PMID:22704814

  20. Large volume oil spill on land surface. The Vozey Oil Field, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strategies for dealing with a large oil spill from underground pipelines at the Vozey oil field in Russia were discussed. The spill area was, to a large extent, a peatland region and it was expected that oil would follow natural water drainage routes to reach streams and rivers. Consequently, interception of this oil through collection in ditches and dugout pools was the recommended remediation measure. It was believed that intensive mopping-up would damage vegetation that would otherwise survive. This strategy was recommended specifically for a large fen containing 617 000 bbl. or 78 000 tonnes of oil. 12 refs., 3 figs

  1. Applications of horizontal drilling technology in Saudi oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology of drilling and production of horizontal wells is probably one of the most significant breakthrough in the oil and gas industry of the eighties. The continuous improvement of hardware equipment made horizontal drilling cost-effective technique for developing reserves, improving productivity and recovery in oil and gas reservoir. This paper is devoted to Saudi experience in horizontal drilling. The last years have been an exciting period for those who believed in horizontal drilling applicability in Saudi Arabia. At the end of the year 1997 more than 150 horizontal wells have been drilled in Saudi oil fields. There are four major horizontal well applications identified in Saudi Arabia oil fields; 1) Control of coning in relatively thin remaining all column area, 2) Improving sweep efficiency of water flooding program. 3) Improving productivity rate in thin/tight reservoirs and 4) Saving in total development costs in conjunction with previous three applications. This paper presents the major areas of application of horizontal well and more specifically the objectives of applying horizontal drilling in different Saudi oil fields and the world horizontal drilling activities along with the Saudi experience will be convered. This paper surveys different field examples to show the application trends of horizontal well technology in both offshore and onshore oil fields. The main objective of this survey is to demonstrate the performance improvement of these oil fields after the application of horizontal well technology. (author)

  2. Oil and Gas field code master list 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This is the fourteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1995 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the US. The Field Code Index, a listing of all field names and the States in which they occur, ordered by field code, has been removed from this year`s publications to reduce printing and postage costs. Complete copies (including the Field Code Index) will be available on the EIA CD-ROM and the EIA World-Wide Web Site. Future editions of the complete Master List will be available on CD-ROM and other electronic media. There are 57,400 field records in this year`s Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes the following: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (see definition of alias below); and fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. Taking into consideration the double-counting of fields under such circumstances, EIA identifies 46,312 distinct fields in the US as of October 1995. This count includes fields that no longer produce oil or gas, and 383 fields used in whole or in part for oil or gas Storage. 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Oil and gas field development: an NOC perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronman, George [Halliburton Energy Services (United States). Landmark Division

    2004-07-01

    Every day, oil companies around the world face real-life field development and management problems like the ones described above. Making timely and well-informed field development decisions are among the most important decisions the management of any oil company can make. The field development phase of the oil and gas life cycle extends from the discovery of a hydrocarbon deposit through initial production. It also includes revitalization of mature and marginal fields. Field development projects require the greatest level of cross-disciplinary integration and the largest investment decisions in the entire oil field life cycle. The ultimate economic success or failure of most fields is set by the quality of decisions made during field development. Oil companies take many different approaches to field development based on unique business drivers, their asset portfolio mix and risk tolerance, access to data and experienced manpower, adoption of technology, availability of capital, ownership, management style and so on. This paper focuses on understanding and addressing the particular field development challenges facing NOCs today. (author)

  4. How do unanticipated discoveries of oil fields affect the oil price?

    OpenAIRE

    Leinert, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    The Hotelling rule argues that the price for a nonrenewable resource adjusts to the shadow value of the resource, reflecting the remaining availability of the resource. We empirically test the Hotelling rule on the effect of unanticipated oil field discoveries. We do not find evidence for a significant adjustment of the price of crude oil to news about greater resource availability and therefore conclude that the price for crude oil does not follow the theoretically optimal price path.

  5. Oil field produced water discharges into wetlands in Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Approximately 600 oil field produced water discharges are permitted in Wyoming by the State’s Department of Environmental Quality's (WDEQ) National Pollutant...

  6. Enhanced oil and gas recovery in Michigan: Hamilton Field, Richfield Oil Pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, S.E.; Layton, F.L.; Lorenz, J.S.; Matzkanin, A.D.; Pollom, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Richfield Oil Pool of the Hamilton Field in Clare County, Michigan, is a successful waterflood project. The Hamilton Oil Field is a multipool field associated with an anticlinal structure located in parts of Frost, Hayes, and Hamilton townships of Clare County. Richfield reservoir rocks are assigned to the basal part of the Lucas Formation, Detroit River Group. This was the first waterflood project in the state to use the computer to predict production. Cumulative production has exceeded original production estimates made by Sun Oil Company. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Enhanced oil and gas recovery in Michigan: Beaver Creek Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollom, R.J.; Layton, F.L.; Lorenz, J.S.; Matzkanin, A.D.; Wilson, S.E.

    1976-01-01

    The Beaver Creek Field produces from an anticlinal structure being waterflooded in the Richfield interval. It produces from one lensic rock unit whose permeability and porosity are relatively uniform throughout the field. Orderly development and prudent operating procedures have allowed the field to surpass its original primary production estimates by over 3,000,000 barrels of oil. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Enhanced oil and gas recovery in Michigan: Enterprise Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzkanin, A.D.; Layton, F.L.; Lorenz, J.S.; Pollom, R.J.; Tefertiller, R.A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The Enterprise Oil Field of Missaukee and Roscommen counties is a successful Richfield interval waterflood project, indicated by the fact that oil production has exceeded expected primary production estimates by 42% as of 1975. In the Enterprise Field the oil production is obtained from nine dolomite stringers located immediately below the massive anhydrite and separated by either anhydrite or dense limestone. The vertical succession of the reservoir rocks and in impervious evaporites within the Richfield interval is an important element in the success of the waterflood project. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Shengli Oil Fields: Today and Tomorrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Renjie

    1996-01-01

    @@ Shengli oil area lies in the Yellow River Delta, in the north of Shandong Province bordering the Bohai Bay. The area is scattered over 28 counties, covering 37 000 square kilom eters. The main part of exploration and exploitation is located on both sides of the Yellow River estuary within the territory of Dongying City.

  10. Restructuring Raises Revenue of Liaohe Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Qiuju

    2002-01-01

    @@ Liaohe Petroleum Exploration Bureau, as a Stateowned oil giant company in Northeast China's Liaoning Province, has made significant progress in the nationwide drive o restructure State-owned enterprises. Once plagued by excessive laborers and backward production equipment, the bureau has adopted a series of effective measures on human resource management, market expansion and technology renovation.

  11. Weathering of oils at sea: model/field data comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SINTEF Oil Weathering Model (OWM) has been extensively tested with results from full-scale field trials with experimental oil slicks in the Norwegian NOFO Sea trials in 1994 and 1995 and the AEA 1997 trials in UK. The comparisons between oil weathering values predicted by the model and ground-truth obtained from the field trials are presented and discussed. Good laboratory weathering data of the specific oil as input to the model is essential for obtaining reliable weathering predictions. Predications provided by the SINTEF-OWM enable oil spill personnel to estimate the most appropriate 'window of opportunity' for use of chemical dispersants under various spill situations. Pre-spill scenario analysis with the SINTEF Oil Spill Contingency and Response (OSCAR) model system, in which the SINTEF-OWM is one of several components, has become an important part of contingency plans as well as contingency training of oil spill personnel at refineries, oil terminals and offshore installations in Norway. (Author)

  12. Oil and gas field code master list 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1994 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. The master field name spellings and codes are to be used by respondents when filing the following Department of Energy (DOE) forms: Form EIA-23, {open_quotes}Annual Survey of Domestic Oil and Gas Reserves,{close_quotes} filed by oil and gas well operators (field codes are required from larger operators only); Forms FERC 8 and EIA-191, {open_quotes}Underground Gas Storage Report,{close_quotes} filed by natural gas producers and distributors who operate underground natural gas storage facilities. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161, (703) 487-4650. In order for the Master List to be useful, it must be accurate and remain current. To accomplish this, EIA constantly reviews and revises this list. The EIA welcomes all comments, corrections, and additions to the Master List. All such information should be given to the EIA Field Code Coordinator at (214) 953-1858. EIA gratefully acknowledges the assistance provides by numerous State organizations and trade associations in verifying the existence of fields and their official nomenclature.

  13. Oil and gas field code master list 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1997 is the sixteenth annual listing of all identified oil and gas fields in the US. It is updated with field information collected through October 1997. The purpose of this publication is to provide unique, standardized codes for identification of domestic fields. Use of these field codes fosters consistency of field identification by government and industry. As a result of their widespread adoption they have in effect become a national standard. The use of field names and codes listed in this publication is required on survey forms and other reports regarding field-specific data collected by EIA. There are 58,366 field records in this year`s FCML, 437 more than last year. The FCML includes: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (definition of alias is listed); fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. This report also contains an Invalid Field Record List of 4 records that have been removed from the FCML since last year`s report. These records were found to be either technically incorrect or to represent field names which were never recognized by State naming authorities.

  14. Field study of heavy oil viscosity reduction for production transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, J.; Annichiariccom, G.; Montanez, M. [Ecopetrol S.A. (Venezuela); Faust, M.; Weathers, T. [Nalco Energy Services (Colombia); Parra, R. [Nalco de Colombia Ltda. (Colombia)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, production and transportation are expensive processes requiring complex equipment and procedures. The main issue with heavy crude oil is its high viscosity. A method using naphtha injection was developed to dilute the fluids and aid in water separation, but this method is expensive and raises safety issues. To reduce naphtha consumption, Ecopetrol and Nalco Energy Services developed a new dispersion technology. This paper presents this technology and the results of its field trial in the Chichimene oil field. Key production indicators were monitored to determine how effective the emulsion method was in enhancing production. Results showed no negative effect on the separation facility or oil and water quality while reducing by 75% the injection of diluent. This paper presents a dispersion technology which successfully reduced the need for naphtha and thus reduced production costs.

  15. Maturity assessment of oils from the Sakhalin oil fields in Russia: phenanthrene content as a tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanovi, K. [University of Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Chemistry; University of Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Medicine; Jovan, B.; Pfendt, P. [University of Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Chemistry; Center of Chemistry, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Pevneva, G.S.; Golovko, J.A.; Golovko, A.K. [Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    A correlation analysis of maturation parameters was carried out on 14 crude oil samples from nine oil fields on Sakhalin Island (Russia). The oils were taken from reservoir rocks of Miocene age at depths ranging from 73 to 2841 m. On the basis of GC analysis of the alkane fraction (n-alkanes and the isoprenoid alkanes pristane and phytane) as well as on the basis of the abundance of demethylated hopanes (GC-MS analysis, m/z 177), it is assumed that the oils are either biodegraded or are a mixture of biodegraded and nonbiodegraded oils. Therefore, their maturation is assessed on the basis of the distribution and abundance of tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are more resistant to biodegradation than alkane-type biological markers. The oils may be classified into three groups on the basis of the well-established maturation parameter MPI 3: highly mature (group I), moderately mature (group II) and immature (group III). The correlation analysis shows that the percentage of phenanthrene [P] in the tricyclic aromatic fraction of the oils of the Sakhalin oil fields can be used as a maturation parameter. The highly mature oils (group I) were found to have a [P] value of more than 14%; the moderately mature oils (group II) have values of 7-14%, and the immature oils (group III) a value of less than 7%. The very good correlation between MPI 3 and [P] also indicates that parallel to methylphenanthrene isomerization, dealkylation also occurs in the reservoir rocks. By correlation analysis it is shown that these reactions are, to a great extent, determined by the depth of the reservoir rocks. (Author)

  16. Experimental Research on the Reusing & Recycling Technology of Oil Extraction Wastewater Treatment in Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    How to use water resource effectively is an important problem in developing industry. Three combined processes which are composed of oil separator+de-emulsification flocculation+sand filtration (SDF), oil separator +hydrolytic acidification+SBR (SAS) and oil separator+de-emulsification flocculation +SBR (SDS) are conducted in laboratory-scale experiment to treat oil extraction wastewater for an oil-field. The experimental results show that the removal rate of COD(chemistry oxygen demand) and oil treated by SDF process are 85% and 95% respectively, the residual oil in effluent can meet the discharge standard, but the residual COD can not. The removal rate of COD and BOD (biological oxygen demand) of the SAS effluent are 85% and 90% respectively, the BOD can meet but the COD can not meet discharge standard. So the further treatment is required in the process. The SDS effluent with removal rate of 95% and 90% are obtained for COD and BOD respectively, which can completely meet the national standards of oil wastewater discharge and refilling (China). The experimental result shows that oil extraction wastewater has turned into water resource after being treated by SDS.

  17. Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Flow Field Measurement Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, H.; Dentz, J.; Doty, C.

    2013-07-01

    The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

  18. Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Field Measurement Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Hugh [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Dentz, Jordan [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Doty, Chris [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

  19. Laboratory studies of oil spill bioremediation; toward understanding field behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil spill remediation aims to enhance the natural process of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. The microbial foundations have been studied throughout this century, but the focus of most of this work has been on the degradation of well defined compounds by well defined microbial species. This paper addresses laboratory studies on crude oil biodegradation by microbial consortia obtained from oiled beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska following the spill from the Exxon Valdez. It demonstrates that oil degradation is indeed likely to be nitrogen-limited in Prince William Sound, the different molecular classes in crude oil that are subjected to biodegradation, the identification of conserved species in the oil that can be used for assessing biodegradation and bioremediation in the field, the effectiveness of fertilizers in stimulating sub-surface biodegradation, the role of the olephilic fertilizer Inipol EAP22, and the identification of the oil-degrading microorganisms in Prince William Sound. Together, these laboratory studies provided guidance and important insights into the microbial phenomena underlying the successful bioremediation of the oiled shorelines

  20. Features of hydrogeochemical technogenesis in the development of oil fields

    OpenAIRE

    Прибылова, В. Н.; Чуньсян, Хоу

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzes the features of hydrogeochemical technogenesis in the development of hydrocarbon deposits. The notion of hydrogeochemical technogenesis and its importance for the study of aggregate (superimposed) processes of the natural environment transformation in the oil fields has been introduced. A comparative analysis of selected concepts of geology, oil and gas and oilfield hydrogeochemistry has been carried out. A number of important practical problems that can be solved by the hy...

  1. Hydrocarbon emissions in the Bakken oil field in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke-Maday, I.; Petron, G.; Miller, B.; Frost, G. J.; Peischl, J.; Kort, E. A.; Smith, M. L.; Karion, A.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Sweeney, C.; Ryerson, T. B.; Tans, P. P.; Schnell, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Within the past five years, the production of oil and natural gas in the United States from tight formations has increased rapidly due to advances in technology, such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. With the expansion of oil and natural gas extraction operations comes the need to better quantify their emissions and potential impacts on climate forcing and air quality. The Bakken formation within the Williston Basin in North Dakota has emerged as a large contributor to the recent growth in oil production and accounts for over 10% of domestic production. Close to 30% of associated gas co-produced with the oil is flared. Very little independent information is currently available to assess the oil and gas industry emissions and their impacts on regional air quality. In May 2014, an airborne field campaign was conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory and the University of Michigan to investigate hydrocarbon emissions from operations in the oil field. Here, we present results from the analysis for methane, several non-methane hydrocarbons and combustion tracers in 72 discrete air samples collected by the aircraft on nine different flights. Samples were obtained in the boundary layer upwind and downwind of the operations and in the free troposphere. We will show results of a multiple species analysis and compare them with field campaign data from other U.S. oil and gas fields, measurements from NOAA's Global Monitoring Division long-term observing network, and available bottom-up information on emissions from oil and gas operations.

  2. Optimization of Oil Production - Applied to the Marlim Field

    OpenAIRE

    Langvik, Andrea Sundby; Dzubur, Lamija

    2012-01-01

    This thesis considers short-term petroleum production planning at the Marlim field operated by the Brazilian energy company, Petrobras. The production asset to be optimized is an Floating Production and Storage Operating unit, including several oil producing wells and gas lift technology. Current practice for oil companies is to optimize the different parts of a production system separately. To avoid sub-optimal decisions, there is a need for integrated optimization models that consider all...

  3. Microbial consortia in Oman oil fields: a possible use in enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahry, Saif N; Elshafie, Abdulkader E; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Maaini, Ratiba A; Al-Alawi, Wafa J; Sugai, Yuichi; Al-Mandhari, Mussalam

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the most economical and efficient methods for extending the life of production wells in a declining reservoir. Microbial consortia from Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water, Al-Wusta region, Oman were screened. Microbial consortia in brine samples were identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The detected microbial consortia of Wafra oil wells were completely different from microbial consortia of Suwaihat formation water. A total of 33 genera and 58 species were identified in Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water. All of the identified microbial genera were first reported in Oman, with Caminicella sporogenes for the first time reported from oil fields. Most of the identified microorganisms were found to be anaerobic, thermophilic, and halophilic, and produced biogases, biosolvants, and biosurfactants as by-products, which may be good candidates for MEOR. PMID:23314376

  4. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  5. Discovery and development of the Petapahan oil field, central Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roezin, S.

    1974-01-01

    The Petapahan oil field is located about 60 km west of Pekanbaru, the capital of Riau Province and just north of Tapung Kiri River in central Sumatra. The field covers approx. 3,200 acres. At the end of 1973, 17 wells had been drilled in the field with 2 dry holes. Of the remaining 15 wells, 12 are on production and 3 are shut in, awaiting production testing. Production of 33' API gravity oil is obtained from 3 separate sandstone reservoirs at the rate of approx. 40,000 bpd. Cumulative production to Dec. 31, 1973 was 14.7 million bbl of oil. Oil was discovered in 3 separate sands in the lower Miocene Sihapas Group. The sands, designated as A, B, and C, are divided on their differences in reservoir characteristics with 12 ft (3.5 m), 30 ft (9 m), and 114 ft (35 m) of respective net pays. The Petapahan structure extends northwest-southeast along the S. flank of a deep Tertiary basin. The 2 lithologic units of interest in the Petapahan field are (1) the lower Miocene Sihapas Group which is composed predominantly of porous quartzose sandstone with silt and shale interbeds, and is the reservoir unit; and (2) the overlaying lower to middle Miocene Telisa Formation is predominantly shale with thin sandstone interbeds; it is the effective cap rock and is also considered the likely source bed for oil generation.

  6. Failure in the Oil Patch: An Examination of the Production and Oil Field Services Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Harlan D. Platt; Marjorie A. Platt

    1989-01-01

    A substantial share of domestic energy supplies is produced by the oil and gas production industry. The oil field services industry provides valuable assistance to these exploration and production companies. The failure rates in both industries have increased recently. Failure rates in the two industries were modeled as a function of general economic conditions, industry financial conditions, and, in the case of the service industry, the failure rate in the production industry. The failure ra...

  7. Oil-field equipment in Romania. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil field equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Romanian consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Romanian production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Romanian tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Romanian market for oil field equipment

  8. Oil field rejuvenation work starts at 14 project sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the U.S. Department of Energy and oil and gas companies have released more information about a joint effort to rejuvenate aging U.S. oil fields in danger of abandonment. Work is starting on 14 demonstration projects that could recover 21 million bbl of oil from the fluvial dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoirs in which they are conducted. Wider application of the same techniques, if they are successful, could results in addition of 6.3 billion bbl of reserves, nearly 25% of U.S. crude oil reserves. A multidisciplinary team approach is to be used, with as many as 11 operators, service companies, universities, or state agencies participating in each project. All of the projects will culminate in extensive technology transfer activities. Here are descriptions of the projects gleaned from public abstracts provided by the DOE contractors

  9. Microbial response to nitrate treatment in offshore oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boedtker, Gunhild

    2009-07-01

    North Sea oil reservoirs are often injected with deaerated sea water in order to enhance oil recovery. The high sulphate content of sea water combined with the anoxic conditions stimulates growth of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water injection system and the reservoir. SRB produce the highly toxic and corrosive gas hydrogen sulphide (HZS) during anaerobic respiration with sulphate. Accumulation of HZS leads to corrosion and reservoir souring, which may result in reduced gas quality, separation problems and increased maintenance costs. Biocides have traditionally been used to prevent SRB activity in North Sea oil fields. During the last decade, however, the environmentally sound method of nitrate treatment has replaced biocides on several fields. The method is based on shifting the microbial activity from sulphate reduction to nitrate reduction by introducing nitrate as an alternative electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration. Results presented in the current thesis show that nitrate treatment has resulted in long-term inhibition of SRB activity and a reduction in corrosion of up to 40% in sea water injection systems at the Veslefrikk and Gullfaks oil fields. Molecular analysis (PCR-DGGE) of pipeline biofilm from Veslefrikk showed that sulphide-oxidizing nitrate-reducing bacteria (NR-SOB) constituted the major metabolic group during nitrate treatment, and that the bacterial community composition remained stable during years. Reduction in sulphide produced from the Gullfaks field showed that nitrate treatment was effective also at reservoir level. Analysis of back flowed injection water from a nitrate-treated Statfjord reservoir showed that heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) constituted the major metabolic group, and that the in situ HZS level was 10 fold lower than experienced during biocides treatment and 100 fold lower than experienced during produced water reinjection (PWRI). At the Norne oil field oxic sea water is injected along with

  10. Physical properties as indicators of oil penetration in soils, contaminated with oil lakes in the Greater Burgan oil fields, Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements were made on 60 samples to determine the physical properties of the soil profiles contaminated with oil lakes in Al-Ahmadi and Burgan oil fields which include 80% of the Greater Burgan oil wells in southern Kuwait. The two soil profiles have similar saturation percentages, field capacities, wilting coefficients, low available water capacities due to statificiation and very low matric potential, and high bulk densities due to compaction by vehicle wheels. The fluviatile origin, relatively poor sorting and unstable structure of the Burgan soil layers have led to lower hydraulic conductivity and permeability, thereby restricting oil penetration mainly to the upper 25-45 cm layer. In contrast, the eolian origin, excellent sorting and stable structure of Al-Ahmadi soil layers have resulted in higher hydraulic conductivity and permeability, and hence allowed the spreading of oil over much greater depths (down to 150 cm). The very low values of the hydraulic conductivities and available water capacities of the zone(s) lying below the impervious Gatch (caliche) layer in the two soil profiles suggest that this layer could act as a moisture barrier impeding any further downward oil penetration. 16 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Spectral anomaly over Railroad Valley oil field, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, S.C. (Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Honey, F.R. (Geoscan Pty Ltd., Perth (Australia)); Ballew, G.I. (Geodata Images, Carson City, NV (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Oil was first discovered in Railroad Valley, south-central Nevada in 1954. Since that time, over 195 wells have been drilled and six oil fields have been found: Bacon Flat, Currant, Trap Spring, Eagle Springs, Grant Canyon and Kate Spring. Two wells in the Grant Canyon field had flows between 2,480 and 4,108 bbl/day in 1987 and may be the most prolific wells onshore in the continental US. Production in the Railroad Valley fields is from Oligocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks and Paleozoic carbonate formations. Traps are structural or structural and stratigraphic, and reservoir seals are indurated or clayey valley fill, weathered tuff, and shales in Tertiary sediments. Reservoir temperatures range between 95 and 309{degree}F. Previous workers have identified a statistically significant positive correlation between hydrocarbon microseepage and vegetation anomalies over the Railroad Valley oil fields with Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) imagery. Several flight lines of high spectral and spatial resolution imagery in the visible, near infrared, shortwave infrared, and thermal infrared regions of the spectrum were flown with Geoscan's MkII Airborne Multispectral Scanner to determine if there was a mineralogical signature associated with the oil fields. The 24-channel scanner collected 8-m resolution picture elements over a swath of about 8 km. Image processing strategies were developed from a knowledge of the spectral curves of minerals in the laboratory. The results from processing Geoscans MkII data were also compared with those obtained from processing Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery over the same area. An 8 {times} 6 km carbonate and iron anomaly was detected on the processed MkII imagery over the Trap Spring oil field. This anomaly may be related to hot spring activity, reported by other workers, that has formed extensive calcite deposits along faults.

  12. The Application Of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery On Unconventional Oil: A Field Specific Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Sean; Millar, Andrew; Allison, Heather; McCarthy, Alan

    2014-05-01

    A substantial amount of the world's recoverable oil reserves are made from unconventional or heavy resources. However, great difficulty has been had in recovering this oil after primary and secondary recovery methods have been employed. Therefore, tertiary methods such as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) have been employed. MEOR involves the use of bacteria and their metabolic products to alter the oil properties or rock permeability within a reservoir in order to promote the flow of oil. Although MEOR has been trialed in the past with mixed outcomes, its feasibility on heavier oils has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study is to show that MEOR can be successfully applied to unconventional oils. By using an indigenous strain of bacteria isolated from a reservoir of interest and applied to field specific microcosms, we will look into the effect of these bacteria compared to variant inoculums to identify which mechanisms of action the bacteria are using to improve recovery. Using this information, we will be able to identify genes of interest and groups of bacteria that may be beneficial for MEOR and look accurately identify favorable bacteria within a reservoir.

  13. Oil spill contingency planning for offshore oil fields - a new concept established for the Norwegian continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a new concept for oil spill contingency planning to be used for offshore oil fields on the Norwegian continental shelf was discussed. The factors which are important in developing a good oil spill contingency plan include a good understanding of: (1) the fate, behaviour and weathering of the specific oil, (2) relevant oil spill scenarios, (3) drift and spreading of the oil, and (4) specific requirements for the effectiveness of the chosen response options. The oil spill contingency and response (OSCAR) model was used for quantitative comparison of alternative response options. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  14. Microbial diversity of a high salinity oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neria, I.; Gales, G.; Alazard, D.; Ollivier, B.; Borgomano, J.; Joulian, C.

    2009-07-01

    This work is a preliminary study to investigate the microbial diversity of an onshore oil field. It aim to compare results obtained from molecular methods, physicochemical analyses and cultivation. A core of 1150 m depth sediments ( in situ T=45 degree centigrade) was collected and immediately frozen with liquid nitrogen prior to further investigation. Macroscopic and Scanning Electron Microscopy analyses were performed. (Author)

  15. Microbial diversity of a high salinity oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is a preliminary study to investigate the microbial diversity of an onshore oil field. It aim to compare results obtained from molecular methods, physicochemical analyses and cultivation. A core of 1150 m depth sediments ( in situ T=45 degree centigrade) was collected and immediately frozen with liquid nitrogen prior to further investigation. Macroscopic and Scanning Electron Microscopy analyses were performed. (Author)

  16. Tracers technique development in geothermal and oil fields in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indonesia is one of the oil countries that have more than 40 % of the world's geothermal reserves. Geothermal development has amounted to 807 MW including several fields (Kamojang, dieng salak, Wayang windu, Darajat Sibayak and lahendong) from 20,000 MW reserves. In several locations in Sumatra there are many oil fields under secondary production. At present, they are starting to exploit possibilities using EOR technology. Tracer technology is an alternative to determine interconnection between wells and mass recovery for steam or oil management. Tracer return in wells production could be used to calculate optimization of water re-injection and various useful parameters including swept volume between well pairs. Some radiotracers like tritiated water HTO, iodide as 125I- (or 131I- in some cases) and cobalthexacyanide as for instance 60Co(CN)63- could be considered as suitable tracers for reservoir systems. HTO will be injected into geothermal reservoirs under different conditions: Vapour dominated (Kamojang) and two phase systems (Lahendong). Radiotracers of iodide will be injected to the liquid dominated system of the geothermal field (Salak). Also HTO and radiolabelled Co(CN)63- will be injected simultaneously in an oilfield under secondary recovery. Data interpretation using userfriendly software (Iceboc, etc.) will give maximum technology contribution to geothermal fluids and oil field management

  17. Effects of Physical Processes and Sampling Resolution on Fault Displacement Versus Length Scaling: The Case of the Cantarell Complex Oilfield, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shunshan; Nieto-Samaniego, Angel F.; Murillo-Muñetón, Gustavo; Alaniz-Álvarez, Susana A.; Grajales-Nishimura, José M.; Velasquillo-Martinez, Luis G.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we first review some factors that may alter the fault D max /L ratio and scaling relationship. The three main physical processes are documented as follows: (1) The D max /L ratio increases in an individual segmented fault, whereas it decreases in a fault array consisting of two or more fault segments. This effect occurs at any scale during fault growth and in any type of rock. (2) Vertical restriction decreases the D max /L ratio along the fault strike due to mechanical layers. (3) The D max /L ratio increases or decreases due to fault reactivation depending on the type of reactivation. Thus, using data from the normal faults of the Cantarell oilfield in the southern Gulf of Mexico, we document that the displacement ( D max ) and length ( L) show a weak correlation of linear or power-law scaling, with exponents that are much less than 1 ( n ≈ 0.5). This scaling relation is due to the combination of the physical processes mentioned above, as well as sampling effects, such as technique resolution. These results indicate that sublinear scaling ( n ≈ 0.5) can occur as a result of more than one physical process during faulting in a studied area. In addition to the physical processes associated with brittle deformation in the studied area, the sampling resolution dramatically affects the exponents of the D max - L scaling.

  18. Analysis of oil content and oil quality in oilseeds by low-field NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To choose among the variety of oleaginous plants for biodiesel production, the oil content of several matrices was determined through different low-field 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with varied pulse sequences, namely single-pulse, spin-echo, CPMG, and CWFP. The experiments that involved the first three sequences showed high correlation with each other and with the solvent extraction method. The quality of the vegetable oils was also evaluated on the basis of the existing correlation between the T2 values of the oils and their properties, such as viscosity, iodine index, and cetane index. These analyses were performed using HCA and PCA chemometric tools. The results were sufficiently significant to allow separation of the oleaginous matrices according to their quality. Thus, the low-field 1H NMR technique was confirmed as an important tool to aid in the selection of oleaginous matrices for biodiesel production. (author)

  19. Assessment of the natural radioactivity levels in Kirkuk oil field

    OpenAIRE

    Ali H. Taqi; Laith Abdul Aziz Al-Ani; Abbas M. Ali

    2016-01-01

    The natural radioactivity levels of Kirkuk oil field are studied using high resolution gamma rays spectrometry. For this reason, soil samples were collected from three sites in the Iraq North Oil Company: Baba Gurgur, Shurau and old process plant (Terkiz). The activity concentrations obtained for 238U-series (226Ra, 214Pb, and 214Bi), 232Th-series (228Ac, 212Pb, and 208Tl) and 40K. The results have been compared with the worldwide average values. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the abs...

  20. Maximizing probable oil field profit: uncertainties on well spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of uncertainties in field development costs, well costs, lifting costs, selling price, discount factor, and oil field reserves are evaluated for their impact on assessing probable ranges of uncertainty on present day worth (PDW), oil field lifetime τ2/3, optimum number of wells (OWI), and the minimum (n-) and maximum (n+) number of wells to produce a PDW ≥ O. The relative importance of different factors in contributing to the uncertainties in PDW, τ2/3, OWI, nsub(-) and nsub(+) is also analyzed. Numerical illustrations indicate how the maximum PDW depends on the ranges of parameter values, drawn from probability distributions using Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, the procedure illustrates the relative importance of contributions of individual factors to the total uncertainty, so that one can assess where to place effort to improve ranges of uncertainty; while the volatility of each estimate allows one to determine when such effort is needful. (author)

  1. Evolution of the Moxizhuang Oil Field, Central Junggar Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Huayao; Zhang Yuanchun; Liu Jianzhang; Shi Jiannan

    2008-01-01

    Current oil saturation in the Moxizhuang (莫西庄) Oil Field in central Janggar (准噶尔) basin was evaluated by logging interpretation and measured on core samples, and the paleo-oil saturation in both the pay zones and water zones was investigated by graln-containing-oil inclusion (GOI) analysis.The pay zones in this field have low oil saturation and display low resistivity and small contrast between pay zones and water zones, and are classified as low-porosity, low oil saturation, and low resistivity reservoirs. Both the current low oil-saturation pay zones and the water zones above 4 365 m have high GOI values (up to 38%), suggesting high paleo-oil saturation. The significant difference between current oil saturation from both logging interpretation and core sample measurement and paleo-oil saturation indicated by GOI analysis suggests that this low oil-saturation field evolved from a high oil-saturation pool. Lateral re-migration and spill of formally trapped oil owing to changes in structural configuration since Neogene was the most plausible mechanism for oil loss in the Moxizhuang Oil Field.The combined effects of differential accumulation in the charge phase and the differential re-migration and spill of accumulated oil in Neogene are responsible for the complicated correlation between residual oil saturation and porosity/permeability of the reservoir sandstones and the distribution of low oil-saturation pay zones and paleo-oil zones (current water zones).

  2. Gas migration from oil and gas fields and associated hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The migration of gas from oil and gas formations to the surface is a problem that greatly affects those surface areas where human activity exists. Underground gas storage facilities and oil fields have demonstrated a long history of gas migration problems. Experience has shown that the migration of gas to the surface creates a serious potential risk of explosion, fires, noxious odors and potential emissions of carcinogenic chemicals. These risks must be seriously examined for all oil and gas operations located in urban areas. This paper presents the mechanics of gas migration, paths of migration and a review of a few of the risks that should be considered when operating a gas facility in an urban area. The gas can migrate in a continuous or discontinuous stream through porous, water-filled media to the surface. The primary force in this migration of gas is the difference between specific weights of gas and water

  3. Mixed Field Modification of Thermally Cured Castor Oil Based Polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermally cured polyurethanes were prepared from castor oil and hexamethylene diisocyanatee (HMDI). Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were subjected to a range of accumulated doses (0.0-3.0 MGy) produced by the mixed ionizing field of the SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor. The physico-mechanical properties of COPU, unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tests. Increased bond formation resulting from radiation-induced crosslinking was confirmed by favorable increases in mechanical properties and by solid-state 13C-NMR and FTIR spectra

  4. Mixed field radiation modification of polyurethanes based on castor oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyurethane is among the polymers and polymer-based composite materials being investigated at the Royal Military College of Canada for the fabrication of leak-tight containers for the long-term disposal of radioactive waste. Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were subjected to a range of doses (0.0 - 3.0 MGy) produced by the mixed ionizing radiation field of a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor. The tensile mechanical properties of castor oil based polyurethanes (COPU), unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tensile tests. Increases in mechanical strength due to radiation-induced crosslinking and limitations of thermal curing were confirmed by tensile tests and changing 13C-NMR and FTIR spectra. (author)

  5. Oil field experiments of microbial improved oil recovery in Vyngapour, West Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.; Arinbasarov, M.U.; Salamov, Z.Z.; Cherkasov, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments on microbial improved oil recovery (MIOR) have been performed in the Vyngapour oil field in West Siberia for two years. Now, the product of some producing wells of the Vyngapour oil field is 98-99% water cut. The operation of such wells approaches an economic limit. The nutritious composition containing local industry wastes and sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was pumped into an injection well on the pilot area. This method is called {open_quotes}nutritional flooding.{close_quotes} The mechanism of nutritional flooding is based on intensification of biosynthesis of oil-displacing metabolites by indigenous bacteria and bacteria from food industry wastes in the stratum. 272.5 m{sup 3} of nutritious composition was introduced into the reservoir during the summer of 1993, and 450 m3 of nutritious composition-in 1994. The positive effect of the injections in 1993 showed up in 2-2.5 months and reached its maximum in 7 months after the injections were stopped. By July 1, 1994, 2,268.6 tons of oil was produced over the base variant, and the simultaneous water extraction reduced by 33,902 m{sup 3} as compared with the base variant. The injections in 1994 were carried out on the same pilot area.

  6. Electrocoalescence of Field Crude Oil using High voltage Direct Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Opara

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of crude oil from oil wells, entrained water is removed principally by using chemical demulsifiers or heat treatment. There are, however, emulsions of water in oil which have been stabilized by the presence of surface active agents in the crude and agitation during the extraction process which prove difficult tobreakup by conventional methods. High voltage direct current (HVDC is used in this study to effect the coalescence of water molecules thereby causing separation of the water from the oil. The applied HVDC field was varied from 4 to 16 KV in four steps of 4KV while time of application was increased in 10 minutes steps from 10 minutes to 0 minutes. The spacing of the electrodes (plates was also varied from 61mm to 244mm. The reduction in base sediment and water (BS&W of the crude oil which was used to assess the efficacy of thetreatment method and varied from zero at 4KV and 61mm plate spacing to 68.18% at 244mm spacing and 8KV when the voltage was applied for 40 minutes.

  7. Determination of Enhanced Oil Recovery Candidate Fields in the Volga-Ural Oil and Gas Region Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Turbakov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current Russian oil production comes from mature fields. The application of enhanced oil recovery methods on oil fields increases recovery efficiency. This article presents an analysis of the increased field development efficiency methods of the Volga-Ural oil and gas region, which allows the full and efficient development of last-stage fields with unconventional reserves and production stabilization. The selection of the optimum method for a given field is a complex procedure consisting of many stages, from collecting data about the field, through more advanced data interpretation, to working out a detailed proposal for the most efficient extraction method. In this article the instantaneous and average annual growth above wells average was taken as a performance criterion for enhanced oil recovery methods. Based on the performed analysis, it follows that candidate wells for enhanced oil recovery method use must meet the I group parameters (high values of the remaining recoverable reserves and improved reservoir properties, low water cut, obtained oil rate increase. In order to assess the possible increase in production rate after enhanced oil recovery methods hydrodynamic modeling of radial drilling, acid treatment and water-alternated-gas injection for two oil fields of the Volga-Ural oil and gas region were performed.

  8. Development and Prospects for Energy Saving Technology in Oil & Gas Fields, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Youwang; Yu Jiqing; Lin Ran; Zhu Yingru; Liu Feijun

    2010-01-01

    @@ Current state of energy saving technology in China's oil and gas fields System optimization To optimize the oil-gas field surface engineering system is critical to improve the efficiency of oil and gas field system.To adapt to the changes in development of old oil and gas fields, all oilfields are adjusted and reconstructed;a set of optimized and simplified modes and technical measures are developed.

  9. Neotectonics and morphostructures significance for oil and gas fields location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelov, S.K.; Rozanov, L.N.

    1977-01-01

    The tectonic and morphostructural control of oil and gas fields location is essential but not the same at the whole territory of the USSR. Within areas of subsidence, the hydrocarbons tend to move into regions of local neotectonic uplifts; the gas (as more mobile fluid) is distributed in closer connection with neotectonic structures. Within areas of uplift the oil and gas fields were destroyed because of seal failure of enclosing layers. Negative was also the influence of inverse morphostructures formation (elevations and plateaus) which replaced ancient tectonic depressions and troughs during the Neogene Quaternary. The hydrocarbons accumulation in geological traps was favored by direct morphostructures formation in the course of inherited earthcrust movements within regions characterized by neotectonic uplifts of small amplitude (less than 900 to 1000 meters).

  10. The Application of BP Neural Network In Oil-Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ying ZHANG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the situation that many techniques of production performance analysis acquire lots of data and are expensive considering the computational and human resources, and their applications are limited, this paper puts forward a new method to analyze the production performance of oil-field based on the BP neural network. It builds a dataset with some available measured data such as well logs and production history, then, builds a field-wide production model by neural network technique, a model will be used to predict. The technique is verified, which shows that the predicted results are consistent with the maximum error of rate of oil production lower than 7% and maximum error of rate of water production lower than 5%, having certain application and research value.  

  11. Detection of Virgin Olive Oil Adulteration Using Low Field Unilateral NMR

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Xu; Robert H. Morris; Martin Bencsik; Newton, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    The detection of adulteration in edible oils is a concern in the food industry, especially for the higher priced virgin olive oils. This article presents a low field unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for the detection of the adulteration of virgin olive oil that can be performed through sealed bottles providing a non-destructive screening technique. Adulterations of an extra virgin olive oil with different percentages of sunflower oil and red palm oil were measured with a com...

  12. Methane leaks from oil and gas fields detected from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Julia

    2014-11-01

    A few years ago, while poring over satellite images of the Earth at night, scientists spotted the bright glow of natural gas flares burning in the oil and gas fields that have fueled America's recent energy boom. Now they have spotted something else from space: large plumes of fugitive methane gas liberated from these formations by unconventional extraction methods like horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing.

  13. Mexico’s Deteriorating Oil Outlook: Implications and Energy Options for the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, David

    2008-01-01

    The decline in oil reserves and in output from the supergiant Cantarell oilfield sets new challenges for Mexico’s oil industry. Wide-ranging reforms are required, including ambitious new plans for Gulf of Mexico deepwater development. The Calderón government is giving priority to new infrastructure and to increasing Pemex’s capital expenditures, but it will be important for state-owned Petróleos Mexicanos (Pemex) to restructure thoroughly and for the Mexican energy industry to meet a wide ran...

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Peat Soils Cultivated to Rice Field, Oil Palm and Vegetable

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenani Abu Bakar; Kazuyuki Inubushi; Dedi Nursyamsi Affandi; Abdullah; Syaifuddin; Luthfi Fatah; Abdul Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Presently, about 20% of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) fields in Indonesia are on peat soil, in addition to that otherarea of peat soil has been conventionally used for rice field and vegetables. To elucidate the global warmingpotentials of peat soils cultivated to oil palm, vegetable or rice field, field experiment has been carried out in SouthKalimantan. Air samples were taken from rice field, oil palm and vegetable fields in weekly basis for six month periodand analyzed for concentratio...

  15. Emerald oil field on production in North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Midland and Scottish Energy Ltd. (MSE) has placed Emerald oil field on stream in the U.K. North Sea with a floating production unit. Initial production, from two satellite wells, will be used to commission facilities. Three water injection wells have been unplugged and are ready for start-up. MSE will place a central cluster of wells-five producers and one water injector-on stream during the next few weeks. Production will build to an expected 25,000 b/d from 35 million bbl of reserves. Field development has undergone an unusually large number of setbacks and changes

  16. Plans for first oil production revived in two Sudanese fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Vancouver, British Columbia, independent and its Sudanese partner have filed a development plan with the government of Sudan to produce an initial 40,000 b/d from Heglig and Unity oil fields in Sudan. Arakis Energy Corp., and the private Sudanese company State Petroleum Corp. (SPC) want to begin the first commercial hydrocarbon production in the destitute, war torn country. They are picking up where Chevron Corp. left off after years of grappling with an ambitious, costly - and ultimately futile - effort to export crude-oil from Sudan. After finding almost 300 million bbl of oil in Sudan during the early 1980s, Chevron scuttled a $2 billion project to export 50,000 b/d of Sudanese crude in 1986. It drilled 90 wells and sank more than $1 billion into the project. But it dropped the plan, citing the 1986 collapse of oil prices and concerns over security after repeated guerrilla attacks delayed work. The paper details the project

  17. Decontamination of contaminated oils with radio nuclides using magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is focused in to find a solution to the wastes treatment that are generated during the maintenance to the nuclear power industry, the specify case of the contaminated oils with radio nuclides, for this purpose was necessary to make a meticulous characterization of the oils before the treatment proposal using advanced techniques, being determined the activity of them, as well as their physical-chemical characteristics. By means of the developed procedure that combines the use of magnetic fields and filtration to remove the contaminated material with radioactive particles, is possible to diminish the activity of the oils from values that oscillate between 6,00 and 10,00 up to 0,00 to 0,0003 Bq/ml. The decontamination factor of the process is of 99.00%. The proposal of the necessary technology for to decontaminate the oils is also made and is carried out the economic analysis based on the reuse of these, as well as the calculation of the avoided damages. (Author)

  18. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  19. Environmental contaminants in oil field produced waters discharged into wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 866-acre Loch Katrine wetland complex in Park County, Wyoming provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. The complex is sustained primarily by oil field produced waters. This study was designed to determine if constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into Custer Lake and to Loch Katrine pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota collected from the complex during 1992. Arsenic, boron, radium-226 and zinc were elevated in some matrices. The presence of radium-226 in aquatic vegetation suggests that this radionuclide is available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations in water from the produced water discharge exceeded the maximum 10 mg/l permitted by the WDEQ (1990). Total aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were highest at the produced water discharge, 6.376 μg/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 μg/g. The higher levels of hydrocarbons found at Custer Lake, compared to Loch Katrine, may be explained by Custer Lake's closer proximity to the discharge. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in bile from gadwalls collected at Loch Katrine but was detected in bile from northern shovelers collected at Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. The presence of benzo(a)pyrene in the shovelers indicates exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons

  20. Assessment of the natural radioactivity levels in Kirkuk oil field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. Taqi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The natural radioactivity levels of Kirkuk oil field are studied using high resolution gamma rays spectrometry. For this reason, soil samples were collected from three sites in the Iraq North Oil Company: Baba Gurgur, Shurau and old process plant (Terkiz. The activity concentrations obtained for 238U-series (226Ra, 214Pb, and 214Bi, 232Th-series (228Ac, 212Pb, and 208Tl and 40K. The results have been compared with the worldwide average values. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq, the absorbed dose rate (D, the annual effective dose rate (AEDE, the external hazard (Hex, the internal hazard (Hin and Gamma radiation representative level Index (Iγ were also obtained and compared with the international recommended values.

  1. Lightweight cementing program increases profit from Kansas oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that single-stage, lightweight cementing in a Kansas operation improved the cement bond across a permeable oil/water sand. Additionally, pipe movement after pumping helped bond quality by preventing the slurry from beginning its transition time. This delay allowed continued transmission of hydrostatic pressure against the formation. In 1991, OXY USA Inc. completed 12 wells in the Ray field in Kansas. All wells were drilled to the Reagan sand. The sand has a distinct water/oil contact, strong water drive, and good permeability. Because of poor cement bonding across the Reagan, two-stage conventional cementing in the first eight wells did not effectively prevent excessive water production. Some of these wells had to have remedial cement squeezes and be reperforated. This work increased completion costs by about $15,000/well

  2. Heat pump system utilizing produced water in oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the alternative to the heating furnace for crude oil heating, a heat pump system utilizing produced water, a main byproduct, in oil fields was proposed and the thermodynamic model of the system was established. A particular compression process with inner evaporative spray water cooling was applied in the screw compressor and an analysis method for the variable-mass compression process was introduced. The simulation results showed that the efficiency of the screw compressor, the temperature of produced water and the temperature difference in flash process are key parameters affecting the system performance. The energy cost of the heat pump system was compared to that of the heating furnace, revealing that the heat pump system with EER, 4.67, would save over 20% energy cost as compared with the heating furnace. Thus, the heat pump system was energy saving, money saving and environmentally benign

  3. The value of flexibility in offshore oil field development projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Morten Wattengaard

    1997-12-31

    Offshore oil field development projects often face substantial uncertainties and the operator`s ability to take corrective actions is very important. The main objective of this thesis was to identify the value of flexibility in such projects. Estimates obtained from exploratory wells can be dependent through common information. The effect of stochastic dependence was illustrated by an analytical model, where the dependence was expressed in terms of correlation between estimate errors. It was found that a high degree of correlation might distort the benefit of additional exploration. A prototype that covered the major phases of the project was developed to study the value of flexibility. The prototype was a Markov decision process, solved by stochastic dynamic programming. Based on discussions with Norwegian oil companies, three uncertain variables were addressed: the reservoir volume, the well rate, and the oil price. Simple descriptions were used to mimic the uncertainty. The reservoir was thus depicted as a tank model, and the well rate and oil prices were assumed to follow Markov processes. Flexibility was restricted to managerial as opposed to financial flexibility. Application of the prototype to a case study, based on an ongoing field development, showed that flexibility might be of considerable value to the project. In particular, capacity flexibility and initiation flexibility were identified as important aspects of the development. The results also emphasized the importance of a joint assessment, as the values of different flexibility types are not additive. In conclusion, the proposed model motivates further development of the decision support system presently available. Future decision making should therefore be made within a framework that gives consideration to flexibility. 129 refs., 46 figs., 23 tabs.

  4. Saudi Aramco: Oil to a Thirsty Market - International Cooperation Brings New Oil Field on Quickly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ajmi, Ali

    2007-07-01

    In response to high oil demand in 2004, Saudi Aramco committed to build facilities for the 500,000 BOPD Khursaniyah Oil Field in only 34 months from the start of preliminary engineering to startup. The project schedule was six months faster than any previous project, in the most resource competitive market the oil business has ever seen. The execution of this project required a new contract strategy, novel engineering and construction methods, and international cooperation from EPC firms and manufacturers. The project is also building a new one billion SCF per day gas plant receiving gas from five different sources with varying pressure and H2S content, along with huge water supply and injection facilities, oil gathering lines, and product distribution lines. To execute the project in this short time frame, a temporary construction city for 30,000 men has been constructed in the desert. This city has workers from all over 30 countries, speaking more than 15 languages, all focused on achieving one goal - on time completion of the most complex project ever done in Saudi Arabia. The paper will focus on the unique challenges of managing a city of this size that lasts for only 24 months. (auth)

  5. Improvement in operating reliability of oil field compressor engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safarov, G.M.; Pashayev, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Experience is presented of using combined start-up winding developed by the department of electric drive and the APU of the AzINneftekhim as applied to synchronous engine of oil field compressor. The results of the experimental study indicated that using the combined start-up winding, the electromagnetic momentum of the engine (in the area of small slippings) increases 1.4-fold, while the start-up time of the drive diminishes by 15% as compared to the engine with plant brass start-up winding.

  6. Corrosion of alloy steels in oil field fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory and field tests have been conducted on two low alloy and two higher alloy steels at a range of brine salinities and sulfide contents typical of oil well production fluids. AISI types 4130 and 4340 show the same behavior in these fluids as mild steel. AISI type 410 stainless steel and 9% chromium - 1% molybdenum steel corrode at rates as great as that of mild steel at higher chloride or sulfide concentrations. Special corrosion inhibitors are required for higher alloy steels when they are exposed to these conditions

  7. Premium performance heating oil - Part 2, Field trial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetter, S.M.; Hoskin, D.; McClintock, W.R. [Mobil Oil Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    Limited field trial results of a heating oil additive package developed to minimize unscheduled maintenance indicate that it achieves its goal of keeping heating oil systems cleaner. The multifunctional additive package was developed to provide improved fuel oxidation stability, improved corrosion protection, and dispersency. This combination of performance benefits was chosen because we believed it would retard the formation of sludge, as well as allow sludge already present to be carried through the system without fouling the fuel system components (dispersency should keep sludge particles small so they pass through the filtering system). Since many unscheduled maintenance calls are linked to fouling of the fuel filtering system, the overall goal of this technology is to reduce these maintenance calls. Photographic evidence shows that the additive package not only reduces the amount of sludge formed, but even removes existing sludge from filters and pump strainers. This {open_quotes}clean-up{close_quotes} performance is provided trouble free: we found no indication that nozzle/burner performance was impaired by dispersing sludge from filters and pump strainers. Qualitative assessments from specific accounts that used the premium heating oil also show marked reductions in unscheduled maintenance.

  8. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields, and Geologic Provinces of South America

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas fields, and geologic provinces of South America. The oil and gas map is part of a worldwide series...

  9. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields, and Geologic Provinces of Europe including Turkey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas fields, and geologic provinces of Europe. The oil and gas map is part of a worldwide series released on...

  10. Field testing the prototype BNL fan-atomized oil burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.; Celebi, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    BNL has developed a new oil burner design referred to as the Fan Atomized burner System. The primary objective of the field study was to evaluate and demonstrate the reliable operation of the Fan Atomized Burner. The secondary objective was to establish and validate the ability of a low firing rate burner (0.3-0.4 gph) to fully satisfy the heating and domestic hot water load demands of an average household in a climate zone with over 5,000 heating-degree-days. The field activity was also used to evaluate the practicality of side-wall venting with the Fan Atomized Burner with a low stack temperature (300F) and illustrate the potential for very high efficiency with an integrated heating system approach based on the Fan Atomized Burner.

  11. The special brushless synchronous motors for oil field pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : This paper deals with : 1) Oil and gas industries mechanisms severe duties and main demands to their field quipment; 2) technical and economical substantiate of pumps induction motors (IM) replacement by eliable almost like IM special, brushless synchronous motor (SBSM) as energy saving, tability, reliability and even ecology improving arrangement; 3) a peculiar approach during the project and construction, work of the SBSM (with the simplest constant current exiting system) to get self-stabilizing effect cost under wide range cycling torque; 4) substantiate supporting oilfield experiments and computer-assisted electrodynamic (mechatronic) lab model's studies including IM and SBSM dynamic stability analyses in conditions of supply voltage wide fluctuations and extensive cyclic moment if the spare parts. The calculated SBSM production cost is equal to 130-150 percent of IM cost. After intensive lab studies and long-run field applications SBSM was recommended for industry to replace obsolete and old IM and to plan this type SBSM for new sucker-rod oil pumps (SRP), even if the real cost of the SBSM is double of the IM cost

  12. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies would result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  13. Distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria in stratal water of the Dolina oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlenko, I.I.; Kurdish, I.K.; Gavrilyuk, A.I.; Gvozdyak, V.D.

    Various pipelines of the Dolina oil field are found to contain sulfate-reducing bacteria whose content varies from 103 to 2.5 x 105 cells/mL. A pure culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria is isolated. Domestic sewage forced into the beds to intensify oil output is considered to be the most probable reason for oil-bearing bed contamination.

  14. Geochemical Specific Characters of the Oil and the Origin of the Oil and Gas Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottikh, Rimma; Pisotskiy, Bogdan; Plotnikova, Irina

    2010-05-01

    and porous rocks. The high metal content of carbonaceous substances and their compositional variations governed by homogenisation temperatures of the inclusions suggest that they are not the products of the decomposition of oil fields. The constant presence of uranium in the fluid and its differentiation products allows the tracing of the systems' migration ways from the crystalline basement to oil-saturated reservoir zones of the sedimentary cover The known geochemical properties of bitumen and oil - high platinum content, specific distributions of rare earth elements, that are not characteristic of the upper crust formations, as well as 143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic compounds, which are out of balance with the organic matter of sedimentary rocks - suggest that hydrocarbons are accumulated in the presence of cooling high-alkalinity mafite-ultramafite intrusions. This logically corresponds to the distribution of seismic anomalies and magnetic and gravity fields in the consolidated crust below the various petroleum fields (for example, South Tatarstan and Nepsky arches of the Romashkino and Verkhne-Chonskoye oil fields). The acquired geochemical and thermodynamic characteristics of the reduced fluids and their differentiation products from the crystalline basement and the sedimentary cover of the southern Siberian and eastern East European platforms indicate that these were formed outside of the sedimentary cover and that the migration was directed upwards. The analysis of the magmatic evolution on platforms reveals its alkaline trend due to the impeded degassing of magmatic sources at depth and the inflow of new doses of alkaline fluids or melts into them. Further evolution of the zones of partial melting of the substratum led, in the authors' view, to the generation of oil-forming fluids and their transportation into the Earth's upper crust. Their interaction with the surrounding rocks in turn led to the formation of oil accumulations. Thus, oil is the product

  15. Geometric Seismic Attributes of Boca de Jaruco Oil Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamicela Tamayo López

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses in determining the Geometric Seismic Attributes in the central block of Mouth ofJaruco oil field to decrease the uncertainty in the structural design. The three dimensions seismic datacollected and depth migration processing results were used and was defined that the surface isassociated to the main reserve. A Geometric Attributes maps elaboration (Azimuth, Dip, Curvature andRoughness work flow was developed; and was able to determine structural elements, where traditionalseismic data were not always able to demonstrate a confinable image of the geological structure. Thisstructure includes three structures between 1122 and 1200 m in depth. The Azimuth Attribute differentiatesthe southern flank from the northern flank; and defined accurately the top of the structure. The DipAttribute indicates values of layers inclination between 5 and 30º, the structure top with lowers valuesand the flanks with higher values, mainly to the south. Curvature and Roughness attributes reveal theareas of faults or channels.

  16. Pollution of an aquifer by produced oil field water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brine is produced from reservoirs as a waste material from crude oil and gas after processing. Waste water may be discharged at the surface or reinjected underground. When it is reinjected, it may be mixed with an underground fresh water source for several reasons. From this point of view, forecasting the pollutant concentrations by knowing the historical data at several locations on a field has great importance when planning the necessary precautions for environmental safety. Aquifer-M in Turkey, having the properties of potable water, is contaminated by oil field water that is injected for disposal purposes. A numerical model is used to determine the extent of pollution due to the injection of saline produced water into aquifer-M. Eight observation wells are drilled to take water and core samples in order to identify both rock and fluid properties of aquifer-M. Water samples taken from different intervals of aquifer-M are analyzed to determine the flow paths for the pollutant movement. The results are interpreted with the help of core property data obtained by computerized tomography (CT) analysis and routine core analysis. By using drilling records, log data, and CT analysis results, two subunits in aquifer-M with different lithological properties are identified. All data are used in a ground water pollution model. Aquifer-M has fresh water with salinity of 5-10 ppm, and the chlorine concentration of injected waste water is approximately 3410 pp. Since there is a significant difference between these concentrations, the chlorine ion is selected as the indicative ion for locating the pollution front. The model study indicated that the contaminated water has propagated 18.7 km from the site of injection. (author)

  17. Characterization, origin and hierarchy of lateral shale-barriers in the Petrocedeno heavy oil field, Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegner, J. [Petrocedeno, Total E and P (Venezuela); Bejarano, C. [Petrocedeno, PDVSA, CVP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    The Petrocedeno heavy oil field located in the western part of the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela, is in its last stages of primary recovery with over 10 years of production and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects are now being considered. A better reservoir characterization is required to implement those EOR projects and thus the aim of the study is to improve understanding of the reservoir barriers and baffles. Based on available data, core description and wire-line pressure depletion data from the Petrocedeno field, a shale barrier model was developed. It was found that thick mudstone may provide shale barriers and interact with production. In addition a hierarchy for the Petrocedeno area was proposed. This study provided a better understanding of shale barriers in the Petrocedeno heavy oil field but further research should be undertaken to refine the recognition of shale origin.

  18. Neotectonic Model of Formation of Oil and Gas Fields and Mineragenic Role of Geodynamic Active Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Kopylov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the importance of role of geodynamic active zones in formation of mineral deposits, their distribution, and mineragenic characteristics. Geodynamic model of formation of the oil and gas fields is developed. It reflects the evolution of formation of oil and gas fields and, after the stage of learning, allows predicting the petroleum potential of local areas. The model building procedure uses the integrated analysis of all the available information and determining the most informative indicators for forecasting the oil and gas reserves. The article presents an example of model worked out for oil and gas fields of the Perm Kray.

  19. Badak field's oil flowing; gas is ready

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, J.L.

    1975-03-24

    Within about 5 y after discovery of the Badak field in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, first deliveries are scheduled to be made from a new LNG plant fed over 530 million CF/day by the field. Badak is also flowing about 13,000 bbl/day of oil, which is piped to the Santan terminal. Other promising gas reserves found in the area could boost production to a level that - when coupled with Badak - would support an LNG-plant input of up to 1 billion CF/day. Indeed, the plant is being built with provisions for adding 2 more trains later. The plant will use an Air Products Co. propane-precooled liquefaction process. The storage system will include four 600,000-bbl aboveground double-wall insulated tanks. Seven 4.4 million cu ft (125,000 cu m) tankers will be constructed to move the LNG from Bontang Bay to market in Japan, where 4 receiving terminals will be built - Chubu, Himeji, Kitakyushu, and Semboku II.

  20. Argentina Hopes for A Big Payoff in Its Shale Oil Field Discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Just east of Argentina's Andean foothills, an oil field called the Vaca Muerta, "dead cow" in English, has finally come to life.In May, the Argentine oil company YPF announced that it had found 150 million barrels of oil in the Patagonian field, and President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner rushed onto national television to praise the discovery as something that could give new impetus to the country's long-stagnant economy.

  1. Development Plan of East Unity Oil Field, Sudan, Using Reservoir Simulation Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Simulation study was applied in the development planning of East Unity oil field, Sudan. A grid consisting of 2 000 cells was constructed. A major challenge of the study was to evolve a full field development and future reservoir management strategy that would ensure maximum recovery of oil based on well Un51. Simulation shows that Un51 as injection well in AradiebaC would yield better oil recovery than to be production well.

  2. Cleaning method of the oil field wastewater treatment by UF process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This article introduces experiments and researches of polysulphone ultrafiltration membrane' s effect on oil field polluted water and approaches renewing oil field polluted water and approaches renewing of membrane' s flux by different detergents and cleaning method. Good result has been achieved by doing experiments and the renewal rate of membrane is over 90%.

  3. Development of oil and gas fields in the Arctic seas and other Russian offshore areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogoyavlensky V. I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of development of the Arctic and other Russian seas oil and gas fields have been presented. The state of the offshore seismic exploration and drilling fleets has been analysed. Seismic monitoring has been recommended for efficiency and safety of the offshore fields development increasing. Main directions of Russian oil and gas industry development have been determined

  4. Electrocoalescence of Field Crude Oil using High voltage Direct Current

    OpenAIRE

    Charles C. Opara; Akuma Oji

    2012-01-01

    In the treatment of crude oil from oil wells, entrained water is removed principally by using chemical demulsifiers or heat treatment. There are, however, emulsions of water in oil which have been stabilized by the presence of surface active agents in the crude and agitation during the extraction process which prove difficult tobreakup by conventional methods. High voltage direct current (HVDC) is used in this study to effect the coalescence of water molecules thereby causing separation of th...

  5. Computer simulation of nonstationary thermal fields in design and operation of northern oil and gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaganova, N. A., E-mail: vna@imm.uran.ru [Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Filimonov, M. Yu., E-mail: fmy@imm.uran.ru [Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia and Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    A mathematical model, numerical algorithm and program code for simulation and long-term forecasting of changes in permafrost as a result of operation of a multiple well pad of northern oil and gas field are presented. In the model the most significant climatic and physical factors are taken into account such as solar radiation, determined by specific geographical location, heterogeneous structure of frozen soil, thermal stabilization of soil, possible insulation of the objects, seasonal fluctuations in air temperature, and freezing and thawing of the upper soil layer. Results of computing are presented.

  6. Computer simulation of nonstationary thermal fields in design and operation of northern oil and gas fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaganova, N. A.; Filimonov, M. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    A mathematical model, numerical algorithm and program code for simulation and long-term forecasting of changes in permafrost as a result of operation of a multiple well pad of northern oil and gas field are presented. In the model the most significant climatic and physical factors are taken into account such as solar radiation, determined by specific geographical location, heterogeneous structure of frozen soil, thermal stabilization of soil, possible insulation of the objects, seasonal fluctuations in air temperature, and freezing and thawing of the upper soil layer. Results of computing are presented.

  7. Computer simulation of nonstationary thermal fields in design and operation of northern oil and gas fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model, numerical algorithm and program code for simulation and long-term forecasting of changes in permafrost as a result of operation of a multiple well pad of northern oil and gas field are presented. In the model the most significant climatic and physical factors are taken into account such as solar radiation, determined by specific geographical location, heterogeneous structure of frozen soil, thermal stabilization of soil, possible insulation of the objects, seasonal fluctuations in air temperature, and freezing and thawing of the upper soil layer. Results of computing are presented

  8. Geochemical investigation of crude oils from different oil fields of the potwar basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crude oils from the Potwar Basin, have been analyzed to obtain geochemical information on source and depositional environment of organic matter, maturation, biodegradation and geochemical correlation. Bulk and molecular parameters have recognized three groups of petroleum within the study area, Group I of heavy oils, Group II of medium to light oils and Group III, comprising of a single oil Adhi, of light oil Based on samples location in ternary diagram, Group I oils were classified as paraffinic naphthenic (PN), while Groups II and III were classified as paraffinic (P) oils. Gas chromatographic (GC) fingerprints of Group II and III oils showed full suite of n-alkanes, low isoprenoid to n-alkane (Pr/nC 17 and Ph/nC 18) ratios, absence of UCM (unresolved complex mixture) and higher saturates/aromatics ratios. These features suggested non-biodegraded nature of these samples. Most of the oils of Group I were affected by light to moderate biodegradation on account of these parameters. Carbon Preference Index (CPI) and Odd Even predominance (OEP) 1.0 for Group II and Adhi and 1 and very low sulfur content recommended oxoic depositional settings for Group I oils and Adhi The differences in the location of Joyamair and Minwal on geochemical plots were interpreted to difference in thermal maturity compared to other oils of this group. (author)

  9. Characterization of indigenous oil field microorganisms for microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitte, J.; Krueger, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Biegel, E.; Herold, A. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Alkan, H. [Wintershall Holding GmbH, Kassel (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Microbial activities and their resulting metabolites became a focus of attention for enhanced oil recovery (MEOR, microbial enhanced oil recovery) in the recent years. In order to develop a strategy for a MEOR application in a German oil field operated by Wintershall experiments were performed to investigate different sampling strategies and the microbial communities found in these samples. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the indigenous microbial communities, (2) to investigate the dependency of microbial activity/diversity on the different sampling strategies, and (3) to study the influence of the in situ pressure on bacterial growth and metabolite production. Fluids were sampled at the well head (surface) and in situ in approx. 785 m depth to collect uncontaminated production water directly from the reservoir horizon and under the in situ pressure of 31 bar (subsurface). In the lab the pressure was either released quickly or slowly to assess the sensitivity of microorganisms to rapid pressure changes. Quantitative PCR resulted in higher microbial cell numbers in the subsurface than in the surface sample. Biogenic CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} formation rates were determined under atmospheric and high pressure conditions in the original fluids, with highest rates found in the surface fluid. Interestingly, no methane was formed in the native fluid samples. While nitrate reduction was exclusively detected in the surface samples, sulfide formation also occurred in the subsurface fluids. Increased CO{sub 2} formation was measured after addition of a variety of substrates in the surface fluids, while only fructose and glucose showed a stimulating effect on CO{sub 2} production for the subsurface sample. Stable enrichment cultures were obtained in complex medium inoculated with the subsurface fluid, both under atmospheric and in situ pressure. Growth experiments with constant or changing pressure, and subsequent DGGE analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes

  10. Intelligent systems in oil field development under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Marco A.C.; Vellasco, Marley M.B.R. (eds.) [PUC-Rio, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Intelligent Systems use a range of methodologies for analysis, pre-processing, storage, organization, enhancing and mining of operational data, turning it into useful information and knowledge for decision makers in business enterprises. These intelligent technologies for decision support have been used with success by companies and organizations that are looking for competitive advantages whenever the issues on forecast, optimization, risks analysis, fraud detection, and decision under uncertainties are presented. Intelligent Systems (IS) offer to managers and decision makers the best solutions for complex applications, normally considered difficult, very restrictive or even impossible. The use of such techniques leads to a revolutionary process which has a significant impact in the business management strategy, by providing on time, correct information, ready to use. Computational intelligence techniques, especially genetic algorithms, genetic programming, neural networks, fuzzy logic and neuro-fuzzy as well as modern finance theories, such as real options theory, are here presented and exemplified in oil and gas exploitation and production. This book is addressed to executives and students, directly involved or interested in intelligent management in different fields. (orig.)

  11. Take home lead exposure in children of oil field workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fahad

    2011-06-01

    Childhood lead poisoning is a major, preventable environmental health problem. While residential lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust and soil are the most common sources of childhood lead poisoning, children can also be at risk if they live with an adult with a job or hobby that involves exposure to lead. Currently, the Oklahoma Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program (OCLPPP) has a small number of cases of "take home" lead exposure in children of oil field workers. These workers may come in contact with a threading compound, "pipe dope" that can contain large amounts of lead. Workers handling this product may be exposed to lead by not following safety instructions. Additionally workers may not be provided the facilities to shower and change out of the contaminated clothing before leaving the work location. The OCLPPP recommends employers and worksites should consider effective alternative options like lead free biodegradable pipe dopes or dope free connections to prevent workers and their families from adverse health effects associated with lead. PMID:21888039

  12. Overall management of risk in oil field development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade, and particularly since 1988, significant effort and expenditure has been applied in the offshore sector to the reduction of risk. This risk has been measured in terms of fatalities and injuries to the workforce and the effectiveness of the investment to reduce risk has been assessed on the basis of potential lives saved or fatalities averted. Regulations, notably SI2015, have demanded that risks to personnel be reduced to levels that are 'as low as is reasonably practicable' or ALARP. The regulations state that operators must demonstrate that the risks have been reduced to ALARP levels and advise that this can be done using cost-benefit analysis. ALARP levels are achieved, they state, when the cost of further risk reduction is 'grossly disproportionate' to the benefits achieved. Although the ALARP criterion has caused confusion it has provided a sound philosophical basis for changing the nature of regulations from prescriptive to goal-setting. It could be inferred from this criterion, also, that an underlying principle for regulation could be that the goals/objectives of the regulators, operators and asset owners are entirely consistent. The authors of the paper believe that this concept can be applied to the overall management of risk of an organization. Oil field development and insurance purchase strategies can be cited as examples of how the techniques can be applied. The paper will seek to show how risk, decision-making and asset management can be integrated under an 'ALARP' style concept. (author)

  13. PetroChina Licensed for Nation's Offshore Oil Fields Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ With the approval by the State Council - the Chinese Government, the Ministry of State and Resources formally authorized PetroChina, China's largest oil and gas producer, with the rights for oil and gas exploration and development in South China Sea on July 6.

  14. Mapping hydrocarbon charge histories: detailed characterisation of the South Pepper Oil Field, Carnarvon Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisk, M.; George, S.C.; Quezada, R.A. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Glen Waverley, VIC (Australia). Div. of Petroleum Resources; Summons, R.E.; O`Brien, G.W. [Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The South Pepper Field is a small hydrocarbon accumulation located in the Barrow Sub-basin, North West Shelf, Australia. In this study, an integrated approach has been adopted which uses new analytical approaches, and combines fluid inclusion, micro and conventional GC-MS, stable isotope, mineralogical and petrological data, to allow the accurate reconstruction of the charge history of this field. The micro GC-MS work on oil-bearing fluid inclusions in the reservoir section allows, for the first time, a comparison to be made between the geochemical characteristics of the presently reservoired oil with samples of the paleo-reservoired oils, as preserved within the fluid inclusions. The ability to fully describe the style of a new discovery is critical if analogous prospects are to be identified for future exploration and can often lead to the development of new play types. This paper is a demonstration of the high degree of resolution now obtainable in the mapping of oil charge. The use of oil-bearing fluid inclusions as time specific markers of different oil migration events and combine data from a series of new exploration technologies with conventional methods of describing oil charge, are discussed. The South Pepper oil field was chosen as an example of a discovery where these conventional methods have been adopted, therefore providing the ideal opportunity to demonstrate the application of these new methods to enhance oil field appraisal. (author). 4 tabs., 19 figs., refs.

  15. Dispersion of spilled oil in freshwater systems: field trial of a chemical dispersant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of oil and dispersed oil in freshwater ecosystems were examined in a field experiment conducted as part of the Freshwater Oil Spill Research Program. In July 1985, 3 m3 of Normal Wells crude oil were spilled on each of two fen lakes. The slick on one lake was treated with the dispersant Corexit 9550. Corexit 9550 was effective in removing the oil from the water surface even though wave energy was very low. The oil or dispersed oil had little detectable short or long term impact on all water quality parameters measured or in the microbial populations and activities in the water column and sediments of both lakes. Untreated oil caused more damage than the dispersed oil to floating aquatic plants and the shoreline vegetation, but new growth within the affected areas was observed one month after treatment. Seasonal regrowth of vegetation in all areas affected by the treatments appeared normal. Our results suggest that the best response to oil contamination in isolated fen lakes is no action at all. However, floating oil or oil washed ashore could pose a significant threat to indigenous wildlife or its habitats. Under these conditions dispersion may prove to be an advantage. (author)

  16. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; David K.Davies and Associates; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California

    1999-06-25

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California. This is realized through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It is hoped that the successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively insufficient because of several producability problems which are common in SBC reservoir; inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves.

  17. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2001-06-27

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies will result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs.

  18. In Situ burning of Arctic marine oil spills:Ignitability of various oil types weathered at different ice conditions. A combined laboratory and field study

    OpenAIRE

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne

    2010-01-01

    Oil spills in ice filled and Arctic waters pose other challenges for oil spill response compared to open and temperate waters. In situ burning has been proven to be an effective oil spill response method for oil spills in ice filled waters. This thesis presents results from laboratory and field experiments where the ignitability of oil spill as a function of oil type and weathering conditions (time/ice) was tested. The results show that the composition of the oil and the ice cover is importan...

  19. INCREASED OIL RECOVERY FROM MATURE OIL FIELDS USING GELLED POLYMER TREATMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.P. Willhite; D.W. Green; C.S. McCool

    2003-05-01

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a three-year research program aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. The work focused on the gel system composed of polyacrylamide and chromium acetate. The molar mass of the polymer was about six million. Chromium(III) acetate reacted and formed crosslinks between polymer molecules. The crosslinked polymer molecules, or pre-gel aggregates, combine and grow to eventually form a 3-dimensional gel. A fundamental study to characterize the formation and growth of pre-gel aggregates was conducted. Two methods, flow field-flow fractionation (FFFF) and multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) were used. Studies using FFFF were inconclusive. Data taken using MALLS showed that at the gel time the average molar mass of gel aggregates increased by a factor of about three while the average size increase was approximately 50%. Increased acetate concentration in the gelant increases the gel time. The in situ performance of an added-acetate system was investigated to determine the applicability for in-depth treatments. Increased acetate concentrations delayed the development of increased flow resistance during gelant injection in short sandpacks. The development of increased flow resistance (in situ gelation) was extended from 2 to 34 days by increasing the acetate-to-chromium ratio from 38 to 153. In situ gelation occurred at a time that was approximately 22% of the bulk gelation time. When carbonate rocks are treated with gel, chromium retention in the rock may limit in

  20. Geochemistry of field oil of the Caballos Formation in the Orito Field. Putumayo - Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of twenty oil samples from the Orito field in the Putumayo basin at the south of Colombia were analyzed to define the genetic relationship of the hydrocarbons produced from the Caballos and Pepino Formations, to establish the compartmentalization in the reservoirs of the Caballos Formation, so as to study the phenomena that caused the compositional changes of crude before and after the production. The samples were analyzed for bulk parameters, whole oil gas chromatography, and light fraction gas chromatography, biomarkers and carbon isotopes. The results are presented using star diagrams, cross plots, cluster diagrams and iso-value maps. It was found that the compositional differences of the produced hydrocarbons from the Pepino and Caballos Formations are produced by the fact that the crude were originated by different source rocks each one with different grades of thermal maturity. There were defined two compartments: north dome and south dome for the Caballos formation reservoir. The compartmentalization is caused by faults that playa role when the trap was filled. They have acted as partial seals isolating the different sectors and causing heterogeneity in the crude composition. The integration of this geochemistry information with the static and dynamic models of the reservoir, lead to define different sectors to guide the simulation study of the field. Also some sectors of interest have been identified to carry out development new drilling opportunities in the north dome

  1. Increasing Heavy Oil in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies. Annual Report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs

  2. Boosting Newcastle disease vaccination efficacy under field conditions by aromatic plant essential oil extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad S. Khalifeh; Abu-Basha, Ehab A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of commercially available aromatic plant essential oil extracts (MixOilTM) on the protection outcome achieved after a Newcastle disease (ND) vaccination. Antibody production, after a MixOil treatment administered along with a vaccination program applying a live attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine, was assessed under field conditions. The antibody response was evaluated via a Hemagglutination Inhibition test and an Enzyme-Linked Imm...

  3. Analysis of the Energy Return on Investment (EROI of the Huge Daqing Oil Field in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Tian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In China there has been considerable discussion of how one should express the efficiency of energy conversion and production. Energy return on investment (EROI can be useful for this because its methodology is based on outputs and inputs. Unfortunately, similar to the rest of the world, most of the data available for assessing energy gains and costs for oil and gas in China has to be derived from economic costs and revenues for oil fields. In this paper we derive a first EROI for China based on using this approach and the existing data for production of crude oil and natural gas for the Daqing oil field, the largest oil field in China. We estimate that its EROIstnd expressed as heat equivalent was 10:1 in 2001 but has declined to 6.5:1 in 2009. Based on this trend we project that the EROIstnd will decline to 4.7:1 in 2015, and the net energy from the field will be decreasing substantially. The calculations have some errors because of incomplete data, and if various externalities are taken into account, the EROI of this oil field would be lower than our present estimates. The trends of EROI and net energy suggest that the Daqing oil field will face more difficulty in the future which can not be overcome by government fiat.

  4. Large scale field experiments into oil weathering at sea and aerial application of dispersants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, A.; Crosbie, A.; Davies, L.; Lunel, T. [National Environmental Technology Centre AEA Technology, Culham, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    1998-09-01

    Field studies were conducted to study the effectiveness of aerially applied dispersants on emulsified crude oils and a residual fuel oil. The objective was to determine: (1) the degree to which multiple applications of dispersants can break and disperse the high viscosity emulsions formed by oil that has weathered on the sea surface for several days, and (2) the degree to which heavy fuel oils can be chemically dispersed. Four experimental oil slicks were released into an actual oil spill incident. The sea was relatively calm which limited the rate of oil weathering but provided for moderate wave energy for chemically enhanced dispersion. The two crudes that were used in the experiments were Forties Blend crude oil and Alaska North Slope crude oil. The fuel oil used was IFO-180. The spills were sprayed with Corexit 9500 and Dasic Slickgone NS dispersants. Surface sampling, sub-surface oil concentration monitoring and airborne remote sensing were used to study the effects of dispersant applications. The study showed that the window of opportunity for dispersant use is wider than previously considered, but emulsions with lower water contents are more resistant to the effect of dispersants. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 20 figs.

  5. Production and Evaluation of Biodiesel from Field Pennycress (Thlaspi Arvense L.) Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) oil is evaluated for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Biodiesel was obtained in 82 wt % yield by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst at 60 deg C and an alcohol to oil ratio of 6:1...

  6. Uncertainty of oil field GHG emissions resulting from information gaps: a Monte Carlo approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafi, Kourosh; Brandt, Adam R

    2014-09-01

    Regulations on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from liquid fuel production generally work with incomplete data about oil production operations. We study the effect of incomplete information on estimates of GHG emissions from oil production operations. Data from California oil fields are used to generate probability distributions for eight oil field parameters previously found to affect GHG emissions. We use Monte Carlo (MC) analysis on three example oil fields to assess the change in uncertainty associated with learning of information. Single factor uncertainties are most sensitive to ignorance about water-oil ratio (WOR) and steam-oil ratio (SOR), resulting in distributions with coefficients of variation (CV) of 0.1-0.9 and 0.5, respectively. Using a combinatorial uncertainty analysis, we find that only a small number of variables need to be learned to greatly improve on the accuracy of MC mean. At most, three pieces of data are required to reduce bias in MC mean to less than 5% (absolute). However, the parameters of key importance in reducing uncertainty depend on oil field characteristics and on the metric of uncertainty applied. Bias in MC mean can remain after multiple pieces of information are learned, if key pieces of information are left unknown. PMID:25110115

  7. An Analysis of the Distribution and Economics of Oil Fields for Enhanced Oil Recovery-Carbon Capture and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kristyn Ann

    The rising carbon dioxide emissions contributing to climate change has lead to the examination of potential ways to mitigate the environmental impact. One such method is through the geological sequestration of carbon (CCS). Although there are several different forms of geological sequestration (i.e. Saline Aquifers, Oil and Gas Reservoirs, Unminable Coal Seams) the current projects are just initiating the large scale-testing phase. The lead entry point into CCS projects is to combine the sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) due to the improved economic model as a result of the oil recovery and the pre-existing knowledge of the geological structures. The potential scope of CCS-EOR projects throughout the continental United States in terms of a systematic examination of individual reservoir storage potential has not been examined. Instead the majority of the research completed has centered on either estimating the total United States storage potential or the potential of a single specific reservoir. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between oil recovery, carbon dioxide storage and cost during CCS-EOR. The characteristics of the oil and gas reservoirs examined in this study from the Nehring Oil and Gas Database were used in the CCS-EOR model developed by Sean McCoy to estimate the lifting and storage costs of the different reservoirs throughout the continental United States. This allows for an examination of both technical and financial viability of CCS-EOR as an intermediate step for future CCS projects in other geological formations. One option for mitigating climate change is to store industrial CO2 emissions in geologic reservoirs as part of a process known as carbon capture and storage (CCS). There is general consensus that large-scale deployment of CCS would best be initiated by combining geologic sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR), which can use CO2 to improve production from declining oil fields. Revenues from the

  8. Alkalinity in oil field waters - what alkalinity is and how it is measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alkalinity is an important parameter in the description of pH-behaviour, buffer capacity and scaling potentials in oil field waters. Although the alkalinity is widely used, it seems to be considerable confusion in connection with the concept. It is often used incorrectly and different authors define the concept in different ways. Several different methods for the determination of alkalinity can be found in the literature. This paper discusses the definition of alkalinity and how to use alkalinity in oil field waters to obtain data of importance for scale and pH predictions. There is also shown how a simple titration of oil field waters can give both the alkalinity and the content of organic acids in these waters. It is obvious from these findings that most of the methods used to day may give considerable errors when applied to oil field waters with high contents of organic acids. 8 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields, and Geologic Provinces of Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of Africa with some of these components extended into geographically...

  10. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields and Geological Provinces of the Former Soviet Union

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service includes geology, center points of oil and gas fields, geologic provinces, and political boundaries in the Former Soviet Union. This compilation is...

  11. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields, and Geologic Provinces of the Arctic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of the Arctic (North Pole area encircled by 640 N Latitude). The...

  12. Geochemistry of Eagle Ford group source rocks and oils from the first shot field area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Janell D.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2010-01-01

    Total organic carbon, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and vitrinite reflectance analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group core and cuttings samples from the First Shot field area, Texas demonstrate these samples have sufficient quantity, quality, and maturity of organic matter to have generated oil. Furthermore, gas chromatography and biomarker analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group oils and source rock extracts as well as weight percent sulfur analyses on the oils indicate the source rock facies for most of the oils are fairly similar. Specifically, these source rock facies vary in lithology from shales to marls, contain elevated levels of sulfur, and were deposited in a marine environment under anoxic conditions. It is these First Shot Eagle Ford source facies that have generated the oils in the First Shot Field. However, in contrast to the generally similar source rock facies and organic matter, maturity varies from early oil window to late oil window in the study area, and these maturity variations have a pronounced effect on both the source rock and oil characteristics. Finally, most of the oils appear to have been generated locally and have not experienced long distance migration. 

  13. The in situ combustion pilot project in Bare field, Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perozo, H.A.; Mendoza, A.J.; Teixeira, J.; Alvarez, A.; Vasquez, P. [PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In heavy oil fields, in-situ combustion technology can be used as a means to enhance oil recovery. This process consists of burning some part of the oil present in the reservoir to produce heat that allow increased oil displacement. The aim of this study is to present an in situ combustion pilot project (ISCPP). This project will be conducted by PDVSA Intevep and its partners in the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela, to assess the effect of in situ combustion in increasing recovery factors from heavy crude oil reservoirs. The laboratory combustion test analyses, the static and dynamic reservoir simulations, the design, construction and completion of all wells and the study, analysis and development of surface facilities are discussed. The ISCPP is expected to be running by the end of 2011.

  14. The space-time structure of oil and gas field growth in a complex depositional system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Mast, R.F.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    Shortly after the discovery of an oil and gas field, an initial estimate is usually made of the ultimate recovery of the field. With the passage of time, this initial estimate is almost always revised upward. The phenomenon of the growth of the expected ultimate recovery of a field, which is known as "field growth," is important to resource assessment analysts for several reasons. First, field growth is the source of a large part of future additions to the inventory of proved reserves of crude oil and natural gas in most petroliferous areas of the world. Second, field growth introduces a large negative bias in the forecast of the future rates of discovery of oil and gas fields made by discovery process models. In this study, the growth in estimated ultimate recovery of oil and gas in fields made up of sandstone reservoirs formed in a complex depositional environment (Frio strand plain exploration play) is examined. The results presented here show how the growth of oil and gas fields is tied directly to the architectural element of the shoreline processes and tectonics that caused the deposition of the individual sand bodies hosting the producible hydrocarbon. ?? 1994 Oxford University Press.

  15. Methodology for estimating cleaning effectiveness and dispersion of oil with shoreline cleaning agents in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, J.R.Jr.; Stransky, B.C.; Adkins, A.C.; Lees, D.C. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Co., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Michel, J. [Research Planning, Inc., Columbia, SC (United States); Schwartz, M.J.; Snyder, B.J. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Co., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reilly, T.J. [PCCI, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    A method to evaluate shoreline cleaning agents (SCA) using a portable field kit, was described. SCAs enhance removal of oil from shoreline surfaces, but their performance can be influenced by site-specific variables, and the physical and chemical properties of the oil. On-site testing could provide a quantitative and qualitative estimate of cleaning capability and dispersion of oil with SCAs. The method was tested on three substrates, namely gravel rip-rap, and eelgrass and two oils (Bunker C and Bonny Light), and two SCAs (Corexit 9580 and PES-51). Results showed that values for cleaning performance and oil dispersion were reproducible enough to allow differences to be identified in tests with and without SCAs and between SCAs. The method could help users in their decision making as to which SCA, if any, to use in the field. 25 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. Effect of Taxation and Fiscal Arrangement on Marginal Oil Field Investment Climate: A Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Aziah Abd Manaf

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a theoretical framework on the moderating effect of attractive fiscal regime on taxation and fiscal arrangement on the investment climate of marginal oil fields in Malaysia. The variables proposed under examination are type of revenue-based tax, type of fiscal arrangement, production-based taxes, crypto-based taxes, and tax incentives. If validated, the model would have important policy implications to the host oil and gas producing countries and to marginal oil fields operators for investment decisions.

  17. Gas injection may have triggered earthquakes in the Cogdell oil field, Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Wei; Frohlich, Cliff

    2013-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2011 a series of earthquakes occurred in the Cogdell oil field near Snyder, TX. A previous series of earthquakes occurring 1975–1982 was attributed to the injection of water into wells to enhance oil production. We evaluated injection and extraction of oil, water, and gas in the Cogdell field. Water injection cannot explain the 2006–2011 earthquakes. However, since 2004 significant volumes of gas including CO2 have been injected into Cogdell wells. If this triggered the 2006–...

  18. Index to names of oil and gas fields in Oklahoma, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacina, J.L.

    1979-05-01

    This index contains the current and discontinued names of the oil and gas fields in Oklahoma. They are listed according to assignments made by the Oklahoma Nomenclature Committee of the Kansas-Oklahoma Division, Mid-Continent Oil and Gas Association. Also listed are some names which have been used locally or unofficially for certain areas. Included also are: (1) the date when the field was named; (2) the description of location by county, township, and section; and (3) a statement as to the disposition of a field when it was combined with other fields.

  19. Horizontal wells as the method of rehabilitation of the Azerbaijan oil fields after durable expoloritation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: All oil fields which are taking place in various provinces irrespective of their environment and efficiency of systems of development the most part of oil reserves it appears not realized. Therefore problems of oil fields rehabilitation after durable expoloritation let to bring it in a priority rank. It is necessary to note that in a direction of realization of residual reserves of horizon the research and production projects focused on residual reserves of opportunities of methods of recoverable factor are more and more enlarged. There are all bases to believe that the opportunities of other technical achievement including drilling and operation horizontal wells (H W) will be included in the coming years in works on an after treatment of oil fields

  20. Anaerobic thermophilic bacteria isolated from a Venezuelan oil field and its potential use in microbial improved oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebbau, G.; Fernandez, B.; Marin, A. [INTEVEP S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this work is to determine the ability of indigenous bacteria from a Venezuelan oil field to grow under reservoir conditions inside a porous media, and to produce metabolites capable of recovering residual crude oil. For this purpose, samples of formation waters from a central-eastern Venezuelan oil reservoir were enriched with different carbon sources and a mineral basal media. Formation water was used as a source of trace metals. The enrichments obtained were incubated at reservoir temperature (71{degrees}C), reservoir pressure (1,200 psi), and under anaerobic conditions for both outside and inside porous media (Berea core). Growth and metabolic activity was followed outside porous media by measuring absorbance at 660 nm, increases in pressure, and decreases in pH. Inside porous media bacterial activity was determined by visual examination of the produced waters (gas bubbles and bacterial cells). All the carbohydrates tested outside porous media showed good growth at reservoir conditions. The pH was lowered, gases such as CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} were identified by GC. Surface tension was lowered in some enrichments by 30% when compared to controls. Growth was decreased inside porous media, but gases were produced and helped displace oil. In addition, 10% residual oil was recovered from the Berea core. Mathematical modeling was applied to the laboratory coreflood experiment to evaluate the reproducibility of the results obtained.

  1. Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

    1996-06-01

    Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

  2. Microbial Methane Production Associated with Carbon Steel Corrosion in a Nigerian Oil Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mand, Jaspreet; Park, Hyung S; Okoro, Chuma; Lomans, Bart P; Smith, Seun; Chiejina, Leo; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in oil field pipeline systems can be attributed to many different types of hydrogenotrophic microorganisms including sulfate reducers, methanogens and acetogens. Samples from a low temperature oil reservoir in Nigeria were analyzed using DNA pyrotag sequencing. The microbial community compositions of these samples revealed an abundance of anaerobic methanogenic archaea. Activity of methanogens was demonstrated by incubating samples anaerobically in a basal salts medium, in the presence of carbon steel and carbon dioxide. Methane formation was measured in all enrichments and correlated with metal weight loss. Methanogens were prominently represented in pipeline solids samples, scraped from the inside of a pipeline, comprising over 85% of all pyrosequencing reads. Methane production was only witnessed when carbon steel beads were added to these pipeline solids samples, indicating that no methane was formed as a result of degradation of the oil organics present in these samples. These results were compared to those obtained for samples taken from a low temperature oil field in Canada, which had been incubated with oil, either in the presence or in the absence of carbon steel. Again, methanogens present in these samples catalyzed methane production only when carbon steel was present. Moreover, acetate production was also found in these enrichments only in the presence of carbon steel. From these studies it appears that carbon steel, not oil organics, was the predominant electron donor for acetate production and methane formation in these low temperature oil fields, indicating that the methanogens and acetogens found may contribute significantly to MIC. PMID:26793176

  3. Microbial methane production associated with carbon steel corrosion in a Nigerian oil field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspreet eMand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC in oil field pipeline systems can be attributed to many different types of hydrogenotrophic microorganisms including sulfate reducers, methanogens and acetogens. Samples from a low temperature oil reservoir in Nigeria were analyzed using DNA pyrotag sequencing. The microbial community compositions of these samples revealed an abundance of anaerobic methanogenic archaea. Activity of methanogens was demonstrated by incubating samples anaerobically in a basal salts medium, in the presence of carbon steel and carbon dioxide. Methane formation was measured in all enrichments and correlated with metal weight loss. Methanogens were prominently represented in pipeline solids samples, scraped from the inside of a pipeline, comprising over 85% of all pyrosequencing reads. Methane production was only witnessed when carbon steel beads were added to these pipeline solids samples, indicating that no methane was formed as a result of degradation of the oil organics present in these samples. These results were compared to those obtained for samples taken from a low temperature oil field in Canada, which had been incubated with oil, either in the presence or in the absence of carbon steel. Again, methanogens present in these samples catalyzed methane production only when carbon steel was present. Moreover, acetate production was also found in these enrichments only in the presence of carbon steel. From these studies it appears that carbon steel, not oil organics, was the predominant electron donor for acetate production and methane formation in these low temperature oil fields, indicating that the methanogens and acetogens found may contribute significantly to MIC.

  4. Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, S.

    2001-03-28

    Gelled polymer treatments were applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of these treatments by developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and by developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. Procedures were developed to determine the weight-average molecular weight and average size of polyacrylamide samples in aqueous solutions. Sample preparation techniques were key to achieving reproducible results.

  5. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a

  6. Clear well physical water treatment technology for the oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troncoso y Troncoso, Joao Ricardo [Weatherford Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rzeznik, Lawrence; Parker, Wiley L. [Weatherford International, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Deposits of various types are common problems associated with oil and gas production. Deposits of scale, paraffin can block tubing, cause pumps to stick and clog valves and chokes. The expense and widespread occurrence of deposition problems have resulted in the development of a variety of treatment options which have been marginally successful at best. This paper discusses a new and novel approach for controlling scale, paraffin using an electronic physical water treating device and results that have been achieved. This physical water treatment technology has been applied to oil and gas production wells which incorporate all forms of product lift. Units are now also being installed in several South American locations. This paper will discuss the results obtained from the use of these physical water treatment devices and discuss the criteria which are used to ascertain whether a particular well site's problems can be eased by use of these devices. These criteria will be discussed for both land based and offshore oil wells. (author)

  7. Intelligent fiber sensing system for the oil field area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenju; Ma, Linping

    2010-08-01

    Optical Fiber strain sensor using fiber Bragg grating are poised to play a major role in structural health from military to civil engineering. Fiber Bragg Grating sensor is a practical type of fiber optic sensors. Its measurement is encoded with the wavelength of the optical signal reflected from fiber Bragg grating. The method of measuring the absolute optical wavelength is a critical component of the fiber optic sensing system. To reliably detect very small changes in the environment at the sensor, the interrogation system must provide accurate and repeatable wavelength measurements. Energy sources are increasingly scarce in the world. Getting oil from the oil-wells has become more and more difficult. Therefore, new technology to monitor the oil-well condition has become extremely important. The traditional electrical sensor system is no longer useful because of the down-hole's high temperature and high pressure environment. The optical fiber sensing system is the first choice to monitor this condition. This system will reduce the cost and increase the productivity. In the high pressure and high temperature environment, the traditional packed fiber grating pressure-temperature sensor will be no longer reliability. We have to find a new fiber grating temperature-pressure sensor element and the interrogation system. In this work we use the very narrow bandwidth birefringent fiber grating as the sensing element. We obtain the interrogation system has 0.1 pm resolution.

  8. Investigation of the effect of formation water disposal on ground water in oil fields of Assam, India

    OpenAIRE

    B. N. Sahoo; D. C. Baruah

    2013-01-01

    One of the major waste products of oil industry is formation water which comes with crude oil from underground and this is considered as pollutant because of the presence of several undesirable elements exceeding the permissible limits. The conventional oil field practice is to dispose the formation water by injecting underground. Such underground injection is practiced in many oil fields across the globe. The ground water pollution threat by injected formation water has been a subject matter...

  9. South American oil and gas fields: Reasons for their presence and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratsch, J.C. (Consulting Petroleum Geologist, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01

    South American oil and gas fields occur in geographic clusters. Their concentration in relatively small producing areas depends on the present location of the hydrocarbon generating depocenter and results from the basinal oil and gas migration history. By defining both, existing field locations can be explained and new field occurrences can be predicted, including those in overthrust plays. One-and two-stage hydrocarbon migration processes exist: In one-stage migration oil and gas migrate directly from the generating source beds into reservoirs, like in Maturin Basin or Maranon Basin fields. In two-stage migration oil and gas first migrate into a primary reservoir level, from there during a second migration phase into a (commonly younger) secondary reservoir level. Here, the original source beds may be over-mature or even metamorphosed today; examples here are the Maturin, Llanos and Oriente Basins, possibly offshore Trinidad. Definition of generating depocenters is the task of regional exploration. Oil and gas migration analysis is one result of semi-detailed structural mapping using gravity, magnetic, seismic reflection and geochemical data. Oil and gas exploration in two-stage migration basins are especially challenging, like in the Austral Basin of southern Argentina and Chile or possibly in the Parana Basin.

  10. Rapid detection of peanut oil adulteration using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenran; Wang, Xin; Chen, Lihua

    2017-02-01

    (1)H low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and chemometrics were employed to screen the quality changes of peanut oil (PEO) adulterated with soybean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), or palm oil (PAO) in ratios ranging from 0% to 100%. Significant differences in the LF-NMR parameters, single component relaxation time (T2W), and peak area proportion (S21 and S22), were detected between pure and adulterated peanut oil samples. As the ratio of adulteration increased, the T2W, S21, and S22 changed linearly; however, the multicomponent relaxation times (T21 and T22) changed slightly. The established principal component analysis or discriminant analysis models can correctly differentiate authentic PEO from fake and adulterated samples with at least 10% of SO, RO, or PAO. The binary blends of oils can be clearly classified by discriminant analysis when the adulteration ratio is above 30%, illustrating possible applications in screening the oil species in peanut oil blends. PMID:27596419

  11. Process and economic model of in-field heavy oil upgrading using aqueous pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorsness, C. B., LLNL

    1997-01-21

    A process and economic model for aqueous pyrolysis in-field upgrading of heavy oil has been developed. The model has been constructed using the ASPEN PLUS chemical process simulator. The process features cracking of heavy oil at moderate temperatures in the presence of water to increase oil quality and thus the value of the oil. Calculations with the model indicate that for a 464 Mg/day (3,000 bbl/day) process, which increases the oil API gravity of the processed oil from 13.5{degree} to 22.4{degree}, the required value increase of the oil would need to be at least $2.80/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API($0.40/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API) to make the process economically attractive. This level of upgrading has been demonstrated in preliminary experiments with candidate catalysts. For improved catalysts capable of having the coke make and increasing the pyrolysis rate, a required price increase for the oil as low as $1.34/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API ($0.21/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API)has been calculated.

  12. Microbial Methane Production Associated with Carbon Steel Corrosion in a Nigerian Oil Field

    OpenAIRE

    Mand, Jaspreet; Park, Hyung S.; Okoro, Chuma; Lomans, Bart P.; Smith, Seun; Chiejina, Leo; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in oil field pipeline systems can be attributed to many different types of hydrogenotrophic microorganisms including sulfate reducers, methanogens and acetogens. Samples from a low temperature oil reservoir in Nigeria were analyzed using DNA pyrotag sequencing. The microbial community compositions of these samples revealed an abundance of anaerobic methanogenic archaea. Activity of methanogens was demonstrated by incubating samples anaerobically in a bas...

  13. The best plan for entity water plugging in oil field and fluid performance supervising technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes how to use the information of water intake profiles obtained from radioactive tracer log to analyze and find high pressure permeable formation band, and provide the best plan for entity water plugging in different types of oil field. Carrying the plan into effect, we have achieved nice results. Another part of the paper states the importance of fluid performance supervision, and describes the logging methods and the time delay logging technique to supervise the oil and/or water performance

  14. Evaluation of Slime-Producing Bacteria in Oil Field Core Flood Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Geesey, G. G.; Mittelman, M W; Lieu, V. T.

    1987-01-01

    Epifluorescence microscopy and carbohydrate determinations indicated that the decrease in permeability of oil reservoir sand to reclaimed sewage water was partially the result of biological plugging. Filtration and biocide addition studies demonstrated that the increase in bacterial densities and slime concentrations in flooded oil field cores appeared to be due to both deposition from the reclaimed water and in situ microbial growth and slime production. Although these biological components ...

  15. Economic assessment of environmental impact in the course of oil field development and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Kupriyanova, O. S.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2015-11-01

    The article considers the variety of impacts that oil exploration and production operations have on the environment at different stages of the process. To provide accurate economic assessment, an oil field development project was designed, with various development options. These options being analyzed, the strategy with the minimal environmental impact was identified. This has allowed preparation of a guideline on how to prevent deterioration of the environment and to reduce the negative environmental impact

  16. Simulation of Oil Transport from Field to Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Løge, Anders Hauge

    2014-01-01

    The world’s population is growing and by the year of 2035, the energy demand is expected an increase of 40 % compared to today’s level. The oil and gas industry will be a vital part of the energy sector in many years to come, and stands today before a new type of petroleum operations. The Barents Sea region have large amounts of untapped resources, but the harsh weather conditions, cold climate, distant locations and lack of infrastructure raise some great challenges regarding produ...

  17. Treatment And Disposal Options For Oil Field-Norm-Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation discusses the origin of NORM in gas and oil industries and the hazards arising from working with Natural Occurring Radioactive Material. This paper illustrates the positive steps taken related to personnel health,environmental impact, the extent of the problem, prevention and controlling, as well as handling and disposal control of radioactive material. The study aims at avoiding the release of contaminated substances into the surrounding environment and at taking radiation protection measures in order to prevent and / or limit the radiological risk involved in routine maintenance operations

  18. Field bioremediation study: Spilled crude oil on Fowler Beach, Delaware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A statistical approach was used to determine if nutrient and/or microbial inoculation enhances the loss of crude oil experimentally released onto plots on the shoreline of Delaware Bay. Five replicates of three treatments were examined (nutrients alone, nutrients plus an inoculum of indigenous bacteria from the site, and an unamended control). Results suggested that alkanes degraded significantly faster on the treated plots compared to the unamended plots at weeks 2 and 4. No differences were detected in aromatic degradation. Bioaugmentation with indigenous microorganisms did not result in additional enhancement

  19. Observed oil and gas field size distributions: a consequence of the discovery process and prices of oil and gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drew, L.J.; Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1988-11-01

    If observed oil and gas field size distributions are obtained by random samplings, the fitted distributions should approximate that of the parent population of oil and gas fields. However, empirical evidence strongly suggests that larger fields tend to be discovered earlier in the discovery process than they would be by random sampling. Economic factors also can limit the number of small fields that are developed and reported. This paper examines observed size distributions in state and federal waters of offshore Texas. Results of the analysis demonstrate how the shape of the observable size distributions change with significant hydrocarbon price changes. Comparison of state and federal observed size distributions in the offshore area shows how production cost differences also affect the shape of the observed size distribution. Methods for modifying the discovery rate estimation procedures when economic factors significantly affect the discovery sequence are presented. A primary conclusion of the analysis is that, because hydrocarbon price changes can significantly affect the observed discovery size distribution, one should not be confident about inferring the form and specific parameters of the parent field size distribution from the observed distributions.

  20. Naphthenic acid extraction and characterization from crude oils and naphthenate field deposits revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.M.; Sorbie, K.S. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom). Inst. of Petroleum Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Crude oil with high total acid number (TAN) often results in the formation of either sodium emulsion or calcium naphthenate deposits. The formation of calcium naphthenate during production operations is creating flow assurance problems for the oil industry. Therefore, it is important to extract and characterize the different types of acids from crude oils and naphthenate field deposits. There has been much discussion in the literature about the discovery and quantification of higher molecular weight acids in naphthenate field deposits, referred to as ARN acids. Field naphthenate deposits from 2 different fields in Norway (X and HD) were used in this study for the naphthenic acid extraction using 3 different methods. The extracted naphthenic acids were characterized using electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). The ESMS spectra obtained from field X extract revealed the presence of lower molecular weight acids species only, without any presence of ARN acids. However, the extract from field HD had a broad range of lower molecular weight acids and ARN acid species. APCI-MS results revealed an enhanced ARN acids species from all the spectra with some indication of multimers. This paper also discussed the acid-IER extraction technique used on the crude oils from these fields.

  1. Genomic and genotoxic responses to controlled weathered-oil exposures confirm and extend field studies on impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on native killifish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney Pilcher

    Full Text Available To understand the ecotoxicological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, field studies provide a context for ecological realism but laboratory-based studies offer power for connecting biological effects with specific causes. As a complement to field studies, we characterized genome-wide gene expression responses of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis to oil-contaminated waters in controlled laboratory exposures. Transcriptional responses to the highest concentrations of oiled water in the laboratory were predictive of field-observed responses that coincided with the timing and location of major oiling. The transcriptional response to the low concentration (∼ 10-fold lower than the high concentration was distinct from the high concentration and was not predictive of major oiling in the field. The high concentration response was characterized by activation of the molecular signaling pathway that facilitates oil metabolism and oil toxicity. The high concentration also induced DNA damage. The low concentration invoked expression of genes that may support a compensatory response, including genes associated with regulation of transcription, cell cycle progression, RNA processing, DNA damage, and apoptosis. We conclude that the gene expression response detected in the field was a robust indicator of exposure to the toxic components of contaminating oil, that animals in the field were exposed to relatively high concentrations that are especially damaging to early life stages, and that such exposures can damage DNA.

  2. Investigation of the effect of formation water disposal on ground water in oil fields of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Sahoo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major waste products of oil industry is formation water which comes with crude oil from underground and this is considered as pollutant because of the presence of several undesirable elements exceeding the permissible limits. The conventional oil field practice is to dispose the formation water by injecting underground. Such underground injection is practiced in many oil fields across the globe. The ground water pollution threat by injected formation water has been a subject matter of investigation in some oil producing regions. The oil fields in Assam (India, some of which have been operating for about 50 years, also resort to similar disposal practice through some designated wells. The present study concerning underground disposal of formation water in 15 disposal wells of 3 oil fields in Assam analysed water samples collected during three consecutive years and could not detect migration of pollutant formation water to nearby ground water.

  3. Optimal control strategies with nonlinear optimization for an Electric Submersible Pump lifted oil field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sharma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In an Electric Submersible Pump (ESP lifted oil field, the ESP of each oil well should be operated inside its operating window. The total power consumed by the ESPs in the oil field should be minimized. The speed of the ESPs and the production choke valve opening should be optimally chosen for maximizing the total oil produced from the oil field. At the same time, the capacity of the separator should not be exceeded. In this paper, nonlinear steady state optimization based on Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP is developed. Two optimal control structures are proposed in this paper. In the first case, the optimal pump speed is controlled by a PI controller by varying the electrical excitation signal to the motors. The optimal fluid flow rate through each oil well is controlled by another PI controller by varying the production choke valve opening. The paper shows that the production choke valve for each oil well has to be always 100% open to maintain the optimal fluid flow rate. In the second case, the production choke valves are considered to be always 100% open as hard constraints. The optimal fluid flow rate through each oil well is controlled by a PI controller by varying the pump speed. It is shown that when the optimal fluid flow rate is tracked by the controller, the speed of each of the pumps is equal to the optimal pump speed calculated by the optimizer. This basically means that we can achieve the optimization objective with the same optimal results as in the first case by using only a single PI controller. The limitations of these two optimal control structures for very low values and for very high values of the separator capacity are discussed. For the feasible range of separator capacities, the optimal locus of the fluid flow rate and the pump speed are shown in this paper.

  4. Discovery and development of the Petapahan oil field, Central Sumatra. [Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roezin, S.

    1974-01-01

    The Petapahan oil field is located about 60 km west of Pekanbaru, the capital of Riau Province and just north of Tapung Kiri River in central Sumatra. The field covers approx. 3,200 acres. At the end of 1973, 17 wells had been drilled in the field with 2 dry holes. Of the remaining 15 wells, 12 are on production and 3 are shut in, awaiting production testing. Production of 33/sup 0/ API gravity oil is obtained from 3 separate sandstone reservoirs at the rate of approx. 40,000 bpd. Cumulative production to Dec. 31, 1973 was 14.7 million bbl of oil. Oil was discovered in 3 separate sands in the lower Miocene Sihapas Group. The sands, designated as A, B, and C, are divided on their differences in reservoir characteristics with 12 ft (3.5 m), 30 ft (9 m), and 114 ft (35 m) of respective net pays. The Petapanhan structure extends northwest-southeast along the S. flank of a deep Tertiary basin. The 2 lithologic units of interest in the Petapahan field are (1) the lower Miocene Sihapas Group which is composed predominantly of porous quartzose sandstone with silt and shale interbeds, and is the reservoir unit; and (2) the overlying lower to middle Miocene Telisa Formation is predominantly shale with thin sandstone interbeds; it is the effective cap rock and is also considered the likely source bed for oil generation.

  5. Investigations of Flare Gas Emissions in Taq Taq Oil Field on the Surrounding Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar A. Ali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution caused by oil takes many different forms; one of the most damaging sources is simply the combustion of oil products, such as a well flare burn-off. This paper presents the results of a survey of the agriculture lands around the Taq Taq Oil Production Company. The aim of the survey was to determine the potential contamination caused by the gas emissions from the well flares. Taq Taq field is located in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, 60 km north of the giant Kirkuk oil field, 85 km south-east of Erbil and 120 km north-west of Suleimani. Samples of soil were collected from several locations around the site and analyzed to determine the content of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PAH present. A gas chromatography linked to a mass spectrometry (GCMS machine was used for these measurements. The PAH contamination at each location of soil was determined and the 16-PAHs, as listed in the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA documentation were investigated. The average content of total PAH in all samples of the agricultural soil was 0.654 mg·kg-1 with the concentrations ranging from 0.310 to 0.869 mg·kg-1. It was found that the PAH concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the TTOPCO oil field, indicating that pollution was evident, the area close to the field being more affected by the gas pollution.

  6. The valuation of off-shore oil-field development leases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The valuation of an oil-field development lease requires the specification of the contingent policy to be used to determine when to commit to the development. This paper demonstrates how to find a good commitment policy for each of a variety of leases using a synthetic valuation method. It is useful for the valuation of assets with complex cash-flows and simple contingent control possibilities. The fields examined are based on a real field in the UK North Sea

  7. Rock mechanics related to Jurassic underburden at Valdemar oil field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels

    1999-01-01

    .It has been initiated as a feasibility study of the North Jens-1 core 12 taken in the top Jurassic clay shale as a test specimens for integrated petrological, mineralogical and rock mechanical studies. Following topics are studied:(1) Pore pressure generation due to conversion of organic matter to...... deformation properties of the clay shale using the actual core material or outcrop equivalents.(3) Flushing mechanisms for oil and gas from source rocks due to possibly very high pore water pressure creating unstable conditions in deeply burried sedimentsThere seems to be a need for integrating the knowledge...... in a number of geosciences to the benefit of common understanding of important reservoir mechanisms. Rock mechanics and geotechnical modelling might be key points for this understanding of reservoir geology and these may constitute a platform for future research in the maturing and migration from the...

  8. Boosting Newcastle disease vaccination efficacy under field conditions by aromatic plant essential oil extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Khalifeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the effects of commercially available aromatic plant essential oil extracts (MixOilTM on the protection outcome achieved after a Newcastle disease (ND vaccination. Antibody production, after a MixOil treatment administered along with a vaccination program applying a live attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV vaccine, was assessed under field conditions. The antibody response was evaluated via a Hemagglutination Inhibition test and an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Later, the experimental groups were challenged with two velogenic NDV strains: Herts 33 and a local virulent NDV strain. A MixOil treatment effect with a higher dose was also examined. It was observed that ND antibody titers were enhanced when the birds were placed on a MixOil immune system-boosting program during vaccination. The mortality rate decreased by at least 50% after regular MixOil immune boosting; it also decreased following larger treatment doses. Clearly, promoting a strong bird immune system through herbal supplementation would naturally be expected to create a successful vaccination outcome and healthy flocks of birds. In addition, the results suggest that, by applying a higher dose of MixOil, the treatment can exceed its immune-stimulator benefits; it resulted in controlling the mortality outcome from the experimental ND infection.

  9. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Oil and gas field machinery and equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil and gas field machinery and equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for oil and gas field machinery and equipment

  10. Polarity characterization of crude oils predicts treatment trends in field development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Bruening, I.M.R. de

    1995-11-01

    A method for determining crude oil polarity using inverse gas chromatography proved successful for classifying crudes as well as for assessing their ability to form stable emulsions with water. Polarity determinations have been applied to the formation test crude oil samples collected in Albacora and Marlim deepwater fields of the Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The results have been compared with the polarities of the first produced crudes of the Basin and showed that the emulsion separation problems tend to increase. Polarity results provided substantial data to help production field development decisions.

  11. Multivariate statisticalmethods applied to interpretation of saturated biomarkers (Velebit oil field, SE Pannonian Basin, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATJANA SOLEVIC

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five crude oils originating from the Velebit oil field (SE Pannonian Basin, the most important oil field in Serbia, were investigated. Saturated biomarkers (n-alkanes, isoprenoids, steranes and triterpanes were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Based on the distribution and abundance of these compounds, a large number of source and maturation parameters were calculated, particularly those most often used in correlation studies of oils. The examined samples were classified according to their origin and level of thermal maturity using factor, cluster and discriminant analyses. According to the source and maturation parameters, combined factor and cluster analyses using the Ward method enabled the categorization of the investigated oils into three groups. The cluster Ward analysis was shown to be of greater susceptibility and reliability. However, in addition to the two aforementioned methods, K-Means cluster analysis and discriminant analysis were shown to be necessary for a more precise and detailed categorization in the case of a large number of samples in one group. Consequently, it was concluded that factor and cluster K-Means andWard analyses can generally be used for the interpretation of saturated biomarkers in correlation studies of oils, but the observed results have to be checked, i.e., confirmed by discriminant analysis.

  12. Field development planning for an offshore extra heavy oil in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Garcia, G.; Anguiano-Rojas, J. [PEMEX Exploration and Production, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented a phased development strategy for an offshore extra-heavy oil development located in the Gulf of Mexico. The Ayatsil-1 oil field is located in an upper Cretaceous brecciated formation. One of the primary concerns of the project is the infrastructure that is needed to handle low reservoir temperatures and high viscosity, low gravity API oil. A delineation well was drilled in order to confirm the areal extension of the reservoir. The field contains an estimated 3.1 billion barrels of oil-in-place. The project will involve the installation of fixed platforms and production platforms. Electric submersible pumps (ESPs) and multiphase pumps will be used to transport the oil from between 17 to 25 wells. Analyses were conducted to determine transport mechanisms as well as gathering networks in both stationary and transitory regimes. The viscosity of live and dead oil in the reservoirs must be accurately measured in relation to temperature in order to define the artificial systems that will be used to reduce viscosity. Results from several studies will be used to determine the feasibility of various chemical, thermal, and diluent applications. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined

  14. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined

  15. Application of bio-huff-`n`-puff technology at Jilin oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu-Yuan Wang; Yan-Fed Xue; Gang Dai; Ling Zhao [Institute of Microbiology, Beijing (China)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An enriched culture 48, capable of adapting to the reservoir conditions and fermenting molasses to produce gas and acid, was used as an inoculum for bio- huff-`n`-puff tests at Fuyu oil area of Jilin oil field. The production well was injected with water containing 4-6% (v/v) molasses and inoculum, and then shut in. After 15-21 days, the well was placed back in operation. A total of 44 wells were treated, of which only two wells showed no effects. The daily oil production of treated wells increased by 33.3-733.3%. Up to the end of 1994, the oil production was increased by 204 tons per well on average. Results obtained from various types of production wells were discussed.

  16. Methodology for oil field development; Metodologia para o desenvolvimento de campos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeano, Yadira Diaz

    1998-07-01

    The main scope of this work is to study and develop a methodology which allows the elaboration of project for oil field development. There fore it is necessary to consider to consider the integration of the human, technological and economical issues that are important parameters in the engineering project. The spiral concept was applied for the project in order to coordinate, in a reasonable and logical way, the activities involved in the field development, as well as the hierarchical analysis method for the decision making process. The development of an oil field is divided in viability study, preliminary project, final project, project implementation, production and field abandonment cycles. The main components for each cycle are external aspects, environmental criteria, reservoir management, and drilling, completion and well workover, production systems, exportation systems, and risk and economical analysis. The proposed methodology establishes a general scheme for planning and it presents applicable procedures for any field. (author)

  17. Microseismic Monitoring Using Surface and Borehole Seismic Stations in an Oil Field, North Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hussain, I.; Al-Hashmi, S.; Al-Shijbi, Y.; Al-Saifi, M.; Al-Toubi, K.; Al-Lazki, A.; Al-Kindy, F.

    2009-05-01

    Five shallow borehole seismic stations were installed to monitor microearthquake activities in a carbonate oil field in northern Oman since 1999. This shallow network of seismic station operated continuously until 2002 after which intermittent seismic recording took place due to lack of maintenance and failure of some stations. The objectives of the study are to determine the microseismic parameters in the oil field and to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of these events to evaluate possible triggering mechanism. Well over 400 microearthquakes per year were recorded in the first three years of operation and after that the level of seismic recording fell to less than 200 microearthquakes per year due to failure of some stations. In March 2008, temporary seismic experiment consisting of five near surface seismic stations were installed in the oil field to augment the shallow network station and to evaluate surface installment of seismic instrument to monitor microseismic activities. It has been recognized that microearthquakes data such as size, spatial, and temporal distribution provide information on the pressure waves initiated by either production of or injection of fluids into reservoirs. A total of 44 local microearthquake events were analyzed and located during the temporary seismic stations deployment using a non-linear location software that allows the use of variable accurate velocity model of the subsurface. The events location is confined to oil field reservoir boundary during the recording period and more events occurring at shallow depth. The correlation coefficient between gas production and number of events is the higher compared with the oil production or water injection. The focal plane solution for the largest event in the sequence indicates normal faulting with extensional stress consistent with the existing mapped normal faults in the oil field. Microseismic signal clearly detected by the collocated sensors of the near surface

  18. Analysis of radiolabelled thiocyanate tracer in oil field brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiocyanate (SCN-) labelled with 14C or 35S is applicable for the tracing of the water flow in water-driven oil production. This work describes two improved methods for increasing the concentration of S14CN- with sample sizes up to 1000 ml of sampled brine. The radioactivity detection is carried out by low-background liquid scintillation counting using standard-size counting vials of 20 ml. The first method is based on solvent extraction: two extraction/strip steps reduce the volume by the required factor of 100 down to 10 ml. The extraction agent is 0.5M tri-isooctylamine (TiOA) in Solvesso-150 and the stripping agent is 5M NH3. A chemical yield of 70-75%, a somewhat unfavourable quenching factor and a moderate reproducibility lead to a detection limit LD of 0.04 Bq/1. The second method is based on anion exchange. 1000 ml tracer-containing brine may be loaded onto 6.1 ml of the anion-exchange resin AG1-x8 before significant breakthrough of the tracer. More than 98.4% is absorbed. By elution with 2.8M sodiumperchlorate, more than 99.5% of the absorbed tracer is concentrated in a sharp elution peak of 10 ml. With a total chemical yield of 98%, a lower quenching factor and higher reproducibility than for the solvent extraction method, an LD-value of 0.005 Bq/1 is obtained. (orig.)

  19. Casing and tubing design for sour oil and gas field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y. [CCDC Drilling and Production Technology Research Inst., Guanghan (China). Drilling and Completion Research and Design Center; State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Chengdu (China); Lin, Y.; Shi, T.; Zhu, D. [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Chengdu (China); Wang, Z.; You, X.; Zhang, G.; Liu, H. [CCDC Drilling and Production Technology Research Inst., Guanghan (China). Drilling and Completion Research and Design Center

    2009-07-01

    Environmental fractures are the main cause of casing and tubing yield failures in sour gas and oil wells. This paper discussed casing and tubing designs for high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments containing hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water wells. A fracture mechanics methods was used to establish yield design criterion for a conventional sulfur resistance casing T95 and a quasi-resistance casing C110. Sulfide stress corrosion (SSC) tests, A-uniaxial tensile tests, and double cantilever beam tests were conducted to determine the potential for failures caused by the unstable propagation of a pre-existing crack and failures caused by the initiation and stable growth of cracks. Elasto-plastic equations were developed to calculate the pressure at which a pipe will fail due to the propagation of a pre-existing sharp crack. Results of the tests indicated that the predictive fracture pressures for the C110 casing and tubing samples were lower than those observed for the T95 sample. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Enhanced oil and gas recovery in Michigan: Cranberry Lake Field, Richfield Oil Pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, S.E.; Layton, F.L.; Lorenz, J.S.; Matzkanin, A.D.; Pollom, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Cranberry Lake Field was a multilevel reservoir in northwestern Clare County. The Richfield Pool interval, unitized in 1969, is being successfully waterflooded. The Cranberry Lake Field was associated with an anticlinal structure and the reservoir rocks are assigned to the basal part of the Lucas Formation, Detroit River Group. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  1. An overview of microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) field trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MEOR as a potentially additional method to the EOR methods is discussed in this paper. Most of the field trails carried out in the last 35 years with special reference to the kind of bacteria, nutrient support and protocol of well injection as well as the response to such treatments are presented and discussed. (author)

  2. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terralog Technologies

    2002-11-25

    The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  3. Neutron scattering studies of crude oil viscosity reduction with electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Enpeng

    topic. Dr. Tao with his group at Temple University, using his electro or magnetic rheological viscosity theory has developed a new technology, which utilizes electric or magnetic fields to change the rheology of complex fluids to reduce the viscosity, while keeping the temperature unchanged. After we successfully reduced the viscosity of crude oil with field and investigated the microstructure changing in various crude oil samples with SANS, we have continued to reduce the viscosity of heavy crude oil, bunker diesel, ultra low sulfur diesel, bio-diesel and crude oil and ultra low temperature with electric field treatment. Our research group developed the viscosity electrorheology theory and investigated flow rate with laboratory and field pipeline. But we never visualize this aggregation. The small angle neutron scattering experiment has confirmed the theoretical prediction that a strong electric field induces the suspended nano-particles inside crude oil to aggregate into short chains along the field direction. This aggregation breaks the symmetry, making the viscosity anisotropic: along the field direction, the viscosity is significantly reduced. The experiment enables us to determine the induced chain size and shape, verifies that the electric field works for all kinds of crude oils, paraffin-based, asphalt-based, and mix-based. The basic physics of such field induced viscosity reduction is applicable to all kinds of suspensions.

  4. Characteristics of enriched cultures for bio-huff-`n`-puff tests at Jilin oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu-Yuan Wang; Gang Dai; Yan-Fen Xue; Shu-Hua Xie [Institute of Microbiology, Beijing (China)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Three enriched cultures (48, 15a, and 26a), selected from more than 80 soil and water samples, could grow anaerobically in the presence of crude oil at 30{degrees}C and could ferment molasses to gases and organic acids. Oil recovery by culture 48 in the laboratory model experiment was enhanced by 25.2% over the original reserves and by 53.7% over the residual reserves. Enriched culture 48 was composed of at least 4 species belonging to the genera Eubacterium, Fusobacterium, and Bacteroides. This enriched culture was used as inoculum for MEOR field trials at Jilin oil field with satisfactory results. The importance of the role of these isolates in EOR was confirmed by their presence and behavior in the fluids produced from the microbiologically treated reservoir.

  5. Water management in Siri oil field in Iran: A comprehensive case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoudi, Zahedzadeh M.; Abbasian, Ataei A.; Shokrollahzadeh, S.; Raadmehr, M.

    2006-03-15

    Successful water management and dealing with produced water is a crucial part of any oil and gas production scenarios. This paper investigates the role of comprehensive study in water management and produced water re-injection in an Iranian offshore oil field. Appropriate method can be chosen by taking into account various effective parameters such as reservoir properties, laboratory experiment, and learning from already done projects and etc. In this work, produced water reinjection in Siri oil field in Iran has been investigated by examining the effective parameters including reservoir characterization such as permeability, porosity, petrophysical properties as well as performing relevant laboratory experiments and reservoir parameters like aquifer support and carbonated rock reservoir issues. Finally, it was concluded that comprehensive study together with proper laboratory investigation has a significant effect in success of produced water re-injection process. (author) (tk)

  6. IMPACT OF OIL FIELD EXPLOITATION ON ECO-ENVIRONMENT OF THE DAQING LAKES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shao-peng; LU Jin-fu; SUN Guang-you

    2003-01-01

    The Daqing lakes are located in the region with sub-humid continental monsoon climate. Through histori-cal comparison of the environment before and after oil field exploitation in the area, the paper analyses the impact of oilfield exploitation on the eco-environment of the lakes, including the impact of diversion works, drainage works, exploita-tion and utilization of groundwater, dropped crude oil and petrochemical wastewater on the lakes water body. The analy-sis shows that oil field exploitation caused serious pollution to soil in the lakes area and deterioration of the e-co-environment. The impact became more evident with passage of time, and the intensity varied with areas, gettingmore serious from west to east, which meant that the eastern part of the lakes were influenced much more seriously by thehuman activities. To improve the eco-environment of the Daqing lakes and make them sustainable utilization, the effec-tive protection measures should be taken.

  7. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2004-03-05

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  8. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2003-06-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  9. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2003-09-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  10. Quasi natural consolidation of poorly consolidated oil field reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, T.; Lioliou, M.; Joesang, L. O.; Oestvold, T.

    2006-03-15

    A new method to prevent sand permeation from unconsolidated or poorly consolidated reservoir formations has been developed. The Quasi Natural Consolidation (QNC)-method involves a controlled in situ precipitation of calcium carbonate on sand grains. Experiments show that calcium carbonate forms bridges between sand grains and strengthens the unconsolidated sand pack. The QNC-solution contains Ca{sup 2+}, a CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} source and a catalyst. When this single-phase solution is injected into the sand pack, calcium carbonate precipitates at a rate which is dependent on the catalyst concentration and the temperature. A series of batch experiments have been carried out in order to establish the optimum solution chemistry/composition for sand consolidation. Consolidation experiments have shown that this method is applicable in the temperature range from 25 deg C to at least 65 deg C. An untreated sand pack will collapse at a water flow velocity of less than 0.01 cm/s (Q/A{sub tot}). However, after one QNC-injection at 50 deg C for 24 hours a sand pack could withstand a water flow velocity of 0.38 cm/s without producing sand. The initial and end permeability of this sand pack was respectively approx. 10 and approx. 7 Darcy. Uniaxial compressive strengths of 10.56, 8.69 and 4.80Mpa were achieved after four QNC-injections at respectively 25, 50 and 65 deg C. A sand pack treated with four QNC-injections at 50 deg C withstood 28 days of water flooding at 15 deg C without any sand production or dissolution of the precipitated calcium carbonate. Preliminary results have shown that consolidation can be achieved also with oil present in the sand pack. (Author)

  11. EFFECTS OF OIL FIELD SCALE DEPOSITION ON OIL PRODUCTION FROM HORIZONTAL WELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Olusegun Omole; Olugbenga A. Falode; Olufemi A. Bamidele

    2009-01-01

    Flow assurance is a major concern to the petroleum industry, characterised by the numeroustechnical problems related to the dynamic nature of the produced effluents or by-products. Theseproblems change gradually throughout the field’s life, periodically requiring adjustment of thesolution. To mismanage is not only costly but can be devastating to the economics of a field. Flowassurance has been an emerging multi-disciplinary subject addressing the hydrocarbon productionfrom offshore fields. T...

  12. Clarification of injection water for oil field by using nuclear microfilters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suspended solids and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) were removed from the injection water of oil fields by using nuclear track microfilters. The grain-size distributions of suspended solids, the effectiveness of SRB elimination and the flow-rate characteristics have been measured. A comparison of the theoretical removal rates with the experimental values is given

  13. Research on Distributed Optical Fiber in Oil Well Temperature Field Measurement System

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Ge; Hu Ze; Yang Qing; Li Junlan; Lai Xin

    2013-01-01

    Distributed optical fiber temperature measurement is an emerging technology. The technology has a good application prospects in oil well temperature field measurement. This article analyzes and studies Raman distributed fiber optic temperature measurement system principle from the aspects of distributed measuring principle, distributed temperature measurement principle and temperature algorithm. Then, its software and hardware design is introduced and an experimental system was developed. The...

  14. Norm in soil and sludge samples in Dukhan oil Field, Qatar state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this work is to measure the activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring radioactive Materials (NORM) produced as a buy products in oil production. The analyses of NORM give available information for guidelines concerning radiation protection. Recently NORM subjected to restricted regulation issued by high legal authority at Qatar state. Twenty five samples of soil from Dukhan onshore oil field and 10 sludge samples collected from 2 offshore fields at Qatar state. High resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry used to measure gamma emitters of NORM. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclide in 22 samples from Dukhan oil field, were with average worldwide values . Only three soil samples have high activity concentration of Ra-226 which is more than 185 Bq/kg the exempted level for NORM in the Quatrain regulation. The natural radionuclide activity concentrations of 10 sludge samples from offshore oil fields was greater than 1100Bq/kg the exempted values of NORM set by Quatrain regulation so the sludge need special treatments. The average hazards indices (Hex , D , and Raeq), for the 22 samples were below the word permissible values .This means that the human exposure to such material not impose any radiation risk. The average hazards indices (Hex , D , and Raeq), for 3 soil samples and sludge samples are higher than the published maximal permissible. Thus human exposure to such material impose radiation risk. (author)

  15. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

    1999-01-21

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

  16. Quality of field pennycress oil obtained by screw pressing and solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field pennycress (Thlasphi arvense L., Brassicaceae) is a winter annual that grows widely in temperate North America. Its seeds contain up to 36% oil (dry basis, db) with the major fatty acid being erucic acid (38 %). With an estimated seed production of 1,700 – 2,200 kg/ha, pennycress can be a majo...

  17. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1990 through 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-08

    This report presents estimated costs and indice for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations for 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993. The costs of all equipment and serives were those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of oil wells to gas wells. The body of the report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (costs and lease availability) have significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas production equipment and operations.

  18. Molecular dynamics and composition of crude oil by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zijian; Xiao, Lizhi; Wang, Zhizhan; Liao, Guangzhi; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Can

    2016-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are widely used to identify pure substances and probe protein dynamics. Oil is a complex mixture composed of hydrocarbons, which have a wide range of molecular size distribution. Previous work show that empirical correlations of relaxation times and diffusion coefficients were found for simple alkane mixtures, and also the shape of the relaxation and diffusion distribution functions are related to the composition of the fluids. The 2D NMR is a promising qualitative evaluation method for oil composition. But uncertainty in the interpretation of crude oil indicated further study was required. In this research, the effect of each composition on relaxation distribution functions is analyzed in detail. We also suggest a new method for prediction of the rotational correlation time distribution of crude oil molecules using low field NMR (LF-NMR) relaxation time distributions. A set of down-hole NMR fluid analysis system is independently designed and developed for fluid measurement. We illustrate this with relaxation-relaxation correlation experiments and rotational correlation time distributions on a series of hydrocarbon mixtures that employ our laboratory-designed downhole NMR fluid analyzer. The LF-NMR is a useful tool for detecting oil composition and monitoring oil property changes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26990450

  19. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1994 through 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents estimated costs and cost indices for domestic oil and natural gas field equipment and production operations for 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997. The costs of all equipment and services are those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of the total number of oil wells to the total number of gas wells. The detail provided in this report is unavailable elsewhere. The body of this report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (compliance costs and lease availability) have a significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas equipment and production operations

  20. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1990 through 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents estimated costs and indice for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations for 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993. The costs of all equipment and serives were those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of oil wells to gas wells. The body of the report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (costs and lease availability) have significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas production equipment and operations

  1. Reservoir fluid characterization of Lirik's oil field using tritium radio-tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five curie tritium in the tritiated water compound (HTO) was injected into oil reservoir of Lirik field. The purpose was to obtain water injection efficiency, to determine fluid behavior within the servoir system, and to confirm upon interpretation of some geologic parameters of the field. Dispersion coefficient, magnitude and direction of fluid could also be evaluated based on tracer recovery of water samples taken from 3 monitor wells. (author). 5 refs. 6 figs

  2. Low-Salinity Waterflooding to Improve Oil Recovery - Historical Field Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-11-01

    Waterflooding is by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of wa-terfloods. Laboratory water-flood tests and single-well tracer tests have shown that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery, but work designed to test the method on a field scale has not yet been undertaken. Historical waterflood records could unintentionally provide some evidence of improved recovery from waterflooding with lower salinity brine. Nu-merous fields in the Powder River basin of Wyoming have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) obtained from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Three Minnelusa formation fields in the basin were identified as potential candidates for waterflood comparisons based on the salinity of the connate and injection water. Historical pro-duction and injection data for these fields were obtained from the public record. Field waterflood data were manipulated to be displayed in the same format as laboratory coreflood re-sults. Recovery from fields using lower salinity injection wa-ter was greater than that using higher salinity injection wa-ter—matching recovery trends for laboratory and single-well tests.

  3. Immunomagnetically captured thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria from North Sea oil field waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunomagnetic beads (IMB) were used to recover thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria from oil field waters from oil production platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. IMB coated with polyclonal antibodies against whole-cell antigens of the thermophilic Thermodesulfobacterium mobile captured strains GFA1, GFA2, and GFA3. GFA1 was serologically and morphologically identical to T. mobile. GFA2 and GFA3 were spore forming and similar to the Desulgotomaculum strains T90A and T93B previously isolated from North Sea oil field waters by a classical enrichment procedure. Western blots (immunoblots) of whole cells showed that GFA2, GFA3, T90A, and T93B are different serotypes of the same Desulfotomaculum species. Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against T. mobile type strain cells were produced and used as capture agents on IMB. These MAb, named A4F4, were immunoglobulin M; they were specific to T. mobile and directed against lipopolysaccharides. The prevailing cells immunocaptured with MAb A4F4 were morphologically and serologically similar to T. mobile type strain cells T. mobile was not detected in these oil field waters by classical enrichment procedures. Furthermore, extraction with antibody-coated IMB allowed pure strains to be isolated directly from primary enrichment cultures without prior time-consuming subculturing and consecutive transfers to selective media

  4. Effects of two diamine biocides on the microbial community from an oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil production facilities are routinely treated with biocides to control or eliminate microbes responsible for souring odor, or microbially influenced corrosion. In this study the effects of diamine biocides A and B on the microbial population from an oil field were investigated using reverse sample genome probing (RSGP), a technique designed to track multiple oil field bacteria in a single assay. RSGP studies of sessile microbial populations scraped from corrosion coupons obtained from biocide-treated oil field installations indicate dominance of Desulfovibrio species Lac6 and Eth3. Laboratory studies suggest that batchwise application of high doses (400 ppm) of biocide A is capable of killing planktonic populations of Desulfovibrio spp. Lac6 and Eth3. Batchwise application of similar doses of biocide B did not have this effect. Overall results indicate that the application of 400 ppm biocide B and 40 ppm biocide A may actually promote survival of selected Desulfovibrio spp., which may then effectively colonize available metal surfaces. 15 refs., 3 figs

  5. Pilon field : characterization of heavy crude oil reservoir with gas cap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Urdaneta, R.; Sanchez, J. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Bague, O. [Beicip-Franlab, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2009-07-01

    The Pilon mature oilfield covers a surface area of 100 square kilometres in the region of the Orinoco oil belt in eastern Venezuela. A study was undertaken regarding 3 reservoirs, of which 2 show a gas cap, contrary to previous studies which established that only 1 reservoir had a gas cap. This paper presented a 3D structural model that was created by defining fault planes and stratigraphic horizons. Stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrophysics, and geostatistics were also discussed. The geostatistic model was developed using the following techniques: facies simulation bias; rock type modeling; and petrophysical inputs. Production analysis and reservoir pressure analysis were also presented. Fluids distribution was discussed in terms of oil water contact and gas oil contact. Material balance was also addressed in the paper. It was concluded that the stratigraphic model underlines the existence of 6 distinct geological units spanning the whole field. 5 refs., 5 tabs., 27 figs.

  6. Electromagnetic Heating of Heavy Oil and Bitumen: A Review of Experimental Studies and Field Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Mukhametshina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity is a major obstacle in the recovery of low API gravity oil resources from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. While thermal recovery is usually considered the most effective method for lowering viscosity, for some reservoirs introducing heat with commonly implemented thermal methods is not recommended. For these types of reservoirs, electromagnetic heating is the recommended solution. Electromagnetic heating targets part of the reservoir instead of heating the bulk of the reservoir, which means that the targeted area can be heated up more effectively and with lower heat losses than with other thermal methods. Electromagnetic heating is still relatively new and is not widely used as an alternate or addition to traditional thermal recovery methods. However, studies are being conducted and new technologies proposed that could help increase its use. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the recovery of heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs by electromagnetic heating through the review of existing laboratory studies and field trials.

  7. Mapping three-dimensional oil distribution with π-EPI MRI measurements at low magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Xiao, Dan; Romero-Zerón, Laura; Marica, Florea; MacMillan, Bryce; Balcom, Bruce J.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a robust tool to image oil saturation distribution in rock cores during oil displacement processes. However, a lengthy measurement time for 3D measurements at low magnetic field can hinder monitoring the displacement. 1D and 2D MRI measurements are instead often undertaken to monitor the oil displacement since they are faster. However, 1D and 2D images may not completely reflect the oil distribution in heterogeneous rock cores. In this work, a high-speed 3D MRI technique, π Echo Planar Imaging (π-EPI), was employed at 0.2 T to monitor oil displacement. Centric scan interleaved sampling with view sharing in k-t space was employed to improve the temporal resolution of the π-EPI measurements. A D2O brine was employed to distinguish the hydrocarbon and water phases. A relatively homogenous glass bead pack and a heterogeneous Spynie core plug were employed to show different oil displacement behaviors. High quality 3D images were acquired with π-EPI MRI measurements. Fluid quantification with π-EPI compared favorably with FID, CPMG, 1D-DHK-SPRITE, 3D Fast Spin Echo (FSE) and 3D Conical SPRITE measurements. π-EPI greatly reduced the gradient duty cycle and improved sensitivity, compared to FSE and Conical SPRITE measurements, enabling dynamic monitoring of oil displacement processes. For core plug samples with sufficiently long lived T2, T2∗, π-EPI is an ideal method for rapid 3D saturation imaging.

  8. Implementation of field techniques to stabilize abandoned oil wells - Boyd's creek, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Boyd's Creek, commercial crude-oil drilling production began in the early 1860s. Countless unrecorded exploration wells were drilled and many have been found to be improperly abandoned. The Corniferous limestone is the first oil producing interval and is situated at an average subsurface depth of 135 feet. The potential for impacting natural resources is high because of the shallow depth(s) of the Corniferous limestone and the presence of overlying artesian sulfur-water zones which routinely mix with brine and oil in uncased boreholes. The occurrence of limestone related (karstic) features, such as fractures and dissolution cavities, and the close proximity of the Boyd's Creek oil field to nearby surface streams are also of concern. Initially, two abandoned wells were identified as flowing into nearby streams. Pursuant to federal removal authority provided by Subsection (c) of Section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act in accordance with Subtitle B of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the National Contingency Plan, the Environmental Protection Agency has initiated cleanup operations within properties nearest to Boyd's Creek. Most wells are difficult to identify because they lack any casing strings and/or they have been buried with soil to hide uncontrolled flows at the surface. Field operations have included the utilization of multiple geophysical techniques to identify anomaly areas thought to represent buried unplugged wells. These include the excavation of surface soils down to the underlying limestone bedrock to search for cable tool and rotary boreholes, the drilling out of old wells using conventional industry technology and standards to plug them permanently with cement, the construction of temporary underflow dams downgradient from identified oil spills to minimize impacts on Boyd's Creek and its adjoining tributaries, and the burning of spilled product in temporary holding pits to minimize associated cleanup cost

  9. Quantitative calculation of GOR of complex oil-gas-water systems with logging data: A case study of the Yingdong Oil/Gas Field in the Qaidam Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Liqiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Yingdong Oil/Gas Field of the Qaidam Basin, multiple suites of oil-gas-water systems overlie each other vertically, making it difficult to accurately identify oil layers from gas layers and calculate gas-oil ratio (GOR. Therefore, formation testing and production data, together with conventional logging, NMR and mud logging data were integrated to quantitatively calculate GOR. To tell oil layers from gas layers, conventional logging makes use of the excavation effect of compensated neutron log, NMR makes use of the different relaxation mechanisms of light oil and natural gas in large pores, while mud logging makes use of star chart of gas components established based on available charts and mathematical statistics. In terms of the quantitative calculation of GOR, the area ratio of the star chart of gas components was first used in GOR calculation. The study shows that: (1 conventional logging data has a modest performance in distinguishing oil layers from gas layers due to the impacts of formation pressure, hydrogen index (HI, shale content, borehole conditions and invasion of drilling mud; (2 NMR is quite effective in telling oil layers from gas layers, but cannot be widely used due to its high cost; (3 by contrast, the star chart of gas components is the most effective in differentiating oil layers from gas layers; and (4 the GOR calculated by using the area ratio of star chart has been verified by various data such as formation testing data, production data and liquid production profile.

  10. An investigation on heavy metals in soils around oil field area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Karbassi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil and pollutants resulting from its extraction and exploitation are considered as one of the serious problems for human health. Vast oil fields of Ahvaz City located in southern Iran are known as one of controversial subjects in contamination with heavy metals. In this study, oil fields' soils of Ahvaz city (Ab-Teymour were chemically analyzed in order to determine the concentration of eight heavy elements (Cu, Ni, V, Co, Cd, Zn, Mo and Pb and intensity of contamination. The area was divided into 12 plots with respect to proximity to drilled oil wells as well as the existing flares. The results show that concentration of studied metals is higher than earth’s crust mean values. According to Muller’s geochemical index, intensity of contamination varies from unpolluted to highly polluted ones. These highly polluted areas require methods such as phytoremediation more than ever. By comparing list of local plants with that of heavy metals absorbing plants and given the local climate, a suitable absorbing plant for each of the existing heavy metals was recommended.

  11. Mining petroleum by underground methods. A study of methods used in France and Germany and possible application to depleted oil fields under American conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, G.S.

    1932-06-01

    The contents of this publication includes the following: introduction; mining for oil in France (Pechelbronn oil field and mine); mining for oil in Germany (Wietz mine); discussion of results obtained at Pechelbronn and Wietz, with reference to applications in the United States; methods of producing petroleum in United States; proposed application of European oil-mining methods in depleted oil fields in the United States; theoretical conditions assumed for trial of oil-mining in the United States; requirements of trial oil-mining plant and equipment; approximate estimate of cost of developing a trial underground mine at a depth of 1200 feet in a depleted field; and conclusions. 38 figures.

  12. Undeveloped Oil and Gas Fields in the Industrializing World : A Description of Potential International Investment Projects for the Petroleum Industry

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    Intensive exploration for oil, and gas, led to considering many discovered fields as non-commercial, which have since, not been developed. Yet, if developed, these fields could have significant economic impacts on a number of the Bank's borrowing countries. The study examines the undeveloped fields, the commercial potential, and contractual conditions under which these fields were discover...

  13. Mechanisms of immiscible CO/sub 2/ injection in heavy oil reservoirs, Wilmington Field, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak, A.; Chima, C.M.

    1984-04-01

    This paper describes the results of simulation studies made to investigate the mechanisms of immiscible CO/sub 2/ injection in heavy oil reservoirs. The studies were undertaken to assist in the design and monitoring of two projects implemented in the Wilmington Field, Los Angeles County, California. An equation-of-state compositional simulator was used in these studies. The equation-of-state was adjusted to match saturation pressures and swelling data from the laboratory. Simulation runs were then made to investigate the effect of various parameters on the process. The paper relates the various simulator studies to the Long Beach Oil Development Company (LBOD) project in the Tar Zone, Fault Block V and the Xtra Energy project in the Ranger Zone; Fault Block I of the Wilmington Field. Both projects use the same source of gas which is approximately 82% CO/sub 2/ and 18% N/sub 2/.

  14. Truncated shifted pareto distribution in assessing size distribution of oil and gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houghton, J.C.

    1988-11-01

    The truncated shifted Pareto (TSP) distribution, a variant of the two-parameter Pareto distribution, in which one parameter is added to shift the distribution right and left and the right-hand side is truncated, is used to model size distributions of oil and gas fields for resource assessment. Assumptions about limits to the left-hand and right-hand side reduce the number of parameters to two. The TSP distribution has advantages over the more customary lognormal distribution because it has a simple analytic expression, allowing exact computation of several statistics of interest, has a J-shape, and has more flexibility in the thickness of the right-hand tail. Oil field sizes from the Minnelusa play in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, are used as a case study. Probability plotting procedures allow easy visualization of the fit and help the assessment.

  15. Raman distributed temperature sensor for oil leakage detection in soil: a field trial and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Alessandro; Nannipieri, Tiziano; Gabella, Luca; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio; Latini, Gilberto; Ripari, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we perform field validation of distributed Raman temperature sensing (RDTS) for oil leakage detection in soil. The capability of the distributed Raman sensor in detecting and locating, with high accuracy and spatial resolution, drop leakages in soil is demonstrated through a water leakage simulation in a field trial. The future trends and the high potential of the Raman DTS technology for oil and gas leakage detection in long pipelines is then outlined in this paper by reporting lab experiments demonstrating accurate meter scale temperature measurement over more than 50 km of standard single mode fiber. The proposed solution, based on distributed Simplex coding techniques, can be competitive in terms of cost and performance with respect to other distributed sensing technologies.

  16. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery - Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroni, M. [American Oil Recovery, Inc., Decatur, IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Phase I results of a C0{sub 2}-assisted oil recovery demonstration project in selected Cypress Sandstone reservoirs at Mattoon Field, Illinois are reported. The design and scope of this project included C0{sub 2} injectvity testing in the Pinnell and Sawyer units, well stimulaton treatments with C0{sub 2} in the Strong unit and infill well drilling, completion and oil production. The field activities were supported by extensive C0{sub 2}-oil-water coreflood experiments, CO{sub 2} oil-phase interaction experiments, and integrated geologic modeling and reservoir simulations. The progress of the project was made public through presentations at an industry meeting and a DOEs contractors` symposium, through quarterly reports and one-to-one consultations with interested operators. Phase II of this project was not implemented. It would have been a water-alternating-gas (WAG) project of longer duration.

  17. Static Electric Field Mapping Using a Mosquito Racket and Baby Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rediansyah, Herfien; Khairurrijal; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to design a simple experimental device to see electric field force lines using common components which are readily available in everyday life. A solution of baby oil was placed in a plastic container, 4.5 × 4.5 × 1 inches, with both ends of the electrodes (metal wire) immersed in the solution at a depth of 0.2 inches.…

  18. Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blunt, D.L.; Elcock, D.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Viel, J.A.; and Williams, G.P.

    1999-01-21

    In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil

  19. Petrophysical and sedimentological characterization of the Zuata field in Orinoco Oil Belt. Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Zuata field is in the middle of the Jun in block in Orinoco Oil Belt and its production is handled by the district of Cabrutica which planning to develop a comprehensive reservoir model that allows leverage a correct management of hydrocarbon reserves. The purpose of this study is to generate a sedimentological and petrophysical model to know the architecture and quality of the rocks

  20. Transformation of iron sulfide to greigite by nitrite produced by oil field bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiping; Krause, Federico; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2009-05-01

    Nitrate, injected into oil fields, can oxidize sulfide formed by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) through the action of nitrate-reducing sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). When reservoir rock contains siderite (FeCO(3)), the sulfide formed is immobilized as iron sulfide minerals, e.g. mackinawite (FeS). The aim of our study was to determine the extent to which oil field NR-SOB can oxidize or transform FeS. Because no NR-SOB capable of growth with FeS were isolated, the well-characterized oil field isolate Sulfurimonas sp. strain CVO was used. When strain CVO was presented with a mixture of chemically formed FeS and dissolved sulfide (HS(-)), it only oxidized the HS(-). The FeS remained acid soluble and non-magnetic indicating that it was not transformed. In contrast, when the FeS was formed by adding FeCl(2) to a culture of SRB which gradually produced sulfide, precipitating FeS, and to which strain CVO and nitrate were subsequently added, transformation of the FeS to a magnetic, less acid-soluble form was observed. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectrometry indicated the transformed mineral to be greigite (Fe(3)S(4)). Addition of nitrite to cultures of SRB, containing microbially formed FeS, was similarly effective. Nitrite reacts chemically with HS(-) to form polysulfide and sulfur (S(0)), which then transforms SRB-formed FeS to greigite, possibly via a sulfur addition pathway (3FeS + S(0) --> Fe(3)S(4)). Further chemical transformation to pyrite (FeS(2)) is expected at higher temperatures (>60 degrees C). Hence, nitrate injection into oil fields may lead to NR-SOB-mediated and chemical mineral transformations, increasing the sulfide-binding capacity of reservoir rock. Because of mineral volume decreases, these transformations may also increase reservoir injectivity. PMID:19290520

  1. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-05

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  2. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes

  3. Risk analyses for disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.; Caudle, D.

    1997-12-01

    Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the US have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns have been permitted in Canada and Europe. This report evaluates the possibility that adverse human health effects could result from exposure to contaminants released from the caverns in domal salt formations used for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal. The evaluation assumes normal operations but considers the possibility of leaks in cavern seals and cavern walls during the post-closure phase of operation. In this assessment, several steps were followed to identify possible human health risks. At the broadest level, these steps include identifying a reasonable set of contaminants of possible concern, identifying how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the toxicities of these contaminants, estimating their intakes, and characterizing their associated human health risks. The contaminants of concern for the assessment are benzene, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium. These were selected as being components of oil field waste and having a likelihood to remain in solution for a long enough time to reach a human receptor.

  4. CO2 Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery: Bald Unit Test Site, Mumford Hills Oil Field, Posey County, Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frailey, Scott M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Krapac, Ivan G. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Damico, James R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Okwen, Roland T. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); McKaskle, Ray W. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2012-03-30

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a small-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection test in a sandstone within the Clore Formation (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) in order to gauge the large-scale CO2 storage that might be realized from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) of mature Illinois Basin oil fields via miscible liquid CO2 flooding.

  5. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  6. Application of naturally occurring isotopes and artificial radioactive tracer for monitoring water flooding in oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water flooding is an important operation to enhance oil recovery. Water is injected in the oil formation under high pressure through an injection well. Movement of the injected water is needed to be traced to test the performance of water flood, investigate unexpected anomalies in flow and verify suspected geological barriers or flow channels, etc. In the present study environmental isotopes and artificial radiotracer (tritium) were used at Fimkassar Oil Field of Oil and Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL) where water flooding was started in March 1996 in Sakessar formation to maintain its pressure and enhance the oil recovery. Environmental isotopes: /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H, and chloride contents were used to determine the breakthrough/transit time and contribution of fresh injected water. Water samples were collected from the injection well, production well and some other fields for reference indices of Sakessar Formation during June 1998 to August 1999. These samples were analyzed for the /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H, and chloride contents. Results show that the water of production well is mixture of fresh water and formation water. The fresh water contribution varied from 67% to 80%, while remaining component was the old recharged formation water. This percentage did not change significantly from the time of break-through till the last sampling which indicates good mixing in the reservoir and absence of any quick channel. The initial breakthrough time was 27 months as the fresh water contributed significantly in the first appearance of water in the production well in June 1998. Tritium tracer, which was injected in November 1998, appeared in the production well after 8 months. It show that breakthrough time decreased with the passage of time. /sup 14/C of inorganic carbon in the water in Chorgali and Sakessar Formations was also analyzed which indicates that the water is at least few thousand years old. (author)

  7. South Arne field development: an environmental impact assessment of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South Arne field being developed by Amerada Hess A/S is located in 60 m water depth approximately 200 km from the Danish mainland, in block 5604/29 of the Danish sector of the North Sea. As part of the development of the field, a comprehensive environmental impact assessment has been carried out, including the assessment of the impact from oil spills. The Danish authorities required that a 'worst case' oil spill be chosen as the basis for the assessment on birds and aquatic organisms including plankton, fish eggs and larvae and benthos. A well blow-out at the surface was chosen as the worst case for the impact on birds, and a seabed blow-out for aquatic organisms. The oil spill modelling was carried out with the DEEPBLOW, SLIKMAP and OSCAR models from SINTEF. The modelling identified environmentally sensitive areas which could potentially be influenced by an oil spill. These included the Dogger Bank, western Skagerrak, south-western Norwegian Trench, the eastern German Bight and the Wadden Sea. Historical meteorological and hydrodynamic scenarios were chosen from a long period of records to ensure that the plume passed through the environmentally sensitive resource areas. For birds, a scan of the literature and available databases was made to determine the numbers and species of birds in the areas swept by the surface slick, the number of fatalities was estimated and finally the recovery time for each species population was estimated. The impact on aquatic organisms was estimated using the predicted environmental concentration/predicted no effect concentration (PEC/PNEC) method of the CHARM model. This method is normally applied to continuous discharges, but here has been used to estimate the impact of a transient pollution cloud resulting from an oil spill. (Author)

  8. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

    1997-04-10

    This project is intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  9. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2002-01-31

    Operational Management section. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The steamflood operation in the Tar V pilot project is mature and profitable. Recent production performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that were being addressed in 2001. As the fluid production is hot, the pilot steamflood was converted to a hot waterflood project in June 2001.

  10. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2001-05-08

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through March 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. The project team spent the Second Quarter 2001 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project. The Tar II-A steamflood reservoirs have been operated over fifteen months at relatively stable pressures, due in large part to the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase in January 1999. Starting in the Fourth Quarter 2000, the project team has ramped up activity to increase production and injection. This work will continue through 2001 as described in the Operational Management section. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current steamflood operations in the Tar V pilot are economical, but recent performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical

  11. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2001-11-01

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. Through June 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. The project team spent the Third Quarter 2001 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. The project team ramped up well work activity from October 2000 to September 2001 to increase production and injection. This work will continue through 2001 as described in the Operational Management section. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil

  12. The Kashagan Field: A Test Case for Kazakhstan's Governance of Its Oil and Gas Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on the factors behind Kazakhstan's decision to renegotiate the terms of the existing Production Sharing Agreements (PSAs) with International Oil Companies (IOCs), in the context of the development of the huge Kashagan oil field. The development of Kashagan, one of the largest and most recently discovered oil fields in Kazakhstan, is crucial for Kazakhstan's ambitions of becoming a global oil producer. Kazakhstan, which has the largest oil reserves in the Caspian Sea region, is the second largest regional producer after Russia in the former Soviet Union. The country's potential for oil exports is also strategically significant as a future source of non- OPEC supplies. Amongst the CIS states, Kazakhstan is considered one of the most open countries for foreign investments. International projects in the form of Joint Ventures, Production Sharing Agreements (PSAs) or exploration/field concessions have brought foreign investments into the country's natural resources sector, particularly in the oil and gas industry. However, new developments have recently taken place, which have marked a shift in the Kazakh government's approach towards foreign investment in its energy sector. This study will therefore examine the following issues: - Kazakhstan's plans to abandon the practice of attracting foreign investments in its energy sector through new PSAs. - The recent entry of state-controlled KazMunaiGaz into the consortium operating over the Kashagan field and its impact on IOCs. - The impact of high oil prices on the negotiating power of producer states in the context of Kazakhstan's new stance on PSAs. Specifically, this study will focus on the following key factors, which will seek to further explain the changes in Kazakhstan's attitude toward the Kashagan PSA2: - Operational factors - management of the project, development strategy, cost estimates, levels of production and export markets. - Consortium factors - the relative strength of the investment

  13. Co-precipitation/Adsorption of Boron for Treatment of Produced Water at the Arroyo Grande Oil Field, California

    OpenAIRE

    Wörlén, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this Master’s thesis project is to develop a method for boron precipitation inproduced waters from the Arroyo Grande oil field outside San Luis Obispo in centralCalifornia. The current oil recovery is a closed system that pumps up to 1,500 barrelsoil/day. A new system is proposed to increase oil production three times andsimultaneously dewater half of the water in the oil formation during the time span of tenyears, which amounts to 55,000 barrels/day. The water will be treated and...

  14. Overview of environmental investigations and remediations of leaks and spills in oil and gas fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historic and current leaks and spills in oil and gas fields can involve a variety of hazardous compounds, can be located virtually anywhere on site, and may significantly degrade soils and groundwater quality. Environmental evaluation of historic and current leaks and spills in oil and gas fields occurs in the investigative stage, characterized by a site assessment and field evaluation. The site assessment includes a site survey, aerial photo interpretation, review of regulatory agency records, operators' records, previous work by consultants, and interviews with knowledgeable persons. The field evaluation, designed to examine the lateral and vertical extent of the spill or leak, could include a soil gas survey, cone penetrometer, trenching, and drilling. Using these techniques, collected soil or groundwater samples can be analyzed in a laboratory to differentiate the various hazardous compounds on-site. Once an environmental investigation has been performed to define the vertical and lateral extent of a spill and the potential pathways that the hazardous compound will move to expose a given population, then remediation options can be designed. Remedial programs for hazardous compounds commonly found in oil and gas fields include the following in-situ technologies: volatilization, biodegradation, leaching and chemical reaction, vitrification, passive remediation, and isolation/containment. Non-in-situ technologies include land farming, incineration, asphalt incorporation, solidification/stabilization, groundwater extraction and treatment, chemical extraction, and excavation and offsite disposal. Factors affecting remedial measures are cost of technology, time available to finish remediation, technical feasibility, regulatory acceptance, and accessibility and availability of space in the remediation area

  15. Biological treatment process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil field produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez, G.; Khandan, N.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil fields produced waters using biological treatment was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Based on previous laboratory studies, a field-scale prototype system was designed and operated over a period of four months. Two different sources of produced waters were tested in this field study under various continuous flow rates ranging from 375 1/D to 1,800 1/D. One source of produced water was an open storage pit; the other, a closed storage tank. The TDS concentrations of these sources exceeded 50,000 mg/l; total n-alkanes exceeded 100 mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbons exceeded 125 mg/l; and total BTEX exceeded 3 mg/l. Removals of total n-alkanes, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX remained consistently high over 99%. During these tests, the energy costs averaged $0.20/bbl at 12 bbl/D.

  16. A fortran program for Monte Carlo simulation of oil-field discovery sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohling, G.C.; Davis, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a program for performing Monte Carlo simulation of oil-field discovery histories. A synthetic parent population of fields is generated as a finite sample from a distribution of specified form. The discovery sequence then is simulated by sampling without replacement from this parent population in accordance with a probabilistic discovery process model. The program computes a chi-squared deviation between synthetic and actual discovery sequences as a function of the parameters of the discovery process model, the number of fields in the parent population, and the distributional parameters of the parent population. The program employs the three-parameter log gamma model for the distribution of field sizes and employs a two-parameter discovery process model, allowing the simulation of a wide range of scenarios. ?? 1993.

  17. Yucca Mountain, a high-level nuclear waste repository over a billion barrel oil field?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New structural models and source rock data suggest that the proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada, high-level nuclear waste repository lies in the Central Nevada thrust belt. The Central Nevada thrust belt could contain billion-barrel oil fields. The Central Nevada thrust belt coincides with an organic richness fairway and a maturation fairway of Mississippian source rocks that have already produced more than 25 million barrels of oil. Giant thrust-related structures along the thrust belt have yet to be tested. However, new work in the Tempahute Range, which lies between Yucca Mountain and the prolific Grant Canyon field, confirms the thrust belt concept and sheds light on source and reservoir rock quality and thrust belt geometry. Klippen of overmature Mississippian rocks are distinct on maturation maps such as the Diamond Range klippe in central Nevada. Thrust trends suggest that the Eleana Range near Yucca Mountain may be another klippe of overmature rocks over Mississippian source rocks in the oil window. There is a strong possibility that the subthrust source rocks may have generated large quantities of hydrocarbons that may be trapped in large thrust features beneath Yucca Mountain

  18. Evaluation of long-term performance of oil wells in Elm Coulee field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtoglu, B.; Cox, S.A.; Kazemi, H. [Society of Petroleum Engineers (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, the oil industry has shown considerable interest in unconventional tight oil reservoirs to meet increasing energy needs in North America. Fracture stimulation of these wells is the prominent technique, but long-term performance is difficult to predict, given the complexity of the phenomena involved. By studying the performance decline of horizontal wells in the Elm Coulee field, Montana, the authors aims were first, to evaluate precisely the performance decline of such wells, and then to use these data to better assess and predict the long-term decline of other fracture-induced oil extraction wells. The long-term study conducted on the Elm Coulee field serves to better adjust widely-used theoretical models for performance prediction, taking into account the fracturing of the reservoirs over time. Because of the complexity of reservoir parameters, a reservoir simulation was then done to address the effects of each parameter. Results showed the importance of both analytical and numerical modeling in decline prediction, as well as of a thorough understanding of the links between reservoir fractures and decline rate.

  19. Weathering of field-collected floating and stranded Macondo oils during and shortly after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Scott A; Payne, James R; Emsbo-Mattingly, Stephen D; Baker, Gregory

    2016-04-15

    Chemical analysis of large populations of floating (n=62) and stranded (n=1174) Macondo oils collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico sea surface and shorelines during or within seven weeks of the end of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill demonstrates the range, rates, and processes affecting surface oil weathering. Oil collected immediately upon reaching the sea surface had already lost most mass below n-C8 from dissolution of soluble aliphatics, monoaromatics, and naphthalenes during the oil's ascent with further reductions extending up to n-C13 due to the onset of evaporation. With additional time, weathering of the floating and stranded oils advanced with total PAH (TPAH50) depletions averaging 69±23% for floating oils and 94±3% for stranded oils caused by the combined effects of evaporation, dissolution, and photo-oxidation, the latter of which also reduced triaromatic steroid biomarkers. Biodegradation was not evident among the coalesced floating oils studied, but had commenced in some stranded oils. PMID:26936118

  20. Comparison of essential oil components of wild and field grown Salvia cryptantha Montbert & Aucher ex Benthan, in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    İpek, Arif; GÜRBÜZ**, Bilal; BİNGÖL, M. Ümid; GEVEN, Fatmagül; AKGÜL, Gençay

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of naturally growing and field grown plants of Salvia cryptantha Montbert & Aucher ex Benthan were analyzed by GC-MS. Furthermore, the chemical components of naturally growing and cultured plants in 2 consecutive years (2007-2008) were compared. The essential oils of plant materials investigated ranged from 1.20% up to 1.52%. Nine for naturally growing and 22 components for both 2007-08 field grown crops were characterize...

  1. Surveying-geodetic work at oil and gas fields. Marksheydersko-geodezicheskiye raboty na mestorozhdeniyakh nefti i gaza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maznitskiy, A.S.; Sova, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    Principles of organization, tasks, procedures and methods of surveying-geodetic work at oil and gas fields are examined, and recommendations for their use are given. Reference data are presented about domestic and foreign instruments. Brief descriptions are made of the methods of deep drilling in wells, oil-field systems, construction of their technological links, processes of movement of the earth's crust, deformation of buildings and structures.

  2. Regularities of changes in fluid composition and properties in Vankor field pools: from light to heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil in layers Nkh 3-4, Nkh 1, Sd 9, Yak 3-7 and vYak 2-4 of the Vankor field occurs at the depth of -2,767 to -1,357 meters at strongly different temperatures: from 62 to 26 °C. Such temperature conditions contribute to oil biodegradation processes in the pool. Therefore, oils in different pools significantly differ from each other in terms of composition and properties depending on the intensity of biodegradation. At the same time, pools might embrace both oils that have practically been not exposed to biodegradation processes and significantly biodegraded oils. The most seriously altered oils are found in vYak 2-4 layer pools. They are the heaviest and the most viscous oils among the samples under study. Many typical oil components (alkanes, alkylbenzenes, naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, dibenzothiophenes) are absent in their composition. Besides, the initial distribution of hopanes in the composition of biomarkers is altered. Apart from the molecular composition of degassed oil samples, the work also studies the effect of biodegradation on the properties and the component and isotopic composition of oils, gases and formation fluid samples

  3. CNPC Beefs up Cooperative Development for Onshore Oil and Gas Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Yaonan; Wang Kefu

    1996-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) has made remarkable progress in cooperation with foreign firms for joint develoment of China's onshore oil and gas fields. A total of more than 30blocks from China's nine oil areas such as Daqing, Shengli,Liaohe, Xinjiang, Dagang, Zhongyuan, Tairm, Sichuan and Qinghai are now put up for cooperative development with foreign firms in various forms. By the end of August 1996, CNPC has signed eight development contracts with foreign firms, of which four contracts are for development of proven non-producing reserves (namely: Contract for Block Min-114 and Contract for Block Qian-130 in Jilin,Contract for Block Zhao-13 in Daqing, and Contract for West Chengdao Development in Shengli); one contract is for EOR ( contract for heavy crude in Xinjiang ) and three contracts are for well workover service and productionsharing ( in Shengli, Liaohe and Dagang ).

  4. Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel in Synthetically Produced Oil Field Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir Paul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The life of offshore steel structure in the oil production units is decided by the huge corrosive degradation due to SO42-, S2−, and Cl−, which normally present in the oil field seawater. Variation in pH and temperature further adds to the rate of degradation on steel. Corrosion behavior of mild steel is investigated through polarization, EIS, XRD, and optical and SEM microscopy. The effect of all 3 species is huge material degradation with FeSx and FeCl3 and their complex as corrosion products. EIS data match the model of Randle circuit with Warburg resistance. Addition of more corrosion species decreases impedance and increases capacitance values of the Randle circuit at the interface. The attack is found to be at the grain boundary as well as grain body with very prominent sulphide corrosion crack.

  5. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations, 1992--1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents estimated costs and cost indices for domestic oil and natural gas field equipment and production operations for 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995. The costs of all equipment and services are those in effect during June of each year. The sum (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measured do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of the total number of oil wells to the total number of gas wells. The detail provided in this report is unavailable elsewhere. The body of this report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables

  6. Case History of 3D Seismic Survey in Aershan Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Yousheng

    1996-01-01

    @@ Aershan Oil Field is located at the eastern end of the Manite depression .in the northeastern part of Erlian basin of North China (Fig. 1). Three oilfields -Anan, Abei and Hanan - were discovered in the Erlian basin in the early 1980s using 2D seismic survey with a very dense 0.5 km ×0.5 km grid. However. difficulties were encountered in structural delineation and lateral reservoir prediction.partly due to low signal to noise ratio and resolution of 2D section, partly due to extensive lateral variations. In order to solve these problems, large- area 3D seismic survey was conducted in the late 1980s. 3D survey area is 80 km2.This survey accurately identified the details of reservoir structures, as well as located low-relief structures. Good results were also obtained in predicting lateral reservoir variations and ascertaining oil/water contacts and oilbearing areas.

  7. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2002-11-08

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through June 2002, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V post-steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. During the Third Quarter 2002, the project team essentially completed implementing the accelerated oil recovery and reservoir cooling plan for the Tar II-A post-steamflood project developed in March 2002 and is proceeding with additional related work. The project team has completed developing laboratory research procedures to analyze the sand consolidation well completion technique and will initiate work in the fourth quarter. The Tar V pilot steamflood project terminated hot water injection and converted to post-steamflood cold water injection on April 19, 2002. Proposals have been approved to repair two sand consolidated horizontal wells that sanded up, Tar II-A well UP-955 and Tar V well J-205, with gravel-packed inner liner jobs to be performed next quarter. Other well work to be performed next quarter is to convert well L-337 to a Tar V water injector and to recomplete vertical well A-194 as a Tar V interior steamflood pattern producer. Plans have been approved to drill and

  8. Spatial statistical analysis of basal stem root disease under natural field epidemic of oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamu, Assis; Phin, Chong Khim; Seman, Idris Abu; Wan, Hoong Hak; Mun, Ho Chong

    2015-02-01

    Oil palm or scientifically known as Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is the most important commodity crop in Malaysia and has greatly contributed to the economy growth of the country. As far as disease is concerned in the industry, Basal Stem Rot (BSR) caused by Ganoderma boninence remains the most important disease. BSR disease is the most widely studied with information available for oil palm disease in Malaysia. However, there is still limited study on the spatial as well as temporal pattern or distribution of the disease especially under natural field epidemic condition in oil palm plantation. The objective of this study is to spatially identify the pattern of BSR disease under natural field epidemic using two geospatial analytical techniques, which are quadrat analysis for the first order properties of partial pattern analysis and nearest-neighbor analysis (NNA) for the second order properties of partial pattern analysis. Two study sites were selected with different age of tree. Both sites are located in Tawau, Sabah and managed by the same company. The results showed that at least one of the point pattern analysis used which is NNA (i.e. the second order properties of partial pattern analysis) has confirmed the disease is complete spatial randomness. This suggests the spread of the disease is not from tree to tree and the age of palm does not play a significance role in determining the spatial pattern of the disease. From the spatial pattern of the disease, it would help in the disease management program and for the industry in the future. The statistical modelling is expected to help in identifying the right model to estimate the yield loss of oil palm due to BSR disease in the future.

  9. Oil field and freshwater isolates of Shewanella putrefaciens have lipopolysaccharide polyacrylamide gel profiles characteristic of marine bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lipopolysaccharide structure of oil field and freshwater isolates of bacteria that reduce ferric iron, recently classified as strains of Shewanella putrefaciens, was analyzed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and a lipopolysaccharide-specific silver-staining procedure. The results demonstrate that all the oil field and freshwater isolates examined exhibited the more hydrophobic R-type lipopolysaccharide, which has been found to be characteristic of Gram-negative marine bacteria. This hydrophobic lipopolysaccharide would confer an advantage on bacteria involved in hydrocarbon degradation by assisting their association with the surface of oil droplets. 15 refs., 1 fig

  10. Hydrocarbon-water interactions during brine migration: Evidence from hydrocarbon inclusions in calcite cements from Danish North Sea oil fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensenius, Jørgen; Burruss, Robert C.

    1990-03-01

    Crude oils in primary and secondary fluid inclusions in calcite from fractures in seven offshore oil fields associated with diapiric salt structures in the Danish sector of the North Sea were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography and compared with crude oils produced from the same reservoirs. Oils from fluid inclusions in all fields show evidence of biodegradation (decreased n- C17/pristane and n- C18/phytane ratios and loss of n-C 7, 2-methyl hexane, and 3-methyl hexane relative to methyl cyclohexane) and water washing (absence of benzene and depletion of toluene). Some oils in inclusions are extremely enriched in C 6 and C 7 cyclic alkanes suggesting that these samples contain hydrocarbons exsolved from ascending, hotter formation waters. Compared to inclusion oils the produced oils are less biodegraded, but are water washed, indicating that both types of oil interacted with large volumes of formation water. The carbon isotopic composition of the calcite host of the fluid inclusions in the Dagmar and Skjold fields is as light as -16.5%. PDB and the sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite in and adjacent to the calcite veins in the Skjold field is as light as -39.6%. CDT, indicating that biodegradation of the oils was a source of some of the carbon in the calcite and sulfate reduction was the source of sulfur for the pyrite. The evidence for microbial degradation of petroleum is consistent with present-day reservoir temperatures (65°-96°C) but is not consistent with previous estimates of the temperatures of calcite vein filling (95°-130°C) which are much higher than the temperatures of known occurrences of biodegraded oil.

  11. Analysis the Oil Palm Land which can be Converted Into Paddy Fields in Irrigated Areas of Batang Tongar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delvi Yanti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of shift functions of agricultural land into non-farming land, as well as the increasing development of the palm oil plantation area makes food program resilience increasingly difficult to be realized. Fields shift function also occurs in West Pasaman, which is still producing paddy fields converted into plantation. This research aims to analyze the oil palm land which can be converted into paddy fields. The confirmation of oil palm land which can be converted into paddy fields performed by some indicator, such as commitment, physical condition, the range of irrigation water, institutional and the width of the area. Based on the results of the analysis, the  recommended oil palm area that can be converted into paddy fields in irrigated areas of Batang Tongar is 2.451 ha (73% and not recommended area is 540 ha (27%. The unrecommended area caused by uncommitment farmer who change their oil palm area in paddy field and the farmer field which is irrigated in damaged condition so the water cannot be flow into the field.

  12. Integration of seismic methods with reservoir simulation, Pikes Peak heavy oil field, Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ying

    The Pikes Peak heavy oil field has been operated by Husky Energy Ltd since 1981. Steam injection has been successfully employed to increase production. Efforts in geophysics and reservoir engineering have been made to improve interpretations in the mapping of reservoir conditions. This dissertation developed tools and a working flow for integrating the analysis of time-lapse seismic surveys with reservoir simulation, and applied them to the Pikes Peak field. Two time-lapse 2D seismic lines acquired in February 1991 and March 2000 in the eastern part of the field were carefully processed to produce wavelet and structure matched final sections. Reservoir simulation based on the field reservoir production history was carried out. It provided independent complementary information for the time-lapse seismic analysis. A rock physics procedure based on Gassmann's equation and Batzle and Wang's empirical relationship successfully linked the reservoir engineering to the seismic method. Based on the resultant seismic models, synthetic seismic sections were generated as the analogy of field seismic sections. The integrated interpretation for the Pikes Peak reservoir drew the following conclusions: The areas with a gas saturation difference, between two compared time steps, have seismic differences. Thicker gas zones correspond with large reflectivity changes on the top of the reservoir and larger traveltime delays in the seismic section. The thin gas zones only induce large reflectivity changes on the top of the reservoir, and do not have large time delays below the reservoir zone. High temperature regions also correlate with areas having large seismic energy differences. High temperature with thick gas (steam and methane) zones may be evidence for steam existence. The seismic differences at locations far from the production zone are due to the lower pressure that causes solution gas to evolve from the oil. Pressure changes propagate much faster (˜20 m in one month) than

  13. ELECTRORHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF TALC POWDER/SILICONE OIL SUSPENSIONS UNDER DC FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hasim Yilmaza; Ummihan Yilmazb

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the electrorheological (ER) behavior of suspensions prepared from d50 = 2.4 μm talc powder,dispersed in insulating silicone oil (SO) medium was investigated. Sedimentation stabilities of suspensions (c = 5 wt%)prepared using these talc powder powders were determined to be 78 days. The ER activity of all the suspensions was observed to increase with increasing electric field strength, concentration and decreasing shear rate. The shear stress of talc powder suspensions increased linearly with increasing concentrations of the particles and with the applied electric field strength. Electric field viscosity of all the suspensions decreased sharply with increasing shear rate and showed a typical shear thinning non-Newtonian visco-elastic behavior. Effects of frequency on the ER activity of talc powder/SO system were also investigated.

  14. Chemical comparison and acute toxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of source and field collected Macondo oils from the Deepwater Horizon spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Altin, Dag; Nordtug, Trond; Daling, Per S; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2015-02-15

    Two Source oils and five field collected oil residues from the Deepwater Horizon incident were chemically characterized. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the Source oils and two of the field-weathered oils were prepared to evaluate the impact of natural weathering on the chemical composition and the acute toxicity of the WAFs. Toxicity test species representing different tropic levels were used (the primary producer Skeletonema costatum (algae) and the herbivorous copepod Acartia tonsa). The results suggest that the potential for acute toxicity is higher in WAFs from non-weathered oils than WAFs from the field weathered oils. The Source oils contained a large fraction of soluble and bioavailable components (such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes) and naphthalene), whereas in the surface collected oils these components were depleted by dissolution into the water column as the oil rose to the surface and by evaporative loss after reaching the sea surface. PMID:25534626

  15. Isotopic characterization and genetic origin of crude oils from Gulf of Suez and western desert fields in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable carbon isotopes were used to asses the general characteristics of the western desert and Gulf of Suez crude oils in accordance with hydrocarbon generation, source rocks, thermal gradient and maturation level. The carbon isotopic results of all the analyzed oil samples in both areas lie in the range from -29.62 to -24.11 %. The av. σ 13C values in the Gulf of Suez reaches about -28.6% and -26.4% in western desert. It was accounted a marginal difference between the two areas by about 2.5 : 3% in carbon-13 isotope of the whole oil indicated two distinct oil types of different organic input and varies in the depositional environment. It was found that Gulf of Suez oils are dominated by marine organic matter (plankton algae) deposited in saline environment. The derived oils from the northern and central provinces of the Gulf are isotopically light, higher in sulfur content, lower in API gravity degree and have Pristane/Phytane (Pr/Ph) ratio less than or equal one (Pr/Ph = 1). In the southern province, about 0.5% isotopic enrichment was recorded in the produced oils from shallower depths, associated with gradual increment in API and maturity level as thermal gradient increase. However, low API gravity degree and less maturity of the Gulf of Suez oils could be related to the rifting temperature that forced and accelerated the expulsion rate and hydrocarbon generation prior reaching higher maturation levels. On the other hand, the produced oils from the western desert fields belong mostly to terrestrial organic debris (with minor marine fragment in some basins) deposited at deeper geological formations. It is characterized by isotopic enrichment, paraffinic waxy oils, low in sulphur content, have Pr/Ph = 1, high in API gravity and maturity level. Hydrocarbon generated from the western desert fields has been controlled by time-temperature effect in the source rocks and reservoirs where the humic organic matter are affected by high temperature over longer period of

  16. Investigation of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Related Factors among Workers in a Southern Oil Field (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Sadeghian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs have a growing impact worldwide which are associated, with high costs for organizations and governments incurred from long-term disability. Oil field workers, who have an important role in country’s economy, are often exposed to risk of musculoskeletal disorders because of static postures, high repetition, excessive force, contact stresses, on rigs and scaffolds. This study aimed at analyzing musculoskeletal disorders and related factors among these workers.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 60 workers in one of southern oil fields in 2008. They worked in drilling category (roughnecks, drilling,…,maintenance category(welders, electricians,…, catering category (cleaning personnel, cooks, … and engineering category (expert of mud logging, …. A standard Nordic questionnaire was used to collect data via interviewing. To analyze the data, χ2 and logistic regression were performed. Results: Workers with age (mean ±SD of 35.0±9.8 years participated in this study; 48.3% of these had worked for more than 5 years. From physical factors of work, 83.3% of the workers reported fingers and waist repetition motions, elbow repetition bending, working with hands upper than shoulder height and 88.3% reported lifting loads more than 25 kg. 86.7% of the workers also reported at least one MSD in the previous 12 months. The most prevalent musculoskeletal complaints were knee pain (71.1%, low back pain (61.7% and shoulder pain (51.7 %. Regression analysis showed significant relationship between back pain and lifting loads more than 25 kg, between shoulder and elbow pain and education, and between knee pain and working in drilling category (P<0.05.Conclusion: Results showed that the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints in oil field workers is high. To prevent this, effective urgent ergonomic interventions are suggested.

  17. Production optimization of sucker rod pumping wells producing viscous oil in Boscan field, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guirados, C.; Sandoval, J.; Rivas, O.; Troconis, H.

    1995-12-31

    Boscan field is located in the western coast of Maracaibo lake and is operated by Maraven S.A., affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. It has 315 active wells, 252 of which are produced with sucker rod pumping. Other artificial lift methods currently applied in this field are hydraulic (piston) pumping (39 wells) and ESP (24 wells). This paper presents the results of the production optimization of two sucker rod pumping wells of Boscan field producing viscous oil. This optimization has been possible due to the development of a new production scheme and the application of system analysis in completion design. The new production scheme involves the utilization of a subsurface stuffing box assembly and a slotted housing, both designed and patented by Intevep S.A., affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. The completion design method and software used in the optimization study were also developed by Intevep S.A. The new production scheme and design method proved to be effective in preventing the causes of the above mentioned problems, allowing the increase of oil production under better operating conditions.

  18. Gas injection may have triggered earthquakes in the Cogdell oil field, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wei; Frohlich, Cliff

    2013-11-19

    Between 1957 and 1982, water flooding was conducted to improve petroleum production in the Cogdell oil field north of Snyder, TX, and a contemporary analysis concluded this induced earthquakes that occurred between 1975 and 1982. The National Earthquake Information Center detected no further activity between 1983 and 2005, but between 2006 and 2011 reported 18 earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and greater. To investigate these earthquakes, we analyzed data recorded by six temporary seismograph stations deployed by the USArray program, and identified 93 well-recorded earthquakes occurring between March 2009 and December 2010. Relocation with a double-difference method shows that most earthquakes occurred within several northeast-southwest-trending linear clusters, with trends corresponding to nodal planes of regional focal mechanisms, possibly indicating the presence of previously unidentified faults. We have evaluated data concerning injection and extraction of oil, water, and gas in the Cogdell field. Water injection cannot explain the 2006-2011 earthquakes, especially as net volumes (injection minus extraction) are significantly less than in the 1957-1982 period. However, since 2004 significant volumes of gases including supercritical CO2 have been injected into the Cogdell field. The timing of gas injection suggests it may have contributed to triggering the recent seismic activity. If so, this represents an instance where gas injection has triggered earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and larger. Further modeling studies may help evaluate recent assertions suggesting significant risks accompany large-scale carbon capture and storage as a strategy for managing climate change. PMID:24191019

  19. Local and Global Impacts of Carbon Capture and Storage Combined with Enhanced Oil Recovery in Four Depleted Oil Fields, Kern County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, J.; Jordan, P. D.; Goodell, J. A.; Harrington, K.; Jameson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Depleted oil reservoirs are attractive targets for geologic carbon storage (GCS) because they possess proven trapping mechanisms and large amounts of data pertaining to production and reservoir geometry. In addition, CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) can improve recovery of the remaining oil at recovery factors of 6 to 20% of original oil in place in appropriate reservoirs. CO2 EOR increases the attractiveness of depleted oil and gas reservoirs as a starting point for CCS because the CO2 becomes a commodity that can be purchased by field operators for EOR purposes thereby offsetting the costs of CO2 capture at the power plant. In California, Kern County contains the largest oil reservoirs and produces 76% of California's oil. Most of the production at depths suitable for CCS combined with CO2 EOR comes from three reservoirs: the Vedder and Temblor formations and the Stevens Sandstone of the Monterey Formation. These formations were evaluated for GCS and CO2 EOR potential at the North and South Coles Levee (Stevens Sandstone), Greeley (Vedder) and McKittrick (Temblor) fields. CO2 EOR could be expected to produce an additional 150 million bbls of oil. The total storage space created by pre- and post-EOR fluid production for all three reservoirs is approximately 104 million metric tons (MMT). Large fixed sources in California produce 156 MMT/yr of CO2, and sources in Kern County produce 26 MMT/yr (WESTCARB, 2012). Therefore, the fields could store about four years of local large fixed source emissions and about two thirds of statewide emissions. However, from a global perspective, burning the additional oil produced by CO2 EOR would generate an additional 65 MMT of CO2 if not captured. This would result in a net reduction of greenhouse gas of only 39 MMT rather than the full 104 MMT. If the water produced along with the oil recovered during CO2 EOR operations is not reinjected into the reservoir, the storage space could be much higher.

  20. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2002-04-30

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. Through December 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. During the First Quarter 2002, the project team developed an accelerated oil recovery and reservoir cooling plan for the Tar II-A post-steamflood project and began implementing the associated well work in March. The Tar V pilot steamflood project will be converted to post-steamflood cold water injection in April 2002. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. Most of the 2001 well work resulted in maintaining oil and gross fluid production and water injection rates. Reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are at 88% and 91% hydrostatic levels

  1. Standard practice for evaluating and qualifying oil field and refinery corrosion inhibitors using rotating cage

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a generally accepted procedure to use the rotating cage (RC) for evaluating corrosion inhibitors for oil field and refinery applications. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Investigation of ginkgo biloba leave extracts as corrosion and Oil field microorganism inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Jingrui; Zhou, Rui; Meng, Zuchao; Zhang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae), originating from China, now distributes all over the world. Wide application of Ginkgo biloba extracts is determined by the main active substances, flavonoids and terpenoids, which indicates its extracts suitable to be used as an effective corrosion inhibitor. The extracts of Ginkgo biloba leave have been investigated on the corrosion inhibition of Q235A steel with weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varies with extract concentration. The extracts inhibit corrosion mainly by adsorption mechanism. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies show that extracts are mixed type inhibitors. The antibacterial activity of the extracts against oil field microorganism (SRB, IB and TGB) was also investigated. PMID:23651921

  3. Biogenic hydrogen sulfide in the oil gas of Western Siberian fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yershov, V.A.; Chetverkina, V.N.; Nosova, V.S.; Shakirova, A.Kh.

    1984-01-01

    In connection with the discovery of biogenic hydrogen sulfide in the oil gas of Western Siberian fields, the quantity of hydrogen sulfide has been monitored and the dynamics of the development of the sulfate reduction processes and their features are examined. It is noted that in the absence of influences on the bacterial flora, it is necessary to eliminate hydrogen sulfide from natural gas or to use hydrogen sulfide corrosion inhibiters in order to suppress biocenosis in building gas processing plants and gas lift systems, in order to reduce equipment corrosion.

  4. Numerical simulation and experimental verification of silicone oil flow over magnetic fluid under applied magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruoyu; Hong; Zhiqiang; Ren; Shizhong; Zhang; Jianmin; Ding; Hongzhong; Li

    2007-01-01

    Two-layer flow of magnetic fluid and non-magnetic silicone oil was simulated numerically. The continuity equation, momentum equations,kinematic equation, and magnetic potential equation were solved in two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate. PLIC (piecewise linear integration calculation) VOF (volume of fluid) scheme was employed to track the free interface. Surface tension was treated via a continuous surface force(CSF) model that ensures robustness and accuracy. The influences of applied magnetic field, inlet velocity profile, initial surface disturbance of interface and surface tension were analyzed. The computed interface shapes at different conditions were compared with experimental observation.

  5. Aplication of AVO Technique to Gas Exploration in Liaohe Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Changqing; Zhou Faping

    1996-01-01

    @@ Introduction AVO (Amplitude Versus Offset) technique uses prestack seismic data to predict reservoirs and detect hydrocarbon. We used AVO to find gas for the first time in Liaohe Oil Fields. Both real and synthetic data show that the typical AVO characteristics of gas reservoirs in Liaohe Basin appears dominantly as dim spots and occasionally bright spots. But the bright spot reservoirs are only restricted at depths less than 1 000 m These features can function as detection criteria for the application of AVO to gas exploration in Damintun Depression. which have been proved by real data to be right and reliable.

  6. The test research of SP and α measure in oil gas field exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the bittern exploration area of Ziliujing Sturcture of Zigong, the gas field exploration test work by SP and α measuring Tc3-Tc4-1 turns out that the better abnormal of SP and the high values of α rays abnormal were found over the Zi-33 well of high production. It is proved that this is an economic and effective method to provide the aim area for a drill project by SP and α measure to find oil-gas accumulation

  7. Fields of dreams[Oil field development in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLuca, Marshall

    2001-04-01

    The steady increase in deepwater development projects in the US Gulf of Mexico is discussed, and individual field descriptions are given with details of the development, the water depth, onstream date, and location for the Typhoon (Chevron), Prince (El Paso), Brutus (Shell), Nansen/Boomvang (Kerr-McGee), Canyon Express (TotalFinaElf), Medusa (Murphy), Horn Mountain (BP), NaKika (Shell), Crazy Horse (BP), Serrano/Oregano (Shell), and Crosby (Shell) projects. Information on the production, reserves, water depths and locations of >100 projects in the area are tabulated.

  8. Idoho Field Redevelopment: From Zero to 35 Thousand Barrels Per Day Oil Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idoho Field is located offshore Nigeria in OML-68. The field is approximately 20 kilometers south of Eket (Akwa Ibom State) in a water depth of 60 feet. The field was discovered in 1966 and placed on production in February 1970. Production peaked in 1970 at the rate of 30 TBD. Due to poor seismic data and completion practices of the day, the field production was characterized by high water cut, high GOR, and sand Production, resulting in numerous workovers, sidetracks, and redrills. In 2000, the field was shut in. In 1991 through 1994 NNPC/MPN Joint Venture undertook a campaign to acquire 3D seismic coverage over the entire Joint Venture acreages (OML 67-70 and 104). Interpretation and structural mapping of the seismic, survey revealed significant opportunities and details not evident on the 2D seismic data. Utilization of the seismic, geological and production, data to fully develop the field was limited due to the high concentration of surface facilities and pipelines which lay above the field. This paper will outline a 2002 -2003 integrated surfaces and subsurface approach that led to a better understanding of the opportunities within our oldest producing field. The presentation will present specific subsurface uncertainties and challenges that were overcome in implementing a field re-development plan. Finally, the presentation will summarize the results and lessons learned during the undertaking of an aggressive 15 well appraisal and development drilling campaign that took a shut-in field and reached 35 TBD of oil production in an 18-month period

  9. Geo-information approach to the study of Romashkino oil field geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmanov, S.; Sharipov, B.; Akhmetov, A.; Delev, A.

    2012-04-01

    Geodynamic processes have an immediate influence on a fluid dynamics, for that version they are of significant importance in the formation and reformation processes of oil and gas deposits. The object of our analysis was Romashkino oil field, which is confined to the anticlinal structure of the arch part of the South Tatar Arch. The initial data in our project include the series of a paper maps, which contain the location of the intersection of production and injection wells with the Kyn horizont at the Romashkino oil field and geologic engineering information, which contains the flow rates's inversions data of the well's production activity. Inversion occurs as a periodic increasing of the flow rates which is not caused by the external special influence on the well, against the long-term production activity's decreasing by the decreasing of oil's flow rates. During the analysis of the data we identified the anomalous wells in which the hydrocarbon feed process was observed with the highest probability based on several criteria. By the using of modern GIS technology we have compared the plots, in which an anomal wells are located, with a block structure of the basement and the sedimentary cover, and with the deconsolidated and fluid's penetrability zones of the crystalline basement. For analysis of tabular data array we used ArcGis software package. Romashkino's map was vectorized by using the EasyTrase and when we assigned a number to each object. When the project was exported to ArcGIS and data obtained the geographic coordinates. We obtained the following attributes for the testing wells: the year of exploitation's beginning, the period of the inversion, the ratio of flow rates before and after inversion, and others. We created a series of maps with location of wells, with a flow rate's inversion by the year (1957-1998) for Minnibayevo area and by the five-year intervals for Minnibayevo area separately and for the Romashkino oil field. The maps of the inversion

  10. Barents Sea field test of herder to thicken oil for in-situ burning in drift ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thick oil slicks are the key to effective in situ burning. Pack ice can enable in situ burning by keeping slicks thick. Oil spills in drift ice conditions can rapidly spread and become too thin to ignite. The application of chemical surface-active agents known as oil herders are commonly used in open waters to clean and contain oil slicks. Herders result in the formation of a monolayer of surfactants on the water surface and reduce the surface tension on the surrounding water considerably. When the surfactant monolayer reaches the edge of a thin oil slick, it changes the balance of interfacial forces acting on the slick edge and allows the interfacial tensions to contract the oil into thicker layers. This study examined the use of chemical herding agents to thicken oil spills in broken ice to allow them to be ignited and burned in situ. Two meso-scale field burn tests were conducted in May 2008 with crude oil slicks of about 0.1 and 0.7 m3 in open drift ice off Svalbard in the Barents Sea. Prior to the field experiments, 2 series of small laboratory tests were conducted using Heidrun and Statfjord crudes to determine the ability of the U.S. Navy herding agent to contract slicks of the oil. In the first field experiment involving 102 litres of fresh Heidrun, the slick was unexpectedly carried by currents to a nearby ice edge where the oil was ignited and burned. Approximately 80 per cent of the oil was consumed in the burn. In the second field experiment involving 630 litres of fresh Heidrun, the free-drifting oil was allowed to spread for 15 minutes until it was much too thin to ignite. When the herding agent was applied, the slick contracted and thickened for about 10 minutes and was then ignited using a gelled gas igniter. A 9-minute long burn consumed about 90 per cent of the oil. 9 refs., 5 tabs., 34 figs.

  11. Organic geochemistry of heavy/extra heavy oils from sidewall cores, Lower Lagunillas Member, Tia Juana Field, Maracaibo Basin, Venenzuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocco, R.; Alberdi, M. [PDVSA-Inteveo S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

    2002-10-01

    The study of 22 oils from sidewall cores taken at different depths in the Lower Lagunillas Member, well LSJ-AB, Tia Juana Field, Maracaibo Lake is presented, with the purpose of predicting the intervals that present the best crude oil quality. Differences were detected in the biodegradation levels of the studied samples, which are correlated with the depth at which the sidewall core was taken. The API gravity was considered for the oils from each sidewall core and it was found that toward the top of the sequence, the oils have an API gravity of 10.6-11.2{sup o}C, while toward the base part of the sequence, the well produces extra heavy oils with an API gravity that varies between 8.2 and 8.7{sup o}. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Magnetic forward models of Cement oil field, Oklahoma, based on rock magnetic, geochemical, and petrologic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R.L.; Webring, M.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Tuttle, M.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic forward models of the Cement oil field, Oklahoma, were generated to assess the possibility that ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite related to hydrocarbon seepage in the upper 1 km of Permian strata contributes to aeromagnetic anomalies at Cement. Six bodies having different magnetizations were constructed for the magnetic models. Total magnetizations of the bodies of highest pyrrhotite content range from about 3 ?? 10-3 to 56 ?? 10-3 A/m in the present field direction and yield magnetic anomalies (at 120 m altitude) having amplitudes of less than 1 nT to ~6 to 7 nT, respectively. Numerous assumptions were made in the generation of the models, but nevertheless, the results suggest that pyrrhotite, formed via hydrocarbon reactions and within a range of concentrations estimated at Cement, is capable of causing magnetic anomalies. -from Authors

  13. Analytical Thermal Field Theory Applicable to Oil Hydraulic Fluid Film Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    An analytical thermal field theory is derived by a perturbation series expansion solution to the energy conservation equation. The theory is valid for small values of the Brinkman number and the modified Peclet number. This condition is sufficiently satisfied for hydraulic oils, whereby the...... analytical approach provides an alternative to existing computationally expensive numerical methods. The paper presents the dimensional analysis, which provides the foundation for the derivation of the analytical approximation. Subsequently, the perturbation method is applied in order to find an asymptotic...... expansion of the thermal field. The series solution is truncated at first order in order to obtain a closed form approximation. Finally a numerical thermohydrodynamic simulation of a piston-cylinder interface is presented, and the results are used for a comparison with the analytical theory in order to...

  14. Water scaling in the North Sea oil and gas fields and scale prediction: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, M.

    1996-12-31

    Water-scaling is a common and major production chemistry problem in the North Sea oil and gas fields and scale prediction has been an important means to assess the potential and extent of scale deposition. This paper presents an overview of sulphate and carbonate scaling problems in the North Sea and a review of several widely used and commercially available scale prediction software. In the paper, the water chemistries and scale types and severities are discussed relative of the geographical distribution of the fields in the North Sea. The theories behind scale prediction are then briefly described. Five scale or geochemical models are presented and various definitions of saturation index are compared and correlated. Views are the expressed on how to predict scale precipitation under some extreme conditions such as that encountered in HPHT reservoirs. 15 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Water-in-oil emulsification in a non-uniform alternating electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Suhwan; Saveliev, Alexei

    2015-11-01

    The emulsification of a water microdroplet placed in castor oil was performed using a non-uniform alternating electric field formed in the pin-to-plate geometry. A non-uniform electric field of ~40 kV/mm alternating with a frequency of 6.7 kHz was generated near the pin electrode. The applied frequency exceeded charge relaxation frequency of castor oil (0.3 Hz) and was below charge relaxation frequency of deionized water (7.8 kHz) used in the experiments. The emulsification process was captured with a CCD camera. The emulsification process started with entrainment of the water droplet in the high electric filed region near the pin electrode under the dielectrophoretic force. Upon touching the pin, the microdroplet was disintegrated in numerous channels and secondary droplets. The process continued by entrainment of secondary droplets and continuous size reduction. Three droplet breakup mechanisms were identified: drop elongation and capillary breakup, ac electrospraying of individual droplets, chain and bridge formation and decay. The quasi-steady narrow size distribution of emulsified water droplets with diameters close to 1 μm was formed after a few minutes. The generated emulsion was confined near the needle electrode due to the dielectrophoretic force. The emulsion had a well-defined boundary with a shape resembling a pendant drop suspended on the pin electrode.

  16. Degradation and remediation of soils polluted with oil-field wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbasova, I. M.; Suleymanov, R. R.; Garipov, T. T.

    2013-02-01

    The changes in the properties of gray forest soils and leached chernozems under the impact of contamination with highly saline oil-field wastewater were studied in a model experiment. It was shown that the soil contamination results in the development of technogenic salinization and alkalization leading to worsening of the major soil properties. The salinization of the soils with oil-field wastewater transformed the soil exchange complex: the cation exchange capacity decreased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage increased to up to 25% of the CEC upon the wastewater infiltration and up to 60% of the CEC upon the continuous soil saturation with the wastewater independently of the soil type. The content of exchangeable magnesium also increased due to the phenomenon of super-equivalent exchange. Despite the saturation of the soil adsorption complex with sodium, no development of the soil alkalization took place in the presence of the high concentration of soluble salts. However, the soil alkalization was observed upon the soil washing from soluble salts. The gypsum application to the washed soils lowered the exchangeable sodium concentration to acceptable values and normalized the soil reaction. The gypsum application without the preliminary washing of the soils from soluble salts was of low efficiency; even after six months, the content of exchangeable sodium remained very high. The subsequent soil washing resulted in the removal of the soluble salts but did not affect the degree of the soil alkalization.

  17. Production-scale trials on the decontamination of oil-polluted soil in a rotating bioreactor at field capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that as part of the development of biotechnological methods for cleaning soil, Witteveen + Bos Consulting Engineers, Deventer, has carried out production scale trials on the decontamination of oil-polluted soil in a rotating bioreactor at field capacity. The aim was to develop a method for quick cleaning of polluted soil under controlled conditions at field capacity

  18. Impact of an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery field trial on microbial community structure in a high pour-point oil reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; She, Yue-Hui; Li, Hua-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Yu, Long-Jiang; Hou, Du-Jie

    2012-08-01

    Based on preliminary investigation of microbial populations in a high pour-point oil reservoir, an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) field trial was carried out. The purpose of the study is to reveal the impact of the indigenous MEOR process on microbial community structure in the oil reservoir using 16Sr DNA clone library technique. The detailed monitoring results showed significant response of microbial communities during the field trial and large discrepancies of stimulated microorganisms in the laboratory and in the natural oil reservoir. More specifically, after nutrients injection, the original dominant populations of Petrobacter and Alishewanella in the production wells almost disappeared. The expected desirable population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, determined by enrichment experiments in laboratory, was stimulated successfully in two wells of the five monitored wells. Unexpectedly, another potential population of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes which were not detected in the enrichment culture in laboratory was stimulated in the other three monitored production wells. In this study, monitoring of microbial community displayed a comprehensive alteration of microbial populations during the field trial to remedy the deficiency of culture-dependent monitoring methods. The results would help to develop and apply more MEOR processes. PMID:22159733

  19. Impact of an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery field trial on microbial community structure in a high pour-point oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Hou, Du-Jie [China Univ. of Geosciences, Beijing (China). The Key Lab. of Marine Reservoir Evolution and Hydrocarbon Accumulation Mechanism; She, Yue-Hui [Yangtze Univ., Jingzhou, Hubei (China). College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering; Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). College of Life Science and Technology; Li, Hua-Min [Beijing Bioscience Research Center (China); Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang [Yangtze Univ., Jingzhou, Hubei (China). College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering; Yu, Long-Jiang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). College of Life Science and Technology

    2012-08-15

    Based on preliminary investigation of microbial populations in a high pour-point oil reservoir, an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) field trial was carried out. The purpose of the study is to reveal the impact of the indigenous MEOR process on microbial community structure in the oil reservoir using 16Sr DNA clone library technique. The detailed monitoring results showed significant response of microbial communities during the field trial and large discrepancies of stimulated microorganisms in the laboratory and in the natural oil reservoir. More specifically, after nutrients injection, the original dominant populations of Petrobacter and Alishewanella in the production wells almost disappeared. The expected desirable population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, determined by enrichment experiments in laboratory, was stimulated successfully in two wells of the five monitored wells. Unexpectedly, another potential population of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes which were not detected in the enrichment culture in laboratory was stimulated in the other three monitored production wells. In this study, monitoring of microbial community displayed a comprehensive alteration of microbial populations during the field trial to remedy the deficiency of culture-dependent monitoring methods. The results would help to develop and apply more MEOR processes. (orig.)

  20. Investigation of Diospyros Kaki L.f husk extracts as corrosion inhibitors and bactericide in oil field

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jie; Song, Yingpan; Su, Huijun; ZHANG Li; Chen, Gang; Zhao, Jingrui

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydrochloric acid is used in oil-well acidizing commonly for improving the crude oil production of the low-permeable reservoirs, while it is a great challenge for the metal instruments involved in the acidification. Developing natural products as oilfield chemicals is a straight way to find less expensive, green and eco-friendly materials. The great plant resources in Qin-ling and Ba-shan Mountain Area of Shannxi Province enable the investigating of new green oil field chemicals. D...

  1. Feasibility to apply the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) technique in the country's heavy crude-oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes are one of the most efficient and profitable technologies for the production of heavy crude oils and oil sands. These processes involve the drilling of a couple of parallel horizontal wells, separated by a vertical distance and located near the oil field base. The upper well is used to continuously inject steam into the zone of interest, while the lower well collects all resulting fluids (oil, condensate and formation water) and takes them to the surface (Butler, 1994). This technology has been successfully implemented in countries such as Canada, Venezuela and United States, reaching recovery factors in excess of 50%. This article provides an overview of the technique's operation mechanism and the process most relevant characteristics, as well as the various categories this technology is divided into, including all its advantages and limitations. Furthermore, the article sets the oil field's minimal conditions under which the SAGD process is efficient, which conditions, as integrated to a series of mathematical models, allow to make forecasts on production, thermal efficiency (ODR) and oil to be recovered, as long as it is feasible (from a technical point of view) to apply this technique to a defined oil field. The information and concepts compiled during this research prompted the development of software, which may be used as an information, analysis and interpretation tool to predict and quantify this technology's performance. Based on the article, preliminary studies were started for the country's heavy crude-oil fields, identifying which provide the minimum conditions for the successful development of a pilot project

  2. The Oil and Natural Gas Exploitation in Petrol Field of Urucu and Their Impacts on the Traditional Peoples of Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Iraildes Caldas Torres; Celso Augusto Tôrres do Nascimento; Diogo Gonzaga Torres Neto

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with an approach to the design of Petrobras oil and gas in Amazonas, Brazil, establishing an analytical cut on environmental issues and social issue that affects traditional peoples impacted by Coari / Manaus, located in the heart of the Amazon Brazilian. In 1986 was discovered the first commercial oil field and natural gas in urucú River, a tributary of the Solimoes basin in the Amazon, considered a watershed event in the history of Petrobras and the local development proces...

  3. Source Mechanism, Stress Triggering, and Hazard Analysis of Induced Seismicity in Oil/Gas Fields in Oman and Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, C.; Toksoz, M. N.; Ding, M.; Al-Enezi, A.; Al-Jeri, F.; Meng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Induced seismicity has drawn new attentions in both academia and industry in recent years as the increasing seismic activity in the regions of oil/gas fields due to fluid injection/extraction and hydraulic fracturing. Source mechanism and triggering stress of these induced earthquakes are of great importance for understanding their causes and the physics of the seismic processes in reservoirs. Previous research on the analysis of induced seismic events in conventional oil/gas fields assumed a double couple (DC) source mechanism. The induced seismic data in this study are from both Oman and Kuwait. For the Oman data, the induced seismicity is monitored by both surface network (0oil/gas field. The data used in the study consist of 800 events located by the surface network and 2000 events from the downhole network. For the Kuwait data a surface network is used to collect the local seismic data (0oil/gas fields from year 1999 to 2007 for Oman, and from year 2006 to 2015 for Kuwait. In addition, the local hazard corresponding to the induced seismicity in these oil/gas fields is assessed and compared to ground motion prediction due to large (M>5.0) regional tectonic earthquakes.

  4. Oil-material fractionation in Gulf deep water horizontal intrusion layer: Field data analysis with chemodynamic fate model for Macondo 252 oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, A T; Thibodeaux, L J; Parsons, A R; Overton, E; Valsaraj, K T; Nandakumar, K

    2016-04-15

    Among the discoveries of the Deepwater Horizon blowout was the so-called "sub-surface plume"; herein termed the "oil-trapping layer". Hydrocarbons were found positioned at ~1100-1300m with thickness ~100-150m and moving horizontally to the SW in a vertically stratified layer at the junction of the cold abyssal water and the permanent thermocline. This study focuses on its formation process and fate of the hydrocarbons within. The originality of this work to the field is two-fold, first it provides a conceptual framework which places layer origin in the context of a horizontal "intrusion" from the near-field, vertical, blow-out plume and second, it offers a theoretical model for the hydrocarbon chemicals within the horizontal layer as it moves far-afield. The model quantifies the oil-material fractionation process for the soluble and fine particle. The classical Box model, retrofitted with an internal gradient, the "G-Box", allows an approach that includes turbulent eddy diffusion coupled with droplet rise velocity and reactive decay to produce a simple, explicit, transparent, algebraic model with few parameters for the fate of the individual fractions. Computations show the soluble and smallest liquid droplets moving very slowly vertically through the layer appearing within the trapping layer at low concentration with high persistence. The larger droplets move-through this trapping zone quickly, attain high concentrations, and eventually form the sea surface slick. It impacts the field of oil spill engineering science by providing the conceptual idea and the algorithms for projecting the quantities and fractions of oil-material in a deep water, horizontal marine current being dispersed and moving far afield. In the field of oil spill modeling this work extends the current generation near-field plume source models to the far-field. The theory portrays the layer as an efficient oil-material trap. The model-forecasted concentration profiles for alkanes and aromatics

  5. Optimization of diluent use for extra-heavy oil production in a field of the Orinoco belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valderrama-Loyola, F.J. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    The primary challenge for extra-heavy oil production is its high viscosity. In order to obtain a diluted crude oil with reduced viscosity for transport purposes, all operators in the Orinoco oil belt have used a dilution scheme by mixing the Orinoco crude with lighter hydrocarbons. Bare field is an extra-heavy oil field located in the Orinoco region and operated by Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA). This paper discussed a study that examined the way in which diluent is used in the field. The purpose was to determine the impact it has on the production system and to identify possible actions to use diluent more efficiently. The paper discussed a review of past studies on the topic as well as the five options that were identified. These included improvement of the pressure distribution in the existing diluent network; use of viscosity reducers; use of oil-in-water emulsions as an alternative to dilution; and increasing the diluent temperature and injecting diluent downhole. Each option was simulated using multiphase flow simulation software, and compared in terms of effect on pressure distribution on the flowline network and volume of diluent required at the wellhead. The simulation results showed that the use of oil-in-water emulsions could have a great effect on wellhead pressure reduction. The emulsions could facilitate the dilution process needed before commercialization, since it could be performed at the main facilities instead of at the wellheads. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs., 1 appendix.

  6. Enhanced oil recovery for Norne Field's E-segment using surfactant flooding

    OpenAIRE

    Emegwalu, Chinenye Clara

    2010-01-01

    About 60% of oil still lays trapped in the reservoir even after primary and secondary recovery processes have been completed. This trapped oil could be residual or by-passed oil. Residual oil occurs as a result of high capillary action of water that keeps the oil immobile. One way ofrecovering this capillary trapped oil is by flooding the reservoir with surfactants. Surfactants are surface active agents that act on the interface between oil and water with the aim of reducing the interfacial t...

  7. RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF UPPER DEVONIAN GORDON SANDSTONE, JACKSONBURG STRINGTOWN OIL FIELD, NORTHWESTERN WEST VIRGINIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Ameri; K. Aminian; K.L. Avary; H.I. Bilgesu; M.E. Hohn; R.R. McDowell; D.L. Matchen

    2001-07-01

    The Jacksonburg-Stringtown oil field contained an estimated 88,500,000 barrels of oil in place, of which approximately 20,000,000 barrels were produced during primary recovery operations. A gas injection project, initiated in 1934, and a pilot waterflood, begun in 1981, yielded additional production from limited portions of the field. The pilot was successful enough to warrant development of a full-scale waterflood in 1990, involving approximately 8,900 acres in three units, with a target of 1,500 barrels of oil per acre recovery. Historical patterns of drilling and development within the field suggests that the Gordon reservoir is heterogeneous, and that detailed reservoir characterization is necessary for understanding well performance and addressing problems observed by the operators. The purpose of this work is to establish relationships among permeability, geophysical and other data by integrating geologic, geophysical and engineering data into an interdisciplinary quantification of reservoir heterogeneity as it relates to production. Conventional stratigraphic correlation and core description shows that the Gordon sandstone is composed of three parasequences, formed along the Late Devonian shoreline of the Appalachian Basin. The parasequences comprise five lithofacies, of which one includes reservoir sandstones. Pay sandstones were found to have permeabilities in core ranging from 10 to 200 mD, whereas non-pay sandstones have permeabilities ranging from below the level of instrumental detection to 5 mD; Conglomeratic zones could take on the permeability characteristics of enclosing materials, or could exhibit extremely low values in pay sandstone and high values in non-pay or low permeability pay sandstone. Four electrofacies based on a linear combination of density and scaled gamma ray best matched correlations made independently based on visual comparison of geophysical logs. Electrofacies 4 with relatively high permeability (mean value > 45 mD) was

  8. Seismic monitoring of in situ combustion process in a heavy oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three time-lapse 3D seismic surveys are analysed to monitor the effect of in situ combustion, a thermal-enhanced oil recovery process in the Balol heavy oil reservoir in India. The baseline data were acquired prior to the start of the in situ combustion process in four injection wells, while the two monitor surveys were acquired 1 and 2 years after injection start, respectively. We present the results of baseline and second monitor surveys. Fluid substitution studies based on acoustic well logs predict a seismic amplitude decrease at the top reservoir and an increase at the base reservoir. Both the amplitude dimming at the top reservoir and the brightening at the base reservoir are observed in the field data. The extent of the most pronounced 4D anomaly is estimated from the seismic amplitude and time shift analysis. The interesting result of seismic analysis is that the anomalies are laterally shifted towards the northwest, rather than the expected east, from the injector location suggesting a northwest movement of the in situ combustion front. No clear evidence of air leakage into other sand layers, neither above nor below the reservoir sand, is observed. This does not necessarily mean that all the injected air is following the reservoir sand, especially if the thief sand layers are thin. These layers might be difficult to observe on seismic data

  9. New multiphase choke correlations for a high flow rate Iranian oil field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safar Beiranvand

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The multiphase flow through wellhead restrictions of an offshore oil field in Iran is investigated and two sets of new correlations are presented for high flow rate and water cut conditions. The both correlations are developed by using 748 actual data points, corresponding to critical flow conditions of gas-liquid mixtures through wellhead chokes. The first set of correlations is a modified Gilbert equation and predicts liquid flow rates as a function of flowing wellhead pressure, gas-liquid ratio and surface wellhead choke size. To minimize error in such condition, in the second correlation, free water, sediment and emulsion (BS & W is also considered as an effective parameter. The predicted oil flow rates by the new sets of correlations are in the excellent agreement with the measured ones. These results are found to be statistically superior to those predicted by other relevant published correlations. The both proposed correlations exhibit more accuracy (only 2.95% and 2.0% average error, respectively than the existent correlations. These results should encourage the production engineer which works at such condition to utilize the proposed correlations for future practical answers when a lack of available information, time, and calculation capabilities arises.

  10. Development characteristics and quantitative prediction of reservoir fractures in the Chaoyanggou oil field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen; TONG Heng-mao; BAO Zhi-dong

    2009-01-01

    The Chaoyanggou oil field is a fractured low-permeability reservoir, where the distribution of oil and gas is controlled by the distribution and development of fractures. Based on outcrop, drilling core, thin section and log data, the development characteristics of fractures in this area are described. On this basis, the degree of fracture development was predicted by quantitative analysis of fracture strength and numerical simulation. The result shows that four groups of structural fractures, i.e., in near NS, and EW directions and in due NW and NE directions, were developed in the reservoir, with the nearly NS and EW fractures dominant, which are the along bedding decollement fractures formed by compressive folding action, while low angle shear fractures are related to thrusts. These fractures are mainly formed in the reversed tectonic stage at the end of the Mingshui formation during the Cretaceous period. The degree of fracture development is controlled by such factors as lithology, stratum thickness, faults, folds and depth. The fractures are developed with a clear zonation and are best developed in the northern zone, moderately developed towards the south and poorly developed in the middle zone. These prediction results are in good agreement with interpretation results from logs.

  11. Centrifuge - dewatering of oil sand fluid tailings: phase 2 field-scale test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, Jack T.C. [BGC Engineering Inc (Canada); O' Kane, Mike [O' Kane Consultants Inc (Canada); Donahue, Robert [Applied Geochemical Solutions Engineering (Canada); Lahaie, Rick [Syncrude Canada Ltd (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In order to reduce the accumulation of oil sand fluid fine tailings (FFT) and to create trafficable surfaces for reclamation, Syncrude Canada Ltd. has been studying several tailings technologies. Centrifuge-dewatering is one such technology. This paper discusses the phase 2 field-scale tests for centrifuge-dewatering of oil sand FFT. In centrifuge-dewatering, FFT is diluted and treated with flocculant, then processed through a centrifuge plant and the high-density underflow is transported to a tailings deposit. This technology has evolved since 2005 from laboratory bench scale tests. More than 10,000 cubic meters of centrifuge cake was treated, produced and transported to ten different deposits over a 12-week period from August to October 2010. The amount of solids in FFT was increased from 30% to 50% by centrifuging. Sampled deposits were tested and instrumented for in situ strength. It can be concluded that the deposits can be strengthened and densified by natural dewatering processes like freeze-thaw action and evaporative drying.

  12. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery and improved drilling technology. Progress review No. 34, quarter ending March 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B. (ed.)

    1983-07-01

    Progress achieved for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented for field projects and supporting research for the following: chemical flooding; carbon dioxide injection; and thermal/heavy oil. In addition, progress reports are presented for: resource assessment technology; extraction technology; environmental and safety; microbial enhanced oil recovery; oil recovered by gravity mining; improved drilling technology; and general supporting research. (ATT)

  13. Experimental and computational studies of water drops falling through model oil with surfactant and subjected to an electric field

    CERN Document Server

    Ervik, Åsmund; Munkejord, Svend Tollak; Müller, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    The behaviour of a single sub-millimetre-size water drop falling through a viscous oil while subjected to an electric field is of fundamental importance to industrial applications such as crude oil electrocoalescers. Detailed studies, both experimental and computational, have been performed previously, but an often challenging issue has been the characterization of the fluids. As numerous authors have noted, it is very difficult to have a perfectly clean water-oil system even for very pure model oils, and the presence of trace chemicals may significantly alter the interface behaviour. In this work, we consider a well- characterized water-oil system where controlled amounts of a surface active agent (Span 80) have been added to the oil. This addition dominates any trace contaminants in the oil, such that the interface behaviour can also be well-characterized. We present the results of experiments and corresponding two-phase- flow simulations of a falling water drop covered in surfactant and subjected to a mono...

  14. Effect of nitrogen form for the amendment of crude oil bioremediation field experiment in the Sea of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some small-scale field experiments have been conducted regarding the bioremediation of oil at a rocky beach in the Sea of Japan. During the 4 month experiment, artificial mixtures of weathered Arabian light crude oil and sand were wrapped in teflon net envelopes which were placed in perforated vessels to facilitate exchange with seawater in the intertidal area. Two inorganic and two organic slow release nitrogen fertilizers were added to the oil and sand mixtures which were then periodically sampled and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Individual petroleum compounds degraded at a quicker rate when fertilizer was added. In addition, fertilizer helped to remove the oil from the sand. After 4 months, the oil content in the sands fertilized with ammonium sulfate, urea and isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) was one third that of the control sand. Ammonium nitrate fertilizers did not work as well at removing the oil from the sand. It was concluded that organic nitrogen fertilizers such as urea and IBDU have significant potential to stimulate microbial degradation and physical removal of oil rather than organic nitrogen fertilizers. 16 refs., 3 figs

  15. Use of interferometric techniques for detecting subsidence in the oil fields of Kuwait using Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subsidence in Burgan oil field of Kuwait has been studied by Interferometric technique using Synthetic Aperture Radar data. Repeat pass Interferometry is applied to the study area that accounts for infinitesimal changes in the topographic elevations. Subsidence of about 27 mm over a period of 3 years was estimated in Burgan oil field area. The study is significant since continued subsidence may result in reduction of porosity of host formation and may activate the sub-surface geological structures, which can compromise the integrity of the reservoir seal, leading to migration of hydrocarbons to other formations and areas

  16. Feasibility of CO2 geological storage in the Xingou oil field, Jianghan Basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological storage of CO2 as an effective way of reducing CO2 output to the atmosphere receives growing attention worldwide. To evaluate the feasibility of this technique in the Xingou oil field of Jianghan Basin in China, 2D and 3D models of CO2 geological storage were established using TOUGH2 software. Results showed that CO2 gas can be stored in the deepest reservoir through continuous injection over 50 years, and will remain effectively confined within the space under the second cap-rock during its diffusion over 500 years. Compared with 2D models, 3D models showed that the diffusion process of CO2 gas in the reservoir will create a mushroom-shaped zone of influence. (authors)

  17. Biodegradation of marine surface floating crude oil in a large-scale field simulated experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Mutai; Sun, Peiyan; Yang, Xiaofei; Wang, Xinping; Wang, Lina; Cao, Lixin; Li, Fujuan

    2014-08-01

    Biodegradation of marine surface floating crude oil with hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, rhamnolipid biosurfactants, and nutrients was carried out by a large-scale field simulated experiment in this paper. After a 103 day experiment, for n-alkanes, the maximum biodegradation rate reached 71% and the results showed hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, rhamnolipid biosurfactants, and nutrients have a comprehensive effect. It also showed that rhamnolipid biosurfactants could shorten the biodegradation time through an emulsifying function; the nutrients could greatly increase the biodegradation rate by promoting HDB production. For PAHs, the chrysene series had higher weathering resistance. For the same series, the weathering resistance ability is C1- biosurfactants or nutrients, respectively. Except for C14, C15 and C16 sesquiterpanes, most of the steranes and terpanes had high antibiodegradability. PMID:24931448

  18. Lithological and petrophysical evaluation of the caprock keybeds, Asmari Reservoir of Pazanan Oil Field, Zagros, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Soleimani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pazanan oil field is located 150 km SE of ahvaz city in SW of Iran and measures 60 km long, 4-6 km wide. The caprock of this oil field were evaluated using well logs (gamma-ray and sonic logs SEM and petrographical microscopy data. The cap rock consist of mudstone, interlayers of anhydrite and bitumens shale. Therefore, it can be classified as mudstone type. On the basis of our investigations, the Caprock can be divided in to 6 keybeds: A(Anhydrite, B(Bitumenshale & some times bitumen marls, C (mudstone with interlayers of shale & anhydrite, D (mudstone & anhydrite, E (mudstone& F(mudstone & packstone, almost all of these units coverd by salt. Anhydrite beds show the following textures: microlitic, spherolite, porphyroblast, and granular. Anhydrite crystals indicate the occurrence of processes such as emplacement and calcitization. Sonic and gamma-ray well logs were used to determine lithological changes. The highest peak is correlated with mudstone units. Caprock depth varies from 2580m(min-2717m(max [northern part], 1704(min. - 2444(max. [central part],And 2050 (min.- 2490 (max. [southern part] using well drilling data. It seems that that the thickness in the southern part is less than is other part. Comparing the thicknesses of different keybeds. The maximum occurs in the c-keybeds. The sedimentar : sequence of Caprock started by mudstone, packstone and interlayers of anhydrite, followed by mudstone, anhydrite, shale-marl, as well as bitumen shale, mudstone and anhydrite and finally was overlaid by salt. Lithological variation indicate a sabkha-lacustrine environment. Therefore, the hot-wet and hot-dry climate was dominated. In some cases, Caprock thickness decreases to 6m without any gap. This thinning is related to structural deformation. Unfavorable lithologyconditions resulted is well collaps.

  19. Investigating electrokinetics application for in-situ inorganic oil field scale control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashaykeh, Manal A. I. Albadawi

    Oil well scale formation and deposition is an expensive problem and could be a nightmare for any production engineer if the rate of deposition is rapid as in the case of North Sea oil fields. Inorganic scales accumulate in surface and subsurface equipment causing a reduction in oil production and severe damage for production equipment. The major components of most oil field scale deposits are BaSO4, CaSO4 and SrSO4, which are formed due to incompatible mixing of reservoir formation water and sea water flooded in secondary enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. This work focuses on BaSO4 scale as it is one of the toughest scale components to be removed either by chemical means or mechanical means. Scale control methods usually involve complicated treatment using chemical dissolution methods as primary attempt and mechanical scrapping or jetting methods in case of failure of the chemical means. In this work, we devised a novel in-situ scale control method benefiting from the application of direct current (DC) which involves some of the electrokinetic (EK) phenomena. The applications of EK has been proved in our laboratories yielding high efficiency in capturing barium and separating it from sulfate before reaching the production well, thus preventing deposition in the production wellbore or wellbore formation. This objective was evaluated in our lab designed EK apparatus in three parts. In part-1, an 18.5 cm unconsolidated sand core was used which produced inconsistent results. This problem was overcome in part-2, where the porous media involved 46 cm consolidated sandcore. This also partly fulfilled the purpose of upscaling. In part-3, the porous media was extended to a 100 cm spatial distance between the injection and production wells. For all the experiments the reservoir models were made of 125 µm uniform sand particles and followed a final consolidation pressure of 30 psi. The EK-reservoir model contains 2 basic junctions; one of them injecting a 500 ppm SO4 2

  20. An efficient thermotolerant and halophilic biosurfactant-producing bacterium isolated from Dagang oil field for MEOR application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Langping; Richnow, Hans; Yao, Jun; Jain, Anil

    2014-05-01

    Dagang Oil field (Petro China Company Limited) is one of the most productive oil fields in China. In this study, 34 biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated and cultured from petroleum reservoir of Dagang oil field, using haemolytic assay and the qualitative oil-displacement test. On the basis of 16S rDNA analysis, the isolates were closely related to the species in genus Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus. One of the isolates identified as Bacillus subtilis BS2 were selected for further study. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant with excessive foam-forming properties at 37ºC as well as at higher temperature of 55ºC. The biosurfactant produced by the strain BS2 could reduce the surface tension of the culture broth from 70.87 mN/m to 28.97 mN/m after 8 days of incubation at 37ºC and to 36.15 mN/m after 20 days of incubation at 55ºC, respectively. The biosurfactant showed stability at high temperature (up to 120ºC), a wide range of pH (2 to 12) and salt concentrations (up to 12%) offering potential for biotechnology. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of extracted biosurfactant tentatively characterized the produced biosurfactant as glycolipid derivative. Elemental analysis of the biosurfactant by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the biosurfactant was anionic in nature. 15 days of biodegradation of crude oil suggested a preferential usage of n-alkane upon microbial metabolism of BS2 as a carbon substrate and consequently also for the synthesis of biosurfactants. Core flood studies for oil release indicated 9.6% of additional oil recovery over water flooding at 37ºC and 7.2% of additional oil recovery at 55 ºC. Strain BS2 was characterized as an efficient biosurfactant-producing, thermotolerant and halophillic bacterium and has the potential for application for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) through water flooding in China's oil fields even in situ as adapted to reservoir chemistry and

  1. Field research on using oil herding surfactants to thicken oil slicks in pack ice for in-situ burning. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory and field studies have been performed in recent years to determine the capability of herding agents to thicken oil slicks among loose pack ice for the purpose of in situ burning. In loose pack ice conditions where booms are not practical, effective in situ burns may be possible if thin slicks could be thickened to the 2 to 5 mm range. However, specific chemical surface-active agents known as herders are need to clear and contain oil slicks on an open water surface. The agents spread quickly over a water surface into a monomolecular layer due to their high spreading coefficients. The best agents have spreading pressures in the mid 40 mN/m range. As such, only small quantities of these surfactants are needed to clear thin films of oil from large areas of water surface, and to contract it into thicker slicks. This paper summarized the previous studies that evaluated shoreline-cleaning agents with oil herding properties. However, the main focus of this paper was on the final phase of testing conducted at the Prudhoe Bay Fire Training Grounds in November 2006 in which a series of outdoor burns were conducted at the scale of 30 m2 with herders and crude oil in a test pool containing pieces of ice. The tests revealed that when a herder was used on crude oil slicks that were otherwise unignitable, the slicks could be ignited and burned in situ in brash and slush ice conditions at temperatures as low as -17 degrees C. Both the removal rate and efficiencies for the herded slicks were comparable to the theoretical maximum achievable for mechanically contained slicks on open water. 13 refs., 1 tab., 18 figs

  2. INFLUENCE OF FEATURES OF ENGINEERING-GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES ON PROBLEMS OF RESEARCHES AT ARRANGEMENT OF OIL AND GAS FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luybimova T. V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prospects of development of oil-extracting branch of the Krasnodar region are connected with continuation of prospecting works and search drilling in a zone of transit of the Kuban River and water areas of the Black and Azov seas. In the existing normative documents about technical researches we didn't find reflection of the rule of works on platforms of capital construction of wells on the earth and in transitional conditions. The technique of studying of engineering-geological features of territories of oil and gas fields is offered. Regional and zone factors of engineering-geological conditions of oil and gas fields are established. Engineering-geological structures are allocated. Additional types of technical researches are defined

  3. Sedimentological sand grain orientation in oil-producing U1 layer Kazan oil-gas-condensate field (Tomsk Oblast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoshchekova, L.; Cherdansteva, D.; Vologdina, I.

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes the results in identifying the prevalent directions of elongated quartz grains being the major oil-producing layer component in sand reservoirs. Studying the orientation of quartz to its grain shapes in paleogeographical oriented core samples made it possible to identify the hydrodynamic reservoir regimes and facies type. The spatial confinement of pore spaces and cataclasis fractures in grain material to the prevalent elongated quartz grain directions was defined.

  4. Tilting oil-water contact in the chalk of Tyra Field as interpreted from capillary pressure data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Rana, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    logging data in the remaining wells. A westerly dipping oil–water contact was found from logging data. Comparison of the depth-wise trends in normalized water saturation among the different wells indicates a regional pattern: in the western side of the field, the trends correspond to a situation of...... imbibition, where the free water level overlies an interval of residual oil, whereas in the eastern part of the field, the depth-wise trends in normalized water saturation correspond to a situation of drainage. The free water level apparently dips to the east due either to hydrodynamic action or to pressure......The Tyra Field in the central North Sea is located in Palaeogene and Upper Cretaceous chalk. It contains a natural gas zone underlain by an oil leg. Based on analysis of logs and core data from ten wells drilled prior to the field being put into production, normalized water saturation depth...

  5. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Smithella spp. Obtained from a Methanogenic Alkane-Degrading Culture and Oil Field Produced Water

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, BoonFei; de Araújo e Silva, Renata; Rozycki, Trent; Nesbø, Camilla; Foght, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Two draft genomes affiliated with Smithella spp. were obtained from a methanogenic alkane-degrading enrichment culture by single-cell sorting and metagenome contig binning, and a third was obtained by single-cell sorting of oil field produced water. Two genomes contained putative assABC genes encoding alkylsuccinate synthase, indicating genetic potential for fumarate activation of alkanes.

  6. Source Mechanism, Stress Triggering, and Hazard Analysis of Induced Seismicity in Oil/Gas Fields in Oman and Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, C.; Toksoz, M. N.; Ding, M.; Al-Enezi, A.; Al-Jeri, F.; Meng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Induced seismicity has drawn new attentions in both academia and industry in recent years as the increasing seismic activity in the regions of oil/gas fields due to fluid injection/extraction and hydraulic fracturing. Source mechanism and triggering stress of these induced earthquakes are of great importance for understanding their causes and the physics of the seismic processes in reservoirs. Previous research on the analysis of induced seismic events in conventional oil/gas fields assumed a double couple (DC) source mechanism. The induced seismic data in this study are from both Oman and Kuwait. For the Oman data, the induced seismicity is monitored by both surface network (0ratio of the data makes it possible to obtain the source mechanisms and triggering stress. We determine the full moment tensor of the induced seismicity data, based on a full-waveform inversion method (Song and Toksöz, 2011). With the full moment tensor inversion results, Coulomb stress is calculated to investigate the triggering features of the induced seismicity data. Our results show a detailed evolution of 3D triggering stress in oil/gas fields from year 1999 to 2007 for Oman, and from year 2006 to 2015 for Kuwait. In addition, the local hazard corresponding to the induced seismicity in these oil/gas fields is assessed and compared to ground motion prediction due to large (M>5.0) regional tectonic earthquakes.

  7. Critical laboratory and field evaluation of selected surface prospecting techniques for locating oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heemstra, R.J.; Ray, R.M.; Wesson, T.C.; Abrams, J.R.; Moore, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    The theoretical basis for the radiation HALO method in geochemical exploration for oil and gas is largely unproven but has been covered extensively in the literature. An evaluation of the method was conducted by direct field examination of some of the variables. The variables chosen were surface radiometry, magnetometry, gravity, and near-surface soil sampling. The radiometry included measurements of potassium-40, thallium-208, and bismuth-214. The near-surface soil samples were analyzed for light hydrocarbon gases through C-4, pH, conductivity, surface area, and moisture. Statistical evaluation and comparisons of these variables were made by computer from their data bases. High correlations between variables were confirmed by comparisons of contour maps on transparent overlays. The highest positive correlations were between the five normal gases over the entire eighteen-section map. A distinct relationship was found between conductivity, pH, and the five normal gases. The role of field topography was also found to be significant. No relationship between the hydrocarbon and radiometric anomalies could be found. Radiometric patterns were heavily influenced, however, by the topographic features.

  8. The Prestige oil spill: bacterial community dynamics during a field biostimulation assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, N.; Solanas, A.M. [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Microbiology; Vinas, M. [GIRO Technological Centre, Mollet del Valles (Spain); Bayona, J.M.; Albaiges, J. [IIQAB-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2007-12-15

    A field bioremediation assay using the oleophilic fertilizer S200 was carried out 12 months after the Prestige heavy fuel-oil spill on a beach on the Cantabrian coast (north Spain). This assay showed that S200-enhanced oil degradation, particularly of high-molecular-weight n-alkanes and alkylated PAHs, suggesting an increase in the microbial bioavailability of these compounds. The bacterial community structure was determined by cultivation-independent analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rDNA by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Bacterial community was mainly composed of {alpha}-Proteobacteria (Rhodobacteriaceae and Sphingomonadaceae). Representatives of {gamma}-Proteobacteria (Chromatiales, Moraxellaceae, and Halomonadaceae), Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteriaceae), and Actinobacteria group (Nocardiaceae and Corynebacteriaceae) were also found. The addition of the fertilizer led to the appearance of the bacterium Mesonia algae in the early stages, with a narrow range of growth substrates, which has been associated with the common alga Achrosiphonia sonderi. The presence of Mesonia algae may be attributable to the response of the microbial community to the addition of N and P rather than indicating a role in the biodegradation process. The Rhodococcus group appeared in both assay plots, especially at the end of the experiment. It was also found at another site on the Galician coast that had been affected by the same spill. This genus has been associated with the degradation of n-alkanes up to C{sub 36}. Taking into account the high content of heavy alkanes in the Prestige fuel, these microorganisms could play a significant role in the degradation of such fuel. A similar bacterial community structure was observed at another site that showed a similar degree of fuel weathering. (orig.)

  9. Optimization of Vertical Well Placement for Oil Field Development Based on Basic Reservoir Rock Properties using Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Tutuka Ariadji; Pudjo Sukarno; Kuntjoro Adji Sidarto; Edy Soewono; Lala Septem Riza; Kenny David

    2012-01-01

    Comparing the quality of basic reservoir rock properties is a common practice to locate new infills or development wells for optimizing an oil field development using a reservoir simulation. The conventional technique employs a manual trial and error process to find new well locations, which proves to be time-consuming, especially, for a large field. Concerning this practical matter, an alternative in the form of a robust technique was introduced in order that time and efforts could be reduce...

  10. Microbial diversity and hydrocarbon degrading gene capacity of a crude oil field soil as determined by metagenomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Firouz; Palanisami, Thavamani; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi; Lockington, Robin; Ramadass, Kavitha

    2016-05-01

    Soils contaminated with crude oil are rich sources of enzymes suitable for both degradation of hydrocarbons through bioremediation processes and improvement of crude oil during its refining steps. Due to the long term selection, crude oil fields are unique environments for the identification of microorganisms with the ability to produce these enzymes. In this metagenomic study, based on Hiseq Illumina sequencing of samples obtained from a crude oil field and analysis of data on MG-RAST, Actinomycetales (9.8%) were found to be the dominant microorganisms, followed by Rhizobiales (3.3%). Furthermore, several functional genes were found in this study, mostly belong to Actinobacteria (12.35%), which have a role in the metabolism of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons (2.51%), desulfurization (0.03%), element shortage (5.6%), and resistance to heavy metals (1.1%). This information will be useful for assisting in the application of microorganisms in the removal of hydrocarbon contamination and/or for improving the quality of crude oil. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:638-648, 2016. PMID:26914145

  11. Modeling petroleum generation and geochemistry of crude oils in Ras Budran field, northern gulf of Suez, Egypt: implications for prospectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, M.A. [Geology Dept., Alexandria Univ. (Egypt)

    2005-12-01

    Petroleum generation modeling of the pre-rift succession in Ras Budran Field, which is located in the northern Gulf of Suez province in Egypt, showed that the best oil prone source rocks identified are the carbonate dominated one in the Upper Cretaceous and the Middle Eocene. These source rocks contain type-II kerogen (liptinitic materials) and progressively increase in their peak of oil generation from 0.63 and 0.83 vitrinite reflectance at a depth of about 3000 meters during the early of middle Miocene age and could have charged traps during the intra Rudeis tectonic phase. Crude oil and source rock extract interrelationships display a great similarity in their geologic occurrences and biological marker distributions. The biomarker characteristics indicate a low relative abundance of oleanane index around 5% pristane/phytane ratio<1, higher C{sub 35}/C{sub 34} homohopanes>1 and higher gammacerane indices >30%, suggesting a typical marine organic matter with source rock deposition under reducing conditions, Marginally mature stage of oil generation is indicated by the relatively low sterane isomerization of C{sub 29} {alpha}{alpha}{alpha} 20S/(S+R) and C{sub 29}{alpha}{beta}{beta}/({alpha}{beta}{beta}+{alpha}{alpha}{alpha}) of about 06 and relatively low aromatic sulfur compound rations. Crude oil geochemistry and related source rock potential define genetically related oils which ware generated from marginally mature and organic-rich carbonate source rocks, most probably from the pre-rift Duwi and Thebes formations. The best oil prone for future prospectivity would be oriented west of Ras Budran Field toward the deep marine of the Gulf, where the undiscovered reserves are expected to be accumulated within the pre-rift reservoirs in the footwalls of the normal faulted blocks. (orig.)

  12. Wireless Sensor Network in Niger Delta Oil and Gas Field Monitoring: The Security Challenges and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelis C. Obodoeze

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.15.4 specification has enabled low-power, low-cost and smart wireless sensor networks(WSNs capable of robust and reliable multi-hop communications. By January 2005, an International Oiland Gas Company (IOC, Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC, became the firstmultinational Oil and Gas Company operating in the Nigeria Niger Delta region to switch from wired towireless sensor technology eliminating the need for cables thereby allowing data collection in remote,swampy areas and enabling new applications. However, there are concerns related to the use of thesesmart wireless sensor networks such as reliability, standardization, energy consumption and generaloperational, data and physical security issues especially in the monitoring of mission-critical oil and gasinstallations and infrastructure such as pipelines, oil wells, oil rigs and flow stations in a regioncharacterized by rampant vandalisation and sabotage of oil pipelines and other oil installations bymilitants and oil thieves. High cases of vandalisation of oil and gas pipelines and other oil installationswere identified even when there is evidence of wireless sensor deployment. This paper introducedpractical deployment architectures and mechanisms that can secure oil facilities and the wireless sensorsfrom being physically attacked so that they can successfully monitor and report incidences of pipeline andequipment vandalisation easily and on time while at the same time maintain data security of the WSN.

  13. Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2007-03-31

    The overall objective of this project was to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involved improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective has been to transfer technology that can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The first budget period addressed several producibility problems in the Tar II-A and Tar V thermal recovery operations that are common in SBC reservoirs. A few of the advanced technologies developed include a three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic geologic model, a 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model to aid in reservoir management and subsequent post-steamflood development work, and a detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rocks and fluids. State of the art operational work included drilling and performing a pilot steam injection and production project via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors), implementing a hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steamflood area to improve thermal efficiency, installing a 2400-foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location, testing a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems, and starting on an advanced reservoir management system through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. The second budget period phase (BP2) continued to implement state-of-the-art operational work to optimize thermal recovery processes, improve well drilling and completion practices, and evaluate the

  14. The Effect of Nitrite on Pitting and Stress Corrosion Cracking of Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA) under Oil Field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Okeremi, Akinyemi

    2011-01-01

    The need to inject treated seawater to enhance reservoir pressure and secondary oil recovery is increasing in the oil field, so also is the reservoir souring potential caused by the activities of Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) generating H2S in the reservoir. The total cost of SRB mediated corrosion in the United States alone is estimated to be 1-2 billion US dollars per year. In the last few years, a number of potential souring mitigation and prevention tools have been studied. These inclu...

  15. Hydrocarbon degassing of the earth and origin of oil-gas fields (isotope-geochemical and geodynamic aspects)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyaev, Boris; Dremin, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    More than half a century ago, Academician PN Kropotkin substantiated the relationship of the formation and distribution of oil and gas fields with the processes of emanation hydrocarbon degassing of the Earth. Over the years, the concept of PN Kropotkin received further development and recognition of studies based on new factual material. Of particular importance are the following factors: a) the results of studies on global and regional uneven processes of traditional oil and gas and the role of deep faults in controlling the spread of oil and gas fields; b) the results of the research on gigantic volumes and localization of the discharges of hydrocarbon fluids (mud volcanoes, seeps) on land and into the atmosphere and through the bottom of the World ocean; c) the results of the studies on grand volumes of the spread of unconventional hydrocarbon resources in their non-traditional fields, especially on near-surface interval of unconventional oil and gas accumulation with gas hydrates, heavy oil and bitumen, as well as extraordinary resources of oil and gas in the shale and tight rocks. Deep mantle-crust nature of oil and gas in traditional and nontraditional deposits thus received further substantiation of geological and geophysical data and research results. However, isotopic and geochemical data are still interpreted in favor of the concept of the genesis of oil and gas in the processes of thermal catalytic conversion of organic matter of sedimentary rocks, at temperatures up to 200°C. In this report an alternative interpretation of the isotope carbon-hydrogen system (δ13C-δD) for gas and of oil deposits, isotope carbon system for methane and carbon dioxide (δ13C1-δ13C0) will be presented. An alternative interpretation will also be presented for the data on carbon-helium isotope geochemical system for oil and gas fields, volcanoes and mud volcanoes. These constructions agree with the geological data on the nature of deep hydrocarbon fluids involved in the

  16. Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-12-31

    , multiwell productivity analysis, and reservoir simulation studies indicate that water injection continues to provide stable support to maintain production from wells in the western unitized area of the field and that the strong water drive present in the eastern area of the field is adequate to sustain production from this part of the field. Although the results from the microbial characterization and microbial core experiments are very promising, it is recommended that an immobilized enzyme technology project not be implemented in the Womack Hill Field Unit until live (freshly taken and properly preserved) cores from the Smackover reservoir in the field are acquired to confirm the microbial core experiments to date. From 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir performance analysis, and reservoir simulation, four areas in the Womack Hill Field were identified as prospective infill drilling sites to recover undrained oil from the field. It was determined that the two areas in the unit area probably can be effectively drained by perforating higher zones in the Smackover reservoir in currently producing wells. The two areas in the eastern (non-unitized) part of the field require the drilling of new wells. The successful drilling and testing of a well in 2003 by J. R. Pounds, Inc. has proven the oil potential of the easternmost site in the non-unitized part of the field. Pruet Production Co. acquired new 2-D seismic data to evaluate the oil potential of the westernmost site. Because of the effects of a fault shadow from the major fault bounding the southern border of the Womack Hill Field, it is difficult to evaluate conclusively this potential drill site. Pruet Production Co. has decided not to drill this new well at this time and to further evaluate the new 2-D seismic profiles after these data have been processed using a pre-stack migration technique. Pruet Production Co. has elected not to continue into Phase II of this project because they are not prepared to make a proposal to

  17. Correlations among hydrocarbon microseepage, soil chemistry, and uptake of micronutrients by plants, Bell Creek oil field, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeming, S.S.; Donovan, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Chelate-extractable iron and manganese concentrations in soils over and around the Bell Creek oil field suggest that compared to low average background values, there are moderate amounts of these elements directly over the production area and higher concentrations distributed in an aureole pattern around the periphery of the field. Adsorbed and organically bound iron and manganese appear to be readily taken up by plants resulting in anomalously high levels of these elements in leaves and needles over the oil field and suggesting correlation with corresponding low concentrations in soils. Iron and manganese appear to have bypassed the soil formation process where, under normal oxidizing conditions, they would have ultimately precipitated as insoluble oxides and hydroxides. ?? 1985.

  18. Optimization of the permeability model of a heterogeneous oil field by means of data of dynamic inversion, based on streamline simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of oil field characterization is to establish the oil field's model through the integration of all usable information. The traditional scope Includes the modeling based primarily on static information, having as a final stage of the process, the validation of the model with the dynamic information available. The term validation involves a procedure that only tries to guarantee that the productive zones being modeled feature adequate oil fields properties. The new trends in oil field characterization show that the dynamic information available should be integrated to the oil field's model. This process is not trivia, since it includes an optimization process framed by a continuous process of light simulation. In this paper, a semi-analytical solution is proposed, as a product of the combination of geostatistical techniques with streamline simulation algorithms and of dynamic inversion of data for the optimization of the permeability model for heterogeneous oil fields, while verifying the effectiveness of the dynamic inversion scheme in two phases: adjustments to irruption times, followed by adjustments to the amplitude of the water cuts. The methodology proposed was successfully applied to synthetic models and to a field case. The synthetic models were used to validate the efficiency of the procedure on classical methods of oil field characterization. The field case corresponds to a highly heterogeneous oil field: the A2 sands of block VII of the Cas abe field. This example includes 22 productive wells and 19 injecting wells in an oil field of fluvial origin, made up of stratigraphically complex geometries, such as cross-stratification, preferential flow channels, and lateral changes to facies and thickness, among others. The most important conclusion from this paper is that the regular injection patterns, of five pre-established points, are not efficient enough to optimize the secondary recovery process; therefore, suggestion is made to establish

  19. Core acid treatment influence on well reservoir properties in Kazan oil-gas condensate field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janishevskii, A.; Ezhova, A.

    2015-11-01

    The research involves investigation of the influence of hydrochloric acid (HCI-12%) and mud acid (mixture: HCl - 10% and HF - 3%) treatment on the Upper-Jurassic reservoir properties in Kazan oil-gas condensate field wells. The sample collection included three lots of core cylinders from one and the same depth (all in all 42). Two lots of core cylinders were distributed as following: first lot - reservoir properties were determined, and, then thin sections were cut off from cylinder faces; second lot- core cylinders were exposed to hydrochloric acid treatment, then, after flushing the reservoir properties were determined, and thin sections were prepared. Based on the quantitative petrographic rock analysis, involvin 42 thin sections, the following factors were determined: granulometric mineral composition, cement content, intergranular contacts and pore space structure. According to the comparative analysis of initial samples, the following was determined: content decrease of feldspar, clay and mica fragments, mica, clay and carbonate cement; increase of pore spaces while in the investigated samples- on exposure of rocks to acids effective porosity and permeability value range is ambiguous.

  20. Present status and trend of oil/gas field exploration technology in polar region. Part 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saka, Koji

    1988-10-01

    The supporting system necessary for the oil/gas field exploration in the polar region includes the transportation of material/equipment between the support base and production site, maintenance/repair of exploration/production equipment, salvage and other systems. For the transportation, ice breakers, supply boats, trucks, helicopters and aircrafts are used. To heighten the ice breaker in ice breaking capacity, there is progress in bow shape, paint coating and power source, of which the main feature is the adoption of spoon shaped bow and diesel or turbine engine. For the transportation of personnel and material/equipment, the aircraft, and long flight range and high transport capacity helicopter being used, the hovercraft and vertical take-off and landing aircraft will be further introduced in no distant future. Besides, Archimedian screw type amphibian vehicle is in expectation for the various work use, and manned or unmanned submarine boat for the submarine work/maintenance use, diving unit for the submarine maintenance/inspection use and submarine burying unit for the pipeline burying use are developed. 23 figures, 18 tables.

  1. Chemical and isotopic compositions of natural gases from the Japanese major oil and gas fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon isotopic ratios (13C/12C) and chemical compositions of methane (C1), ethane (C2), propane (C3), i-butane (i-C4) and n-butane (n-C4) were measured for natural gases from the Japanese major oil and gas fields. The C1/(C2+C3) vs. δ13C(C1) plot suggests that most samples analyzed in the present study are of thermogenic origin with a minor contribution of biogenic gases. Some gases show unusually high ratios of C2/C3 and i-C4/n-C4, and low ratios cf C3/i-C4 (Unusual-Hydrocarbon-Ratio gases: UHR gases). The carbon isotopic ratios and hydrocarbon compositions strongly suggest that these unusual ratios were caused by the chromatographic effect of sediments during migration of the gases. By comparing hydrocarbon ratios (C1/C2, C2/C3, C2/i-C4, C2/n-C4, C3/i-C4, C3/n-C4 and i-C4/n-C4) of the UHR and normal gases, it was found that the natural gases tend to lose their hydrocarbons during migration in the order: n-C4 ≅ C3 > C2 ≅ i-C4 > C1. (author)

  2. Ground water and oil field waste sites: a study in Vermilion Parish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, J M; Groves, F D; DeLeon, I R; Joubert, P E

    1990-06-01

    Water samples were obtained from 128 private water wells surrounding eight oil field waste sites in Vermilion Parish. The specimens were analyzed for five heavy metals: barium, arsenic, chromium, lead, and cadmium. Half of the specimens were then analyzed for 16 volatile organic compounds. A blood sample was obtained from healthy adults drinking water from the wells tested for volatile organic compounds and this blood sample was also analyzed for volatile organic compounds. None of the water samples had levels of heavy metals or volatile organic compounds that exceeded the National Primary Drinking Water Standards. Barium levels in excess of 250 parts per billion suggested that styrene, toluene, and chloroform might be present. Blood levels of volatile organic compounds were significantly higher than could be accounted for by water consumption with levels in smokers significantly higher than in nonsmokers. These data suggest that as yet there is no contamination of ground water supplies around these sites. Volatile organic accumulation in humans probably occurs from a respiratory rather than from an oral route. PMID:2362163

  3. Subsidence rate monitoring of Aghajari oil field based on Differential SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, N. Fouladi; Sahebi, M. R.; Matkan, A. A.; Roostaei, M.

    2013-06-01

    Land subsidence, due to natural or anthropogenic processes, causes significant costs in both economic and structural aspects. That part of subsidence observed most is the result of human activities, which relates to underground exploitation. Since the gradual surface deformation is a consequence of hydrocarbon reservoirs extraction, the process of displacement monitoring is amongst the petroleum industry priorities. Nowadays, Differential SAR Interferometry, in which satellite images are utilized for elevation change detection and analysis - in a millimetre scale, has proved to be a more real-time and cost-effective technology in contrast to the traditional surveying method. In this study, surface displacements in Aghajari oil field, i.e. one of the most industrious Iranian hydrocarbon sites, are being examined using radar observations. As in a number of interferograms, the production wells inspection reveals that surface deformation signals develop likely due to extraction in a period of several months. In other words, different subsidence or uplift rates and deformation styles occur locally depending on the geological conditions and excavation rates in place.

  4. Characteristics of Chang 21 Low Permeability Sandstone Reservoir in Shunning Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-min; YU Liu-ying

    2006-01-01

    Characteristics of Chang 21 low permeability sandstone reservoir of Shunning oil field are analyzed and evaluated based on the data of well logging and experiment. The result shows that 1) the Chang 21 low permeability reservoir belongs to the classification of middle-to-fine sized feldspar sandstone, with its components being low in maturity, deposited in distributary rivers in the front of the delta; 2) the reservoir is obviously dominated by a low or a very low permeability with a linear variation tendency different from that of the ultra-low permeability reservoir; 3) the spatial variation in lithology and physical properties of the reservoir are controlled by the sedimentary facies zones, and 4)the physical property of the reservoir is significantly influenced by clastic constituents and their structure, and the constituent of cement materials and their content. The result also shows that the diagenesis action of the reservoir is quite strong in which dissolution greatly modified the reservoir In addition, the inter-granular dissolved pores are the mainly developed ones and the micro-structure is dominated by the combination of middle-to-large sized pores with fine-to-coarse throats. Finally, the radius of the throats is in good exponential correlation with permeability and the seepage capacity comes from those large sized throats.

  5. Recovery of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons from Oil Field Sludge using Bacillus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ahmed Bhutto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation of aliphatic HC (Hydrocarbons in the oily sludge of Kunnar oil and gas field, Pakistan was attempted by means of previously isolated and developed Bacillus sp. Both autoclaved and non-autoclaved sludge samples were analyzed for a reaction time of 30 days with pH 7 and temperature of 380C in 50 ml MSM growth media for the sludge concentration of 5, 10 and 50% with 2, 4 and 6ml of Bacillus sp. relatively, in air atmosphere. Stabilization of the samples by microbial activity resulted in the decrease in TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon concentration by 60, 69 and 87% in autoclaved samples in contrast to the decrease of 70, 84 and 94% observed in non-autoclaved samples, relatively. Hydrocarbon degradation in oily sludge was investigated via GC which transpired that 97 and 99% concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons in autoclaved and non-autoclaved samples was removed at 5% of TPH concentration, relatively. However, with 10% TPH concentration aliphatic hydrocarbons reduction was 68% in autoclaved samples to that of 87% in non-autoclaved samples. Further increase in the hydrocarbons concentration by 50% yielded in the removal of aliphatic hydrocarbons by 65% in autoclaved samples as compared to 98% decrease in non-autoclaved samples.

  6. Performance of EDAB-HCl Acid Blended System as Fracturing Fluids in Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵增迎; 吕国诚; 张以河; 连胜江; 田娜

    2014-01-01

    Due to the high price and formation damage of the guargum fracturing fluid, many oilfields are more and more interested in surfactant based fracturing fluids. The rheological properties of erucicamide dimethyl ami-dopropyl betaine (EDAB)-HCl acid blended system and its suitability as fracturing fluid were investigated in this work. The effects of pH, concentration of EDAB, and temperature on the rheological properties of the blended sys-tem were studied. The results show that addition of EDAB improved the viscosity of the system from less than 10 mPa·s to about 400 mPa·s, which could retard the acid-rock reaction to about one half at 60 °C and one quarter at 90 °C comparing to straight HCl acid, suggesting that there is sufficient time for the blended fluid to react with for-mation rock when it is used as fracturing fluid in an oil field. Core flow tests demonstrated that the EDAB-acid blended fluid could divert itself from high permeability formation core to low permeability one, thus ensuring proper acid placement in the target reservoirs.

  7. Redistribution of calving caribou in response to oil field development on the Arctic slope of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerial surveys were conducted annually in June 1978-87 near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, to determine changes in the distribution of calving caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) that accompanied petroleum-related development. With construction of an oil field access road through a calving concentration area, mean caribou density (no./km2) decreased from 1.41 to 0.31 within 1 km and increased from 1.41 to 4.53, 5-6 km from the road. Concurrently, relative caribou use of the adjacent area declined apparently in response to increasing surface development. It is suggested that perturbed distribution associated with roads reduced the capacity of the nearby area to sustain parturient females and that insufficient spacing of roads may have depressed overall calving activity. Use of traditional calving grounds and of certain areas therein appears to favor calf survival, principally through lower predation risk and improved foraging conditions. Given the possible loss of those habitats through displacement and the crucial importance of the reproductive process, a cautious approach to petroleum development on the Arctic Slope is warranted. 37 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, reporting period March--August 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, reporting period October--December 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    Activities of DOE's Oil Implementation Task Force for the period March--August 1991 are reviewed. Contracts for fields projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery are discussed, with a list of related publications given. Enhanced recovery processes covered include chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, and microbial recovery.

  9. Assessment of potential increased oil production by polymer-waterflood in northern and southern mid-continent oil fields. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pease, R.W.; Durham, E.N.; Watson, J.A.

    1979-09-01

    A conventional waterflood in the North Stanley Field, Osage County, Oklahoma, nearing the economic limit, was modified by substituting an aqueous solution of polyacrylamides for brine as the intected fluid. Remedial operations on existing facilities were performed before polymer injection began. Positive oil production response was achieved from this 1000-acre project, a maximum EOR production rate of about 200 barrels per day being achieved within 1-1/2 years after the start of polymer injection. Based on performance to January 1979, ultimate EOR recovery is estimated at 500,000 barrels.

  10. Holistic oil field value management: using system dynamics for 'intermediate level' and 'value-based' modelling in the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    System dynamics has been seen primarily as a strategic tool, most effectively used at the highest level of strategy to identify robust policy interventions under a wide range of scenarios. However, an alternative, complementary and powerful role is emerging. This is at an 'intermediate level' in organisations to coordinate and integrate policies across the value chain. It is at this level where business value, as defined by the discounted value of future free cash flow, is both created and destroyed. This paper introduces the need for 'intermediate-level' and 'value-based' modelling and emphasises the natural role of system dynamics in supporting a methodology to fulfil the need. It describes the development of an approach and its application in the oil industry to coordinate the response of people and tools within operational, financial and commercial functions across the value chain to address a variety of problems and issues. (author)

  11. Steam-injection experiments for recovery of heavy crude oil of an Iranian field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabatabaei-Nejad, S.A.R.; Shafiei, S.; Rajabzadeh, S.; Haghlesan, A. [Sahand Univ. of Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-11-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of recovering heavy oil by steam injection, a thermal recovery mechanism which involves diffusion of condensed water, evaporation of light components and diffusion of steam. Steam flooding is among the oldest commercial methods for enhanced oil recovery. Experiments of steam injection into a sand pack were conducted to compare the recovery of heavy oil with an API gravity of more than 20, and a lighter oil with an API gravity of less than 20. Two different sand pack porosities were used. The experiments were performed with 4 different types of heavy oil with different API to study their influence on recovery. Steam was injected into the sand pack using different pressures during each experimental run. It was determined that the optimum steam injection pressure must be determined experimentally by saturating the core with oil and then injecting the core with saturated steam. Recovery was found to increase with increased permeability. Although the production rate increases with an increase in injection flow rate, the breakthrough time decreased. It was concluded that the rate of steam injection has a significant influence on recovery and an optimum rate exists for optimum injection flow rate. As oil gets heavier, the recovery decreases and high pressure steam must be applied. Steam injection was found to be more effective for light oil reservoirs, but the risk of fingering exists. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  12. Geological emission of methane from the Yakela condensed oil/gas field in Talimu Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Junhong; BAO Zhengyu; XIANG Wu; GOU Qinghong

    2008-01-01

    A static flux chamber method was applied to study natural emissions of methane into the atmosphere in the Yakela condensed oil/gas field in Talimu Basin, Xinjiang, China. Using an online method, which couples a gas chromatography/high-temperature conversion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/MS) together, the 13C/12C ratios of methane in the flux chambers were measured. The results demonstrated that methane gases were liable to migrate from deep oil/gas reservoir to the surface through microseepage and pervasion, and that a part of the migrated methane that remained unoxidized could emit into the atmosphere. Methane emission rates varied less in the oil/gas field because the whole region was homogeneous in geology and geography, with a standard deviation of less than 0.02 mg/(m2·h). These were the differences in methane emission flux in the day and at night in the oil/gas field. The maximum methane emission flux reached 0.15 mg/(m2·h) at 5:00-6:00 early in the morning, and then decreased gradually. The minimum was shown 0.10 mg/(m2·h) at 17:00-18:00 in the afternoon, and then increased gradually. The daily methane released flux of the study area was 2.89 mg/(m2·d), with a standard deviation of 0.43 mg/(m2·d), using the average methane flux of every hour in a day for all chambers. δ13C of methane increased with the increase of methane concentration in the flux chambers, further indicating that the pyrogenetic origin of methane was come from deep oil/gas reservoirs.

  13. Field tests for the verification of oil-mineral aggregate (OMA) formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior studies identified a process where small mineral particles in beach sediments or suspended in nearshore waters interacted with oil in seawater to form oil-mineral aggregates (OMA). This process facilitated the dispersion of oil in the sea, thereby contributing to the removal of oil from marine shorelines. It proved possible to improve this natural occurrence by choosing appropriate shoreline clean up techniques with sediment relocation. The best way to identify OMA in water samples was with ultraviolet (UV) epi-fluorescence microscopy. A new method was developed to determine the potential of beach sediment to form OMA with spilled oil. It involved a simple, rapid and cost-effective test performed on location. This new test, used in conjunction with microscopy techniques or used alone, demonstrated its potential to assist planners in the measures to be implemented to achieve remediation. 11 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  14. Microbial metabolism in oil fields and production plants. Final report. Mikrobielle Stoffwechselprozesse in Erdoelfeldern und Gewinnungsanlagen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeveke, R.; Graff, M.

    1987-04-01

    In laboratory experiments and by attempts to produce enrichment cultures of bacteria from samples of oil deposits the influence of the ecological parameters salt concentration, temperature and hydrostatic pressure on the establishment of microbial dissimilatory sulfate reduction were looked into. In situ sulfate reduction in untampered deposits would appear to be very unlikely. But through the influence of secondary or tertiary operations (even in deep deposits) bacterial H/sub 2/S production may be initiated. In the type of oil deposit investigated the participation of an autochthonous bacterial biocenosis can almost certainly be ruled out. On the question of the availability of energy and nutrient sources and of the terminal electron acceptor sulfate, it could be shown that most deposits contained sufficient ammonium and sulfate to support dissimilatory sulfate reduction, while phosphate appeared often to be a limiting factor. In addition it is shown that the degradation of components from natural deposits is of no significance. Some oil field chemicals, on the other hand, provide good sources of energy and nutrients at whose expense, through a syntrophism between sulfate reducing and non sulfate reducing bacteria, dissimilatory sulfate reduction can occur. Other oil field chemicals may provide sulfate or phosphate. The effects of these circumstances on practical operations are discussed. With 9 figs., 39 tabs..

  15. Fundamental studies for microbial enhanced oil recovery field test; Biseibutsu koho (MEOR) fuirudo tesuto no tameno kisoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, H. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Geoscience and Tech.; Fujiwara, K. [Kansai Research Inst., Kyoto (Japan). Lefescience Research Center; Yonebayashi, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Tech. Research Center

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes a series of experiments relevant to the screening of microbes to adapt and monitor the targeted microbes in the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) process. Firstly, the samples of reservoir brine, soil of well site, drilling cuttings, and activated sludge were collected from domestic oil fields, drilling sites, sewage treatment facilities, and environmental conditions. To achieve higher oil recovery, metabolic products of isolates were individually evaluated. These isolates were also incubated in culture bottles packed with silica sands, to clarify the growth potential and metabolic activity in the micro culture space. By carrying out two stages of flooding experiments simulating the reservoir environment, the capability of isolates for improving oil recovery was evaluated, and the microbes were selected. Two gene-engineering techniques were established in parallel with the screening experiments for monitoring the microbes injected into the reservoir. These techniques are potentially capable of rapidly detecting the presence of injecting microbes; moreover, they are available and effective for studying the microbes relevant to the MEOR process. In addition, it was demonstrated that metabolic activity of the microbes capable of producing effective gas could be estimated based on the quantity of 2,3-butanediol found as a major end product of fermentation. The results of the huff and puff field test implied that the gene-engineering techniques established in this study and the metabolic activity analysis on 2,3-butanediol were effective for understanding the growth and metabolic activity of the microbes injected into the reservoir. (author)

  16. IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY FROM UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER CARBONATES THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AT WOMACK HILL OIL FIELD, CHOCTAW AND CLARKE COUNTIES, EASTERN GULF COASTAL PLAIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-05-20

    Pruet Production Co. and the Center for Sedimentary Basin Studies at the University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, Mississippi State University, University of Mississippi, and Wayne Stafford and Associates are undertaking a focused, comprehensive, integrated and multidisciplinary study of Upper Jurassic Smackover carbonates (Class II Reservoir), involving reservoir characterization and 3-D modeling and an integrated field demonstration project at Womack Hill Oil Field Unit, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. The principal objectives of the project are: increasing the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs. The principal research efforts for Year 3 of the project have been recovery technology analysis and recovery technology evaluation. The research focus has primarily been on well test analysis, 3-D reservoir simulation, microbial core experiments, and the decision to acquire new seismic data for the Womack Hill Field area. Although Geoscientific Reservoir Characterization and 3-D Geologic Modeling have been completed and Petrophysical and Engineering Characterization and Microbial Characterization are essentially on schedule, a no-cost extension until September 30, 2003, has been granted by DOE so that new seismic data for the Womack Hill Field can be acquired and interpreted to assist in the determination as to whether Phase II of the project should be implemented.

  17. Sea bird observations during an experimental oil spill on the Frigg field August 1995; Observasjoner av sjoefugl i forbindelse med eksperimentelt oljeutslipp - Friggfeltet august 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorentsen, S.H.

    1995-10-01

    During an experimental oil spill on the Frigg field in August 1995 the distribution and number of sea birds was mapped prior to the release of the first oil spill. As discussed in this report, behavioural studies were carried out to estimate the number of sea birds harmed in a real oil spill. There were three spills of 15 m{sup 3} each and two spills of 25 m{sup 3} each, of clean oil. Very few birds were observed to have oil damage. The usefulness of this type of exercise for vulnerability studies is discussed. It is concluded that experimental as well as real oil spill situations should be utilized to collect information on the behavioural reaction of sea birds to drifting oil spills. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. The influence of bioaugmentation and biosurfactant addition on bioremediation efficiency of diesel-oil contaminated soil: feasibility during field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Alicja; Ambrożewicz, Damian; Sydow, Mateusz; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    The study focused on assessing the influence of bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids on diesel oil biodegradation efficiency during field studies. Initial laboratory studies (measurement of emitted CO2 and dehydrogenase activity) were carried out in order to select the consortium for bioaugmentation as well as to evaluate the most appropriate concentration of rhamnolipids. The selected consortium consisted of following bacterial taxa: Aeromonas hydrophila, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, Gordonia sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Rhodococcus equi, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Xanthomonas sp. It was established that the application of rhamnolipids at 150 mg/kg of soil was most appropriate in terms of dehydrogenase activity. Based on the obtained results, four treatment methods were designed and tested during 365 days of field studies: I) natural attenuation; II) addition of rhamnolipids; III) bioaugmentation; IV) bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids. It was observed that bioaugmentation contributed to the highest diesel oil biodegradation efficiency, whereas the addition of rhamnolipids did not notably influence the treatment process. PMID:24291585

  19. Optimization of Direction and Length of Horizontal Wells in Oil Field-X Using Fuzzy Substractive Clustering and Fuzzy Logic Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Tutuka Ariadji; Annisa Finka Mayusha; Niken Nuraini Nissa; Kuntjoro Adji Sidarto; Edy Soewono

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses an optimization model to obtain the optimal direction and length of horizontal wells in the oil field X. In the common practice in oil industries, the optimal direction and length are obtained from a trial and error method through a considerably time consuming reservoir simulation runs. Employing the basic reservoir properties data of the porosity, permeability, oil saturation, and location of each grid of the available reservoir model, Fuzzy Subtractive Clustering is use...

  20. ĐELETOVCI, ILAČA AND PRIVLAKA OIL FIELDS AS IMPORTANT ECONOMIC FACTORS IN PROCESS OF PEACEFUL REINTEGRATION OF THE CROATIAN DANUBE REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Mirko Zelić; Željko Mlinarić; Tvrtko Grgić

    1997-01-01

    History of discovery, reservoir development and production of Oil fields Đeletovci, Ilača and Privlaka (ĐIP), to the moment of occupation by so-called JNA and Serbia at autumn 1991 are described. Beside fundamental physical and chemical properties of oil deposits, erection of gathering and transportation system, and war chronology; the chronology of proceedings and dinamic of return these oil deposits into the INA production system are displayed. Dinamic and grade of revival and bringin...

  1. Modeling of Partially Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide-Hexamine-Hydroquinone Gel System Used for Profile Modification Jobs in the Oil Field

    OpenAIRE

    Upendra Singh Yadav; Vikas Mahto

    2013-01-01

    The cross-linked polymer gel systems are being used increasingly to redirect or modify reservoir fluid movement in the vicinity of injection wells for the purpose of permeability/profile modification job in the oil field due to their high temperature stability and capability to provide rigid gel having high mechanical strength. In this study, a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-hexamine-hydroquinonegel is used for the development of polymer gel system. The experimental investigation demonst...

  2. Application of Double-Difference Seismic Tomography to Carbon Sequestration Monitoring at the Aneth Oil Field, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Slaker, Brent; Westman, Erik; Luxbacher, Kray; Ripepi, Nino

    2013-01-01

    Double difference seismic tomography was performed using travel time data from a carbon sequestration site at the Aneth oil field in southeast Utah as part of a Department of Energy initiative on monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of sequestered CO2. A total of 1211 seismic events were recorded from a borehole array consisting of 23 geophones. Artificial velocity models were created to determine the likelihood of detecting a CO2 plume with an unfavorable event and receiver arrange...

  3. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 86, quarter ending March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Summaries are presented for 37 enhanced oil recovery contracts being supported by the Department of Energy. The projects are grouped into gas displacement methods, thermal recovery methods, geoscience technology, reservoir characterization, and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. Each summary includes the objectives of the project and a summary of the technical progress, as well as information on contract dates, size of award, principal investigator, and company or facility doing the research.

  4. Insecticidal Potential of Clove Essential Oil and Its Constituents on Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Laboratory and Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bao-Liang; Liu, Qi-Zhi; Liu, Zhi-Long; Li, Peng; Wang, Jie-Wen

    2015-06-01

    Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang and Li) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is an important pest of pear in China. As an alternative to conventional chemical pesticides, botanicals including essential oils and their constituents could provide an eco-friendly and nonhazardous control method. In this study, the essential oil of clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum) was obtained by hydrodistillation. Five constituents, accounting for 99.89% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the major constituents were eugenol (88.61%) and eugenol acetate (8.89%), followed by β-caryophyllene (1.89%). In a laboratory bioassay, clove essential oil, commercial eugenol (99.00%) and β-caryophyllene (98.00%) exhibited strong contact toxicity against the summerform adults of C. chinensis with LD50 values of 0.730, 0.673, and 0.708 µg/adult, and against the nymphs with LD50 values of 1.795, 1.668, and 1.770 µg/nymph, respectively. In contrast, commercial eugenol acetate (98%) had LD50 values of 9.266 µg/adult and 9.942 µg/nymph. In a field trial, clove essential oil caused significant population reductions of 73.01% (4.80 mg/ml), 66.18% (2.40 mg/ml) and 46.56% (1.20 mg/ml), respectively. Our results demonstrated that clove essential oil and its constituents have potential as a source of natural insecticides. PMID:26470216

  5. The Jinadriyah anticlines: a surface model for oil fields in eastern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesozoic oil in Saudi Arabia exists in north/south-oriented anticlines. Such anticlines are usually studied using subsurface data. The present study introduces, for the first time in Saudi Arabia, a surface analog for these anticlines. The study covers two northerly oriented anticlines located in the Jinadriyah area at 15 km to the northeast of the Riyadh city. They are named herein the North and South Jinadriyah anticlines. The outcrops in both anticlines belong to the Lower Cretaceous Yamama Formation which consists of limestone in its lower part and limestone with shale in its upper part. The study included initially detailed interpretation of Google Earth and Landsat TM images to map the structural pattern of the anticlines. Detailed field mapping confirmed the satellite image interpretation and helped describe the geometry of the two anticlines in detail. The 3.5-km-long South Jinadriyah anticline is an open doubly plunging asymmetric anticline. The western flank is dissected by 13 minor reverse faults of north-south orientation. The North Jinadriyah anticline is about 5.5 km long and is relatively more complex than the South Jinadriyah anticline. It consists of northern, central, and southern segments that differ from each others in orientation and style. The anticline is dissected by 18 minor faults of different orientations and sense of displacement. Two perpendicular fracture sets with one being parallel to the anticline axes were recorded in the two anticlines. Both anticlines are interpreted as fault-propagation folds that were formed during the Late Cretaceous first Alpine orogeny. The mid-Late Tertiary second Alpine orogeny and Late Tertiary eastward tilting of the Arabian Plate increased the degree of folding and faulting. (author)

  6. Regulation of mature oil fields: a constitutional analysis; Regulacao de campos maduros de petroleo: uma analise a luz da Constituicao Federal de 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Mariana de; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The oil activities in Brazil had been started in an intensive way by the years 30 and 40. During approximately 40 years only one agent had been executed the oil activities in this country: the PETROBRAS. Many of the fields explored in the past are nowadays in decline. These fields, not interesting for the majors, would be interesting for the small and medium enterprises. The present research analyses the mature oil fields and its regulation in Brazil, looking to the 'Constituicao Federal de 1988' and to the idea of social and economic development. (author)

  7. Petrophysical evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of the Lower Cretaceous Kharita clastics, North Qarun oil field, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teama, Mostafa A.; Nabawy, Bassem S.

    2016-09-01

    Based on the available well log data of six wells chosen in the North Qarun oil field in the Western Desert of Egypt, the petrophysical evaluation for the Lower Cretaceous Kharita Formation was accomplished. The lithology of Kharita Formation was analyzed using the neutron porosity-density and the neutron porosity-gamma ray crossplots as well as the litho-saturation plot. The petrophysical parameters, include shale volume, effective porosity, water saturation and hydrocarbon pore volume, were determined and traced laterally in the studied field through the iso-parametric maps. The lithology crossplots of the studied wells show that the sandstone is the main lithology of the Kharita Formation intercalated with some calcareous shale. The cutoff values of shale volume, porosity and water saturation for the productive hydrocarbon pay zones are defined to be 40%, 10% and 50%, respectively, which were determined, based on the applied crossplots approach and their limits. The iso-parametric contour maps for the average reservoir parameters; such as net-pay thickness, average porosity, shale volume, water saturation and the hydrocarbon pore volume were illustrated. From the present study, it is found that the Kharita Formation in the North Qarun oil field has promising reservoir characteristics, particularly in the northwestern part of the study area, which is considered as a prospective area for oil accumulation.

  8. Ready to triple : Lloydminster heavy oil production set for spike when new technology hits the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presented details of a study of cold heavy oil production in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) which focused on the Lloydminster Heavy Oil Resource (LHOR) which consists of a total of approximately 35 Bbbl of original oil in place. In 1970, production of LHOR was 25,000 bbl/d. Slant drilling and better overall drilling technology enabled a climb in production that lasted until 1984, at which point the LHOR was producing nearly 120,000 bbl/d. By 1997, production had again tripled due to the use of progressing cavity pumps, 3-D seismic, and horizontal drilling. Production has remained consistent at 350,000 bbl/d, and only 6 per cent of the original oil in place has been recovered. Several technologies may play a role in extending the LHOR, including waterfloods enhanced with chemicals; chemical processes with solvents; and thermal processes using cyclic steam injection or steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). A series of small upgraders placed strategically across the region to convert the heavy oil into fuel may help to boost production. Ivanhoe Energy has recently announced completion of a commercial demonstration project to upgrade a range of heavy oils to lighter crudes. The technology is suited to small-scale operations, and can be installed near the wellhead to eliminate the need for diluent. The heavy to light oil (HTL) technology may also attract the interest of SAGD operators and producers with assets in remote locations. The price differential between Canadian light crude and Lloydminster conventional heavy blends is approximately US$20 per barrel. A number of projects are now underway to alleviate the heavy oil bottleneck and drive down the price differential. Many oil and gas companies are increasing capacity at their refining plants to accommodate Canadian heavy crude, a move which has been driven by the projected increased production from the oilsands region in Alberta. In addition, interest in cold heavy oil extraction

  9. Contribution Of Horizontal Drilling Technology In The Development Programs Of Saudi Oil Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Hamada, G. M.; Al-Awad, M. N. J.; Al-Blehed, M. S.; Al-Saddique, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    The technology of drilling and production of horizontal wells is probably one of the most significant breakthrough in the oil and gas industry of the eighties. The continuous improvement of hardware equipment made horizontal drilling cost-effective technique for developing reserves, improving productivity and recovery in oil and gas reservoir. This paper is devoted to Saudi experience in horizontal drilling. The last years have been an exciting period for those who believed in horizontal d...

  10. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, D.; Koerner, R.; Moos D.; Nguyen, J.; Phillips, C.; Tagbor, K.; Walker, S.

    1999-04-05

    This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate.

  11. Electromagnetic Heating of Heavy Oil and Bitumen: A Review of Experimental Studies and Field Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Albina Mukhametshina; Elena Martynova

    2013-01-01

    Viscosity is a major obstacle in the recovery of low API gravity oil resources from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. While thermal recovery is usually considered the most effective method for lowering viscosity, for some reservoirs introducing heat with commonly implemented thermal methods is not recommended. For these types of reservoirs, electromagnetic heating is the recommended solution. Electromagnetic heating targets part of the reservoir instead of heating the bulk of the reservoir, w...

  12. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott; Phillips, Chris; Nguyen, John; Moos, Dan; Tagbor, Kwasi

    2001-08-07

    This project was intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs, transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  13. External magnetic field dependent light transmission and scattered speckle pattern in a magnetically polarizable oil-in-water nanoemulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brojabasi, Surajit; Lahiri, B.B.; Philip, John, E-mail: philip@igcar.gov.in

    2014-12-01

    We study the magnetic field dependent light transmission and scattered speckle pattern in a magnetically polarizable oil-in-water emulsion of droplet diameter ∼220 nm, where the direction of propagation of light is parallel to the direction of the external magnetic field. Up to a magnetic field of 50 Gauss, the nanoemulsion remains opaque due to intense Mie scattering. Above 50 Gauss, the transmitted light intensity increases with external magnetic field up to a critical field (B{sub C}). Further increase in the magnetic field leads to a reduction in the transmitted intensity. The B{sub C} shifts to a lower magnetic field with increasing volume fraction (ϕ) and follows a power law dependence with ϕ, indicating a disorder–order transition. The scattered light intensity at the lobe part is found to increase with external magnetic field. The analysis of the lobe part reveals that the speckle contrast increases with external magnetic field due to the coarsening of the linear chain-like aggregates formed along the direction of the external magnetic field. The angular speckle correlation coefficient is found to be symmetrical on either side of the transmitted bright spot and decays exponentially with measurement angles.

  14. External magnetic field dependent light transmission and scattered speckle pattern in a magnetically polarizable oil-in-water nanoemulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the magnetic field dependent light transmission and scattered speckle pattern in a magnetically polarizable oil-in-water emulsion of droplet diameter ∼220 nm, where the direction of propagation of light is parallel to the direction of the external magnetic field. Up to a magnetic field of 50 Gauss, the nanoemulsion remains opaque due to intense Mie scattering. Above 50 Gauss, the transmitted light intensity increases with external magnetic field up to a critical field (BC). Further increase in the magnetic field leads to a reduction in the transmitted intensity. The BC shifts to a lower magnetic field with increasing volume fraction (ϕ) and follows a power law dependence with ϕ, indicating a disorder–order transition. The scattered light intensity at the lobe part is found to increase with external magnetic field. The analysis of the lobe part reveals that the speckle contrast increases with external magnetic field due to the coarsening of the linear chain-like aggregates formed along the direction of the external magnetic field. The angular speckle correlation coefficient is found to be symmetrical on either side of the transmitted bright spot and decays exponentially with measurement angles

  15. Decontamination of contaminated oils with radio nuclides using magnetic fields; Descontaminacion de aceites contaminados con radionuclidos utilizando campos magneticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez R, C. E.

    2011-07-01

    The present work is focused in to find a solution to the wastes treatment that are generated during the maintenance to the nuclear power industry, the specify case of the contaminated oils with radio nuclides, for this purpose was necessary to make a meticulous characterization of the oils before the treatment proposal using advanced techniques, being determined the activity of them, as well as their physical-chemical characteristics. By means of the developed procedure that combines the use of magnetic fields and filtration to remove the contaminated material with radioactive particles, is possible to diminish the activity of the oils from values that oscillate between 6,00 and 10,00 up to 0,00 to 0,0003 Bq/ml. The decontamination factor of the process is of 99.00%. The proposal of the necessary technology for to decontaminate the oils is also made and is carried out the economic analysis based on the reuse of these, as well as the calculation of the avoided damages. (Author)

  16. Dynamic characterization of the M19 area, Cerro Negro Field, corresponding to Carabobo Block, Orinoco oil belt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, A. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). E and P Orinoco Belt Division

    2009-07-01

    The Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela is divided into the Boyaca, Junin, Ayacucho and Carabobo areas. This study characterized the M19 area of the Cerro Negro Field, corresponding to Carabobo Block, one of the most prospective areas in the Orinoco oil belt. This small section of Carabobo Block involves a stock tank original oil in place of 11,000 MMSTB with an API gravity between 7.8 and 8. The initial reservoir pressure is about 1,200 psia and solution gas drive is the predominant primary production mechanism. The range of viscosities varies from 2,000 to 6,000 cps. The average porosity is 30 per cent and permeability varies from 2 to 7 Darcies. This study focused on obtaining a better understanding of the reservoir behaviour. Results from geophysics, petrophysics, sedimentology, and reservoir engineering analysis were integrated in order to characterize the area with a simulation model and to address many uncertainties which have affected exploitation of the oil field since 1980. These issues are related to vertical drainage, horizontal well spacing, and horizontal well length. The pressure model did not reveal any evidence of main compartments within the reservoir. The petrophysical properties and fluid model honours the production behaviour of the whole field. The critical gas saturation that is needed to achieve a production gas match is approximately 3 per cent. The optimum horizontal length should not exceed 4600 feet and vertical drainage suggests a well spacing of 80 ft in order to minimize interference. The cold recovery factor would increase by reducing the horizontal spacing up to 200 mts. The need for implementing a thermal and chemical process to increase the recovery factor was reinforced. 7 refs., 5 tabs., 47 figs.

  17. ĐELETOVCI, ILAČA AND PRIVLAKA OIL FIELDS AS IMPORTANT ECONOMIC FACTORS IN PROCESS OF PEACEFUL REINTEGRATION OF THE CROATIAN DANUBE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Zelić

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available History of discovery, reservoir development and production of Oil fields Đeletovci, Ilača and Privlaka (ĐIP, to the moment of occupation by so-called JNA and Serbia at autumn 1991 are described. Beside fundamental physical and chemical properties of oil deposits, erection of gathering and transportation system, and war chronology; the chronology of proceedings and dinamic of return these oil deposits into the INA production system are displayed. Dinamic and grade of revival and bringing the wells and gathering and transportation system to the function, just like perspective of oil production by application of new technologies are quoted.

  18. Bacterial Community Dynamics and Hydrocarbon Degradation during a Field-Scale Evaluation of Bioremediation on a Mudflat Beach Contaminated with Buried Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Röling, Wilfred F. M.; Milner, Michael G.; Jones, D. Martin; Fratepietro, Francesco; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Daniel, Fabien; Head, Ian M.

    2004-01-01

    A field-scale experiment with a complete randomized block design was performed to study the degradation of buried oil on a shoreline over a period of almost 1 year. The following four treatments were examined in three replicate blocks: two levels of fertilizer treatment of oil-treated plots, one receiving a weekly application of liquid fertilizer and the other treated with a slow-release fertilizer; and two controls, one not treated with oil and the other treated with oil but not with fertili...

  19. Increasing heavy oil reservers in the Wilmington oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies, technical progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, S. [Tidelands Oil Production Co., Long Beach, CA (United States)], Casteel, J. [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)

    1997-05-11

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) 11-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and

  20. Optimization of Vertical Well Placement for Oil Field Development Based on Basic Reservoir Rock Properties using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutuka Ariadji

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Comparing the quality of basic reservoir rock properties is a common practice to locate new infills or development wells for optimizing an oil field development using a reservoir simulation. The conventional technique employs a manual trial and error process to find new well locations, which proves to be time-consuming, especially, for a large field. Concerning this practical matter, an alternative in the form of a robust technique was introduced in order that time and efforts could be reduced in finding best new well locations capable of producing the highest oil recovery. The objective of the research was to apply Genetic Algorithm (GA in determining wells locations using reservoir simulation to avoid the manual conventional trial and error method. GA involved the basic rock properties, i.e., porosity, permeability, and oil saturation, of each grid block obtained from a reservoir simulation model, which was applied into a newly generated fitness function formulated through translating the common engineering practice in the reservoir simulation into a mathematical equation and then into a computer program. The maximum of the fitness value indicated a final searching of the best grid location for a new well location. In order to evaluate the performance of the generated GA program, two fields that had different production profile characteristics, namely the X and Y fields, were applied to validate the proposed method. The proposed GA method proved to be a robust and accurate method to find the best new well locations for field development. The key success of this proposed GA method is in the formulation of the objective function.

  1. Excito-repellency of essential oils against an Aedes aegypti (L.) field population in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyuan, Wasana; Grieco, John P; Bangs, Michael J; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Tantakom, Siripun; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2014-06-01

    An investigation of the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti (= Stegomyia aegypti) to various concentrations of essential oils (2.5, 5, and 10%) extracted from hairy basil (Ocimum americanum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus Rendle), and plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) were performed using an excito-repellency test chamber. Results showed that Ae. aegypti exhibited varying levels of escape response in both the contact and noncontact chambers in response to different essential oils. The magnitude of the behaviors changed in a dose-response fashion depending on the percent volume to volume concentration of oil used. A 2.5% concentration of hairy basil oil produced a significantly greater escape response compared to the other extracts at the same concentration (P< 0.05). Oils of ginger, lemongrass, and citronella produced stronger irritant and repellent responses at the median 5% concentration compared to the lowest and highest concentrations. There was marked suppression of escape for both contact and noncontact tests using 10% concentrations of hairy basil, lemongrass, and citronella, with high knockdown for all three oils after 30 min. Hairy basil and lemongrass had the highest insecticidal activity to Ae. aegypti, with LC50 values of 6.3 and 6.7 percent, respectively. We conclude that the essential oils from native plants tested, and likely many other extracts found in plants, have inherent repellent and irritant qualities that should to be screened and optimized for their behavior-modifying properties against Ae. aegypti and other biting arthropods of public health and pest importance. PMID:24820563

  2. Study of an Oil Field (Hassi Messaoud) by Injection of Tritiated Methane, Ethane, Propane and Butane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas is injected into a deposit to increase the yield of oil contained in the rock and to maintain the pressure of the fluids at a value sufficient for the wells to remain naturally eruptive. The efficiency of this technique depends mainly on establishing a uniform displacement front in spite of heterogeneities. When the gas is injected simultaneously into several wells, the gas-oil displacement can be checked only if the origin of the gas reaching the producer wells is known with certainty. This is achieved by mixing with the gas from each of the injection wells a radioactive tracer whose path in the oil-bearing rock faithfully reproduces the movement of the gas-oil front. The tracers used are tritiated methane, ethane, propane and butane, which are injected respectively into four wells in amounts of up to 200 Ci. The distance separating each injection well from a producer well is considerable (1-6 km) and the oil volume is great, so that the radioactive tracer undergoes very marked dilution during its displacement. For industrial-scale detection of the arrival of the different tracers at the producers, it is therefore necessary to use very sensitive methods. Samples of oil are taken at the head of the producers at a pressure of approx. 50 kg/cm2. The gas in solution in the oil is separated into four fractions, which are respectively rich in C1, C2, C3 and C4 with a degree of purity better than 90%. The beta radiation of each of the fractions is then measured using a double-envelope proportional counter placed in a lead container and connected to an anti-coincidence counting system. The long-term possibility of isotopic exchange between the different tracers and the hydrocarbons present in the rock were studied experimentally under the conditions of pressure and temperature at the deposit. (author)

  3. Questions of working and oil output of Azerbaijan land fields. Voprosy razrabotki i nefteotdachi mestorozhdeniy sushi Azerbaydzhana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents results of experimental injection of water into the beds of the Siazanskiy monocline fields which are characterized by steep thin-layered productive beds with complicated geophysical structure. Ways to intensify working of the Kirmakinskiy series of fields in central and eastern Apsheron, questions of flooding and its regulation in examples of the Kurinskiy lowland fields, and flowsheets for instruments and equipment to determine the hydrothermodynamic parameters are examined. Results are presented of experimental-industrial work on physicochemical and thermal methods for improving oil bed output. Based on analytical evaluation of the field information, for the first time an examination was made of the influence of geological-physical, energy and operating indicators of the beds on the effectiveness of surfactant modification.

  4. Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Eastern Gulf Costal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-05-31

    , multiwell productivity analysis, and reservoir simulation studies indicate that water injection continues to provide stable support to maintain production from wells in the western unitized area of the field and that the strong water drive present in the eastern area of the field is adequate to sustain production from this part of the field. Although the results from the microbial characterization and microbial core experiments are very promising, it is recommended that an immobilized enzyme technology project not be implemented in the Womack Hill Field Unit until live (freshly taken and properly preserved) cores from the Smackover reservoir in the field are acquired to confirm the microbial core experiments to date. From 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir performance analysis, and reservoir simulation, four areas in the Womack Hill Field were identified as prospective infill drilling sites to recover undrained oil from the field. It was determined that the two areas in the unit area probably can be effectively drained by perforating higher zones in the Smackover reservoir in currently producing wells. The two areas in the eastern (non-unitized) part of the field require the drilling of new wells. The successful drilling and testing of a well in 2003 by J. R. Pounds, Inc. has proven the oil potential of the easternmost site in the non-unitized part of the field. Pruet Production Co. acquired new 2-D seismic data to evaluate the oil potential of the westernmost site. Because of the effects of a fault shadow from the major fault bounding the southern border of the Womack Hill Field, it is difficult to evaluate conclusively this potential drill site. Pruet Production Co. has decided not to drill this new well at this time and to further evaluate the new 2-D seismic profiles after these data have been processed using a pre-stack migration technique. Pruet Production Co. has elected not to continue into Phase II of this project because they are not prepared to make a proposal to

  5. Large-scale Tazhong Ordovician Reef-fiat Oil-Gas Field in the Tarim Basin of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xinyuan; WANG Zhaoming; YANG Haijun; ZHANG Lijuan; HAN Jianfa; WANG Zhenyu

    2009-01-01

    The Tazhong reef-flat oil-gas field is the first large-scale Ordovician organic reef type oil-gas field found in China.Its organic reefs were developed in the early Late Ordovician Lianglitag Formation, and are the first large reefs of the coral-stromatoporoid hermatypic community found in China.The organic reefs and platform-margin grain banks constitute a reef-fiat complex, mainly consisting of biolithites and grainstones.The biolithites can be classified into the framestone, bafflestone.bindstone etc.The main body of the complex lies around the wells from Tazhong-24 to Tazhong-82, trending northwest, with the thickness from 100 to 300 m, length about 220 km and width 5-10 km.It is a reef-flat lithologic hydrocarbon reservoir, with a very complex hydrocarbon distribution:being a gas condensate reservoir as a whole with local oil reservoirs.The hydrocarbon distribution is controlled by the reef complex.generally located in the upper 100-200 m part of the complex,and largely in a banded shape along the complex.On the profile,the reservoir shows a stratified feature.with an altitude difierence of almost 2200 m from southeast to northwest.The petroleum accumulation is controlled by karst reservoir beds and the northeast strike-slip fault belt. The total geologic reserves had reached 297.667 Mt by 2007.

  6. SAGD pilot project, wells MFB-772 (producer) / MFB-773 (injector), U1,3 MFB-53 reservoir, Bare Field. Orinoco oil belt. Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mago, R.; Franco, L.; Armas, F.; Vasquez, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Gil, E. [PDVSA EandP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In heavy oil and extra heavy oil fields, steam assisted gravity drainage is a thermal recovery method used to reduce oil viscosity and thus increase oil recovery. For SAGD to be successfully applied in deep reservoirs, drilling and completion of the producer and injector wells are critical. Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) is currently assessing the feasibility of SAGD in the Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela and this paper aims at presenting the methodology used to ensure optimal drilling and completion of the project. This method was divided in several stages: planning, drilling and completion of the producer, injector and then of the observer wells and cold information capture. It was found that the use of magnetic guidance tools, injection pipe pre-insulated and pressure and temperature sensors helps optimize the drilling and completion process. A methodology was presented to standardize operational procedures in the drilling and completion of SAGD projects in the Orinoco oil belt.

  7. Field evaluation of neem and canola oil for the selective control of the honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) mite parasites Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) and Acarapis woodi (Acari: Tarsonemidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melathopoulos, A P; Winston, M L; Whittington, R; Higo, H; Le Doux, M

    2000-06-01

    Neem oil, neem extract (neem-aza), and canola oil were evaluated for the management of the honey bee mite parasites Varroa jacobsoni (Oudemans) and Acarapis woodi (Rennie) in field experiments. Spraying neem oil on bees was more effective at controlling V. jacobsoni than feeding oil in a sucrose-based matrix (patty), feeding neem-aza in syrup, or spraying canola oil. Neem oil sprays also protected susceptible bees from A. woodi infestation. Only neem oil provided V. jacobsoni control comparable to the known varroacide formic acid, but it was not as effective as the synthetic product Apistan (tau-fluvalinate). Neem oil was effective only when sprayed six times at 4-d intervals and not when applied three times at 8-d intervals. Neem oil spray treatments had no effect on adult honey bee populations, but treatments reduced the amount of sealed brood in colonies by 50% and caused queen loss at higher doses. Taken together, the results suggest that neem and canola oil show some promise for managing honey bee parasitic mites, but the negative effects of treatments to colonies and the lower efficacy against V. jacobsoni compared with synthetic acaricides may limit their usefulness to beekeepers. PMID:10902299

  8. The Effect of Oregano and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Field Pea Silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soycan-Önenç, Sibel; Koc, Fisun; Coşkuntuna, Levent; Özdüven, M Levent; Gümüş, Tuncay

    2015-09-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of field pea silages which were the organic acid (OA) alternative of oregano and cinnamon essential oils on fermentation quality and aerobic stability. Whole crop pea was harvested at full pod stage and wilted in the laboratory at the 48 h. The chopped pea was mixed and divided into equal portions allocated to five groups: CON (non-treated), distilled water, denoted as control group; OA group, a mixture of 60% formic acid, 20% sodium formate and 20% water applied at a rate of 5 g/kg fresh forage (Silofarm Liquid, Farmavet); origanum (ORE) group, Origanum onites essential oil at 400 mg/kg fresh forage; cinnamon (CIN) group, cinnamon essential oil at 400 mg/kg fresh forage; origanum+cinnamon (ORECIN) group, a mixture of ORE and CIN applied at an equal rate of 400 mg/kg fresh forage. Cinnamon decreased acetic acid (AA), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and weight loss (WL) at the end of 60 days silage. Crude protein (CP) and dry matter (DM) increased by cinnamon essential oil. Yeasts were not detected in any treatments, including the control, after 7 days of air exposure. The CO2 amount decreased and the formation mold was inhibited in the aerobic period by the addition of cinnamon oil. Oregano did not show a similar effect, but when it was used with cinnamon, it showed synergic effect on AA and during aerobic period, it showed antagonistic effect on mold formation and DM losses. It was found in this study that cinnamon can be an alternative to organic acids. PMID:26323518

  9. Litho-geophysical structure of Paleozoic-Mesozoic contact zones in North-Ostaninsk oil field (Tomsk Oblast)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multidiscipline seismic and gravimagnetic survey, as well as paleomagnetic and lithologic-stratigraphic analysis of pre-Jurassic formations were conducted in North- Ostaninsk oil field within south-east Western Siberian petroleum province. A multidirectional tectonic deformation network merging into the destruction zones of Paleozoic basement was identified. The material composition and age of pre-Jurassic formations within each tectonic block were determined. Fundamentally new geological structure model of the Paleozoic suite was proposed : North-Ostaninsk erosion-tectonic protrusion - a reversed and structurally-complex fracture - deformed tectonic syncline fold where the oil reservoir is confined to the dipping limb. Reversed morphostructures in the erosion-tectonic protrusions could be a prospecting indicator in evaluating the hydrocarbon potential of Paleozoic sediments

  10. Clove oil as an anaesthetic for adult sockeye salmon: Field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, C.A.; Nelson, Jack L.; Ramstad, K.

    2002-01-01

    Wild migrating sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka exposed to 20, 50 and 80 mg 1-1 of clove oil could be handled within 3 min, recovered within 10 min, and survived 15 min exposure trials. Fish tested at 110 mg 1-1 did not recover from 15 min exposure trials. Response curves developed for induction and recovery time considered the following predictors: clove oil concentration, sex, fish length and depth. A significant positive dependence was observed between induction time and fish length for 20, 50 and 80 mg 1-1 test concentrations; no dependence was observed between induction time and length at 110 and 140 mg 1-1. Recovery time differed as a function of clove oil concentration, but not fish size. A concentration of 50 mg 1-1 is recommended for anaesthetizing sockeye salmon ranging in length from 400 to 550 mm at water temperatures averaging 9-10??C.

  11. Floating Production Platforms and their Applications in the Development of Oil and Gas Fields in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dagang Zhang; Yongjun Chen; Tianyu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the current available options for floating production platforms in developing deepwater oil fields and the potential development models of future oil and gas exploration in the South China Sea. A detailed review of current deepwater platforms worldwide was performed through the examples of industry projects, and the pros and cons of each platform are discussed. Four types of platforms are currently used for the deepwater development: tension leg platform, Spar, semi-submersible platform, and the floating production system offloading. Among these, the TLP and Spar can be used for dry tree applications, and have gained popularity in recent years. The dry tree application enables the extension of the drilling application for fixed platforms into floating systems, and greatly reduces the cost and complexity of the subsea operation. Newly built wet tree semi-submersible production platforms for ultra deepwater are also getting their application, mainly due to the much needed payload for deepwater making the conversion of the old drilling semi-submersible platforms impossible. These platforms have been used in different fields around the world for different environments;each has its own advantages and disadvantages. There are many challenges with the successful use of these floating platforms. A lot of lessons have been learned and extensive experience accumulated through the many project applications. Key technologies are being reviewed for the successful use of floating platforms for field development, and potential future development needs are being discussed. Some of the technologies and experience of platform applications can be well used for the development of the South China Sea oil and gas field.

  12. Floating production platforms and their applications in the development of oil and gas fields in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dagang; Chen, Yongjun; Zhang, Tianyu

    2014-03-01

    This paper studies the current available options for floating production platforms in developing deepwater oil fields and the potential development models of future oil and gas exploration in the South China Sea. A detailed review of current deepwater platforms worldwide was performed through the examples of industry projects, and the pros and cons of each platform are discussed. Four types of platforms are currently used for the deepwater development: tension leg platform, Spar, semi-submersible platform, and the floating production system offloading. Among these, the TLP and Spar can be used for dry tree applications, and have gained popularity in recent years. The dry tree application enables the extension of the drilling application for fixed platforms into floating systems, and greatly reduces the cost and complexity of the subsea operation. Newly built wet tree semi-submersible production platforms for ultra deepwater are also getting their application, mainly due to the much needed payload for deepwater making the conversion of the old drilling semi-submersible platforms impossible. These platforms have been used in different fields around the world for different environments; each has its own advantages and disadvantages. There are many challenges with the successful use of these floating platforms. A lot of lessons have been learned and extensive experience accumulated through the many project applications. Key technologies are being reviewed for the successful use of floating platforms for field development, and potential future development needs are being discussed. Some of the technologies and experience of platform applications can be well used for the development of the South China Sea oil and gas field.

  13. Modelling and simulation of compressible fluid flow in oil reservoir: a case study of the Jubilee Field, Tano Basin (Ghana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil extraction represents an important investment and the control of a rational exploitation of a field means mastering various scientific techniques including the understanding of the dynamics of fluids in place. This thesis presents a theoretical investigation of the dynamic behaviour of an oil reservoir during its exploitation. The study investigated the dynamics of fluid flow patterns in a homogeneous oil reservoir using the Radial Diffusivity Equation (RDE) as well as two phase oil-water flow equations. The RDE model was solved analytically and numerically for pressure using the Constant Terminal Rate Solution (CTRS) and the fully implicit Finite Difference Method (FDM) respectively. The mathematical derivations of the models and their solution procedures were presented to allow for easy utilization of the techniques for reservoir and engineering applications. The study predicted that the initial oil reservoir pressure will be able to do the extraction for a very long time before any other recovery method will be used to aid in the extraction process depending on the rate of production. Reservoir simulation describing a one dimensional radial flow of a compressible fluid in porous media may be adequately performed using ordinary laptop computers as revealed by the study. For the simulation of MATLAB, the case of the Jubilee Fields, Tano Basin was studied, an algorithm was developed for the simulation of pressure in the reservoir. It ensues from the analysis of the plots of pressure vrs time and space that the Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA) was duly followed. The approximate solutions of the analytical and numerical solutions to the Radial Diffusivity Equation (RDE) were in excellent agreement, thus the reservoir simulation model developed can be used to describe typical pressure-time relationships that are used in conventional Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA). The study was extended to two phase oil-water flow in reservoirs. The flow of fluids in multi

  14. Characteristics study for Chang 2 crude oil in Yanchang oil field%延长油田长2原油组分特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁阳; 赵巍; 陈刚; 张洁; 申志兵; 赵景瑞

    2016-01-01

    Chromatogram separation ,Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT‐IR) ,Ul‐traviolet Spectroscopy (UV) and optical microscope were applied to study the components ,the thermal response process and the wax deposition behaviors of Chang 2 crude oil from an Oil Production Plant in Yanchang oil field .The results indicate that aromatic hydrocarbons and sat‐urated hydrocarbons evaporate from crude oil at lower temperature while resins and asphaltenes evaporate and react at higher temperature .The polar components from crude oil such as colloid can inhibit effectively precipitation of wax crystals .With different polarities added to compo‐nents ,the behaviors of saturated hydrocarbons are very different from the crude oil .The opti‐cal microscope analysis shows that the addition of resin and asphaltene to saturated hydrocar ‐bons can increase the number of wax crystal particles and decrease their dimensions during cooling crystallization process .Moreover , the shapes of wax crystals changes from lump to flake ,which results in declining cross‐linking strength and prevent the wax crystal particles from forming larger wax crystals during the process .%采用柱层色谱分离法、热重法、傅立叶红外光谱、紫外光谱和偏光显微分析等表征方法,对采自延长油田某采油厂长2层原油样品进行了组分分离和分析,并对其热重行为、饱和烃组分结蜡行为等进行了研究。研究结果表明,在原油热重反应过程中,低温下主要是其轻、中组分(饱和烃、芳香烃)及水分的物理蒸发,高温下主要是重组分(胶质、沥青质)的物理蒸发及化学反应。显微分析发现原油中的胶质、沥青质等强极性组分使饱和烃组分冷却结晶时的蜡晶分散度增大,尺寸相对减小,颗粒数明显增多,蜡晶形状由片状三维网络结构变为颗粒状,因而蜡晶之间的联结度减弱,不易缔合形成大块蜡晶聚集体,说明

  15. Measuring ignitability for in situ burning of oil spills weathered under Arctic conditions: From laboratory studies to large-scale field experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Brandvik, Per Johan

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares the ignitability of Troll B crude oil weathered under simulated Arctic conditions (0%, 50% and 90% ice cover). The experiments were performed in different scales at SINTEF’s laboratories in Trondheim, field research station on Svalbard and in broken ice (70–90% ice cover...... process, and 70% ice or more reduces the weathering and allows a longer time window for in situ burning. The results from the Barents Sea revealed that weathering and ignitability can vary within an oil slick. This field use of the burning cell demonstrated that it can be used as an operational tool...... to monitor the ignitability of oil spills....

  16. IRP/DSM Research and Demonstrating Engineering Report of Shengli Oil Field%胜利油田IRP/DSM研究与示范工程报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 江武敏; 高月民; 张小宁; 严川; 尤春蓉

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1 Project Background In July 1995, China Oil and Natural Gas Corporation brings forward IRP/DSM research at the "9th Five-year Plan" electric program and research' s meeting. In July 1996, China Traffic and Energy Department of the State Planning Committee authorized the project about IRP/DSM research at Shengli Oil Field. In 1997, the project was put in oil field key science and technology program. This is a project about IRP/DSM research and implementation with key body of large electric users, and is the first project as the key body of large electric users inland.

  17. Application of Neuro-Net Technology to Reservoir Prediction in Chendao Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Suhua

    1996-01-01

    @@ Recently, the Research Institute of Geological Sciences of the Shengli oil region and the University of Petroleum have been cooperated in developing a set of intelligent expert system to predicte reservoir and to estimate sand body thickness using multiple seismic information.

  18. The research of the radio-ecological state of Absheron oil and gas extracting fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Because of long term traditional oil-gas extraction in Absheron peninsula there're areas and ponds oil- polluted having the worst effect for its biosphere and specially health of the inhabitants living here. The studying of radio-ecological states made by radioactive nuclides gathered while oil extracting and transporting is necessary and actual for these sites to be used. That's why researches have been done in Qaradag, Sahil, Sabunchu and Azizbeyov, approximately 500-1000 mc R/hour radioactivity in Bibi-heybet oil-gas extracting enterprise but 1000 mc R/hour radiation background in the north of this area and in Qarachukhur, 40 mc R/hour radioactivity in Yeni Surakhani, 500-200 mc R/hour in industrial community were revealed. Unlike these, the highest radiation background is 25-30 mc R/hour in Azizbeyov region. In 'Piriallahi', 'Balakhanineft', 'Bineqedineft', 'Buzovnaneft'radioactivity is natural one (7-8 mc R/hour). The area of mechanical engineering plant has been researched in details but in the site of lab built by red brick, radiation background is higher than natural one (20 mc R/hour). The radioactive background in Ramana settlement near Iodine plant is 100 mc R/hour. While summary, we dare say the total natural radiation background in Absheron peninsula is 8-10 mc R/hour. Some areas having higher radiation background than natural one should be decontaminated

  19. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Approximately 30 research projects are summarized in this report. Title of the project, contract number, company or university, award amount, principal investigators, objectives, and summary of technical progress are given for each project. Enhanced oil recovery projects include chemical flooding, gas displacement, and thermal recovery. Most of the research projects though are related to geoscience technology and reservoir characterization.

  20. Study on water flood processes in reservoirs in oil fields in Tataria by geophysical exploration methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laterolog data are used to find the initial water-oil interface in uncased boreholes. Oil-bearing, water-saturated and highly mineralized water-flooded reservoir rocks are localized with neutron logging techniques in cased non-perforated boreholes. Taking periodic measurements with pulsed neutron-gamma logging, pulse neutron-neutron logging and other neutron logging techniquews in the same borehole, the flooding of the reservoir rock in thickness, the ascensional rate of the water-oil interface, the flooding front configuration at the mining sites are evaluated. In perforated boreholes the stratum being flooded is localized using the results obtained from the investigation of the composition and the rate of fluid flow in the borehole with a dielectric hygrometer, a gamma-gamma densitometer and a well-head flow meter. Geophysical methods of localizing flooded spaces based on differences in the rate of the elimination of the penetration zone in oil- and water-bearing reservoir rocks have been developed and applied in the Tatar ASSR

  1. Field applications of the piscine anaphase aberration test. Lessons from the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several large-scale genotoxicity assessments have been performed in coastal marine areas that have demonstrated either localized or widespread genetic effects resulting from human activity. One common assessment method is the anaphase aberration test, a measurement of abnormal chromosome division, using embryolarval fishes. It can be used to detect the presence of mutagens within a poorly characterized complex mixture or monitor specific genotoxins and is easily adapted for laboratory screening. One comprehensive marine genotoxicity assessment was conducted using Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in Prince William Sound (PWS), AK in late March 1989. In early May, genetic damage was detected at many sites within the oil trajectory and was correlated with concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons characteristic of Exxon Valdez oil (EVO) in intertidal mussels. Effects were related spatially and temporally to oil exposure. Anaphase aberration rates decreased throughout May and June 1989, and by 1991, genotoxicity was undetectable. The abundance of the 1989 herring year class in PWS is significantly reduced; this is the first reported example linking genotoxicity to subsequent population level effects. This review describes the methodology for the anaphase aberration test using fish eggs, its applications for large-scale assessments and supportive laboratory studies, and its limitations for prediction of higher level effects on populations

  2. Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerle, William; Hall, Stephen

    2005-12-30

    In 2002, Gnomon, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for a project entitled, Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming (DE-FC26-02NT15445). This project, funded through DOE’s Preferred Upstream Management Practices grant program, examined cultural resource management practices in two major oil- and gas-producing areas, southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming (Figure 1). The purpose of this project was to examine how cultural resources have been investigated and managed and to identify more effective management practices. The project also was designed to build information technology and modeling tools to meet both current and future management needs. The goals of the project were described in the original proposal as follows: Goal 1. Create seamless information systems for the project areas. Goal 2. Examine what we have learned from archaeological work in the southeastern New Mexico oil fields and whether there are better ways to gain additional knowledge more rapidly or at a lower cost. Goal 3. Provide useful sensitivity models for planning, management, and as guidelines for field investigations. Goal 4. Integrate management, investigation, and decision- making in a real-time electronic system. Gnomon, Inc., in partnership with the Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office (WYSHPO) and Western GeoArch Research, carried out the Wyoming portion of the project. SRI Foundation, in partnership with the New Mexico Historic Preservation Division (NMHPD), Statistical Research, Inc., and Red Rock Geological Enterprises, completed the New Mexico component of the project. Both the New Mexico and Wyoming summaries concluded with recommendations how cultural resource management (CRM) processes might be modified based on the findings of this research.

  3. Dynamic Variation of Land-use Types of the Constructed Wetland before and after Oil-field Water Irrigation Based on 3S Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Ming-hui; ZHANG; Chen; HU; Yan; SU; Wei; DONG; De-ming

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed at analyzing the dynamic variation of land-use types of the constructed wetland before and after oil-field water irrigation based on 3S technology. [Method] At semi-arid and arid areas in the west of Jilin Province, water resource balance between the amount of oil-field water supply and ecological water requirement in the constructed wetland irrigated by oil-field water during 2001-2010 was investigated firstly. Afterwards, based on 3S technology, the partition and dynamic variation of land-use types of the constructed wetland before and after oil-field water irrigation in 2001, 2006, 2008 and 2010 were analyzed. [Result] The annual ecological water requirement of the constructed wetland from 2003 to 2010 varied from 1.62×106 to 2.24×106 m3, and the annual amount of oil-field water supply in the region changed from 2.12×106 to 2.84×106 m3, which showed that the supply amount of oil-field water could meet the basic ecological water requirement of the constructed wetland. Meanwhile, compared with 2001, the areas of water region and paddy field in 2010 increased by 2.3 and 10.0 times, and the areas of forest and marsh rose by 40.15% and 29.5.0% respectively. [Conclusion] Water shortage and ecological environment problem of arid and semi-arid areas had been improved by oil-field water irrigation.

  4. Standard practice for evaluating and qualifying oil field and refinery corrosion inhibitors using the rotating cylinder electrode

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a generally accepted procedure to use the rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) for evaluating corrosion inhibitors for oil field and refinery applications in defined flow conditions. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  5. The Effect of Oregano and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Field Pea Silages

    OpenAIRE

    Soycan-Önenç, Sibel; Koc, Fisun; COŞKUNTUNA, Levent; ÖZDÜVEN, M.Levent; Gümüş, Tuncay

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of field pea silages which were the organic acid (OA) alternative of oregano and cinnamon essential oils on fermentation quality and aerobic stability. Whole crop pea was harvested at full pod stage and wilted in the laboratory at the 48 h. The chopped pea was mixed and divided into equal portions allocated to five groups: CON (non-treated), distilled water, denoted as control group; OA group, a mixture of 60% formic acid, 20% sodium formate an...

  6. Use of Homogeneously-Sized Carbon Steel Ball Bearings to Study Microbially-Influenced Corrosion in Oil Field Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Gerrit eVoordouw; Priyesh eMenon; Tijan ePinnock; Mohita eSharma; Yin eShen; Amanda eVenturelli; Johanna eVoordouw; Aoife eSexton

    2016-01-01

    Microbially-influenced corrosion (MIC) contributes to the general corrosion rate (CR), which is typically measured with carbon steel coupons. Here we explore the use of carbon steel ball bearings, referred to as beads (55.0 ± 0.3 mg; Ø = 0.238 cm), for determining CRs. CRs for samples from an oil field in Oceania incubated with beads were determined by the weight loss method, using acid treatment to remove corrosion products. The release of ferrous and ferric iron was also measured and CRs ba...

  7. Increased Oil Production and Reserves from Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah, Class I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Craig D.; Gwynn, Wallace; Deo, Milind D.; Jarrard, Richard; Curtice, Richard; Morris, Thomas H.; Smouse, DeForrest; Tripp, Carol N.

    2000-01-20

    The objective of this project was to increase oil production and reserves by the use of improved reservoir characterization and completion techniques in the Unita Basin Utah. To accomplish this objective, a two-year geologic and engineering characterization of the Bluebell field was conducted. The study evaluated surface and subsurface data, currently used completion techniques, and common production problems. It was determined that advanced case- and open-hole logs could be effective in determining productive beds and that staged-interval (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage) and bed-scale isolation completion techniques could result in improved well performance.

  8. Integrated petrophysical and lithofacies studies of lower-middle Miocene reservoirs in Belayim marine oil field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Ali, El-Khadragy; Emad El Din Abd Elrazik, Eysa; Shebl Azam, Salah; Ahmed Hassan, Saleh

    2016-05-01

    The reservoir parameters (total gross thickness, shale volume, total porosity, effective porosity, water saturation, bulk pore volume, net pay thickness and oil in place indicator) of Kareem and Belayim formations are studied through nine wells and mapped to show the aerial distribution of these parameters. Interpretation of these maps showed that, the best locations of hydrocarbon accumulation in Belayim marine oil field are middle part, northeast and the south west directions for Kareem formation and southwest and northeast directions for Belayim formation. The petrophysical results of Belayim formation were presented in the form of 3D slicing models to exhibit the variation of these parameters in the different directions. Cross plots of Kareem formation were done using neutron, density and sonic logs which is directly influenced by the matrix composition. By using two or three porosity logs reading we determined the porosity and evaluated the matrix characteristics of Kareem formation as it is considered as a good reservoir for oil and gas and mainly composed of sand stone. Finally, facies maps for Kareem and Belayim formations which established using composite logs indicate that, the environment of deposition of Kareem formation was deep marine in the middle and northern parts and shallow in the southern parts of the study area, meanwhile in Belayim formation the environment of deposition was in lagoonal through the deposition of Baba and Feiran members and shallow to deep during the sedimentation of Sidri and Hammam Faraun members.

  9. Numerical and Experimental Study of the Flow Field Structure Evolution in the Circular Recess of Oil Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The laminar radial flow in the oil cavity of heavy-duty computer numerical control (CNC machines is very complicated and has not been fully explored. Navier-Stokes equations have been applied through the whole flow region using finite volume approach to explore this complicated flow phenomenon, including the influences of the clearance height (h, inlet nozzle Reynolds number (Re, and geometrical aspect ratio (e on flow behaviors. A fluid dynamic experiment has been conducted to study the flow structure by using particle image velocimetry (PIV. Numerical simulation results have been compared with the experimental results, finding a good agreement with the studied cases. The results suggest that there are complex vortices in the oil cavity. Flow field structure of the oil cavity largely depends on h, Re, and e. Re and e have a great influence on the size and amount of vortices, and h has slight effects on the size of the vortices. The lengths of primary, secondary, and tertiary isolated vortices have a linear relationship with h. The lengths of the primary and secondary isolated vortices increase linearly with ascending e as e is small. But when Re and e are large enough, the size of the three vortices decreases.

  10. Assessment of the potential environmental fate and effects of oil-field discharge waters containing 226radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The naturally occurring radionuclide, radium-226, has been detected in oil production waters in all regions of the country. A produced water discharge into the Loch Katrina wetland in Park County, WY was investigated with respect to the transport and fate of radium in surface waters. The 866-acre Loch Katrina wetland complex is sustained primarily by oil-field produced waters and provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. While the short-term benefits of this discharge are indisputable, the long-term hazards posed by the transport of radium from deep aquifers to surface waters are not well understood. Guidelines regulating the management of radium-contaminated sediments in receiving waters or settling ponds in Wyoming have yet to be established. The purpose of this study was to provide information to regional regulatory agencies and the oil and gas industry in the development of guidelines and procedures for managing radium and other naturally occurring radioactive materials. The authors will report the results of the sampling survey of produced waters, sediment and biota performed in the Loch Katrina wetland complex in Wyoming

  11. Analysis of the orderly distribution of oil and gas fields in China based on the theory of co-control of source and heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongcheng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking a hydrocarbon zone or a basin group as a unit, this paper analyzed the vertical hydrocarbon generation regularity of onshore and offshore oil and gas fields in China, based on the theory of co-control of source and heat. The results demonstrated that the hydrocarbon generation modes of oil and gas fields in China are orderly. First, the hydrocarbon zones in southeastern China offshore area, including the East and South China Sea basins, are dominated by single hydrocarbon generation mode, which displays as either single oil generation in the near shore or single gas generation in the offshore controlled by both source and heat. Second, the eastern hydrocarbon zones, including the Bohai Bay, Songliao and Jianghan basins and the North and South Yellow Sea basins, are dominated by a two-layer hydrocarbon generation mode, which performs as “upper oil and lower gas”. Third, the central hydrocarbon zones, including the Ordos, Sichuan and Chuxiong basins, are also dominated by the “upper oil and lower gas” two-layer hydrocarbon generation mode. In the Ordos Basin, gas is mainly generated in the Triassic, and oil is predominantly generated in the Paleozoic. In the Sichuan Basin, oil was discovered in the Jurassic, and gas was mostly discovered in the Sinian and Triassic. Fourth, the western hydrocarbon zones are dominated by a “sandwich” multi-layer mode, such as the Junggar, Tarim, Qaidam basins. In summary, the theory of co-control of source and heat will be widely applied to oil and gas exploration all over China. Oil targets should be focused on the near shore areas in the southeastern China sea, the upper strata in the eastern and middle hydrocarbon zones, and the Ordovician, Permian and Paleogene strata in the western hydrocarbon zone, while gas targets should be focused on the off-shore areas in the southeastern China sea, the Cambrian, Carboniferous, Jurassic, and Quaternary strata in the western hydrocarbon zone. A pattern of

  12. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, December 1990--February 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, April--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, H.A. (ed.) (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The Oil Implementation Task Force was appointed to implement the US DOE's new oil research program directed toward increasing domestic oil production by expanded research on near- or mid-term enhanced oil recovery methods. An added priority is to preserve access to reservoirs that have the largest potential for oil recovery, but that are threatened by the large number of wells abandoned each year. This report describes the progress of research activities in the following areas: chemical flooding; gas displacement; thermal recovery; resource assessment; microbial technology; geoscience technology; and environmental technology. (CK)

  13. Trajectory of an oil spill off Goa, eastern Arabian Sea: Field observations and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An oil spill occurred off Goa, west coast of India, on 23 March 2005 due to collision of two vessels. In general, fair weather with weak winds prevails along the west coast of India during March. In that case, the spill would have moved slowly and reached the coast. However, in 2005 when this event occurred, relatively stronger winds prevailed, and these winds forced the spill to move away from the coast. The spill trajectory was dominated by winds rather than currents. The MIKE21 Spill Analysis model was used to simulate the spill trajectory. The observed spill trajectory and the slick area were in agreement with the model simulations. The present study illustrates the importance of having pre-validated trajectories of spill scenarios for selecting eco-sensitive regions for preparedness and planning suitable response strategies whenever spill episodes occur. - This is the first time model results have been compared with real oil spill observations along an Indian Coast

  14. Trajectory of an oil spill off Goa, eastern Arabian Sea: Field observations and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vethamony, P. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India)]. E-mail: mony@nio.org; Sudheesh, K. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Babu, M.T. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Jayakumar, S. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Manimurali, R. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Saran, A.K. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Sharma, L.H. [Indian Coast Guard, District HQ-11, MPT Old Admin Building, Mormugao Harbour, Goa 403 803 (India); Rajan, B. [Indian Coast Guard, District HQ-11, MPT Old Admin Building, Mormugao Harbour, Goa 403 803 (India); Srivastava, M. [Indian Coast Guard, District HQ-11, MPT Old Admin Building, Mormugao Harbour, Goa 403 803 (India)

    2007-07-15

    An oil spill occurred off Goa, west coast of India, on 23 March 2005 due to collision of two vessels. In general, fair weather with weak winds prevails along the west coast of India during March. In that case, the spill would have moved slowly and reached the coast. However, in 2005 when this event occurred, relatively stronger winds prevailed, and these winds forced the spill to move away from the coast. The spill trajectory was dominated by winds rather than currents. The MIKE21 Spill Analysis model was used to simulate the spill trajectory. The observed spill trajectory and the slick area were in agreement with the model simulations. The present study illustrates the importance of having pre-validated trajectories of spill scenarios for selecting eco-sensitive regions for preparedness and planning suitable response strategies whenever spill episodes occur. - This is the first time model results have been compared with real oil spill observations along an Indian Coast.

  15. Contrasting carbon isotope fingerprints of migrating and solution gas in heavy oil fields of northeastern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, D.; Muehlenbachs, K. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Greenwood, G. [Chemex Labs. (Alberta) Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Jensen, E. [Amoco Canada Petroleum Co. Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using {delta}C{sup 1}3 isotopes for fingerprinting gases in Alberta and Saskatchewan to facilitate remediation. Thousands of wells have been drilled in this region to develop heavy oil reservoirs in the Lower Cretaceous Mannville sands. The solution gases in the heavy oil consist of biogenic methane with trace C{sub 2+} components. The gases from the Cretaceous shales have {delta}C{sup 1}3 values indicative of thermogenesis. The study showed that most of the gases migrating in and near the wells show the isotopic signal of the shallower Upper Cretaceous shales and not the Mannville sands in which the wells were completed.

  16. Investments in oil field development by the example of Tomsk oblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmidt, Ye I.; Il'ina, G. F.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    The article describes the geologic structure of the formation located not far from Strezhevoy Tomsk Oblast. The formation has been poorly studied by seismic methods. The reserves categories C1 and C2 as well as hydrocarbon potential are presented. 4 exploratory and 39 production wells are designed to be drilled depending on geologic knowledge and formation conditions. The article deals with the investment plan including development, oil export expenditures and implementing cost calculation.

  17. Seasonal variations of microbial community in a full scale oil field produced water treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Q.; Bai, S; Y. Li; Liu, L; Wang, S.; Xi, J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the microbial community in a full scale anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor system for oil-produced water treatment in summer and winter. The community structures of fungi and bacteria were analyzed through polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and Illumina high-throughput sequencing, respectively. Chemical oxygen demand effluent concentration achieved lower than 50 mg/L level after the system in both summer and winter, ho...

  18. Wireless Sensor Network in Niger Delta Oil and Gas Field Monitoring: The Security Challenges and Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Fidelis C. Obodoeze; Hyacinth C. Inyiama; V.E. Idigo

    2012-01-01

    The IEEE 802.15.4 specification has enabled low-power, low-cost and smart wireless sensor networks(WSNs) capable of robust and reliable multi-hop communications. By January 2005, an International Oiland Gas Company (IOC), Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC), became the firstmultinational Oil and Gas Company operating in the Nigeria Niger Delta region to switch from wired towireless sensor technology eliminating the need for cables thereby allowing data collection in remote,swampy areas...

  19. THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF LEMON BALM (Melissa officinalis L.), ITS COMPONENTS AND USING FIELDS

    OpenAIRE

    BAHTİYARCA BAĞDAT, Reyhan; COŞGE, Belgin

    2012-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), member of Lamiaceae (formerly Labiatae) family, is one of the important medicinal plant species. Today, it is used in different branches of industry (such as medicine, perfume, cosmetic, and food etc.) in many countries of the world. The main components of lemon balm essential oil, ranged from 0.01 to 0.25%, are 39% citronellal, 33% citral (citronellol, linalool) and geraniol. It is traditionally used as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent...

  20. Paleo-oil-Water Contact and Present-Day Gas-Water Contact:Implication for Evolution History of Puguang Gas Field,Sichuan Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Pingping; Zou Huayao; Zhang Yuanchun; Wang Cunwu; Zhang Xuefeng

    2008-01-01

    The Puguang (普光) gas field is the largest gas field found in marine carbonate in China.The Puguang gas field experienced complicated evolution history from paleo-oil pool to gas pool.The purpose of this article is to reveal the evolution history of Puguang gas field through systematic study on the relationship between paleo-oil-water contact (POWC) and present-day gas-water contact (PGWC).POWC was recognized by observing the change of relative content of residual solid bitumen in the cores,and PGWC was observed using log and drilling stem test data.Two types of relationship between POWC and PGWC were observed in the Puguang gas field:POWC is above PGWC,and POWC is below PGWC.The former is normal as oil cracking may cause gas-water contact to move downward.The latter can be interpreted by lateral gas re-migration and re-accumulation caused by changes in structural configuration.The relationship between POWC and PGWC suggests that during oil charge,the southwestern and northwestern parts of the Puguang gas field were structurally lower than the northeastern and southeastern parts.Thrusting from Xuefengshan (雪峰山) since Yanshanian movement and from Dabashan (大巴山) since Himalayan movement resulted in the relative uplift of the southwestern and northwestern parts of the Puguang structure,which significantly changed the structural configuration.Based on the paleo-structure discussed in this article,the most probable migration directions of paleo-oil were from the northwest to the southeast and from the southwest to the northeast.Consequently,the evolution history of the Puguang gas field can be divided into three stages,namely,oil charging (200-170 Ma),cracking oil to gas (155-120 Ma),and gas pool adjustment (1200-0Ma).

  1. Evidence that the terms of petroleum contracts influence the rate of development of oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents evidence that the main determinant of the rate of development of Libya's crude oil upstream activities, from 1961 to 1999, was the terms of the petroleum contractual agreements, which existed between the state and the international oil industry during that period, and that US sanctions against the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya failed to affect this rate of development. In keeping with other Members of the Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), Libya has, over three decades, been a key player in helping to regulate global production levels of oil and gas. However, the economic and political strengths and weaknesses of individual Members of OPEC vary widely and it is inevitable that the stresses arising from adherence to OPEC policies will vary proportionately to these strengths and weaknesses. It is instructive, therefore, to analyse how successfully Libya has exploited its own petroleum resources. The results are thought-provoking and send signals to the superpowers of the futility of economic sanctions against countries whose political policies they find distasteful. Further, the analysis highlights the need for OPEC Members to be fully informed of the significance of the terms of the petroleum agreements they employ in their countries. (author)

  2. Evidence that the terms of petroleum contracts influence the rate of development of oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmud, M.B. [University of Gharyounis, Benhgazi (Libya); Russell, A. [University of Dundee (United Kingdom). Faculty of Law

    2002-03-01

    This paper presents evidence that the main determinant of the rate of development of Libya's crude oil upstream activities, from 1961 to 1999, was the terms of the petroleum contractual agreements, which existed between the state and the international oil industry during that period, and that US sanctions against the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya failed to affect this rate of development. In keeping with other Members of the Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), Libya has, over three decades, been a key player in helping to regulate global production levels of oil and gas. However, the economic and political strengths and weaknesses of individual Members of OPEC vary widely and it is inevitable that the stresses arising from adherence to OPEC policies will vary proportionately to these strengths and weaknesses. It is instructive, therefore, to analyse how successfully Libya has exploited its own petroleum resources. The results are thought-provoking and send signals to the superpowers of the futility of economic sanctions against countries whose political policies they find distasteful. Further, the analysis highlights the need for OPEC Members to be fully informed of the significance of the terms of the petroleum agreements they employ in their countries. (author)

  3. Mass transfer of H2O between petroleum and water: implications for oil field water sample quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water mass transfer can occur between water and petroleum during changes in pressure and temperature. This process can result in the dilution or concentration of dissolved ions in the water phase of oil field petroleum-water samples. In this study, PVT simulations were undertaken for 4 petroleum-water systems covering a range of reservoir conditions (80-185oC; 300-1000 bar) and a range of water-petroleum mixtures (volume ratios of 1:1000-300:1000) to quantify the extent of H2O mass transfer as a result of pressure and temperature changes. Conditions were selected to be relevant to different types of oil field water sample (i.e. surface, downhole and core samples). The main variables determining the extent of dilution and concentration were found to be: (a) reservoir pressure and temperature, (b) pressure and temperature of separation of water and petroleum, (c) petroleum composition, and (d) petroleum:water ratio (PWR). The results showed that significant dilution and concentration of water samples could occur, particularly at high PWR. It was not possible to establish simple guidelines for identifying good and poor quality samples due to the interplay of the above variables. Sample quality is best investigated using PVT software of the type used in this study. (author)

  4. Preliminary design of CR39 fast/thermal neutron personal dosimeter used in oil and gas field logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To increase externally-assigned response, improve energy response of CR39 and develop positive fast/thermal neutron personal dosimeter applicable for occupational exposure in oil and gas field logging by using pre-recoil layer. Methods: The externally-assigned response of CR39 detector was improved through increasing the track density by using the α particle induced by the reaction of 10B (n,α) 7Li with the BN as pre-recoil layer, and the increase was vilified by using both Monte-Carlo simulation and experiment exposed by standard neutron source. Results: Fast/thermal neutron personal dosimeter's neutron flux sensitivity and neutron dose equivalent sensitivity were 3.46 × 10-4 track per neutron, (7.57±0.41)×102 track·cm2·mSv-1, respectively. The detecting linearity range was between 0.013 and 52.8 mSv.According to theoretical derivation and experiment of standard 241 Am-Be neutron source, detecting efficiency and energy response of CR39 were effectively improved, and quantitative measurement of dose contributed by thermal neutron was realized. Conclusions: CR39 fast/thermal neutron personal dosimeter of high sensitivity is applicable to oil and gas field logging environment and of potential development. (authors)

  5. Oil field chemicals synergistic effects on the corrosion rate of L-80 steel in sea and formation waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Hashem, A.; Carew, J. [Petroleum Research and Studies Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, 13109 Safat Kuwait (Kuwait); Al-Borno, A. [Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd., no 6, 4604, 13 Street N.E., Calgary, AB T2E 6P1 (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The corrosion rate of tubular grade L-80 carbon steel under downhole conditions of a northern oil field of Kuwait was investigated. This was done using the injection seawater, formation water and a 50:50 mixture of both waters in the presence of commercially available corrosion inhibitor, scale inhibitor, and biocide products separately and in combination with each other. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the corrosion inhibitor and its interaction with the scale inhibitor and the biocide, as seen in the corrosion rate of L80 carbon steel. This was done using the manufacturers' recommended dosage levels of the corrosion inhibitor, scale inhibitor and biocide. The corrosion rates were measured by linear polarization. Tests were conducted using the rotating cylinder electrode method with rotational speeds of 1000 and 2000 rpm at 80 deg. C. The seawater results indicated that the corrosion-scale inhibitor and biocide-scale inhibitor combinations provided the best protection at both rotation speeds. In formation water, the effects of rotation speed were more apparent with higher corrosion rates of L-80 carbon steel accompanying higher shear forces. In the 50: 50 mix waters and the formation water, the corrosion-scale inhibitors-biocide combination provided the best protection at both rotational speeds under downhole conditions of a northern oil field of Kuwait. (authors)

  6. Multi-temporal environmental analysis of oil field activities in south-central Oklahoma using Landsat thematic mapper, aerial photography and GIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janks, J.S.; Edwards, G.S.; Prelat, A.E.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental assessments of oil field activities, historical and present, were made using a combination of Landsat Thematic Mapper, aerial photographic and GIS information. Landsat data was used to assess vegetation health in and around the oil fields, and aerial photography was used to document historic changes. We found no evidence of vegetation damage from the oil field activities, even though many fields are located along anticlines and drain into major waterways. GIS technology, mapping roads, wells, rivers, ponds and environmentally-sensitive areas, was used to minimize environmental effects on the placement of shotpoints and receivers. When either shotpoints or receivers were found to interfere with sensitive areas, the points were moved to nearby roads or other open locations. The application of this technology resulted in minimal environmental damage and significant cost savings.

  7. Multi-temporal environmental analysis of oil field activities in south-central Oklahoma using Landsat thematic mapper, aerial photography and GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental assessments of oil field activities, historical and present, were made using a combination of Landsat Thematic Mapper, aerial photographic and GIS information. Landsat data was used to assess vegetation health in and around the oil fields, and aerial photography was used to document historic changes. We found no evidence of vegetation damage from the oil field activities, even though many fields are located along anticlines and drain into major waterways. GIS technology, mapping roads, wells, rivers, ponds and environmentally-sensitive areas, was used to minimize environmental effects on the placement of shotpoints and receivers. When either shotpoints or receivers were found to interfere with sensitive areas, the points were moved to nearby roads or other open locations. The application of this technology resulted in minimal environmental damage and significant cost savings

  8. Silurian "Clinton" Sandstone Reservoir Characterization for Evaluation of CO2-EOR Potential in the East Canton Oil Field, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Riley; John Wicks; Christopher Perry

    2009-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the East Canton oil field (ECOF). Discovered in 1947, the ECOF in northeastern Ohio has produced approximately 95 million barrels (MMbbl) of oil from the Silurian 'Clinton' sandstone. The original oil-in-place (OOIP) for this field was approximately 1.5 billion bbl and this study estimates by modeling known reservoir parameters, that between 76 and 279 MMbbl of additional oil could be produced through secondary recovery in this field, depending on the fluid and formation response to CO2 injection. A CO2 cyclic test ('Huff-n-Puff') was conducted on a well in Stark County to test the injectivity in a 'Clinton'-producing oil well in the ECOF and estimate the dispersion or potential breakthrough of the CO2 to surrounding wells. Eighty-one tons of CO2 (1.39 MMCF) were injected over a 20-hour period, after which the well was shut in for a 32-day 'soak' period before production was resumed. Results demonstrated injection rates of 1.67 MMCF of gas per day, which was much higher than anticipated and no CO2 was detected in gas samples taken from eight immediately offsetting observation wells. All data collected during this test was analyzed, interpreted, and incorporated into the reservoir characterization study and used to develop the geologic model. The geologic model was used as input into a reservoir simulation performed by Fekete Associates, Inc., to estimate the behavior of reservoir fluids when large quantities of CO2 are injected into the 'Clinton' sandstone. Results strongly suggest that the majority of the injected CO2 entered the matrix porosity of the reservoir pay zones, where it diffused into the oil. Evidence includes: (A) the volume of injected CO2 greatly exceeded the estimated capacity of the hydraulic fracture and natural fractures; (B) there was a gradual injection and pressure rate build-up during the test

  9. Silurian "Clinton" Sandstone Reservoir Characterization for Evaluation of CO2-EOR Potential in the East Canton Oil Field, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Ronald; Wicks, John; Perry, Christopher

    2009-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the East Canton oil field (ECOF). Discovered in 1947, the ECOF in northeastern Ohio has produced approximately 95 million barrels (MMbbl) of oil from the Silurian “Clinton” sandstone. The original oil-in-place (OOIP) for this field was approximately 1.5 billion bbl and this study estimates by modeling known reservoir parameters, that between 76 and 279 MMbbl of additional oil could be produced through secondary recovery in this field, depending on the fluid and formation response to CO2 injection. A CO2 cyclic test (“Huff-n-Puff”) was conducted on a well in Stark County to test the injectivity in a “Clinton”-producing oil well in the ECOF and estimate the dispersion or potential breakthrough of the CO2 to surrounding wells. Eighty-one tons of CO2 (1.39 MMCF) were injected over a 20-hour period, after which the well was shut in for a 32-day “soak” period before production was resumed. Results demonstrated injection rates of 1.67 MMCF of gas per day, which was much higher than anticipated and no CO2 was detected in gas samples taken from eight immediately offsetting observation wells. All data collected during this test was analyzed, interpreted, and incorporated into the reservoir characterization study and used to develop the geologic model. The geologic model was used as input into a reservoir simulation performed by Fekete Associates, Inc., to estimate the behavior of reservoir fluids when large quantities of CO2 are injected into the “Clinton” sandstone. Results strongly suggest that the majority of the injected CO2 entered the matrix porosity of the reservoir pay zones, where it diffused into the oil. Evidence includes: (A) the volume of injected CO2 greatly exceeded the estimated capacity of the hydraulic fracture and natural fractures; (B) there was a gradual injection and pressure rate build-up during the test; (C) there was a subsequent

  10. Methodologies, solutions, and lessons learned from heavy oil well testing with an ESP, offshore UK in the Bentley field, block 9/3b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, Barny; Lucas-Clements, Charles; Kew, Steve [Xcite Energy Resources (United Kingdom); Shumakov, Yakov; Camilleri, Lawrence; Akuanyionwu, Obinna; Tonoglu, Ahmet [Schlumberger (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increase in hydrocarbon demand that led to the production of heavy oil fields in the United Kingdom continental shelf (UKCS). Most of the activity has been confined to exploration and appraisal drilling, the reason being the high uncertainty of the reservoir and fluid properties. Due to the operational complexity inherent to heavy oil, the use of conventional appraisal-well testing technology is limited. A novel technique developed to determine the most appropriate technology for testing wells with heavy oil using an electrical submersible pump (ESP) is presented in this paper. This technique was applied in the Bentley field. Some of the technical challenges include, maintaining fluid mobility using a surface-testing equipment, obtaining accurate flow measurements, a short weather window, and oil and gas separation for metering. Combining technologies such as dual-energy gamma ray venturi multiphase flowmeter, realtime monitoring, and ESP completion made it possible to execute the well test.

  11. Report of DSM Application in Daqing Oil Field%大庆油田DSM技术实施情况报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振良; 秦家坤; 李晓钢

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction to Daqing Oil Field electric network With 40 years' development of Daqing oil filed, the electric network has become the largest corporation electric network in China. In 1998, total electricity consumption added up to 10. 078 billions kwh. And network supply electricity is 6.233 billions kwh, which is 61.8% of total electricity. The self-generated electricity is 3.845 billions kwh, which is 38.2% of total electricity consumption.

  12. Oil palm water use: calibration of a sap flux method and a field measurement scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Furong; Röll, Alexander; Hardanto, Afik; Meijide, Ana; Köhler, Michael; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk

    2015-05-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) water use was assessed by sap flux density measurements with the aim to establish the method and derive water-use characteristics. Thermal dissipation probes were inserted into leaf petioles of mature oil palms. In the laboratory, we tested our set-up against gravimetric measurements and derived new parameters for the original calibration equation that are specific to oil palm petioles. In the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia, in a 12-year-old monoculture plantation, 56 leaves on 10 palms were equipped with one sensor per leaf. A 10-fold variation in individual leaf water use among leaves was observed, but we did not find significant correlations to the variables trunk height and diameter, leaf azimuthal orientation, leaf inclination or estimated horizontal leaf shading. We thus took an un-stratified approach to determine an appropriate sampling design to estimate stand transpiration (Es, mm day(-1)) rates of oil palm. We used the relative standard error of the mean (SEn, %) as a measure for the potential estimation error of Es associated with sample size. It was 14% for a sample size of 13 leaves to determine the average leaf water use and four palms to determine the average number of leaves per palm. Increasing these sample sizes only led to minor further decreases of the SEn of Es. The observed 90-day average of Es was 1.1 mm day(-1) (error margin ± 0.2 mm day(-1)), which seems relatively low, but does not contradict Penman-Monteith-derived estimates of evapotranspiration. Examining the environmental drivers of Es on an intra-daily scale indicates an early, pre-noon maximum of Es rates (11 am) due to a very sensitive reaction of Es to increasing vapor pressure deficit in the morning. This early peak is followed by a steady decline of Es rates for the rest of the day, despite further rising levels of vapor pressure deficit and radiation; this results in pronounced hysteresis, particularly between Es and vapor pressure deficit. PMID

  13. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Don; Koerner, Roy; Moos, Dan; Nguyen, John; Phillips, Chris; Tagbor, Kwasi; Walker, Scott

    1999-11-09

    The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period July - September 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

  14. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott

    1999-11-09

    The objectives of this quarterly report was to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period April - June 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

  15. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this quarterly report was to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period April - June 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology

  16. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period July - September 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology

  17. Impact Of The Oil Trade On The Global Economy And The Role Of Giant Fields In Predicting Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Wayne; Bishop, Richard

    2010-09-15

    Confusion about global oil supply ('peak oil') is a distraction from the economic issue of massive wealth transfer associated with oil trading and its potential to destabilize the world economy. Without an accurate forecast of oil volumes (resources, reserves and supply), timing and cost, there is no reliable way to model the consequences of the oil trade on the global economy. This paper illustrates why it is imperative to improve our understanding of the oil trade on the global economy and proposes a method of forecasting oil supply for input into a credible global economic model.

  18. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability

  19. Certified Reference Material IAEA-448: Soil from Oil Field Contaminated with Technically Enhanced Radium-226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure reliable evaluation of potential radiological hazards and proper decision making related to radiation protection measures, the IAEA, through the IAEA Environment Laboratories, supports Member State laboratories in their efforts to maintain readiness and to improve the quality of analytical results. It does so by producing reference materials, by developing standardized methods for sample collection and analysis, and by conducting interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests as tools for external quality control of analytical results. The problem of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) contamination is known to be widespread, occurring in oil and gas production facilities throughout the world. It has become a subject of attention in many IAEA Member States. In response to this radiological concern, facilities in many Member States have been characterizing the nature and extent of NORM in oil and gas installations and in the surrounding environment, evaluating the potential for exposure to workers and the public, and developing methods for properly managing these relatively high massic activity residues. Within this context, the IAEA Environment Laboratories, in cooperation with the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, an IAEA Collaborating Centre, have prepared a new certified reference material of soil contaminated with NORM, identified as IAEA-448, certified for the massic activity of 226Ra. This report presents the methodologies used for the production and certification of IAEA-448

  20. Analysis of oil content and oil quality in oilseeds by low-field NMR; Analise do teor e da qualidade dos lipideos presentes em sementes de oleaginosas por RMN de baixo campo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantino, Andre F.; Lacerda Junior, Valdemar; Santos, Reginaldo B. dos; Greco, Sandro J.; Silva, Renzo C.; Neto, Alvaro C.; Barbosa, Lucio L.; Castro, Eustaquio V.R. de [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Freitas, Jair C.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica

    2014-07-01

    To choose among the variety of oleaginous plants for biodiesel production, the oil content of several matrices was determined through different low-field {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with varied pulse sequences, namely single-pulse, spin-echo, CPMG, and CWFP. The experiments that involved the first three sequences showed high correlation with each other and with the solvent extraction method. The quality of the vegetable oils was also evaluated on the basis of the existing correlation between the T{sub 2} values of the oils and their properties, such as viscosity, iodine index, and cetane index. These analyses were performed using HCA and PCA chemometric tools. The results were sufficiently significant to allow separation of the oleaginous matrices according to their quality. Thus, the low-field {sup 1}H NMR technique was confirmed as an important tool to aid in the selection of oleaginous matrices for biodiesel production. (author)

  1. Fracture density determination using a novel hybrid computational scheme: a case study on an Iranian Marun oil field reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri-Taleghani, Morteza; Mahmoudifar, Mehrzad; Shokrollahi, Amin; Tatar, Afshin; Karimi-Khaledi, Mina

    2015-04-01

    Most oil production all over the world is from carbonated reservoirs. Carbonate reservoirs are abundant in the Middle East, the Gulf of Mexico and in other major petroleum fields that are regarded as the main oil producers. Due to the nature of such reservoirs that are associated with low matrix permeability, the fracture is the key parameter that governs the fluid flow in porous media and consequently oil production. Conventional methods to determine the fracture density include utilizing core data and the image log family, which are both time consuming and costly processes. In addition, the cores are limited to certain intervals and there is no image log for the well drilled before the introduction of this tool. These limitations motivate petroleum engineers to try to find appropriate alternatives. Recently, intelligent systems on the basis of machine learning have been applied to various branches of science and engineering. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model to predict the fracture density using full set log data as inputs based on a combination of three intelligent systems namely, the radial basis function neural network, the multilayer perceptron neural network and the least square supported vector machine. The developed committee machine intelligent system (CMIS) is the weighted average of the individual results of each expert. Proper corresponding weights are determined using a genetic algorithm (GA). The other important feature of the proposed model is its generalization capability. The ability of this model to predict data that have not been introduced during the training stage is very good.

  2. Fracture density determination using a novel hybrid computational scheme: a case study on an Iranian Marun oil field reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most oil production all over the world is from carbonated reservoirs. Carbonate reservoirs are abundant in the Middle East, the Gulf of Mexico and in other major petroleum fields that are regarded as the main oil producers. Due to the nature of such reservoirs that are associated with low matrix permeability, the fracture is the key parameter that governs the fluid flow in porous media and consequently oil production. Conventional methods to determine the fracture density include utilizing core data and the image log family, which are both time consuming and costly processes. In addition, the cores are limited to certain intervals and there is no image log for the well drilled before the introduction of this tool. These limitations motivate petroleum engineers to try to find appropriate alternatives. Recently, intelligent systems on the basis of machine learning have been applied to various branches of science and engineering. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model to predict the fracture density using full set log data as inputs based on a combination of three intelligent systems namely, the radial basis function neural network, the multilayer perceptron neural network and the least square supported vector machine. The developed committee machine intelligent system (CMIS) is the weighted average of the individual results of each expert. Proper corresponding weights are determined using a genetic algorithm (GA). The other important feature of the proposed model is its generalization capability. The ability of this model to predict data that have not been introduced during the training stage is very good. (paper)

  3. Paclobutrazol treatment as a potential strategy for higher seed and oil yield in field-grown camelina sativa L. Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sumit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz is a non-food oilseed crop which holds promise as an alternative biofuel energy resource. Its ability to grow in a variety of climatic and soil conditions and minimal requirements of agronomical inputs than other oilseed crops makes it economically viable for advanced biofuel production. We designed a study to investigate the effect of paclobutrazol [2RS, 3RS-1-(4-Chlorophenyl-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylpentan-3-ol] (PBZ, a popular plant growth regulator, on the seed and oil yield of Camelina sativa (cv. Celine. Results A field-based micro-trial setup was established in a randomized block design and the study was performed twice within a span of five months (October 2010 to February 2011 and five different PBZ treatments (Control: T0; 25 mg l-1: T1; 50 mg l-1: T2; 75 mg l-1: T3; 100 mg l-1: T4; 125 mg l-1: T5 were applied (soil application at the time of initiation of flowering. PBZ at 100 mg l-1 concentration (T4 resulted in highest seed and oil yield by 80% and 15%, respectively. The seed yield increment was mainly due to enhanced number of siliques per plant when compared to control. The PBZ - treated plants displayed better photosynthetic leaf gas exchange characteristics, higher chlorophyll contents and possessed dark green leaves which were photosynthetically active for a longer period and facilitated higher photoassimilation. Conclusion We report for the first time that application of optimized PBZ dose can be a potential strategy to achieve higher seed and oil yield from Camelina sativa that holds great promise as a biofuel crop in future.

  4. Reservoir Modeling of Carbonate on Fika Field: The Challenge to Capture the Complexity of Rock and Oil Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erawati Fitriyani Adji

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v1i2.181The carbonate on Fika Field has a special character, because it grew above a basement high with the thickness and internal character variation. To develop the field, a proper geological model which can be used in reservoir simulation was needed. This model has to represent the complexity of the rock type and the variety of oil types among the clusters. Creating this model was challenging due to the heterogeneity of the Baturaja Formation (BRF: Early Miocene reef, carbonate platform, and breccia conglomerate grew up above the basement with a variety of thickness and quality distributions. The reservoir thickness varies between 23 - 600 ft and 3D seismic frequency ranges from 1 - 80 Hz with 25 Hz dominant frequency. Structurally, the Fika Field has a high basement slope, which has an impact on the flow unit layering slope. Based on production data, each area shows different characteristics and performance: some areas have high water cut and low cumulative production. Oil properties from several clusters also vary in wax content. The wax content can potentially build up a deposit inside tubing and flow-line, resulted in a possible disturbance to the operation. Five well cores were analyzed, including thin section and XRD. Seven check-shot data and 3D seismic Pre-Stack Time Migration (PSTM were available with limited seismic resolution. A seismic analysis was done after well seismic tie was completed. This analysis included paleogeography, depth structure map, and distribution of reservoir and basement. Core and log data generated facies carbonate distribution and rock typing, defining properties for log analysis and permeability prediction for each zone. An Sw prediction for each well was created by J-function analysis. This elaborates capillary pressure from core data, so it is very similar to the real conditions. Different stages of the initial model were done i.e. scale-up properties, data analysis, variogram modeling

  5. 油田石油污染土壤微生物修复实验研究%Laboratory microbial remediation study of oil -contaminated soil in an oil field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小二; 张春生; 来亚芳; 郭东升; 杨鲁玉; 王红振

    2014-01-01

    In order to prevent and deal with the soil pollution caused by oil exploitation in an oil field,the effective degradation microbial communities, which were lab selective enrichment cultured from oil -contaminated soil of this oil field,was employed for microbial remediation experiments of oil -contaminated soil. Four methods affecting the degradation rate of oil for three soil samples of high,medium,low pollution concentration were observed under laboratory conditions,and the optimum processing methods for three soil samples were determined.The experimental results showed that the degradation rate of petroleum hydrocarbon for three soil samples in the optimal treatment method could reach 37.93% ~75.70% after 33 d bioremediation, indicating that the effective degradation microbial communities,cultivated in this experiment,can remediate the oil -contaminated soil of this oil field.This paper has discussed the feasibility of application of microbial remediation technique in this oil field.%为了有效预防和治理某油田因石油开发而造成的土壤污染,通过实验室选择性富集培养,从该油田石油污染土壤中筛选出了一组降解石油污染的优势菌群,开展石油污染土壤的微生物修复实验.在实验室条件下考察4种方法分别对高、中、低3种污染浓度的土壤样品的石油降解率的影响,确定出3种土壤样品的最佳处理方法.实验结果显示,3种土壤样品在最佳处理方法下,经过33 d 降解,其石油烃降解率可达37.93%~75.70%,说明本实验培养出的优势菌群能够对该油田的油污土壤进行修复,探索了该油田微生物修复技术应用的可行性.

  6. Trajectory of an oil spill off Goa, eastern Arabian Sea: field observations and simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vethamony, P; Sudheesh, K; Babu, M T; Jayakumar, S; Manimurali, R; Saran, A K; Sharma, L H; Rajan, B; Srivastava, M

    2007-07-01

    An oil spill occurred off Goa, west coast of India, on 23 March 2005 due to collision of two vessels. In general, fair weather with weak winds prevails along the west coast of India during March. In that case, the spill would have moved slowly and reached the coast. However, in 2005 when this event occurred, relatively stronger winds prevailed, and these winds forced the spill to move away from the coast. The spill trajectory was dominated by winds rather than currents. The MIKE21 Spill Analysis model was used to simulate the spill trajectory. The observed spill trajectory and the slick area were in agreement with the model simulations. The present study illustrates the importance of having pre-validated trajectories of spill scenarios for selecting eco-sensitive regions for preparedness and planning suitable response strategies whenever spill episodes occur. PMID:17291649

  7. Shiningbank energy, Rodney, Ontario : natural channel realignment for protection of an oil field battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rodney Unit 1 battery in Ontario has produced Devonian crude oil with some hydrogen sulfide since 1948. Waterflooding was initiated in 1968, and continues today using recycled produced water as a flushing agent. This presentation provided details of recent upgrades which included replacement of all storage tanks and production lines as well as new lines under the Fleming Creek drain. Upgrades of waterflooding injection systems and the reconstruction of a battery tank farm were also conducted, and old infrastructure and tanks were removed. An environmental conditions investigation revealed oil seepage from Fleming Drain Creek bank, as well as creek erosion which threatened the unit battery. Remediation options required addressing environmental issues due to regulations. Experts hired during the investigation included a hydrogeologist; a fluvial geomorphologist; a fisheries biologist and a restoration contractor. The aim of the project was to extract contaminants from the soil and provide site stability through a realignment of the creek. The site was also revegetated following construction. Various design options were outlined and a construction sequence was presented. A post-construction inspection showed that the Rodney Unit 1 Battery was remediated in accordance with Ontario standards. Soil and groundwater quality now meets Ministry of the Environment standards for the site. The realignment of Fleming Creek Drain in the vicinity of the battery has improved functionality of the drain, and reduced the erosive impact on the battery site as well as enhancing the aquatic habitat in the area. It was concluded that industry applications of ecosystem design solutions have improved pipeline crossings, temporary road impacts and erosion threats. Site decommissioning is also expected to be less costly and time-consuming due to the remediation methods used. refs., tabs., figs

  8. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggy Robinson

    2005-07-01

    This report summarizes activities that have taken place in the last six (6) months (January 2005-June 2005) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields, New Mexico and Wyoming'' DE-FC26-02NT15445. This project examines the practices and results of cultural resource investigation and management in two different oil and gas producing areas of the United States: southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The project evaluates how cultural resource investigations have been conducted in the past and considers how investigation and management could be pursued differently in the future. The study relies upon full database population for cultural resource inventories and resources and geomorphological studies. These are the basis for analysis of cultural resource occurrence, strategies for finding and evaluating cultural resources, and recommendations for future management practices. Activities can be summarized as occurring in either Wyoming or New Mexico. Gnomon as project lead, worked in both areas.

  9. An integrated remediation/redevelopment approach for a 31-acre site with oil field drilling waste sumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TCL Site is a 240-acre State Superfund site located in the Port of Long Beach in Wilmington, California. In order to provide intermodal capabilities for an existing import/export facility, an expedited remediation and redevelopment program was pursued for a 31-acre portion of the site. About 75% of this 31-acre project parcel was covered with sumps containing oil field drilling wastes (i.e., drilling muds). Through intensive and ongoing interactions with the regulating agencies, the site was brought through the final site assessment, risk assessment, feasibility study and remedial action plan processes in about 18 months. The remedy selected included physical stabilization of very low strength sump materials; capping with a low permeability soil layer and several feet of import soil; and provisions for the removal of oil and water which might be expressed from the sump materials during consolidation under the newly placed cap and fill. Construction of the remedial elements of the project were completed in September of 1994. Construction of the new commercial surface facilities has been completed, and it is operating

  10. Economic valuation of environmental liabilities, case report: liabilities from Cicuco-Boquete oil field, Mompos-Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental management demands the incorporation of economic tools to make decisions. One crucial aspect is to establish the compensation values demandable under parameters of acceptable rationality considering at the same time the systemic and complexicity theory of ecosystemic relationships and transmission of impacts, where the definition of environmental passive is configured. This study intended to establish the value of the damage caused in time to human populations established in the influence area of the Cicuco-Boquete oil extraction field, located in Mompos island, department of Bolivar, Colombia. The research included developing and applying a methodology to appraise the value of damages derived from oil extraction activities on the fish production potential on the nearby area. Environmental changes on hidric resources directly impacted the area's fishing potential; consequently, there was an irreversible diminishing on the main productive activity of the regions inhabitants. The study was carried out from May to December 1999 by request of the Procuraduria Delegada para Asuntos Agrarios y Ambientales and the municipalities of Talaiga Nuevo and Cicuco in Bolivar's Department, with the participation of the Departamento Nacional de Planeacion -DNP- and the Contraloria General de la Republica - CGR.

  11. Modern Processes of Hydrocarbon Migration and Re-Formation of Oil and Gas Fields (Based on the Results of Monitoring and Geochemical Studies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, Irina; Salakhidinova, Gulmira; Nosova, Fidania; Pronin, Nikita; Ostroukhov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Special geochemical studies of oils allowed to allocate a movable migration component of oils in the industrial oil deposits. In the field the migration component of oils varies in different parts of the field. The largest percentage of the light migration component (gas condensate of the oil) was detected in the central part of the Kama-Kinel troughs system. Monitoring of the composition of water, oil and gas (condensate light oil component) in the sedimentary cover and ni crystalline basement led to the conclusion of modern migration of hydrocarbons in sedimentary cover. This proves the existence of the modern processes of formation and reformation of oil and gas fields. This presentation is dedicated to the problem of definition of geochemical criteria of selection of hydrocarbons deposit reformation zone in the sample wells of Minibaevskaya area of Romashkinskoye field. While carrying out this work we examined 11 samples of oil from the Upper Devonian Pashiysky horizon. Four oil samples were collected from wells reckoned among the "anomalous" zones that were marked out according to the results of geophysical, oil field and geological research. Geochemical studies of oils were conducted in the laboratory of geochemistry of the Kazan (Volga-region) Federal University. The wells where the signs of hydrocarbons influx from the deep zones of the crust were recorded are considered to be "anomalous". A number of scientists connect this fact to the hypothesis about periodic influx of deep hydrocarbons to the oil deposits of Romashkinskoye field. Other researchers believe that the source rocks of the adjacent valleys sedimentary cover generate gases when entering the main zone of gas formation, which then migrate up the section and passing through the previously formed deposits of oil, change and "lighten" their composition. Regardless of the point of view on the source of the hydrocarbons, the study of the process of deposits refilling with light hydrocarbons is an

  12. Repellency of oils of lemon eucalyptus, geranium, and lavender and the mosquito repellent MyggA natural to Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the laboratory and field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenson, Thomas G T; Garboui, Samira; Palsson, Katinka

    2006-07-01

    MyggA Natural (Bioglan, Lund, Sweden) is a commercially available repellent against blood-feeding arthropods. It contains 30% of lemon-scented eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K. D. Hill & L. A. S. Johnson (Myrtaceae), oil with a minimum of 50% p-menthane-3,8-diol. MyggA Natural also contains small amounts of the essential oils of lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (Lamiaceae), and geranium, Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. (Geraniaceae). In laboratory bioassays, MyggA Natural and C. citriodora oil exhibited 100% repellency against host-seeking nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae). Lavender oil and geranium oil, when diluted to 1% in 1,2-propanediol, had weak repellent activities on I. ricinus nymphs, but when diluted to 30% in 1,2-propanediol had 100% repellencies. 1,2-Propanediol (100%) had no significant repellent activity in comparison with that of the control. In field tests in tick-infested areas in central Sweden, tick repellency of MyggA Natural and C. citriodora oil was tested by the blanket-dragging technique for 4 d during a 6-d period. The repellencies (74 and 85%, respectively) on day 1 are similar (89%) to that of blankets treated in a similar manner with 19% diethyl-methyl-benzamide, based on previous work. Repellencies declined significantly from day 1 to day 6 (74 to 45% for MyggA Natural; 85 to 42% for C. citriodora oil). PMID:16892632

  13. Generalized Representation of Oil and Gas Fields in Southern Louisiana [slafldsg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The polygons representing fields were created by constructing a grid of ¼ sq. mi. cells and proximal polygons centered on all wells in southern Louisiana and then...

  14. Concentration measurements of uranium, thorium and their daughter products in water produced from and near oil fields in north of Iraq using SSNTRD's passive method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and their daughter products in water samples collected from different oil fields and sources in north of Iraq, were determined by using CR-39 and LR-115 SSNTRDs. It was found that the concentrations of 238U and 232Th vary between 0.20 and 3.50 ppm and from 0.03 to 1.83 ppm, respectively. According to the recommended values and the calculated annual effective dose, most of the produced water from the studied oil fields is not useful for any direct purpose. (author)

  15. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggy Robinson

    2004-07-01

    This report contains a summary of activities of Gnomon, Inc. and five subcontractors that have taken place during the first six months of 2004 (January 1, 2004-June 30, 2004) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement: ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil & Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming'', DE-FC26-02NT15445. Although Gnomon and all five subcontractors completed tasks during these six months, most of the technical experimental work was conducted by the subcontractor, SRI Foundation (SRIF). SRIF created a sensitivity model for the Azotea Mesa area of southeastern New Mexico that rates areas as having a very good chance, a good chance, or a very poor chance of containing cultural resource sites. SRIF suggested that the results of the sensitivity model might influence possible changes in cultural resource management (CRM) practices in the Azote Mesa area of southeastern New Mexico.

  16. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggy Robinson

    2004-01-01

    This report contains a summary of activities of Gnomon, Inc. and five subcontractors that have taken place during the second six months (July 1, 2003-December 31, 2003) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement: ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil & Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming'', DE-FC26-02NT15445. Although Gnomon and all five subcontractors completed tasks during these six months, most of the technical experimental work was conducted by the subcontractor, SRI Foundation (SRIF). SRIF created a sensitivity model for the Loco Hills area of southeastern New Mexico that rates areas as having a very good chance, a good chance, or a very poor chance of containing cultural resource sites. SRIF suggested that the results of the sensitivity model might influence possible changes in cultural resource management (CRM) practices in the Loco Hills area of southeastern New Mexico.

  17. Approaching viscosity control: electrical heating of extra heavy oil as alternative to diluent injection in down hole in Cerro Negro Field, Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Manuel [Petroleos de Venezuela SA, PDVSA (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Electrical heating is a method used to enhance oil recovery in extra heavy oil reservoirs. This method can be used when diluent injection or other methods are not able to reduce oil viscosity sufficiently or when problems of product quality or quantity arise. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of electrical heating, individually and simultaneously with injection of diluents. For this purpose, simulations were undertaken in one well with integrated electrical heating and diluent injection in Cerro Negro Field in the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela. Results have shown that the application of both methods together is more profitable than the application of electrical heating alone. This paper demonstrated that the use of electrical heating and diluent injection combined is a valid alternative to diluent injection alone, reducing production loss.

  18. An indicator to evaluate the environmental Impact of olive oil waste water’s shedding on cultivated fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Silvestri

    Full Text Available Several climatic, soil and topographic factors need to be considered when evaluating the impact of human actions on the environment. Such variables may be related in a complex way to environmental impact, thus making its evaluation difficult. Problems of this type emerge when evaluating the risks olive oil waste water pose to the environment when shed on cultivated soils. This paper proposes a fuzzy expert system to calculate a modular indicator, ICARO, which allows an evaluation of the potential environmental impact of the application of olive oil waste water in a field. Five modules were formulated, one (“Waste water” reflecting the nature of the waste water, two (“Groundwater”, “Surface water” reflecting the risk for the most sensitive agro-environmental compartments (groundwater, surface water, one (“Crop” reflecting possible consequences on the cropping system adopted, and one (“Soil” reflecting the soil aptitude to receive waste waters.The input variables are therefore waste water amount and properties, site-specific conditions, and characteristics of the application considered. For each input variable, two functions describing membership to the fuzzy subsets Favorable (F and Unfavorable (U have been defined. The expert system calculates the value of each module according to both the degree of membership of the input variables to the subsets F and U, and a set of decision rules. The five modules can be considered individually or can be aggregated (again according to level of membership to fuzzy subsets F and U and a set of decision rules into the synthetic indicator ICARO. Outcomes of a sensitivity analysis are presented. The system is flexible and can be used as a decision aid tool to authorize waste water’s shedding or subordinate the distribution on fields to acceptance of some limitations (amount, timing, site, etc.

  19. Field strength dependence of the high-frequency viscoelastic relaxation process in polyaniline/silicone oil electrorheological suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline (PANI was synthesized via oxidative coupling polymerization in acid conditions and de-doped in ammonia solution. The electrorheological (ER properties of the PANI/silicone oil suspensions were investigated in the oscillatory mode shear, with particular focus on the high frequency region, where a crossover in G′(ω and G″(ω signals the onset of a dissipative relaxation process, presumed to be associated with motion of PANI particles within the fibrillar structures generated by the electric field. The relationship between the crossover frequency, ωc, and the electric field strength (E was investigated as a function of matrix viscosity and shear strain. We find that ωc increases with increasing electric field strength, and decreases with increases of matrix viscosity and strain amplitude. These observations are in qualitative agreement with a theoretical model, which relates the relaxation mechanism to the competition between hydrodynamic and electrostatic forces between PANI particles within thick fibrillar structures. At the crossover point, a critical scaling relation is found relating two dimensionless parameters, the Mason number (Mn, and the Peclet number (Pe, viz. Mn~(Pe0.09.

  20. Effect of diesel oil and ammonium sulfate on efficacy of glyphosate on Cyperus rotundus under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under Gezira field conditions, excellent and lasting Cyperus rotundus suppression was achieved, irrespective of application time or cropping conditions. From visual assessments, suppression was achieved when glyphosate as ''Roundup'' at 1.5 kg a.e./ha was applied alone or with the addition of ammonium sulfate, diesel oil emulsified with Triton X-100. At the rate of 0.75kg a.e./ha the herbicide was moderately effective on the cropped fields but on the uncropped fields it was as effective as the higher rate at 8 weeks. At the lowest rate tested (0.5 kg a.e./ha) the herbicide was less effective and was not significantly improved by the addition of adjuvants or charms, the time of spray application. The fresh and dry weights in the 0.75 kg a.e./ha treatments were reduced by 85% to 98% compared with the controls confirming the visual assessments. Unrestricted competition from the natural weed population combined with C. rotundus, reduced the maize stand by 59%, height by 55%, straw yield by 60% and grain yield by 87%, C. rotundus alone was less competitive reducing maize stand, height, straw and grain yields by 21%, 2%, 61% and 68% respectively. (author)

  1. Innovative well completion strategy for challenging heavy oil wells within mature fields requiring sand control in Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huimin, Ye [Mansarovar Energy Colombia (Colombia)

    2011-07-01

    Heavy-oil wells in northern fields of South America are growing exponentially in importance. A common thread in all of these wells is the requirement for completions that accommodate challenging environments and sand-management systems that satisfy the production goals for the field and extend the life of the reservoir. This paper presents the methodology used in completion selection and design for the wells in the Moriche field in Colombia, operated by Mansarovar Energy, and explains the different scenarios that were analyzed to select the completion methodology. Simulations, carried out to give an understanding of the behavior of different sand face completion components during the production life of the well and the impact this new innovative approach had on the productivity of the reservoir, are presented. They allow selection of the most appropriate sand-control strategy as well as the most appropriate sand screen to address sand challenges at the reservoir which cannot be easily met with conventional practices or downhole tools. Different sensitivity studies were carried out, using alternative completions, in order to support the decision made.

  2. Potential for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery in the Vedder Formation, Greeley Field, San Joaquin Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Most scientists agree that greenhouse gases (GHG) such as carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) are major contributors to the global warming trend and climate change. One effort to mitigate anthropogenic sourced CO2 is through carbon capture and sequestration. Depleted oil and gas reservoirs due to their known trapping capability, in-place infrastructure, and proximity to carbon emission sources are good candidates for possible CO2 storage. The Vedder formation is one of three reservoirs identified in the San Joaquin Basin that meets standards for possible storage. An analysis of net fluid production data (produced minus injected) from discovery to the present is used to determine the reservoir volume available for CO2 storage. Data regarding reservoir pressure response to injection and production of fluids include final shut-in pressures from drill stem test, static bottom-hole pressure measurements from well completion histories, and idle well fluid level measurements for recent pressure data. Proprietary experimental pressure, volume and temperature data (PVT), gas oil ratios (GOR), well by well permeability, porosity, and oil gravity, and relative permeability and perforation intervals are used to create static and dynamic multiphase fluid flow models. All data collected was logged and entered into excel spreadsheets and mapping software to create subsurface structure, reservoir thickness and pressure maps, cross sections, production/injection charts on a well-by-well basis, and both static and dynamic flow models. This data is used to determine storage capacity and the amount of pressure variance within the field to determine how the reservoir will react to CO2 injection and to gain insight into the subsurface fluid movement of CO2. Results indicate a homogenous field with a storage capacity of approximately 26 Million Metric Tons of CO2. Analysis of production by stream and pressure change through time indicates a strong water drive

  3. Economic benefits of carbon isotope fingerprint-logs used to determine source depths of migrating gas in heavy oil fields of Alberta and Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, D.; Muehlenbachs, K. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Jensen, E. [Amoco Canada Petroleum Co. Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    A method by which to identify the sources of gas migration from wells in heavy oil reservoirs was presented. Natural gas migration to surface presents an environmental and financial liability in oil fields in Alberta and Saskatchewan, particularly in those fields that have very close well spacings. Traditional geophysical or logging techniques have been unable to identify the source of these undesired gas emissions. This study showed that the problem does not originate from the heavy oil reservoirs, but from the shallower overlying shales. In this study, isotopic profiles of gases extracted from drilling muds were used to identify two gas sources and their depth. The gases associated with heavy oils originated as thermal cracking products. The shale gases are a mixture of bacterial methane and traces of ethane, propane and butane produced by incipient thermal cracking. Carbon isotope fingerprint logs in heavy oil fields were found to be useful in assessing potential environmental risks and ensure that remedial efforts are more cost efficient. 2 figs.

  4. Development of heavy oil fields onshore and offshore: resemblances and challenges; Desenvolvimento de campos de oleos pesados em terra e em mar: semelhancas e desafios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branco, Celso Cesar Moreira; Moczydlower, Priscila [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The so called offshore heavy oils (API gravity lower than 19) and extra heavy oils (API lower than 10) are receiving increasing importance due to the light oil production decline and also to exploration difficulties. In countries like Canada, Venezuela, China and the US (California) there are immense onshore heavy oil resources sometimes classified as non conventional. Differently in Brazil, onshore heavy oil volumes are modest being important those located in offshore fields (although non comparable to the Canadian and Venezuelan ones). The issue raised in this paper is: the field location, whether onshore or offshore, is always the main constraint in the development process? Well, the question has both a 'yes' and 'no' as an answer. There are important differences but some similarities in the technologies that can be applied. In this text the authors intend to explore this point while at the same time depicting some of the main related aspects under research for proper exploitation of heavy and extra heavy oil assets. The most relevant difference between onshore and offshore heavy oil fields is the application of thermal methods for improved recovery: while worldwide spread and commercially applied to onshore fields, steam injection is not yet viable for offshore operations. The only option for improving recovery in offshore fields is water injection, which has the drawback of producing large volumes of water during the field life. Another aspect is the cost of the production wells: much cheaper onshore they allow well spacing in the order of 100 m or even 50 m whereas in offshore well spacing are in the 1000 m range. From the flow assurance point of view, inland installations can take use of solvents for heavy oil dilution, such as diesel or naphtha. Offshore this option is complicated by the long distances from the wellheads to the producing facilities in the platform, in the case of wet completions. There are also differences regarding the

  5. Geochemical implications of trace elements and sulfur in the saturate, aromatic and resin fractions of crude oil from the Mara and Mara Oeste fields, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liliana Lopez; Salvador Lo Monaco [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela). Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra

    2004-02-01

    Ten trace elements (Cr, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Co, Ni, Mo, V and Sr) and sulfur were determined in the saturate, aromatic and resin fractions of 15 crude oils from Mara (DM) and Mara Oeste (DMO) fields of the Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. The oils studied are classified as unaltered or altered by biodegradation. In the altered oil, the depletion of n-alkanes, the absence of isoprenoids and the presence of steranes and hopanes unaltered by biodegradation are indicative of moderate biodegradation. The elements Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Sr were detected in the saturated hydrocarbon fraction; Cr and V were detected in the aromatic fraction in addition to the above elements; whereas the elements detected for the resin fraction were Cr, Zn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Mo, V, and Sr. Co was not detected in any fractions of the oils analyzed. Sulfur was found in all fractions of the oils studied. It was proposed that Fe, Zn, Sr, and Mn could have entered the oil during migration or Fe, Zn and Mn as pollutants during oil extraction. Cr and Cu may be of biological origin and Mo could be incorporated into the reservoir through bacteria. Only S, V, and Ni in the resin fractions can be used as indicators of the origin and correlation of Mara and Mara Oeste oils. Based on the results obtained in this work, it can be established that the V/(V+Ni) ratio in the resin fraction can be used as a correlation parameter, for these oils. 30 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. SAGD or cold production : a case study for an Orinoco heavy oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granado, C.E.; Velasquez, A.J.; Serna, A.J. [Computer Modelling Group, Calgary, AB (Canada); Barrios, J.R.; Zambrano, A. [PDVSA-CVP, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2008-07-01

    This paper examined the potential of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) technology for increasing productivity in the Orinoco heavy oilfields of Venezuela. A computerized simulation tool was used to generate a matrix of parameters needed to compare SAGD processes with cold production techniques in the Carabobo region of the Orinoco belt. Parameters included vertical connectivity, oil saturation, and net pay. Monte Carlo simulations and uncertainty assessments were used to generate cold production scenarios. Optimized SAGD scenarios were then designed for each case. Results of the study suggested that vertical local connectivity was an important parameter for the identification of suitable areas for EOR and SAGD. Unfavorable conditions for the application of SAGD during early production stages were identified. SAGD behaviour improved through the adjustment of injection rates during different stages of the process. It was concluded that the simulation run times were improved through the use of the design and uncertainty assessment tool. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated that cold production techniques were suitable in some cases. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 16 figs.

  7. Molecular phylogenetical studies of the thermophilic spore-forming desulfotomaculum isolated from oil-field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wu; Li Chunyan; Xiang Fu; Yu Longjiang

    2005-01-01

    A novel thermophilic and heterotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria, strain CW-03, was isolated from crude oil well whose depth was 3.2 kilometer. The bacterium was strictly anaerobic; it does not endure acid and itsmaximum surviving temperature was 70℃. Many short chain organic compounds can be utilized as electron donors, which were acetate, formate, lactate, propionate, pyruvate, butyrate, succinate, malate, fumarate,valerate, caproate, heptanoate, octanoate, decanoate, tridecanoate, pentadecanoate, palmitate, heptadecanoate or ethanol, while sulfate and sulfite were used as electron acceptors. The following substrates were not utilized: benzoate undecanoate, dodecanoate, tetradecane, propanol, butanol, H2+CO2 (80/20%; v/v) and acetate (1mM)+ H2. When lactate was used as electron donors, sulfite and thiosulfate, but not sulfer and nitrate, can be used as electron acceptors. Strain CW-03 was motile, curved rod, Gram-positive, pole flagellum and spore-forming. On the basis of 16S rRNA sequence alignment (accession numbers: AY703032), CW-03 should be included in the genus Desulfotomaculum with BIAST analysis on line. However, some of its physiology and multiple sequence alignments were different from other members of this genus. Therefore, CW-03 should be recognized as a new species, for which we propose the name Desulfotomaculum chinamiddle (Bacteria, Firmicutes, Clostridia, Clostridiales, Peptococcaceae).

  8. Seasonal variations of microbial community in a full scale oil field produced water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbial community in a full scale anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor system for oil-produced water treatment in summer and winter. The community structures of fungi and bacteria were analyzed through polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and Illumina high-throughput sequencing, respectively. Chemical oxygen demand effluent concentration achieved lower than 50 mg/L level after the system in both summer and winter, however, chemical oxygen demand removal rates after anaerobic baffled reactor treatment system were significant higher in summer than that in winter, which conformed to the microbial community diversity. Saccharomycotina, Fusarium, and Aspergillus were detected in both anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor during summer and winter. The fungal communities in anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor were shaped by seasons and treatment units, while there was no correlation between abundance of fungi and chemical oxygen demand removal rates. Compared to summer, the total amount of the dominant hydrocarbon degrading bacteria decreased by 10.2% in anaerobic baffled reactor, resulting in only around 23% of chemical oxygen demand was removed in winter. Although microbial community significantly varied in the three parallel sulfide reducing bacteria, the performance of these bioreactors had no significant difference between summer and winter.

  9. Removal of Radium From Discharged Water in Oil Fields Using Electrodeposition Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is conducted to contribute the future policy of waste management related to the presence of technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) in Egyptian petroleum industry. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the risk of NORM to the environment and to initiate methods to deal with the contaminated produced water by decreasing the concentration of Ra-226 in produced water by electro-deposition technique using different electrode materials (stainless steel, copper and iron). The pose of changing electrode material is to establish the most effective electrode material which deposits the maximum amount of radioactive elements on its surface. From the results obtained in this study, it could be concluded that the concentration of Ra-226 in produced water may decrease by 70% by using more efficient electrodes. Produced water samples collected from different production facilities of Oil Company was used for the analysis of 238U and 232Th series. The activities of samples were determined by high purity germanium detector and the results showed that Ra-226 concentration ranged from 4.58 Bq/l to 8.1 Bq/l.

  10. Study on detailed geological modelling for fluvial sandstone reservoir in Daqing oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Hanqing; Fu Zhiguo; Lu Xiaoguang [Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Daqing (China)

    1997-08-01

    Guided by the sedimentation theory and knowledge of modern and ancient fluvial deposition and utilizing the abundant information of sedimentary series, microfacies type and petrophysical parameters from well logging curves of close spaced thousands of wells located in a large area. A new method for establishing detailed sedimentation and permeability distribution models for fluvial reservoirs have been developed successfully. This study aimed at the geometry and internal architecture of sandbodies, in accordance to their hierarchical levels of heterogeneity and building up sedimentation and permeability distribution models of fluvial reservoirs, describing the reservoir heterogeneity on the light of the river sedimentary rules. The results and methods obtained in outcrop and modem sedimentation studies have successfully supported the study. Taking advantage of this method, the major producing layers (PI{sub 1-2}), which have been considered as heterogeneous and thick fluvial reservoirs extending widely in lateral are researched in detail. These layers are subdivided into single sedimentary units vertically and the microfacies are identified horizontally. Furthermore, a complex system is recognized according to their hierarchical levels from large to small, meander belt, single channel sandbody, meander scroll, point bar, and lateral accretion bodies of point bar. The achieved results improved the description of areal distribution of point bar sandbodies, provide an accurate and detailed framework model for establishing high resolution predicting model. By using geostatistic technique, it also plays an important role in searching for enriched zone of residual oil distribution.

  11. High temperature annealing of fission tracks in fluorapatite, Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Nancy D.; Crowley, Kevin D.; McCulloh, Thane H.; Reaves, Chris M.

    1990-01-01

    Annealing of fission tracks is a kinetic process dependent primarily on temperature and to a laser extent on time. Several kinetic models of apatite annealing have been proposed. The predictive capabilities of these models for long-term geologic annealing have been limited to qualitative or semiquantitative at best, because of uncertainties associated with (1) the extrapolation of laboratory observations to geologic conditions, (2) the thermal histories of field samples, and (3) to some extent, the effect of apatite composition on reported annealing temperatures. Thermal history in the Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California, is constrained by an exceptionally well known burial history and present-day temperature gradient. Sediment burial histories are continuous and tightly constrained from about 9 Ma to present, with an important tie at 3.4 Ma. No surface erosion and virtually no uplift were recorded during or since deposition of these sediments, so the burial history is simple and uniquely defined. Temperature gradient (???40??C km-1) is well established from oil-field operations. Fission-track data from the Santa Fe Springs area should thus provide one critical field test of kinetic annealing models for apatite. Fission-track analysis has been performed on apatites from sandstones of Pliocene to Miocene age from a deep drill hole at Santa Fe Springs. Apatite composition, determined by electron microprobe, is fluorapatite [average composition (F1.78Cl0.01OH0.21)] with very low chlorine content [less than Durango apatite; sample means range from 0.0 to 0.04 Cl atoms, calculated on the basis of 26(O, F, Cl, OH)], suggesting that the apatite is not unusually resistant to annealing. Fission tracks are preserved in these apatites at exceptionally high present-day temperatures. Track loss is not complete until temperatures reach the extreme of 167-178??C (at 3795-4090 m depth). The temperature-time annealing relationships indicated by the new data

  12. Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plan (Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Joe Benson; David Hilton; David Cate; Lewis Brown

    2006-05-29

    The principal research efforts for Phase II of the project were drilling an infill well strategically located in Section 13, T. 10 N., R. 2 W., of the Womack Hill Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, and obtaining fresh core from the upper Smackover reservoir to test the feasibility of implementing an immobilized enzyme technology project in this field. The Turner Land and Timber Company 13-10 No. 1 well was successfully drilled and tested at a daily rate of 132 barrels of oil in Section 13. The well has produced 27,720 barrels of oil, and is currently producing at a rate of 60 barrels of oil per day. The 13-10 well confirmed the presence of 175,000 barrels of attic (undrained) oil in Section 13. As predicted from reservoir characterization, modeling and simulation, the top of the Smackover reservoir in the 13-10 well is structurally high to the tops of the Smackover in offsetting wells, and the 13-10 well has significantly more net pay than the offsetting wells. The drilling and testing of the 13-10 well showed that the eastern part of the field continues to have a strong water drive and that there is no need to implement a pressure maintenance program in this part of the Womack Hill Field at this time. The success achieved in drilling and testing the 13-10 infill well demonstrates the benefits of building a geologic model to target areas in mature fields that have the potential to contain undrained oil, thus increasing the productivity and profitability of these fields. Microbial cultures that grew at 90 C and converted ethanol to acid were recovered from fresh cuttings from the Smackover carbonate reservoir in an analogous field to the Womack Hill Field in southwest Alabama; however, no viable microorganisms were found in the Smackover cores recovered from the drilling of the 13-10 well in Womack Hill Field. Further evaluation is, therefore, required prior to implementing an immobilized enzyme technology project in the Womack Hill Field.

  13. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    Summaries are presented for the DOE contracts related to supported research for thermal recovery of petroleum, geoscience technology, and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. Data included for each project are: title, contract number, principal investigator, research organization, beginning date, expected completion date, amount of award, objectives of the research, and summary of technical progress.

  14. Field Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) Oil: A Promising Source of Biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L., FP) is a winter annual species of the mustard family (Brassicaceae) that is widely distributed throughout temperate North America and which can serve in a winter rotational cycle with conventional crops, thus not displacing existing agricultural production or ne...

  15. Seismic Illumination Analysis in Poor Oil and Gas Field Data by Using Focal Beam Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area underneath shallow gas cloud is an area where the image of subsurface data is generally poor. This distorted image underneath gas zones usually contains precious information of hydrocarbon accumulation. Previously, we analyse the factors contribute to poor subsurface seismic image underneath the gas cloud model and use focal beam technique to understand subsurface illumination information. Encourage by model-based success, we shift our focus to data-based application by applying the focal beam technique into a real field data. The results from this field were analyse in term of resolution function and amplitude versus ray parameter (AVP) imprint for different reflector depth, followed by acquisition analysis on the surface level. For this purpose, a velocity data of a field located in Malay Basin was built before applying the focal beam calculation. We will demonstrate that by using focal beam analysis for this field, we will able to obtain good imaging particularly for target reflector at 2000ms, 4000ms and 6000ms depth, provided the full 3D acquisition geometry was used during focal beam application

  16. New designed device allows significant savings in PCP completions, in the Zuata Field, Junin block of the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, T.; Brunings, C. [PDVSA (Venezuela); Grisoni, J. [TIET, C.A. (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In the Zuata principal field in the Orinoco oil belt, PDVSA has implemented a new device named FMB-TIET. This device is a retrievable mechanically activated tool designed with a torque anchor which converts a tubular PCP into an insertable PCP. In the Zuata principal field, the insertable PCPs have been used since 2001 but, given the intent of PDVSA to increase its oil production rates and decrease its operational expenditure, the FMB-TIET device was tried in well ZPZ0047 in February, 2010. This implementation along with Flush by unit resulted in a considerable saving: the operational expenditure for replacement service was reduced by 63%, rig time was reduced by two days and production delays were also reduced by two days. The test of the FMB-TIET device in one well of the Orinoco oil belt has proved to be successful and PDVSA is planning to install twenty devices in the short term.

  17. Barracuda, Caratinga oil field and surroundings: new exploratory and production field at Campos basin, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil; Campos de Barracuda, Caratinga e adjacencias: novo polo exploratorio e de producao na Bacia de Campos, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Celso Carlos; Guardado, Lincoln Rumenos; Moreira, Jobel L.Pinheiro; Esteves, Fernando R.; Andrade, Vander F.; Freitas, Luiz Carlos S.; Soares, Carlos M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Exploracao

    1994-12-31

    Deep water Albacora and Marlim giant oil field were discovered by PETROBRAS in Campos basin during the 80`s. Deep water exploration was then increased, resulting in new 3 D seismic surveys aiming exploratory targets in the southern and southwestern part of the central producing trend of the basin. Since 1990, exploratory investment was concentrated in these areas and 18 exploratory wells have been drilled, resulting in 10 discoveries, grouped into five new oil fields: Salema (1990), Bijupira (1990), Barracuda (1990), RJS-424 Area (1993) and Caratinga (1994). (author) 5 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Risk analysis on oil and gas leakage accident in offshore oil & gas field engineer%海上油气田工程油气泄漏事故风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘大新; 霍有利

    2009-01-01

    In the engineers of offshore oil & gas field, there exists a great deal of inflammable and explosive materials such as the crude oil and natural gas. There is always a leak risk of these materials which could lead to oil spill, fire and explosion accident. Based on a typical oil & gas engineer in Bohai Bay, The source, probability, aftermath and environment risk of oil and gas leak accident were studied. It showed that blowout, fire and explosion accident on the offshore platform and submarine pipeline leak are the main sources and the submarine pipeline leak probability is the greatest. The most serious aftermath of oil and gas leak is oil spill and the comparison and analysis of extent of oil spill in the construction and production period of the oil & gas field engineer were done. Based on these factors, the fault tree of the environment risk of blowout is most serious but the probability is lesser. The efficient measures abated the environment risk of two accidents were discussed for the fire and explosion caused on the offshore platform and submarine pipeline leak.%以渤海某工程项目为例研究海上油气田工程油气泄漏的事故及其风险.文章指出井喷、平台火灾事故和海底管道泄漏是海上油气田工程油气泄漏的主要事故源,并通过类比性分析得到三种事故的发生概率.油气泄漏的最严重后果是溢油事故,文章对各种事故的溢油规模进行分析,并根据井喷、平台火灾和海底管道泄漏三种事故发生的概率和规模对其环境影响进行评价.

  19. A SIMPLE ANALYTICAL MODEL FOR PREDICTING SAND PRODUCTION IN A NIGER DELTA OIL FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isehunwa S.O

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sand production, which is predominant in the Niger Delta, is a growing concern in the petroleum industry because of the associated technical, operational and economic challenges. The development of sanding predictive tools and effective management strategies has received much attention in literature. However, most of the publishedtheoretical models have been validated with laboratory or data obtained from petroleum provinces other than the Niger Delta. This work developed a simple analytical model for predicting sand production and validated it using 16 wells in a Niger Delta Field. The results confirmed the well-known impact of flow rate, fluid viscosity and grain size and density on sanding rates. It was also observed that at moderate production rates, sanding in the Niger Delta Field has relatively small arch lengths of below 30 feet.

  20. Effect of microflora of bed waters of the Arlan oil field on nonionogenic surfactant OP-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gvozdyak, P.I.; Khazipov, R.Kh.; Kravchuk, V.N.; Podorvan, N.I.; Udod, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of the possibility of destruction of the nonionogenic surfactant (NS) OP-10 under the influence of microflora of bed waters of the Arlan field. It was established that in the studied water there is biocenosis of the microorganisms promoting destruction of NS OP-10 with initial concentration of 500 mg/l. The adapted biocenosis of the microorganisms of bed waters to OP-10 in anaerobic conditions destroys the compound by 79-85% in 6 days.

  1. Field Laboratory in the Osage Reservation -- Determination of Status of Oil and Gas Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herb; Johnson, W.I.

    1999-04-27

    Microsoft EXCEL and Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheets have been programmed to perform calculations as reservoir data is entered. These program were developed by BDM-Oklahoma, Inc. personnel for use in the Field Laboratory in the Osage Reservation project. This spreadsheet will also assist Native American Tribe members in evaluation of the petroleum resource on the Osage Mineral Estate, Osage County, Oklahoma and independent operators to evaluate petroleum reservoirs on and off of the Osage Mineral Estate.

  2. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 82, quarterly report, January--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This document consists of a list of projects supporting work on oil recovery programs. A publications list and index of companies and institutions is provided. The remaining portion of the document provides brief descriptions on projects in chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, geoscience, resource assessment, and reservoir class field demonstrations.

  3. Thin sand modeling based on geostatistic, uncertainty and risk analysis in Zuata Principal field, Orinoco oil belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona, W.; Aranaga, R.; Siu, P.; Perez, L. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    The geological modelling of the Zuata Principal field in Venezuela, particularly the Junin Block 2 belonging to Orinoco oil belt, is a challenge because of the presence of thin sand bodies in an unexploited zone. This paper presented the results obtained from a horizontal well that contacted 96 per cent of pay count sand in the field. Geostatistical modelling and sensibility analysis were used for planning the well. The model was generated by processing and interpreting information from production and exploratory fishbones. Information provided by nearby wildcat wells suggested that the proposed area was not prospective. However, information provided by several exploratory fishbones offered some possibility of draining additional reserves. From available information, facies models and uncertainty analysis were made to statistically determine the best option, notably to drill additional stratwells to obtain a more accurate characterization or apply the already obtained model for drilling a production well in the investigated area. The study showed that geological uncertainty does not only depend on how much information is available, but also on how this information can be processed and interpreted. Decision analysis provides a rational basis for dealing with risk and uncertainties. 4 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs., 1 appendix.

  4. A detailed analysis of wastewater-induced seismicity in the Val d'Agri oil field (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improta, Luigi; Valoroso, Luisa; Piccinini, Davide; Chiarabba, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    The Val d'Agri basin in the Apennines seismic belt hosts the largest oil field in onshore Europe. High-quality recordings from a temporary dense network unravel a swarm of 111 small-magnitude events (ML ≤ 1.8) occurred in June 2006 during the first stage of wastewater injection into a high-rate well. High-precision relative locations define a preexisting blind fault located 1 km below the well inside fractured and saturated carbonates where wastewater is reinjected. Seismicity begins 3 h after the initiation of injection. The seismicity rate strictly correlates with injection curves and temporal variations of elastic and anisotropic parameters. Seismicity is induced by rapid communication of pore pressure perturbations along a high-permeability fault zone favorably oriented with respect to the local extensional stress field. Our accurate 3-D locations of 219 events (ML ≤ 2.2) detected by the local operator network after June 2006 concentrate on the preexisting fault measuring 5 km along dip. Over the following 7.5 years, the seismicity rate correlates with short-term increases in injection pressure.

  5. Application of Double-Difference Seismic Tomography to Carbon Sequestration Monitoring at the Aneth Oil Field, Utah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Ripepi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Double difference seismic tomography was performed using travel time data from a carbon sequestration site at the Aneth oil field in southeast Utah as part of a Department of Energy initiative on monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA of sequestered CO2. A total of 1211 seismic events were recorded from a borehole array consisting of 23 geophones. Artificial velocity models were created to determine the likelihood of detecting a CO2 plume with an unfavorable event and receiver arrangement. In tests involving artificially modeled ray paths through a velocity model, ideal event and receiver arrangements clearly show velocity reductions. When incorporating the unfavorable event and station locations from the Aneth Unit into synthetic models, the ability to detect velocity reductions is greatly diminished. Using the actual, recorded travel times, the Aneth Unit results show differences between a synthetic baseline model and the travel times obtained in the field, but the differences do not clearly indicate a region of injected CO2. MVA accuracy and precision may be improved through the use of a receiver array that provides more comprehensive ray path coverage, and a more detailed baseline velocity model.

  6. 智能变频输油技术在华庆油田的应用%Application of Intelligent Frequency Carry Oil Technology in the Huaqing Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴润有; 王亚新; 胡放军; 柳瑛

    2011-01-01

    For the disadvantages of production of ultra-low permeability reservoirs, oil and other characteristics and site intermittent oil in Huaqing oil field, the application of intelligent frequency conversion oil system is studied. The system in which the pump start and stop frequently by employees are solved, especially the overflow tank or empty pumping problems are prevented, the normal transport of crude oil in winter is ensured, the manpower is saved, the labor intensity of workers is reduced, the energy is saved and the equipment is protected.%针对华庆油田超低渗透油藏产量低,站点间歇输油等特点,研究应用智能化变频输油系统,解决员工频繁启停输油泵,重复单调的劳动,尤其是防止溢罐或者空抽问题发生,造成环境和设备的破坏,保障冬季原油的正常输送,节省人力,降低员工的劳动强度,达到节能降耗,保护设备的目的.

  7. Categorization and auditing of reserve estimates in a series of Kazakhstan oil and gas fields, including a probabilistic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lencioni, L.C.; Johnston, B.G.; Hagemann, S.G.

    1996-12-31

    Many western oil and gas companies are evaluating opportunities for projects in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The type and quality of available data, as well as existing interpretations made by the Soviets, are often very unfamiliar to engineers without experience in the FSU. This paper presents a case study of an audit of reserve estimates for a series of eight undeveloped gas-condensate and volatile oil reservoirs, the Kamen/Tokarev-Teplov (KTT) Trend, located in northwestern Kazakhstan. The study described in this paper was commissioned by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) to evaluate the provision of financing and taking an equity in the project. Thus, the concerns of the IFC involved several questions: (1) What are the reserves upon which financing can be based with relatively low risk? (2) What are the most likely reserves which should be considered for longer term planning and budgeting purposes? and (3) What are the upside potential and downside risk? These questions can be effectively answered concurrently by the use of a probabilistic reserve analysis. The data review for these fields yielded the results that the majority of the available data was of good quality and reasonable and sufficient to use in estimating reserves. Some of the well test and PVT data, however, showed inconsistencies due to measurement or sampling techniques which had to be resolved. Adjustments were made to account for these data problems. This paper presents a discussion of our review of the data and previous interpretations and reserve estimates, and a description of our deterministic reserve estimates and probabilistic analysis.

  8. Effects of adding bulking agent, inorganic nutrient and microbial inocula on biopile treatment for oil-field drilling waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Yang, Yongqi; Dai, Xiaoli; Chen, Yetong; Deng, Hanmei; Zhou, Huijun; Guo, Shaohui; Yan, Guangxu

    2016-05-01

    Contamination from oil-field drilling waste is a worldwide environmental problem. This study investigated the performance of four bench-scale biopiles in treating drilling waste: 1) direct biopile (DW), 2) biopile plus oil-degrading microbial consortium (DW + M), 3) biopile plus microbial consortium and bulking agents (saw dust) (DW + M + BA), 4) biopile plus microbial consortium, bulking agents, and inorganic nutrients (Urea and K2HPO4) (DW + M + BA + N). Ninety days of biopiling removed 41.0%, 44.0%, 55.7% and 87.4% of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the pile "DW", "DW + M", "DW + M + BA", and "DW + M + BA + N" respectively. Addition of inorganic nutrient and bulking agents resulted in a 56.9% and 26.6% increase in TPH removal efficiency respectively. In contrast, inoculation of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms only slightly enhanced the contaminant removal (increased 7.3%). The biopile with stronger contaminant removal also had higher pile temperature and lower pile pH (e.g., in "DW + M + BA + N"). GC-MS analysis shows that biopiling significantly reduced the total number of detected contaminants and changed the chemical composition. Overall, this study shows that biopiling is an effective remediation technology for drilling waste. Adding inorganic nutrients and bulking agents can significantly improve biopile performance while addition of microbial inocula had minimal positive impacts on contaminant removal. PMID:26891352

  9. Tectonic Framework and Deep Structure of South China and Their Constraint to Oil-Gas Field Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingchen; LIU Jinsong; DU Zhili; CAI Liguo

    2009-01-01

    South China could be divided into one stable craton,the Yangtze Craton(YzC),and several orogenic belts in the surrounding region,that is the Triassic Qinling-Dabie Orogenic Belt(QDOB)in river Orogenic Belt(TOB)in the west,the Youjiang Orogenic Belt(YOB)in the southwest,the Middle Paleozoic Huanan Orogenic Belt (HOB) in the southeast, and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Maritime Orogenic Belt(MOB)along the coast.Seismic tomographic images reveal that the Moho depth is deeper than 40 km and the lithosphere iS about 210 km thick beneath the YzC.The SGOB is characterized by thick crust (>40 km)and thin lithosphere(<150 km).The Hob.Yob and Mob have a thin crnst (<40 km)and thin lithosphere(<150 km).Terrestrial heat flow survey revealed a distribution pattern with a low heat flow region in the eastern YzC and western HOB and two high heat flow regions in the TOB and MOB respectively.Such a"high-low-high"heat flow distribution pattern could have resulted from Cenozoic asthenosphere upwelling.All oil-gas fields are concentrated in the central part of the YzC.Remnant oil pools have been discovered along the southern margin of the YzC and its adjacent orogenic belts.From a viewpoint of geological and geophysical structure, regions in South China with thick lithosphere and low heat flOW value.as well as weak deformation.might be the ideal region for further petroleum exploration.

  10. Analysis of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities along a High-Molecular-Weight Polyacrylamide Transportation Pipeline System in an Oil Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Yun Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields.

  11. Marine transportation of oil from Timan Pechora and from inland Russian fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, Dag; Backlund, Anders

    1996-05-01

    As part of The International Northern Sea Route Programme (INSROP), Subprogram III, Trade and Commercial Shipping, a study has been made concerning seaborne export of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) from the Northern Russia, especially the West Siberian fields in Tyumen. The main purpose of the total project III.0703, part 2 and this study is to evaluate the economic viability of seaborne export from this area to the European region, mainly with the use of a special ice-strengthened LPG vessel, constructed and designed for such seaborne operations. This study concentrates on both seaborne LPG transportation, the demand and supply for seaborne LPG in the world and marine transportation of LPG from the West Siberian fields. Another purpose is to see which regions are potential exporters, importers and buyers of seaborne export of LPG from Tyumen. Currently large quantities of liquefied gas are flared off at the West Siberian fields due to insufficient infrastructure, lack of modern processing capacity and capital. A number of gas processing plants, nine in total, are in operation by the Sibneftegaspererabotka Corporation (SNGP), the main products being polyethylene variants. The regional surplus of LPG is estimated to increase to 700.000 metric tonnes by 1995 for which limited transportation capacity exists. As the development in Russia evolves to the East in the Timan-Pechora and Yamal areas, a part of the Northern Sea Route will be affected. The analysis will give a starting point for more detailed comparisons of the potential for seaborne LPG export to the world market. The project is split into several parts and deals with LPG markets and consumers, analyses different issues related to the political and economic environment in the LPG and gas industry, evaluates the world-wide seaborne demand for LPG and focuses on the estimated traded LPG until the turn of the century, analyses the supply side of the LPG market emphasising on the seaborne export of LPG, carries

  12. Marine transportation of oil from Timan Pechora and from inland Russian fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of The International Northern Sea Route Programme (INSROP), Subprogram III, Trade and Commercial Shipping, a study has been made concerning seaborne export of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) from the Northern Russia, especially the West Siberian fields in Tyumen. The main purpose of the total project III.0703, part 2 and this study is to evaluate the economic viability of seaborne export from this area to the European region, mainly with the use of a special ice-strengthened LPG vessel, constructed and designed for such seaborne operations. This study concentrates on both seaborne LPG transportation, the demand and supply for seaborne LPG in the world and marine transportation of LPG from the West Siberian fields. Another purpose is to see which regions are potential exporters, importers and buyers of seaborne export of LPG from Tyumen. Currently large quantities of liquefied gas are flared off at the West Siberian fields due to insufficient infrastructure, lack of modern processing capacity and capital. A number of gas processing plants, nine in total, are in operation by the Sibneftegaspererabotka Corporation (SNGP), the main products being polyethylene variants. The regional surplus of LPG is estimated to increase to 700.000 metric tonnes by 1995 for which limited transportation capacity exists. As the development in Russia evolves to the East in the Timan-Pechora and Yamal areas, a part of the Northern Sea Route will be affected. The analysis will give a starting point for more detailed comparisons of the potential for seaborne LPG export to the world market. The project is split into several parts and deals with LPG markets and consumers, analyses different issues related to the political and economic environment in the LPG and gas industry, evaluates the world-wide seaborne demand for LPG and focuses on the estimated traded LPG until the turn of the century, analyses the supply side of the LPG market emphasising on the seaborne export of LPG, carries

  13. Oil industry first field trial of inter-well reservoir nanoagent tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanj, Mazen Y.; Kosynkin, Dmitry V.

    2015-05-01

    This short manuscript highlights the industry's first proven reservoir nanoagents' design and demonstrates a successful multi-well field trial using these agents. Our fundamental nanoparticles tracer template, A-Dots or Arab-D Dots, is intentionally geared towards the harsh but prolific Arab-D carbonate reservoir environment of 100+°C temperature, 150,000+ppm salinity, and an abundant presence of divalent ions in the connate water. Preliminary analyses confirmed nanoparticles' breakthrough at a producer nearly 500m from the injector at the reservoir level; thus, proving the tracer nanoparticles' mobility and transport capability. This is considered industry-first and a breakthrough achievement complementing earlier accomplishments in regard to the nanoagents' reservoir stability with the first successful single well test and ease of scale up with the synthesis of one metric ton of this material. The importance of this accomplishment is not in how sophisticated is the sensing functionalities of this design but rather in its stability, mobility, scalability, and field application potentials. This renders the concept of having active, reactive, and even communicative, in-situ reservoir nanoagents for underground sensing and intervention a well anticipated near-future reality.

  14. Oil companies make cutbacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As oil prices are falling, the oil sector faces company restructuring, merger projects, closure of oil fields, and so on. Restructuring is motivated by the costs of offshore exploration and oil production projects. Saudi Arabia tries to fight the emergence of shale gases by reducing oil prices, and somehow succeeds as some projects in the USA are put into question again. Experts perceive this situation as an opportunity for the sector to improve its efficiency and reduce over-staffing

  15. Novel Cleanup Agents Designed Exclusively for Oil Field Membrane Filtration Systems Low Cost Field Demonstrations of Cleanup Agents in Controlled Experimental Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Burnett; Harold Vance

    2007-08-31

    The goal of our project is to develop innovative processes and novel cleaning agents for water treatment facilities designed to remove fouling materials and restore micro-filter and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane performance. This project is part of Texas A&M University's comprehensive study of the treatment and reuse of oilfield brine for beneficial purposes. Before waste water can be used for any beneficial purpose, it must be processed to remove contaminants, including oily wastes such as residual petroleum hydrocarbons. An effective way of removing petroleum from brines is the use of membrane filters to separate oily waste from the brine. Texas A&M and its partners have developed highly efficient membrane treatment and RO desalination for waste water including oil field produced water. We have also developed novel and new cleaning agents for membrane filters utilizing environmentally friendly materials so that the water from the treatment process will meet U.S. EPA drinking water standards. Prototype micellar cleaning agents perform better and use less clean water than alternate systems. While not yet optimized, the new system restores essentially complete membrane flux and separation efficiency after cleaning. Significantly the amount of desalinated water that is required to clean the membranes is reduced by more than 75%.

  16. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, July--September 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, H.A. (ed.) (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (USA))

    1991-05-01

    The report contains a general introduction and background to DOE's revised National Energy Strategy Advanced Oil Recovery Program and activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force; a detailed synopsis of the symposium, including technical presentations, comments and suggestions; a section of technical information on deltaic reservoirs; and appendices containing a comprehensive listing of references keyed to general deltaic and geological aspects of reservoirs and those relevant to six selected deltaic plays. Enhanced recovery processes include chemical floodings, gas displacement, thermal recovery, geoscience, and microbial recovery.

  17. Industrial automation in floating production vessels for deep water oil and gas fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process supervision in offshore platforms was performed in the past through the use of local pneumatic instrumentation, based on relays, semi-graphic panels and button operated control panels. Considering the advanced technology used in the new floating production projects for deep water, it became mandatory to develop supervision systems capable of integrating different control panels, increasing the level of monitorization and reducing the number of operators and control rooms. From the point of view of field integration, a standardized architecture makes the communication between different production platforms and the regional headquarters, where all the equipment and support infrastructure for the computerized network is installed, possible. This test paper describes the characteristics of the initial systems, the main problems observed, the studies performed and the results obtained in relation to the design and implementation of computational systems with open architecture for automation of process control in floating production systems for deep water in Brazil

  18. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama. Final report, March 1996--September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Carroll, R.E.; Groshong, R.H.; Jin, G.

    1998-12-01

    This project was designed to analyze the structure of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata in Gilbertown Field and adjacent areas to suggest ways in which oil recovery can be improved. The Eutaw Formation comprises 7 major flow units and is dominated by low-resistivity, low-contrast play that is difficult to characterize quantitatively. Selma chalk produces strictly from fault-related fractures that were mineralized as warm fluid migrated from deep sources. Resistivity, dipmeter, and fracture identification logs corroborate that deformation is concentrated in the hanging-wall drag zones. New area balancing techniques were developed to characterize growth strata and confirm that strain is concentrated in hanging-wall drag zones. Curvature analysis indicates that the faults contain numerous fault bends that influence fracture distribution. Eutaw oil is produced strictly from footwall uplifts, whereas Selma oil is produced from fault-related fractures. Clay smear and mineralization may be significant trapping mechanisms in the Eutaw Formation. The critical seal for Selma reservoirs, by contrast, is where Tertiary clay in the hanging wall is juxtaposed with poorly fractured Selma chalk in the footwall. Gilbertown Field can be revitalized by infill drilling and recompletion of existing wells. Directional drilling may be a viable technique for recovering untapped oil from Selma chalk. Revitalization is now underway, and the first new production wells since 1985 are being drilled in the western part of the field.

  19. Are intertidal soft sediment assemblages affected by repeated oil spill events? A field-based experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Martins, César C; Lana, Paulo C

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the impact of repeated diesel spills on the structure of intertidal macrofaunal assemblages of a subtropical estuary. Three frequencies of exposure events were compared against two dosages of oil in a factorial experiment with asymmetrical controls. Hypotheses were tested to distinguish between (i) the overall effect of oil spills, (ii) the effect of diesel dosage via different exposure regimes, and (iii) the effect of time since last spill. Repeated oil spills dramatically altered the overall structure of assemblages and reduced the total density of macrofauna and densities of dominant taxa. Increasing the frequency of oil spills negatively affected macrofauna. In general, frequent low-dosage oil spills were more deleterious than infrequent high-dosage ones. However, increases in densities of some taxa, mainly the gastropod Heleobia australis, were observed in response to infrequent spills. Our results highlight the importance of repeated exposure events in determining the extent of oil impacts. PMID:26890483

  20. Comprehensive Information Interpretation in Oil and Gas Exploration—An Example of Buried-Hill Oil and Gas Field in the Jizhong area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangShengzheng

    2003-01-01

    The petroleum geophysical and geological comprehensive interpretation with whole-information of gravitational, magnetic, electrical and seismic methods has played an important role in the exploration and development of the buried-hill oil and gas pools in the Jizhong area, including the oil pools in the weathering surface of the buried-hill with “oil generated in the Cenozoic and accumulated in thePaleozoic”, and the gas pools in the buried-hill with “oil generated in both the Cenozoic and the Paleozoic, accumulated in the Paleozoic and sealed by the Mesozoic”. In recent years,high-precision gravitational and magnetic surveying and continuous electromagnetic profile (CEMP) prospecting were carried out on the Yangcun Slope that had been preliminarily recognized as a monocline in the Paleozoic structural-stratigraphy. After the geophysical and geological comprehensive interpretation with whole-information of gravitational,magnetic, electric and seismic data, the gas-bearing buriedhill zone of Matou-Huanghuadian was discovered.