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Sample records for canola quality winter

  1. Effect of Phosphorus, Potassium, and Chloride Nutrition on Cold Tolerance of Winter Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field experiment was conducted to determine whether fertility treatments improve cold hardiness of canola (Brassica napus L.). Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and overwinter survival of field-grown canola were used to evaluate the effect of chloride (Cl), potassium (K), and phosphorus (P)...

  2. Effect of Packaging Films on the Quality of Canola Oil under Photooxidation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of packaging films on the quality of canola oil which contains high concentration of fat under photooxidation condition and get the oxidation kinetics based on measuring the oxidation intensities including peroxide value, hexanal, and photosensitizer (chlorophyll. The canola oil was packaged by PET/CPP; KPET/PE was used for experiments. The change of light and oxygen transmission rate (OTR of PET/CPP which was considered as the typical fatty foods packaging film under different light intensities was also tested. The results show that the peroxide value increased rapidly under light conditions and fitted the zero order kinetics; also the oxygen transmission rate had great impact on it; hexanal fitted the zero order kinetic in oil whose package of low OTR generated a lot; however package in high OTR films changed very slowly that might be dependent on the performance of hexanal through plastic films. The degradation of chlorophyll fitted the first order kinetic and decreased quickly under light but was almost independent of OTR of transparent packaging material. Light reduced the oxygen barrier properties of the films, which should be considered as the photooxidation condition (and the photooxidation condition thus should be considered.

  3. Growth, yield and quality response of various canola cultivars under agro-ecological condition of Faisalabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiment was conducted to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative response of six Canola hybrids/cultivars viz. Hyola-401, Omega-I, Omega-II, Bulbul-98, Rainbow and Cyclone. Crop growth, agronomic and qualitative traits were recorded by standard procedures. The results showed that hybrid Omega-II produced maximum leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR) and total dry matter accumulation (TDM) and also out yielded than other hybrids/cultivars, i.e. 2439 kg ha/sup -1/. Whereas, it was observed that Hyola-401 gave the highest oil contents (44.51%) and Omega-I produced the highest protein content (25.25%) amongst all the treatments. It is concluded that Omega-II cultivar performed better and attained maximum yield and quality under the agro-ecological conditions of Faisalabad. (author)

  4. Induced Mutations for Development of B. juncea Canola Quality Varieties Suitable for Indian Agro-climatic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry and presoaked canola quality 'Heera' seeds were treated with 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03% EMS with three and six-hour mutagenic treatments. Five mutants with early maturity (93-95 days) as opposed to 140 days of the parent were evaluated in trials. EH-1 was found superior in yield potential; however, the yield was lower than the control. Several selections with low glucosinolate, high erucic acid and canola quality were identified from the cross, mutant EH-1 and NU-6 (mutant derivative). Selection NUDH-YJ-6 with low glucosinolate, high erucic acid, 3.6g test weight and high oil content (46%) was at par in seed yield but 17% higher in oil yield in the multi-location trials of four years during 2003-04 to 2006-07 at 10 locations in zone III and zone IV of India. The advance selection derived from EH1 x NU6 was crossed with large seed mutant PB7. Several '00' selections were developed and studied for their agronomic characters. Two selections along with checks were evaluated for two years during 2005-06 and 2006-07. Both these selections were resistant to white rust disease and gave seed and oil yield comparable to national check Varuna. Another selection NUD-YJ- 5 with canola characters of maturity like Indian mustard varieties with small seed size has been registered with the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (INGR NO-03034), ICAR, New Delhi. (author)

  5. Flowering Without Vernalization in Winter Canola (Brassica napus: use of Virus-Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS to accelerate genetic gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Álvarez-Venegas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ciclos de reproducción cortos y la oportunidad de incrementar la ganancia genética, junto con el estudio de las bases moleculares de la vernalización, son áreas esenciales de investigación dentro de la biología de plantas. Varios métodos se han empleado para lograr el silenciamiento génico en plantas, pero ninguno reportado a la fecha para canola (Brassica napus, y en particular para inducir la floración sin vernalización en líneas de invierno a través del uso de secuencias sentido de DNA en vectores diseñados para el silenciamiento génico inducido por virus (VIGS. La presente investigación provee los métodos para transitoriamente regular a la baja, por medio de VIGS, genes de la vernalización en plantas anuales de invierno, específicamente la familia de genes de Flowering Locus C (FLC en canola de invierno (BnFLC1 a BnFLC5. La regulación a la baja de estos genes permite a las plantas anuales de invierno florecer sin vernalización y, consecuentemente, provee los medios para acelerar la ganancia genética. El sistema de silenciamiento propuesto puede ser utilizado para regular a la baja familias de genes, para determinar la función génica, y para inducir la floración sin la vernalización en líneas de invierno tanto del género Brassica como de muchos cultivos importantes de invierno.

  6. Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2011-08-01

    Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley straw Jaya Shankar Tumuluru*, L. G. Tabil, Y. Song, K. L. Iroba and V. Meda Biomass is a renewable energy source and environmentally friendly substitute for fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum products. Major limitation of biomass for successful energy application is its low bulk density, which makes it very difficult and costly to transport and handle. To overcome this limitation, biomass has to be densified. The commonly used technologies for densification of biomass are pelletization and briquetting. Briquetting offers many advantages at it can densify larger particles sizes of biomass at higher moisture contents. Briquetting is influenced by a number of feedstock and process variables such as moisture content, particle size distribution, and some operating variables such as temperature and densification pressure. In the present study, experiments were designed and conducted based on Box-Behnken design to produce briquettes using barley, wheat, canola and barley straws. A laboratory scale hydraulic briquette press was used for the present study. The experimental process variables and their levels used in the present study were pressure levels (7.5, 10, 12.5 MPa), three levels of temperature (90, 110, 130 C), at three moisture content levels (9, 12, 15% w.b.), and three levels of particle size (19.1, 25.04, 31.75 mm). The quality variables studied includes moisture content, initial density and final briquette density after two weeks of storage, size distribution index and durability. The raw biomass was initially chopped and size reduced using a hammer mill. The ground biomass was conditioned at different moisture contents and was further densified using laboratory hydraulic press. For each treatment combination, ten briquettes were manufactured at a residence time of about 30 s after compression pressure setpoint was achieved. After compression, the initial

  7. Effect of microwave heating on the quality characteristics of canola oil in presence of palm olein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbas Ali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Microwave heating is one of the most attractive cooking methods for food preparation, com­monly employed in households and especially in restaurants for its high speed and convenience. The chemical constituents of oils that degrade during microwave heating do so at rates that vary with heating temperature and time in a similar manner to other type of processing methods. The rate of quality characteristics of the oil depends on the fatty acid composition and the minor components during heating. Addition of oxidative- stable palm olein (PO to heat sensitive canola oil (CO, may affect the quality characteristics of CO during microwave heating. The aim of this study was to evaluate how heat treatments by microwave oven affect the quality of CO in presence of PO. Material and methods. The blend was prepared in the volume ratio of 40:60 (PO:CO, PC. Microwave heating test was performed for different periods (2, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 min at medium power setting for the samples of CO and PC. The changes in quality characteristics of the samples during heating were determined by analytical and instrumental methods. Results. In this study, refractive index, free fatty acid content, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, TOTOX value, specific extinction, viscosity, polymer content, polar compounds and food oil sensor value of the oils all increased, whereas iodine value and C18.2 /C60 ratio decreased as microwave heating progressed. Based on the most oxidative stability criteria, PO addition led to a slower deterioration of CO at heating temperatures. The effect of microwave heating on the fatty acid composition of the samples was not remarkable. PO addi­tion decelerated the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products in CO. However, effect of adding PO to CO on the formation of free fatty acids and polymers during microwave treatment was not significant (P < 0.05. No significant difference in food oil sensor value was detected between CO

  8. Induced mutations for development of B. Juncea canola quality varieties suitable for Indian agro-climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Heera', a canola quality B. juncea selection, was developed at Department of Botany, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur, India. by Late Dr. A. S. Khalatkar during 1992-93. The mutation breeding/hybridization programme was initiated during 1994-95 for developing canola quality early maturing varieties with high yield potential. Dry and presoaked Heera seeds were treated with 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03% EMS with three hours and six hours mutagenic treatments. Five mutants with early maturity (93-95 days) as against 140 days that of parent were evaluated in trials. EH-1 was found superior in yield potential; however, the yield was lower than the control. NU-6 was selected in the segregating generation of EH1 X Pusa Bold with high erucic acid and medium glucosinolate with medium seed size. In another experiment, the mutagenic treatment of 0.04% sodium azide was given to 12 hour water soaked seeds of advanced selection derived from cross EH1 x Pusa Bold. The large seeded mutant PB-7 with zero erucic acid, medium glucosinolate was identified. Extensive hybridization programme using mutants EH-1 and PB7 and mutant derivative NU-6 was initiated. Several selections with low glucosinolate, high erucic acid and canola quality were identified from the cross EH-1 x NU-6. Selection NUDH-YJ-6 with low glucosinolate, high erucic acid, 3.6g test weight and high oil content (46%) was at par in seed yield but 12% higher in oil yield in the multi-location trials of four years during 2003-04 to 2006-07 at ten locations in zone III and zone IV of India. The advance selection derived from EH1 X NU6 was crossed with PB7. Several '00' selections were developed and studied for their agronomic characters. Two selections along with checks were evaluated for two years during 2005-06 and 2006-07. Both these selections were resistant to white rust disease and given seed and oil yield comparable to national check Varuna. Another selection NUDYJ- 5 with canola characters having maturity like Indian mustard

  9. Desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras semipesadas alimentadas com dietas contendo óleos de soja e canola Performance and eggs quality in laying hens fed diets with soybean and canola oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar a influência da adição de níveis crescentes de óleo de soja e canola sobre os índices de desempenho e qualidade interna e externa dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais semipesadas da linhagem Bovans Goldline durante cinco períodos de 28 dias. Foram utilizadas 280 aves com 18 semanas de idade, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos em um esquema fatorial 2 × 3 + 1 (dois tipos de óleo e três níveis de óleo mais um testemunha adicional com cinco repetições e oito aves por unidade experimental. Os níveis de óleo de soja e de canola não alteraram o consumo de ração, os pesos dos ovos, de albúmen, de gema e de casca, as porcentagens de albúmen, de gema e de casca e a gravidade específica dos ovos. Houve influência significativa da interação tipo × nível de óleo sobre a produção de ovos e a conversão por massa e por dúzia de ovos. Com o aumento do nível de óleo de soja, os resultados obtidos para estas variáveis melhoraram, entretanto, a conversão por massa de ovo piorou com o aumento dos níveis de óleo de canola. A adição de óleo de soja promoveu desempenho melhor que o obtido com óleo de canola.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of soybean and canola oil added in crescent levels on production performance indexes and internal and external egg quality of brown commercial layers of the strain Bovans Goldline during five periods of 28 days. Two hundred and eighty hens with 18 weeks old were distributed in a completely randomized design, with seven diets in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement (oil type and oil level, and an additional control, with 5 replicates of 8 hens per experimental unit. The soybean and canola oil levels did not affect the feed consumption; egg, albumen, yolk and shell weights; albumen, yolk and shell percentages, neither the specific gravity. There was an interaction between type and oils levels on egg production and mass

  10. Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lawanna Holt

    2009-01-01

    Winter is snowy and cold season. Christmas iS in winter. Winter is when you get out for Christmas break. Winter is when you have hot chocolate with marshal mallows. `Winter is the season for colds and sinus problems.

  11. Effects of Salinity and NO3:NH4 Ratio on Yield and Quality in Canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of salinity and NO3: NH4 ratio (0:100, 75: 25, 50:50, and 25:75 in the nutrient solution on growth, yield quality and N metabolism in hydroponically grow canola (Brassica napus L. was evaluation. Both fresh and dry weights of leaves were significantly lower when a high concentration of either NO3 (100% or NH4 (75% was the sole N source in the nutrient solution. In nonsaline condition, increasing of both NH4 and NO3 ratio in the nutrient solution reduced photosynthetic (pn rate, however in salinity condition the reduction of pn became more pronounced at a higher ratio of NH4 in the nutrient solution. The yield in terms of fresh and dry weight of seed per plant was significantly increased at the 75:25 (NO3: NH4 treatments. Total fat in nonsaline condition was increased with increasing NH4 ratio in the nutrient solution, however in saline condition it was reduced, at high NH4 ratio in the nutrient solution. The increase of tissue N concentration was nearly proportional to the NH4 concentration in the nutrient solution.The activity of nitrate reductase (NR was increased by increasing NH4 form 0 to 50% and then reduced at a higher ratio of NH4 in the solution. Salinity increased NH4 concentration so that the saline condition had nearly twice high NH4 concentration in the leaves. The increase of NH4 concentration induced by salinity could be parially the reduction of NH4 assimilate because of the shortage of carbohydrate.

  12. Noodle quality of winter wheat cultivated in sustainable farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    MAGDALENA LACKO-BARTOsOVa

    2014-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the Research Experimental Station Dolná Malanta, Western Slovakia during 2009 and 2010 on a Haplic Luvisol developed on proluvial sediments mixed with loess. The altitude of the experimental field was 178 m. The location has a continental climate with an average temperature 19.7 °C in July and -1.7 °C in January, an average annual precipitations are 561 mm. The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of white and wholegrain noodles made from winter whe...

  13. Influence of dietary canola oil and palm oil blend and refrigerated storage on fatty acids, myofibrillar proteins, chemical composition, antioxidant profile and quality attributes of semimembranosus muscle in goats

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyemi, Kazeem D.; Sabow, Azad B.; Shittu, Rafiat M.; Karim, Roselina; Awis Q. Sazili

    2015-01-01

    Background Improving the unsaturated fatty acid content of ruminant meat is essential due to the generally saturated nature of fatty acids in ruminant meat and the negative effects this can have on human health. Nonetheless, enhancing the unsaturated fatty acid content of ruminant meat can have adverse effects on the shelf life and quality attributes of the meat. This study assessed the effects of dietary 80 % canola oil and 20 % palm oil blend (CPOB) on fatty acid composition, antioxidants, ...

  14. Desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras semipesadas alimentadas com dietas contendo óleos de soja e canola Performance and eggs quality in laying hens fed diets with soybean and canola oils

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa; Cristóvão Joaquim de Souza; Cláudia de Castro Goulart; Raul da Cunha Lima Neto; Janaine Sena da Costa; Walter Esfrain Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Objetivou-se analisar a influência da adição de níveis crescentes de óleo de soja e canola sobre os índices de desempenho e qualidade interna e externa dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais semipesadas da linhagem Bovans Goldline durante cinco períodos de 28 dias. Foram utilizadas 280 aves com 18 semanas de idade, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos em um esquema fatorial 2 × 3 + 1 (dois tipos de óleo e três níveis de óleo mais um testemunha adicional) com cinco repet...

  15. PAPERMAKING POTENTIAL OF CANOLA STALKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Enayati

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental study was carried out to explore the properties of canola stalks with regards to pulp and paper production. In this study the morphological properties, chemical composition, and soda pulping properties of canola stalks were investigated. The mean values of length, diameter, and cell wall thickness of canola stalks fibers were measured as 1.17 mm, 23.02 m, and 5.26 m, respectively. The morphological properties analysis indicated that despite the thicker cell wall, the morphological properties of canola stalks fibers were comparable to those of non-woods and hardwoods fibers. The holocelluloses, alpha-cellulose, lignin, and ash contents of canola stalks were determined to be 73.6, 42.0, 17.3, and 8.2 wt%, respectively. The hot water and dilute alkali extractives of canola stalks were determined as 18 and 46.1 wt%. In comparison to most other non-wood papermaking raw materials, soda pulping of canola stalks required higher chemical charge and cooking time. Soda pulping of canola stalks gave a low yield bleachable grade pulp. The strength properties of bleached canola stalks soda pulp appeared to be similar to those of common non-wood papermaking resources. The overall results showed that canola has a promising potential to be used in pulp and paper production.

  16. Infra red express method of definition of the main biochemical indices of winter wheat seed quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callibrie equations are received to analyse quality indices of winter wheat seed that is the main task in the case of development of the programmes of infrared method analysis. Comparison of the results both chemical and infra red analysis of quality of winter wheat seed shows their high simularity

  17. Winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system based on remote sensing and environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To achieve dynamic winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting in larger scale regions, the objective of this study was to design and develop a winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system by using a remote sensing index and environmental factors. The winter wheat quality trend was forecasted before the harvest and quality was monitored after the harvest, respectively. The traditional quality-vegetation index from remote sensing monitoring and forecasting models were improved. Combining with latitude information, the vegetation index was used to estimate agronomy parameters which were related with winter wheat quality in the early stages for forecasting the quality trend. A combination of rainfall in May, temperature in May, illumination at later May, the soil available nitrogen content and other environmental factors established the quality monitoring model. Compared with a simple quality-vegetation index, the remote sensing monitoring and forecasting model used in this system get greatly improved accuracy. Winter wheat quality was monitored and forecasted based on the above models, and this system was completed based on WebGIS technology. Finally, in 2010 the operation process of winter wheat quality monitoring system was presented in Beijing, the monitoring and forecasting results was outputted as thematic maps

  18. Relative effectiveness of organic and inorganic nutrient sources in improving yield, seed quality and nutrient uptake of canola

    OpenAIRE

    Malhi, S. S.; C. L. Vera; Brandt, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    The proper use of organic and inorganic nutrient sources is important to sustain high levels of crop production, while maintaining or enhancing soil and environmental quality. A 4-year (2009 to 2012) field experiment was established in spring 2009 on a Gray Luvisol (Typic Haplocryalf) loam soil at Star City, Saskatchewan, Canada, to determine the effectiveness of organic/biological (compost, wood ash [fine and granular], alfalfa pellets, distiller grain, thin stillage, glycerol, fish foo...

  19. Comparison between Canadian Canola Harvest and Export Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthet, Véronique J

    2016-01-01

    Parameters, such as oil, protein, glucosinolates, chlorophyll content and fatty acid composition, were determined using reference methods for both harvest survey samples and Canadian Canola exports. Canola harvest survey and export data were assessed to evaluate if canola harvest survey data can be extrapolated to predict the quality of the Canadian canola exports. There were some differences in some measured parameters between harvest and export data, while other parameters showed little difference. Protein content and fatty acid composition showed very similar data for harvest and export averages. Canadian export data showed lower oil content when compared to the oil content of harvest survey was mainly due to a diluting effect of dockage in the export cargoes which remained constant over the years (1.7% to 1.9%). Chlorophyll was the least predictable parameter; dockage quality as well as commingling of the other grades in Canola No. 1 Canada affected the chlorophyll content of the exports. Free fatty acids (FFA) were also different for the export and harvest survey. FFA levels are affected by storage conditions; they increase during the shipping season and, therefore, are difficult to predict from their harvest survey averages. PMID:27447675

  20. Baking Quality of Winter Wheat Varieties in Organic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    KONVALINA, PETR; Moudry, Jan; Capouchova, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    The technological value of wheat is negatively influenced by organic methods of cultivation. The critical factor is the crude protein content and quality. The aim of this paper is to identify diferences in the quality of eight varieties and two strains of wheat recommended in conventional or organic conditions. Correlation analysis of the qualitative parameters of wheat shows a clear relationship between crude protein content, wet gluten content and Zeleny - sedimentation value. According to ...

  1. Management Effects On Quality of Organically Grown Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Schweinzer, A.; Friedel, J. K.;

    2013-01-01

    gluten in wheat following pre-crop pea. Danish grains generally contained more soluble polymers of less interest for the baking process than the Austrian ones. The study emphasizes the challenges in improving the quality of organically grown wheat beyond what is predetermined by environmental growth...

  2. Effect of pollinator abundance on self-fertilization and gene flow: application to GM Canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Martin; Hayter, Katrina; Cresswell, James E

    2007-10-01

    Cross-pollination from fields of transgenic crops is of great public concern. Although cross-pollination in commercial canola (Brassica napus) fields has been empirically measured, field trials are expensive and do not identify the causes of cross-pollination. Therefore, theoretical models can be valuable because they can provide estimates of cross-pollination at any given site and time. We present a general analytical model of field-to-field gene flow due to the following competing mechanisms: the wind, bees, and autonomous pollination. We parameterize the model for the particular case of field-to-field cross-pollination of genetically modified (GM) canola via the wind and via bumble bees (Bombus spp.) and honey bees (Apis mellifera). We make extensive use of the large data set of bee densities collected during the recent U.K. Farm Scale Evaluations. We predict that canola approaches almost full seed set without pollinators and that autonomous pollination is responsible for > or = 25% of seed set, irrespective of pollinator abundance. We do not predict the relative contribution of bees vs. the wind in landscape-scale gene flow in canola. However, under model assumptions, we predict that the maximum field-to-field gene flow due to bumble bees is 0.04% and 0.13% below the current EU limit for adventitious GM presence for winter- and spring-sown canola, respectively. We predict that gene flow due to bees is approximately 3.1 times higher at 20% compared to 100% male-fertility, and due to the wind, 1.3 times higher at 20% compared to 100% male-fertility, for both winter- and spring-sown canola. Bumble bee-mediated gene flow is approximately 2.7 times higher and wind-mediated gene flow approximately 1.7 times lower in spring-sown than in winter-sown canola, regardless of the degree of male-sterility. The model of cross-pollination due to the wind most closely predicted three previously published observations: field-to-field gene flow is low; gene flow increases with

  3. Improvement of winter wheat baking quality in ecological cultivation by enlargement of row spacing and undersown intercrops

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Dr. Konstantin; Leithold, Prof. Dr. Günter

    2008-01-01

    Under ecological crop growing conditions, considerable problems consistently arise in fulfilling the baking quality of winter wheat demanded by consumers. The “wide row” procedure shows promising potential for effectively using the nutrient supply in ecological cultivation for the production of winter wheat with high baking performance. Increasing the distance between rows of winter wheat from 12.5 cm to 50 cm proved advantageous for the indirect quality parameters sedimentation value and glu...

  4. Storage of canola in hermetic plastic bags

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosik, R. E.; De la Torre, D. A.; Ochandio, D. C.; Cardoso, L. M.; Rodríguez, J.C.; Massigoge, J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the small size of the seed, canola (Brassica napus or Brassica campestris) offers different challenges in the harvest and the subsequent post-harvest operations. Often, in Argentina, farmers do not have enough permanent storage capacity so they overcome this deficit with the use of hermetic plastic bags (silobags). The objectives of this work were: 1) Determine the feasibility of the bagging and extraction processes of canola. 2) Monitoring the condition of canola by periodic measureme...

  5. Influence of nitrogen fertilization of winter wheat on its gluten quality

    OpenAIRE

    Styk B.; Grundas S.; Borkowska H.

    1999-01-01

    Five winter wheat varieties grown in 1992-95 at two levels of the nitrogen fertilization: 50 and 150 kgN/ha, were tested. Protein content, wet gluten content and gluten index value were examined. Gluten index values, which according to Perten,s method determine baking quality, were negatively correlated with protein and wet gluten contents. Within the tested varieties significant differences were found for the values of gluten index. The results obtained suggest that irrespective of the effec...

  6. Canola/Rapeseed Protein: Future Opportunities and Directions-Workshop Proceedings of IRC 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lisa; Rempel, Curtis B; Wanasundara, Janitha P D

    2016-01-01

    At present, canola meal is primarily streamlined into the animal feed market where it is a competitive animal feed source owing to its high protein value. Beyond animal feed lies a potential game-changer with regards to the value of canola meal, and its opportunity as a high quality food protein source. An economic and sustainable source of protein with high bioavailability and digestibility is essential to human health and well-being. Population pressures, ecological considerations, and production efficiency underscore the importance of highly bioavailable plant proteins, both for the developed and developing world. Despite decades of research, several technologies being developed, and products being brought to large scale production, there are still no commercially available canola protein products. The workshop entitled "Canola/Rapeseed Protein-Future Opportunities and Directions" that was held on 8 July 2015 during the 14th International Rapeseed Congress (IRC 2015) addressed the current situation and issues surrounding canola meal protein from the technological, nutritional, regulatory and genomics/breeding perspective. Discussions with participants and experts in the field helped to identify economic barriers and research gaps that need to be addressed in both the short and long term for the benefit of canola industry. PMID:27135237

  7. Canola/Rapeseed Protein: Future Opportunities and Directions—Workshop Proceedings of IRC 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Campbell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, canola meal is primarily streamlined into the animal feed market where it is a competitive animal feed source owing to its high protein value. Beyond animal feed lies a potential game-changer with regards to the value of canola meal, and its opportunity as a high quality food protein source. An economic and sustainable source of protein with high bioavailability and digestibility is essential to human health and well-being. Population pressures, ecological considerations, and production efficiency underscore the importance of highly bioavailable plant proteins, both for the developed and developing world. Despite decades of research, several technologies being developed, and products being brought to large scale production, there are still no commercially available canola protein products. The workshop entitled “Canola/Rapeseed Protein—Future Opportunities and Directions” that was held on 8 July 2015 during the 14th International Rapeseed Congress (IRC 2015 addressed the current situation and issues surrounding canola meal protein from the technological, nutritional, regulatory and genomics/breeding perspective. Discussions with participants and experts in the field helped to identify economic barriers and research gaps that need to be addressed in both the short and long term for the benefit of canola industry.

  8. Genome-wide prediction of agronomic traits in hybrid spring-type canola (Brassica napus) using single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers

    OpenAIRE

    Jan, Habib Ullah

    2016-01-01

    Canola/rapeseed (Brassica napus L., (AACC, 2n=38) is one of the world’s most important oilseed crops and is used as human food, i.e. cooking oil and as animal feed. In Europe, winter-type canola is also used as a sustainable source of bioenergy. Canola was naturally formed ~7500 years ago from spontaneous inter-specific hybridisations between cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa). Recently, the reference genome of the B. napus ‘Darmor-bzh’ cultivar was sequenced and publ...

  9. Preparation and properties evaluation of biolubricants derived from canola oil and canola biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajesh V; Somidi, Asish K R; Dalai, Ajay K

    2015-04-01

    This study demonstrates the evaluation and comparison of the lubricity properties of the biolubricants prepared from the feed stocks such as canola oil and canola biodiesel. Biolubricant from canola biodiesel has a low cloud and pour point properties, better friction and antiwear properties, low phase transition temperature, is less viscous, and has the potential to substitute petroleum-based automotive lubricants. Biolubricant from canola oil has high thermal stability and is more viscous and more effective at higher temperature conditions. This study elucidates that both the biolubricants are attractive, renewable, and ecofriendly substitutes for the petroleum-based lubricants. PMID:25773747

  10. Quantitative and Genetic Analysis of Yield and Seed Quality Components in New Winter Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bede

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Long term genetic examination, selection of right parents for crossing and directed selection programs in hybrid population resulted with creation of new winter wheat varieties Kruna, Lara, Lenta, Perla and Astra. In examination conducted in few years period time all new cultivars shown considerably higher yield than standard variety Žitarka. 1000 kernel weight and hectoliter mass almost in all new varieties were on standard level. In new varieties ear was significantly longer than in standard variety Žitarka. From that we can conclude that increasing of the ear length have important influence on increasing of seed yield in new varieties. By the farinografic and extensografic quality index, protein content in seed, sedimentation values of flour and content of wet gluten varieties Lara, Kruna, Perla and especially Lenta can be classify in high quality winter wheat varieties. Results of genotype analysis of new varieties point on known varieties Žitarka and Slavonija. These varieties served as gene donators for some important economic traits in crossing for creating of new varieties.

  11. Identification, expression and interaction analyses of calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) genes in canola (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hanfeng; Liu, Wu-Zhen; Zhang, Yupeng; Deng, Min; Niu, Fangfang; Yang, Bo; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Boya; Liang, Wanwan; Deyholos, Michael K.; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Background Canola (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil-producing crops in China and worldwide. The yield and quality of canola is frequently threatened by environmental stresses including drought, cold and high salinity. Calcium is a well-known ubiquitous intracellular secondary messenger in plants. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) are Ser/Thr protein kinases found only in plants and some protozoans. CPKs are Ca2+ sensors that have both Ca2+ sensing function and kinase...

  12. GM technology and the Australian canola

    OpenAIRE

    Taing, William; Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we use a simulation model to measure the potential market and welfare effects of recently introduced genetically modified (GM) canola in Australia. The short-run results indicate that non-GM canola may emerge as a niche product commanding a premium. In the long run, GM technology appears to enhance aggregate welfare. However, when production cost savings are trivial and consumers become highly concerned about GM food products, aggregate welfare may decline. The policy implicati...

  13. Canola – Where to for WA Agriculture?

    OpenAIRE

    Pluske, Johanna M.; Lindner, Robert K.

    2001-01-01

    Canola may be marketed as oilseed, oil or meal. Supply and demand of each of the commodities is influenced by, physical factors associated with land and weather, substitute commodity competition, land-use competition, production indirectly associated with canola such as that within the livestock industry and the effects of technology and more specifically plant breeding. Furthermore, domestic agricultural and international trade policies, standard of living, and political stability of countri...

  14. Structure of the Canola and Biodiesel Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Mattson, Jeremy W.; Wilson, William W.; Duchsherer, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The biodiesel industry in the United States has grown significantly in recent years. Production increased from 25 million gallons in 2004 to an estimated 250 million gallons in 2006, and many new plants are being built. Most biodiesel in the United States is produced from soybean oil, but canola offers characteristics which make it a favorable feedstock for biodiesel production. Characteristics of canola oil also make it an increasingly popular choice for human consumption. This study examine...

  15. Light treatment improves sleep quality and negative affectiveness in high arctic residents during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Michel A; Love, Ryan J; Hawton, Andrea; Brett, Kaighley; McCreary, Donald R; Arendt, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal extremes of photoperiod in the high Arctic place particular strain on the human circadian system, which leads to trouble sleeping and increased feelings of negative affect in the winter months. To qualify for our study, potential participants had to have been at Canadian Forces Station (CFS) Alert (82° 30' 00″ N) for at least 2 weeks. Subjects filled out questionnaires regarding sleep difficulty, psychological well-being and mood and wore Actigraphs to obtain objective sleep data. Saliva was collected at regular intervals on two occasions, 2 weeks apart, to measure melatonin and assess melatonin onset. Individuals with a melatonin rhythm that was in disaccord with their sleep schedule were given individualized daily light treatment interventions based on their pretreatment salivary melatonin profile. The light treatment prescribed to seven of the twelve subjects was effective in improving sleep quality both subjectively, based on questionnaire results, and objectively, based on the actigraphic data. The treatment also caused a significant reduction in negative affect among the participants. Since the treatment is noninvasive and has minimal associated side effects, our results support the use of the light visors at CFS Alert and other northern outposts during the winter for individuals who are experiencing sleep difficulty or low mood. PMID:25580574

  16. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Yield and Grain Quality Traits in Winter Wheat Genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Tadesse

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to investigate the genetic basis of yield and grain quality traits in winter wheat genotypes using association mapping approach, and identify linked molecular markers for marker assisted selection. A total of 120 elite facultative/winter wheat genotypes were evaluated for yield, quality and other agronomic traits under rain-fed and irrigated conditions for two years (2011-2012 at the Tel Hadya station of ICARDA, Syria. The same genotypes were genotyped using 3,051 Diversity Array Technologies (DArT markers, of which 1,586 were of known chromosome positions. The grain yield performance of the genotypes was highly significant both in rain-fed and irrigated sites. Average yield of the genotypes ranged from 2295 to 4038 kg/ha and 4268 to 7102 kg/ha under rain-fed and irrigated conditions, respectively. Protein content and alveograph strength (W ranged from 13.6-16.1% and 217.6-375 Jx10-4, respectively. DArT markers wPt731910 (3B, wPt4680 (4A, wPt3509 (5A, wPt8183 (6B, and wPt0298 (2D were significantly associated with yield under rain-fed conditions. Under irrigated condition, tPt4125 on chromosome 2B was significantly associated with yield explaining about 13% of the variation. Markers wPt2607 and wPt1482 on 5B were highly associated with protein content and alveograph strength explaining 16 and 14% of the variations, respectively. The elite genotypes have been distributed to many countries using ICARDA's International system for potential direct release and/or use as parents after local adaptation trials by the NARSs of respective countries. The QTLs identified in this study are recommended to be used for marker assisted selection after through validation using bi-parental populations.

  17. Invasion of Winter Moth in New England: Effects of Defoliation and Site Quality on Tree Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Michael J.; Thomas D. Lee; Mark J. Ducey; Kevin J. Dodds

    2014-01-01

    Widespread and prolonged defoliation by the European winter moth, Operophtera brumata L., has occurred in forests of eastern Massachusetts for more than a decade and populations of winter moth continue to invade new areas of New England. This study characterized the forests of eastern Massachusetts invaded by winter moth and related the duration of winter moth defoliation estimated using dendrochronology to observed levels of tree mortality and understory woody plant density. Quercus basal ar...

  18. TECNAIRE winter field campaign: turbulent characteristics and their influence on air quality conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagüe, Carlos; Román Cascón, Carlos; Maqueda, Gregorio; Sastre, Mariano; Arrillaga, Jon A.; Artíñano, Begoña; Diaz-Ramiro, Elías; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Borge, Rafael; Narros, Adolfo; Pérez, Javier

    2016-04-01

    An urban field campaign was conducted at an air pollution hot spot in Madrid city (Spain) during winter 2015 (from 16th February to 2nd March). The zone selected for the study is a square (Plaza Fernández Ladreda) located in the southern part of the city. This area is an important intersection of several principal routes, and therefore a significant impact in the air quality of the area is found due to the high traffic density. Meteorological data (wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation and global solar radiation) were daily recorded as well as micrometeorological measurements obtained from two sonic anemometers. To characterize this urban atmospheric boundary layer (uABL), micrometeorological parameters (turbulent kinetic energy -TKE-, friction velocity -u∗- and sensible heat flux -H-) are calculated, considering 5-minute average for variance and covariance evaluations. Furthermore, synoptic atmospheric features were analyzed. As a whole, a predominant influence of high pressure systems was found over the Atlantic Ocean and western Spain, affecting Madrid, but during a couple of days (17th and 21st February) some atmospheric instability played a role. The influence of the synoptic situation and specially the evolution of the micrometeorological conditions along the day on air quality characteristics (Particulate Matter concentrations: PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, and NOx concentrations) are analyzed and shown in detail. This work has been financed by Madrid Regional Research Plan through TECNAIRE (P2013/MAE-2972).

  19. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model for Simulating Winter Ozone Formation in the Uinta Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areas with close proximity to oil and natural gas operations in rural Utah have experienced winter ozone levels that exceed EPA’s National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Through a collaborative effort, EPA Region 8 – Air Program, ORD, and OAQPS used the Commun...

  20. OIL QUALITY OF CANOLA CULTIVARS IN RESPONSE TO WATER STRESS AND SUPER ABSORBENT POLYMER APPLICATION QUALIDADE DE ÓLEO DE CULTIVARES DE CANOLA EM RESPOSTA AO ESTRESSE HÍDRICO E APLICAÇÃO DE POLÍMERO HIDROABSORVENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zahedi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Water stress significantly limits plant growth and crop yield. Hence, the efficient management of soil moisture and the study of metabolic changes which occur in response to drought stress are important for agriculture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of six oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. genotypes (Rgs003, Sarigol, Option500, Hyola401, Hyola330, and Hyola420, with and without drought stress, and with and without the use of super absorbent polymer, on oil quality and content. A complete randomized blocks design, with a split-plot arrangement, in a 2x2x6 factorial scheme (drought stress x polymer x genotypes, with three replications, was used. The research was carried out in a farm owned by the Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, in Karaj, Iran. Results showed a significant difference for drought stress levels, presence of super absorbent and genotypes on oil content and composition, as well as on glucosinolate content in the oil. Drought stress conditions decreased the oil and linoleic acid contents, but increased the glucosinolate and stearic acid contents. The use of super absorbent polymer increased the linoleic acid content, but decreased other components. It was possible to conclude that, under drought stress conditions, the super absorbent polymer application, for reserving higher amounts of water in itself, increased the soil ability to store water, what increased the plant vegetative period and consequently the oil quality by decreasing saturate fatty acids and increasing unsaturated fatty acids.

  1. Canola meal on starting pigs feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria Peñuela-Sierra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional values and evaluate the performance of piglets fed on canola meal. In experiment I, a digestibility assay was conducted using fourteen barrow pigs, with an initial body weight of 20.62±3.30 kg. The evaluated feedstuff was canola meal, with a level of 250 g/kg in the basal diet (corn + soybean meal-based. The experimental unit consisted of one pig, with a total of seven experimental units per diet. The values as (fed basis of digestible (DE and metabolizable (ME energy of canola meal were 2,995 kcal/kg and 2,796 kcal/kg, respectively. In experiment II, ileal digestibility assays were carried out to determine the apparent and true ileal digestibility coefficient and digestible amino acids. Three crossbred pigs were used, with a BW of 38.6±1.98 kg. The treatments consisted of two diets, with a single source of protein (canola meal and one protein-free diet (OFD. The values of digestible amino acids in canola meal were as follows: lysine: 11.8 g/kg; methionine+cystine: 9.1 g/kg; threonine: 7.9 g/kg; tryptophan: 2.4 g/kg; leucine: 15.7 g/kg; and isoleucine: 8.7 g/kg. In experiment III, 60 piglets (BW= 15.08±0.72 kg to 30.26±2.78 kg were allotted in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four diets with increasing levels of canola meal (50, 100, 150 and 200 g/kg, six replicates and experimental unit consisted of two pigs. Additionally, a control diet was formulated containing 0.0 g/kg CM. Regression analysis indicates that there was no effect (P?0.05 of the level of canola meal inclusion on pigs performance. The performance results suggest that it is feasible to use up to 200 g/kg of canola meal in starting pigs diet, without impairing performance and the feeding cost.

  2. Water Quality Assessment of River Beas During Winter Season in Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Sharma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation was carried out in 256 km stretch of river Beas in Himachal Pradesh for analysis of important physical, chemical and biological water quality parameters during winter season. Parameters such as temperature, pH, conductivity, turbidity, alkalinity, total dissolved solids (TDS, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, biological oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, Colliform and Escherichia coli were analyzed from six sampling stations i.e. Beaskund , Shamshi, Pandohdam, Dharampur, Nadaun and Pongdam in the study area. The analysis of data reveals that turbidity, cadmium and lead, were found to be higher than the acceptable limit prescribed by Bureau of Indian standards (BIS, 2012 for drinking water in India. Colliform and E.coli were present in all the sampling stations of river Beas except at SS-1 and SS-2. All the other physicochemical parameters excepting pH at SS-5 (8.98±0.057 were within the limit prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO, 2011 and BIS, 2012 for drinking water in India.

  3. Metabolomics differentiation of canola genotypes: toward an understanding of canola allelochemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Asaduzzaman, M.; Pratley, James E.; An, Min; Luckett, David J.; Lemerle, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Allelopathy is one crop attribute that could be incorporated in an integrated weed management system as a supplement to synthetic herbicides. However, the underlying principles of crop allelopathy and secondary metabolite production are still poorly understood including in canola. In this study, an allelopathic bioassay and a metabolomic analysis were conducted to compare three non-allelopathic and three allelopathic canola genotypes. Results from the laboratory bioassay showed that there wer...

  4. Antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid in canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Wenhui; Liang, Yintong; Ma, Ka Ying; Chung, Hau Yin; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2012-06-20

    Interest in replacing synthetic antioxidants, namely, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), with natural antioxidants is increasing. The present study examined the antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid from chili pepper in heated canola oil. The oxidation was conducted at 60, 90, 120, and 180 °C by monitoring oxygen consumption and the decrease in linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in canola oil. At 60 °C, capsaicinoid was more effective against oxidation of canola oil compared with BHT. At higher temperatures of 90, 120, and 180 °C, capsaicinoid possessed an antioxidant activity similar to or slightly weaker that that of BHT. It was found that capsaicinoid prevented canola oil from oxidation in a dose-dependent manner. To study the structure-antioxidant relationship, it was found that the trimethylsiloxy (TMS) derivatives of capsaicinoid did not exhibit any antioxidant activity, suggesting the hydroxyl moiety was the functional group responsible for the antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid. It was concluded that capsaicinoid had the potential to be further explored as a natural antioxidant in foods, particularly spicy foods. PMID:22642555

  5. Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Canola and Flaxseed Oils on Physicochemical Properties of Emulsion Sausages from Spent Layer Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Ki Ho; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Seung Gyu; An, Byoung Ki; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of canola and flaxseed oils on the physicochemical properties and sensory quality of emulsion-type sausage made from spent layer meat. Three types of sausage were manufactured with different fat sources: 20% pork back fat (CON), 20% canola oil (CA) and 20% flaxseed oil (FL). The pH value of the CA was significantly higher than the others (psausages significantly increased the omega-3 fatty acid content (psausages containing vegetable oil exhibited significantly lower values for saturated fatty acid content and the omega-6 to omega-3 ratios compared to CON (p<0.05). The results show that using canola or flaxseed oils as a pork fat replacer has a high potential to produce healthier products, and notably, the use of canola oil produced characteristics of great emulsion stability and sensory quality. PMID:27004822

  6. Effect of cultivation method on the number and quality of young Santolina chamaecyparissus L. plants after wintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Guzikowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of young Santolina chamaecyparissus plants in a non-heated foil tunnel was rated depending on term of rooting cuttings and type of growing container in three cycles of study: 2005/06, 2006/07, 2007/08. Young plants obtained from cuttings rooted on 16th of August and 16th of September were planted on 16th of November in various containers and grown till 8th of May of the following year. Multipot pallets, cellulose pots and plastic pots were used for cultivation. In May, after 8-9 months the number of plants and their quality were defined after wintering. Type of containers and age of young plants did not have a significant effect on the wintering. The best quality of plants – high and with a large number of shoots – was obtained from cultivation in plastic pots.

  7. Genotype and environment interaction on yield and quality parameters of organically grown winter wheat – Triticum aestivum L. genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Dashbaljir, Ichinkhorloo; Liebhard, P.; W. Hartl; Loeschenberger, F.; Weinhappel, M.

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of genotype and environment upon yield and quality parameters of eight winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes was studied under organic conditions in Austria over two growing periods, 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, respectively. Two sites that have significantly different climatic conditions, Innviertel and Marchfeld, were chosen for the field experiment. Study site weather and soil conditions are important yield-affecting factors. Although the yield of Marchfeld-grown ge...

  8. Canola straw as a bio-waste resource for medium density fiberboard (MDF) manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Hossein

    2009-10-01

    Canola straw as an agricultural residue has been investigated for MDF production. The variables were steaming time (2, 5 and 8 min), the resin content (9% and 11%), and press time (4 and 6 min). Common physical and mechanical properties of experimental boards including modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), internal bond strength (IB) and thickness swelling (TS) were measured. Fiber properties of canola straw including length, diameter and cell wall thickness were determined. The results showed that all the tested mechanical properties improved with the increase of steaming time level. The results were close to the minimum requirements of MDF specified in the ANSI A208.2 standard. Dimensional stability of the MDFs improved as adhesive content increased. The IB values are positively affected by the increase of press time. MDF properties made from canola straw possess acceptable qualities as compared to those made from other non-wood plants. Furthermore, the fiber dimensions of canola straw were also in the range of reported values in hardwoods. PMID:19604682

  9. Conjugated linoleic acid content in milk of Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions and supplemented with canola seed (Brassica napus concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Avilez Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is limited and contradictory information about the effects of the use of canola (Brassica napus seed as supplement on the contents of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in milk of grazing cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement with canola seed on the production and composition of milk, and CLA concentration in Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions. Three experiments were done. Experiment 1: control group was fed 5 kg d-1 of commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC1 and treatment group that was fed 3.75 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.16 kg of whole canola seed (1.16-TC1. Experiment 2: Control group was fed 8 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC2 and treatment group that was fed 6.2 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.2 kg of ground canola seed (1.2-TC2. Experiment 3: control group was fed 6 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC3 and treatment group was fed 6 kg of commercial concentrate with 20% of whole canola seed (1.2 kg d-1, 1.2-TC3. The duration of each experiment was 60 days. No differences in milk production and quality were observed among the experimental groups in every assay. The CLA isomers trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 were higher than those normally found in the scientific literature. There was no effect of the inclusion of canola seed on total CLA content or the content of cis-9, trans-11, trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 isomers.

  10. TruFlex™ Roundup Ready® Canola MON 88302

    OpenAIRE

    Directorate, Issued by Health Canada's Food

    2014-01-01

    Health Canada has notified Monsanto Canada Inc. that it has no objection to the sale of food derived from MON 88302 canola (TruFlex™ Roundup Ready® Canola). The Department conducted a comprehensive assessment of this canola event according to its Guidelines for the Safety Assessment of Novel Foods. These Guidelines are based upon internationally accepted principles for establishing the safety of foods with novel traits The following provides a summary of the notificati...

  11. The Influence Of Cereal Share In Crop Rotations On The Grain Yield And Quality Of Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babulicová Mária

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is to find out the influence of different share of cereals and various fertilisation on the grain yield and quality of winter wheat. The long-term field trial with 40, 60 and 80% share of the cereals and two levels of fertilisation (H1 mineral fertilisation + organic manure Veget®; H2 mineral fertilisation only were carried out in the very warm and dry area of continental weather on luvi-haplic chernozem. In the years 2010–2013, the grain yield, the wet gluten content, gluten index, the falling number and sedimentation index of winter wheat according to Zeleny were investigated. The significantly higher grain yield of winter wheat was recorded after preceding crop of common pea. The yield of cereals in crop rotation with 60% share of cereals (7.00 t/ha was significantly higher than in crop rotation with 80% share of cereals (6.78 t/ha.The statistically higher wet gluten content after pea fore-crop was found out when the mineral fertilisation and organic fertiliser Veget® were applied (33.4% with comparison to the treatment with mineral fertilisation only (30.08%.

  12. The Influence Of Cereal Share In Crop Rotations On The Grain Yield And Quality Of Winter Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Babulicová Mária; Gavurníková Soňa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study is to find out the influence of different share of cereals and various fertilisation on the grain yield and quality of winter wheat. The long-term field trial with 40, 60 and 80% share of the cereals and two levels of fertilisation (H1 mineral fertilisation + organic manure Veget®; H2 mineral fertilisation only) were carried out in the very warm and dry area of continental weather on luvi-haplic chernozem. In the years 2010–2013, the grain yield, the wet gluten content, g...

  13. Effects of elevated O3 exposure on nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain in Yangtze River Delta, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the open-top chambers (OTCs) in situ in Yangtze River Delta, China in 2007 and 2008, the effects of elevated O3 exposure on nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain were investigated. Grain yield per plant of winter wheat and rice declined in both years. The N and S concentrations increased under elevated O3 exposure in both years and C–N ratios decreased significantly. The concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, P, Mn, Cu and Zn in winter wheat and the concentrations of Mg, K, Mn and Cu in rice increased. The concentrations of protein, amino acid and lysine in winter wheat and rice increased and the concentration of amylose decreased. The increase in the nutrient concentration was less than the reduction of grain yield in both winter wheat and rice, and, hence, the absolute amount of the nutrients was reduced by elevated O3. -- Highlights: •The nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain response to ozone had been investigated for two years in China. •Grain yield per plant of winter wheat and rice were reduced in both years. •The extent of ozone impact on the nutrient elements concentrations of winter wheat and rice were different. •The concentrations of protein, amino acid and lysine increased but the concentrations of amylose decreased. •The absolute amount of the nutrients was reduced by elevated O3. -- The nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain were seriously affected under the elevated O3 exposure

  14. Effect of canola oil emulsion injection on processing characteristics and consumer acceptability of three muscles from mature beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrasik, Z; Wang, H; Janz, J A M

    2013-02-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the impact of the combined effect of blade tenderization and canola oil emulsion injection on processing yield and eating quality-related parameters of selected loin and hip muscles (longissimus lumborum, LL, biceps femoris, BF and semimembranosus, SM) from over thirty month (OTM) cattle. Canola oil emulsion injection significantly reduced shear force, increased sensory scores for juiciness and tenderness, and made connective tissue less perceptible. Targeted levels of omega-3 fatty acids can be achieved by the inclusion of canola oil containing marinades/emulsions at levels sufficient to retain omega-3 fatty acids in cooked product. All consumer acceptability attributes of OTM muscles were improved with the use of canola oil emulsion injection treatments without compromising colour although slightly decreasing oxidative stability of BF muscle. Injection of omega-3 oil emulsions in combination with blade tenderization can be effectively utilized to enrich injected products in essential fatty acids and enhance eating quality of OTM beef. PMID:23089241

  15. Developing selenium-enriched animal feed and biofuel from canola planted for managing Se-laden drainage waters in the westside of central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos, G S; Da Roche, J; Robinson, J

    2010-03-01

    We studied the reuse of selenium (Se)-laden effluent for producing canola (Brassica napus) and subsequent bioproducts in central California. Canola was irrigated with poor quality waters [electrical conductivity (EC) of approximately 5 dS m(-1) sulfate-salinity, 5 mg B L(-1), and 0.25 mg Se L(-1)]. Typical seed yields were 2.2 metric tons ha(-1). Seeds were processed for their oil, and transesterified to produce ASTM-quality biodiesel (BD) blends. The resulting Se-enriched seed cake meal (containing approximately 2 mg Se kg(-1) DM) was used in a dairy feed trial. Seventy-two Jersey and Holstein cows, 36 respectively, were fed Se-enriched canola meal as 6.2% of their daily feed ration for five weeks. Blood and milk samples were collected weekly and analyzed for total Se. This study showed that Se-enriched canola meal did not significantly increase total blood Se content in either cow breed. Milk Se concentrations did, however, significantly increase to safe levels of 59 microg Se L(-1) and 52 microg Se L(-1) in Jersey and Holstein cows, respectively. The production of BD 20 biofuels and Se-enriched feed meal from canola irrigated with poor quality waters may help sustain similar phytomanagement strategies under Se-rich conditions. PMID:20734619

  16. Improving the nutritional value of canola seed by gamma irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mervat M. Anwar; Safaa E. Ali; Essam H. Nasr

    2015-01-01

    This investigation aims to evaluate the effects of γ-irradiation on anti-nutritional factors, in-vitro protein digestibility and functional properties of canola meal protein, physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of canola seed oil. Irradiation at doses 10, 20, 30 KGy had no effects on the chemical composition of canola seed, while decreased the total glucosinolate content by 15.6, 30.4 and 49.4%; and phytic acid by 29, 55 and 100%, respectively. On contrary, in-vitro protein ...

  17. Abiotic Factors Affecting Canola Establishment and Insect Pest Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Nansen; Calvin Trostle; Sangu Angadi; Patrick Porter; Xavier Martini

    2012-01-01

    Canola is grown mainly as an oil-seed crop, but recently the interest in canola has increased due to its potential as a biodiesel crop. The main objectives of this paper were to evaluate effects of abiotic factors and seed treatment on canola plant establishment and pest pressure in the Southern High Plains of Texas. Data was collected at two field locations during the first seven months of two field seasons. Based on multi-regression analysis, we demonstrated that precipitation was positivel...

  18. Photometric quality of Dome C for the winter 2008 from ASTEP South

    CERN Document Server

    Crouzet, Nicolas; Agabi, Karim; Fanteï-Caujolle, Yan; Fressin, Francois; Rivet, Jean-Pierre; Bondoux, Erick; Challita, Zalpha; Abe, Lyu; Blazit, Alain; Bonhomme, Serge; Daban, Jean-Baptiste; Gouvret, Carole; Mékarnia, Djamel; Schmider, François-Xavier; Valbousquet, Franck

    2010-01-01

    ASTEP South is an Antarctic Search for Transiting Exo- Planets in the South pole field, from the Concordia station, Dome C, Antarctica. The instrument consists of a thermalized 10 cm refractor observing a fixed 3.88\\degree x 3.88\\degree field of view to perform photometry of several thousand stars at visible wavelengths (700-900 nm). The first winter campaign in 2008 led to the retrieval of nearly 1600 hours of data. We derive the fraction of photometric nights by measuring the number of detectable stars in the field. The method is sensitive to the presence of small cirrus clouds which are invisible to the naked eye. The fraction of night-time for which at least 50% of the stars are detected is 74% from June to September 2008. Most of the lost time (18.5% out of 26%) is due to periods of bad weather conditions lasting for a few days ("white outs"). Extended periods of clear weather exist. For example, between July 10 and August 10, 2008, the total fraction of time (day+night) for which photometric observation...

  19. CLEAN-ROADS project: air quality considerations after the application of a novel MDSS on winter road maintenance activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretto, Ilaria; Malloci, Elisa; Tonidandel, Gabriele; Benedetti, Guido; Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Apolloni, Roberto; Cavaliere, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    With this poster we present the environmental benefit on air quality derived by the application of the CLEAN-ROADS pilot project. The CLEAN-ROADS project addresses the problem of the environmental pollution caused by de-icing salts during winter road maintenance activities in the Province of Trento (Italy). A demonstrative Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS) has been developed in order to improve the intervention procedures of the road management service. Specifically it aims to optimize the efficiency of how available resources (e.g., salt consumption) are currently used while guaranteeing the current level of road safety. The CLEAN-ROADS project has been tested and validated on a test area located in a valley bottom (Adige Valley), where the highest optimization margins are to be expected. The project supports current road maintenance practices, which has proved to be reliable and accurate, with a new scalable and energy-efficient road monitoring system. This system is based on a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route. It is capable to collect real-time data about the road conditions and to perform short-term and now-cast road weather forecasts, which actively integrate weather data and bulletins covering the target area [1]. This poster presents the results obtained from a three-year monitoring activity with the aim to (1) determine the impact of de-icing salts on air quality and (2) quantify the improvements obtained by the application of the CLEAN-ROADS project on air quality. The Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe Directive (2008/50/EC) states that contributions to exceedances of particulate matter PM10 limit values that are attributable to road winter salting may be subtracted when assessing compliance with air quality limit values, once provided that reasonable measures have been taken to lower concentrations [2]. As the de-icing salts used in road maintenance are mainly based

  20. Modelling of air quality for Winter and Summer episodes in Switzerland. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreani-Aksoyoglu, S.; Keller, J.; Barmpadimos, L.; Oderbolz, D.; Tinguely, M.; Prevot, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Villigen (Switzerland); Alfarra, R. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sandradewi, J. [Jisca Sandradewi, Hoexter (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    This final report issued by the General Energy Research Department and its Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) reports on the results obtained from the modelling of regional air quality for three episodes, January-February 2006, June 2006 and January 2007. The focus of the calculations is on particulate matter concentrations, as well as on ozone levels in summer. The model results were compared with the aerosol data collected by an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), which was operated during all three episodes as well as with the air quality monitoring data from further monitoring programs. The air quality model used in this study is described and the results obtained for various types of locations - rural, city, high-altitude and motorway-near - are presented and discussed. The models used are described.

  1. Indoor air quality of four Southern High Plains dairy milking parlors in the summer and winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milking parlor indoor air quality of 4 large dairies was sampled to investigate: (1) bacterial and fungal concentration/m**3 of air, (2) bioaerosol microbial types, and (3) respirable and non-respirable bioaerosol concentrations/m**3 of air. Equipment used were cascade biological samplers, a laser s...

  2. Canola straw chemimechanical pulping for pulp and paper production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Reza; Fatehi, Pedram; Latibari, Ahmad Jahan; Ni, Yonghao; Javad Sepiddehdam, S

    2010-06-01

    Non-wood is one of the most important raw materials for pulp and paper production in several countries due to its abundance and cost-effectiveness. However, the pulping and papermaking characteristics of canola straw have rarely been investigated. The objective of this work was to determine the potential application of canola straw in the chemimechanical pulping (CMP) process. At first, the chemical composition and characteristics of canola straw were assessed and compared with those of other non-woods. Then, the CMP pulping of canola straw was conducted using different dosages of sodium sulfite and sodium hydroxide. The results showed that, by applying a mild chemical pretreatment, i.e., 4-12% (wt.) NaOH and 8-12% (wt.) Na(2)SO(3), in the CMP pulping of canola straw, the pulp brightness reached almost 40%ISO, and the strength properties were comparable to those of bagasse CMP and of wheat straw CMP. The impact of post-refining on the properties of canola straw CMP was also discussed in this work. PMID:20144862

  3. Productivity, quality and sustainability of winter wheat underlong-term conventional and organic management in Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Jochen; Gunst, Lucie; Mäder, Paul;

    2015-01-01

    fertilised exclusively minerally at level 2 (CONMIN)and a control remained unfertilised (NOFERT). We compared crop yields, baking quality parameters, thenitrogen use efficiency and the effect of maize and potatoes as preceding crops obtained between 2003and 2010 along with long-term soil sustainability...... onthe performance of baking wheat production and long-term sustainability. The results emphasise theimportance of a sufficient supply of soils with organic fertilisers as well as the need to improve the avail-ability of organic nitrogen and synchrony between nutrient supply and demand in organic baking......Long-term sustainability and high resource use efficiency are major goals for high quality baking wheatproduction throughout the world. Present strategies are low input systems such as organic agriculture orimproved conventional systems (integrated). The fertilisation level and strategy, crop...

  4. Evaluation of air quality in arenas on the Island of Montreal : winter 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past twenty years, cases of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning have been reported in arenas in Quebec. A 1997 evaluation of air quality in 332 arenas in 9 different countries revealed that 40 per cent of arenas worldwide have high concentration of NO2. In Quebec, an air quality review at arenas in Montreal drew similar conclusions, that 69 per cent of the arenas have high concentrations of CO and/or NO2. In 1997, Quebec's environmental health committee established criteria of 20 ppm for CO, and 0.5 ppm for NO2 in arenas, in order to ensure that athletes and the public at large do not suffer negative effects related to the presence of combustible gases. This information was distributed to the administrative personnel in arenas in Quebec by means of an awareness and information campaign. Since then, the number of arenas that have met these criteria for air quality in arenas in Montreal has climbed from 31 per cent in 1997 to 83 per cent in 2004. The practices put into action by arena administrators include: 1) regular maintenance of ice surface cleaning machines and other equipment that use fuel, 2) judicious use of ventilation so that gases can be evacuated from the premises, and, 3) periodic measurements of CO and NO2 during peak usage times such as tournaments. Other means of lowering gas emissions have also shown to be helpful, such as replacement of ice surface cleaning machines with electrical ones, installation of CO and NO2 detectors close to the rink surface so that ventilation machines could be activated, and the measurement and constant registration of these gases. It was concluded that these measures could help maintain good air quality in arenas. 15 refs., 1 tabs., 1 fig

  5. Quality of Bread from Composite Flour of Sorghum and Hard White Winter Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    R.F. Abdelghafor; A.I. Mustafa, A.M.H. Ibrahim and P.G. Krishnan

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the baking properties of whole, decorticated sorghum- (Sorghum bicolor) - wheat (Triticum aestivum Desf.) composite flours as well as to determine the physical characteristics and organoleptic quality of pan and balady breads made from those flours. Whole and decorticated sorghum flours were used to replace 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% by weight of bread wheat flour. Sensory evaluation results showed that up to 20% wheat replacement with whole or decorticate...

  6. Needles in faeces: an index of quality of wild ungulate winter diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamler, Jiří; Homolka, Miloslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2011), s. 63-69. ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/03/P134 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : ruminant diet * diet quality * diet indicator * spectroscopy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.554, year: 2011 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/60/1/10_2011.pdf

  7. Heritability of Indirect Bread-making Quality Traits in Segregating Generations of Two Winter Wheat Crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lovrić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern wheat breeding programs aim to create cultivars with high genetic potential for yield and bread-making quality. The effectiveness of selection in segregating generations depends on the heritability of the traits under selection and on the correlations among traits. The aim of this study was to compare realized heritability of 1000 kernel weight and five indirect bread-making quality traits (grain protein content, wet gluten content, gluten index, the Zeleny sedimentation value and Pelshenke value between segregating generations (F4 to F6 of two bi-parental wheat crosses, calculated using four different methods, and to estimate phenotypic correlations among these traits. Realized heritability of investigated traits, estimated as parent-off spring regression, ranged from 0.21 to 0.79. Realized heritability for wet gluten content, gluten index and Pelshenke value was much higher in comparison with other quality traits. Correlations between the four methods used to calculate realized heritability revealed the best agreement between heritability estimated as parent-off spring regression and that based on divergent screening, and the lowest agreement between realized heritabilities based on upward and downward screening. Strong positive correlations were observed among grain protein content, wet gluten content, and Zeleny sedimentation value; and strong negative correlations between gluten index on one side and grain protein content and wet gluten content on the other side.

  8. Interactive Role of Fungicides and Plant Growth Regulator (Trinexapac on Seed Yield and Oil Quality of Winter Rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ijaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the role of growth regulator trinexapac and fungicides on growth, yield, and quality of winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. The experiment was conducted simultaneously at different locations in Germany using two cultivars of rapeseed. Five different fungicides belonging to the triazole and strobilurin groups, as well as a growth regulator trinexapac, were tested in this study. A total of seven combinations of these fungicides and growth regulator trinexapac were applied at two growth stages of rapeseed. These two stages include green floral bud stage (BBCH 53 and the course of pod development stage (BBCH 65. The results showed that plant height and leaf area index were affected significantly by the application of fungicides. Treatments exhibited induced photosynthetic ability and delayed senescence, which improved the morphological characters and yield components of rape plants at both locations. Triazole, in combination with strobilurin, led to the highest seed yield over other treatments at both experimental locations. Significant effects of fungicides on unsaturated fatty acids of rapeseed oil were observed. Fungicides did not cause any apparent variation in the values of free fatty acids and peroxide of rapeseed oil. Results of our study demonstrate that judicious use of fungicides in rapeseed may help to achieve sustainable farming to obtain higher yield and better quality of rapeseed.

  9. Quality of Bread from Composite Flour of Sorghum and Hard White Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Abdelghafor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the baking properties of whole, decorticated sorghum- (Sorghum bicolor - wheat (Triticum aestivum Desf. composite flours as well as to determine the physical characteristics and organoleptic quality of pan and balady breads made from those flours. Whole and decorticated sorghum flours were used to replace 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% by weight of bread wheat flour. Sensory evaluation results showed that up to 20% wheat replacement with whole or decorticated sorghum flour produced acceptable pan and balady breads. Decreases, however, were noted in all sensory properties except odor.

  10. Hard Winter Wheat and Flour Properties in Relation to Breadmaking Quality of Straight-dough Bread: Flour Particle Size and Bread Crumb Grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samples of 12 hard winter wheats and their flours that produced breads varying in crumb grain scores were studied for 38 quality parameters including: wheat physical and chemical characteristics; flour ash and protein content, starch damage, swelling power, pasting characteristics, and flour particl...

  11. Development of new high oil yield canola hybrid Huyou 039

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing the oil content of rapeseed was an important way to breed new Canola varieties with high seed and high oil yield. Huyou 039 was developed by using high oil content variety (lines) Shan 048 and Huyou 16 as parents, through breeding methods of composite hybridization between varieties and radiation mutagenesis. It was examined and approved by the Shanghai Crops Variety Approval Committee in 2012. The oil yield of this variety reached 1407.63 kg/hm2 in the regional test of Shanghai for two year average. It was increased by 15.86% compared with the control. The oil yield of this variety reached 1198.65 kg/hm2 in the national regional test, which was 3.50% higher than the control. Huyou 039 had the similar resistance to diseases compared with the control, and the oil of this variety have excellent quality, which was suitable to extension and plant in the downstream area of Yangtze River. (authors)

  12. Wastewater impact on physiology, biomass and yield of canola (brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of domestic/municipal wastewater (mww) of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan was assessed through its effects on biomass, physiology and yield of canola (Brassica napus L.). The pot experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications in net house during winter season 2006-07 and 2007-08 at Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. Treatments included were T0 (tube well/tap water), T/sub 1/ (20% mww), T/sub 2/ (40% mww), T/sub 3/ (80% mww) and T/sub 4/ (100% mww/raw-form municipal wastewater). The quality and chemical composition of wastewater was deviating from international (Anon., 1985) as well as NEQS (2005) standard. Analysis of wastewater showed that biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and total suspended solids (TSS) were above the permissible limit of irrigation. In pods per plant, the reduction was 61.55% by recording 110 pods per plant with T/sub 4/ (100% mww) as compared to control T0 (286.1 pods per plant). Similarly pod length (reduced by 59.72%), seeds per pod (reduced by 42.53%), Seeds per plant (reduced by 82%), seed weight per plant (reduced by 88%), 100-seed weight (reduced by 19.54%) and straw yield (reduced by 54.23%) were significantly reduced by applying 100% wastewater. The most affected yield contributing traits were seeds per plant and seed weight per plant with 82% and 88% reduction, respectively due to T/sub 4/ (100% mww). On average, the decrease was 60% in the first stage and a further decrement of 4.83% was observed when the obtained seeds were re-sown in 2007-08. Results revealed that utilizing municipal wastewater of the area under investigation for irrigation purpose of food and feed crops might not be safe. The major reason seems to be the high salinity and sodium adsorption ratio that restricted crop growth and yield. (author)

  13. Shoot-Specific Down-Regulation of Protein Farnesyltransferase (α-Subunit) for Yield Protection against Drought in Canola

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yang; Beaith, Michelle; Chalifoux, Maryse; Ying, Jifeng; Uchacz, Tina; Sarvas, Carlene; Griffiths, Rebecca; Kuzma, Monika; Wan, Jiangxin; Huang, Yafan

    2009-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world and its seed yield and quality are significantly affected by drought stress. As an innate and adaptive response to water deficit, land plants avoid potential damage by rapid biosynthesis of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), which triggers stomatal closure to reduce transpirational water loss. The ABA-mediated stomatal response is a dosage-dependent process; thus, one genetic engineering approach for achievi...

  14. Water use of cereal-canola-lucerne rotations in southeastern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water balances of several annual crops grown in rotation with lucerne were monitored and compared with that under a native white-cypress forest near Wagga Wagga, New South Wales. Water use by the white cypress forest was slightly greater than that by canola, but much less than by cereals and lucerne during the growing season. The cereal and canola crops have a cyclic water use pattern (high in spring, low in summer/autumn) while that for the white cypress is more uniform through the year. Lucerne behaves more like the cypress forest. It uses water throughout the year, and is a high water use alternative to be grown in rotation with crops. It extracts water below the 'nominal' rooting depth of annual crops that has built up from several years of cropping. This reduces the likelihood of deep drainage in the subsequent winter by creating a buffer for water storage. Simulations using APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems Simulator) run on historical weather data (1957 to 1997) confirmed the potential of lucerne to keep the soil drier and reduce drainage in a rotation. Soil water storage gradually increased under wheat after the lucerne was removed, and was similar to that under continuous wheat after 2 to 3 years. The refilling of the buffer depends on the timing and amount of rainfall. In general, this means that the wheat phase should probably not exceed 2 to 3 years. Furthermore, the drying under lucerne happens rapidly and often within the first summer/autumn of the lucerne phase, with little difference in water use between lucerne and wheat during winter/spring. These results suggest that practical benefits can be obtained by growing lucerne for as little as 12 months, yet, at other times, it may need to be grown for 2 or even 3 years. (author)

  15. Abiotic Factors Affecting Canola Establishment and Insect Pest Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nansen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canola is grown mainly as an oil-seed crop, but recently the interest in canola has increased due to its potential as a biodiesel crop. The main objectives of this paper were to evaluate effects of abiotic factors and seed treatment on canola plant establishment and pest pressure in the Southern High Plains of Texas. Data was collected at two field locations during the first seven months of two field seasons. Based on multi-regression analysis, we demonstrated that precipitation was positively associated with ranked plant weight, daily minimum relative humidity and maximum temperature were negatively associated with plant weight, and that there may be specific optimal growth conditions regarding cumulative solar radiation and wind speed. The outlined multi-regression approach may be considered appropriate for ecological studies of canola establishment and pest communities elsewhere and therefore enable identification of suitable regions for successful canola production. We also demonstrated that aphids were about 35% more abundant on non-treated seeds than on treated seeds, but the sensitivity to seed treatment was only within four months after plant emergence. On the other hand, seed treatment had negligible effect on presence of thrips.

  16. Detection of Leptosphaeria maculans and Leptosphaeria biglobosa Causing Blackleg Disease in Canola from Canadian Canola Seed Lots and Dockage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, W G Dilantha; Zhang, Xuehua; Amarasinghe, Chami C

    2016-01-01

    Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is a major threat to canola production in Canada. With the exception of China, L. maculans is present in areas around the world where cruciferous crops are grown. The pathogen can cause trade barriers in international canola seed export due to its potential risk as a seed contaminant. The most recent example is China restricting canola seeds imported from Canada and Australia in 2009. Therefore, it is important to assess the level of Blackleg infection in Canadian canola seed lots and dockage (seeds and admixture). In this study, canola seed lots and dockage samples collected from Western Canada were tested for the presence of the aggressive L. maculans and the less aggressive L. biglobosa. Results showed that both L. maculans and L. biglobosa were present in seed lots and dockage samples, with L. biglobosa being predominant in infected seeds. Admixture separated from dockage had higher levels of L. maculans and L. biglobosa infection than samples from seed lots. Admixture appears to harbour higher levels of L. maculans infection compared to seeds and is more likely to be a major source of inoculum for the spread of the disease than infected seeds. PMID:27135232

  17. The role of aerosol in altering North Atlantic atmospheric circulation in winter and air-quality feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. R. Pausata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical model scenarios of future climate depict a global increase in temperatures and changing precipitation patterns, driven by increasing greenhouse gas (GHG concentrations. Aerosol concentrations also play an important role in altering Earth's radiation budget and consequently surface temperature. Here, we use the general circulation aerosol model ECHAM5-HAM, coupled to a mixed layer ocean model, to investigate the impacts of future air pollution mitigation strategies in Europe on winter atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic. We analyze the extreme case of a maximum feasible end-of-pipe reduction of aerosols in the near future (2030, in combination with increasing GHG concentrations. Our results show a more positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO mean state in the near future, together with a significant eastward shift of the southern centre of action of the sea level pressure (SLP. Moreover, we show a significantly increased blocking frequency over the western Mediterranean. By separating the aerosol and GHG impacts, our study suggests that the aerosol abatement in the near future may be the primary driver of such circulation changes. All these concomitant modifications of the atmospheric circulation over the Euro-Atlantic sector lead to more stagnant weather conditions that favor air pollutant accumulation in the Mediterranean, especially in the western sector. These changes in atmospheric circulation should be included in future air pollution mitigation assessments. Our results suggest that an evaluation of NAO changes in individual climate model simulations will allow an objective assessment of the role of changes in wintertime circulation on future air quality.

  18. EFFECT OF FEEDING CANOLA AND SOYBEAN OILS ON SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN COMMERCIAL LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakoor. H. I., M. L. Khan, Z. Nasir, N. Mukhtar and M. S. Rehman

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of canola oil and soybean oil on production performance and serum lipid profile in layers. In this study 15 experimental units (8 layers per experimental unit were randomly allotted to 5 different dietary treatments viz control (A. containing 2.5 % canola oil (B, 5% canola oil (C, 2.5% soybean oil (D and 5% soybean oil (E for a period of 9 weeks. Effects of five treatments on production parameters including egg production, egg quality, weight gain and serum lipid profile, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein were monitored. Serum lipid profile was determined 0.31 and 63 days from start of experiment. Significantly (P<0.05 less serum cholesterol was found in treatment C (295.1 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (321 mg/dl. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL was significantly (P<0.01 , less in treatment C ( 131.7 mg/dl as compared with treatment A. ( 161 mg/dl and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL was significantly (P<0.01 high in treatment C (31.76 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (25.42 mg/dl and triglyceride (TG was found significantly (P<0.01 less in treatment E ( 907.3 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (960 mg/dl. The results suggested that as the percentage of oils increased in the diet, serum lipid profile showed a positive trend.

  19. Interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration, drought, and nitrogen nutrition on yield and grain quality of spring barley and winter wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, Kateřina; Rajsnerová, Petra; Veselá, Barbora; Klem, Karel

    Brno: Global Change Research Centre, The Czech Academy of Sciences, v. v. i., 2015 - (Urban, O.; Šprtová, M.; Klem, K.), s. 106-109 ISBN 978-80-87902-10-3. [Global Change: A Complex Challenge /4th/. Brno (CZ), 23.03.2015-24.03.2015] R&D Projects: GA MZe QJ1310123; GA MZe QI111A133 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : CO2 concentration * nitrogen nutrition * grain quality * winter wheat Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  20. Compare the Amount of Canola Losses in Harvest Time with Three Types of Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Arsalan Mohammadian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canola is an most important non-cereal plants for the production of the oil and has become the main oilseed crops in Iran for recently years. Losses of canola seeds which occur in each level of canola production, especially in harvesting level. The first objective of this research was compare of harvester head in Iran. In Harvesting time canola pods separated from center line and canola seeds fall on the ground. Rapeseed harvest was by three types of head (Ordinary head, Iranian head, Foreign (Austrian head losses of harvest by ordinary head was higher than other 195 to 254 (kg/h. Minimum losses occur in harvesting with Austrian head and losses by Iranian head was between two types of head. The vertical cutter bar have an decrease impact on canola losses this cutter bar has best Performance in Austrian head and reduce losses which occur in part three of head. Losses of canola seeds determine with Hobson trays.

  1. Coupling effects of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on grain protein and starch quality of strong-gluten winter wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoying WANG; Mingrong HE; Fei LI; Yonghuan LIU; Honghua ZHANG; Chungang LIU

    2008-01-01

    Effects of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on the grain yield,protein composition,protein quality,starch composition and starch pasting properties of a strong-gluten winter wheat were investigated in a high fertility field.Compared with non-irrigation treatment,grain yields under irrigation treatments were significantly increased,but the content of grain protein,monomeric protein and flour wet gluten was reduced.There were no significant differences in the above parameters between the irrigation treatments.Nitrogen application could significantly increase grain yield under low irrigation frequency (W0 and W1),while the neglected effect on yield was observed with high irrigation frequency (W2 and W3).With the increase of irrigation frequency,the glutenin content leveled off,but the changes of glutenin composition were not uniform,in which the soluble glutenin content was increased,while the insoluble glutenin content and polymerization index (the ratio of insoluble glutenin to total glutenin) were reduced.Both dough development time and stability time became shorter with the increased irrigation frequency.Nitrogen application improved the content of all grain protein fractions and grain quality,in which the increased degree in non-gluten protein (albumin and globulin) was higher than gluten protein (gliadin and glutenin),and the increased degree in soluble glutenin was found higher than that of insoluble glutenin.The interactive effects of irrigation and nitrogen on starch composition were significant.Starch content and amylopectin content was increased as irrigation frequency added in non-nitrogen treatment.Compared to non-irrigation treatment,irrigation significantly increased the starch content and the amylopectin content in nitrogen application treatment,but the starch and amylopectin content had no significant difference between irrigation treatments.Amylose content and the ratio of amylose to amylopectin were reduced while RVA indexes (peak viscosity

  2. Effects of canola and corn oil mimetic on Jurkat cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinsete Juliana A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Western diet is high in omega-6 fatty acids and low in omega-3 fatty acids. Canola oil contains a healthier omega 3 to omega 6 ratio than corn oil. Jurkat T leukemia cells were treated with free fatty acids mixtures in ratios mimicking that found in commercially available canola oil (7% α-linolenic, 30% linoleic, 54% oleic or corn oil (59% linoleic, 24% oleic to determine the cell survival or cell death and changes in expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and receptors following oil treatment. Methods Fatty acid uptake was assessed by gas chromatography. Cell survival and cell death were evaluated by cell cycle analyses, propidium-iodide staining, trypan blue exclusion and phosphatidylserine externalization. mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines and receptors were assessed by RT-PCR. Results There was a significant difference in the lipid profiles of the cells after treatment. Differential action of the oils on inflammatory molecules, following treatment at non-cytotoxic levels, indicated that canola oil mimetic was anti-inflammatory whereas corn oil mimetic was pro-inflammatory. Significance These results indicate that use of canola oil in the diet instead of corn oil might be beneficial for diseases promoted by inflammation.

  3. CANOLA CROP TAKES UP SELENIUM PROVIDES BIOFUEL AND FEED SUPPLEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many of the Brassica plant taxi that are candidates for phytoremediation of selenium also produce products that be used for refining into biodiesel, as well as selenium enriched animal feeds. These include canola (Brassica napus) that is planted in the Westside soils of central California (Oxalis si...

  4. Starch granule size distribution of hard red winter and hard red spring wheat: Its effects on mixing and breadmaking quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch was isolated from 98 hard red winter (HRW) wheat and 99 hard red spring (HRS) wheat. Granule size/volume distributions of the isolated starches were analyzed using a laser diffraction particle size analyzer. There were significant differences in the size distribution between HRW and HRS whe...

  5. Winter Flings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicole Sy

    2012-01-01

    Summer flings.Those summer days of fun under the sun,careless and worryfree,drifting away into those breezy summer nights.It's a concept somewhat romanticized by the media but still pretty common in Western societies,and seemingly other cultures infiltrated by Western media.One can only imagine my surprise when my friend told me there were such things as winter flings too.That's right,winter flings.Strange as it seems,this was introduced to me by a friend from Toronto,a city on the east coast of Canada.I'm from the west coast of the country,so we cower in our homes when it hits -15℃.Our pipes freeze,we have no running water,and sometimes we have no electricity.Toronto lies on the east so it gets pretty nasty winters,sometimes dipping to -40℃.I'm a winter wuss.

  6. Using microbiological tracers to assess the impact of winter land use restrictions on the quality of stream headwaters in a small catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Raymond M; Deakin, Jenny; Archbold, Marie; Cushnan, Hugh; Kilroy, Kate; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Misstear, Bruce D

    2016-01-15

    Diverse land use activities can elevate risk of microbiological contamination entering stream headwaters. Spatially distributed water quality monitoring carried out across a 17 km(2) agricultural catchment aimed to characterize microbiological contamination reaching surface water and investigate whether winter agricultural land use restrictions proved effective in addressing water quality degradation. Combined flow and concentration data revealed no significant difference in fecal indicator organism (FIO) fluxes in base flow samples collected during the open and prohibited periods for spreading organic fertilizer, while relative concentrations of Escherichia coli, fecal streptococci and sulfite reducing bacteria indicated consistently fresh fecal pollution reached aquatic receptors during both periods. Microbial source tracking, employing Bacteroides 16S rRNA gene markers, demonstrated a dominance of bovine fecal waste in river water samples upstream of a wastewater treatment plant discharge during open periods. This contrasted with responses during prohibited periods where human-derived signatures dominated. Differences in microbiological signature, when viewed with hydrological data, suggested that increasing groundwater levels restricted vertical infiltration of effluent from on-site wastewater treatment systems and diverted it to drains and surface water. Study results reflect seasonality of contaminant inputs, while suggesting winter land use restrictions can be effective in limiting impacts of agricultural wastes to base flow water quality. PMID:26470010

  7. Cultivar,Nitrogen and Irrigation Influence on Grain Quality and Its Forecasting Methods by In situ Reflected Spectrum of Winter Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wen-jiang; WANG Ji-hua; LIU Liang-yun; WANG Zhi-jie; TAN Chang-wei; SONG Xiao-yu; WANG Jing-di

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to examine the influence factors of cultivar, nitrogen application and irrigation on grain protein content, gluten content and grain hardness in three winter wheat cultivars under four levels of'nitrogen and irrigation treatments.Firstly, the influence of cultivars and environment factors on grain quality were studied, the effective factors were cultivars, irrigation, fertilization, etc. Secondly,total nitrogen content around winter wheat anthesis stage was proved to be significantly correlative with grain protein content, and spectral vegetation index significantly correlated to total nitrogen content around anthesis stage were the potential indicators for grain protein content. Accumulation of total nitrogen content and its transfer to grain is the physical link to produce the final grain protein, and total nitrogen content at anthesis stage was proved to be an indicator of final grain protein content. The selected normalized photochemical reflectance index (NPRI) was proved to be able to predict grain protein content on the close correlation between the ratio of total carotenoid to chlorophyll a and total nitrogen content. The method contributes towards developing optimal procedures for predicting wheat grain quality through analysis of their canopy reflected spectrum at anthesis stage. Regression equations were established to forecast grain protein and dry gluten content by total nitrogen content at anthesis stage, so it is feasible for forecasting grain quality by establishing correlation equations between biochemical constitutes and canopy reflected spectrum.

  8. High-resolution monitoring of stormwater quality in an urbanising catchment in the United Kingdom during the 2013/2014 winter storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrane, S. J.; Hutchins, M. G.; Kjeldsen, T. R.; Miller, J. D.; Bussi, G.; Loewenthal, M.

    2015-12-01

    Urban areas are widely recognised as a key source of contaminants entering our freshwater systems, yet in spite of this, our understanding of stormwater quality dynamics remains limited. The development of in-situ, high-resolution monitoring equipment has revolutionised our capability to capture flow and water quality data at a sub-hourly resolution, enabling us to potentially enhance our understanding of hydrochemical variations from contrasting landscapes during storm events. During the winter of 2013/2014, the United Kingdom experienced a succession of intense storm events, where the south of the country experienced 200% of the average rainfall, resulting in widespread flooding across the Thames basin. We applied high-frequency (15 minute resolution) water quality monitoring across ten contrasting subcatchments (including rural, urban and mixed land-use catchments), seeking to classify the disparity in water quality conditions both within- and between events. Rural catchments increasingly behave like "urban" catchments as soils wet up and become increasingly responsive to subsequent events, however water quality response during the winter months remains limited. By contrast, increasingly urban catchments yield greater contaminant loads during events, and pre-event baseline chemistry highlights a resupply source in dense urban catchments. Wastewater treatment plants were shown to dominate baseline chemistry during low-flow events but also yield a considerable impact on stormwater outputs during peak-flow events, as hydraulic push results in the outflow of untreated solid wastes into the river system. Results are discussed in the context of water quality policy; urban growth scenarios and BMP for stormwater runoff in contrasting landscapes.

  9. COMPETITORS CO-OPERATING: ESTABLISHING A SUPPLY CHAIN TO MANAGE GENETICALLY MODIFIED CANOLA

    OpenAIRE

    Smyth, Stuart J.; Phillips, Peter W.B.

    2001-01-01

    Identity preserving production and marketing (IPPM) systems are used extensively in the Canadian canola industry to segregate varieties with different traits from the commodity stream. This paper examines one use of identify preserved production and marketing systems for genetically modified (GM) canola. A number of transgenic herbicide tolerant (HT) varieties have been approved for release in Canada since 1995 but delays in approval in other countries led the Canadian canola sector to use IP...

  10. NE- 165 Case Study : CANOLA AS AN EMERGING INDUSTRY: A Processor and Producer Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Coaldrake, Karen; Sonka, Steven T.

    1991-01-01

    The canola industry in the United States has been very small with a limited canola oil demand being met through imports. However, an apparent increase in consumer demand for more healthful alternatives to traditional vegetable oils has sparked an interest among domestic processors desiring to be among the first entrants to a U.S. canola oil market. Processor interest has in turn led to some producer experimentation with the crop. This case study documents the early activities of U.S. Canola P...

  11. Improving the nutritional value of canola seed by gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervat M. Anwar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aims to evaluate the effects of γ-irradiation on anti-nutritional factors, in-vitro protein digestibility and functional properties of canola meal protein, physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of canola seed oil. Irradiation at doses 10, 20, 30 KGy had no effects on the chemical composition of canola seed, while decreased the total glucosinolate content by 15.6, 30.4 and 49.4%; and phytic acid by 29, 55 and 100%, respectively. On contrary, in-vitro protein digestibility increased to 59.1, 61.4 and 71.8% by the same doses, respectively. Water absorption and fat absorption increased by increasing irradiation doses, whilst decreased foaming capacity. Refractive index was between 1.4636 and 1.4687, acid value between 0.72 and 1.10%, peroxide value between 3.40 and 7.36 meq/kg oil. Iodine number and saponification value were 122 and 175 at dose 30 KGy, respectively. Oxidative stability decreased to 17.8, 16.4 and 14.9 h by doses 10, 20 and 30 KGy, respectively, compared to control (18.9 h. The contents of oleic and linoleinic acid were ranged between 60.44–61.69% and 21.72–22.09% respectively. So, γ-irradiation considered a safe method which reduced the anti-nutritional factors and improve both nutritional value and functional properties of canola seed.

  12. Molecular and systems approaches towards drought-tolerant canola crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengmeng; Monroe, J Grey; Suhail, Yasir; Villiers, Florent; Mullen, Jack; Pater, Dianne; Hauser, Felix; Jeon, Byeong Wook; Bader, Joel S; Kwak, June M; Schroeder, Julian I; McKay, John K; Assmann, Sarah M

    2016-06-01

    1169 I. 1170 II. 1170 III. 1172 IV. 1176 V. 1181 VI. 1182 1183 References 1183 SUMMARY: Modern agriculture is facing multiple challenges including the necessity for a substantial increase in production to meet the needs of a burgeoning human population. Water shortage is a deleterious consequence of both population growth and climate change and is one of the most severe factors limiting global crop productivity. Brassica species, particularly canola varieties, are cultivated worldwide for edible oil, animal feed, and biodiesel, and suffer dramatic yield loss upon drought stress. The recent release of the Brassica napus genome supplies essential genetic information to facilitate identification of drought-related genes and provides new information for agricultural improvement in this species. Here we summarize current knowledge regarding drought responses of canola, including physiological and -omics effects of drought. We further discuss knowledge gained through translational biology based on discoveries in the closely related reference species Arabidopsis thaliana and through genetic strategies such as genome-wide association studies and analysis of natural variation. Knowledge of drought tolerance/resistance responses in canola together with research outcomes arising from new technologies and methodologies will inform novel strategies for improvement of drought tolerance and yield in this and other important crop species. PMID:26879345

  13. Preparation and characterization of biodiesel produced from recycled canola oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, X.; Burton, R.; Austic, G. [Piedmont Biofuels Industrial, Pittsboro, NC (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The high cost of virgin vegetable oil means that many biodiesel products are not economically competitive. This paper evaluated the feasibility of using recycle canola oil to produce ASTM standard biodiesel. Experiments were conducted to test a 2-step reaction comprised of an acid-catalyzed esterification followed by an alkali-catalyzed transesterification process. The processes were used to reduce the high level of free fatty acids (FFA) in the recycled canola oil. Tests demonstrated that the produced biodiesel met ASTM standards in relation to kinematic viscosity at 40 degrees C; acid number; flash point; water and sediment; cold soak filtration tests; oxidation stability; and free and total glycerin. The glycerol byproducts produced during the process were also characterized. Results of the study indicated that the recycled canola oil can be used as a raw feedstock for biodiesel production. It was concluded that the purification and sale of the glycerol byproduct will increase the overall profitability of the biodiesel production process. 15 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Non-destructive models for leaf area determination in canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francilene de L. Tartaglia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The leaf is a very important structure of the plants, since it allows gas exchanges and the transformation of light energy into chemical energy. This study aimed to generate and test mathematical models for leaf area estimation in canola based on leaf dimensions. Two experiments were conducted with canola in 2014, in which leaves were collected in different phenological stages with different sizes and shapes. Subsequently, leaf length, width and area were measured (with automatic meter in 606 leaves, which included 371 ovate and 235 lanceolate leaves. The models were generated using length, width and length versus width as independent variables and leaf area as dependent variable. The models were validated using a group of leaves different from those used to generate the models. A total of 27 models were obtained and those with best statistics and higher simplicity were selected. The polynomial model LA = 0.88735 W2 + 0.93503 W and the power model LA = 1.1282 W1.9396 can be used for both types of leaves and have high accuracy in the estimation of canola leaf area.

  15. Organically vs conventionally grown winter wheat: effects on grain yield, technological quality, and on phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of bran and refined flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoncini, Marco; Antichi, Daniele; Silvestri, Nicola; Ciantelli, Giulia; Sgherri, Cristina

    2015-05-15

    Since organic food is widely assumed to have a better nutritional quality than conventional food, our aim was to study the effects of organic vs conventional cropping systems on yield and the phenolic composition of winter wheat cv. 'Bologna'. Although organic wheat yielded less than conventional wheat, mainly due to the nitrogen shortage, and its bread-making quality was lower, the cultivation system did not affect the total amounts of phenolics and phenolic acids. Of the eight phenolic acids identified, only ferulic acid was influenced by the cultivation system. Phenolic composition and quantity were significantly affected by the milling fraction (bran or white flour): phenolics were more concentrated in the bran, which showed the highest antioxidant power. Under the conditions adopted in this study, an organic cropping system can maintain or even increase the health properties of the wheat milled products, provided a reduction in grain yield is accepted. PMID:25577104

  16. Impact of Endogenous Phenolics in Canola Oil on the Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Friel, James; Moser, Jill; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Thiyam, Usha

    2011-01-01

    Canola oil is low in saturated fat, high in monounsaturated fat and has a favourable omega-6:omega-3 ratio . Therefore, Canola oil has a healthier fatty acid profile compared to other plant oils such as soy oil. Therefore, canola oil is also an ingredient in many food products. However, the content of unsaturated lipid makes canola oil susceptible towards lipid oxidation. Many food products are lipid containing emulsions and a lot of efforts have been put into developing methods to protect th...

  17. Carcass traits, meat yield and fatty acid composition of adipose tissues and Supraspinatus muscle in goats fed blend of canola oil and palm oil

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyemi, K.D.; Ebrahimi, M; Samsudin, A. A.; Sabow, A. B.; Sazili, A. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary fats can alter the deposition and distribution of body fats in ruminants. The deposition and distribution of body fat play a vital role in the quality of ruminant carcasses and are of great commercial value since they influence the profitability and consumer acceptability of ruminant meat. The current study examined the effects of dietary blend of 80 % canola oil and 20 % palm oil (BCPO) on carcass characteristics, meat yield and accretion of fatty acid (FA) in subcutaneous...

  18. Carcass, sensory, and adipose tissue traits of Brangus steers fed casein-formaldehyde-protected starch and/or canola lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, C D; Lunt, D K; Miller, R K; Smith, S B

    2003-10-01

    We predicted that providing rumen-protected starch to the small intestine would increase adiposity of intramuscular adipose tissue, and hence marbling scores. Eighteen 15-mo-old Brangus steers were assigned randomly to one of three dietary treatment groups: 1) cracked corn (Corn); 2) casein-formaldehyde-protected lipid (Canola Lipid); or 3) casein-formaldehyde-protected starch (Marble Plus). All diets were equally balanced for ME (2.91 Mcal/kg), CP (12.5%), and DM (89%). Ether extract was 3.7, 6.9, and 6.9% for the Corn, Canola Lipid, and Marble Plus diets, respectively, and the Marble Plus also contained 3.7% protected starch. Steers were fed the diets for 126 d before slaughter. Average daily feed intake (as-fed basis), ADG, and feed:gain ratio (P > or = 0.23) did not differ among treatments. Carcasses across treatments did not differ (P = 0.26) in adjusted fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, marbling scores, or USDA quality grade. Percentage of kidney, pelvic, and heart fat was higher (P or = 0.33) by diet in i.m. adipose tissue. Fatty acid synthetase activity tended (P = 0.08) to be higher in s.c. adipose tissue of Marble Plus steers, and NADP-malic dehydrogenase activity was higher (P = 0.03) in i.m. adipose tissue of Canola Lipid steers. We conclude that Marble Plus did not improve carcass quality, but also did not reduce beef sensory attributes. Any differences we observed in carcass characteristics, adipose tissue cellularity, or lipogenesis apparently were caused by the protected lipid rather than the protected starch. PMID:14552372

  19. Biodiesel from Canola Oil using a 1:1 Molar Mixture of Methanol and Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canola oil was transesterified using an equimolar mixture of ethanol and methanol with potassium hydroxide (KOH) catalyst. Effect of catalyst concentration (0.5 to 1.5% wt/wt), molar ratio of equimolar mixture of ethanol and methanol (EMEM) to canola oil (3:1 to 12:1) and reaction temperature (25 t...

  20. Canola meals from different production plants differ in ruminal protein degradability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactation trials have shown that production and N efficiency were improved when dietary soybean meal was replaced with equal crude protein (CP) from canola meal. Three or four canola meal samples were collected from each of 12 Canadian production plants (total = 37), and analyzed for differences in ...

  1. Impact of endogenous canola phenolics on the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative effect of phenolics naturally present in canola seeds and meal. Individual phenolics were extracted from ground, defatted canola seeds and meal. Fractionated extracts rich in sinapic acid, sinapine or canolol as well as a non-fractionated ext...

  2. Physical Localization and Genetic Mapping of Fertility Restoration Gene Rfo in Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ogu cytoplasm for male fertility and its fertility restorer gene Rfo in canola (Brassica napus L.) were originally introgressed from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and have been widely used for canola hybrid production and breeding. The objective of this study was to determine the physical locati...

  3. Using Synoptic Classification and Trajectory Analysis to Assess Air Quality during the Winter Heating Period in (U)rümqi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lili; WANG Yuesi; SUN Yang; LI Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    Synoptic patterns identified by an automated procedure employing principal- component analysis and a two-stage cluster analysis,and backward trajectory analysis clustered by the HYSPLIT4.9 model were used to examine air quality patterns over (U)rümqi,China,one of the most heavily polluted cities in the world.Six synoptic patterns representing different atmospheric circulation patterns and air-mass characteristics were classified during the winter heating periods from 2001 to 2008,and seven trajectory clusters representing different paths of air masses arriving at (U)rümqi were calculated during the winter heating periods from 2005 to 2008.Then air quality was evaluated using these two approaches,and significant variations were found across both synoptic patterns and trajectory clusters.The heaviest air-pollution episodes occurred when (U)rümqi was either in an extremely cold,strong anticyclone or at the front of a migrating cyclone.Both conditions were characterized by with light winds,cold,wet surface air,and relatively dry upper air.(U)rümqi was predominately influenced by air masses from the southwest and from local areas.Air pollution index (API) levels were highest for air masses originating from the southwest with a longer path or for the local area,because of transport from semi-desert/desert regions by strong winds and because of local heavy pollution emissions,respectively.The interactions between these two analytical approaches showed that poor diffusion conditions,together with local circulation,enhanced air pollution,besides,regional air-mass transport caused by strong winds contributed to serious air quality under relatively good diffusion conditions.

  4. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-II

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12%...

  5. Evaluation of canola irradiated populations after two selection cycles under saline stressed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted during the two winter seasons in 2006/07 and 2007/08 to improve the production of canola irradiated populations in M3 and M4 generations via gamma irradiation doses of 100,400 and 600 Gy and two cycles of mass selection based on No. of pods/plant (20% intensity) for each irradiated population of the four cultivars under saline stressed conditions. The obtained results revealed that No. of pods/plant and seed yield /plant were improved in M4 generation at dose 400 Gy. After two mass selection cycles over the four cultivars, the plant height, No. of pods and seed yield/ plant in M4 were improved by about 12.7 % ,50.6% and 75.8% , respectively for the irradiated population of dose 400 Gy. The serow 6 and bactol varieties has more response than the two varieties serow 4 and evita which exhibited genetic variation for the most studied traits. this could be exploited for further selection to gain these traits.

  6. Combined effects of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation and doubled CO2 concentration on growth,fruit quality and yield of tomato in winter plastic greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fangmin; WANG Jun; CHEN Yuping; ZOU Zhirong; WANG Xunling; YUE Ming

    2007-01-01

    Five different doses of ultraviolet-B (UV-B)radiation were supplied to tomato (Lycopersicon esculeutum.in the winter plastic greenhouse.The influences on the seedling growth,fruit quality and yield of tomato were investigated.Results showed that the seedling growth,and the contents of UV absorbing compounds,soluble sugar,organic acid,vitamin C and lycopene of tomato fruits,and yield of tomato increased under doubled CO2 concentration.Under the doubled CO2 concentration the effects of lost doses of UV-B radiation could further promote the effects of doubled CO:concentration.However,there is no significant increase in yield of tomato.The best dose of UV-B radiation is about 1.163 kJ.m-2.When the dose of UV-B radiation is more than it,the effects of UV-B will be reduced.

  7. Alimentação do jundiá com dietas contendo óleos de arroz, canola ou soja Feeding of jundiá with diets containing rice, canola or soybean oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Eliseu Losekann

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de óleos vegetais no desenvolvimento corporal e composição do filé de jundiás. Foram testadas seis dietas (32%PB, sendo avaliados óleos de arroz, canola ou soja com 5 ou 10% de inclusão, durante 90 dias. Os peixes (180, peso inicial=71,0±0,8g foram distribuídos ao acaso em 18 caixas (280L de um sistema de recirculação de água, com temperatura controlada. Para avaliação de desempenho, estimaram-se variáveis como peso, comprimentos totais, padrão, altura caudal, sobrevivência, taxa de crescimento específico, fator de condição, consumo diário, conversão alimentar aparente e rendimento de partes comestíveis. Além disso, foram avaliadas a composição centesimal e taxas de deposição de proteína e gordura nos filés. Não houve diferenças entre os óleos e os níveis sobre o crescimento dos peixes; entretanto, os jundiás alimentados com 10% de óleo depositaram mais gordura no filé. Conclui-se que os óleos de canola, arroz e soja proporcionam bom crescimento e rendimento de partes comestíveis. As dietas contendo óleo de canola, com 5% de inclusão, possibilitam menor deposição de gordura no filé.The influence of vegetable oils in the body development of jundiá (Rhamdia quelen and its relationship with the flesh quality were evaluated in the present study. Six diets (32% of crude protein with rice, canola or soybean oil at 5 or 10% of inclusion were tested, for 90 days. The fishes (180, initial weight=71± 0.8g were randomly distributed in 18 boxes (280L in a water re-use system, with controlled temperature. The following parameters were considered for evaluation of fish performance: weight, total and standard length, survival, specific growth rate, condition factor, daily consumption, food conversion ratio, carcass and fillet yield, proximate composition and protein and fat deposition in the filets. There were no differences for the productive parameters among the

  8. Breeding effect for the flour quality when selecting winter bread wheat caryopses by the NMR-criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnitude of the genetic shift in the IDK-I index is estimated when selecting hybrid caryopses by the NMR-test in the system of cyclic and saturating crossings. The pattern of the sedimentation index variation in the splitting generations and methods of the grain quality control with the systemtic and purposeful selection of hybrid caryopses for the value of Ar=80 are discussed

  9. Using pennycress, camelina, and canola cash crops to provision pollinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    As pollinator decline continues, the need to provide high value forage for insects continues to rise. Finding agricultural crops to diversify the landscape and provide forage is one way to improve pollinator health. Three winter industrial oilseed crops (pennycress, winter camelina, and winter canol...

  10. The impact of sulfate restriction on seed yield and quality of winter oilseed rape depends on the ability to remobilize sulfate from vegetative tissues to reproductive organs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eGirondé

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our current knowledge about sulfur (S management by winter oilseed rape to satisfy the S demand of developing seeds is still scarce, particularly in relation to S restriction. Our goals were to determine the physiological processes related to S use efficiency that led to maintain the seed yield and quality when S limitation occurred at the bolting or early flowering stages. To address these questions, a pulse-chase 34SO42- labelling method was carried out in order to study the S fluxes from uptake and remobilization at the whole plant level. In response of S limitation at the bolting or early flowering stages, the leaves are the most important source organ for S remobilization during reproductive stages. By combining 34S-tracer with biochemical fractionation in order to separate sulfate from other S-compounds, it appeared that sulfate was the main form of S remobilized in leaves at reproductive stages and that tonoplastic SULTR4-type transporters were specifically involved in the sulfate remobilisation in case of low S availability. In response to S limitation at the bolting stage, the seed yield and quality were dramatically reduced compared to control plants. These data suggest that the increase of both S remobilization from source leaves and the root proliferation in order to maximize sulfate uptake capacities, were not sufficient to maintain the seed yield and quality. When S limitation occurred at the early flowering stage, oilseed rape can optimize the mobilization of sulfate reserves from vegetative organs (leaves and stem to satisfy the demand of seeds and maintain the seed yield and quality. Our study also revealed that the stem may act as a transient storage organ for remobilized S coming from source leaves before its utilization by seeds. The physiological traits (S remobilization, root proliferation, transient S storage in stem observed under S limitation could be used in breeding programs to select oilseed rape genotypes with high S

  11. Assessing quality and quantity of groundwater DOC in relation to plant export from different over-winter green-cover treatments in tillage farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premrov, Alina; Coxon, Catherine; Hackett, Richard; Richards, Karl

    2010-05-01

    The biogeochemistry of nitrogen is often connected to carbon and C/N dynamics. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) electron donor availability can be related to groundwater denitrification (Buss, et al. 2005). Therefore groundwater nitrate attenuation processes are also frequently linked to carbon availability. In recent years the role of over-winter green cover in tillage farming has been studied extensively. Nevertheless further research on the biogeochemical effect of green cover on soil/sediment and groundwater quality is still needed. In particular plant roots are known to exude different types of organic compounds, but their role in groundwater quality has not been investigated in depth. According to Cannavo et al. (2004a,b), in addition to quantity, the quality of water-extractable soil organic matter (e.g. molecular size/weight) has also an important role for microbial activity. In this study we investigate the effect of over-winter green-cover on potential DOC export to shallow groundwater (2 - 5 m below ground level), located on tillage land in Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland. The experiment includes three over-winter green-cover treatments: natural green-cover, mustard and no-cover (sprayed with herbicide following harvest); and is underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer. The site is equipped with 4 shallow piezometers per treatment (total no. of piezometers is 20, including treatments and surrounding piezometers). In addition to monitoring the quantity of DOC concentrations in shallow groundwater under different green cover treatments over time, an attempt was made to evaluate the quality of dissolved organic matter in shallow groundwater using Excitation Emission Fluorescence Matrix (EEFM) profiles obtained from analyses performed on a Varian Fluorescence Spectrophotometer of a single batch of samples (from all 20 installed piezometers in September 2009). To evaluate the quality of dissolved organic matter in shallow groundwater, computation of the

  12. A new method for assessing plant lodging and the impact of management options on lodging in canola crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Ma, Bao-Luo

    2016-01-01

    Lodging, defined as the permanent displacement of aboveground parts, is a common problem to cause yield loss, deterioration in seed quality and difficult to harvest in canola (Brassica napus L.) crop production. This study aimed to develop a method for assessing crop lodging, to examine how agronomic practices affected the relationships between root lodging and electrical capacitance traits. Canola plants were more susceptible to root lodging than stem lodging. The electrical measurements were more closely related with anchorage strength (Sp) than stem bending strength (Ss). Among the three electrical measurements, the root capacitance (C) displayed the most consistent and significant relationships with Sp in all three field experiments (R(2) = 0.88-0.56; P ≤ 0.01). This study indicates that the risk of lodging can be reduced by using appropriate management practices and variety selection. Enhancing root Sp was advocated as a priority over enhancing stem Ss in cultivar improvement. Electrical measurements, especially of root C, can be considered as a non-invasive technique that could partially replace the intrusive methods used for the in situ assessment of lodging resistance among various agronomic practices or can be applied in breeding programs for selecting genotypes with high yield potentials and strong Sp values. PMID:27552909

  13. Air quality forecasting for winter-time PM2.5 episodes occurring in multiple cities in central and southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saide, Pablo E.; Mena-Carrasco, Marcelo; Tolvett, Sebastian; Hernandez, Pablo; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    Episodic air quality degradation due to particles occurs in multiple cities in central and southern Chile during the austral winter reaching levels up to 300-800 µg/m3 hourly PM2.5, which can be associated with severe effects on human health. An air quality prediction system is developed to predict such events in near real time up to 3 days in advance for nine cities with regular air quality monitoring: Santiago, Rancagua, Curicó, Talca, Chillan, Los Ángeles, Temuco, Valdivia, and Osorno. The system uses the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model configured with a nested 2 km grid-spacing domain to predict weather and inert tracers. The tracers are converted to hourly PM2.5 concentrations using an observationally based calibration which is substantially less computationally intensive than a full chemistry model. The conversion takes into account processes occurring in these cities, including higher likelihood of episode occurrence during weekends and during colder days, the latter related to increased wood-burning-stove activity for heating. The system is calibrated and evaluated for April-August 2014 where it has an overall skill of 53-72% of episodes accurately forecasted (61-76% for the best initialization) which is better than persistence for most stations. Forecasts one, two, and three days in advance all have skill in forecasting events but often present large variability within them due to different meteorological initializations. The system is being implemented in Chile to assist authority decisions not only to warn the population but also to take contingency-based emission restrictions to try to avoid severe pollution events.

  14. Exploration of process parameters for continuous hydrolysis of canola oil, camelina oil and algal oil

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2012-07-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of triglycerides to form free fatty acid (FFA) is a well-established industry practice. Recently, this process has been employed as a first step in the production of biofuels from lipids. To that end, batch and continuous hydrolysis of various feedstocks has been examined at the laboratory scale. Canola, the primary feedstock in this paper, camelina and algal oils were converted to high quality FFA. For the different reaction temperatures, the continuous hydrolysis system was found to provide better yields than the laboratory batch system. In addition, CFD simulation with ANSYS-CFX was used to model the performance and reactant/product separation in the continuous, counter-flow reactor. The effects of reaction temperature, water-to-oil ratio (ratio of water and oil volumetric inflow rate), and preheating of the reactants were examined experimentally. Optimization of these parameters has resulted in an improved, continuous process with high mass yields (89-93%, for reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1) and energy efficiency (76%, for reactor temperature of 250°C and water-to-oil ratio of 2:1). Based on the product quality and energy efficiency considerations, the reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1 have provided the optimal condition for the lab scale continuous hydrolysis reaction. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Identification and analysis of MKK and MPK gene families in canola (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Wanwan; Yang, Bo; Yu, Bao-Jun; Zhou, Zili; Li, Cui; Jia, Ming; Sun, Yun; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Feifei; Zhang, Hanfeng; Wang, Boya; Deyholos, Michael K.; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/MPK) signaling cascades transduce and amplify environmental signals via three types of reversibly phosphorylated kinases to activate defense gene expression. Canola (oilseed rape, Brassica napus) is a major crop in temperate regions. Identification and characterization of MAPK and MAPK kinases (MAPKK/MKK) of canola will help to elucidate their role in responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Results We describe the identification a...

  16. Tolerance of canola to drought and salinity stresses in terms of root water uptake model parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagawa, Aki; Fujimaki, Haruyuki

    2013-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus) is cultivated for oil as a biofuel crop. Few quantitative data concerning its tolerance to abiotic stresses has been presented. We evaluated the tolerances of canola to drought and salinity stresses in terms of parameter values in a macroscopic root water uptake model. We conducted an experiment using nine columns with two plants in each: three columns were under drought stresses, another three were under saline stress and others provided potential transpiration. Two s...

  17. Evaluation energy balance of canola production under rain fed farming in north of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Azarpour

    2012-01-01

    Energy in agriculture is important in terms of crop production and agro processing for value adding. Canola is one of important rapeseed that it is tilled in dry farming systems in north of Iran. This method in an agricultural product system is the energy consuming in product operations and energy saving in produced crops. In this article, evaluation of energy indices under rain fed farming canola in north of Iran (Guilan province) was investigated. Data were collected from 72 farms by used a...

  18. Biodiesel From Canola Oil Using a 1:1 Mole Mixture of Methanol and Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canola oil was transesterified using a 1:1 mole mixture of methanol and ethanol (M/E) with potassium hydroxide (KOH) catalyst. Effect of catalyst concentration (0.5 to 1.5% wt/wt), mole ratio of M/E to canola oil (3:1 to 20:1) and reaction temperature (25 to 75°C) on the percentage yield measured af...

  19. Impact of Endogenous Phenolics in Canola Oil on the Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Friel, James; Moser, Jill;

    compounds. However, the effect of these endogenous antioxidants on lipid oxidation in o/w emulsion is yet unknown. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the endogenous phenolics in Canola oil on lipid oxidation in o/w emulsion. For this purpose individual phenolics were extracted from...... defatted grinded canola seeds. Fractionated extracts of Sinapic acid, Sinapine and Canolol was used as well as a non fractionated extract. These extracts was added (100 and 350 μM) to 10% o/w emulsion with stripped canola oil in order to evaluate their effect on lipid oxidation in emulsions. For comparison......Canola oil is low in saturated fat, high in monounsaturated fat and has a favourable omega-6:omega-3 ratio . Therefore, Canola oil has a healthier fatty acid profile compared to other plant oils such as soy oil. Therefore, canola oil is also an ingredient in many food products. However, the content...

  20. Characteristics of Oxidative Storage Stability of Canola Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Stabilised with Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirto Prakoso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The storage effects on the oxidation characteristics of fatty acid methyl ester of canola oil (CME were investigated in this study. CME stabilised with two antioxidants, i.e. 2,6-di-tert-bytyl-p-cresol (BHT and 6,6-di-tert-butyl-2, 2’-methylendi-p-cresol (BPH, was stored at 20, 40 and 60°C. The oxidation stability data were measured by the Rancimat test method and it was found that both BHT and BPH addition increased the oxidation resistance of the CME. The results showed that when BPH or BHT was added at a concentration of 100 ppm, the oxidation induction period of the neat CME samples increased from 5.53 h to 6.93 h and 6.14 h, respectively. Comparing both antioxidants, BPH proved to be more effective in increasing the oxidation resistance when both antioxidants were added at the same concentration. Furthermore, the oxidation induction time decreased linearly with the storage time. It was shown that the oxidation occurred rapidly in the first 8 weeks of storage. Later, a kinetic study was undertaken and first-order kinetics were applied to explain the oxidation characteristics of the CME added with antioxidants. This kinetic study focused on exploiting the activation energy values obtained from the Arrhenius equations. Also, the oxidation effects on other quality parameters, including acid value, peroxide value, kinematic viscosity, and water content, were examined.

  1. Subsurface Drainage to Enable the Cultivation of Winter Crops in Consolidated Paddy Fields in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jafari-Talukolaee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface drainage is a prerequisite to grow winter crops in the consolidated paddy fields in Northern Iran. A four-year study (2011–2015 was conducted to quantify the effects of subsurface drainage on the saturated hydraulic conductivity, water table, drain discharge and winter crop yields. Subsurface drainage systems with two drain depths of 0.65 and 0.90 m and two drain spacings of 15 and 30 m were installed at the consolidated paddy fields of Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Iran. During four successive winter seasons, the water table depth and drain discharge were measured daily. Soil saturated hydraulic conductivity was measured twice; before drainage system installation and four years following the installation. Canola grain yields were determined at harvest of each cultivation season. During the study period, the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity increased with the highest increase in the top 0–30 cm. The deeper drains were more effective in controlling the water table compared to the shallow, and the daily drain discharge of the deeper drains in the fourth year were higher than those of shallow drains. The canola grain yield of all drainage systems increased significantly by the seasons, and the largest difference in canola grain yield between first and fourth seasons was 2191 kg·ha−1 (318% increase in the fields with 0.90 m drain depth and 30 m drain spacing. Totally, it became clear that installation of subsurface drainage systems with 0.90 m depth and 30 m spacing in the paddy fields of Northern Iran can be recommended to achieve high yield of winter crop, soil condition improvement, and multi-purpose land use.

  2. Glyphosate-Resistant and Conventional Canola (Brassica napus L.) Responses to Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid (AMPA) Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Elza Alves; Dayan, Franck E; Owens, Daniel K; Rimando, Agnes M; Duke, Stephen O

    2016-05-11

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola contains two transgenes that impart resistance to the herbicide glyphosate: (1) the microbial glyphosate oxidase gene (gox) encoding the glyphosate oxidase enzyme (GOX) that metabolizes glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and (2) cp4 that encodes a GR form of the glyphosate target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase. The objectives of this research were to determine the phytotoxicity of AMPA to canola, the relative metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA in GR and conventional non-GR (NGR) canola, and AMPA pool sizes in glyphosate-treated GR canola. AMPA applied at 1.0 kg ha(-1) was not phytotoxic to GR or NGR. At this AMPA application rate, NGR canola accumulated a higher concentration of AMPA in its tissues than GR canola. At rates of 1 and 3.33 kg ae ha(-1) of glyphosate, GR canola growth was stimulated. This stimulatory effect is similar to that of much lower doses of glyphosate on NGR canola. Both shikimate and AMPA accumulated in tissues of these glyphosate-treated plants. In a separate experiment in which young GR and NGR canola plants were treated with non-phytotoxic levels of [(14)C]-glyphosate, very little glyphosate was metabolized in NGR plants, whereas most of the glyphosate was metabolized to AMPA in GR plants at 7 days after application. Untreated leaves of GR plants accumulated only metabolites (mostly AMPA) of glyphosate, indicating that GOX activity is very high in the youngest leaves. These data indicate that more glyphosate is transformed to AMPA rapidly in GR canola and that the accumulated AMPA is not toxic to the canola plant. PMID:27092715

  3. Sustainable management tactics for control of Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on canola in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Tangtrakulwanich, Khanobporn; Miller, John H; Ophus, Victoria L; Prewett, Julie

    2014-04-01

    The crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), has recently emerged as a serious pest of canola (Brassica napus L.) in Montana. The adult beetles feed on canola leaves, causing many small holes that stunt growth and reduce yield. In 2013, damage to canola seedlings was high (approximately 80%) in many parts of Montana, evidence that when flea beetles emerge in large numbers, they can quickly destroy a young canola crop. In the current study, the effectiveness of several biopesticides was evaluated and compared with two insecticides (deltamethrin and bifenthrin) commonly used as foliar sprays as well as seed treatment with an imidacloprid insecticide for the control of P. cruciferae under field conditions in 2013. The biopesticides used included an entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema carpocapsae), two entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum), neem, and petroleum spray oils. The control agents were delivered in combination or alone in a single or repeated applications at different times. The plant-derived compound neem (azadirachtin), petroleum spray oil, and fatty acids (M-Pede) only showed moderate effect, although they significantly reduced leaf injuries caused by P. cruciferae and resulted in higher canola yield than the untreated control. Combined use of B. bassiana and M. brunneum in two repeated applications and bifenthrin in five applications were most effective in reducing feeding injuries and improving yield levels at both trial locations. This indicates that entomopathogenic fungi are effective against P. cruciferae, and may serve as alternatives to conventional insecticides or seed treatments in managing this pest. PMID:24772547

  4. Some rape/canola seed oils: fatty acid composition and tocopherols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2016-03-01

    Seed samples of some rape and canola cultivars were analysed for oil content, fatty acid and tocopherol profiles. Gas liquid chromotography and high performance liquid chromotography were used for fatty acid and tocopherol analysis, respectively. The oil contents of rape and canola seeds varied between 30.6% and 48.3% of the dry weight (p<0.05). The oil contents of rapeseeds were found to be high compared with canola seed oils. The main fatty acids in the oils are oleic (56.80-64.92%), linoleic (17.11-20.92%) and palmitic (4.18-5.01%) acids. A few types of tocopherols were found in rape and canola oils in various amounts: α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, β-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol. The major tocopherol in the seed oils of rape and canola cultivars were α-tocopherol (13.22-40.01%) and γ-tocopherol (33.64-51.53%) accompanied by α-T3 (0.0-1.34%) and δ-tocopherol (0.25-1.86%) (p<0.05). As a result, the present study shows that oil, fatty acid and tocopherol contents differ significantly among the cultivars. PMID:27023318

  5. A novel detection system for the genetically modified canola (Brassica rapa) line RT73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Makiyama, Daiki; Nakamura, Kosuke; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2010-12-01

    The herbicide-tolerant genetically modified Roundup Ready canola (Brassica napus) line RT73 has been approved worldwide for use in animal feed and human food. However, RT73 Brassica rapa lines derived from interspecific crosses with RT73 B. napus have not been approved in Japan. Here, we report on a novel system using individual kernel analyses for the qualitative detection of RT73 B. rapa in canola grain samples. We developed a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to discriminate B. napus and B. rapa DNA using scatter plots of the end-point analyses; this method was able to discriminate a group comprising B. rapa and Brassica juncea from a group comprising B. napus, Brassica carinata, and Brassica oleracea. We also developed a duplex real-time PCR method for the simultaneous detection of an RT73-specific sequence and an endogenous FatA gene. Additionally, a DNA-extraction method using 96-well silica-membrane plates was developed and optimized for use with individual canola kernels. Our detection system could identify RT73 B. rapa kernels in canola grain samples enabling the accurate and reliable monitoring of RT73 B. rapa contamination in canola, thus playing a role in its governmental regulation in Japan. PMID:21049930

  6. Anaerobic co-digestion of canola straw and buffalo dung: optimization of methane production in batch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In several regions of the Pakistan, crop cultivation is leading to the production crop residues and its disposal problems. It has been suggested that the co-digestion of the crop residues with the buffalo dung might be a disposal way for the wasted portion of the crops residue. The objective of present study was to optimize the anaerobic co-digestion of canola straw and the buffalo dung through batch experiments in order to obtain maximum methane production. The optimization was carried out in three stages. In first stage, the best canola straw to buffalo dung ratio was evaluated. In second stage, the best concentration of sodium hydrogen carbonate was assessedas the alkaline pretreatment chemical, whereas in the third stage most suitable particle size of the canola strawwas evaluated. The assessment criteria for the optimization of a co-digestion were cumulative methane production and ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability). The results yield that anaerobic co-digestibility of the canola straw and the buffalo dung is obviously influenced by all the three factors of optimization. The maximum methane production was obtained as 911 NmL from the canola straw to buffalo dung ratio of 40:60, the alkaline doze of 0.6 gNaHCO/sub 3/ gVS and canola straw particle size of 2mm. However, because of the higher shredding cost to produce 2mm sized canola straw, particle size 4mm could be the best canola straw particle size. (author)

  7. Shoot-Specific Down-Regulation of Protein Farnesyltransferase (α-Subunit) for Yield Protection against Drought in Canola

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wang; Michelle Beaith; Maryse Chalifoux; Jifeng Ying; Tina Uchacz; Carlene Sarvas; Rebecca Griffiths; Monika Kuzma; Jiangxin Wan; Yafan Huang

    2009-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world and its seed yield and quality are significantly affected by drought stress. As an innate and adaptive response to water deficit, land plants avoid potential damage by rapid biosynthesis of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), which triggers stomatal closure to reduce transpirational water loss. The ABA-mediated stomatal response is a dosage-dependent process; thus, one genetic engineering approach for achieving drought avoidance could be to sensitize the guard cell's responsiveness to this hormone.Recent genetic studies have pinpointed protein farnesyltransferase as a key negative regulator controlling ABA sensitivity in the guard cells. We have previously shown that down-regulation of the gene encoding Arabidopsis β-subunit of farnesyltransferase (ERA1) enhances the plant's sensitivity to ABA and drought tolerance. Although the α-subunit of famesyltransferase (AtFTA) is also implicated in ABA sensing, the effectiveness of using such a gene target for improving drought tolerance in a crop plant has not been validated. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the promoter of Arabidopsis hydroxypyruvate reductase (AtHPR1), which expresses specifically in the shoot and not in non-photosynthetic tissues such as root. The promoter region of AtHPR1 contains the core motif of the well characterized dehydration-responsive cis-acting element and we have confirmed that AtHPR1 expression is inducible by drought stress. Conditional and specific down-regulation of FTA in canola using the AtHPR1 promoter driving an RNAi construct resulted in yield protection against drought stress in the field. Using this molecular strategy, we have made significant progress in engineering drought tolerance in this important crop species.

  8. Strategies and Suggestions on Improving the Quality Safety Level of Winter Vegetables in Hainan%提高海南冬种瓜菜质量安全水平的对策和建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建国; 罗金辉

    2011-01-01

    Hainan is a major supplier of vegetables to the inland regions of China in winter.With the rapid development of winter vegetables in Hainan, the quality safety of vegetable products influences not only people's health but also the stabilization of society and economy of the whole nation.The factors which affect the quality safety of winter vegetables in Hainan include serious pests and diseases due to the high temperature and humidity weather; misapplication of pesticides to control insects and diseases by some farmers; difficulties to implement whole process quality safety control and traceability due to the poor organization during the vegetable production and circulation phases; lack of practical safe cultivation technology; unformed market mechanism of high price for high quality of agro-products; insufficient system of inspection and supervision of vegetable quality safety in Hainan.In order to improve the quality safety level of winter vegetable products in Hainan, the following strategies and suggestions are put forward: further intensifying propaganda to promote the consciousness of producers, sellers and customers about vegetable quality safety; exerting the leading roles of farmer cooperatives and leading enterprises;strengthening certification management and brand building; establishing inspection and supervision system;strengthening the inspection and management of agricultural material markets; strengthening scientific research and extension of vegetables.%分析影响海南冬种瓜菜质量安全的原因:高温高湿的气候引起病虫发生严重和使用农药不科学是引发冬种瓜菜质量安全问题的主要原因.生产和流通环节的组织化程度较低,全程质量安全控制难以实施;科研基础比较薄弱:质量安全监管体系不完善等因素也是造成冬种瓜菜质量安全隐患较多的重要原因.提出提高海南冬种瓜菜质量安全水平的对策和建议:进一步加大宣传力度,提高全社会的

  9. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiol, L.; Assolari, S.; Sacco, P.; Zerbi, G

    2004-11-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels.

  10. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels

  11. REPLACEMENT OF FISH MEAL BY CANOLA MEAL IN DIETS FOR MAJOR CARPS IN FERTILIZED PONDS

    OpenAIRE

    S. ABBAS, I. AHMED, M. HAFEEZ-UR-REHMAN AND A. MATEEN

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted in three earthen ponds to evaluate the replacement of fish meal by low cost plant protein (canola meal) for major carps in semi-intensive culture system. Each pond was fertilized with cattle manure at the rate of 0.16g N/100g wet fish body weight daily. A control diet (30% CP), formulated by using fish meal, cotton seed meal, maize gluten and rice polish, was designated as T1, while in T2 and T3, the fish meal was replaced with canola meal by 20 and 40%, respectively....

  12. Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Canola Oil Using Amberlyst-26 as a Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    İLGEN, Oğuzhan; AKIN, Ayşe Nilgün; Boz, Nezahat

    2009-01-01

    The transesterification of canola oil to fatty acid methyl esters was studied using Amberlyst-26 as a solid catalyst. The influence of reaction conditions, such as the reaction time, methanol to oil molar ratio, amount of catalyst, effect of co-solvent, and alcohol and oil types, were determined. When the reaction was carried out at 45 °C with a canola oil to methanol molar ratio of 6:1, a reaction time of 1.5 h, and 3 wt.% of catalyst, oil conversion was about 67%. Methanol was muc...

  13. Yield and quality assessment of spelt (Triticum spelta L.) compared with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Olsen, Carl Christian

    The adaptation of 7 T. spelta cultivars to the Danish climate was investigated and compared with a well-adapted winter wheat cultivar in field trials in 1994/95 and 1995/96 at Roskilde and Ronhave. The yield of all T. spelta cultivars was lower than that of the wheat cultivar, while 1000-seed wei...

  14. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    possibilities exist for reducing seasonal variation in employment? In addition to a literature review related to winter construction, European and national employment and meteorological data were studied. Finally, ministerial acts, ministerial orders or other public policy documents related to winter...

  15. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  16. INVESTIGATION OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF STRAINED (TORBA) YOGHURTS PRODUCED DURING THE SUMMER AND WINTER SEASONS IN DENİZLİ

    OpenAIRE

    Ramazan GÖKÇE; Ahmet Hilmi ÇON; Oğuz GÜRSOY

    2001-01-01

    In this study some chemical and microbiological analysis of 57 strained (Torba) yoghurt which were taken from 10 different markets during summer and winter seasons in Denizli city centre have been carried out. According to the results, there were no significant statistical differences in chemical and microbiological properties of torba yoghurts. According to Regulations of Food Products of Turkish Republic, analysed samples were not appropriate while considering; dry material, 98.25 %; mould-...

  17. Determination of Biological, Straw Yields and Quality Characteristics of Winter Vetch Cultivars (Vicia pannonica Crantz and Vicia villosa Roth) Grown Under Different Location

    OpenAIRE

    BÜYÜKBURÇ, Uğur; KARADAĞ, Yaşar

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out during 1996/97-1997/98 winter growing seasons under conditions of Tokat-Kazova and Yozgat- Sarikaya. The research was designed according to randomized complete block design with three replications. In this research, vetch species were obtained from the Department of the Field Crops of Agricultural Faculty of Gaziosmanpaşa University. The results showed differences among cultivars for biological yields, straw yields, crude protein contents in the dried herbage, crud...

  18. Selective isolation and characterization of agriculturally beneficial endopytic bacteria from wild hemp using canola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endophytic bacteria can provide a useful alternative to synthetic fertilizers to improve plant growth. Wild plants are little investigated as a source of growth promoting endophytic bacteria for commercial application to crops. In present study, endophytic bacteria were isolated from Cannabis sativa L. (hemp) using two different methods to examine their ability to promote canola growth. Besides direct isolation from the roots, endophytic bacteria were also selectively isolated from the rhizosphere of C. sativa using canola. Under gnotobiotic conditions, six bacteria from the selective isolation significantly improved canola root growth, as compared to the two bacteria isolated from direct method. Overall, three isolates performed distinctly well, namely, Pantoea vagans MOSEL-t13, Pseudomonas geniculata MOSEL-tnc1, and Serratia marcescens MOSEL-w2. These bacteria tolerated high salt concentrations and promoted canola growth under salt stress. Further, the isolated bacteria possessed plant growth promoting traits like IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and siderophore production. Most isolates produced plant cell-wall degrading enzymes, cellulase and pectinase. Some isolates were also effective in hindering the growth of two phytopathogenic fungi in dual culture assay, and displayed chitinase and protease activity. Paenibacillus sp. MOSEL-w13 displayed the greatest antifungal activity among all the isolates. Present findings conclude that wild plants can be a good source for isolating beneficial microbes, and validates the employed selective isolation for improved isolation of plant-beneficial endophytic bacteria. (author)

  19. Influence of Blending Canola, Palm, Soybean, and Sunflower Oil Methyl Esters on Fuel Properties of Bioiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single, binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures of canola (low erucic acid rapeseed), palm, soybean, and sunflower (high oleic acid) oil methyl esters (CME, PME, SME, and SFME, respectively) were prepared and important fuel properties measured, such as oil stability index (OSI), cold filter pluggin...

  20. Nonrandom Distribution of Cabbage Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Dryland Canola (Brassicales: Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severtson, Dustin; Flower, Ken; Nansen, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Characterization of spatial distribution patterns of pests in large-scale agricultural fields is important because these patterns affect the sampling effort needed to accurately detect and estimate their population density. In this study, we conducted experimental releases of alate cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) into centers of small plots of canola (Brassica napus L.), and their gradual spread over a 7-wk period was characterized. The small-plot experiment demonstrated gradient effects from plot centers and a nonrandom vertical distribution, with initial colonization occurring on the abaxial side of lower canopy leaves and, later, highest numbers of cabbage aphids occurring on racemes. We also conducted large-scale distribution analyses of cabbage aphid infestations in two commercial canola fields, using visual inspection and sweep net sampling. We used canola plant phenological and landscape features as explanatory variables of the spatial distribution of cabbage aphid counts. These large-scale experiments showed strong edge effects with negative associations between cabbage aphid counts and distance to crop edges, including tree lines and contour banks. Cabbage aphid distribution was more effectively displayed using logistic regression than ordinary regression, Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs, or both. Based on the study findings, a nonrandom or optimized inspection approach is proposed to focus monitoring efforts on canola plants within 20 m from field edges with particular attention to the abaxial side of lower-canopy leaves. Detection of advanced cabbage aphid infestations should target the racemes within 20 m from field edges. PMID:26313983

  1. 7 CFR 457.161 - Canola and rapeseed crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... permitted to obtain samples of the production to determine the moisture content. (2) Canola production will.... (ii) The price of damaged production will not be reduced for: (A) Moisture content; (B) Damage due to... Basic Provisions, land on which seed is initially spread onto the soil surface by any method...

  2. Comparative growth of Spring-planted canola, brown mustard and camelina

    Science.gov (United States)

    With increased emphasis for diesel substitution, production of brown mustard (Brassica juncea), canola (B. napus) and camelina (Camelina sativa) used as biodiesel may increase in the High Plains. The objective was to elucidate the growth pattern of these crops when spring-planted in western Nebraska...

  3. 稻田冬种马铃薯高产优质栽培技术%High-yield and high-quality cultivation technique of winter potato in paddy field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢学喜

    2012-01-01

    介绍了稻田冬种马铃薯栽培技术,包括选用良种、田块选择、深耕整畦、适时播种、合理密植、田间管理和适时收获等方面的技术措施。%This paper introduced the cultivation techniques of winter potato in paddy field,including high-quality seeds selecting,field choosing,deep ploughing,rational planting density,strengthening field management,and timely harvest.

  4. Regulated expression of a cytokinin biosynthesis gene IPT delays leaf senescence and improves yield under rainfed and irrigated conditions in canola (Brassica napus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Kant

    Full Text Available Delay of leaf senescence through genetic modification can potentially improve crop yield, through maintenance of photosynthetically active leaves for a longer period. Plant growth hormones such as cytokinin regulate and delay leaf senescence. Here, the structural gene (IPT encoding the cytokinin biosynthetic enzyme isopentenyltransferase was fused to a functionally active fragment of the AtMYB32 promoter and was transformed into canola plants. Expression of the AtMYB32xs::IPT gene cassette delayed the leaf senescence in transgenic plants grown under controlled environment conditions and field experiments conducted for a single season at two geographic locations. The transgenic canola plants retained higher chlorophyll levels for an extended period and produced significantly higher seed yield with similar growth and phenology compared to wild type and null control plants under rainfed and irrigated treatments. The yield increase in transgenic plants was in the range of 16% to 23% and 7% to 16% under rainfed and irrigated conditions, respectively, compared to control plants. Most of the seed quality parameters in transgenic plants were similar, and with elevated oleic acid content in all transgenic lines and higher oil content and lower glucosinolate content in one specific transgenic line as compared to control plants. The results suggest that by delaying leaf senescence using the AtMYB32xs::IPT technology, productivity in crop plants can be improved under water stress and well-watered conditions.

  5. Influence of vitamins A, D3 and E status on post-mortem meat quality in steers under winter housing or pasture finishing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, T; Pickova, J; Ertbjerg, P;

    2011-01-01

    ) groups while on pasture prior to the finishing period. This trial began at the beginning of the winter housing period during which the steers were fed a 55 : 45 dry matter barley : grass silage diet indoors. The indoor finished group was comprised of vitamin supplemented (n56) and non-supplemented (n58......-supplemented (n57) steers grazed semi-natural grassland for an additional 120 days before slaughter. During pasture, vitamin supplemented steers had free-choice access to a mineral supplement containing vitamins A, D3 and E. The mineral supplement for the non-supplemented steers did not contain vitamins A, D3 and...

  6. Formulasi Krim Dengan Minyak Canola (Brassica napus L.) Sebagai Pelembab Menggunakan Dasar Krim m/a dan a/m

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmah, Nurul

    2016-01-01

    Background:Canola oil(Brasicca napusL.) has a high vitamin E content.VitaminEis an antioxidantthat ishighlyeffectiveandcapable of protecting the skin from damage caused by free radicals. Thiscankeep the skin remains suppleandsmooth, increase humidity andslowthe appearance of wrinkles. Canola oilalsocontainsfatty acidssuch asoleicacid(59.1%); palmitic(3.9%); stearic(1.8%); linoleicacid(22.2%) andalpha-linolenic acid(10%). Purpose:The purposeof thisresearchwastomakepreparationscreamtypeo/w a...

  7. Genome-wide association analyses reveal complex genetic architecture underlying natural variation for flowering time in canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, H; Raman, R; Coombes, N; Song, J; Prangnell, R; Bandaranayake, C; Tahira, R; Sundaramoorthi, V; Killian, A; Meng, J; Dennis, E S; Balasubramanian, S

    2016-06-01

    Optimum flowering time is the key to maximize canola production in order to meet global demand of vegetable oil, biodiesel and canola-meal. We reveal extensive variation in flowering time across diverse genotypes of canola under field, glasshouse and controlled environmental conditions. We conduct a genome-wide association study and identify 69 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with flowering time, which are repeatedly detected across experiments. Several associated SNPs occur in clusters across the canola genome; seven of them were detected within 20 Kb regions of a priori candidate genes; FLOWERING LOCUS T, FRUITFUL, FLOWERING LOCUS C, CONSTANS, FRIGIDA, PHYTOCHROME B and an additional five SNPs were localized within 14 Kb of a previously identified quantitative trait loci for flowering time. Expression analyses showed that among FLC paralogs, BnFLC.A2 accounts for ~23% of natural variation in diverse accessions. Genome-wide association analysis for FLC expression levels mapped not only BnFLC.C2 but also other loci that contribute to variation in FLC expression. In addition to revealing the complex genetic architecture of flowering time variation, we demonstrate that the identified SNPs can be modelled to predict flowering time in diverse canola germplasm accurately and hence are suitable for genomic selection of adaptative traits in canola improvement programmes. PMID:26428711

  8. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of canola leaf inoculated with a plant growth-promoting bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens, under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaei-Asl, Farzad; Farajzadeh, Davoud; Bandehagh, Ali; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-09-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria can improve the tolerance of canola to salt stress. To better understand the effects of plant growth-promoting bacterium on the protein profiles of canola under salt stress condition, proteomics was performed. Salt-sensitive (Sarigol) and -tolerant (Hyola308) canola cultivars were inoculated with Pseudomonas fluorescens FY32, and the protein profiles of canola leaves were compared using a PEG-fractionation method. Cluster analysis of canola cultivars based on a stress tolerance index of several morphological parameters was used to confirm that Sarigol and Hyola308 were salt-sensitive and -tolerant cultivars, respectively. Using a gel-free proteomic technique, 154 and 94 proteins in Hyola308 and 100 and 144 proteins in Sarigol were uniquely identified in non-inoculated and bacterial-inoculated cultivars, respectively. By PEG fractionation, a total of 132 and 207 proteins were identified in non-inoculated and inoculated Hyola308, respectively. Notably, the abundance of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 1 was significantly increased in inoculated Hyola308 under severe salt stress and decreased under moderate salt stress. In addition, the enzyme activity of delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase was significantly increased non-inoculated Hyola308 and the activity of succinate dehydrogenase was increased in inoculated Hyola308 leaves exposed to salt stress. Taken together, these results suggest that the bacterial inoculation of canola increases salt tolerance by inducing an increase in the abundance of proteins related to glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and amino acid metabolism. PMID:27137672

  9. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M., E-mail: mtaghinejad@iaut.ac.i [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, P.O. Box 51589, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, S.R. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 37515-374, Shahr-e-Qods (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azizi, S. [Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, P.O. Box 57155-1177, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shawrang, P. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased (P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased (P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved (P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  10. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.; Ebrahimi, S. R.; Azizi, S.; Shawrang, P.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased ( P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased ( P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved ( P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF STRAINED (TORBA YOGHURTS PRODUCED DURING THE SUMMER AND WINTER SEASONS IN DENİZLİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan GÖKÇE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study some chemical and microbiological analysis of 57 strained (Torba yoghurt which were taken from 10 different markets during summer and winter seasons in Denizli city centre have been carried out. According to the results, there were no significant statistical differences in chemical and microbiological properties of torba yoghurts. According to Regulations of Food Products of Turkish Republic, analysed samples were not appropriate while considering; dry material, 98.25 %; mould-yeast, 85 %; sodium benzoate, 28.07 % and acidity, 12.28 % point of views. For these reasons, it should be considered some new arrangements in the Regulations of Food Products of Turkish Republic for torba yoghurt.

  12. The use of PCR assay for quality testing of grain of winter wheat cultivated in organic, integrated, conventional system and monoculture in phytopathological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Łukanowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of experiments was to evaluate the occurrence of fungi on grain of winter wheat cv. Roma cultivated in four systems on the experimental fields owned by the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation. Among pathogenic species, fungi from genus Fusarium dominated. Their number was the lowest on grain harvested in organic system and the highest in integrated one. Saprotrophic species were represented mainly by Alternaria alternata, which occurred the most often in organic system. Determination of F. avenaceum, F. culmorum and F. poae with microscope was confirmed with a PCR assay. All isolates of F. culmorum and F. poae gave an amplification product of Tri 5 gene coding the possibility of trichocene production, while none of isolates of F. avenaceum.

  13. Winterizing the Water Garden

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Lynette; Fox, Laurie; Andruczyk, Mike; French, Sue; Gilland, Traci

    2009-01-01

    Preparation for the winter months is especially important for the survival of both the aquatic plants and the wildlife in and around the pond. Prepare the pond for the winter months by managing the plants, cleaning the pond, and monitoring the water conditions.

  14. Effect of atmospheric stability on the impact of domestic wood combustion to air quality of a small urban township in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, S. K.; Salmond, J. A.; Trompetter, W. J.; Davy, P. K.; Ancelet, T.

    2013-05-01

    In the winter of 2011, a field campaign was undertaken in the small township of Nelson, New Zealand to measure the vertical and horizontal distribution of concentrations of airborne particulate matter. The aim of this campaign was to improve our understanding of the causal factors which result in periods of very high concentrations of particulate pollution in small townships during winter where emissions are dominated by the combustion of wood for domestic heating. The results showed that mean hourly surface concentrations of particulates throughout the airshed were characterized by a distinctive diurnal cycle, with two peaks in concentration (one in the late evening and then, unusually, a second mid-morning). Although the timing and magnitude of hourly peak concentrations was variable throughout the valley, there was no evidence to suggest that regional or topographic flows played a significant role in the build-up of pollutants at any given location. Analysis of vertical profiles of black carbon showed that high concentrations of particulates were confined to the lowest 50 m of the boundary layer. Concentrations decreased with increasing height within this polluted surface layer. The atmosphere was very stable during the evening period. After midnight, a period of increased mixing was consistently identified throughout the lowest 100 m of the boundary layer and associated with the sudden cleansing of the surface and lower layers of the boundary layer. Throughout the observational period there was no evidence for the storage of pollutants aloft. Thus the vertical mixing of pollutants to the surface could not account for increased pollutant concentrations during the morning period. However, at this time the boundary layer remained stable and concentrations of black carbon were mixed through a very shallow layer. This suggests that despite lower domestic heating emissions in the morning, the reduced mixing volume is a likely cause of the observed marked peak in

  15. Winters fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter's pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter's, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year's STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories

  16. Nonrandom distribution of cabbage aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in dryland canola (Brassicales: Brassicaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Severtson, D; Flower, K.; Nansen, C

    2015-01-01

    © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. Characterization of spatial distribution patterns of pests in large-scale agricultural fields is important because these patterns affect the sampling effort needed to accurately detect and estimate their population density. In this study, we conducted experimental releases of alate cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) into centers of small plots of canola (Brassica...

  17. Effects of fatty acids on carbohydrates and lipids of canola seeds during germination

    OpenAIRE

    M.L.L. Ferrarese; C. R. S. Baleroni; O. Ferrarese-Filho

    1998-01-01

    The present work was carried out to investigate the effects of caprylic acid (C8) and oleic acid (C18) on carbohydrates and lipids during canola seed germination. The results showed that oleic acid influence carbohydrate concentration but did not influence lipid concentration. Significant results were found with caprylic acid that affected carbohydrates and lipids in cotyledons after three-day germination.O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar os efeitos dos ácidos cap...

  18. Influence of canola and sunflower diet amendments on cattle feedlot manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiying; Mir, Priya S; Shah, Mohammad A; Travis, Greg R

    2005-01-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) producers can replace a part of the traditional diet of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain/silage with sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) seeds or canola meal (Brassica napus L.)/oil to enhance conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) content in milk and meat for its positive health benefits. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of feeding sunflower or canola to finishing steers on cattle manure chemical properties and volatile fatty acid (VFA) content. The control diet contained 84% rolled barley and 15% barley silage, which provided only 2.6% lipid. The other six treatments had 6.6 to 8.6% lipid delivered from sources such as hay, sunflower seed (SS), canola meal/oil, and SS forage pellets. Manure samples (a mixture of cattle urine, feces, and woodchip bedding materials) were collected and analyzed after cattle had been on these diets for 113 d. The dietary source and level of lipid had no effect on organic N and nitrate N content in manure, but significantly affected ammonia N and VFA. Inclusion of SS forage pellets, hay, or canola meal/oil in cattle diets had no significant impact on manure characteristics, but SS significantly reduced the pH and increased propionic, isobutyric, and isovaleric content. In addition, N loss after excretion (mainly from urine N) increases with the pH and N levels in both feed and manure. The combination of SS with barley silage resulted in a lower VFA and NH3 content in manure and should be a more attractive option. To better manage N nutrient cycles and reduce NH3 related odor problems, feed and manure pH should be one of the factors to consider when determining feed mix rations. PMID:15998867

  19. Development of emission parameters and net energy ratio for renewable diesel from Canola and Camelina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study estimated the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) and net energy ratio (NER) for producing hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) from canola and camelina in Western Canada. Using 1 MJ of energy in the HDRD produced as the functional unit, a variety of scenarios were evaluated to account for variations in allocation methods, co-products, oilseed yield, N2O emission factor, and land use change (LUC). In producing HDRD, the farming stage and the oil conversion stage (i.e. the HDRD production stage) are the most energy and emission intensive. For canola based HDRD, the GHGs and NERs lie in the ranges of 33–94 gCO2e/MJ and 1.2–2.2 MJ/MJ respectively. For camelina based HDRD, the GHGs and NERs range from 30 – 82 gCO2e/MJ and 1.0–2.3 MJ/MJ respectively. In the base scenario (mass allocation; oilseed meal and propane fuel gas co-products; average yield; 0.76% N2O emission factor; LUC ignored), HDRD from camelina (38 gCO2e/MJ, 2.0 MJ/MJ) is environmentally superior to HDRD from canola (48 gCO2e/MJ, 1.7 MJ/MJ) due to lower agricultural inputs and higher yield for camelina. Considering all of the scenarios examined, HDRD from both crops appears to be more sustainable than fossil diesel. - Highlights: • This study estimates the net energy ratio and greenhouse gas emissions in production and utilization of renewable diesel. • The life cycle approach has been used in this study using canola and camelina as feedtocks. • Several scenarios were developed to study the impacts of variations in unit operations on net energy ratio and emissions. • HDRD from both crops appears to be more sustainable than fossil diesel

  20. The bee community and its relationship to canola productivity in homogenous agricultural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidia Witter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Canola crop productivity is benefited by bee pollination and it has been shown that bee communities can be affected by landscape composition. The aim of this study was to analyse the bee community and its relationship to canola seed production in agricultural areas. The density, abundance and richness of floral visitors of Brassica napus cultivar Hyola 61 in six commercial fields in southern Brazil were studied, and their relationships with seed production and the ratio of semi-natural, forested and agricultural areas surrounding the crops were examined. It was observed that canola fields of southern Brazil are surrounded by a homogeneous landscape dominated by agricultural areas. The survey of bees detected a low abundance and richness of native bees in contrast to the high abundance of Apis mellifera. Except for a negative correlation between the abundance of honey bees and the proportion of forested areas within a 2000 m radius from the field (R = -0.90; P = 0.012, no other correlations were found among bee abundance and richness and landscape composition. Although there was not a relationship between A. mellifera and seed set, there was a positive correlation between insect density and seed weight per plant (R = 0.87; P = 0.024. As honey bees were the most captured insect (79%, much of the pollination in this system was probably achieved by honey bees.

  1. Sensitivity of Canola Seeds Associated Fungi to Gamma Rays During Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of using the gamma radiation to elongate the storage periods of canola seeds (Brassica naps L.). In this respect, canola seeds were irradiated at doses of 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy gamma rays and stored at room temperature for periods 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. The isolated fungi from non-irradiated post-harvest canola seeds included different species identified as Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. condidus, A. fumigatus, A. ochraceus, A. parasiticus, Fusarium oxysporium, F. moniliforme, Penicillium expansum, P. crysogenum, Alternaria brassicae, A. raphani and Trichoderma spp. It was noticed that the predominant species were A. ochraceus, A. flavus, A. niger and F. oxysporium at percentages 16.18, 14.73, 11.00 and 10.53%, respectively. The effective gamma irradiation on the predominant fungi (the sub-lethal dose) was 3.5 kGy for A. ochraceus and 5.0 kGy for F. oxysporium and F. moniliforme. Increasing the irradiated dose up to 7.5 kGy decreased significantly the growth of most isolated fungi. The data also showed that there was a decrease in the total fungal count in stored seeds under the effect of gamma rays for 12 months storage. Also, mycotoxins at the stored seeds were not detected after 12 months storage

  2. Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey is a nationwide effort to survey waterfowl in areas of major concentration on their wintering grounds and provide winter...

  3. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were...

  4. Winter Weather Checklists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Weather Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Winter Weather Checklists Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  5. Winter Weather: Indoor Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Outdoor Safety Winter PSAs and Podcasts Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ...

  6. CSW Newsletter Winter, 1991

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    The Winter 1991 CSW newsletter includes articles on Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Middle East, Prenatal Diagnostic Testing, Feminism and Psychoanalytic theory, Immigrant Women, Lesbian Literature, and Latina lives.

  7. CSW Newsletter Winter 1992

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    The Winter 1992 CSW Newsletter features articles on the "Learning from Latin America" conference, women and post-communist transition, Gender and International Trade, women and democratic citizenship, and feminism and Chinese literature.

  8. Quality of cold-pressed organic oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skwarek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the quality of the traditional cold-pressed oils made from organic materials in a small farm. Scope of the study included evaluation of canola, flax, camelina and poppy oil immediately after manufacture and during storage under various conditions (light, temperature. Fatty acid composition, oxidability rate, an acid value, peroxide value, anisidine value and colour values in CIE L*a*b* were marked. It has been shown that immediately after the production all oils were characterised by a high quality and fatty acid composition suitable for each type of oil. Among the examined oils, the highest content of saturated fatty acids characterised flax oil, the lowest canola oil. Oils: camelina, poppy and flax compared with canola oil, contained approximately twice the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fastest rate of oxidative changes, both in the room temperature conditions and cooling, showed poppy oil. Among the oils stored in room temperature, canola oil was the most oxidatively stable.

  9. Phytotoxic effects of safflower yellow exposure on seed germination and early seedling growth of canola (brassica napus l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of current investigation was to determine phytotoxic effects of safflower dye (safflower yellow) on seed germination and early seedling growth of canola (Brassica napus L.) cv. Rainbow. Safflower yellow was extracted in autoclaved distilled water and was applied at various concentrations (0.312%, 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.5% and 5%) to canola seeds in petri dishes under axenic conditions. Phenolics content was detected in dye solutions and was maximum (53 mg gallic acid/g extract) in 5% dye solution. The growth rate of canola was decreased with the increase of safflower dye concentration (p<0.05). Maximum inhibition in the activity of enzyme lipase in germinating seeds, germination (%), root and shoot length, root and shoot weight was exhibited by 5% dye solution. In response to the application of safflower dye, canola seedlings accumulated endogenous phenolics. Relative water content and photosynthetic pigments of seedling were reduced to a maximum level by 5% and 2.5% dye solutions. It was inferred that safflower dye exhibited phytotoxic effects at higher concentration on canola. The findings of the current investigation will help in safe disposal of safflower dye found in industrial effluents. (author)

  10. Winter forage quality of oats (avena sativa), barley (hordeum vulgare) and vetch (vicia sativa) in pure stand and cereal legume mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study was carried out for two consecutive years in subtropical rainfed conditions of Rawalpindi, Pakistan to evaluate the forage quality of oats, barley and vetch grown in pure stands and cereal-legume mixtures. Treatments comprised oats pure stand, oats in oats-vetch mixture, barley pure stand, barley in barley-vetch mixture, vetch pure stand, vetch in oats-vetch mixture and vetch in barley-vetch mixture. Forage yield and quality of oats and barley were improved in oats-vetch and barley-vetch mixtures than their respective pure stands. The higher values of crude protein (CP) and lower values of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) reflected quality forage. CP for oats in oats-vetch -1 -1 mixture and barley in barley-vetch mixture was 175 g kg and 170 g kg, -1 respectively. NDF and ADF for oats in oats-vetch mixture were 494 g kg /sup -1/ and 341 g kg, respectively; while these values for barley in barley-vetch -1 -1 mixture were 340 g kg and 176 g kg, respectively. (author)

  11. Qualidade físico-química e de fritura de tubérculos de cultivares de batata na safra de inverno Physicochemical and frying quality of potato cultivars in winter season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalton M Fernandes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o aumento do consumo de batata processada na forma de fritura, torna-se essencial a identificação dos parâmetros de qualidade dos tubérculos de batata. Objetivou-se avaliar a composição físico-química e qualidade de fritura de tubérculos de cultivares de batata, produzidos na safra de inverno. Os tubérculos foram provenientes de experimento de campo conduzido durante a safra de inverno de 2008, no município de Itaí-SP. o delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e cinco tratamentos, representados pelas cultivares Agata, Asterix, Atlantic, Markies e Mondial. Os tubérculos das cultivares Mondial e Agata apresentaram características adequadas para o mercado fresco, sendo indicadas para a preparação de massas e pratos assados em que é essencial a manutenção de sua forma. Markies apresentou dupla aptidão culinária, ou seja, possui qualidade adequada ao preparo de massas e fritura. Os tubérculos das cultivares Atlantic, Asterix e Markies apresentaram boa qualidade de fritura, no entanto, a cultivar Markies apresentou polpa dos tubérculos, palitos e chips de coloração amarela mais intensa.Given the raising consumption of potato chips, the identification of quality parameters of potato tubers has become essential. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and frying quality of potato tubers of different cultivars grown in the winter cropping season. Tubers were obtained from a field experiment in the winter season in Itaí, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experimental design was of completely randomized blocks with four replications. Treatments consisted of five potato cultivars (Agata, Asterix, Atlantic, Markies and Mondial. Tubers of Mondial and Agata cultivars showed suitable characteristics for fresh market, so they can be recommended for the preparation of pasta and baked dishes, for which the preservation of the tuber shape is essential

  12. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  13. Long-Term Consequences of Winter Road management Practices to Water Quality at High-Altitude lakes Within the Adirondack State Park (New York State)

    OpenAIRE

    Langen, Tom A.

    2007-01-01

    The long-term impacts to water quality from the use of sodium chloride (rock salt) anti-icer and sand abrasive was evaluated at two high elevation lakes along a highway in the Adirondack Park, New York State. Upper Cascade and Lower Cascade Lakes are two hydrologically connected water bodies in the Adirondack Park of New York State. The lakes are bordered by NYS Route 73, the primary transportation route for visitors to the tourist center of Lake Placid. The Cascade Lakes lie within a long, n...

  14. Lignée de Canola MON88302 TruFlexMC Roundup ReadyMD

    OpenAIRE

    Canada, Publié par la Direction des aliments de Santé

    2014-01-01

    Santé Canada a avisé Monsanto Canada Inc. qu’il ne s’oppose pas à la vente d’aliments dérivés du canola MON88302 (canola TruFlexMC Roundup ReadyMD). Le Ministère a réalisé une évaluation approfondie de cette lignée de canola conformément à ses Lignes directrices sur l’évaluation de l’innocuité des aliments nouveaux. Ces lignes directrices sont fondées sur des principes admis internationalement pour l’établissement de l’innocuité des aliments à caractères nouveaux. L...

  15. The nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear winter is an example of possible secondary effects, and if we speak of secondary we are thinking of small-scale second-order effects, but a nuclear winter is not a second-order effect. If you calculate the amount of heat produced by a nuclear explosion, it is a very small amount which does not have any chance of changing the Earth's climate, but a nuclear explosion drives or stars some new mechanism - the mechanism of nuclear winter - after 100 megatons of dust are transferred to the upper atmosphere. Another example of such amplification is radioactive fall-out, especially long-life radioactive fall-out after the possible elimination of the nuclear power industry, nuclear storage and distribution of storage waste around the globe. This is a very powerful amplification mechanism

  16. 中国冬小麦品质改良研究进展%Advances in Study of Quality Property Improvement of Winter Wheat in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏益民; 张波; 关二旗; 张国权; 张影全; 宋哲民

    2013-01-01

    小麦是中国第三大粮食作物,在农业生产和食品工业中占有重要地位。随着中国经济和社会的发展,消费者的生活需求正在发生变化,工业化和城市化使食品工业,特别是传统食品工业化加速发展。与此同时,食品工业对食品原料的专用化和规模化,即品种的质量、规格和数量,提出了更高的要求。如何研究和解决这一矛盾,已成为小麦产业和食品工业可持续发展的新问题。本文以国内发表的论著为基础,整理、分析了小麦品质改良历史、研究进展、存在问题;讨论了小麦产业链和食品加工业的可持续发展对优质小麦的需求;结合农业生产和食品工业的发展趋势提出建议,供小麦育种、生产、收贮、食品加工等部门和研究人员参考。%Wheat, being a third grain crop in China, plays a significant role in agricultural and food industries. In China today, economic and social development have greatly affected the living standard of consumers due to industrialization and urbanization of the food industry,especially the traditional food industry, which has developed rapidly. In addition, the food industry requires specialization and large scale (variety and quality) production of food products with a high standard level. Studying and proffering solution to this problem pose a challenge for the sustainable development of wheat production and food industry. This paper has reviewed the existing literatures of home in order to analyze the history, research advantages and recent problems of wheat quality breeding. The requirements of wheat quality for sustainable development of wheat production chain and food industry are discussed. The recommendations proposed in this paper will be useful for departments of wheat breeding,production, storage and food industry as well as agricultural scientists.

  17. Methane emissions from beef cattle: effects of fumaric acid, essential oil, and canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify feed additives that reduce enteric methane emissions from cattle. We measured methane emissions, total tract digestibility (using chromic oxide), and ruminal fermentation (4 h after feeding) in growing beef cattle fed a diet supplemented with various additives. The experiment was designed as a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 21-d periods and was conducted using 16 Angus heifers (initial BW of 260 +/- 32 kg). Treatments were: control (no additive), fumaric acid (175 g/d) with sodium bicarbonate (75 g/d), essential oil and spice extract (1 g/d), or canola oil (4.6% of DMI). The basal diet consisted of 75% whole-crop barley silage, 19% steam-rolled barley, and 6% supplement (DM basis). Four large chambers (2 animals fed the same diet per chamber) were equipped to measure methane emissions for 3 d each period. Adding canola oil to the diet decreased (P = 0.009) total daily methane emissions by 32% and tended (P = 0.09) to decrease methane emissions as a percentage of gross energy intake by 21%. However, much of the reduction in methane emissions was due to decreased (P methane emissions. In contrast, adding fumaric acid to the diet increased total VFA concentration (P = 0.03), increased propionate proportions (P = 0.01), and decreased the acetate:propionate ratio (P = 0.002), but there was no measurable effect on methane emissions. The study demonstrates that canola oil can be used to reduce methane losses from cattle, but animal performance may be compromised due to lower feed intake and decreased fiber digestibility. Essential oils had no effect on methane emissions, whereas fumaric acid caused potentially beneficial changes in ruminal fermentation but no measurable reductions in methane emissions. PMID:16699105

  18. Effect of Nutrition stabilized Biogas Slurry Fertilization on Yield and Quality of Winter Wheat%高效稳定沼液营养液对冬小麦产量及土壤养分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈楠; 高同国; 姜峰; 李宝珍; 杨金水; 庞昌乐; 袁红莉

    2011-01-01

    在大田栽培条件下,研究了冬小麦返青期施用稳定沼液营养液对冬小麦产量、品质以及土壤营养成分的影响.结果表明,与传统施用尿素相比,稳定沼液营养液可以明显促进冬小麦株高的增长和干物质的积累,并显著提高产量,增产可达23.3%;与施用原沼液相比,施加稳定沼液营养液对冬小麦增产可达10.3%.施用稳定沼液营养液与施用尿素及原沼液相比,冬小麦籽粒中粗纤维含量分别下降20.9%和1.4%,淀粉含量分别上升4.8%和4.0%.同时对土壤养分的测定结果表明,施加稳定沼液营养液可以显著增加土壤速效磷,速效钾和有机质的含量,增加幅度分别为49.1%,24.5%和18.7%.因此,稳定沼液营养液的使用可以更为有效的促进冬小麦产量的增加,同时改变土壤养分状况.%Under the field experiment conditions, the effect of the nutrition stabilized biogas slurry iertibzation on winter wheat quality, yield and soil nutrient were studied, and the results were analyzed and discussed. The results indicated that the effect of the nutritim stabilized biogas slurry fertilization was significant. Compared with treatment of urea and common biogas slurry, the yields by nutrition stabilized biogas slurry were increased 23.3% and 10.3% respectively. The treatment of stable nutrition biogas slurry also improved grain quality of winter wheat, compared with treatment of urea and common biogas slurry, starch contents were increased by 4. 8% and 4. 0% respectively, and crude fiber contents were decreased 20.9% and 1.4%. And the soil available nutrient contents were increased significantly. Therefore, the use of stable nutrition biogas slurry could enhance the yield and quality of winter wheat, and improve nutrient status.

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical composition and ruminal protein degradation of canola meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawrang, P. [Agriculture, Medical and Industrial Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tehran University P.O. Box 4111, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: parvinshawrang@yahoo.co.uk; Nikkhah, A.; Zare-Shahneh, A. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tehran University P.O. Box 4111, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, A.A. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14515-4933, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raisali, G. [Radiation Applications Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 11365-3486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi-Shahrebabak, M. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tehran University P.O. Box 4111, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    Gamma irradiation of canola meal (at doses of 25, 50 and 75 kGy) could alter its ruminal protein degradation characteristics by cross-linking of the polypeptide chains. This processing resulted in decrease (linear effect, P<0.001) of ruminal protein degradation and increase (linear effect, P<0.001) of intestinal protein digestibility. The results showed that gamma irradiation at doses higher than 25 kGy can be used as a cross-linking agent to improve protein properties of supplements in ruminant nutrition.

  20. Impact of endogenous canola phenolics on the oxidative stability of oil‐in‐water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Friel, James; Winkler‐Moser, Jill K.;

    2013-01-01

    ‐fractionated extract were used. These extracts (100 and 350 µM) were evaluated as antioxidants in stripped canola oil‐in‐water (o/w) emulsion. For comparison, the antioxidative effect of phenolic standards for sinapic acid and sinapine (as sinapine thiocyanate) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BTH) as a positive control...... were also evaluated. The concentration of lipid hydroperoxides and selected volatiles measured at different time points was used to evaluate the antioxidative effect. Moreover, the properties of extracts and corresponding phenolic standards were evaluated in three different in vitro antioxidant assays...

  1. Value of Insect Pest Management to U.S. and Canadian Corn, Soybean and Canola Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Terrance M.; Paul D Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to assess 1) the value of alternative insect management practices to farmers and 2) how these values relate to nonpecuniary factors such as simplicity, convenience, yield risk, and human and environmental safety. To accomplish these objectives, we conduct¬ed telephone surveys in 2014 of corn and soybean farmers in the U.S. as well as corn, soybean and canola farmers in Canada. Corn farmers were queried about their use in 2013 of Bt corn, insecticide seed t...

  2. Influenza, Winter Olympiad, 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Gundlapalli, Adi V.; Rubin, Michael A.; Samore, Matthew H; Lopansri, Bert; Lahey, Timothy; McGuire, Heather L.; Winthrop, Kevin L; Dunn, James J.; Willick, Stuart E.; Vosters, Randal L.; Waeckerle, Joseph F.; Carroll, Karen C.; Gwaltney, Jack M.; Hayden, Frederick G.; Elstad, Mark R.

    2006-01-01

    Prospective surveillance for influenza was performed during the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics. Oseltamivir was administered to patients with influenzalike illness and confirmed influenza, while their close contacts were given oseltamivir prophylactically. Influenza A/B was diagnosed in 36 of 188 patients, including 13 athletes. Prompt management limited the spread of this outbreak.

  3. Canola engineered with a microalgal polyketide synthase-like system produces oil enriched in docosahexaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Terence A; Bevan, Scott A; Gachotte, Daniel J; Larsen, Cory M; Moskal, William A; Merlo, P A Owens; Sidorenko, Lyudmila V; Hampton, Ronnie E; Stoltz, Virginia; Pareddy, Dayakar; Anthony, Geny I; Bhaskar, Pudota B; Marri, Pradeep R; Clark, Lauren M; Chen, Wei; Adu-Peasah, Patrick S; Wensing, Steven T; Zirkle, Ross; Metz, James G

    2016-08-01

    Dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) are usually derived from marine fish. Although production of both EPA and DHA has been engineered into land plants, including Arabidopsis, Camelina sativa and Brassica juncea, neither has been produced in commercially relevant amounts in a widely grown crop. We report expression of a microalgal polyketide synthase-like PUFA synthase system, comprising three multidomain polypeptides and an accessory enzyme, in canola (Brassica napus) seeds. This transgenic enzyme system is expressed in the cytoplasm, and synthesizes DHA and EPA de novo from malonyl-CoA without substantially altering plastidial fatty acid production. Furthermore, there is no significant impact of DHA and EPA production on seed yield in either the greenhouse or the field. Canola oil processed from field-grown grain contains 3.7% DHA and 0.7% EPA, and can provide more than 600 mg of omega-3 LC-PUFAs in a 14 g serving. PMID:27398790

  4. Extrusion enhances metabolizable energy and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljuobori Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of extrusion process on apparent metabolizable energy (AME, crude protein (CP and amino acid (AA digestibility of canola meal (CM in broiler chickens. A total of 36, 42-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into adaptation diets (no CM or 30% CM with six replicates. After 4 days of adaptation period, on day 47, birds were allowed to consume the assay diets that contain CM or extruded canola meal (ECM as the sole source of energy and protein. Following 4 h after feeding, the birds were killed and ileal contents were collected. The results showed that ECM had greater (P<0.001 AME (10.87 vs 9.39 MJ/kg compared to CM. The extrusion also significantly enhanced apparent ileal digestibility of CP and some of AA such as Asp, Glu, Ser, Thr and Trp. In conclusion, the extrusion treatment appeared to be a practical and effective approach in enhancing the digestibility of AME, CP and some AA of CM in broiler chickens.

  5. Blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans Severity and Yield Loss in Canola in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheau-Fang Hwang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is an important disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. in Canada and throughout the world. Severe epidemics of blackleg can result in significant yield losses. Understanding disease-yield relationships is a prerequisite for measuring the agronomic efficacy and economic benefits of control methods. Field experiments were conducted in 2013, 2014, and 2015 to determine the relationship between blackleg disease severity and yield in a susceptible cultivar and in moderately resistant to resistant canola hybrids. Disease severity was lower, and seed yield was 120%–128% greater, in the moderately resistant to resistant hybrids compared with the susceptible cultivar. Regression analysis showed that pod number and seed yield declined linearly as blackleg severity increased. Seed yield per plant decreased by 1.8 g for each unit increase in disease severity, corresponding to a decline in yield of 17.2% for each unit increase in disease severity. Pyraclostrobin fungicide reduced disease severity in all site-years and increased yield. These results show that the reduction of blackleg in canola crops substantially improves yields.

  6. A simplified FTIR chemometric method for simultaneous determination of four oxidation parameters of frying canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpur, M Younis; Hassan, S Sara; Sherazi, S T H; Mahesar, S A; Kara, Huseyin; Kandhro, Aftab A; Sirajuddin

    2015-10-01

    Transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method using 100 μm KCl cell was applied for the determination of total polar compounds (TPC), carbonyl value (CV), conjugated diene (CD) and conjugated triene (CT) in canola oil (CLO) during potato chips frying at 180 °C. The calibration models were developed for TPC, CV, CD and CT using partial least square (PLS) chemometric technique. Excellent regression coefficients (R(2)) and root mean square error of prediction values for TPC, CV, CD and CT were found to be 0.999, 0.992, 0.998 and 0.999 and 0.809, 0.690, 1.26 and 0.735, respectively. The developed calibration models were applied on samples of canola oil drawn during potato chips frying process. A linear relationship was obtained between CD and TPC with a good correlation of coefficient (R(2)=0.9816). Results of the study clearly indicated that transmission FTIR-PLS method could be used for quick and precise evaluation of oxidative changes during the frying process without using any organic solvent. PMID:25985130

  7. Blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans) Severity and Yield Loss in Canola in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sheau-Fang; Strelkov, Stephen E; Peng, Gary; Ahmed, Hafiz; Zhou, Qixing; Turnbull, George

    2016-01-01

    Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is an important disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Canada and throughout the world. Severe epidemics of blackleg can result in significant yield losses. Understanding disease-yield relationships is a prerequisite for measuring the agronomic efficacy and economic benefits of control methods. Field experiments were conducted in 2013, 2014, and 2015 to determine the relationship between blackleg disease severity and yield in a susceptible cultivar and in moderately resistant to resistant canola hybrids. Disease severity was lower, and seed yield was 120%-128% greater, in the moderately resistant to resistant hybrids compared with the susceptible cultivar. Regression analysis showed that pod number and seed yield declined linearly as blackleg severity increased. Seed yield per plant decreased by 1.8 g for each unit increase in disease severity, corresponding to a decline in yield of 17.2% for each unit increase in disease severity. Pyraclostrobin fungicide reduced disease severity in all site-years and increased yield. These results show that the reduction of blackleg in canola crops substantially improves yields. PMID:27447676

  8. Desempenho e morfometria da mucosa de duodeno de frangos de corte alimentados com farelo de canola, durante o período inicial Performance and duodenum mucous morphometry of broiler chickens fed canola meal, during the starting period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Fontana Figueiredo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para verificar o efeito da utilização de níveis crescentes (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40% de farelo de canola nas rações de frangos de corte, sobre o desempenho e a morfologia da mucosa, durante o período inicial (1 - 21 dias e os efeitos de sua utilização no período de crescimento. Foram utilizados 1000 pintos machos de um dia de idade, distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos, quatro repetições e 50 aves por unidade experimental. No 1º, 21º e 41º dia, as aves e as rações foram pesadas e no 21º dia duas aves de cada unidade experimental foram sacrificadas para a colheita de um segmento do duodeno para avaliação de morfometria intestinal. Os resultados demonstraram que níveis crescentes de farelo de canola induziram à redução linear no ganho de peso, peso médio e consumo de ração e piora na conversão alimentar. Durante o período de crescimento (21 a 41 dias, no qual todas as aves receberam ração semelhante, observou-se decréscimo no peso médio e ganho de peso, com o aumento dos níveis de farelo de canola, enquanto os parâmetros conversão alimentar e consumo de ração foram semelhantes. Os dados referentes a morfometria da mucosa intestinal, submetidos à análise de regressão, demonstraram que houve aumento na profundidade de cripta conforme o aumento nos níveis de farelo de canola. Os resultados permitem afirmar que é possível a inclusão de até 20% de farelo de canola, sem prejuízos no desempenho das aves e no trato digestório.A trial was carried to verify the effect of increasing levels (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% of canola meal in diets of broiler chickens, on performance and mucous morphology, during the starting period (1 - 21 days. 1,000 male chicks one-day-old were used, distributed in a randomized experimental assay, with five treatments, four replicates and 50 birds per experimental unit. At the 1st, 21st and 41st days, the birds

  9. Quantifying seed production by volunteer canola (Brassica napus and Sinapis arvensis Quantificar a produção de sementes de canola voluntária (Brassica napus e Sinapis arvensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Soltani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Volunteer canola (Brassica napus and Sinapis arvensis are well identified weeds of different cropping systems. Quantitative information on regarding seed production by them is limited. Such information is necessary to model dynamics of soil seed banks. The aim of this work was to quantify seed production as a function of the size of those weeds. A wide range of plant size was produced by using a fan seeding system performed at two sowing dates (environments. Plant size varied from 3 to 167 g per plant for canola and from 6 to 104 g per plant for S. arvensis. Seed production ranged from 543 to14,773 seeds per plant for canola, and from 264 to 10,336 seeds per plant for S. arvensis. There was a close relationship between seed production per plant and plant size which was well-described by a power function (y = 130.6x0.94; R² = 0.93 for canola and y = 28x1.27; R² = 0.95 for S. arvensis. There was also strong relationships among the number of pods produced in individual plants and the quantity of seeds produced (g per plant with the size of the plant. The relationships found in this study can be used in dynamic seed bank models of volunteer canola and S. arvensis.Voluntários de canola (Brassica napuse Sinapis arvensis são conhecidas como plantas daninhas na produção agrícola. A informação quantitativa sobre a produção de sementes de ervas daninhas por estas é limitada. A informação é necessária para a dinâmica do modelo de bancos de sementes do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a produção de sementes em função do tamanho destas plantas daninhas. Uma grande variedade de tamanho das plantas foi produzido usando-se um sistema de semeadura em leque, realizado em duas épocas de semeadura (ambientes. O tamanho da planta variou entre 3 e 167 g por planta para a canola e entre 6 e 104 g por planta para S. arvensis. A produção de sementes variou entre 543 e 14.773 sementes por planta de canola e entre 264 e 10.336 de

  10. Deciduous Plant Twigs in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Eloise

    1977-01-01

    Describing, via illustration and narrative, the winter twigs found in the U.S., this article presents a sophisticated discussion of: beech, white ash, aspen, sycamore, red oak, butternut, and other winter twigs. (JC)

  11. Rumen fermentation and nutrient flow to the omasum in Holstein cows fed extruded canola seeds treated with or without lignosulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallacy Barbacena Rosa dos Santos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Four multiparous Holstein cows averaging 548 kg of body weight and 74 d in lactation were used in a Latin square design with four 21-d experimental periods to determine effects of feeding extruded versus non-extruded canola seed, with or without 50 g/kg lignosulfonate on rumen fermentation, nutrient flow to the omasum, and degradability of dry matter (DM and N of each diet. The DM effective degradability increased with extrusion and lignosulfonate treatment had no effect. The effective degradability of N was similar between diets. Lignosulfonate treatment of extruded versus non-extruded canola seeds decreased ruminal and total tract apparent digestibility of organic matter. The lowest apparent ruminal and highest intestinal digestibilities of protein, expressed as a percentage of N intake were observed for cows fed extruded canola seeds without lignosulfonate. Lignosulfonate treatment and extrusion had no effect on pH and concentrations of ammonia N and volatile fatty acids in the rumen. Results suggest that extruded canola seed untreated with formaldehyde may stimulate efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and is an effective means of increasing the availability of protein in the small intestine without affecting the total tract apparent digestibility of protein.

  12. Tribological Performance of Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon (a-C: H DLC Coating when Lubricated with Biodegradable Vegetal Canola Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Mobarak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing environmental awareness and demands for lowering energy consumptions are strong driving forces behind the development of the vehicles of tomorrow. Without the advances of lubricant chemistry and adequate lubricant formulation, expansion of modern engines would not have been possible. Considering environmental awareness factors as compared to mineral oils, vegetal oil based biolubricants are renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic and have a least amount of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, improvement in engine performance and transmission components, which were impossible to achieve by applying only lubricants design, is now possible through diamond like carbon (DLC coatings. DLC coatings exhibit brilliant tribological properties, such as good wear resistance and low friction. In this regard, tribological performance of a-C: H DLC coating when lubricated with Canola vegetal oil has been investigated by the help of a ball-on-flat geometry. Experimental results demonstrated that the a-C: H DLC coating exhibited better performance with Canola oil in terms of friction and wear as compared to the uncoated materials. Large amount of polar components in the Canola oil significantly improved the tribological properties of the a-C:H coating. Thus, usage of a-C: H DLC coating with Canola oil in the long run may have a positive impact on engine life.

  13. Evaluating the Role of Seed Treatments in Canola/Oilseed Rape Production: Integrated Pest Management, Pollinator Health, and Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Gregory; Rempel, Curtis B

    2016-01-01

    The use patterns and role of insecticide seed treatments, with focus on neonicotinoid insecticides, were examined for canola/oilseed rape production in Canada and the EU. Since nearly all planted canola acres in Western Canada and, historically, a majority of planted oilseed acres in the EU, use seed treatments, it is worth examining whether broad use of insecticidal seed treatments (IST) is compatible with principles of integrated pest management (IPM). The neonicotinoid insecticide (NNI) seed treatment (NNI ST) use pattern has risen due to effective control of several early season insect pests, the most destructive being flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.). Negative environmental impact and poor efficacy of foliar applied insecticides on flea beetles led growers to look for better alternatives. Due to their biology, predictive models have been difficult to develop for flea beetles, and, therefore, targeted application of seed treatments, as part of an IPM program, has contributed to grower profitability and overall pollinator success for canola production in Western Canada. Early evidence suggests that the recent restriction on NNI may negatively impact grower profitability and does not appear to be having positive impact on pollinator health. Further investigation on impact of NNI on individual bee vs. hive health need to be conducted. Predictive models for flea beetle emergence/feeding activity in canola/oilseed rape need to be developed, as broad acre deployment of NNI seed treatments may not be sustainable due to concerns about resistance/tolerance in flea beetles and other pest species. PMID:27527233

  14. Glyphosate resistant and susceptible soybean (Glycine max) and canola (Brassica napus) dose response and metabolism relationships with glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted to determine 1) dose response of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and –susceptible (non-GR) soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and canola (Brassica napus L.) to glyphosate, 2) if differential metabolism of glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is the underlying mechanism ...

  15. Evaluating the Role of Seed Treatments in Canola/Oilseed Rape Production: Integrated Pest Management, Pollinator Health, and Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Sekulic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The use patterns and role of insecticide seed treatments, with focus on neonicotinoid insecticides, were examined for canola/oilseed rape production in Canada and the EU. Since nearly all planted canola acres in Western Canada and, historically, a majority of planted oilseed acres in the EU, use seed treatments, it is worth examining whether broad use of insecticidal seed treatments (IST is compatible with principles of integrated pest management (IPM. The neonicotinoid insecticide (NNI seed treatment (NNI ST use pattern has risen due to effective control of several early season insect pests, the most destructive being flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.. Negative environmental impact and poor efficacy of foliar applied insecticides on flea beetles led growers to look for better alternatives. Due to their biology, predictive models have been difficult to develop for flea beetles, and, therefore, targeted application of seed treatments, as part of an IPM program, has contributed to grower profitability and overall pollinator success for canola production in Western Canada. Early evidence suggests that the recent restriction on NNI may negatively impact grower profitability and does not appear to be having positive impact on pollinator health. Further investigation on impact of NNI on individual bee vs. hive health need to be conducted. Predictive models for flea beetle emergence/feeding activity in canola/oilseed rape need to be developed, as broad acre deployment of NNI seed treatments may not be sustainable due to concerns about resistance/tolerance in flea beetles and other pest species.

  16. Use of Se-enriched mustard and canola seed meals as potential bioherbicides and green fertilizers in strawberry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    New plant-based products can be produced from seed harvested from Brassica species used for phytomanaging selenium (Se) in the westside of central California. We tested Se-enriched seed meals produced from canola (Brassica napus) and mustard (Sinapis alba) plants as potential bio-herbicides and as g...

  17. Kinetic Modeling of Glycerolysis – Hydrolysis of Canola Oil in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Media Using Equilibrium Data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moquin, P.H.L.; Temelli, F.; Sovová, Helena; Saldana, M.D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2006), s. 417-424. ISSN 0896-8446. [International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids. Orlando, 01.05.2005-04.05.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : canola oil * glycrolysis * kinetics Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.037, year: 2006

  18. Glyphosate-resistant and conventional canola (Brassica napus L.)responses to glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid (AMPA) treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola expresses two transgenes: 1) the microbial glyphosate oxidase gene (gox) encoding the glyphosate oxidase enzyme (GOX) that metabolizes glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and 2) cp4 that encodes a GR form of the glyphosate target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshiki...

  19. 'NIFA-mustard canola' - First mutant variety of oilseed mustard (Brassica juncea COSS and CZERN.) in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The edible oil production in the country is short of requirements to the tune of 70%. The gap is filled by heavy imports costing the national exchequer over 400 million US$ annually. Increasing domestic production of edible oil is thus of high priority for the Government of Pakistan. Rapeseed and mustard (Brassica juncea), being indigenous oilseed crops and well entrenched in the cropping system of the growers, have the potential to bridge the gap between production and consumption. Mustard is the predominantly grown species of oilseed Brassica in Pakistan as it has superior adaptability to semi-arid conditions and tolerance to drought as well as heat and seed shattering. However, no juncea cultivar of canola quality is available in Pakistan so far. In this backdrop, a comprehensive research program was launched in 1994- 95 at NIFA, with the help of IAEA, through a Technical Cooperation Project to develop improved varieties of mustard. Gamma irradiation and fast neutrons were used to induce genetic variability in traits of economic importance, thus diversifying the genetic base of indigenous/exotic cultivars (cvs.) of Brassica oilseeds. About 15,000 dry seeds of exotic mustard line (DLJ-3) having about 10% moisture were irradiated at 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 kGy gamma rays (60Co gamma source) in 1994-95. The treated seeds were planted directly in the field in isolation of M1 generation. Selection for desirable mutants was carried out in M2 and useful mutants, including MM-1266, were selected. The stability of selected traits of MM-1266 was confirmed in M3 and M4 generations. MM-1266 was thoroughly assessed for yield in different replicated trials at NIFA and other stations in Pakistan and the results of MM-1266 in comparison with the control cv. is presented. In the preliminary yield trial in rabi 1997-98d at NIFA, MM-1266 produced the highest yield (1908 kg/ha) and significantly outyielded the parent by 100%. The following year, MM-1266 was tested in advanced yield trials

  20. Editorial - The winter Atomiades

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    As we wrote in our previous editorial, the Staff Association gives direct support to sports events, such as the Atomiades, a section of the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, which brings together sportsmen and women from 38 European research centres in 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland). The summer Atomiades take place between the months of June and September every three years. Thirteen such events have taken place since 1973, the last one in June 2009 in Berlin. As far as the winter Atomiades are concerned, also organized every three years, and alternating with the summer Atomiades, there have been eleven since 1981, the last one at the end of January this year in neighbouring France. The following article tells the wonderful adventure of the CERN staff who took part in this event. A positive outcome for CERN skiers at the winter Atomiades The 11t...

  1. Honey bee contribution to canola pollination in Southern Brazil Abelhas melíferas na polinização de canola no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelise de Souza Rosa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although canola, (Brassica napus L., is considered a self-pollinating crop, researchers have indicated that crop productivity increases as a result of honey bee Apis mellifera L. pollination. Given this crop's growing importance in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, this work evaluated the increase in pod and seed productivity with respect to interactions with anthophilous insects and manual pollination tests. The visiting frequency of A. mellifera was correlated with the crop's blooming progression, and productivity comparisons were made between plants visited by insects, manually pollinated plants (geitonogamy and xenogamy and plants without pollination induction. Pod set and seed production per plant were determined for each treatment. Among the 8,624 recorded flower-visiting insects, Hymenoptera representatives were the most prevalent (92.3%, among which 99.8% were A. mellifera. The correlation between these bees and blooming progression was positive (r = 0.87; p = 0.002. Pollination induction increased seed productivity from 28.4% (autogamy to 50.4% with insect visitations, as well as to 48.7 (geitonogamy and to 55.1% (xenogamy through manual pollination.A canola (Brassica napus L. é considerada autocompatível, embora pesquisadores indiquem aumento na produtividade da cultura resultante da polinização efetuada por Apis mellifera L.. Considerando-se a crescente importância dessa cultura no Rio Grande do Sul, avaliou-se o incremento da produtividade de síliquas e sementes a partir de interações com insetos antófilos e com testes de polinização manual. A freqüência de visitas de A. mellifera foi relacionada com o desenvolvimento da floração da cultura e a produtividade foi comparada entre plantas visitadas por insetos, polinizadas manualmente (geitonogamia e xenogamia e com ausência de indução de polinização. Em cada tratamento avaliou-se a produtividade de síliquas e de sementes formadas por planta. Dentre os 8.624 insetos

  2. Economics of small-scale on-farm use of canola and soybean for biodiesel and straight vegetable oil biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the cost competitiveness of vegetable oil-based biofuels (VOBB) has impeded extensive commercialization on a large-scale, the economic viability of small-scale on-farm production of VOBB is unclear. This study assessed the cost competitiveness of small-scale on-farm production of canola- [Brassica napus (L.)] and soybean-based [Glycine max (L.)] biodiesel and straight vegetable oil (SVO) biofuels in the upper Midwest at 2007 price levels. The effects of feedstock type, feedstock valuation (cost of production or market price), biofuel type, and capitalization level on the cost L-1 of biofuel were examined. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, the cost of canola-based biodiesel ranged from 0.94 to 1.13 L-1 and SVO from 0.64 to 0.83 L-1 depending on capitalization level. Comparatively, the cost of soybean-based biodiesel and SVO ranged from 0.40 to 0.60 L-1 and from 0.14 to 0.33 L-1, respectively, depending on capitalization level. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, soybean biofuels were cost competitive whereas canola biofuels were not. Valuing feedstock at its market price, canola biofuels were more cost competitive than soybean-based biofuels, though neither were cost competitive with petroleum diesel. Feedstock type proved important in terms of the meal co-product credit, which decreased the cost of biodiesel by 1.39 L-1 for soybean and 0.44 L-1 for canola. SVO was less costly to produce than biodiesel due to reduced input costs. At a small scale, capital expenditures have a substantial impact on the cost of biofuel, ranging from 0.03 to 0.25 L-1. (author)

  3. REPLACEMENT OF FISH MEAL BY CANOLA MEAL IN DIETS FOR MAJOR CARPS IN FERTILIZED PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ABBAS, I. AHMED, M. HAFEEZ-UR-REHMAN AND A. MATEEN

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in three earthen ponds to evaluate the replacement of fish meal by low cost plant protein (canola meal for major carps in semi-intensive culture system. Each pond was fertilized with cattle manure at the rate of 0.16g N/100g wet fish body weight daily. A control diet (30% CP, formulated by using fish meal, cotton seed meal, maize gluten and rice polish, was designated as T1, while in T2 and T3, the fish meal was replaced with canola meal by 20 and 40%, respectively. Feeding was done at the rate of 4% of wet fish body weight daily for five months. The overall average weight gains in T1, T2 and T3 for three fish species i.e. Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Catla catla were 356.6 ± 15.12, 332.6 ± 14.32 and 362.4 ± 12.12; 320.4 ± 14.03, 305.6 ± 14.03 and 337.1 ± 16.02; and 284.6 ± 13.07, 282.2 ± 15.13 and 305.1 ± 17.43g, respectively. Net fish yields (all the species together were 1529.5 ± 13.93, 1327.0 ± 12.19 and 1122.5 ± 10.28 Kg/ha/year under T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The gross fish production was calculated as 2338.5 ± 12.49, 2137.5 ± 11.65 and 1931.5 ± 13.01 Kg/ha/year in T1, T2 and T3 pond, respectively. In all the treatments, Catla catla showed better growth performance, followed by Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala. The treated ponds caused a decrease in fish production when replacement of fish meal was done with canola meal.

  4. 施氮量对冬马铃薯生长发育、产量及品质的影响%Effects of Nitrogen Application Rates on Growth, Yield and Quality of Winter Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦剑锋; 韦巧云; 梁振华; 宋书会; 韦冬萍; 梁和

    2015-01-01

    为确定冬马铃薯的合理施氮量,采用田间试验,研究施氮量(0、80、160、240 kg/hm2)对马铃薯费乌瑞它出苗率、干物质积累、产量及品质的影响。结果表明,随着施氮量增加,马铃薯出苗率总体降低;在块茎膨大期至收获期,马铃薯茎干物质积累量先升高后降低,以施氮160 kg/hm2处理最高,马铃薯叶、块茎及总干物质积累量升高,均以施氮240 kg/hm2处理最高;马铃薯商品薯比率、商品薯产量及鲜薯产量均总体提高,以施氮240 kg/hm2处理最高,其中鲜薯产量较不施氮肥处理提高51.28%,施氮160 kg/hm2处理次之,两者差异不显著;马铃薯可溶性糖含量、粗蛋白含量、粗蛋白产量、淀粉产量均升高,以施氮240 kg/hm2处理最高,施氮160 kg/hm2处理次之,两者差异不显著(粗蛋白产量除外)。综上,费乌瑞它适宜施氮量为160 kg/hm2。%In order to determine reasonable nitrogen application rate for winter potato,a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of nitrogen application rate ( 0 , 80 , 160 , 240 kg/ha ) on the emergence ratio,dry matter accumulation,yield and quality of potato cultivar Favorite. The results showed that with the increase of nitrogen application rate,the seedling emergence ratio decreased;the dry matter accumulation of stalk first increased and then decreased,and reached the peak value when the nitrogen application rate was 160 kg/ha applied during tuber expanding stage to harvest stage;the dry matter accumulation of leaves,tuber and total amount increased,and reached the peak value when the nitrogen application rate was 240 kg/ha during tuber expanding stage to harvest stage;the commodity tuber ratio, commodity tuber yield and fresh tuber yield increased, and reached the peak value when the nitrogen application rate was 240 kg/ha,the treatment with nitrogen of 160 kg/ha was lower in order,and the fresh tuber yield of treatment with

  5. Digestibilidade aparente da energia e nutrientes do farelo de canola pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Apparent nutrient and energy digestibility of canola meal for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Massamitu Furuya

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a energia digestível e a digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes do farelo de canola pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. O óxido de crômio (0,1% foi utilizado como indicador inerte em dieta semi-purificada, com coleta de fezes pelo sistema Guelph. Os peixes foram alimentados até saciedade aparente. O farelo de canola apresentou valores de energia e nutrientes digestíveis de: 77,84; 71,99; 86,92; 88,19; 67,16 e 29,86% para a matéria seca, energia, proteína, lipídios, cálcio e fósforo, respectivamente, correspondendo a 2969,98 (kcal/kg; 69,97; 32,6; 1,2; 0,41 e 0,28%, de energia digestível, matéria seca, proteína e lipídios digestíveis e cálcio e fósforo disponíveis, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho evidenciam que a tilápia do Nilo pode utilizar eficientemente o farelo de canola.This study was carried out to determine the digestible energy and apparent nutrient digestibility of canola meal for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. The chromic oxide (0.1% was used as an inert indicador in the semi-purified diet and faeces were collected by Guelph system. Fish were fed to apparent satiation. The apparent nutrient and energy digestibility of canola meal were: 77.84, 71.99, 86.92, 88.19, 67.16, and 29.86% for dry matter, energy, protein, lipids, calcium and phosphorus, respectively, corresponding to 2969,98 (kcal/kg; 69.97, 32.6, 1.2, 0.41, and 0.28% of, digestible energy, dry matter, protein and lipids and available calcium and phosphorus, respectively. The results obtained in this experiment evidence that Nile tilapia may be able to utilize canola meal eficiently.

  6. Evaluation of canola seeds of different cultivars with special emphasis on the quantification of erucic acid and glucosinolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, Farooq

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the characterization of the seeds and seed oils of five locally grown canola cultivars: Zafar-2002, Bulbul (Frontier, Dunkeld, Oscar and Con-11. The oil contents from canola seeds ranged from 34.3 to 39.3%. The levels of protein, fiber, ash and moisture were found to be 22.1-41.0, 12.0-14.0, 3.0-3.5 and 4.0-7.5%, respectively. The glucosinolate (GSL contents in the canola seeds examined ranged from 49.7 to 78.1 mmol g-1. The extracted canola seed oils revealed an iodine value of 118.2-124.6 g of I/100g of oil; refractive index (40 °C, 1.460-1.464; density (24 °C, 0.914-0.919 mg m-1; saponification value, 187-195; unsaponifiable matter, 0.51-1.10%; acidity (% as oleic acid, 0.40-1.40, and color (1-in. cell, 1.35-1.73 R + 21.0-38.0 Y. Peroxide value (meq/ kg of oil and specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm were determined to be 2.00-7.08, 2.17-3.16 and 0.44-0.91, respectively. The seed oils of the five canola cultivars mainly consisted of oleic (C18:1, linoleic (C18:2 and linolenic (C18:3 acids at levels of 49.16-62.14, 14.61, 23.45 and 6.97-9.10%, respectively. The concentrations of palmitic (C16:0, stearic (C18:0, erucic (C22:1 and gadoleic (C20:1 acids ranged from 3.47 to 6.00, 1.51 to 2.10, traces to 13.03 and 1.30 to 10.63%, respectively. A small amount of arachidic acid (20:0 with a contribution below 1% was also detected. The contents of tocopherols (α, γ, and δ in the canola oils accounted for 77.1-270.3, 191-500, 3.5-15.6 mg kg-1, respectively.The presence of rather high levels of erucic acid and GSL in the present analysis of canola emphasized the need to further reduce the contents of these two antinutritional constituents in the investigated cultivars.Este estudio describe de la caracterización de semillas y de sus aceites de cinco cultivos locales de canola: Zafar2002, Bulbul (Frontier, Dunkeld, Oscar y Con 11. El contenido de aceite de las semillas de canola varió entre un 34.3 y un 39.3%. Los niveles

  7. Effect of pressing and combination of three storage temperatures and times on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of canola expellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Guadagnin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment investigated the effects of combinations of three temperatures and storage times on chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and oxidative stability of canola expellers obtained from the cold-pressing extraction of oil. Canola seeds were single-crushed at moderate temperatures (60°C during 3 pressing sessions. Nine samples (100±1 g of each session were collected, inserted into sealed bags, stored at three temperatures (12, 24, 36°C over 3 periods of time (10, 20, 30 d. Then, samples (100±1 g of canola seeds collected before each pressing session and canola expellers collected before and after each storage time were analyzed for chemical composition, fatty acid profile, peroxide number and Kreis test. Before storage, the fatty acid profile of canola seeds and expellers differed significantly, except for myristic (P=0.18, palmitic (P=0.57, oleic (P=0.07, and α-linolenic acids (P=0.45. Compared to canola seeds, expellers showed greater content of saturated, poly-unsaturated, and n-6 fatty acids (P<0.01, but a lower content of mono-unsaturated fatty acids (P<0.01. Peroxide values were definitely (P<0.01 greater for expellers and averaged 4.22 and 4.11 mEq/kg fat before and after storage, respectively. The Kreis test was negative for all samples. Under different temperatures and times of storage, canola expellers showed to maintain a good oxidative stability, as highlighted by low peroxide values (<10 mEq/kg fat and negative response for Kreis test. Canola expellers obtained by on-farm cold extraction, despite great oil residual (from 17 to 19% ether extracts on dry matter basis, can be stored at farm without significant chemical and nutritional changes.

  8. Product sampling during transient continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of canola oil and development of a kinetic model

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2013-11-01

    A chemical kinetic model has been developed for the transient stage of the continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of triglycerides to free fatty acids and glycerol. Departure functions and group contribution methods were applied to determine the equilibrium constants of the four reversible reactions in the kinetic model. Continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of canola oil in subcritical water was conducted experimentally in a lab-scale reactor over a range of temperatures and the concentrations of all neutral components were quantified. Several of the rate constants in the model were obtained by modeling this experimental data, with the remaining determined from calculated equilibrium constants. Some reactions not included in the present, or previous, hydrolysis modeling efforts were identified from glycerolysis kinetic studies and may explain the slight discrepancy between model and experiment. The rate constants determined in this paper indicate that diglycerides in the feedstock accelerate the transition from "emulsive hydrolysis" to "rapid hydrolysis". © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Mathematical modeling of supercritical fluid extraction of oil from canola and sesame seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Honarvar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of supercritical fluid extraction of oil from canola and sesame seeds with a two-phase model was performed in this work. A model based on differential mass balance was used to correlate the experimental data. Different adsorption isotherm models (Henry, Freundlich and Brunauer, Emmet and Teller (BET were used to describe the equilibrium state. Three model parameters such as effective diffusivity (Deff, mass transfer coefficient (Kf and axial dispersion coefficient (Dax of the bed were used as fitting parameters. The experimental data for yields were obtained at pressures of 10-20 MPa, temperatures of 313-333 K and solvent flow rates of 2-4 g/min. From the results, a nonlinear adsorption isotherm exhibited better agreement with experimental data of yield than a linear model in the range of studied conditions.

  10. Microencapsulation of canola oil by lentil protein isolate-based wall materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C; Varankovich, N; Nickerson, M T

    2016-12-01

    The overall goal was to encapsulate canola oil using a mixture of lentil protein isolate and maltodextrin with/without lecithin and/or sodium alginate by spray drying. Initially, emulsion and microcapsule properties as a function of oil (20%-30%), protein (2%-8%) and maltodextrin concentration (9.5%-18%) were characterized by emulsion stability, droplet size, viscosity, surface oil and entrapment efficiency. Microcapsules with 20% oil, 2% protein and 18% maltodextrin were shown to have the highest entrapment efficiency, and selected for further re-design using different preparation conditions and wall ingredients (lentil protein isolate, maltodextrin, lecithin and/or sodium alginate). The combination of the lentil protein, maltodextrin and sodium alginate represented the best wall material to produce microcapsules with the highest entrapment efficiency (∼88%). The lentil protein-maltodextrin-alginate microcapsules showed better oxidative stability and had a stronger wall structure than the lentil protein-maltodextrin microcapsules. PMID:27374532

  11. Wheat bran extracts: a potent source of natural antioxidants for the stabilization of canola oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Chatha, Shahzad Ali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the antioxidant activity of different solvent extracts of wheat (var. Inqalab 91 bran was evaluated following different antioxidant assays using canola oil as the oxidation substrate. The bran samples were extracted with 80% and 100% methanol and acetone. A preliminary assessment of the antioxidant activity of the 80 and 100% acetone and methanolic extracts of wheat bran was done by the measurement of % inhibition of peroxidation in a linoleic acid system, total phenolic contents (TPC and bleachability of β-carotene in the linoleic acid system. Additionally, the canola oil samples were stabilized with crude concentrated extracts and subjected to ambient aging (6 months. The extent of oxidative deterioration was followed by the measurement of peroxide-, p-anisidine-, conjugated dienes-, and trienes- values. The results of ambient stored samples revealed a significant improvement in these oxidation parameters. The overall order of antioxidant activity of the extracts as determined by various antioxidant assays was determined to be; 80% methanolic extract > 100% methanolic extract > 80% acetone extracts . 100% acetone extract. The results of the present comprehensive analysis demonstrate that extracts of the wheat bran indigenous to Pakistan are a viable source of natural antioxidants and might be exploited for commercial and neutraceutical applications.

    En el presente trabajo la actividad antioxidante de diferentes extractos obtenidos con disolventes del salvado de trigo (var. Inqalab 91 fue evaluada mediante diferentes ensayos antioxidantes y aceite de canola como substrato de oxidación. Las muestras de salvado fueron extraídas con metanol y acetona al 80% y al 100%. La evaluación preliminar de la actividad antioxidante de los extractos de metanol y de acetona al 80% y 100% fue hecha mediante la medida del % de inhibición de la peroxidación en un sistema con ácido linoleico, el contenido total de fenoles

  12. Quality of cold-pressed organic oils

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Skwarek; Zbigniew Józef Dolatowski

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the quality of the traditional cold-pressed oils made from organic materials in a small farm. Scope of the study included evaluation of canola, flax, camelina and poppy oil immediately after manufacture and during storage under various conditions (light, temperature). Fatty acid composition, oxidability rate, an acid value, peroxide value, anisidine value and colour values in CIE L*a*b* were marked. It has been shown that immediately after the production al...

  13. Resistance of canola cultivars affect life table parameters of Nysius cymoides (Spinola (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollashahi Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A life table can be used as an important and appropriate tool to evaluate the susceptibility or resistance level of different host plant cultivars to insect pests. In the current study, we determined the suitability or inferiority of five different canola cultivars (Hayula420, Hayula401, Hayula50, Hayula60, RGS to Nysius cymoides, under laboratory conditions. Data were analysed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. Nysius cymoides which fed on Hayula420 had the longest nymphal period, while those which fed on Hayula50 had the shortest nymphal period. Developmental times (sum of incubation and nymphal periods was longest for those which fe d on Hayula420 and the shortest for those which fed on Hayula50. The adult pre-oviposition period (APOP, total pre-oviposition period (TPOP, mean fecundity, and adult longevity of adults reared on different canola cultivars showed significant differences. The highest and lowest net reproductive rates (R0 were obtained for those which fed on Hayula420 (11.40 offspring per individual and Hayula401 (5.47 offspring per individual, respectively. The highest value (0.0395 d-1 for the intrinsic rate of increase (r was obtained for those which fed on Hayula 60 cultivar and the lowest value (0.0261 d-1 for those which fed on Hayula401 cultivar. The shortest and longest mean generation times (T were obtained for those which fed on RGS and H401 cultivars, respectively. The lowest and highest values of life expectancy (exj were obtained for those which fed on RGS and Hayula420 cultivars, respectively. The results showed that Hayula401 and RGS were not susceptible cultivars to N. cymoides. These cultivars showed higher resistance to N. cymoides, while Hayula60, Hayula420, and Hayula50 were found to be suitable cultivars but with lower resistance to N. cymoides, respectively.

  14. Ethylene involvement in silique and seed development of canola, Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Linda J; Kurepin, Leonid V; Yeung, Edward C; Shah, Saleh; Emery, R J Neil; Reid, David M; Pharis, Richard P

    2012-09-01

    A wide range of plant hormones, including gibberellins (GAs) and auxins are known to be involved in regulating seed and fruit growth and development. Changes in ethylene biosynthesis are also associated with seed and fruit development, but ethylene's role in these processes is poorly understood, as is its possible interaction with the other plant hormones. A major complication of investigating ethylene-induced regulation of developmental processes is ethylene's biphasic mode of action. To investigate ethylene's actions and interactions we used a 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase transgenic canola line. This line evolves significantly less ethylene from its siliques and seeds, relative to plants from a wild type (WT) background. Plants of the transgenic line also had smaller siliques which were associated with reductions in both seed size and seed number. Application of ethephon, a compound that produces ethylene, to plants of the transgenic line restored the WT phenotype for both siliques and seeds. Application of the same dose of ethephon to WT plants diminished both silique and seed development, showing ethylene's biphasic effect and effectively producing the ACC deaminase transgenic phenotype. There were significant decreases in endogenous concentrations of GA(1) and GA(4) and also of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), between WT seeds and seedless siliques and seeds and siliques from the transgenic line plants. These differences were emphasized during early stages (10-20 days after pollination) of seed and silique development. The above results strongly suggest that ethylene interacts with other endogenous plant hormones in regulating silique and seed development and growth in WT lines of canola. PMID:22809685

  15. Tamanho de parcela e número de repetições em canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar o tamanho ótimo de parcela e o número de repetições, para avaliar a massa verde de canola (Brassica napus L.. Foram realizados 27 ensaios de uniformidade de 5m×5m (25m2, sendo nove ensaios para cada um dos seguintes híbridos: Hyola 61, Hyola 76 e Hyola 433. Cada ensaio foi dividido em 25 unidades experimentais básicas (UEB de 1m×1m, totalizando 675 UEB. Foi pesada a massa verde das plantas de cada UEB. O tamanho ótimo de parcela (Xo foi determinado por meio do método da curvatura máxima do modelo do coeficiente de variação, e as comparações de médias, entre os híbridos, foram feitas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. O número de repetições, para experimentos nos delineamentos inteiramente casualizados e blocos ao acaso, em cenários formados pelas combinações de i tratamentos (i=3, 4, ..., 50 e d diferenças mínimas entre médias de tratamentos a serem detectadas como significativas a 5% de probabilidade, pelo teste de Tukey, expressas em percentagem da média do experimento (d=10%, 13%, ..., 40%, foi determinado por processo iterativo até a convergência. O tamanho ótimo de parcela para avaliar a massa verde de canola é 6,41m2. Quatro repetições, para avaliar até 50 tratamentos, nos delineamentos inteiramente casualizados e blocos ao acaso, são suficientes para identificar, como significativas a 5% de probabilidade, pelo teste de Tukey, diferenças entre médias de tratamentos de 41,4% da média do experimento.

  16. Lipase immobilization and production of fatty acid methyl esters from canola oil using immobilized lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipase enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae (EC 3.1.1.3) was immobilized onto a micro porous polymeric matrix which contains aldehyde functional groups and methyl esters of long chain fatty acids (biodiesel) were synthesized by transesterification of crude canola oil using immobilized lipase. Micro porous polymeric matrix was synthesized from styrene-divinylbenzene (STY-DVB) copolymers by using high internal phase emulsion technique and two different lipases, Lipozyme TL-100L® and Novozym 388®, were used for immobilization by both physical adsorption and covalent attachment. Biodiesel production was carried out with semi-continuous operation. Methanol was added into the reactor by three successive additions of 1:4 M equivalent of methanol to avoid enzyme inhibition. The transesterification reaction conditions were as follows: oil/alcohol molar ratio 1:4; temperature 40 oC and total reaction time 6 h. Lipozyme TL-100L® lipase provided the highest yield of fatty acid methyl esters as 92%. Operational stability was determined with immobilized lipase and it indicated that a small enzyme deactivation occurred after used repeatedly for 10 consecutive batches with each of 24 h. Since the process is yet effective and enzyme does not leak out from the polymer, the method can be proposed for industrial applications. -- Research highlights: → Lipozyme TL-100L and Novozym 388 were immobilized onto micro porous polymeric matrix by both physical adsorption and covalent linking. → Immobilized enzymes were used for synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters by transesterification of canola oil and methanol using semi-continuous operation system. → According to chromatographic analysis, Lipase Lipozyme TL-100L resulted in the highest yield of methyl ester as 92%.

  17. Molecular chemistry of plant protein structure at a cellular level by synchrotron-based FTIR spectroscopy: Comparison of yellow ( Brassica rapa) and Brown ( Brassica napus) canola seed tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study was to use synchrotron light sourced FTIR microspectroscopy as a novel approach to characterize protein molecular structure of plant tissue: compared yellow and brown Brassica canola seed within cellular dimensions. Differences in the molecular chemistry and the structural-chemical characteristics were identified between two type of plant tissues. The yellow canola seeds contained a relatively lower (P < 0.05) percentage of model-fitted α-helices (33 vs. 37), a higher (P < 0.05) relative percentage of model-fitted β-sheets (27 vs. 21) and a lower (P < 0.05) ratio of α-helices to β-sheets (1.3 vs. 1.9) than the brown seeds. These results may indicate that the protein value of the yellow canola seeds as food or feed was different from that of the brown canola seeds. The cluster analysis and principal component analysis did not show clear differences between the yellow and brown canola seed tissues in terms of protein amide I structures, indicating they are related to each other. Both yellow and brown canola seeds contain the same proteins but in different ratios.

  18. Tolerance of transgenic canola plants (Brassica napus) amended with plant growth-promoting bacteria to flooding stress at a metal-contaminated field site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of transgenic canola (Brassica napus) expressing a gene for the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase was compared to non-transformed canola exposed to flooding and elevated soil Ni concentration, in situ. In addition, the ability of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas putida UW4, which also expresses ACC deaminase, to facilitate the growth of non-transformed and transgenic canola under the above mentioned conditions was examined. Transgenic canola and/or canola treated with P. putida UW4 had greater shoot biomass compared to non-transformed canola under low flood-stress conditions. Under high flood-stress conditions, shoot biomass was reduced and Ni accumulation was increased in all instances relative to low flood-stress conditions. This is the first field study to document the increase in plant tolerance utilizing transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria exposed to multiple stressors. - Using transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria as phytoremediation methods increased plant tolerance at a metal-contaminated field site under low flood conditions

  19. Winter School Les Houches

    CERN Document Server

    Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino

    1986-01-01

    The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super­ lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron­ ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...

  20. Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What is quality? How do you achieve it? How do you keep it once you have got it. The answer for industry at large is the three-step hierarchy of quality control, quality assurance and Total quality Management. An overview is given of the history of quality movement, illustrated with examples from Schlumberger operations, as well as the oil industry's approach to quality. An introduction of the Schlumberger's quality-associated ClientLink program is presented. 15 figs., 4 ills., 16 refs

  1. Perfil dos ácidos graxos da carcaça de cordeiros alimentados com grãos de canola em diferentes formas Meat fatty acid profile of lambs fed processed or unprocessed canola seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis fonseca de Macedo

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a alteração do perfil dos ácidos graxos da carcaça de ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo grãos inteiros de canola (CI em duas formas de processamentos (quebrados - CQ ou peletizados - CP. Foram utilizados 28 cordeiros, distribuídos num delineamento inteiramente casualizado e abatidos com média de peso vivo entre 31 e 33kg, coletando-se amostras entre a 12ª e 13ª costela. Houve diferença significativa para os ácidos graxos C10:0, C14:1ω5, C15:0, C16:0, C16:1ω7e C17:0, cujas médias foram maiores que na dieta controle. Os ácidos graxos C18:0, C18:1ω9, C18:3ω6, C18:3ω3, C20:0, C20:1ω9, C22:0 e C24:0 sofreram alterações com a inclusão de grãos de canola. Também foi observado diferença significativa para os totais de ácidos graxos mono-insaturados, porém, os totais de ácidos graxos polinsaturados e a relação entre ácidos graxos polinsaturados e saturados foram inalterados. Os resultados levam à conclusão de que a inclusão de grãos inteiros de canola nas dietas para cordeiros altera o perfil dos ácidos graxos independentemente da forma de apresentação.The objective of this experiment was to compare carcass fatty acids profile of lambs fed a control diet and diets containing either whole (WC, cracked (CC or pelleted (PC canola seeds. Twenty-eight lambs assigned to a completely randomized design were fed their respective diets for 132 days and slaughtered between 31 and 33kg of body weight. Samples of muscle Longissimus dorsi, Psoas maior and Psoas menor were collected on the left side of the carcass between the 12th and 13th ribs and 11 cm from the carcass midline. Concentrations of C10:0, C14:ω5, C15:0, C16:0, C16:1ω7. C17:0 and, C18:3ω3 were significantly higher (P < 0.05 in the carcass of lambs fed the three canola seed diets than in the carcass of those fed the control diet. Pelleted canola seeds increased the percentages of C18:1ω9, C18:3ω6, C20:0, C20:1ω9, C22

  2. Effect of Storage Temperature on Respiratory Rate and Quality Indices of Winter Squash%贮藏温度对笋瓜(印度南瓜)果实呼吸速率和品质指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维信; 李敏; 孙令强

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the effect of storage temperature on respiratory rate and quality index of winter squash ( Cucurbita maxima Duch. Ex. Lam. ), 2 cultivars of winter squash- ' Qingnongluli No.l' ( 'Luli' ) and 'Juli No.3' ( 'Juli' ) were taken as experimental material. The results showed that the respiratory rates of the experimental materials under low temperature had very little changes, but their respiratory rates under room temperature increased markedly and reached to the top value at the 25th day after storage. The contents of polysaccharose and starch both showed a trend of decreasing, while the content of carotenoids showed an increasing trend, with a faster rate under room temperature. The contents of soluble sugar, soluble solids, and soluble protein all showed a trend of increasing first, then decreasing. Except for the content of carotenoids, the contents of polysaccharose, starch, soluble sugar, soluble solids, and soluble protein in ' Luli' were significantly higher than those in ' Juli'. The contents of polysaccharose, starch, soluble sugar, soluble solids, carotenoids and soluble protein of both cultivars under low temperature were higher than those under room temperature.%以青农绿栗1号(简称绿栗)和桔栗3号(简称桔栗)两个印度南瓜为材料,研究了常温和低温贮藏条件下印度南瓜品种呼吸速率和品质指标的变化规律.结果表明:低温贮藏条件下供试印度南瓜果实的呼吸速率变化较小;而常温下贮藏的呼吸速率呈上升趋势,并于贮藏后25 d达到高峰.印度南瓜果实中的多糖、淀粉含量均呈现下降的趋势;而类胡萝卜素含量则呈增加的趋势,且以常温贮藏条件下增加较快.可溶性糖、可溶性固形物和可溶性蛋白质含量均呈先上升后下降的趋势.除类胡萝卜素外,绿栗果实中多糖、淀粉、可溶性糖、可溶性固形物和可溶性蛋白质含量均显著高于桔栗.低温贮藏条件下印度南瓜果实多

  3. Effects of genotype and dietary oil supplementation on performance, carcass traits, pork quality and fatty acid composition of backfat and intramuscular fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertol, T M; de Campos, R M L; Ludke, J V; Terra, N N; de Figueiredo, E A P; Coldebella, A; dos Santos Filho, J I; Kawski, V L; Lehr, N M

    2013-03-01

    A 42-day study was conducted to evaluate the effect of genotype: terminal sire line Duroc×F1 (DC×F1); terminal sire line Embrapa MS-115×F1 (MS-115×F1); and MS-115×Moura (MS-115×MO) and three dietary oil sources: soybean; canola; and canola+flax, on performance, carcass traits, pork quality, and fatty acid composition. Genotype affected the technological quality of pork and fatty acid profile. MS-115-sired pigs had better meat color and Duroc-sired pigs had higher intramuscular fat content, more saturated fat and better omega-6/omega-3 ratio. Moura breed influenced positively meat tenderness and intramuscular fat. Diet did not affect the technological quality of the meat. Canola or canola+flax oil diet supplementations increased monounsaturated and C18:3 and decreased C18:2 fatty acids, reducing the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The best omega-6/omega-3 ratio was obtained through supplementation with canola+flax. PMID:23273458

  4. INFLUENCE OF ELEMENTS OF TECHNOLOGY OF CULTIVATION ON PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY OF GRAIN OF GRADES OF WINTER WHEAT Влияние элементов технологии выращивания на урожайность и качество зерна сортов озимой пшеницы

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelenskiy N. A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the data of researches of studying of elements of technology of cultivation of winter wheat, taking into account its high-quality features, types of fertilizers and application, joint crops with winter vick provided in the Rostov region, and also the economic assessment is given

  5. Winter mortality and its causes

    OpenAIRE

    Keatinge, W R

    2002-01-01

    In the 1970s scientific research focussed for the first time on dramatic rises in mortality every winter, and on smaller rises in unusually hot weather. Following the recent decline in influenza epidemics, approximately half of excess winter deaths are due to coronary thrombosis. These peak about two days after the peak of a cold spell. Approximately half the remaining winter deaths are caused by respiratory disease, and these peak about 12 days after peak cold. The rapid coronary deaths are ...

  6. MARKETING WINTER VEGETABLES FROM MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Calvin, Linda; Barrios, Veronica

    1999-01-01

    The North American winter-vegetable industry is highly integrated, with Mexican production supplying a large part of U.S. winter consumption needs. Imports from Mexico undergo a rigorous inspection procedure before entering the United States. In addition to Mexican firms, many U.S. firms are also involved in sourcing winter vegetables from Mexico. To compete well, both U.S. and Mexican firms must adapt to the changing market pressures, which reward firms that can source from many locations to...

  7. Effect of consuming novel foods consisting high oleic canola oil, barley β-glucan, and DHA on cardiovascular disease risk in humans: the CONFIDENCE (Canola Oil and Fibre with DHA Enhanced) study – protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ramprasath, Vanu R; Thandapilly, Sijo J.; Yang, Shuo; Abraham, Anjalika; Jones, Peter J.H.; Ames, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been identified as a major contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Current recommendations for dietary management of people with MetS involve quantitative and qualitative modifications of food intake, such as high consumption of vegetables, fruits, and whole grain foods. The results from our previous human trials revealed the potential of the dietary components high-oleic acid canola oil (HOCO)-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and hig...

  8. Conseqüências da multicolinearidade sobre a análise de trilha em canola Multicolinearity consequence on path analysis in canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luís Meirelles Coimbra

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A análise estatística do tipo multivariada vem crescendo consideravelmente, motivando a sua ampla utilização por parte dos pesquisadores criando, assim, grande demanda por conhecimentos específicos tanto a respeito da sua aplicação quanto das suas pressuposições ou limitações. Para que a avaliação do grau de associação entre diferentes caracteres de importância agronômica tenha uma estimativa confiável em termos biológico, é de fundamental importância identificar e quantificar o grau de multicolinearidade entre as variáveis estudadas. Além disso, os tipos de modelos estatísticos e matemáticos utilizados na determinação desta dependência linear entre as variáveis classificatórias ou independentes podem ou não ser adequados a estimativas dos parâmetros biológicos avaliados. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar uma avaliação crítica sobre o grau de multicolinearidade identificado e avaliado sobre a análise de trilha analisada sobre partes de um experimento de canola. Os resultados permitem inferir que a aplicação da análise de trilha sobre o grau de multicolinearidade severa produz resultados sem nenhuma importância biológica para o melhorista de plantas. No entanto, esta limitação pode ser facilmente identificada e corrigida através da análise de trilha com colinearidade empregando uma constante (k na diagonal da matriz X‘X. O modelo de análise com multicolinearidade severa, entretanto, superestimou, valores de coeficientes de correlação simples, comparativamente com a multicolinearidade fraca. Mesmo assim, pode não ser necessariamente mais precisa, principalmente em virtude da avaliação de um número restrito de variáveis incluídas na análise ou de uma sobreposição destas variáveis explicativas.The statistical multivariate analysis has a widespread use by researchers, creating a large demand for specific knowledge regarding its application concerning its assumptions and or

  9. Spirit Scans Winter Haven

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand. This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  10. Winter fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD's I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD's, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city

  11. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-17

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide consise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: Distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; Natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s as well as selected National average prices; Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; Crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and A 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree days by city.

  12. Winter weather scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last fall's 3-month winter weather prediction by National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters was not terrific, but it was not too far off the mark, either. A comparison of the predicted temperatures and precipitation (Eos, December 25, 1984, p. 1241) to the observed conditions (see Figures 1 and 2) during the months of December, January, and February shows that the forecasters were generally correct where they were most confident in their predictions.According to Donald Gilman, chief of the Predictions Branch at NWS's National Climate Analysis Center, the overall temperature forecast was probably better than that for precipitation. “The temperature forecast was pretty good in the West,” said Gilman. “East of the Mississippi, however, was a mixed picture.”

  13. Impact of irradiated sewage sludge application on sandy soil physical characteristics, canola yield and water use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of irradiated sewage sludge application on the physical and hydro physical properties of Inshas sandy soil, water use efficiency and yield of canola plant. The soil parameters that were investigated are: soil moisture retention curves, soil bulk density, total porosity and hydraulic conductivity. Treatments included the application of irradiated sewage sludge (6 kGy)at four rates (i.e.0,20,30 and 40 ton/ha). These rates represent 0,50,75,and 100% of nitrogen requirements for canola plant. A control treatment was included using recommended mineral fertilizer NPK. Mineral nitrogen fertilizer (n)was added to the 50% and 75% treatments as a supplement. Results showed that sewage sludge application resulted in improvement of soil physical, hydro physical characteristics and water use efficiency via increase of canola yield . Results indicated that sewage sludge is a good soil conditioner . The best treatment was 30 t/ha sludge + 131 kg/ha ammonium sulfate, as it recorded the highest economic yield and water use efficiency

  14. Nutritional value of full-fat green canola seed fed to growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyengo, T A; Yánez, J; Young, M G; Lanz, G; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-08-01

    Immature green canola seed (full-fat green canola seed [FFGC]) is rejected by canola crushing plants due to chlorophyll staining of oil destined for human consumption. With >35% oil, FFGC can contribute energy to pig diets. The nutritive value of FFGC for growing-finishing pigs was determined in 2 studies. In Exp. 1, 6 ileal-cannulated barrows (46.5 kg BW) were fed 3 diets as a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square to determine standardized ileal digestible (SID) coefficients of AA and calculate DE and NE values for FFGC. A diet including 40% FFGC replaced wheat in a basal diet and a cornstarch-based N-free diet were fed to determine energy and nutrient digestibility by difference and to estimate basal endogenous AA losses to calculate SID of AA. In Exp. 2, 1,100 pigs (32.9 kg BW), housed in 50 pens of 22 barrows or gilts per pen, were fed 5 diets including 0, 5, 10, and 15% constant or declining amounts (15, 10, 5, 0, and 0%, respectively) of FFGC over 5 phases to determine effects of feeding FFGC on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Phase diets were formulated to provide 4.00, 3.60, 3.25, 2.90, and 2.65 g SID Lys/Mcal NE for d 0 to 21, d 22 to 42, d 43 to 62, d 63 to 74, and d 75 to 123 kg market weight. Carcass characteristics were measured using the Destron grading system. On DM basis, FFGC contained 43% ether extract, 25% CP, 22% NDF, 10 μmol/g glucosinolates, 1.35% Lys, 0.5% Met, 0.9% Thr, and 0.27% Trp. In FFGC, SID coefficients of Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp were 86.9, 87.3, 76.9, and 84.3%, respectively, and calculated DE and NE values were 4.92 and 3.50 Mcal/kg of DM, respectively. Overall, increasing dietary FFGC inclusion from 0 to 15% linearly decreased (P Pigs fed decreasing amounts of FFGC by growth phase compared with controls (0% FFGC) had lower (P = 0.011) overall G:F (0.392 vs. 0.372 kg/kg). Increasing dietary FFGC inclusion did not affect carcass backfat thickness and loin depth. The FFGC was a good source of dietary energy and AA. However

  15. Maternal consumption of canola oil suppressed mammary gland tumorigenesis in C3(1) TAg mice offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maternal consumption of a diet high in omega 6 polyunsaturated fats (n-6 PUFA) has been shown to increase risk whereas a diet high in omega 3 polyunsaturated fats (n-3 PUFA) from fish oil has been shown to decrease risk for mammary gland cancer in female offspring of rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether increasing n-3 PUFA and reducing n-6 PUFA by using canola oil instead of corn oil in the maternal diet might reduce the risk for breast cancer in female offspring. Female SV 129 mice were divided into two groups and placed on diets containing either 10% w/w corn oil (which is 50% n-6 PUFA, control diet) or 10% w/w canola oil (which is 20% n-6 PUFA, 10% n-3 PUFA, test diet). After two weeks on the diets the females were bred with homozygous C3(1) TAg transgenic mice. Mother mice consumed the assigned diet throughout gestation and nursing of the offspring. After weaning, all female offspring were maintained on the control diet. Compared to offspring of mothers fed the corn oil diet (CO/CO group), offspring of mothers fed the canola oil diet (CA/CO group) had significantly fewer mammary glands with tumors throughout the experiment. At 130 days of age, the CA/CO group had significantly fewer tumors per mouse (multiplicity); the tumor incidence (fraction of mice with any tumor) and the total tumor weight (per mouse that developed tumor) was less than one half that of the CO/CO group. At 170 days of age, the total tumor weight per mouse was significantly less in the CA/CO group and if a tumor developed the rate of tumor growth rate was half that of CO/CO group. These results indicate that maternal consumption of canola oil was associated with delayed appearance of mammary gland tumors and slowed growth of the tumors that developed. Substituting canola oil for corn oil is an easy dietary change for people to make; such a change to the maternal diet may decrease risk for breast cancer in the daughter

  16. Maternal consumption of canola oil suppressed mammary gland tumorigenesis in C3(1 TAg mice offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardman W Elaine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal consumption of a diet high in omega 6 polyunsaturated fats (n-6 PUFA has been shown to increase risk whereas a diet high in omega 3 polyunsaturated fats (n-3 PUFA from fish oil has been shown to decrease risk for mammary gland cancer in female offspring of rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether increasing n-3 PUFA and reducing n-6 PUFA by using canola oil instead of corn oil in the maternal diet might reduce the risk for breast cancer in female offspring. Methods Female SV 129 mice were divided into two groups and placed on diets containing either 10% w/w corn oil (which is 50% n-6 PUFA, control diet or 10% w/w canola oil (which is 20% n-6 PUFA, 10% n-3 PUFA, test diet. After two weeks on the diets the females were bred with homozygous C3(1 TAg transgenic mice. Mother mice consumed the assigned diet throughout gestation and nursing of the offspring. After weaning, all female offspring were maintained on the control diet. Results Compared to offspring of mothers fed the corn oil diet (CO/CO group, offspring of mothers fed the canola oil diet (CA/CO group had significantly fewer mammary glands with tumors throughout the experiment. At 130 days of age, the CA/CO group had significantly fewer tumors per mouse (multiplicity; the tumor incidence (fraction of mice with any tumor and the total tumor weight (per mouse that developed tumor was less than one half that of the CO/CO group. At 170 days of age, the total tumor weight per mouse was significantly less in the CA/CO group and if a tumor developed the rate of tumor growth rate was half that of CO/CO group. These results indicate that maternal consumption of canola oil was associated with delayed appearance of mammary gland tumors and slowed growth of the tumors that developed. Conclusions Substituting canola oil for corn oil is an easy dietary change for people to make; such a change to the maternal diet may decrease risk for breast cancer in the daughter.

  17. Application of gamma rays for induction of tolerance mutants to environmental stress conditions in canola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to induce useful mutations in canola possess high seed yield and oil content under new reclamation desert land at Ras-Suder-Sina (saline) and Inshas (harsh and poor fertility). Canola seeds of four varieties (Serow 4, Serow 6, Pactol as local cultivars and Evita as exotic variety) were treated with gamma rays at four doses (0, 100, 400 and 600 Gy). Thirty mutant plants for number of pods/plant and changes in morphological criteria were selected at M2 generation. The mutants at M3 generation confirmed that induction of mutant lines possessed higher number of pods and seed yield/plant than the mother varieties. The mutant lines possessed homogeneity at M3 generation were 5, 8,10, 11, 18 and 22 at serow 4, 38 and 45 at serow 6, 63 and 66 at Pactol and mutant lines 74,75, 78,92 at Evita. Highest number of pods/plant (110) was recorded at line 74 derived from Evita variety. The results were appeared the same trend for seed yield/plant with number of pods/plant, the lines which possessed high number of pods/plant were had high seed yield/plant. The results at M4 and M5 generations for 13 homogeneity mutant lines selected from M3 generation contained different response of mutant genotypes for different conditions on the bases of number of pods and seed yield/plant. Promising mutant lines were detected under both conditions possessed significant increases at both M4 and M5 generations. Oil percent as well as acid value at M4 and M5 were recorded the highest mean value was found at Inshas in line 75 and the lowest acid value was noticed at line 5. Finally nine mutant lines possessed promising traits of this study, lines 11, 66 and 87 under both conditions (Suder and Inshas), lines 8, 38 and 63 under Ras-Sudr and lines 74, 75 and 92 under Inshas condition.

  18. "Winter is coming"

    CERN Document Server

    Kostov, Veselin; Hartman, Nikolaus; Guzewich, Scott; Rogers, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Those that do not sow care little about such mundane things as equinoxes or planting seasons, or even crop rotation for that matter. Wherever and whenever the reavers reave, the mood is always foul and the nights are never warm or pleasant. For the rest of the good folks of Westeros, however, a decent grasp of the long-term weather forecast is a necessity. Many a maester have tried to play the Game of Weather Patterns and foretell when to plant those last turnip seeds, hoping for a few more years of balmy respite. Tried and failed. For other than the somewhat vague (if not outright meaningless) omens of "Winter is Coming", their meteorological efforts have been worse than useless. To right that appalling wrong, here we attempt to explain the apparently erratic seasonal changes in the world of G.R.R.M. A natural explanation for such phenomena is the unique behavior of a circumbinary planet. Thus, by speculating that the planet under scrutiny is orbiting a pair of stars, we utilize the power of numerical three-...

  19. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  20. Klaus Winter (1930 - 2015)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    We learned with great sadness that Klaus Winter passed away on 9 February 2015, after a long illness.   Klaus was born in 1930 in Hamburg, where he obtained his diploma in physics in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 he held a scholarship at the Collège de France, where he received his doctorate in nuclear physics under the guidance of Francis Perrin. Klaus joined CERN in 1958, where he first participated in experiments on π+ and K0 decay properties at the PS, and later became the spokesperson of the CHOV Collaboration at the ISR. Starting in 1976, his work focused on experiments with the SPS neutrino beam. In 1984 he joined Ugo Amaldi to head the CHARM experiment, designed for detailed studies of the neutral current interactions of high-energy neutrinos, which had been discovered in 1973 using the Gargamelle bubble chamber at the PS. The unique feature of the detector was its target calorimeter, which used large Carrara marble plates as an absorber material. From 1984 to 1991, Klau...

  1. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  2. Evaluation and economic value of winter weather forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Derrick W.

    State and local highway agencies spend millions of dollars each year to deploy winter operation teams to plow snow and de-ice roadways. Accurate and timely weather forecast information is critical for effective decision making. Students from Purdue University partnered with the Indiana Department of Transportation to create an experimental winter weather forecast service for the 2012-2013 winter season in Indiana to assist in achieving these goals. One forecast product, an hourly timeline of winter weather hazards produced daily, was evaluated for quality and economic value. Verification of the forecasts was performed with data from the Rapid Refresh numerical weather model. Two objective verification criteria were developed to evaluate the performance of the timeline forecasts. Using both criteria, the timeline forecasts had issues with reliability and discrimination, systematically over-forecasting the amount of winter weather that was observed while also missing significant winter weather events. Despite these quality issues, the forecasts still showed significant, but varied, economic value compared to climatology. Economic value of the forecasts was estimated to be 29.5 million or 4.1 million, depending on the verification criteria used. Limitations of this valuation system are discussed and a framework is developed for more thorough studies in the future.

  3. Evaluation of biohydrogenation rate of canola vs. soya bean seeds as unsaturated fatty acids sources for ruminants in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaei, S; Ghoorchi, T; Yamchi, A

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study disappearance of C14 to C18 fatty acids, lag times and biohydrogenation (BH) rates of C18 fatty acids of ground soya bean and canola seeds in situ. Three ruminally fistulated Dallagh sheep were used to determine ruminal BH of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs). Differences in the disappearance of fatty acids through the bags and lag times were observed between the oilseeds. We saw that the longer the incubation time of the oilseeds in the rumen, the lower the content of C18:2 and C18:3. Significantly higher lag times for both C18:2 and C18:3 were observed in ground canola compared to ground soya bean. BH rates of C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids in soya bean were three times higher than those of canola. These results suggest that the fatty acid profile of fat source can affect the BH of UFAs by rumen micro-organisms. So that UFAs of canola had higher ability to escape from ruminal BH. It seems that fatty acid profile of ruminant products is more affected by canola seed compared to soya bean seed. PMID:26094995

  4. Effect of inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain FY32 on some traits in canola cultivars under salt stress in hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are known as an alternative to chemical fertilizers, which are able to reduce the harmful effects of non-biological stresses such as salinity and increase soil fertility and crop production. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain FY32 on a number of morphological characters in canola cultivars under salt stress. Thereby, a split split-plot design with three replications was applied in hydroponic cultivation system. Six bacterial inoculated (Pseudomonas flourescens FY32 and non-inoculated canola cultivars were subjected to sodium chloride salt stress at three levels (0, 150 and 300 mM. Based on the ANOVA results, inoculation effects under different salinity levels on canola cultivars, compared to non-inoculated treatments, were statistically significant on plant fresh weight, dry weight of leaf, stem and total plant, leaf area and root length. Also, three-way interaction effects of salinity, bacteria and cultivar on plant height and root volume were significant (P<0.01. Sodium, potassium and proline concentration in leaves and roots of inoculated plants had significant difference with non-inoculated plants at different levels of salinity. The highest rate of proline and potassium ion was observed in canola cultivars inoculated with Pseudomonas fluorescens under both salinity levels. It can be concluded that inoculation of canola plants with Pseudomonas flourescense (containing ACC- deaminase gene could improve their growth and development in case of salinity stress.

  5. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat selection and energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, K.E.; Naugle, D.E.; Walker, B.L.; Graham, J.M. [University of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Recent energy development has resulted in rapid and large-scale changes to western shrub-steppe ecosystems without a complete understanding of its potential impacts on wildlife populations. We modeled winter habitat use by female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, to 1) identify landscape features that influenced sage-grouse habitat selection, 2) assess the scale at which selection occurred, 3) spatially depict winter habitat quality in a Geographic Information System, and 4) assess the effect of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) development on winter habitat selection. We developed a model of winter habitat selection based on 435 aerial relocations of 200 radiomarked female sage-grouse obtained during the winters of 2005 and 2006. Percent sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) cover on the landscape was an important predictor of use by sage-grouse in winter. Sage-grouse were 1.3 times more likely to occupy sagebrush habitats that lacked CBNG wells within a 4-km{sup 2} area, compared to those that had the maximum density of 12.3 wells per 4 km{sup 2} allowed on federal lands. We validated the model with 74 locations from 74 radiomarked individuals obtained during the winters of 2004 and 2007. This winter habitat model based on vegetation, topography, and CBNG avoidance was highly predictive (validation R{sup 2} = 0.984). Our spatially explicit model can be used to identify areas that provide the best remaining habitat for wintering sage-grouse in the PRB to mitigate impacts of energy development.

  6. Ameliorating influence of sulfur on germination attributes of canola (brassica napus l.) under chromium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was performed to evaluate the role of sulfur to induce tolerance in Brassica napus L. against chromium stress by estimating the changes in germination parameters. Petriplates were assembled in Randomized Complete Block Design. A total 9 sets of treatments viz., control, chromium treated (40 and 160ppm), sulfur treated (50 and 150ppm) and sulfur (50 and 150ppm) combined with chromium (40 and 160ppm) with three replicates was used. Chromium under both concentrations was responsible for significant decline in germination parameters i.e. germination percentage, germination rate, seedling vigor index, shoot and root length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedlings. Sulfur application under chromium stress resulted in improvement of germination parameters such as germination percentage, germination rate, seedling vigor index, shoot and root length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedlings in contrast to chromium treatment. So, it can be concluded that sulfur in appropriate dose can be used to ameliorate the negative effects of chromium by increasing the germination potential of canola. (author)

  7. Transcriptome analysis of canola (Brassica napus under salt stress at the germination stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Long

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus is one of the most important oil crops in the world. However, its yield has been constrained by salt stress. In this study, transcriptome profiles were explored using Digital Gene Expression (DGE at 0, 3, 12 and 24 hours after H2O (control and NaCl treatments on B. napus roots at the germination stage. Comparisons of gene-expression between the control and the treatment were conducted after tag-mapping to the sequenced Brassica rapa genome. The differentially expressed genes during the time course of salt stress were focused on, and 163 genes were identified to be differentially expressed at all the time points. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses revealed that some of the genes were involved in proline metabolism, inositol metabolism, carbohydrate metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction processes and may play vital roles in the salt-stress response at the germination stage. Thus, this study provides new candidate salt stress responding genes, which may function in novel putative nodes in the molecular pathways of salt stress resistance.

  8. Introduction of some important antagonistic bacteria affecting on damping-off of canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarani, S

    2012-01-01

    Three hundred ninety five bacterial isolates were collected from canola Root and Rhizosphere in Golestan, Mazandaran, Guilan and Tehran provinces. At first, antagonistic effect of bacterial isolates on Rhizoctonia solani was studied using dual culture test assay. The results showed that 60 isolates had the ability to inhibit the growth of fungi on PDA medium. On the basis of the biochemical, physiological and morphological tests, isolates Pf41, Pf51, Pf411 and Pf412 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, isolate Bu1 as Burkholderia cepacia, the isolates B1, B2, Bs44 and B6 were as Bacillus subtilis and S44, str45 as Streptomyces sp. Results of the studies on biocontrol mechanism showed that Isolates produced antibiotics and volatile metabolites that prevented the mycelial growth of the fungus. Also the isolates produced some of antimicrobial metabolites including hydrogen cyanide, protease and siderophore. Isolates effect inhibition of in vitro growth of the fungus. The effect of isolates on disease reduction in compare with control have significantly differentiated. None of the isolates were able completely to prevent disease occurrence. Isolates applied as soil treatment had a significantly higher disease control as compared to seed treatment. Isolates had considerable effect on reduction disease under the greenhouse conditions. PMID:23878984

  9. Winter Storms and Extreme Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Main Content Snowstorms & Extreme Cold This page explains what actions to take when ... snowstorm or extreme cold. Before Snowstorms and Extreme Cold To prepare for a winter storm you should ...

  10. A Warm and Cleaner Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Beijing municipal and district governments have taken measures to keep residents warm and the winter sky blue In a bungalow in Xisi North Fifth Alley in the Xicheng District of Beijing,Li has lived for nearly seven decades.

  11. Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Weather Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  12. Winter waterfowl survey, southeastern Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Little is known of the total numbers of wintering waterfowl within the north pacific coastal region. The random stratified plot sampling methods used in 1980, as...

  13. Efeito da substituição do farelo de algodão pelo farelo de canola no desempenho de novilhas Nelore confinadas Effect of cottonseed meal replacement by canola meal on performance of feedlot Nellore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanor Nunes do Prado

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito da substituição do farelo de algodão pelo farelo de canola sobre ganho em peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e rendimento de carcaça de novilhas Nelore confinadas. Trinta novilhas com, em média, 225 kg PV inicial e 20 meses de idade foram distribuídas ao acaso em dois tratamentos (farelo de algodão - FAG ou farelo de canola - FAC como fontes de proteína com 15 animais por tratamento. O experimento foi realizado em três períodos de 28 dias, mais 14 dias de adaptação. O ganho médio diário no tratamento FAC (1,05 kg foi maior que no tratamento FAG (0,87 kg. Da mesma forma, a conversão alimentar da MS no tratamento FAC (6,72 foi melhor que no tratamento FAG (8,13; todavia, o rendimento de carcaça foi semelhante para ambos os tratamentos (51,6 e 51,7%, para FAC e FAG, respectivamente. O uso de farelo de canola, em comparação ao farelo de algodão, como fonte de proteína alternativa na ração de novilhas Nelore em crescimento e terminação, mostrou-se viável, uma vez que o ganho em peso e a conversão alimentar dos animais foram melhores.The objective of this work was to study the effect of the substitution of cottonseed meal by canola meal on weight gain, feed intake, feed:gain ratio and dressing percentage of the feedlot Nellore heifers. Thirty Nellore heifers averaging initial of 225 kg LW and 20 months of age were randomly allotted to two treatments (cottonseed meal - COM or canola meal - CAM as protein sources with 15 animals for each treatment. The experiment was carried out in three periods of 28 days each, plus 14 days of adaptation. The daily average weight gain in CAM treatment (1.05 kg was higher than in the COM treatment (.87 kg. In the same way, feed:gain ratio of DM in CAM treatment (6.72 was better than COM treatment (8.13. However, the dressing percentage was similar for both treatments (51.6 and 51.7, for CAM and COM, respectively. The use of canola meal

  14. 冬闲田种植3种小麦的产量营养价值及青贮效果%The Yield, Nutritional Value and Silage Quality of Three Wheat Varieties Planted on the Winter Fallow Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春江; 徐赵红; 施清平; 秦甜甜; 董朝霞; 张建国

    2016-01-01

    Objective]The whole-crop wheat (Triticum aestivumL.) has been used as forage for a long time in some countries. However, there were few studies and no forage wheat was bred in China. The present research compared the yields, nutrient value and fermentation quality of 3 wheat varieties selected from 15 varieties before, in order to provide a theoretical basis for planting wheat on winter fallow fields in South China.[Method]Wheat was sown after autumn rice was harvested. The seedling density of three varieties was 3.3×105plants·hm-2 with three replicates in a randomized block design, and the area of each plot was12 m2(3 m ×4 m). The N, P2O5 and K2O were applied with 90.0, 36.0 and 48.0 kg·hm-2 at a ratio of 6 to 4 as base fertilizer to topdressing at jointing stage. At dough stage, the plant height, tiller number of wheat were observed, and the yield was determined using a quadrant of 1.0 m×1.0 m in triplicates; the plant materials above 10 cm of the ground were taken for microbiological analysis. The fresh samples were taken for chemical analyses and silage making. Fresh wheat materials were chopped into 2 to 3 cm lengths. After thorough mixing, 300 g of fresh materials was immediately packed into a plastic film bag (30 cm × 40 cm) in triplicates, degassed and sealed using a vacuum sealer. Thereafter, the bags were maintained at dark place for 60 d at the ambient temperature for silage quality investigation. The dried materials were ground by a hammer mill for chemical analyses.[Result]The plant heightand yields of dry matter and crude protein of Shimai 001 were 75.27 cm, 6.69 and 0.53 t·hm-2, respectively, significantly higher than the other two varieties (P0.05). More lactic acid bacteria epiphyted on 3 varieties, which exceeded 106 cfu·g-1 FM. After opening the bag silos, the pH values of Shimai 001 and HYN were about 4.30, lower than 4.50 of Xumai 856, but not significant (P>0.05). Shimai 001 had better fermentation quality, indicated by the highest

  15. A rapid method for the simultaneous quantification of the major tocopherols, carotenoids, free and esterified sterols in canola (Brassica napus) oil using normal phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flakelar, Clare L; Prenzler, Paul D; Luckett, David J; Howitt, Julia A; Doran, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    A normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to simultaneously quantify several prominent bioactive compounds in canola oil vis. α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, β-sitosterol, campesterol and brassicasterol. The use of sequential diode array detection (DAD) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) allowed direct injection of oils, diluted in hexane without derivatisation or saponification, greatly reducing sample preparation time, and permitting the quantification of both free sterols and intact sterol esters. Further advantages over existing methods included increased analytical selectivity, and a chromatographic run time substantially less than other reported normal phase methods. The HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method was applied to freshly extracted canola oil samples as well as commercially available canola, palm fruit, sunflower and olive oils. PMID:27507459

  16. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of canola oil with caprylic acid to produce medium-, long- and medium-chain-type structured lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yingyao; Xia, Luan; Xu, Xuebing; Xie, Liang; Duan, Zhangqun

    2012-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of canola oil with caprylic acid was performed to produce structured lipids (SLs) containing medium-chain fatty acid (M) at position sn-1,3 and long-chain fatty acid (L) at the sn-2 position in a solvent-free system. Six commercial lipases from different sources were...... screened for their ability to incorporate caprylic acid into the canola oil. The sn-1,3 regiospecificity toward the glycerol backbone of canola oil of the lipases with relatively higher acidolysis activity was compared by investigating the fatty acid profiles of the products. The results showed that...... when reactions were carried with 10% lipase of the total weight of substrates with a 1:4 mole ratio of oil and caprylic acid. The optimal time course and temperature for synthesis SLs were 15 h and 50–60 °C. Possible triacylglycerol species and physical properties of the SLs product obtained at...

  17. Yield and nutritive value for ruminants of organic Winter cereals-bard vetch intercrops

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, A.; Carro Travieso, María Dolores; Palacios, Carlos; Saro, C.; Mateos, I; Tejido, M. L.; Ranilla, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Organic livestock in the European Union must be fed with organic feed, and forage should be at least 60% of the diet of herbivorous animals. However, the productivity of crops in organic farming is frequently lower than that in conventional farming, and organic cultivation of winter cereals often reduces forage CP content. Intercropping of winter cereals with legumes can provide both higher forage yield and quality compared with winter cereal monocultures, but the results may differ with ...

  18. Clothianidin in agricultural soils and uptake into corn pollen and canola nectar after multiyear seed treatment applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Dan G.; McConnell, Laura L.; Bondarenko, Svetlana; Allen, Richard; Heinemann, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Limited data are available on the fate of clothianidin under realistic agricultural production conditions. The present study is the first large‐scale assessment of clothianidin residues in soil and bee‐relevant matrices from corn and canola fields after multiple years of seed‐treatment use. The average soil concentration from 50 Midwest US corn fields with 2 yr to 11 yr of planting clothianidin‐treated seeds was 7.0 ng/g, similar to predicted concentrations from a single planting of Poncho 250‐treated corn seeds (6.3 ng/g). The water‐extractable (i.e., plant‐bioavailable) clothianidin residues in soil were only 10% of total residues. Clothianidin concentrations in soil reached a plateau concentration (amount applied equals amount dissipated) in fields with 4 or more application years. Concentrations in corn pollen from these fields were low (mean: 1.8 ng/g) with no correlation to total years of use or soil concentrations. For canola, soil concentrations from 27 Canadian fields with 2 yr to 4 yr of seed treatment use (mean = 5.7 ng/g) were not correlated with use history, and plant bioavailability was 6% of clothianidin soil residues. Average canola nectar concentrations were 0.6 ng/g and not correlated to use history or soil concentrations. Under typical cropping practices, therefore, clothianidin residues are not accumulating significantly in soil, plant bioavailability of residues in soil is limited, and exposure to pollinators will not increase over time in fields receiving multiple applications of clothianidin. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:311–321. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:26467536

  19. Intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of sheep fed diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Oliveira Maia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils on intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês sheep. Four rumen-cannulated animals of 90.2±11.4 kg average body weight were assigned to a 4 × 4 latin square. Animals remained individually in cages for the metabolism assay and were fed diets containing roughage at 500 g/kg and concentrate based on ground corn and soybean meal also at 500 g/kg. No oil was added to the control diet, whereas the others had canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg (DM basis. There was no difference for the intake of DM and nutrients, except for ether extract, which was greater when animals received oil. The digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates and neutral detergent fiber were not changed; however, the addition of oil increased the ether extract digestibility. The values of total digestible nutrients (TDN, g/kg of DM, digestible energy (DE, Mcal/kg of DM, TDN intake and DE intake also did not change with the addition of lipids. Concerning the ruminal constituents, the addition of vegetable oils reduced the concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids. Adding canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg in diets with 500 g roughage/kg and 500 g concentrate/kg does not impair the intake or digestibility of nutrients in sheep, although it reduces the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the rumen.

  20. Clothianidin in agricultural soils and uptake into corn pollen and canola nectar after multiyear seed treatment applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianbo; Dyer, Dan G; McConnell, Laura L; Bondarenko, Svetlana; Allen, Richard; Heinemann, Oliver

    2016-02-01

    Limited data are available on the fate of clothianidin under realistic agricultural production conditions. The present study is the first large-scale assessment of clothianidin residues in soil and bee-relevant matrices from corn and canola fields after multiple years of seed-treatment use. The average soil concentration from 50 Midwest US corn fields with 2 yr to 11 yr of planting clothianidin-treated seeds was 7.0 ng/g, similar to predicted concentrations from a single planting of Poncho 250-treated corn seeds (6.3 ng/g). The water-extractable (i.e., plant-bioavailable) clothianidin residues in soil were only 10% of total residues. Clothianidin concentrations in soil reached a plateau concentration (amount applied equals amount dissipated) in fields with 4 or more application years. Concentrations in corn pollen from these fields were low (mean: 1.8 ng/g) with no correlation to total years of use or soil concentrations. For canola, soil concentrations from 27 Canadian fields with 2 yr to 4 yr of seed treatment use (mean = 5.7 ng/g) were not correlated with use history, and plant bioavailability was 6% of clothianidin soil residues. Average canola nectar concentrations were 0.6 ng/g and not correlated to use history or soil concentrations. Under typical cropping practices, therefore, clothianidin residues are not accumulating significantly in soil, plant bioavailability of residues in soil is limited, and exposure to pollinators will not increase over time in fields receiving multiple applications of clothianidin. PMID:26467536

  1. A global study of transcriptome dynamics in canola (Brassica napus L.) responsive to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection using RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Raj Kumar; Megha, Swati; Rahman, Muhammad Hafizur; Basu, Urmila; Kav, Nat N V

    2016-09-15

    The necrotrophic phytopathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, causes Sclerotinia stem rot, which is a serious constraint to canola (Brassica napus L.) production worldwide. To understand the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying host response to Sclerotinia infection, we analyzed the transcript level changes in canola post-infection with S. sclerotiorum in a time course of a compatible interaction using strand specific whole transcriptome sequencing. Following infection, 161 and 52 genes (P≤0.001) were induced while 24 and 23 genes were repressed at 24h post-inoculation (hpi) and 48hpi, respectively. This suggests that, a gradual increase in host cell lyses and increase virulence of the pathogen led to the expression of only a fewer host specific genes at the later stage of infection. We observed rapid induction of key pathogen responsive genes, including glucanases, chitinases, peroxidases and WRKY Transcription factors (TFs) within 24hpi, indicating early detection of the pathogen by the host. Only 16 genes were significantly induced at both the time points suggesting a coordinated suppression of host responses by the pathogen. In addition to genes involved in plant-pathogen interactions, many novel disease responsive genes, including various TF sand those associated with jasmonate (JA) and ethylene (ET) signalling were identified. This suggests that canola adopts multiple strategies in mediating plant responses to the pathogen attack. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) validation of a selected set of genes demonstrated a similar trend as observed by RNA-Seq analysis and highlighted the potential involvement of these genes by the host to defend itself from pathogen attack. Overall, this work presents an in-depth analysis of the interaction between host susceptibility and pathogen virulence in the agriculturally important B. napus-S. sclerotiorum pathosystem. PMID:27265030

  2. Comparative environmental impact assessment of herbicides used on genetically modified and non-genetically modified herbicide-tolerant canola crops using two risk indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Danielle P; Kookana, Rai S; Miller, Rosalind B; Correll, Raymond L

    2016-07-01

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) is the third largest field crop in Australia by area sown. Genetically modified (GM) and non-GM canola varieties released or being developed in Australia include Clearfield® (imidazolinone tolerant), TT (triazine tolerant), InVigor® (glufosinate-ammonium tolerant), Roundup Ready® - RR® (glyphosate tolerant) and Hyola® RT® (tolerant to both glyphosate and triazine). We used two risk assessment approaches - the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) and the Pesticide Impact Rating Index (PIRI) - to compare the environmental risks associated with herbicides used in the canola varieties (GM and non-GM) that are currently grown or may be grown in the future. Risk assessments found that from an environmental impact viewpoint a number of herbicides used in the production of TT canola showed high relative risk in terms of mobility and ecotoxicity of herbicides. The EIQ field use rating values for atrazine and simazine in particular were high compared with those for glyphosate and trifluralin. Imazapic and imazapyr, which are only used in Clearfield® canola, had extremely low EIQ field use rating values, likely reflecting the very low application rates used for these chemicals (0.02 to 0.04kg/ha) compared with those used for atrazine and simazine (1.2 to 1.5kg/ha). The PIRI assessment showed that irrespective of the canola variety grown, trifluralin posed a high toxicity risk to fish (Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), algae and Daphnia sp. While the replacement of trifluralin with propyzamide had little effect on the mobility score, it greatly decreased the ecotoxicity score to fish, algae and Daphnia sp. due to the lower LC50 values for propyzamide compared with trifluralin. This study has shown that based on likelihood of off-site transport of herbicides in surface water and potential toxicity to non-target organisms, the GM canola varieties have no advantage over non-herbicide tolerant (non HT) or Clearfield® canola. PMID:27039064

  3. Effects of Dietary Cottonseed and/or Canola Oil Inclusion on the Growth Performance, FA Composition and Organ Histology of the Juvenile Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldız, Mustafa; Eroldoğan, O. Tufan; Engin, Kenan; GÜLÇUBUK, Ahmet; Baltacı, M. Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at demonstrating the effects of total and 50% dietary fish oil replacement by cotton seed and canola oils and a mixture of these vegetable oils (VOs) on growth, tissue fatty acid composition and histology of digestive organs in the juvenile rainbow trout for 84 days. Five iso-nitrogenous and lipidic diets were formulated to replace dietary fish oil (FO) totally by cotton seed oil (CSO), canola oil (CO) and an equal or 50% FO/ 50% VO mixture. Duplicate groups of 50 fish (~15 g...

  4. Seed bank modelling of volunteer oil seed rape: from seeds fate in the soil to seedling emergence Modelagem do banco de sementes de canola: do destino das sementes no solo à emergência das plântulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Soltani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to estimate parameters and relationships associated with sub-processes in soil seed banks of oilseed rape in Gorgan, Iran. After one month of burial, seed viability decreased to 39%, with a slope of 2.03% per day, and subsequently decreased with a lower slope of 0.01 until 365 days following burial in the soil. Germinability remained at its highest value in autumn and winter and decreased from spring to the last month of summer. Non-dormant seeds of volunteer oilseed rape did not germinate at temperatures lower than 3.8 ºC and a water potential of -1.4 MPa ºd. The hydrothermal values were 36.2 and 42.9 MPa ºd for sub- and supra-optimal temperatures, respectively. Quantification of seed emergence as influenced by burial depth was performed satisfactorily (R² = 0.98 and RMSE = 5.03. The parameters and relationships estimated here can be used for modelling soil seed bank dynamics or establishing a new model for the environment.Estudos foram realizados para estimar os parâmetros e as relações ligados a subprocessos em bancos de sementes de canola no solo, em Gorgan, Iran. Após um mês de enterrio, a viabilidade das sementes diminuiu para 39%, com inclinação de 2,03% ao dia; posteriormente, diminuiu com menor inclinação: de 0,01 até 365 dias após o enterrio no solo. A germinação manteve-se em seu maior valor no outono e inverno, reduzindo da primavera ao último mês do verão. Sementes de canola não dormentes não germinaram em temperaturas abaixo de 3,8 °C e potencial hídrico abaixo de -1,4 Mpaºd. Os valores hidrotermais foram de 36,2 e 42,9 Mpaºd para temperaturas sub e supraótima, respectivamente. A quantificação da emergência das sementes sob influência da profundidade de enterrio foi delineada de forma satisfatória (R²= 0,98 e RMSE = 5,03. Os parâmetros e as relações estimadas neste estudo podem ser utilizados em modelagens do banco de sementes do solo ou para estabelecer um novo modelo para

  5. Heading for Next Winter Haven

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Approaching its 47th month of a Mars surface mission originally planned to last three months, NASA's Spirit rover was also approaching the northern edge of a low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The rover's operators selected an area with north-facing slope there as a destination where Spirit would have its best chance of surviving low-solar-energy conditions of oncoming Martian winter. The yellow line on this map of the Home Plate area indicates Spirit's route from early February 2006, entering the mapped area from the north (top), to late November 2007, on the western edge of the bright-toned Home Plate plateau. The map covers an area about 160 meters (525 feet) across from west to east. Labels indicate the area intended for Spirit to spend many months spanning the rover's third Martian winter, the site where it spent about seven months (April to November 2006) spanning its second winter, and the site where it lost use of the drive motor for one of its six wheels. A north-facing slope helps Spirit maximizes electric output from its solar panels during winter months because Spirit is in the southern hemisphere of Mars, so the sun appears only in the northern sky during winter. For the third winter, which will reach its minimum solar-energy days in early June 2008, Spirit faces the challenge of having more dust on its solar panels than it had during its second winter. The base image for this map is a portion of a color image taken on Jan. 9, 2007, by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  6. Impact of municipal waste water of Quetta city on biomass, physiology and yield of canola (brassica napus l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out in order to investigate the impact of municipal wastewater effluents of Quetta city on the biomass, physiology, and productivity of two canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars viz., Oscar and Rainbow. Plants were grown in pots from seed to maturity during 2005-2006 growth season. Different concentrations of effluents (T1: 20% ,T2: 40%, T3: 60% T4: 80; T5: 100%) were supplied to plants as a soil drench compared to control plants (T0) receiving normal tap water. The wastewater effluents were highly alkaline in nature along with very high Electrical Conductivity, Biological Oxygen Demand; Chemical Oxygen Demand; Sodium Adsorption Ratio, Total Suspended Solids and minerals concentrations have found well above threshold limits set for the usage of municipal wastewater for irrigation purposes. Growth performance of both canola cultivars showed statistically significant effects on some physiological attributes. All treated plants showed reductions in growth and yield parameters, but T5 treated plants were most affected compared to control. There were significantly higher reductions in stomatal conductance (49% in Oscar; 53% in Rainbow), transpiration rate (62% Oscar; 67% in Rainbow), and photosynthetic rate (62% in Oscar; 69% in Rainbow) of T5 treatment plants compared with control. Both pigments of chlorophyll (a and b) responded efficiently to the applied stress of wastewater effluents showing reductions in chlorophyll a and b by 68-82% in cv. Oscar and 74-86% in cv. Rainbow. Similarly, fresh and dry biomass also showed reductions in different effluents treated plants (T1 to T5) ranging from 2-78% in both the cultivars of canola. Drastic reductions were recorded in the number of siliqua per plant (70-72%), seeds per plant (84-85%), seed weight per plant (87-90), and in the harvest index (72-74%) in cultivars Oscar and Rainbow, respectively than that of control. The overall result of the municipal wastewater impacts on canola cultivars are

  7. Maternal consumption of canola oil suppressed mammary gland tumorigenesis in C3(1) TAg mice offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Hardman W Elaine; Akinsete Juliana A; Ion Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Maternal consumption of a diet high in omega 6 polyunsaturated fats (n-6 PUFA) has been shown to increase risk whereas a diet high in omega 3 polyunsaturated fats (n-3 PUFA) from fish oil has been shown to decrease risk for mammary gland cancer in female offspring of rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether increasing n-3 PUFA and reducing n-6 PUFA by using canola oil instead of corn oil in the maternal diet might reduce the risk for breast cancer in female off...

  8. Regulatory control of carotenoid accumulation in winter squash during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postharvest storage of fruits and vegetables is often required and frequently results in nutritional quality change. In this study, we investigated carotenoid storage plastids, carotenoid content, and its regulation during 3-month storage of winter squash butternut fruits. We showed that storage imp...

  9. Selective Breeding under Saline Stressed Conditions of Canola Mutations Induced by Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding program has been initiated for inducing canola mutations tolerance to saline stressed conditions for growing at harsh land in Egypt. Therefore, seed lots of three cultivars and exotic variety (Bactol, Serow 4, Serow 6 and Evita) were subjected to 100,400 and 600 Gy of gamma rays. Mass selection with 20 % intensity for high number of pods per plant has been done in each treatment in M2 generation. However, individually plants with high number of pods / plant were selected from each variety in M3 generation for test under saline stressed conditions at Ras Sudr region in M4 (8600 and 8300 ppm salinity for soil and irrigation, respectively). The obtained results revealed that eight mutated families from 12- test families in M4 generation surpassed their parents in seed yield / plant and related characters ( plant height ,fruiting zone length , No. of branches , No. of pods / plant ). In addition, the mutant F93 characterized by fast growing and non shuttering pods reflecting 50.4% over Evita control in seed yield/ plant. Twelve mutant lines in M5 represented the mutant families were grown in sandy-loam soil at Inshas region. The three mutant lines (L 22, L 38 and L 45) continuously surpassed their parents in seed yield and related characters, but the increases were less than the previous generation. The increase was 22.3 %, 38.7 % and 36.7 % over seed yield of respective parents. Moreover, mutant L66 exhibited an increase in its yield components in M5 at Inshas only, suggesting that gene expression and genomic structure extremely influenced by environmental factors. Genetic stability for the obtained mutations could be done at different environmental conditions in further studies

  10. Evaluation of Application Methods Efficiency of Zinc and Iron for Canola(Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluation of application method efficiency of zinc and iron microelements in canola, an experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Research Station of Eastern Azerbaijan province in 2008. The experimental design was a RCBD with eight treatments (F1: control, F2: iron, F3: zinc, F4: iron + zinc in the form of soil utility, F5: iron, F6: zinc, F7: iron+ zinc in the form of solution foliar application, and F8: iron + zinc in the form of soil utility and foliar application. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among treatments on given traits, antioxidant enzymes activity, fatty acids percentage, plant height, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio, protein percentage, oil percentage, oil yield, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium percentage of leaves, zinc and iron content of leaves and capitulum diameters. The highest seed yield, oil yield, oil percentage, 1000 seed weight, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio and protein percentage were obtained from the soil and foliar application of iron + zinc treatments (F8. Also, the highest amounts of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium concentration in leaves were achieved from control treatment which was an indication of non-efficiency of iron and zinc on the absorption rate of these substances in the leaves. The correlation between effective traits on the seed yield, such as, capitalism diameter, number of seed rows in capitulum, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio and 1000 seed weight were positively significant. In general, foliar and soil application of zinc and iron had the highest efficiency in aspect of seed production. The comparison of the various methods of fertilization showed that foliar application was more effective than soil application. Also, micronutrient foliar application increased concentration of elements, especially zinc and iron. Antioxidant enzymes activity was different in response to treatments also the

  11. Effects of Irrigation Deficit and Application of Some Growth Regulators on Defense Mechanisms of Canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad KALANTAR AHMADI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A split-plot experiment arranged in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications was carried out in Safiabad Agricultural Research Center of Dezful in order to investigate the effects of foliar applications of ascorbic acid (AsA, salicylic acid (SA and methanol (Me, under deficit irrigation conditions, in canola; there were 3 levels of irrigation as the main factor (irrigation after 70 mm evaporation from the pan as control, cessation of irrigation at the flowering stage and cessation of irrigation at the appearance of siliques and 10 levels of foliar applications as sub-factor (100, 200 and 300 mg.l-1AsA; 100, 200 and 300 µM SA; 10, 20 and 30% (w/v methanol; and foliar application of distilled water as control. Foliar applications were made during both budding and initiation of flowering stages. Results indicated that antioxidant enzymes showed different responses to deficit irrigation and foliar application treatments. Maximum catalase (CAT and polyphenol oxidase (PPO activities were observed under cessation of irrigation at flowering stage and foliar application of 300 µM SA, while ascorbate peroxidase (APX reached its maximum activity under the same irrigation conditions and foliar application of 300 mg.l-1AsA. SA had more influence to increase in CAT and PPO activity under cessation of irrigation at flowering stage. The relative water content (RWC was also decreased due to the drought stress caused by the cessation of irrigation. Foliar application of SA (100 μM and Me (10% w/v had more influence to maintain RWC compared to ascorbic acid under irrigation cessation at flowering stage.

  12. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and climate change: Importance of winter forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thrine Moen Heggberget

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, climate change is predicted to be particularly pronounced, although regionally variable, in the vast arctic, sub-arctic and alpine tundra areas of the northern hemisphere. Here, we review winter foraging conditions for reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus living in these areas, and consider diet, forage quality and distribution, accessibility due to snow variation, and effects of snow condition on reindeer and caribou populations. Finally, we hypothesise how global warming may affect wild mountain reindeer herds in South Norway. Energy-rich lichens often dominate reindeer and caribou diets. The animals also prefer lichens, and their productivity has been shown to be higher on lichen-rich than on lichen-poor ranges. Nevertheless, this energy source appears to be neither sufficient as winter diet for reindeer or caribou (at least for pregnant females nor necessary. Some reindeer and caribou populations seem to be better adapted to a non-lichen winter diet, e.g. by a larger alimentary tract. Shrubs appear to be the most common alternative winter forage, while some grasses appear to represent a good, nutritionally-balanced winter diet. Reindeer/caribou make good use of a wide variety of plants in winter, including dead and dry parts that are digested more than expected based on their fibre content. The diversity of winter forage is probably important for the mineral content of the diet. A lichen-dominated winter diet may be deficient in essential dietary elements, e.g. minerals. Sodium in particular may be marginal in inland winter ranges. Our review indicates that most Rangifer populations with lichen-dominated winter diets are either periodically or continuously heavily harvested by humans or predators. However, when population size is mainly limited by food, accessible lichen resources are often depleted. Plant studies simulating climatic change indicate that a warmer, wetter

  13. Production of glycerol-free biofuel from canola oil and dimethyl carbonate using triazabicyclodecene in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Rafiqul

    Due to the increasing awareness of the dwindling fossil fuel resources and environmental issues, biofuel became an alternative renewable fuel to meet the steady increase of energy consumption and environmental demands. This work was designed to produce biofuel free from glycerol, soap, catalyst and wastes from canola oil and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) using an organocatalyst, triazabicyclodecene (TBD). To achieve these goals, several interconnected research activities were undertaken. First, a flow sheet was developed for the process and operating criteria were identified by laboratory experimentation verified with Aspen Plus. Mass and energy integration studies were performed to minimize the consumption of materials and energy utilities. Next, kinetics of canola oil transesterification using TBD as homogeneous catalyst in dimethyl carbonate has been investigated and a model was developed. Kinetics data were vital in process assessment and kinetics model was essential in the study of chemical reaction and catalyst development. Finally, a heterogeneous catalyst was developed for use as a biofuel catalyst through the immobilization of TBD into MgAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs) which can combine the advantages of homogeneous catalysis with the best properties of heterogeneous materials.

  14. Effect of solid state fermentation on nutrient content and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljuobori Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of Lactobacillus salivarius solid state fermentation for reduction of glucosinolate content in canola meal (CM as well as the improvement of its nutrient digestibility for broiler chickens. Canola meal was treated with the L. salivarius in solid state fermentation for 30 days. Nutrients ileal digestibility was tested using 42-day-old broilers fed by either CM or fermented CM (FCM as the sole source of energy and protein. The results showed that fermentation of CM using L. salivarius reduced glucosinolate content of CM by 38%. The digestibility coefficient was improved significantly for crude protein, Met, Cys, Arg, Asp, Glu, and Ser in FCM compared to CM. However, apparent metabolisable energy of CM was not affected by fermentation. It appears that fermentation treatment of CM using L. salivarius may improve the overall nutritive value of CM for broiler chickens, reducing its total glucosinolate and crude fibre content by 38 and 16%, respectively.

  15. Transformation of Brassica napus canola cultivars with Arabidopsis thaliana acetohydroxyacid synthase genes and analysis of herbicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, B L; Labbé, H; Hattori, J; Ouellet, T; Gabard, J; Sunohara, G; Charest, P J; Iyer, V N

    1990-10-01

    A survey of selected crop species and weeds was conducted to evaluate the inhibition of the enzyme acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) and seedling growth in vitro by the sulfonylurea herbicides chlorsulfuron, DPX A7881, DPX L5300, DPX M6316 and the imidazolinone herbicides AC243,997, AC263,499, AC252,214. Particular attention was given to the Brassica species including canola cultivars and cruciferous weeds such as B. kaber (wild mustard) and Thlaspi arvense (stinkweed). Transgenic lines of B. napus cultivars Westar and Profit, which express the Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type AHAS gene or the mutant gene csr1-1 at levels similar to the resident AHAS genes, were generated and compared. The mutant gene was essential for resistance to the sulfonylurea chlorsulfuron but not to DPX A7881, which appeared to be tolerated by certain Brassica species. Cross-resistance to the imidazolinones did not occur. The level of resistance to chlorsulfuron in transgenic canola greatly exceeded the levels that were toxic to the Brassica species or cruciferous weeds. Direct selection of transgenic lines with chlorsulfuron sprayed at field levels under greenhouse conditions was achieved. PMID:24221001

  16. Optimization of the canola oil based vitamin E nanoemulsions stabilized by food grade mixed surfactants using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Tahir

    2015-09-15

    The objective of the present study was to prepare canola oil based vitamin E nanoemulsions by using food grade mixed surfactants (Tween:80 and lecithin; 3:1) to replace some concentration of nonionic surfactants (Tween 80) with natural surfactant (soya lecithin) and to optimize their preparation conditions. RBD (Refined, Bleached and Deodorized) canola oil and vitamin E acetate were used in water/vitamin E/oil/surfactant system due to their nutritional benefits and oxidative stability, respectively. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the preparation conditions. The effects of homogenization pressure (75-155MPa), oil concentrations (4-12% w/w), surfactant concentrations (3-11% w/w) and vitamin E acetate contents (0.4-1.2% w/w) on the particle size and emulsion stability were studied. RSM analysis has shown that the experimental data could be fitted well into second-order polynomial model with the coefficient of determinations of 0.9464 and 0.9278 for particle size and emulsion stability, respectively. The optimum values of independent variables were 135MPa homogenization pressure, 6.18% oil contents, 6.39% surfactant concentration and 1% vitamin E acetate concentration. The optimized response values for particle size and emulsion stability were 150.10nm and 0.338, respectively. Whereas, the experimental values for particle size and nanoemulsion stability were 156.13±2.3nm and 0.328±0.015, respectively. PMID:25863602

  17. Co-transformation of canola by chimeric chitinase and tlp genes towards improving resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Rustam; Zamani, Mohammadreza; Motallebi, Mostafa; Moradyar, Mehdi; Moghadassi Jahromi, Zahra

    2016-09-01

    Canola (Brassica napus) plants were co-transformed with two pathogenesis-related protein genes expressing a Trichoderma atroviride chitinase with a chitin-binding domain (chimeric chitinase) and a thaumatin-like protein (tlp) from Oryza sativa conferring resistance to phytopatogenic fungi by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The putative transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR. After measuring the specific activity of the chimeric chitinase and glucanase activity for tlp genes, transgenic plants with high specific activity were selected for southern blot analysis to confirm the copy number of the genes. In vitro assays, the antifungal activity of crude extracted protein against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum showed that the inhibition percentage in double transgenic plants was between 55 and 62, whereas the inhibition percentage in single-gene transformants (chimeric chitinase) ranged from 35 to 45 percent. Importantly, in greenhouse conditions, the double transgenic plants showed significant resistance than the single-gene transformant and wild type plants. The results in T2 generation using the intact leaf inoculation method showed that the average lesion diameters were 10, 14.7 and 29 mm for the double transformant, single-gene transformant and non-transgenic plants, respectively. Combined expression of chimeric chitinase and tlp in transgenic plants showed significantly enhanced resistance against S. sclerotiorum than the one that express single-gene transformant plants. These results suggest that the co-expression of chimeric chitinase and tlp can confer enhanced disease resistance in canola plant. PMID:27430511

  18. Improvement of Canola (Brassica napus L.) Inoculated with Rhizobium, Azospirillum and/or Mycorrhizal Fungi Under Salinity Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio fertilization technology was applied for improving canola plant growth and nutrient acquisition in sandy saline soil ,as a biological mean used to develop plant growth and nutrient uptake under salinity stress. Canola was cultivated in pots packed at rate of 7 kg saline sandy soil pot-1, and inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viceae, Azospirillum brasilense strain no. 40 and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi either solely or in combinations of them. Nitrogen fertilizer was added in form (15NH4)2SO4 with 5%15N atom excess at rate of 0.99 g N pot-1. Maximum dry matter accumulation induced by composite inoculation (Rh + Azo + AM). Na concentrations were frequently affected by Rhizobium and /or mycorrhizae while K was affected by Azospirillum and /or mycorrhizae. Azospirillum enhanced Ca uptake whereas Mg content was responded well to composite inoculants of Rh + Azo + AM. Dual inoculation with Rh + Azo resulted in the highest values of N uptake by plant. Similar effect was noticed with P uptake when dual inoculums of Azo + AM were applied. Data of 15N isotope showed that the highest portion and value of N2-fixed was recorded with composite inoculums followed by dual inoculations. On the other hand, the infection with AM fungi gave the highest proportion of N derived from fertilizer as compared to other inoculants or uninoculated control. In the same trend, the fertilizer use efficiency (FUE%) was enhanced by AM infection. Dual inoculums of Rh + Azo induced highest content of proline in leaves. (Authors)

  19. Identification and characterization of plant-specific NAC gene family in canola (Brassica napus L.) reveal novel members involved in cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Boya; Guo, Xiaohua; Wang, Chen; Ma, Jieyu; Niu, Fangfang; Zhang, Hanfeng; Yang, Bo; Liang, Wanwan; Han, Feng; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2015-03-01

    NAC transcription factors are plant-specific and play important roles in plant development processes, response to biotic and abiotic cues and hormone signaling. However, to date, little is known about the NAC genes in canola (or oilseed rape, Brassica napus L.). In this study, a total of 60 NAC genes were identified from canola through a systematical analysis and mining of expressed sequence tags. Among these, the cDNA sequences of 41 NAC genes were successfully cloned. The translated protein sequences of canola NAC genes with the NAC genes from representative species were phylogenetically clustered into three major groups and multiple subgroups. The transcriptional activities of these BnaNAC proteins were assayed in yeast. In addition, by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we further observed that some of these BnaNACs were regulated by different hormone stimuli or abiotic stresses. Interestingly, we successfully identified two novel BnaNACs, BnaNAC19 and BnaNAC82, which could elicit hypersensitive response-like cell death when expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, which was mediated by accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Overall, our work has laid a solid foundation for further characterization of this important NAC gene family in canola. PMID:25616736

  20. Sleep and Mood During A Winter in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Houseal, Matt; Miller, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Seasonal variations in sleep characteristics and their association with changes in mood were examined in 91 American men and women also who spent the 1991 austral winter at three different research stations in Antarctica. Measures of total hours of sleep over a 24-hr period, duration of longest (i.e.,"nighttime") sleep event, number of sleep events, time of sleep onset, and quality of sleep remained unchanged over the course of the austral winter (March through October). However, exposure to total darkness based on station latitude was significantly associated with total hours of sleep, duration of are longest sleep event, time of sleep onset, and quality of sleep. Reported vigor the previous month was a significant independent predictor of changes in all five sleep measures; previous month's measures of all six POMS subscales were significant independent predictors of sleep quality. Sleep characteristics were significant independent predictors of vigor and confusion the following month; total sleep, longest sleep event, sleep onset and sleep quality were significant independent predictors of tension-anxiety and depression. Changes in mood during the austral winter are preceded by changes in sleep characteristics, but prolonged exposure to the photoperiodicity characteristic of the high latitudes appears to be associated with improved sleep. In turn, mood changes appear to affect certain sleep characteristics, especially sleep quality.

  1. Tsunamis: Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

  2. Nulhegan Deer Wintering Area Management Plan 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Within the Nulhegan basin lies the Nulhegan Deer Wintering Area, an approximately 15,000-acre tract of land. In addition to being the largest deer wintering area in...

  3. Mexican Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mexican Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey is a continuation of the annual winter waterfowl survey which is conducted in the United States and Mexico. Since the...

  4. Farelo de canola para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, linhagem Chitralada - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1896 Canola meal for juvenile Nile tilapia, Chitralada strain - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1896

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Romano Fernandes

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de diferentes níveis de farelo de canola em rações, sobre o desempenho e composição de carcaça de juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L., linhagem Chitralada. Foram utilizadas 15 caixas de polipropileno com capacidade para 310L, com dez peixes por unidade. Os peixes foram alimentados à saciação com cinco rações isoprotéicas (28% e isocalóricas (2900 Kcal ED/Kg, duas vezes ao dia, durante seis meses. O farelo de canola foi utilizado em quatro níveis (TT=0%, T1=8%, T2=16%, T3=24%, e T4=32%/dieta, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e três repetições. Os valores obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (p0,1 sobre a composição corporal dos peixes, sendo que os níveis de 16% e 24% de farelo de canola proporcionaram os melhores ganhos de peso. Conclui-se que a utilização do farelo de canola é viável quando incluído em até 24% na ração para a tilápia do Nilo, linhagem Chitralada.This work evaluated the inclusion of several levels of canola meal in ration used in the development and carcass compositions of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L., Chitralada strain. Were used 15 polypropylene boxes, with 310 liters (10 fish each. The fish were fed with five isonitrogenous (28% and isocaloric ration (2900 Kcal EM/kg, twice a day for six months. The canola meal was used in four levels (TT = 0%, T1 = 8%, T2 = 16%, T3 = 24% and T4 = 32% / diet, in a completely randomized design, with 5 treatments and three repetitions each. The data obtained were submitted to variance analysis (ANOVA and the averages compared by the Tukey test (p0,1 on fishes body composition, however had best body weight gain with canola meal on levels 16% and 24%. These values seem to show that for the Nile Tilapia, Chilatrada strain, the use of canola meal is viable when included in up

  5. Effects of Water Deficit Stress on Several Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Canola (Brassica napus L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad HOSSEINI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit stress considered as one of the most important limiting factors for oil seed canola (Brassica napus L. growth and productivity in Iran. To evaluate the effects of water deficit stress on some qualitative and quantitative characteristics of canola cultivars, this experiment in a greenhouse trial carried out as factorial based on completely randomized design with three replications in Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz (Iran. Canola cultivars, including ‘Hyola 308’, ‘Hyola 401’ and ‘RGS 003’ as first factor, and the second one was three levels of water deficit stress, including stress at early stem elongation stage to early flowering (D1, early flowering stage to early emergence of sacs (D2, beginning of stem elongation stage to early emergence of sacs (D3 and normal irrigation (C, as check. Results showed that the interaction between water deficit stress and cultivars affected biological yield, seed oil yields and harvest index (p≤0.01, dry matter and economic yield (p≤0.05. Water deficit stress reduced grain oil yields. ‘Hyola 308’ under stress at beginning stem elongation stage to early flowering had the lowest oil yields (1.1 g plants-1 and ‘Hyola 401’ under non-stress conditions showed highest oil yields (4.3 g plants-1. The decrease of oil yields at the flowering stage to stem elongation stage was more than the other stages. In addition, water deficit stress reduced harvest index in the three stress levels due to reduced economic yield and reduced biological yield. Stress susceptibility index for ‘Hyola 401’ at the beginning of stem elongation stage to early emergence of sacs was 0.914 and the ‘Hyola 308’ showed 1.12 at the beginning of stem elongation stage to early emergence of sacs respectively, which it can implies that ‘Hyola 308’ is more sensitive than ‘Hyola 401’ to water deficit stress.

  6. Legacies of North American Olympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Kate

    2011-01-01

    These reports were commissioned by the Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games (VANOC) to gain insight into the legacies of previous North American Olympic Winter Games, held in Lake Placid, Calgary, and Salt Lake City. With this information readily available, VANOC staff can make and encourage references to Winter Games held on this continent and discourage irrelevant comparisons to Olympic Winter and Summer Games held elsewhere. The report begins with...

  7. Índice de área foliar em canola cultivada sob variações de espaçamento e de densidade de semeadura Leaf area index of canola under varying row spacing and plant density of sowing

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldo Chavarria; Gilberto Omar Tomm; Alexandre Muller; Heloisa Ferro Mendonça; Naiana Mello; Maico Serafini Betto

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estimar através de método não-destrutivo o índice de área foliar do híbrido de canola Hyola 61 em variações de espaçamento e densidade de semeadura. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, sendo que nas parcelas foram distribuídos os espaçamentos entre linhas (17, 34, 51 e 68cm) e nas subparcelas as densidades (15, 30, 45 e 60 plantas m-2). Para determinação do comprimento, largura do limbo foliar e da área foliar, ...

  8. Organic winter wheat: optimising planting

    OpenAIRE

    Haigh, Z. E. L.; Baddeley, J. A.; Boyd, H. E.; Clarke, S.; Jones, H; Rees, R. M.; Wolfe, M S

    2008-01-01

    Data from the second year of experiments at three sites (Wakelyns in SE and Sheepdrove in SW England; and Chapel Farm in SE Scotland) to investigate the effects of interactions among a range of agronomic practices (row spacing, seed density, weeding and undersowing with clover) on winter wheat performance are presented, and compared with first year results. Trends seen at all years and sites indicate that narrow row drill arrangements with high seed rates result in the highest yields. This co...

  9. Glyphostate-drift but not herbivory alters the rate of transgene flow from single and stacked trait transgenic canola (Brassica napus L.) to non-transgenic B. napus and B. rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    While transgenic plants can offer agricultural benefits, the escape of transgenes out of crop fields is a major environmental concern. Escape of transgenic herbicide resistance has occurred between transgenic Brassica napus (canola) and weedy species in numerous locations. In t...

  10. Effect of Yeast Antagonist in Combination with Hot Water Dips to Control Decay and Quality on Postharvest Winter Jujubes%拮抗酵母菌结合热水浸泡处理对冬枣采后腐烂及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭东起; 王文华; 许倩

    2014-01-01

    The potential of using an antagonistic yeast dips (Metschnikowia pulcherrima) alone or in combination with hot water dips (at 55℃for 30 s) for the control of natural decay rate and storage quality of winter jujube after ambient temperature (24℃) storage for 7 days, and its effects on decay rate and lesion diameter of wound of winter jujube which inoculation with Penicillium citrinum and Alternaria alternate were tested. The results showed that, the yeast antagonist alone or in combination with HWD treatment could significantly inhibit decay rate and lesion diameter of fruit wound after artificial inoculation with Penicillium citrinum and Alternaria alternate, significantly inhibit the degree of fruit natural decay, the treatments improved quality of fruit, and the combination treatment of HWD with the application of yeast antagonist had the best inhibiting effect. Thus, the combination of Metschnikowia pulcherrima with short hot water dips could be an ideal alternative to chemicals for the control of postharvest decay of winter jujube.%采用拮抗酵母菌(美极梅奇酵母菌(Metschnikowia pulcherrima))单独处理或结合热水浸泡处理(55℃,30 s)冬枣果实,研究在模拟货架条件下(24℃)贮藏7 d,不同处理对人工接种橘青霉或链格孢菌后冬枣伤口的腐烂率、病斑直径和对冬枣自然腐烂及贮藏品质的影响。结果表明,采用拮抗酵母菌单独处理及结合热水浸泡处理都可显著降低人工接种致病菌冬枣的腐烂率、病斑直径及减轻冬枣的自然腐烂程度,并能提高冬枣的贮藏品质,其中以美极梅奇酵母菌结合热水浸泡处理的效果最佳,是一种可替代化学杀菌剂控制冬枣果实采后腐烂的较理想的处理方法。

  11. Production of biodiesel fuel from canola oil with dimethyl carbonate using an active sodium methoxide catalyst prepared by crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Takami; Mak, Goon Lum; Wada, Shohei; Nakazato, Tsutomu; Takanashi, Hirokazu; Uemura, Yoshimitsu

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a novel method for the production of biodiesel under mild conditions using fine particles of sodium methoxide formed in dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is proposed. Biodiesel is generally produced from vegetable oils by the transesterification of triglycerides with methanol. However, this reaction produces glycerol as a byproduct, and raw materials are not effectively utilized. Transesterification with DMC has recently been studied because glycerol is not formed in the process. Although solid-state sodium methoxide has been reported to be inactive for this reaction, the catalytic activity dramatically increased with the preparation of fine catalyst powders by crystallization. The transesterification of canola oil with DMC was studied using this catalyst for the preparation of biodiesel. A conversion greater than 96% was obtained at 65°C for 2h with a 3:1M ratio of DMC and oil and 2.0 wt% catalyst. PMID:24813567

  12. Replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal improves production and efficiency of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Glen A; Faciola, Antonio P; Armentano, Louis E

    2015-08-01

    Previous research suggested that crude protein (CP) from canola meal (CM) was used more efficiently than CP from solvent soybean meal (SBM) by lactating dairy cows. We tested whether dietary CP content influenced relative effectiveness of equal supplemental CP from either CM or SBM. Fifty lactating Holstein cows were blocked by parity and days in milk into 10 squares (2 squares with ruminal cannulas) in a replicated 5×5 Latin square trial. Five squares were fed: (1) low (14.5-14.8%) CP with SBM, (2) low CP with CM, (3) low CP with SBM plus CM, (4) high (16.4-16.7%) CP with SBM, and (5) high CP with CM; the other 5 squares were fed the same diets except with rumen-protected Met plus Lys (RPML) added as Mepron (Degussa Corp., Kennesaw, GA) and AminoShure-L (Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY), which were assumed to provide 8g/d of absorbed dl-Met and 12g/d of absorbed l-Lys. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] 40% corn silage, 26% alfalfa silage, 14 to 23% corn grain, 2.4% mineral-vitamin premixes, and 29 to 33% neutral detergent fiber. Periods were 3wk (total 15wk), and data from the last week of each period were analyzed using the Mixed procedures of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The only effects of RPML were increased DM intake and milk urea N (MUN) and urinary N excretion and trends for decreased milk lactose and solids-not-fat concentrations and milk-N:N intake; no significant RPML × protein source interactions were detected. Higher dietary CP increased milk fat yield and tended to increase milk yield but also elevated MUN, urine volume, urinary N excretion, ruminal concentrations of ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA), lowered milk lactose concentration and milk-N:N intake, and had no effect on milk true protein yield. Feeding CM instead of SBM increased feed intake, yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, and true protein, and milk-N:N intake, tended to increase fat and lactose yields, and reduced MUN, urine volume, and urinary N

  13. Impact of Flax Seed and Canola Oils Mixture Supplementation on The Physiological and Biochemical Changes Induced by Monosodium Glutamate in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important problems in the human health nutrition field is the use of food flavor. Monosodium glutamate is one of the main flavors used as an ingredient in various food products, however it produces physiological and biochemical changes. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the supplementation of flax seed and canola oils mixture against the physiological and biochemical changes induced by monosodium glutamate in rats. In addition to analyses the physical and chemical characteristics of flax seed and canola oil and fatty acids composition by using gas liquid chromatography. The results concerning that unsaturated fatty acids of flax seed oil were oleic (18:1) 22%, linoleic acid (18:2) 30 % and linolenic acid (18:3) 36%. Total unsaturated fatty acids percentage in flaxseed oil was 88% and total saturated fatty acids 12%. The unsaturated fatty acids of canola oil were oleic (18:1) 66%, linoleic acid (18:2) 18% and linolenic acid (18:3) 7%, total unsaturated fatty acids percentage in canola oil was 92% and total saturated fatty acids was 8%. On the other hand, treatment of rats with monosodium glutamate for ten consecutive days led to a decrease in RBCs, Hb, Hct % and increased platelet count with decrease in WBCs and undesirable changes in its differential count. There is also, high significant increase in testicular thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) which is accompanied with significant reduction in catalase (CAT) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and serum testosterone level. These disturbances were associated with significant increase in the liver enzymes ALT,AST and ALP and increase in the level of total biluribin and glucose. Also, significant increase in urea, creatinine and uric acid were recorded. The supplementation with mixture of flax seed and canola oils mixture for one month after the injection of monosodium glutamate caused noticeable amelioration in the damage occurred as a result of this flavor. To

  14. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment

  15. Effects of Nitrogen on Productivity, Grain Quality, and Optimal Nitrogen Rates in Winter Wheat cv. Kumpa-INIA in Andisols of Southern Chile Efecto del Nitrógeno en Productividad, Calidad del Grano y Dosis Óptimas de Nitrógeno en Trigo Invernal cv. Kumpa-INIA en Andisoles del Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Campillo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is one of the main inputs of the winter wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L. in southern Chile. Nitrogen efficient management is basic to optimizing its utilization while decreasing pollution risks and operational costs. Crop response and N use efficiency (NUE, defined as the ratio of yield to mineral N supply, regardless of source are important for evaluating N requirements of winter wheat, and reaching maximum and economic yields. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of N rate on grain yield, calculate the N rate that maximizes yield, and estimate the optimal grain yield rate and quality of high-yielding winter wheat cv. Kumpa-INIA. Five annual N rates were evaluated in a randomized complete block design during two successive winter wheat cropping seasons on a Vilcún series soil of the Pachic Melanudands family (Andisol in La Araucania Region, Chile, and subjected to intensive annual crop rotation. Significant effects (P ≤ 0.01 of N rate on grain yield and quality were found. The optimal physical N rate (OPR in both seasons ranged from 290 to 339 kg ha-1, whereas optimal economic N rate (OER ranged from 248 to 274 kg ha-1, with yields between 10.2 and 10.1 t ha-1. Nitrogen use efficiency associated to OER was high in both seasons (36.9 and 41.2 kg grain kg-1 N and fluctuated in similar ranges. Nitrogen rate increased hectoliter weight and grain protein, but decreased NUE.El N es uno de los principales insumos del cultivo de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. en Chile. Su manejo eficiente optimiza las dosis, disminuye los riesgos de contaminación y los costos de producción. La respuesta del cultivo y eficiencia de uso de N (NUE, definida como la razón de rendimiento y suministro de N mineral, independientemente de la fuente son importantes para evaluar los requerimientos de N y alcanzar rendimientos máximos y económicos. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del N en la producción y las dosis que

  16. Extração de antinutrientes e aumento da qualidade nutricional dos farelos de girassol, canola e soja para alimentação de peixes

    OpenAIRE

    Giovani Taffarel Bergamin; Cátia Aline Veiverberg; Leila Picolli da Silva; Alexandra Pretto; Luciana Valentim Siqueira; João Radünz

    2013-01-01

    Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se as concentrações de ácido fítico, fenóis totais e taninos totais em farelos de canola, girassol e soja, submetidos a diferentes tratamentos químicos, destinados para alimentação de peixes. Os tratamentos foram: A: água acidificada; EMA: etanol P.A. + metanol P.A. + água, na proporção 45:45:10; ET: etanol P.A. acidificado; ETA: etanol P.A. + água acidificada na proporção 70:30; AE: água acidificada e Etanol P.A. utilizados separadamente. No farelo de canola, os tra...

  17. Ecological Environment Quality Assessment on Petrochemical Sewage Discharge Waters of Daya Bay in Winter%大亚湾石化排污区海域冬季生态环境质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐娇娇; 徐姗楠; 李纯厚; 刘永; 林琳

    2013-01-01

    Daya bay,a typical subtropical marine genetic resource pool in the South China Sea,is one of the most important inshore fisheries areas in Guangdong province.However,the marine environments has been threatened and effected by rapid developments of the petrochemical industry in recent years.In current study,the ecological environment quality has been assessed.Based on the ecological and environmental investigation in January 2012,the states of ecological environment quality of the Daya Bay petrochemical sewage discharge waters was assessed with four factors,including sea water quality,nutrient structure and level,sediment quality,primary productivity and food organism level.The comprehensive index method was used for integrated assessment,as well.The results show that most of the water quality factors,including dissolved oxygen,biochemical oxygen demand,chemical oxygen demand,sulfide,phosphorus,dissolved inorganic nitrogen and heavy metals of Cu,Pb and Cd,were all conforming to Grade Ⅱ of the National Sea Water Quality Standard of China.However,some factors,including petroleum hydrocarbon of 66.7% sites,pH of 91.7% sites,and Zn of several sites,exceed the Grade Ⅱ of the National Standard with the average value of water quality comprehensive index at 1.215.The status of above factors consequently reached a low-level pollution without any pollution caused by organic pollutants.What makes unoptimistic is the concentration of nutrients in sea water is relatively high.Fortunately,the quality of sediment is very good and conforming to the Grade Ⅰ of National Marine Sediment Quality Standard,with the com prehensive pollution index at 0.478.Furthermore,the status of primary productivity reached the level of medium because of the high abundance of phytoplankton,zooplankton and benthic.According to the references and data of this study,the investigated petrochemical sewage discharge waters of Daya Bay was slight polluted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs

  18. Winter therapy for the accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of people are hard at work during the year-end technical stop as all the accelerators are undergoing maintenance, renovation and upgrade operations in parallel.   The new beam absorber on its way to Point 2 before being lowered into the LHC tunnel for installation. The accelerator teams didn’t waste any time before starting their annual winter rejuvenation programme over the winter. At the end of November, as the LHC ion run was beginning, work got under way on the PS Booster, where operation had already stopped. On 14 December, once the whole complex had been shut down, the technical teams turned their attention to the other injectors and the LHC. The year-end technical stop (YETS) provides an opportunity to carry out maintenance work on equipment and repair any damage as well as to upgrade the machines for the upcoming runs. Numerous work projects are carried out simultaneously, so good coordination is crucial. Marzia Bernardini's team in the Enginee...

  19. Effects of canola oil supplemented with atherogenic element and nigella sativa (kalonji) on serum lipids in albino rats - an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare effects of canola oil supplemented with atherogenic element and Nigella sativa on serum lipids in albino rats. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Pathology Department of Postgraduate Medical Institute, for 12 weeks. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trials. Material and Methods: Seventy two albino rats were selected and randomly divided into six groups of twelve animals with equal number of male and female in each. Fourteen days after acclimatization to the environment and basal diet, fasting blood samples (zero week) were collected by heart puncture under ether anesthesia and experimental diets were started which were continued for 12 weeks. All parameters were measured using enzymatic colorimetric methods. Results: Estimations of serum lipids showed increase in total cholesterol (TC) and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c) levels but fall in LDL-c concentrations in groups fed on canola oil diet. On the other hand, even atherogenic supplemented groups had decrease in cardio-protective HDL-c and raised LDL-c; although statistically non-significant. Thus canola oil diets were not hyperlipidaemic and prevented adiposity. Nigella sativa (NS) diets significantly decreased serum total cholesterol and LDL-c while HDL-c was raised but non-significantly. Thus Nigella sativa prevented deposition of lipids in tissues, thus preventing tendency to obesity and atherogenesis by decreasing LDL-c in serum. Conclusion: Nigella sativa produces antilipidaemic and anti-obesity effects by decreasing low density lipoprotein cholesterol level which is statistically significant in two out of the three groups fed on Ns; it also increased high density cholesterol which was however non-significant in comparison with Canola oil alone. (author)

  20. Canola Cake as a Potential Substrate for Proteolytic Enzymes Production by a Selected Strain of Aspergillus oryzae: Selection of Process Conditions and Product Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana C. Freitas; Castro, Ruann J. S.; Fontenele, Maria A.; Egito, Antonio S.; Farinas, Cristiane S.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Oil cakes have excellent nutritional value and offer considerable potential for use in biotechnological processes that employ solid-state fermentation (SSF) for the production of high value products. This work evaluates the feasibility of using canola cake as a substrate for protease production by a selected strain of Aspergillus oryzae cultivated under SSF. The influences of the following process parameters were considered: initial substrate moisture content, incubation temperature, inoculum...

  1. Field evaluation of neem and canola oil for the selective control of the honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) mite parasites Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) and Acarapis woodi (Acari: Tarsonemidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melathopoulos, A P; Winston, M L; Whittington, R; Higo, H; Le Doux, M

    2000-06-01

    Neem oil, neem extract (neem-aza), and canola oil were evaluated for the management of the honey bee mite parasites Varroa jacobsoni (Oudemans) and Acarapis woodi (Rennie) in field experiments. Spraying neem oil on bees was more effective at controlling V. jacobsoni than feeding oil in a sucrose-based matrix (patty), feeding neem-aza in syrup, or spraying canola oil. Neem oil sprays also protected susceptible bees from A. woodi infestation. Only neem oil provided V. jacobsoni control comparable to the known varroacide formic acid, but it was not as effective as the synthetic product Apistan (tau-fluvalinate). Neem oil was effective only when sprayed six times at 4-d intervals and not when applied three times at 8-d intervals. Neem oil spray treatments had no effect on adult honey bee populations, but treatments reduced the amount of sealed brood in colonies by 50% and caused queen loss at higher doses. Taken together, the results suggest that neem and canola oil show some promise for managing honey bee parasitic mites, but the negative effects of treatments to colonies and the lower efficacy against V. jacobsoni compared with synthetic acaricides may limit their usefulness to beekeepers. PMID:10902299

  2. DIGESTIBILIDAD ILEAL APARENTE DE LA PROTEINA Y AMINOÁCIDOS DE LA TORTA DE CANOLA EN LECHONES RECIÉN DESTETADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Parra S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Obtener los coeficientes de digestibilidad ileal aparente (CDIA de proteína (PC y aminoácidos (AA de torta de canola, en lechones recién destetados. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 24 lechones destetados a los 17 días de edad con un peso de 5.5 kg, a los cuales se les fijó una cánula simple en “T” en el ileon distal. Los lechones recibieron uno de los siguientes tratamientos: Dieta de Referencia (C elaborada con caseína y almidón de maíz; dietas CTC (caseína-10% de Torta de canola y CTCP (caseína- 10% de torta de canola peletizada. Resultados. Los CDIA de PC y AA de la dieta C fueron superiores (p0.05 a C. No se observó un efecto (p>0.05 del periodo (tiempo posdestete sobre los CDIA de la PC y AA, exceptuando al aminoácido metionina. Los CDIA del nitrógeno (N y AA de TCP fueron mayores (p<0.05 que los de TC. Conclusiones. La TCP puede ser incluida en dietas de lechones en un 10% empleando los coeficientes reportados en este trabajo.

  3. Effects of Potassium Split Application on Grain Protein Components and Processing Quality of Winter Wheat%分期施钾对冬小麦籽粒蛋白质组分和加工品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆强; 张宇; 贺明荣

    2013-01-01

    Taking two strong gluten wheat cultivars GC8901 and Jinan 17 as materials,3 treatments,no potassium application (K0),basal potassium application of 120 kg/hm2 (K1),basal potassium application of 60 kg/hm2 and topdressing potassium of 60 kg/hm2 at jointing stage (K2),were designed to study the effects of potassium split application on grain yield,crude protein content,protein component contents and processing quality.The results showed that grain yield of K2 were significantly higher than those of K0 and K1.Compared with K1,K2 had no significant effect on crude protein,albumin and globulin contents,but decreased alcohol soluble protein content significantly.K2 also increased glutenin content,and had different effects on soluble glutenin and insoluble glutenin contents,which led to the increase of glutenin polymerization index and ratio of glutenin to gliadin.The quality indexes including dough forming time,dough stability time,and loaf volume of K2 were significantly higher than those of K0 and K1.The experiment indicated that potassium application improved the processing quality of wheat and baking quality of bread mainly through increasing glutenin/gliadin ratio and polymerization index of glutenin; split application of potassium was benefit to improving grain yield and quality of strong gluten wheat synchronously.%以强筋小麦品种藁城8901和济南17为试验材料,设置不施用钾肥(K0)、基施钾肥120 kg/hm2(K1)和基施钾肥60 kg/hm2+拔节期追施钾肥60 kg/hm2(K2)3个处理,研究分期施钾对小麦籽粒产量、籽粒粗蛋白含量、籽粒蛋白各组分(清蛋白+球蛋白、醇溶蛋白、麦谷蛋白、可溶性谷蛋白、不溶性谷蛋白)含量和小麦籽粒品质的影响.结果表明,分期施钾处理的籽粒产量显著高于不施钾和一次性基施钾肥的处理;与一次性基施钾肥处理相比较,分期施钾对籽粒粗蛋白含量和清球蛋白含量无显著影响,但显著降低醇溶蛋白

  4. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  5. A NEW MODEL TO ESTIMATE DAILY ENERGY EXPENDITURE FOR WINTERING WATERFOWL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activity budgets of wintering waterfowl have been widely used to assess habitat quality. However, when factors such as prey abundance or protection from exposure to cold or wind determine quality, measures of daily energy expenditure (DEE) may be more appropriate for this purpos...

  6. Determination of the water use and water use response of canola to solar radiation and temperature by using heat balance stem flow gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sap flow gauges using a heat balance have been reliable for measuring real-time transpiration in a number of crops. However, information on the accuracy of sap flow gauges in canola is lacking. Therefore, a study was conducted to validate the sap flow system in canola and to observe sap flow response to variations in temperature and solar radiation. There were strong relationships between sap flow measured with sap flow gauges and actual transpiration measured by the gravimetric method over short periods of 1 h (r2 = 0.93 and RMSE = 2.34 g h-1), and over longer periods of 1 d (r2 0.83 and RMSE = 48 g d-1), although sap flow slightly overestimated transpiration. In both cases the slope was not significantly different from 1. Water use in canola, estimated with sap flow gauges or from actual transpiration measurement, was dependent upon temperature (r2 = 0.94 to 0.96). Water use increased until daytime temperatures reached 36oC, after which water use decreased. Sap flow followed solar radiation trends in the field. Heat is lost or dissipated from the gauges convectively as the sap flows through the stem, conductively through the solid stem material, and radially into the surrounding air. As the convective proportion of the heat loss from the gauge increased, the accuracy of the water use estimation using the sap flow gauges increased. For sunny days, convective heat loss through sap flow accounted for a major portion of the total heat input to the gauges, while on cloudy days radial heat loss from the gauges accounted for a, major portion of the heat input. Thus, at low sap flow rates during cloudy days, the possibility of error in the sap flow system was high. Overall, sap flow in canola was strongly related to daily solar radiation (r2 = 0.92). The sensitive response to weather variations and the possibility of improving the accuracy at high flow rates in the field makes the use of sap flow gauges a viable option for measuring real-time transpiration in canola

  7. Nuclear Winter: Scientists in the Political Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2001-03-01

    The nuclear winter phenomenon is used to illustrate the many paths by which scientific advice reaches decision makers in the United States government. Because the Reagan administration was hostile to the strategic policy that the scientific discovery seemed to demand, the leading proponent of nuclear winter, Carl Sagan, used his formidable talent for popularization to reach a larger audience.

  8. Does cold winter weather produce depressive symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Michael J.; Goodes, Mike; Furlong, Candy; Tollefson, Gary D.

    1988-06-01

    To examine whether harsh winter weather is associated with depressive symptoms, 45 healthy subjects from Minnesota were compared to 42 subjects from California near the end of the winter season. No differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms were found between the two groups.

  9. Belichten Zantedeschia in winter biedt perspectief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    Zantedeschia produceert in de Nederlandse winter geen bloemen. In de praktijk wordt met assimilatiebelichting wel bloei in de winter verkregen met de cultivar 'Crystal Blush'. Onderzoek door PPO laat zien welke hoeveelheid licht nodig is en dat ook gekleurde Zantedeschia's van een goede kwaliteit ge

  10. Efeito da suplementação de linhaça, óleo de canola e vitamina E na dieta sobre as concentrações de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados em ovos de galinha Effect of dietary supplementation of flaxseed, canola oil and vitamin E upon polyunsaturated fatty acids in chicken eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.G. Pita

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito de diferentes fontes de ácidos graxos insaturados (óleo de canola e semente de linhaça, acrescidas de diferentes teores de alfa-tocoferol nas dietas de poedeiras, sobre a composição de ácidos graxos da gema do ovo foi estudado. Foram utilizadas 288 galinhas da linhagem Babcock que receberam dietas com 6% de óleo de canola, 20% de semente de linhaça moída ou 3% de óleo de canola e 10% de linhaça moída com teores de 0, 100 e 200UI/kg de alfa-tocoferol. As dietas com 20% de semente de linhaça proporcionaram teores mais elevados de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados no ovo com aumento, em particular, dos teores de ácido alfa-linolênico e EPA (ácido eicosapentaenóico e diminuição de ácido araquidônico na gema. Os teores de vitamina E contidos nas rações experimentais não determinaram alteração significativa na deposição dos diferentes ácidos graxos na gema dos ovos, exceto com relação aos ácidos graxos saturados.The effect of dietary sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids - canola oil and flaxseed - with different vitamin E supplementation on the fatty acid deposition into the eggs of 288 Babcock laying hens was investigated. Birds were fed diets containing 6% of canola oil, 20% of flaxseed or a combination of 3% of canola oil and 10% of flaxseed, enriched with 0, 100 or 200Ul of dl-alpha-tocopheril acetate. The inclusion of flaxseed in the diets increased the yolk polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly alpha-linolenic acid and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid. The concentration of alpha-tocopherol in the diet did not change the egg yolk, fatty acids deposition but changed the saturated fatty acids deposition.

  11. Effects of canola proteins and hydrolysates on adipogenic differentiation of C3H10T/2 mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alashi, Adeola M; Blanchard, Christopher L; Mailer, Rodney J; Agboola, Samson O; Mawson, A John; Aluko, Rotimi E; Strappe, Padraig

    2015-10-15

    This study assessed the ability of canola protein isolate (CPI) and enzymatic hydrolysates (CPHs) to inhibit adipogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 murine mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Cell viability was maintained at concentrations of 60 μg/ml of sample. Cells treated with Alcalase hydrolysate demonstrated a higher reduction in anti-adipogenic differentiation through quantitation by oil-red O staining. qPCR analysis showed that CPI and CPH-treated cells significantly inhibited PPARγ expression, a key transcription factor involved in adipocyte differentiation, as evident in an ∼ 60-80% fold reduction of PPARγ mRNA. Immunofluorescence staining for PPARγ protein also showed a reduced expression in some treated cells when compared to differentiated untreated cells. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of CPI, CPHs and their membrane ultrafiltration fractions on pancreatic lipase (PL) activity ranged between 0.75 and 2.5 mg/ml, (p < 0.05) for the hydrolysed and unhydrolysed samples. These findings demonstrate that CPI and CPHs contain bioactive components which can modulate in vitro adipocyte differentiation. PMID:25952862

  12. Effects of Canola Oil Biodiesel Fuel Blends on Combustion, Performance, and Emissions Reduction in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Ki Yoon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of canola oil biodiesel (BD to improve combustion and exhaust emissions in a common rail direct injection (DI diesel engine using BD fuel blended with diesel. Experiments were conducted with BD blend amounts of 10%, 20%, and 30% on a volume basis under various engine speeds. As the BD blend ratio increased, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at the low engine speed of 1500 rpm, while they increased at the middle engine speed of 2500 rpm. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC increased at all engine speeds while the carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions were considerably reduced. On the other hand, the nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions only increased slightly. When increasing the BD blend ratio at an engine speed of 2000 rpm with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR rates of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, the combustion pressure and IMEP tended to decrease. The CO and PM emissions decreased in proportion to the BD blend ratio. Also, the NOx emissions decreased considerably as the EGR rate increased whereas the BD blend ratio only slightly influenced the NOx emissions.

  13. Polyhydroxyalkanotes (PHAs production by using canola oil as carbon source from bacteria isolated near paper pulp industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyaba Younas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples were taken from paper pulp and mixed organic wastes of an industry for isolation of PHA producing bacterial strains. Quantitative analysis for PHA for bacterial strains was carried out by direct addition of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS method. High PHA production ability was found in six strains belonging to Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and Escherichia genera. The PHA production optimization of these six stains was done at various (NH42SO4 concentrations (0.2 %, 0.4 %, and 0.6%, pH (5, 6, and 7 and temperatures (4oC, 37oC, 45oC. Strain WC20 belonging to Pseudomonas sp. was found to be a potential PHA producer at 37 oC, at 0.2 % of (NH42SO4, using glucose as carbon source (PHA % ~28.35 and Canola Oil (PHA % ~16.06. PCR amplification of the phaC gene was also performed.

  14. Effect of soybean lecithin on iron-catalyzed or chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of canola oil emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jeesu; Oh, Boyoung; Choe, Eunok

    2014-11-01

    The effect of soybean lecithin addition on the iron-catalyzed or chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of emulsions consisting of purified canola oil and water (1:1, w/w) was studied based on headspace oxygen consumption using gas chromatography and hydroperoxide production using the ferric thiocyanate method. Addition levels of iron sulfate, chlorophyll, and soybean lecithin were 5, 4, and 350 mg/kg, respectively. Phospholipids (PLs) during oxidation of the emulsions were monitored by high performance liquid chromatography. Addition of soybean lecithin to the emulsions significantly reduced and decelerated iron-catalyzed oil oxidation by lowering headspace oxygen consumption and hydroperoxide production. However, soybean lecithin had no significant antioxidant effect on chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of the emulsions. PLs in soybean lecithin added to the emulsions were degraded during both oxidation processes, although there was little change in PL composition. Among PLs in soybean lecithin, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol were degraded the fastest in the iron-catalyzed and the chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation, respectively. The results suggest that addition of soybean lecithin as an emulsifier can also improve the oxidative stability of oil in an emulsion. PMID:25312008

  15. Physical properties of sequential interpenetrating polymer networks produced from canola oil-based polyurethane and poly(methyl methacrylate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiaohua; Narine, Suresh S

    2008-05-01

    Sequential interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) were prepared using polyurethane (PUR) synthesized from canola oil-based polyol with terminal primary functional groups and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The properties of the material were evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), as well as tensile properties measurements. The morphology of the IPNs was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and MDSC. A five-phase morphology, that is, sol phase, PUR-rich phase, PUR-rich interphase, PMMA-rich interphase, and PMMA-rich phase, was observed for all the IPNs by applying a new quantitative method based on the measurement of the differential of reversing heat capacity versus temperature from MDSC, although not confirmed by SEM, most likely due to resolution restrictions. NCO/OH molar ratios (cross-linking density) and compositional variations of PUR/PMMA both affected the thermal properties and phase behaviors of the IPNs. Higher degrees of mixing occurred for the IPN with higher NCO/OH molar ratio (2.0/1.0) at PUR concentration of 25 wt %, whereas for the IPN with lower NCO/OH molar ratio (1.6/1.0), higher degrees of mixing occurred at PUR concentration of 35 wt %. The mechanical properties of the IPNs were superior to those of the constituent polymers due to the finely divided rubber and plastic combination structures in these IPNs. PMID:18410139

  16. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF RAPESEED MEAL AND CANOLA MEAL ON BROILER PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. KHAN, A. AZIM AND M. I. ANJUM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 630 mixed sex day-old broiler chickens were reared for 7 weeks to study the production performance by feeding different levels of rapeseed meal (RSM and canola meal (CM in their diets. The chickens were randomly allocated to seven dietary treatment groups (A, B, C, D, E, F and G having three replicates of 30 birds in each group. Group A was fed control diet (soyabean meal, whereas groups B, D and F were fed diets containing 5, 10 and 15 percent RSM which was replaced with CM on weight basis in the diets fed to groups C, E and G, respectively. Experimental diets and fresh water were offered ad libitum. Feed intake during 0-28 days of age was higher (p0.05. The study suggests that RSM up to 5% and CM up to 10% can be incorporated in broiler starter diets and both RSM and CM can be used up to 10% in finisher diets without any adverse effect on production parameters.

  17. Study Effect of NaCl Salinity and Nitrogen Form on Composition of Canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two N forms ( NH+4 and NO-3 and NaCl on accumulation of some essential mineral nutrients was examined in canola (Brassica napus L. cv. ‘SLM046’. Eight-day- ld plants of were subjected for 21 day to Hoagland’s nutrient solution containing 10 mM NH+4 and NO-3 and salinized with 0, 50, 100 and 150 mm NaCl. N form and addition of NaCl to the growth had no significant effect on total N. However, root N of NH+4 supplied plants decreased significantly with increase in NaCl concentration, whereas that of NO3- supplied plants remained unaffected. Salinity of the rooting also did not show any significant effect on Na+ concentration of leaves or roots of plants subjected to two different forms of nitrogen. NH+4 treated plants generally had greater concentration of Cl- in leaves and roots and lower K+ content in leaves than NO3- supplied plants. Ca2+ concentration of leaves and roots concentration of leaves decreased in NH+4- supplied plants due to NaCl, but they remained unaffected in NO3- treated plants.

  18. Scorecard on winter weather forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    A comparison of the observed temperatures and precipitation for this past winter (maps on left) with predicted temperatures and precipitation (maps on right) shows that the National Weather Service (NWS) temperature prediction was below par, but that the NWS precipitation forecast was ‘quite good,’ according to Don L. Gilman, chief of the NWS long-range forecast branch. The predictions, issued November 29, 1982 (Eos, December 14, 1982, p. 1211), covered December, January, and February.NWS long-range forecasters had thought that frigid Arctic air would swoop far south to bring below-normal temperatures to the western United States. Instead, an east Pacific trough, which may have been the strongest since 1900, brought a strong influx of air from the west, according to Gilman. The intense, low-pressure anomaly in the east Pacific, with the strong westerly winds, teamed with heavy rains south and southwest of Hawaii and warm equatorial Pacific waters to bring warm, wet air to the western United States. The results (see maps): Throughout most of the country, observed temperatures were above normal (A) or normal (N), while observed precipitation was heavy (H) o r normal (no code). Below-normal temperatures (B) occurred only in a portion of the southcentral U.S. and the Florida Keys. Light precipitation (L) fell over two patches in the northern plains, in the Appalachian region, and along the Maine coast.

  19. Management Options for Organic Winter Wheat Production under Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Bloch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An effective adaptive strategy for reducing climate change risks and increasing agro-system resiliency is broadening cropping system diversity, heightening the flexibility of cultivation and tillage methods. Climate change impacts on standard cultivation practices such as mineralisation and nitrate leaching due to mild and rainy winters, as well as frequent drought or water saturation, not only limiting fieldwork days, but also restricting ploughing. This calls for alternative methods to counteract these propensities. From 2010 to 2013, a farming system experiment was conducted on a distinctly heterogeneous organic farm in Brandenburg, Germany. With the intention of devising a more varied and flexible winter wheat cultivation method, standard organic farming practices (winter wheat cultivation after two years of alfalfa-clover-grass and ploughing in mid-October were compared to four alternative test methods, which were then evaluated for their robustness and suitability as adaptive strategies. Two of the alternative methods, early sowing and catch crop, entailed moving up the date for alfalfa-clover-grass tilling to July. Instead of a plough, a ring-cutter was used to shallowly (8 cm cut through and mix the topsoil. In the early sowing test method, winter wheat was sown at the end of August, after repeated ring-cutter processing. With the catch crop method, winter wheat seeding followed a summer catch crop and October tillage. The two oat methods (oat/plough; oat/ring-cutter entailed sowing winter wheat in September, following oat cultivation. Overall, the cultivation methods demonstrated the following robustness gradation: standard practice = catch crop ≥ early sowing > oat/plough > oat/ring-cutter. When compared to standard procedures, the catch crop and early sowing test methods showed no remarkable difference in grain yields. Measured against early sowing, the catch crop test method was significantly more robust when it came to winterkill

  20. Nutrient content of some winter grouse foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treichler, R.R.; Stow, R.W.; Nelson, A.L.

    1946-01-01

    Seventeen preferred grouse foods were collected during the late winter and analyzed for nutrient content. The results include moisture, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, nitrogenfree extract, ash, calcium, phosphorus, and gross energy content expressed both on moisture free and fresh bases.....The preferred winter foods of grouse are characterized by a high content of dry substance and of nitrogen-free extract......On the basis of nutrient content, the foods examined are well qualified as sources of energy and other essential nutrients required for maintenance of grouse during the winter season.

  1. Índice de área foliar em canola cultivada sob variações de espaçamento e de densidade de semeadura Leaf area index of canola under varying row spacing and plant density of sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Chavarria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estimar através de método não-destrutivo o índice de área foliar do híbrido de canola Hyola 61 em variações de espaçamento e densidade de semeadura. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, sendo que nas parcelas foram distribuídos os espaçamentos entre linhas (17, 34, 51 e 68cm e nas subparcelas as densidades (15, 30, 45 e 60 plantas m-2. Para determinação do comprimento, largura do limbo foliar e da área foliar, bem como estabelecimento de uma correlação entre essas variáveis foram coletadas aleatoriamente 250 folhas. Posteriormente, foram selecionadas aleatoriamente quatro plantas por unidade experimental, que tiveram todas as folhas medidas quanto ao comprimento e largura para estimativa da área foliar e do índice de área foliar. O comprimento do limbo foliar é a variável biométrica com maior correlação com a área foliar. Um comportamento linear entre o adensamento de plantas e o índice de área foliar nos espaçamentos de 34, 51 e 68cm no híbrido Hyola 61 foi observado. O índice de área foliar das plantas foi menor no espaçamento de 17cm, com a densidade de 60 plantas m-2. Para a manutenção do índice de área foliar do híbrido Hyola 61, é recomendável usar o espaçamento de 17cm com a densidade 45 plantas m-2.The aim of this work was to estimate leaf area index of the canola cultivar 'Hyola 61' under variations of row spacing and density of sowing by a non-destructive method. The experimental design consisted of a split plot with four blocks with row widths of 17, 34, 51 and 68cm and plant populations of 15, 30, 45 and 60m². Two hundred and fifth leaves were collected at random and mesure width (C, length (L and leaf area (LA and the parameters were correlated. Also the leaves of four plants of each plot, selected at random, were measured L and C and estimated the leaf area index (LAI. Width leaf was the biometric parameter

  2. Farelo de canola na alimentação do piavuçu, Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, na fase inicial Canola bran in piavuçu Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski feeding, during initial phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Rossetto Barriviera Furuya

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo determinar os efeitos da inclusão de farelo de canola (FC em substituição à proteína do farelo de soja (FS na alimentação do piavuçú, Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski (Characiformes, Anastomidae, na fase inicial. Foram utilizados 100 alevinos (8,51 ± 0,07g, distribuídos em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos, cinco repetições, sendo que cada unidade experimental era constituída por cinco peixes. Foram elaboradas quatro rações isocalóricas (3.000kcal ED/kg e isoprotéicas (30% de PB com base em milho, farelo de soja e farinha de peixe, contendo 0%, 19%,12%; 38%,24% e 57,36% de FC. A análise de variância não apresentou efeitos dos níveis de inclusão de FC sobre as variáveis de consumo, sobrevivência, rendimento e composição química da carcaça, gordura visceral e índice hepatossomático. Foi observado efeito quadrático dos níveis de inclusão sobre a porcentagem de ganho de peso, ocorrendo o ponto máximo no nível de 19,11% de inclusão de FC. Com o aumento nos níveis de FC, foi observado piora linear sobre a conversão alimentar e taxa de eficiência protéica. A inclusão de 11,19% de FC resultou em melhor desempenho e rendimento de carcaça.This research aimed to investigate the effects of canola bran (CB inclusion, replacing the soybean bran crude protein in piavuçu diet, Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski (Characiformes, Anastomidae, in initial phase. One hundred fingerlings (8.51 ± 0.07g were assigned to a completely randomized block design with five replications, totalizing 25 fishes per treatment. Four isocaloric (3,000kcal ED/kg and isoproteic (30% CP diets were formulated, based on corn, soybean bran and fish flour, containing 0%; 19.12%; 38.24% and 57.36% CB. Variance analysis showed no effect of CB inclusion on feed intake survival, carcass yield and composition, visceral fat and hepato somatic index. Quadratic effect of CM inclusion was

  3. Silent as a Winter Cuckoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pad+ma dbang chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When my grandparents were children, parents were gods and their decisions about such issues as marriage and the choice of marriage partners were final. Children had no right to choose a spouse. Many parents found a daughter-in-law with a blood relationship for their son, believing this would better ensure family harmony. Consequently, many Tibetans struggled in sad marriages. Of course, parents hoped their children would have a good, stable life and not all arranged marriages were unhappy. When Grandfather was eighteen he herded sheep on our pastureland everyday. At that time, sheep and goats covered an enormous mountain that resembled a member of the Himalayas. Herders stayed together, played, told folktales, and sang folksongs. Some wrestled and others talked about their lovers. In many ways this daily gathering resembled a celebration of victory in battle. Grandfather and his lover, Dkon mchog mtsho, herded and had lunch together everyday. They went home from the pastureland and soon met again after supper, because they loved and needed each other as fish need water. They felt that they were the happiest people in the world, and hoped to marry. Everyone understood their intimate relationship and envied their loyalty to each other. Some other girls were especially jealous because Grandfather was handsome. In time, Great-grandfather discovered their relationship and resolved to end it. Grandfather was as silent as a winter cuckoo, because he was afraid of his father. However, he thought about how to convince his parents, or how to have a life with his lover. After some days he decided to elope, went to the place where he usually met Dkon mchog mtsho, and found her there. They looked longingly at each other as Dkon mchog mtsho's tears streamed down her red cheeks and seeped into the earth.

  4. Carryover effects associated with winter location affect fitness, social status, and population dynamics in a long-distance migrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedinger, James S; Schamber, Jason L; Ward, David H; Nicolai, Christopher A; Conant, Bruce

    2011-11-01

    We used observations of individually marked female black brant geese (Branta bernicla nigricans; brant) at three wintering lagoons on the Pacific coast of Baja California-Laguna San Ignacio (LSI), Laguna Ojo de Liebre (LOL), and Bahía San Quintín (BSQ)-and the Tutakoke River breeding colony in Alaska to assess hypotheses about carryover effects on breeding and distribution of individuals among wintering areas. We estimated transition probabilities from wintering locations to breeding and nonbreeding by using multistratum robust-design capture-mark-recapture models. We also examined the effect of breeding on migration to wintering areas to assess the hypothesis that individuals in family groups occupied higher-quality wintering locations. We used 4,538 unique female brant in our analysis of the relationship between winter location and breeding probability. All competitive models of breeding probability contained additive effects of wintering location and the 1997-1998 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event on probability of breeding. Probability of breeding in non-ENSO years was 0.98 ± 0.02, 0.68 ± 0.04, and 0.91 ± 0.11 for females wintering at BSQ, LOL, and LSI, respectively. After the 1997-1998 ENSO event, breeding probability was between 2% (BSQ) and 38% (LOL) lower than in other years. Individuals that bred had the highest probability of migrating the next fall to the wintering area producing the highest probability of breeding. PMID:22030737

  5. Effect of Zeolite and Foliar Application of Selenium on Growth, Yield and Yield Component of Three Canola Cultivar under Conditions of Late Season Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein ZAHEDI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study effect of zeolite soil application and selenium foliar application on growth, yield and yield components of three canola cultivar under conditions of late season drought stress an experiment was conducted in two growing season in 2006 and 2007. Site study was field of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Karaj, Iran. The experimental design was a Randomized Complete Block arrangement in factorial split plot with three replications. Irrigation factors were chosen at two levels, included complete irrigation and irrigation holding at stem elongation stage. Zeolite was used at two levels, non application and 10 ton per hectare. Also selenium was sprayed at three concentrations, 0, 15 and 30 gr per liter from sodium selenate. These treatments were randomized in main plots while three canola cultivars (�Zarfam�, �Okapi� and �Sarigol� were randomized in sub plots. The results showed that, main effects of different irrigation levels have significant effect on all traits and drought stress decreased significantly all traits. Foliar application of selenium had significant and additive effect on plant height, number of pods in plant, number of seeds in pod, seed yield, biological yield, harvest index and oil yield. There was significant difference between zeolite application and non application on all traits except oil percent and harvest index. It was shown that canola cultivars were different in all of studied traits. Comparison of means showed that, four critical traits that is seed yield, biological yield, harvest index and oil yield were affected by experimental treatments. Different cultivars have different responses under unlike conditions inside upon traits. Under different treatment conditions especially drought stress, zeolite and selenium application have positive and significant effect on traits related to yield. In finally, zeolite and selenium application in dry lands that are exposure to late season drought

  6. Impact of currently used or potentially useful insecticides for canola agroecosystems on Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Megachile rotundata (Hymentoptera: Megachilidae), and Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Dupree, C D; Conroy, L; Harris, C R

    2009-02-01

    Pest management practices may be contributing to a decline in wild bee populations in or near canola (Brassica napus L.) agroecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the direct contact toxicity of five technical grade insecticides--imidacloprid, clothianidin, deltamethrin, spinosad, and novaluron--currently used, or with potential for use in canola integrated pest management on bees that may forage in canola: common eastern bumble bees [Bombus impatiens (Cresson); hereafter bumble bees], alfalfa leafcutting bees [Megachile rotundata (F.)], and Osmia lignaria Cresson. Clothianidin and to a lesser extent imidacloprid were highly toxic to all three species, deltamethrin and spinosad were intermediate in toxicity, and novaluron was nontoxic. Bumble bees were generally more tolerant to the direct contact applications > O. lignaria > leafcutting bees. However, differences in relative toxicities between the three species were not consistent, e.g., whereas clothianidin was only 4.9 and 1.3x more toxic, deltamethrin was 53 and 68x more toxic to leafcutting bees than to bumble bees and O. lignaria, respectively. Laboratory assessment of direct contact toxicity, although useful, is only one measure of potential impact, and mortality under field conditions may differ greatly depending on management practices. Research conducted using only honey bees as the indicator species may not adequately reflect the risk posed by insecticides to wild bees because of their unique biology and differential susceptibility. Research programs focused on determining nontarget impact on pollinators should be expanded to include not only the honey bee but also wild bee species representative of the agricultural system under investigation. PMID:19253634

  7. Effect of UV Radiation and Evaluated CO2 on Morphological Traits, Yield and Yield Components of Canola (Brassica napus L. Grown under Water Deficit Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza TOHIDI MOGHADAM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we studied the combined effects of UV radiation, CO2 and water stress on the morphological traits, yield and yield components of canola (Brassica napus cv. �Okapi� and �Talaye� under twelve growth conditions: complete irrigation with ambient CO2 with UV-A (control, complete irrigation with ambient CO2 with UV-B, complete irrigation with ambient CO2 with UV-C, limited irrigation with ambient CO2 with UV-A, limited irrigation with ambient CO2 with UV-B, limited irrigation with ambient CO2 with UV-C, complete irrigation with elevated CO2 with UV-A, complete irrigation with elevated CO2 with UV-B, complete irrigation with elevated CO2 with UV-C, limited irrigation with elevated CO2 with UV-A, limited irrigation with elevated CO2 with UV-B and limited irrigation with elevated CO2 with UV-C. The results showed that water stress significantly decreased all of traits except for the oil percentage. Additionally, an elevated level of CO2 significantly increased the final yield, 1000-seed weight, oil yield, plant height, specific leaf area and number of branches per plant, whereas UV radiation decreased all of the traits in this experiment. Elevated CO2 ameliorated the adverse effects of UV radiation in the final yield, seed weight, oil percentage, oil yield, plant height, specific leaf area and number of branches per plant. This study showed that elevated CO2 can partially ameliorate some of the adverse effects of UV radiation in canola plants. Furthermore, in this study, we observed that the increase in the yield was due to the increase in the seed weight and number of branches caused by elevated CO2 in canola plants. In addition, the maximum yield was obtained from the �Talaye� cultivar under conditions of sunlight, full irrigation and elevated CO2.

  8. Predicting Late Winter Dissolved Oxygen Levels in Arctic Lakes Using Morphology and Landscape Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppi, Jason C.; Arp, Christopher D.; Whitman, Matthew S.

    2016-02-01

    Overwintering habitat for Arctic freshwater fish is essential, such that understanding the distribution of winter habitat quality at the landscape-scale is warranted. Adequate dissolved oxygen (DO) is a major factor limiting habitat quality in the Arctic region where ice cover can persist for 8 months each year. Here we use a mixed-effect model developed from 20 lakes across northern Alaska to assess which morphology and landscape attributes can be used to predict regional overwintering habitat quality. Across all lakes, we found that the majority of the variations in late winter DO can be explained by lake depth and littoral area. In shallow lakes (analysis identifies metrics that relate to late winter DO regimes in Arctic lakes that can aid managers in understanding which lakes will likely provide optimum DO for overwintering habitat. Conversely, lakes which predicted to have marginal winter DO levels may be vulnerable to disturbances that could lower DO below critical thresholds to support sensitive fish. In regions where lakes are also used by humans for industrial winter water supply, such as ice-road construction for oil and gas development, these findings will be vital for the management of resources and protection of Arctic fish.

  9. Overview of climatic effects of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general description of the climatic effects of a nuclear war are presented. This paper offers a short history of the subject, a discussion of relevant parameters and physical processes, and a description of plausible nuclear winter scenario. 9 refs

  10. Physical characteristics of Eurasian winter temperature variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Yul; Son, Seok-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the on-going global warming, recent winters in Eurasian mid-latitudes were much colder than average. In an attempt to better understand the physical characteristics for cold Eurasian winters, major sources of variability in surface air temperature (SAT) are investigated based on cyclostationary EOF analysis. The two leading modes of SAT variability represent the effect of Arctic amplification (AA) and the Arctic oscillation (AO), respectively. These two modes are distinct in terms of the physical characteristics, including surface energy fluxes and tropospheric circulations, and result in significantly different winter SAT patterns over the Eurasian continent. The AA-related SAT anomalies are dipolar with warm Arctic, centered at the Barents–Kara Seas, and cold East Asia. In contrast, the negative AO-related SAT anomalies are characterized by widespread cold anomalies in Northern Eurasia. Relative importance of the AA and the negative AO contributions to cold Eurasian winters is sensitive to the region of interest.

  11. Unusial winter 2011/2012 in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faško, P.; Lapin, M.; Matejovič, P.; Pecho, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2012), s. 19-26. ISSN 1335-339X Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : winter characteristics * climate variabilit * climate change * global warming Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  12. Winter seismic vehicle impacts in permafrost terrain

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Seismic exploration was conducted on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, during the winters of 1984 and 1985. Approximately 2000 km of...

  13. Winter swimming improves general well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Huttunen, Pirkko; Kokko, Leena; Ylijukuri, Virpi

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. This study deals with the effects of regular winter swimming on the mood of the swimmers. Methods. Profile of Mood State (POMS) and OIRE questionnaires were completed before (October) and after (January) the fourmonth winter swimming period. Results. In the beginning, there were no significant differences in the mood states and subjective feelings between the swimmers and the controls. The swimmers had more diseases (about 50%) diagnosed by a physician. Tension, fatigue, memory an...

  14. Winter tourism in Portugal - encouraging its increase

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Raul Ressano

    2014-01-01

    Every year between seventy thousand and one hundred thousand Portuguese practice winter sports,mainly skiing and snowboarding (Carvalho, 2006). Unfortunately for Portuguese tourism most of them go abroad to spend their money.Serra da Estrela is the only mountain where it is possible to practice winter sports in Portugal but it doesn’t attract many Portuguese. Problems with accessibility (Petur,2006) inexistency of accommodation near the ski slopes (Carvalho,2006) and not enough kilometers ...

  15. Effect of Super Absorbent Application on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Canola (Brassica napus L. Cultivars under Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Tohidi-Moghadam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Drought stress significantly limits Canola (Brassica napus L. growth and crop productivity. Hence, efficient management of soil moisture and study metabolic changes which occur in response to drought is important for agricultural production of this Crop. Approach: For a better understanding of drought tolerance mechanisms and improving soil water content management strategies, an experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with factorial spilt arrangement with tree replications. Results: Irrigation strategy and super absorbent application were allotted to main plots. Irrigation strategy had two levels: 80% of evaporation as control (I1, drought stress started from flowering stage (I2 Application of super absorbent had two levels: Non-application of super absorbent as control (S1, application of super absorbent with 7% concentration. Cultivars (Rgs003 (V1, Sarigol (V2, Option500 (V3, Hyola401 (V4, Hyola330 (V5, Hyola420 (V6 were allotted to sub plots. Plants under water deficit stress and application of super absorbent showed a significant increase and decrease, respectively, in SOD, CAT and GPX activities in leaves compared with control plants. In this context, plants with higher levels of antioxidants showed higher resistance to these stress conditions and higher yield and dry matter allocation to grain filling process i.e. harvest index. Conclusion/Recommendations: Our results suggested that drought stress leads to production of oxygen radicals, which results in increased lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in the plant. In conclusion of present study, Application of super absorbent polymer could reserve different amounts of water in itself and so increases the soil ability of water storing and preserving and at last in water deficiency, produce plant water need and approve its growth under postanthesis water deficiency.

  16. Genomes and transcriptomes of partners in plant-fungal-interactions between canola (Brassica napus and two Leptosphaeria species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan G T Lowe

    Full Text Available Leptosphaeria maculans 'brassicae' is a damaging fungal pathogen of canola (Brassica napus, causing lesions on cotyledons and leaves, and cankers on the lower stem. A related species, L. biglobosa 'canadensis', colonises cotyledons but causes few stem cankers. We describe the complement of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZys and peptidases of these fungi, as well as of four related plant pathogens. We also report dual-organism RNA-seq transcriptomes of these two Leptosphaeria species and B. napus during disease. During the first seven days of infection L. biglobosa 'canadensis', a necrotroph, expressed more cell wall degrading genes than L. maculans 'brassicae', a hemi-biotroph. L. maculans 'brassicae' expressed many genes in the Carbohydrate Binding Module class of CAZy, particularly CBM50 genes, with potential roles in the evasion of basal innate immunity in the host plant. At this time, three avirulence genes were amongst the top 20 most highly upregulated L. maculans 'brassicae' genes in planta. The two fungi had a similar number of peptidase genes, and trypsin was transcribed at high levels by both fungi early in infection. L. biglobosa 'canadensis' infection activated the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid defence pathways in B. napus, consistent with defence against necrotrophs. L. maculans 'brassicae' triggered a high level of expression of isochorismate synthase 1, a reporter for salicylic acid signalling. L. biglobosa 'canadensis' infection triggered coordinated shutdown of photosynthesis genes, and a concomitant increase in transcription of cell wall remodelling genes of the host plant. Expression of particular classes of CAZy genes and the triggering of host defence and particular metabolic pathways are consistent with the necrotrophic lifestyle of L. biglobosa 'canadensis', and the hemibiotrophic life style of L. maculans 'brassicae'.

  17. The Impact of Region, Nitrogen Use Efficiency, and Grower Incentives on Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Canola (Brassica napus) Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammac, W. A.; Pan, W.; Koenig, R. T.; McCracken, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated through the second renewable fuel standard (RFS2) that biodiesel meet a minimum threshold requirement (50% reduction) for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction compared to fossil diesel. This designation is determined by life cycle assessment (LCA) and carries with it potential for monetary incentives for biodiesel feedstock growers (Biomass Crop Assistance Program) and biodiesel processors (Renewable Identification Numbers). A national LCA was carried out for canola (Brassica napus) biodiesel feedstock by the EPA and it did meet the minimum threshold requirement. However, EPA's national LCA does not provide insight into regional variation in GHG mitigation. The authors propose for full GHG reduction potential of biofuels to be realized, LCA results must have regional specificity and should inform incentives for growers and processors on a regional basis. The objectives of this work were to determine (1) variation in biofuel feedstock production related GHG emissions between three agroecological zones (AEZs) in eastern Washington State (2) the impact of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) on GHG mitigation potential for each AEZ and (3) the impact of incentives on adoption of oilseed production. Results from objective (1) revealed there is wide variability in range for GHG estimates both across and within AEZs based on variation in farming practices and environment. It is expected that results for objective (2) will show further GHG mitigation potential due to minimizing N use and therefore fertilizer transport and soil related GHG emission while potentially increasing biodiesel production per hectare. Regional based incentives may allow more timely achievement of goals for bio-based fuels production. Additionally, incentives may further increase GHG offsetting by promoting nitrogen conserving best management practices implementation. This research highlights the need for regional assessment/incentive based

  18. Noodle quality of winter wheat cultivated in sustainable farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGDALENA LACKO-BARTOsOVa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted at the Research Experimental Station Dolna Malanta, Western Slovakia during 2009 and 2010 on a Haplic Luvisol developed on proluvial sediments mixed with loess.

  19. Winter Dew Harvest in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias-Torres Jorge Ernesto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents experimental and theoretical results of winter dew harvest in México City in terms of condensation rate. A simplified theoretical model based on a steady-state energy balance on a radiator-condenser was fitted, as a function of the ambient temperature, the relative humidity and the wind velocity. A glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted were used as samples over the outdoor experiments. A good correlation was obtained between the theoretical and experimental data. The experimental results show that there was condensation in 68% of the winter nights on both condensers. The total winter condensed mass was 2977 g/m2 and 2888 g/m2 on the glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted, respectively. Thus, the condensed mass on the glass was only 3% higher than that on the painted surface. The maximum nightly dew harvests occurred during December, which linearly reduced from 50 g/m2 night to 22 g/m2 night as the winter months went by. The condensation occurred from 1:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m., with maximum condensation rates between 6:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. The dew harvest can provide a partial alternative to the winter water shortage in certain locations with similar climates to the winter in Mexico City, as long as pollution is not significant.

  20. Exploitation of Physical Mapping Technologies for Breeding of Canola Mutants in Oilseed Brassicas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mutant population of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and mustard (Brassica juncea) consisting of 25,748 M2 mutants developed and screened through non-destructive quality analysis using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) for modified fatty acid profile. The genetic stability of mutant lines with desirable fatty acid profile ascertained in the M2:4 population. The DNA molecular polymorphism survey was conducted using DNA extracted from stable mutant lines. A total of 80% of the SSR primers screened yielded amplification products in all the selected lines. The polymorphism for the mutated genetic makeup of selected mutant plants of brassica with respective initial parents were studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to characterize the distribution of rDNA probes. With modified fatty acid composition 14 brassica mutant lines of the M2:5 generation were tested for yield performance under replicated yield trials for two consecutive years at Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA). The yield and quality performance of these 14 mutant lines were also evaluated under diversified agro-climatic conditions across the country. All the brassica mutant lines confirmed the genetic stability in modified fatty acid composition and yield potential. (author)

  1. Breeding sites and winter site fidelity of Piping Plovers wintering in The Bahamas, a previously unknown major wintering area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratto-Trevor, Cheri; Haig, Susan M.; Miller, Mark P.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Maddock, Sidney; Roche, Erin A.; Moore, Predensa

    2016-01-01

    Most of the known wintering areas of Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) are along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States and into Mexico, and in the Caribbean. However, 1066 threatened/endangered Piping Plovers were recently found wintering in The Bahamas, an area not previously known to be important for the species. Although representing about 27% of the birds counted during the 2011 International Piping Plover Winter Census, the location of their breeding site(s) was unknown. Thus, our objectives were to determine the location(s) of their breeding site(s) using molecular markers and by tracking banded individuals, identify spring and fall staging sites, and examine site fidelity and survival. We captured and color-banded 57 birds in January and February 2010 in The Bahamas. Blood samples were also collected for genetic evaluation of the likely subspecies wintering in The Bahamas. Band re-sightings and DNA analysis revealed that at least 95% of the Piping Plovers wintering in The Bahamas originated on the Atlantic coast of the United States and Canada. Re-sightings of birds banded in The Bahamas spanned the breeding distribution of the species along the Atlantic coast from Newfoundland to North Carolina. Site fidelity to breeding and wintering sites was high (88–100%). Spring and fall staging sites were located along the Atlantic coast of the United States, with marked birds concentrating in the Carolinas. Our estimate of true survival for the marked birds was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.61–0.80). Our results indicate that more than one third of the Piping Plover population that breeds along the Atlantic coast winters in The Bahamas. By determining the importance of The Bahamas to the Atlantic subspecies of Piping Plovers, future conservation efforts for these populations can be better focused on where they are most needed.

  2. Economics of alternative management practices for jointed goatgrass in winter wheat in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jointed goatgrass (JGG) (Aegilops cylindrica) is an invasive annual grass weed that reduces winter wheat yield and quality. In the past 20 to 30 years, there has been much research conducted on jointed goatgrass; however, there has never been an empirical economic evaluation of jointed goatgrass in ...

  3. Effects of Pilot Injection Timing and EGR on Combustion, Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Common Rail Diesel Engine Fueled with a Canola Oil Biodiesel-Diesel Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel as a clean energy source could reduce environmental pollution compared to fossil fuel, so it is becoming increasingly important. In this study, we investigated the effects of different pilot injection timings from before top dead center (BTDC and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR on combustion, engine performance, and exhaust emission characteristics in a common rail diesel engine fueled with canola oil biodiesel-diesel (BD blend. The pilot injection timing and EGR rate were changed at an engine speed of 2000 rpm fueled with BD20 (20 vol % canola oil and 80 vol % diesel fuel blend. As the injection timing advanced, the combustion pressure, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, and peak combustion pressure (Pmax changed slightly. Carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions clearly decreased at BTDC 20° compared with BTDC 5°, but nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased slightly. With an increasing EGR rate, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at BTDC 20° compared to other injection timings. However, the Pmax showed a remarkable decrease. The BSFC and PM emissions increased slightly, but the NOx emission decreased considerably.

  4. Using an Anion Exchange Membrane to Predict Soil Available N and S Supplies and the Impact of N and S Fertilization on Canola and Wheat Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. QIAN; J. J. SCHOENAU

    2007-01-01

    A growth chamber study was conducted to determine the relationships between the supply of soil available nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) and canola (Brassica napus) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'Biggar') N and S uptake and yield in three Western Canadian soils. The suitability of one-hour burial with an anion exchange membrane (AEM) was assessed for its utility as a quick test of the available N:S balance in the soil. Canola and wheat were grown on a Luvisolic soil low in available S and on Brown and Black Chernozemic soils low in both available N and S, with different rates and combinations of N and S fertilizers applied. AEM burial was used to assess soil available nitrate and sulfate supply rates after fertilization. Dry matter yield and N and S concentrations in plant tissues were determined after 6 weeks of growth.The soil available N:S ratio determined by AEM burial closely reflected the relative supplies of available N and S as revealed in the N:S ratios of plant tissue dry matter. The highest yields were achieved where the available N:S ratio in soil and plant tissue ranged from 5 to 13. Thus, a one-hour burial of an AEM probe in the field may be a useful tool to quickly test if a balanced N and S supply is present in the soil for optimum crop yield.

  5. Interactions between canola meal and flaxseed oil in the diets of White Lohmann hens on fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of table eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2016-08-01

    The current study was designed to assess the fatty acid composition and sensory attributes of eggs procured from hens consuming diets containing canola meal (CM) and/or flax oil (FO). A total of 96 group-caged White Lohmann hens received 1 of 4 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets for a period of 4 weeks. Diets were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, containing 24% canola meal, 7.5% flax oil, both, or neither (control). All yolk fatty acids were affected by flax oil inclusion, with the exception of stearic acid (SA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Only SA was affected by CM inclusion. Additionally, significant interactions between CM and FO were observed for linoleic acid (LA) and total omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), with DPA approaching significance (P = 0.069). Trained panelists (n = 8) evaluated 7 aroma ('egg', 'creamy', 'buttery', 'salty', 'sweet', 'barny', and 'oceanic') and 6 flavor ('egg', 'creamy', 'buttery', 'salty', 'brothy', and 'oceanic') attributes of cooked egg product. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in aroma attributes were found between eggs from different dietary treatments. However, egg, creamy, buttery, and oceanic flavors were significantly different between the dietary treatments (P acid. This experiment provides evidence that the interaction between CM and FO in the White Lohmann hen diet results in sensory changes of cooked eggs associated in part with changes in yolk fatty acid content. PMID:27252370

  6. Digestibility energy and amino acids of canola meal from two species (Brassica juncea and Brassica napus) fed to distal ileum cannulated grower pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, M H A; Buchet, A D G; Beltranena, E; Gerrits, W J J; Zijlstra, R T

    2012-12-01

    Yellow-seeded Brassica juncea is a novel canola species targeted to grow in the southern Canadian prairies where thermotolerance, disease resistance, and adaptation to dry agronomic conditions are required. The support of its cultivation needs nutritional evaluation of its coproduct. The B. juncea canola meal (CM) contains less fiber than conventional, dark-seeded Brassica napus CM but also slightly less Lys. In a 6 × 6 Latin square, 6 distal ileum cannulated pigs (47 kg BW) were fed 6 diets to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA, AID and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, and VFA content in digesta and feces. Pigs were fed 6 diets: basal [46% wheat (Triticum aestivum) and corn (Zea mays) starch], 4 diets with 46% wheat and either B. juncea or B. napus CM at 25 or 50%, and a N-free diet based on corn starch. The B. juncea CM had higher (P pigs fed B. juncea than B. napus CM diets. In pigs fed B. juncea CM, the molar ratio in digesta was lower (P pigs fed B. napus CM diets. The CM species did not affect the AID of energy, SID of AA, and feces VFA content. The DE value was higher (P feed formulation. PMID:23365335

  7. Canola meal as a novel substrate for β-glucosidase production by Trichoderma viride: application of the crude extract to biomass saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, J M; Lima, V A; Giloni-Lima, P C; Knob, A

    2015-10-01

    β-Glucosidases are important enzymes with significant prospects in the industrial biotechnology, including their use in biomass hydrolysis for bioethanol production. In this study, the use of canola meal as carbon source for β-glucosidase production by a Trichoderma viride strain in submerged fermentation was evaluated by applying central composite design and response surface methodology to optimize the production process. This statistical approach was also used to improve the passion fruit peel hydrolysis by T. viride crude extract. The model developed 3.6-fold increased β-glucosidase activity. The culture conditions that resulted in the highest β-glucosidase levels were a substrate concentration of 2.9 %, pH of medium 4.2 and cultivation time of 206 h. The β-glucosidases produced under optimal conditions showed attractive properties for industrial applications, such as activity at high temperatures and stability at 55 °C and over a wide pH range. In addition, the enzymatic hydrolysis of passion fruit peel by T. viride crude extract was very promising, resulting in glucose yields of 66.4 %. This study, therefore, presents canola meal as an inexpensive and attractive substrate for the production of microbial β-glucosidases. PMID:26093658

  8. Dissolved oxygen in the Tualatin River, Oregon, during winter flow conditions, 1991 and 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, V.J.

    1996-01-01

    Throughout the winter period, November through April, wastewater treatment plants in the Tualatin River Basin discharge from 10,000 to 15,000 pounds per day of biochemical oxygen demand to the river. These loads often increase substantially during storms when streamflow is high. During the early winter season, when streamflow is frequently less than the average winter flow, the treatment plants discharge about 2,000 pounds per day of ammonia. This study focused on the capacity of the Tualatin River to assimilat oxygen-demanding loads under winter streamflow conditions during the 1992 water year, with an emphasis on peak-flow conditions in the river, and winter-base-flow conditions during November 1992. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen throughout the main stem of the river during the winter remained generally high relative to the State standard for Oregon of 6 milligrams per liter. The most important factors controlling oxygen consumption during winter-low-flow conditions were carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand and input of oxygen-depleted waters from tributaries. During peak-flow conditions, reduced travel time and increased dilution associated with the increased streamflow minimized the effect of increased oxygen-demanding loads. During the base-flow period in November 1992, concentrations of dissolved oxygen were consistently below 6 milligrams per liter. A hydrodynamic water-quality model was used to identify the processes depleting dissolved oxygen, including sediment oxygen demand, nitrification, and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand. Sediment oxygen demand was the most significant factor; nitrification was also important. Hypothetical scenarios were posed to evaluate the effect of different wastewater treatment plant loads during winter-base-flow conditions. Streamflow and temperature were significant factors governing concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the main-stem river.

  9. Meeting the challenge : a carbon neutral 2010 winter games discussion paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, D.; Lingl, P. [David Suzuki Foundation, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Climate change is a significant environmental issue for this generation. Climate change has been recognized at previous winter Olympic games as a significant threat to winter sports, and is likely to impact future games even more. This discussion paper discussed the possible development and implementation of a greenhouse gas management program for the 2010 Olympic and Para-Olympic winter games. It reviewed relevant information on climate change and greenhouse gas management within both national and international contexts. It provided an explanation of carbon neutral and carbon offset concepts; a summary of the latest science and policy developments; and a summary of the approach taken by other major events, including sporting events. The report also provided an initial, high-level projection of the greenhouse gas footprint of the 2010 winter games and identified a greenhouse gas management framework and potential opportunities for achieving a carbon neutral games. Canadian public opinion on climate change was discussed along with impacts of climate change on winter sports; projections for 2010; and a history of Olympic policy on the environment. It was concluded that a carbon neutral strategy will ensure the use of high-quality offsets from renewable energy and energy efficiency projects that are the most effective way to address climate change. Through sponsor and public participation, funds can be raised to purchase high-quality offsets. refs., tabs., figs., appendices.

  10. Effects of expeller pressed camelina meal and/or canola meal on digestibility, performance and fatty acid composition of broiler chickens fed wheat-soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Philip; Widyaratne, Gemunu

    2012-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of graded levels of camelina meal and/or canola meal on digestibility, performance and fatty acid composition of broiler chickens. A total of 180-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of the six treatments. The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal and contained 15% canola meal. The experimental diets contained 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% or 15% camelina meal added at the expense of canola meal. Chromic oxide (0.35%) was added to all diets as a digestibility marker. On the morning of day 22, birds were killed by cervical dislocation and their abdominal fat pad was obtained. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter and energy as well as nitrogen retention all declined linearly (p camelina meal. Weight gain (p camelina meal in the diet increased. Feed conversion ratio was also negatively affected by camelina meal (p camelina meal had significantly higher (p camelina meal in their diet significantly reduced the growth and feed conversion ratio of broilers compared with canola meal. However, the potential to incorporate n-3 fatty acids into carcass tissues may provide some justification for including camelina meal in poultry rations. PMID:22881197

  11. Algal Community Structure and Water Quality Assessment on Drawdown Area of Kaixian Waters in Three Gorges Reservoir During Winter Storage Period%三峡水库开县消落区水域冬季蓄水期间藻类群落结构与水质评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭劲松; 谢丹; 李哲; 陈园; 孙志禹; 陈永柏; 龙曼

    2012-01-01

    2008年12月三峡水库第一次试验性蓄水至172.8 m后,开县老县城区域被淹没呈水库特征,对蓄水后开县消落区水域水生生物生态及水体营养状态的研究目前还鲜见报道.为了解172.8 m水位后开县消落区水域水环境的现状及藻类群落结构的变化,于2009年1月和2009年12月冬季蓄水期间2次对包括汉丰湖在内的开县消落区水域4个样点藻类组成、数量和生物量的分布及变化情况进行了跟踪观测,初步分析了浮游植物种群结构的变化趋势,并从生物角度评估了水域的水质营养状况.结果表明,2次采样共鉴定出浮游植物6门37属69种(含变种),优势种群均为甲藻和隐藻,2009年12月藻类细胞密度和生物量低于2009年1月.藻类种群结构和污染指示种评价结果显示,冬季蓄水期间开县消落区各采样断面的营养水平属于中-富营养类型.多样性分析的结果表明开县消落区水域冬季蓄水期间处于中污染状态.%The old town area of Kaixian county was flooded and showed reservoir characteristics after the water level of Three Gorges Reservoir got 172.8 m in December 2008.The aquatic ecology and nutritional status of Kaixian drawdown area after water storage are still rarely reported.To understand the current water environment and changes in algal community structure of Kaixian drawdown area after 172.8 m water level,the algal composition,abundance,biomass distribution and changes of its sampling spots including Hanfeng Lake were observed twice during winter storage period in January and December 2009.The trends in phytoplankton community structure were analyzed and the water quality assessment of nutritional status was carried out.The results indicated that 6 phylums,37 genera,69 species of phytoplankton in total were identified in the two sampling,and the dominant species were Dinophyta and Cryptophyta.The cell density and biomass in December 2009 were lower than those in January

  12. Winter turnip rape in mixed cropping: advantages and disadvantages

    OpenAIRE

    Tuulos, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Winter turnip rape is a biennial crucifer oilseed. A problem associated with winter turnip rape is early sowing time in July, when farms are short of available land. The aim of this study was to determine if winter turnip rape can be established by undersowing with spring cereals without decreasing cereal and winter turnip rape yields. It was also studied, if cutting the vegetative leaves of winter turnip rape in autumn could be performed without affecting the yield and whether the compo...

  13. Predicting Late Winter Dissolved Oxygen Levels in Arctic Lakes Using Morphology and Landscape Metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Leppi, Jason C.; Arp, Christopher D.; Whitman, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    Overwintering habitat for Arctic freshwater fish is essential, such that understanding the distribution of winter habitat quality at the landscape-scale is warranted. Adequate dissolved oxygen (DO) is a major factor limiting habitat quality in the Arctic region where ice cover can persist for 8 months each year. Here we use a mixed-effect model developed from 20 lakes across northern Alaska to assess which morphology and landscape attributes can be used to predict regional overwintering habit...

  14. The engineering approach to winter sports

    CERN Document Server

    Cheli, Federico; Maldifassi, Stefano; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports presents the state-of-the-art research in the field of winter sports in a harmonized and comprehensive way for a diverse audience of engineers, equipment and facilities designers, and materials scientists. The book examines the physics and chemistry of snow and ice with particular focus on the interaction (friction) between sports equipment and snow/ice, how it is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature and pressure, as well as by contaminants and how it can be modified through the use of ski waxes or the microtextures of blades or ski soles. The authors also cover, in turn, the different disciplines in winter sports:  skiing (both alpine and cross country), skating and jumping, bob sledding and skeleton, hockey and curling, with attention given to both equipment design and on the simulation of gesture and  track optimization.

  15. Risk management model of winter navigation operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Kuzmin, Vladimir; Kujala, Pentti; Montewka, Jakub

    2016-07-15

    The wintertime maritime traffic operations in the Gulf of Finland are managed through the Finnish-Swedish Winter Navigation System. This establishes the requirements and limitations for the vessels navigating when ice covers this area. During winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland, the largest risk stems from accidental ship collisions which may also trigger oil spills. In this article, a model for managing the risk of winter navigation operations is presented. The model analyses the probability of oil spills derived from collisions involving oil tanker vessels and other vessel types. The model structure is based on the steps provided in the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and adapted into a Bayesian Network model. The results indicate that ship independent navigation and convoys are the operations with higher probability of oil spills. Minor spills are most probable, while major oil spills found very unlikely but possible. PMID:27207023

  16. The effect of canola meal tannins on the intestinal absorption capacity of broilers using a D-xylose test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoori, B; Rogiewicz, A; Slominski, B A

    2015-12-01

    In three D-xylose absorption experiments, the effect of 1% HCl/methanol, 70% methanol or 70% acetone extracts of canola meal (CM) or 70% acetone extract of soybean meal (SBM) containing polyphenols, phenolic acids, tannins and phytic acid on intestinal absorption capacity of broilers was determined. In Exp. 1, the experimental groups received orally D-xylose solution alone or with methanol/HCl, methanol or acetone extracts of CM. In Exp. 2, the experimental groups received D-xylose alone or with acetone extracts of CM or SBM. In Exp. 3, the experimental groups received D-xylose plus sucrose solution or D-xylose plus acetone extracts of CM or SBM. In Exps. 2 and 3, the CM extracts contained 2.7 and 2.6, 2.4 and 2.3, 3.2 and 3.2, and 2.4 and 2.2 times higher polyphenols, phenolic acids, tannins and condensed tannins than the corresponding SBM extracts respectively. Blood samples were collected in 40-min intervals, and plasma D-xylose was measured. Compared to the Control, plasma D-xylose in Exp. 1 was lower (p < 0.001) by 81, 69 and 73% at 40-min, by 41, 44 and 37% at 80-min and by 22, 31, and 23% at 120-min post-ingestion of the HCl/methanol, methanol and acetone extracts respectively. In both Exps. 2 and 3, plasma D-xylose level was lower (p < 0.001) in groups dosed with CM extract or SBM extract at each time of blood collection, when compared to the respective Control group. However, in Exp. 3, birds dosed with SBM extract had higher plasma D-xylose than CM extract-dosed birds by 28, 8 and 21% at 40, 80 and 120 min respectively (p < 0.01). In conclusion, although CM extract caused a lower absorption of D-xylose, based on 5 to 10% of CM inclusion levels in practical broiler rations, the soluble bioactive components of CM will likely have minor impact on the absorption capacity of the chicken intestine. PMID:25865561

  17. Implanting radio transmitters in wintering canvasbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Dein, F.J.; Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    To conduct telemetry studies of wintering canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) on Chesapeake Bay, we needed to devise a suitable method of radio transmitter attachment. We describe an aseptic, intra-abdominal surgical technique, using the inhalation anesthetic isoflurane, to implant 20-g radio transmitters in free-ranging canvasbacks. We evaluated the technique over 3 winters (1987-89), when an annual average of 83 female canvasbacks received implant surgery during a 9-day period in mid-December. Of 253 ducks, 248 (98%) were implanted successfully, and 200 (80.6%) completed the 70-day study until early March. No mortality or abnormal behavior from surgery was identified post-release.

  18. Hatchling turtles survive freezing during winter hibernation.

    OpenAIRE

    Storey, K. B.; Storey, J M; Brooks, S. P.; Churchill, T A; Brooks, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    Hatchlings of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta marginata) are unique as the only reptile and highest vertebrate life form known to tolerate the natural freezing of extracellular body fluids during winter hibernation. Turtles survived frequent exposures to temperatures as low as -6 degrees C to -8 degrees C in their shallow terrestrial nests over the 1987-1988 winter. Hatchlings collected in April 1988 had a mean supercooling point of -3.28 +/- 0.24 degrees C and survived 24 hr of freezing ...

  19. Camellia spp. : Kamelien (Theaceae), Rosen des Winters

    OpenAIRE

    Dörken, Veit Martin; Jagel, Armin

    2012-01-01

    Kamelien haben ausgesprochen attraktive Blüten und blühen im Winter, weswegen man sie auch "Rosen des Winters" nennt. Bei den Kamelien, die bei uns im Gartenhandel angeboten werden, handelt es sich in den meisten Fällen um Sorten der Japanischen Kamelie (Camellia japonica). In Ostasien fand die Art in der Gartenkultur als Blütensolitär schon sehr lange Verwendung, bevor sie Anfang des 18. Jahrhunderts auch nach Europa gelangte. In den letzten Jahren werden Kamelien zunehmend auch in deutschen...

  20. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-(that) would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications.

  1. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-[that] would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications

  2. Air pollution episodes associated with East Asian winter monsoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dozen multi-day pollution episodes occur from October to February in Hanoi, Vietnam due to prolonged anticyclonic conditions established after the northeast monsoon surges (cold surges). These winter pollution episodes (WPEs) account for most of the 24-h PM10 exceedances and the highest concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Hanoi. In this study, WPEs were investigated using continuous air quality monitoring data and information on upper-air soundings and air mass trajectories. The 24-h pollutant concentrations are lowest during cold surges; concurrently rise thereafter reaching the highest levels toward the middle of a monsoon cycle, then decline ahead of the next cold surge. Each monsoon cycle usually proceeds through a dry phase and a humid phase as Asiatic continental cold air arrives in Hanoi through inland China then via the East China Sea. WPEs are associated with nighttime radiation temperature inversions (NRTIs) in the dry phase and subsidence temperature inversions (STIs) in the humid phase. In NRTI periods, the rush hour pollution peak is more pronounced in the evening than in the morning and the pollution level is about two times higher at night than in daytime. In STI periods, broad morning and evening traffic peaks are observed and pollution is as high at night as in daytime. The close association between pollution and winter monsoon meteorology found in this study for the winter 2003-04 may serve as a basis for advance warning of WPEs and for forecasting the 24-h pollutant concentrations. - Highlights: → Dozen pollution episodes from Oct. to Feb in Hanoi associated with anticyclones after monsoon surges. → 24-h concentrations of PM10, SO2, NO2, CO rise after surge and decline ahead of the next. → Episodes caused by nighttime radiation and subsidence inversions in dry and humid monsoon phases. → Distinct diurnal variations of pollutant concentrations observed in the two periods. → Close pollution-meteorology association serve as a basis

  3. Winter Fatigue and Winter Depression : Prevalence and Treatment with Bright Light

    OpenAIRE

    Rastad, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study prevalence of winter depressive mood and treatment effects of bright light for persons with winter fatigue and winter depression. Study I is a cross-sectional survey of a random sample (N=1657) from the general population between 18-65 years of age in Dalarna, Sweden (latitude 60°N). Study II is a similar survey of 17-18 year old students (N=756) in the municipality of Falun. Approximately 20% of both samples report seasonal symptoms, mainly fatigue, lowered...

  4. Identification and expression analysis of WRKY transcription factor genes in canola (Brassica napus L. in response to fungal pathogens and hormone treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyholos Michael K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of plant WRKY transcription factor families are widely implicated in defense responses and various other physiological processes. For canola (Brassica napus L., no WRKY genes have been described in detail. Because of the economic importance of this crop, and its evolutionary relationship to Arabidopsis thaliana, we sought to characterize a subset of canola WRKY genes in the context of pathogen and hormone responses. Results In this study, we identified 46 WRKY genes from canola by mining the expressed sequence tag (EST database and cloned cDNA sequences of 38 BnWRKYs. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the conserved WRKY domain amino acid sequences, which demonstrated that BnWRKYs can be divided into three major groups. We further compared BnWRKYs to the 72 WRKY genes from Arabidopsis and 91 WRKY from rice, and we identified 46 presumptive orthologs of AtWRKY genes. We examined the subcellular localization of four BnWRKY proteins using green fluorescent protein (GFP and we observed the fluorescent green signals in the nucleus only. The responses of 16 selected BnWRKY genes to two fungal pathogens, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Alternaria brassicae, were analyzed by quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR. Transcript abundance of 13 BnWRKY genes changed significantly following pathogen challenge: transcripts of 10 WRKYs increased in abundance, two WRKY transcripts decreased after infection, and one decreased at 12 h post-infection but increased later on (72 h. We also observed that transcript abundance of 13/16 BnWRKY genes was responsive to one or more hormones, including abscisic acid (ABA, and cytokinin (6-benzylaminopurine, BAP and the defense signaling molecules jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid (SA, and ethylene (ET. We compared these transcript expression patterns to those previously described for presumptive orthologs of these genes in Arabidopsis and rice, and observed both similarities and differences in

  5. Music Activities for Lemonade in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    "Lemonade in Winter: A Book About Two Kids Counting Money" is a children's book about math; however, when sharing it in the music classroom, street cries and clapping games emerge. Jenkins' and Karas' book provides a springboard to lessons addressing several music elements, including form, tempo, and rhythm, as well as…

  6. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation...

  7. Registration of Anton Hard White Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Anton’ (Reg. No. CV PI 651043) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the USDA-ARS and the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and released in December, 2007. "Anton" was selected from the cross WA691213-27/N86L177//‘Platte’. Anton primarily was released for its lo...

  8. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    forcing that leads to the observed high productivity during winter in the northern Arabian Sea. The weak northerly winds and increased solar insolation during the inter-monsoon period, led to the development of a highly stratified upper layer with warm sea...

  9. Studies Concerning the Wintering of Bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Parvu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in a private apiary, in order to determine the most efficient method of wintering in Brasov County.  The biological material was Apis mellifera carpathica Foti honey bees maintained in multi-storey hives. Ten hives were housed outdoor and ten in shelter. The parameters were monitored between October 2013 and March 2014. The monthly average temperatures were 9°C in October; 7°C in November; -8°C in December; -6°C in January; 2°C in February and 4°C in March. In the colonies housed in shelter, the consumption of honey during the winter was less than 34% and the mortality was less than 63.3%. The results were very significant (p≤ 0.01. The diarrhea was moderate compared to wintering hives outdoor. The laying of queen bees has resumed in late February, in both methods. It was observed that the colonies housed in shelter have refused to leave the hives and the intervention of beekeepers was required. This method is recommended in the regions with colds winters, even if it requires more effort to transport the hives.

  10. Resonance asymptotics in the generalized Winter model

    OpenAIRE

    Exner, Pavel; Fraas, Martin

    2006-01-01

    We consider a modification of the Winter model describing a quantum particle in presence of a spherical barrier given by a fixed generalized point interaction. It is shown that the three classes of such interactions correspond to three different types of asymptotic behaviour of resonances of the model at high energies.

  11. Stay Safe and Healthy This Winter!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics offer some simple ways to stay safe and healthy during the winter holiday season.  Created: 11/23/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 11/23/2010.

  12. Winter meeting on ground water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the winter meeting 1995 pollution from the most usual waste disposal sites was discussed: pesticides, chlorinated solvents, sanitary landfills and tar. Transport and biodegradation of pesticides and chlorinated solvents in soils, aquifers and ground water, and remediation means were considered on basis of the Danish and foreign experience. (EG)

  13. Winter Video Series Coming in January | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Library’s annual Summer Video Series was so successful that it will be offering a new Winter Video Series beginning in January. For this inaugural event, the staff is showing the eight-part series from National Geographic titled “American Genius.” 

  14. Análise dos modos de falha e efeitos na otimização dos fatores de produção no cultivo agrícola: subprocesso colheita da canola Failure mode and effect analysis in the optimization of production factors in the agro cultivation: subprocess harvest of canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Cantorski da Rosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O setor agrícola passa por um intenso processo de transformações e moder nização, mas ainda apresenta certo atraso em relação aos demais segmentos da economia, sobretudo na utilização de novas tecnologias e técnicas administrativas, que reflete em problemas que devem ser considerados. Este artigo apresenta uma metodologia para priorizar modos de falha e seus efeitos associados, para a determinação de ações preventivas, visando aperfeiçoar processos no cultivo agrícola de canola, usando a técnica FMEA, com foco no subprocesso colheita. O setor agrícola possui algumas características próprias, razão pela qual foram feitas algumas adaptações para análise deste tipo de processo. A aplicação foi ilustrada através de um estudo de caso em uma lavoura de canola na Escola-Fazenda da Sociedade Educacional Três de Maio (SETREM. A determinação de prioridades dos modos de falha foi feita de forma comparativa, pelo NPR (número de prioridade de risco e de um método gráfico.The agricultural sector has been facing an intense process of transformation and modernization. Nevertheless, it can still be considered underdeveloped if compared to other economic segments, regarding the utilization of new technologies and administrative techniques, resulting problems that deserve consideration. This Article presents a methodology to prioritize problems and their related effects to determine preventive measures, aiming at improving processes of canola cultivation, using the FMEA technique focusing on harvest. The agricultural sector has some particular techniques, which is the reason for some adjustments in order to analyze this type of process. The application was illustrated through an experiment in a plantation of canola at the farm-school of sociedade educacional três de maio (SETREM. The determination of priorities of potential problems was done comparatively through RPN (risk priority number and a graphic method.

  15. Nuclear Winter: The implications for civil defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to hypothesized cooling in the northern hemisphere following a nuclear war due to injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the original paper in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. The widespread use of 3-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling; 15 to 25/sup 0/C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought are likely to be direct threats to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures; The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and could present problems to third parties without food reserves; and Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor unexpected threat from nuclear war to the US and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the US due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year. 6 refs.

  16. Nuclear Winter: The implications for civil defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to hypothesized cooling in the northern hemisphere following a nuclear war due to injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the original paper in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. The widespread use of 3-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling; 15 to 250C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought are likely to be direct threats to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures; The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and could present problems to third parties without food reserves; and Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor unexpected threat from nuclear war to the US and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the US due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year. 6 refs

  17. Winter refuge for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes in Hanoi during Winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Takashi; Cuong, Tran Chi; Dong, Tran Duc; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Phong, Tran Vu; Minakawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Dengue occurs throughout the year in Hanoi, Vietnam, despite winter low temperatures concrete tanks and this preference increased in winter. Even in winter, the lowest water temperature found in concrete tanks was >14°C, exceeding the developmental zero point of Ae. aegypti. Although jars, drums and concrete tanks were the dominant containers previously (1994-97) in Hanoi, currently the percentage of residences with concrete tanks was still high while jars and drums were quite low. Our study showed that concrete tanks with broken lids allowing mosquitoes access were important winter refuge for Ae. aegypti. We also indicate a concern about concrete tanks serving as foci for Ae. aegypti to expand their distribution in cooler regions. PMID:24752230

  18. Early unusual ozone loss during the Arctic winter 2002/2003 compared to other winters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Goutail

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Total column ozone reduction in the Arctic is evaluated each winter since 1993/1994 by the transport method (3-D CTM passive ozone minus measurements. The cumulative loss from 1 December to the end of the season ranges from 5–10% during warm winters like 1998/1999, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 up to 30%–32% during cold winters like 1994/1995 and 1995/1996. The 23% cumulative loss observed during the winter 2002/2003 is similar in amplitude to the 20–24% measured in 1996/1997 and 1999/2000 but the timing is different. It started unusually early in December after the occurrence of very low temperature at all stratospheric levels between 550 K and 435 K allowing PSC formation and thus chlorine activation. The early ozone loss of 2002/2003 is well captured by current 3-D CTM models.

  19. Determining effects of an all weather logging road on winter woodland caribou habitat use in south-eastern Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug W. Schindler

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The Owl Lake boreal woodland caribou population is the most southerly population in Manitoba. It is provincially ranked as a High Conservation Concern Population. Forestry operations exist in the area and there are plans for further forest harvest and renewal. The Happy Lake logging road is the only main access through the Owl Lake winter range. This logging road is currently closed to the public and access is limited to forestry operations during specific times of the year. An integrated forestry/caribou management strategy for the area provides for the maintenance of minimum areas of functional habitat. Habitat quality along the road was compared to habitat quality in the winter core use areas, within the winter range and outside the winter range. To evaluate the extent of functional habitat near the road, we conducted animal location and movement analysis using GPS data collected from January 2002 to March 2006. Habitat quality in the winter range, core use areas and along the road were assessed and found to be similar. Analysis of caribou locations and movement illustrate less use of high quality habitat adjacent to the Happy Lake Road. Loss of functional habitat is suggested to occur within 1 kilometre of the road. This potential loss of functional habitat should be incorporated into integrated forestry and caribou conservation strategies. Road management is recommended to minimize the potential sensory disturbance and associated impacts of all weather access on boreal woodland caribou.

  20. Do we have to correct winter precipitation for nowcast applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfricht, Kay; Koch, Roland; Olefs, Marc

    2016-04-01

    In mountain regions like the Alps, a significant fraction of the annual precipitation falls as snow. There is an increasing demand for high-quality analysis, nowcast and short-range forecasts of snowfall. Operational services, such as traffic maintenance, real-time flood-warning systems of hydrological services and avalanche warning products, but also hydropower companies and ski resorts need reliable information on precipitation, snow depth and the corresponding snow water equivalent. However, producing accurate precipitation maps in complex terrain using only remote sensing techniques and uncorrected rain gauge data is a difficult task. In cold and windy conditions, conventional rain gauge measurements are prone to large errors when snow passes the rain gauge and sublimation occurs at heated devices. Empirical correction formulas are given by the WMO to compensate the potential undercatch (Goodison, 2008). The project pluSnow aims to combine snow depth measurements and precipitation data to minimize the error of gauge undercatch on the basis of snow depth data from 63 automatic weather stations (TAWES), operated by the Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG). These TAWES are equipped with SHM30 laser sensors to measure snow depth with high accuracy and temporal resolution of 0.01 m and 10 minutes, respectively. The pluSnow project will contribute to existing research efforts around the globe which focus on improving the precision of solid precipitation measurements. Here we present a first study based on the original TAWES data between 2006 and 2015. The fraction of solid precipitation to total winter precipitation between November and April (NDJFMA) and the potential undercatch of measured precipitation following Goodison (2008) for all TAWES sorted by altitude are analysed. Examples of the TAWES data in the original high temporal resolution of 10 min are given. The two main parameters used for the correction of precipitation

  1. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL: EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. V. B. Dias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPhase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements were performed for the liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE of the system containing vegetable oil (sunflower oil and canola oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined vegetable oil + anhydrous ethanol at 303.15 and at 323.15 K and the system containing refined palm oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined palm oil + ethanol at 318.15 K. The experimental data were successfully correlated by the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL model; the average deviations between calculated and experimental data were smaller than 1.00%.

  2. Enhancing Effect of Shimizuomyces paradoxus on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Canola, Plant Growth of Cucumber, and Harvest of Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Gi-Ho; Shrestha, Bhushan; Park, Ki-Byung; Han, Sang-Kuk; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2011-03-01

    Shimizuomyces paradoxus showed no inhibitory effect against plant pathogen fungi, such as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and Alternaria solani. The S. paradoxus culture filtrate showed higher seed germination and seedling growth rates in canola than distilled water and potato-dextrose broth. A conidial suspension of 1.0×10(4)/mL resulted in the highest growth stimulating effects on total plant length, and fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots in cucumber, when compared to the highest suspension concentration. Total plant length and shoot weight increased with the foliar spray treatment, and root length and root weight increased by simultaneous treatments of soil drenching and foliar spray in cucumber. Lower concentrations of the S. paradoxus conidial suspension increased the harvest of tomato fruit. PMID:22783066

  3. Effects of supplementation of canola meal-based diets with arginine on performance, plasma nitric oxide, and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens grown at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajali, F; Tahmasebi, M; Hassanpour, H; Akbari, M R; Qujeq, D; Wideman, R F

    2011-10-01

    A total of 300 male broilers (Ross 308) were exposed to cool conditions at high altitudes to study the effects of dietary Arg supplementation on performance and physiological and zootechnical variables. A corn-soybean meal (SBM) and a corn-canola meal (CM) diet were formulated for the starting (1 to 3 wk of age) and growing (3 to 6 wk of age) stages according to NRC recommendations. Two additional diets were prepared by supplementing 0.2 and 0.4% l-Arg to the corn-CM diet. Substitution of CM for SBM caused a significant (P ascites mortality showed a significant (P broiler chickens raised at high altitude caused reduced growth performance and predisposed the birds to pulmonary hypertension and ascites, which were partly restored by Arg supplementation. PMID:21934012

  4. Investigation of electron beam irradiation effects on anti-nutritional factors, chemical composition and digestion kinetics of whole cottonseed, soybean and canola seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Mahmoudabad, S. R.; Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.

    2011-12-01

    This study was completed to determine effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on anti-nutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro crude protein (CP) digestibility of whole cottonseed (WCS), soybean (SB) and canola seeds (CS). EB-irradiation eliminated completely ( Pphytic acid of WCS, SB and CS at a dose of 30 kGy. EB-irradiation decreased linearly ( P<0.001) the total glucosinolate content of CS. Trypsin inhibitor activity of 15, 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated SB was decreased by 19, 73 and 88%, respectively. Free gossypol content of WCS was reduced linearly ( P<0.001) by irradiation. EB-irradiation increased linearly ( P<0.001) CP digestibility of feeds. In conclusion, EB-irradiation was an effective processing method for improving the nutritive value of WCS, SB and CS.

  5. DIGESTIBILIDAD ILEAL APARENTE DE LA PROTEINA Y AMINOÁCIDOS DE LA TORTA DE CANOLA EN LECHONES RECIÉN DESTETADOS

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Parra S; Gerardo Mariscal L; Tércia Reis de S

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo. Obtener los coeficientes de digestibilidad ileal aparente (CDIA) de proteína (PC) y aminoácidos (AA) de torta de canola, en lechones recién destetados. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 24 lechones destetados a los 17 días de edad con un peso de 5.5 kg, a los cuales se les fijó una cánula simple en “T” en el ileon distal. Los lechones recibieron uno de los siguientes tratamientos: Dieta de Referencia (C) elaborada con caseína y almidón de maíz; dietas CTC (caseína-10% de Torta de...

  6. Variation analysis of space mutation in winter wheat varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of eight winter wheat varieties were carried into space by satellite Shijian No.8 and returned to the earth. After years' consecutive planting and choices, the mutagenic effects of space condition on the the yield in the SP3 generation, high whiteness and strong gluten materials appeared in the mutation progenies of Zhoumai 18 with a whiteness value of 82.9 and stability time of 80 min in the SP2 and SP3 generations were studied. The results showed that the variation of phenotype in progenies could be induced, while different varieties and traits responded differently to the space conditions. The mutant frequency of Xinmai 18 and Zhengmai 336 was 13.2% and 12.5% respectively. The variation was significant in plant height, ear length yield and quality trail. Segregation and inheritance occurred in the successive progenies, most of which were tended to be stable after the selection of single ear or plant. (authors)

  7. Event-specific plasmid standards and real-time PCR methods for transgenic Bt11, Bt176, and GA21 maize and transgenic GT73 canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverniers, Isabel; Windels, Pieter; Vaïtilingom, Marc; Milcamps, Anne; Van Bockstaele, Erik; Van den Eede, Guy; De Loose, Marc

    2005-04-20

    Since the 18th of April 2004, two new regulations, EC/1829/2003 on genetically modified food and feed products and EC/1830/2003 on traceability and labeling of GMOs, are in force in the EU. This new, comprehensive regulatory framework emphasizes the need of an adequate tracing system. Unique identifiers, such as the transgene genome junction region or a specific rearrangement within the transgene DNA, should form the basis of such a tracing system. In this study, we describe the development of event-specific tracing systems for transgenic maize lines Bt11, Bt176, and GA21 and for canola event GT73. Molecular characterization of the transgene loci enabled us to clone an event-specific sequence into a plasmid vector, to be used as a marker, and to develop line-specific primers. Primer specificity was tested through qualitative PCRs and dissociation curve analysis in SYBR Green I real-time PCRs. The primers were then combined with event-specific TaqMan probes in quantitative real-time PCRs. Calibration curves were set up both with genomic DNA samples and the newly synthesized plasmid DNA markers. It is shown that cloned plasmid GMO target sequences are perfectly suitable as unique identifiers and quantitative calibrators. Together with an event-specific primer pair and a highly specific TaqMan probe, the plasmid markers form crucial components of a unique and straighforward tracing system for Bt11, Bt176, and GA21 maize and GT73 canola events. PMID:15826057

  8. Initial Survey Instructions for mid-winter waterfowl survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey (MWS) is conducted annually in early January as part of the nationwide wintering waterfowl monitoring effort led by U.S. Fish &...

  9. Winter climate variability and classification in the Bulgarian Mountainous Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of snowiness and thermal conditions of winters are of high interest of investigations because of the more frequent droughts, occurred in the region. In the present study an attempt to reveal tendencies existing during the last 70 years of 20 th century in the course winter precipitation and,temperature as well as in some of the snow cover parameters. On the base of mean winter air temperature winters in the Bulgarian mountains were analyzed and classified. The main results of the study show that winter precipitation has decrease tendencies more significant in the highest parts of the mountains. On the other hand winter air temperature increases. It shows a relatively well-established maximum at the end of the studied period. In the Bulgarian mountains normal winters are about 35-40% of all winters. (Author)

  10. Winter feeding strategies for suckler cows in cold climatic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Manninen, Merja

    2007-01-01

    In Finland, suckler cow production is carried out in circumstances characterized by a long winter period and a short grazing period. The traditional winter housing system for suckler cows has been insulated or uninsulated buildings, but there is a demand for developing less expensive housing systems. In addition, more information is needed on new winter feeding strategies, carried out in inexpensive winter facilities with conventional (hay, grass silage, straw) or alternative (treated straw, ...

  11. III Olympic Winter Games, Lake Placid 1932: Official Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lattimer, George M

    2013-01-01

    The work: “III Olympic Winter Games, Lake Placid 1932: official report” provides a very full report on the organisation and running of the Olympic Games and a detailed history of the pioneering role of Lake Placid in the development of winter sport. It consists of one 291-page volume, published in English. Part I: Official congratulations ; List of officers and committees ; Olympic regulations and protocol and general rules ; Brief history of the Olympic Winter Games ; History of winter sport...

  12. Winter and Spring Cereal Production in the Maritimes

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Karen; MacKenzie, Joanna; Hammermeister, Andy

    2010-01-01

    Organic producers have expressed an interest in diversifying their crop rotations through the inclusion of winter cereals. Winter cereals have many potential benefits, as they provide soil cover over the winter months, can often out-compete weeds in the spring and can be harvested earlier than other cereal crops. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of management history on the performance of winter cereals versus spring cereals.

  13. Hellsgate Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BPA proposes to fund the Hellsgate Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The Project is intended to mitigate for wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs. The Project would allow the sponsors to secure land and conduct wildlife habitat improvement and long-term management activities within the boundaries of the Colville Indian Reservation. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0940) evaluating the potential environmental effects of the proposed Project (Alternative B) and No Action (Alternative A). Protection and re-establishment of riparian and upland habitat on the Colville Indian Reservation, under Alternative B, would not have a significant adverse environmental impact because: (1) there would be only limited, mostly short-term adverse impacts on soils, water quality, air quality, vegetation, and wildlife (including no effect on endangered species); and (2) there would be no adverse effect on water quantity, cultural resources, or land use. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI

  14. Stratification of weed communities inhabiting winter crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan T. Siciński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt at partial filling a gap in the research on the spatial structure of weed distribution in plantations of winter crops. On the basis of data from Polish scientific literature and own research the stratification of selected stands of weed communities, of various, mainly edaphic, requirements, in winter crops is presented. In three selected stands, representing various communities, the weed spatial structure is similar, differing only in the floristic composition of segetal plants constituting given phytocoenoses. The midlle (c2, lower (c3 and ground (c4 strata were recorder in the studied fields, while the upper (c1 and mosses (c5 ones were missing, which was propably a result of an influence exerted by the planted crop (rye, creating similar developmental conditions for weeds, and by climate (amount of precipitation.

  15. Sharp View of Gullies in Southern Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    20 November 2006 Crisp details in a suite of mid-latitude gullies on a crater wall are captured in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) view obtained in southern winter on 12 October 2006. During southern winter, shadows are more pronounced and the atmosphere is typically quite clear. These gullies, which may have formed in relatively recent martian history by erosion caused by flowing, liquid water, are located in a crater on the east rim of Newton Crater near 40.4oS, 155.3oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; the crater rim is on the right side of the image, the crater floor is on the left. North is toward the top/upper left.

  16. Effect of Cultivar of Winter Green Manure and Seeding Method on Soil Nutrients and Quality and Yield of Sequent Peanut%冬绿肥品种与播种方式对土壤养分和后茬花生产量及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦文利; 贾立明; 刘忠宽; 智建飞; 曹卫东

    2015-01-01

    研究品种与播种方式对冬绿肥地上生物量、养分蓄积量、土壤养分和后茬花生产量及品质的影响,为华北冬闲田推广种植冬绿肥提供科学依据。采用裂区设计,以二月兰、黑麦草、小黑麦3个冬绿肥品种为主处理,撒播和条播2种播种方式为副处理开展田间试验。结果表明,从绿肥品种来看,黑麦草地上生物量和养分蓄积量均极显著高于二月兰和小黑麦;翻压后,小黑麦后茬土壤碱解氮含量极显著低于黑麦草和二月兰,黑麦草后茬土壤有机质含量显著高于小黑麦,二月兰后茬土壤有效磷含量显著高于黑麦草;小黑麦后茬花生荚果产量显著低于黑麦草和二月兰。黑麦草后茬花生籽粒蛋白质、脂肪含量最高,分别为23.13%,52.72%。从播种方式来看,条播绿肥地上生物量及养分蓄积量均高于撒播。条播小黑麦地上生物量、氮蓄积量显著高于撒播,磷及钾蓄积量极显著高于撒播。条播黑麦地上生物量、氮磷钾养分蓄积量均极显著高于撒播。翻压后,条播二月兰、黑麦草后茬土壤碱解氮、有效磷含量显著高于撒播。综合分析,华北花生冬闲田以开沟条播种植二月兰、黑麦草为宜。%The objective of this field split plot experiment was to study the effects of three green manure culti-vars( February orchid, Ryegrass and Triticale) with two seeding methods ( Broadcast sowing and Drilling) on aboveground biomass,nutrients amount of growing stock,soil nutrients and quality and yield of sequent peanut,and to provide a scientific basis for the extension of planting green manure in winter fallow farmlands of North China. The green manure cultivars results showed that the aboveground biomass and nutrient amount of growing stock of Ryegrass were significantly higher than that of February orchid and Triticale.After being ploughed back,the alkaline N content in soil by the

  17. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and lying-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wintering and lying-up. 401.92... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.92 Wintering and lying-up. No vessel shall winter within the Seaway or lie-up within the Seaway during the navigation...

  18. Control of fungal diseases in winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Wiik, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between plant diseases, winter wheat characteristics, air temperature and precipitation, site factors and agricultural practices were investigated. Regression analyses revealed that control of LBDs (Leaf Blotch Diseases, including septoria tritici blotch, stagonospora nodorum blotch and tan spot) explained 74% of the yield increase achieved by fungicide treatment at GS 45-61, followed by powdery mildew (20%), brown rust (5%) and yellow rust (1%). Yield of both untreated and ...

  19. 2010 Winter Conference on Plasma Spectrochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 2010 Winter Conference on Plasma Spectrochemistry,sixteenth in a series of biennial meetings sponsored by the ICP Information Newsletter, features developments in plasma spectrochemical analysis by inductively coupled plasma (ICP), dc plasma (DCP), microwave plasma (MIP), glow discharge (GDL, HCL), and laser sources. The meeting will be held Monday, January 4 through Saturday, January 9, 2010, in Fort Myers, Florida (www. fortmyers-sanibel, corn) at the Sanibel Harbour Resort and Spa (www. sanibel-resort, com).

  20. Soil and radiocaesium contamination of winter fodders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level of 137Cs and soil contaminating three winter fodders was determined on organic and mineral soil and the effect of harvesting, fodder storage and weather conditions on the contamination level was assessed. The mean level of soil contamination in hay and silage was generally 137Cs content of all fodders were highly correlated indicating that, in this study, soil adhesion to plant surfaces is the main vector of 137Cs transfer

  1. Winter protein requirements of bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.; Llewellyn, L.M.; Rensberger, M.J.

    1944-01-01

    Three experiments involving 714 bobwhite quail were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, during the winters of 1939-1941 to determine the protein requirement of quail maintained throug'h the winter.....Considering survival, live weights, feed consumption, and subsequent reproduction by the birds, the-9 to 13 per cent levels of crude dietary protein gave as good results as higher levels eggs, which in all cases was over 90 per and in some respects were better.....On the basis of these studies, it is recommended that the winter maintenance diet for bobwhite quail contain . about 11 to 12 per cent of crude protein. The following diet (parts by weight) conforms to these specifications and should be satisfactory:...Ground yellow corn 85.6....Dehvdrated alfalfa leaf meal 5 .O.....Soybean oil meal 7.0.....Special steamed bonemeal 1.2....Salt (or Salt Mixture II,see text) 1.0...Vitamin A and D feeding oil, fortified 0.2.

  2. Flowering time control in European winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Martin Langer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time is an important trait in wheat breeding as it affects adaptation and yield potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars. To this end a population of 410 winter wheat varieties was evaluated in multi-location field trials and genotyped by a genotyping-by-sequencing approach and candidate gene markers. Our analyses revealed that the photoperiod regulator Ppd-D1 is the major factor affecting flowering time in this germplasm set, explaining 58% of the genotypic variance. Copy number variation at the Ppd-B1 locus was present but explains only 3.2% and thus a comparably small proportion of genotypic variance. By contrast, the plant height loci Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 had no effect on flowering time. The genome-wide scan identified six QTL which each explain only a small proportion of genotypic variance and in addition we identified a number of epistatic QTL, also with small effects. Taken together, our results show that flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars is mainly controlled by Ppd-D1 while the fine tuning to local climatic conditions is achieved through Ppd-B1 copy number variation and a larger number of QTL with small effects.

  3. Effects of Different Cultivation Models on Characteristics of Growth, Yield and Quality for Winter-planting Potato%不同覆盖方式对冬种马铃薯生长特性及产量与品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正荣

    2013-01-01

      为了提高马铃薯产量和品质,以马铃薯品种‘荷兰7号’为材料,采用以塑料薄膜和稻草为覆盖物的方法,探讨冬种马铃薯覆盖栽培的生产效应。结果表明,不同覆盖方式均能提早马铃薯出苗5天以上,缩短生育期8~22天,促进茎叶生长,提高结薯数,增加薯块大薯重量,提高薯块产量29.04%~67.68%。不同覆盖方式栽培的产量高低依次为:草+白膜,黑膜,草+土,草+黑膜,白膜,盖草,裸地(CK)。不同覆盖栽培方式对马铃薯块茎的干物质含量、还原糖含量、淀粉含量、商品薯率等有较大影响,可在一定程度上提高薯块品质。不同栽培方式各有特点,因此各地应根据生产条件采用相应的栽培方式,以获得较高的产量和效益。%In the experiment, potato variety‘Netherlands No.7’was used to study the difference in the characteristics of growth and development, yield and quality of winter-planting potato of the variety in seven cultivation models. The results showed that compared with the control, these models with covering could make potato emergence earlier more than 5 days, the growth period shortened by 8 days to 22 days, leaf growth promoted, the tuber number and yield improved by 29.04% to 67.68%. As far as yield was concerned, the tillage with straw covering and plastic film mulching was the best, then followed by the black plastic mulching, the tillage with straw covering and soil covering, the tillage with straw covering and black plastic film mulching, plastic film mulching, straw covering. Moreover, all treatments had significant influence on the dry matter of tuber, reducing sugar, the content of soluble starch and commercial potato rate. Different cultivation models have merits and demerits respectively, so in order to get high yield, relevant cultivation model should be employed to various environmental conditions.

  4. The Size of Winter-Flooded Paddy Fields No Longer Limits the Foraging Habitat Use of the Endangered Crested Ibis (Nipponia nippon) in Winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Can-Shi; Song, Xiao; Ding, Chang-Qing; Ye, Yuan-Xing; Qing, Bao-Ping; Wang, Chao

    2016-08-01

    Paddy fields have traditionally been viewed as the key foraging habitats for the endangered crested ibis (Nipponia nippon). With the population of this species now increasing, its distribution has expanded to both lowland areas and outside the nature reserve. However, little is known about the current foraging habitat preferences of these birds, especially during winter. In this research, a total of 54 used sites and 50 unused sites were investigated during winter from December 2011 to January 2012. The results of logistic regression analysis indicate that soil softness, human disturbance, and distance to the nearest road were important factors. For the site plots of winter-flooded paddy fields, the birds prefer the paddy fields with higher coverage of vegetation, except softer foraging sites and lower human-related disturbance. In lowland areas, the size of winter-flooded paddy fields was not a limiting factor, due to the availability of other wetlands capable of providing abundant food. The micro-habitat characteristics were important indicators of foraging habitat quality rather than the size of winter-flooded paddy fields, and the food accessibility may play an important role in the process of foraging habitat use. We suggest the improvement of the foraging micro-habitat and environmental characteristics would be effective in ensuring the availability of food in the dispersed lowland areas. The local people still needed to be encouraged and compensated by their single-cropping cultivation, ploughed the paddy fields after harvesting and irrigated them with shallow water flooded in the original core areas of the nature reserve. PMID:27498793

  5. Plasma fatty acid changes following consumption of dietary oils containing n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids at different proportions: preliminary findings of the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT)

    OpenAIRE

    Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David A.; Lamarche, Benoît; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; West, Sheila G; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Liu, Xiaoran; McCrea, Cindy E; Jones, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT) was a randomized controlled crossover study designed to evaluate the effects of five diets that provided different oils and/or oil blends on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in individuals with abdominal obesity. The present objective is to report preliminary findings on plasma fatty acid profiles in volunteers with abdominal obesity, following the consumption of diets enriched with n-3, n-6 and n-9 fatty acids. Methods...

  6. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hermansen, John Erik;

    2013-01-01

    %. Differences in area-based emissions were only 4% reflecting the importance of regional variation in yields for the emission result. Fertilizer nitrogen production and direct emissions of soil N2O were major contributors to the final emission result and sensitivity analyses showed that the emission result...... such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO2...... equivalents (CO2eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO2, CH4 and N2O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO2eq MJ−1 ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO2eq...

  7. High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Peter M.; Brown, Steven S.; Roberts, James M.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Banta, Robert M.; Degouw, Joost A.; Dubé, William P.; Field, Robert A.; Flynn, James H.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Graus, Martin; Helmig, Detlev; Koss, Abigail; Langford, Andrew O.; Lefer, Barry L.; Lerner, Brian M.; Li, Rui; Li, Shao-Meng; McKeen, Stuart A.; Murphy, Shane M.; Parrish, David D.; Senff, Christoph J.; Soltis, Jeffrey; Stutz, Jochen; Sweeney, Colm; Thompson, Chelsea R.; Trainer, Michael K.; Tsai, Catalina; Veres, Patrick R.; Washenfelder, Rebecca A.; Warneke, Carsten; Wild, Robert J.; Young, Cora J.; Yuan, Bin; Zamora, Robert

    2014-10-01

    The United States is now experiencing the most rapid expansion in oil and gas production in four decades, owing in large part to implementation of new extraction technologies such as horizontal drilling combined with hydraulic fracturing. The environmental impacts of this development, from its effect on water quality to the influence of increased methane leakage on climate, have been a matter of intense debate. Air quality impacts are associated with emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), whose photochemistry leads to production of ozone, a secondary pollutant with negative health effects. Recent observations in oil- and gas-producing basins in the western United States have identified ozone mixing ratios well in excess of present air quality standards, but only during winter. Understanding winter ozone production in these regions is scientifically challenging. It occurs during cold periods of snow cover when meteorological inversions concentrate air pollutants from oil and gas activities, but when solar irradiance and absolute humidity, which are both required to initiate conventional photochemistry essential for ozone production, are at a minimum. Here, using data from a remote location in the oil and gas basin of northeastern Utah and a box model, we provide a quantitative assessment of the photochemistry that leads to these extreme winter ozone pollution events, and identify key factors that control ozone production in this unique environment. We find that ozone production occurs at lower NOx and much larger VOC concentrations than does its summertime urban counterpart, leading to carbonyl (oxygenated VOCs with a C = O moiety) photolysis as a dominant oxidant source. Extreme VOC concentrations optimize the ozone production efficiency of NOx. There is considerable potential for global growth in oil and gas extraction from shale. This analysis could help inform strategies to monitor and mitigate air quality impacts

  8. The Research on Biochemical Indexes of Athletes after Taking Nutritional Supplements during Winter Training

    OpenAIRE

    Liping Pan

    2015-01-01

    The paper takes hemoglobin and blood urea as the indexes of biochemical monitoring and accordingly supplying sports nutritional supplements into them at the same time, the effect on exercise capacity and the changes in biochemical indicators in different training stages will be observed in this research. The quality of winter training determines the motion states of athletes in the next year. However, the poor weather condition and the large amount of training will lead to the accumulation of...

  9. Bicycle braking friction measurements on winter roads

    OpenAIRE

    Rekilä, Katja

    2015-01-01

    This master’s thesis study has been carried out during a student exchange in the Norwegian University of science and technology in the Research Centre for Winter maintenance. The master’s thesis consists of two parts: I) a process report and II) a manuscript for a scientific paper. In addition, appendix is marked as part III. Bicycling is considered an attractive way of traveling since it improves health, is flexible and often fastest mode of travelling in urban areas. Therefore it is bec...

  10. Selection of high hectolitre weight mutants of winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grain quality in wheat includes hectolitre weight (HLW) besides protein content and thousand-grain weight (TGW). The British winter wheat variety ''Guardian'' has a very high yield potential. Although the long grain of ''Guardian'' results in a desirable high TGW the HLW is too low. To select mutants exhibiting increased HLW the character was first analyzed to identify traits that could more easily be screened for using M2 seeds. In comparison of 6 wheat cultivars, correlation analyses with HLW resulted in coefficients of -0.86 (grain length, L:P 2 seeds for shorter, less prolate grains. Mutagenesis was carried out using EMS sulphonate (1.8 or 3.6%), sodium azide (2 or 20 mM) or X-rays (7.5 or 20 kR). 69 M2 grains with altered shape were selected. Examination of the M3 progeny confirmed 6 grain-shape mutants, most of them resulting from EMS treatment (Table). Two of the mutants showed TGW values significantly below the parental variety, but three mutants exhibited HLW and TGW values significantly greater than those of the parental variety. Microplot yield trails on selected M3 lines are in progress. The influence of physical grain characteristics on HLW offers prospects for mechanical fractionation of large M2 populations. The application of gravity separators (fractionation on the basis of grain density) and sieves (fractionation on the basis of grain length) in screening mutants possessing improved grain quality is being investigated

  11. Caracterización de enzimas hidrolíticas de Aspergillus ficuum producidas en fermentación sólida sobre torta de canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Título en ingles: Characterization of Aspergillus ficuum hydrolytic enzymes produced in solid state fermentation of cold-pressed canola cake Resumen: En el presente trabajo, se describe la caracterización respecto al pH y temperatura de extractos semipurificados mediante ultrafiltración escalonada de las enzimas fitasa, celulasa y xilanasa de Aspergillus ficuum cepa DSM 932 producidos en fermentación en estado sólido (en adelante SSF y usando torta de canola como sustrato. La fitasa presentó un pH y una temperatura óptima de 5.0 y 60°C respectivamente, en tanto que la celulasa presentó un pH óptimo de 7.0 con una temperatura óptima de 60°C y el extracto de xilanasa un pH óptimo de 5.4 y una temperatura óptima de 45°C. Palabras clave: caracterización enzimas; fitasa; xilanasa; celulasa. Abstract: This paper, describes the characterization respect to pH and temperature of semi-purified extracts by ultrafiltration step of the enzymes phytase, cellulase and xylanase produced by Aspergillus ficuum DSM 932 strain, in solid state fermentation (SSF using cold-pressed canola cake as substrate. Phytase showed the optimal pH and temperature 6.0 and 60°C, respectively, while cellulase showed a pH optimal of 7.0 with an optimal temperature of 60°C and xylanase extract an optimal pH of 5.4 and an optimal temperature of 45°C /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso

  12. Effect of pre-wintering and wintering temperature regimes on weight loss, survival, and emergence time in the mason bee Osmia cornuta (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Jordi; Kemp, William

    2004-01-01

    Osmia cornuta adults require exposure to wintering temperatures followed by incubation in the spring to emerge. We studied winter survival, weight loss, emergence time, and post-emergence longevity in O. cornuta exposed to a variety of pre-wintering and wintering treatments. Few bees emerged after exposure to wintering durations

  13. Molecular markers linked to genes important for Hard Winter Wheat production and marketing in the U.S. Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotic stresses including diseases [leaf, stem and stripe rusts, and wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV)] and insects [greenbug (GB), Hessian fly (Hf), Russian wheat aphid (RWA) and wheat curl mite (WCM)] significantly affect grain yield and end-use quality of hard winter wheat (HWW, Triticum aestivum ...

  14. Identification of markers linked to genes for sprouting tolerance (independent of grain color) in hard white winter wheat (HWWW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of markers linked to genes for sprouting tolerance (independent of grain color) in hard white winter wheat (HWWW) ABSTRACT Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can negatively impact end-use quality and seed viability at planting. Due to preferences for white ...

  15. Marked variation between winter and spring gut microbiota in free-ranging Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Binghua; Wang, Xi; Bernstein, Sofi; Huffman, Michael A; Xia, Dong-Po; Gu, Zhiyuan; Chen, Rui; Sheeran, Lori K; Wagner, R S; Li, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the availability and distribution of food resources is a strong selective pressure on wild primates. We explored variation in Tibetan macaque gut microbiota composition during winter and spring seasons. Our results showed that gut microbial composition and diversity varied by season. In winter, the genus Succinivibrio, which promotes the digestion of cellulose and hemicellulose, was significantly increased. In spring, the abundance of the genus Prevotella, which is associated with digestion of carbohydrates and simple sugars, was significantly increased. PICRUSt analysis revealed that the predicted metagenomes related to the glycan biosynthesis and metabolic pathway was significantly increased in winter samples, which would aid in the digestion of glycan extracted from cellulose and hemicellulose. The predicted metagenomes related to carbohydrate and energy metabolic pathways were significantly increased in spring samples, which could facilitate a monkey's recovery from acute energy loss experienced during winter. We propose that shifts in the composition and function of the gut microbiota provide a buffer against seasonal fluctuations in energy and nutrient intake, thus enabling these primates to adapt to variations in food supply and quality. PMID:27180722

  16. Using ATR-FT/IR to detect carbohydrate-related molecular structure features of carinata meal and their in situ residues of ruminal fermentation in comparison with canola meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hangshu; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-10-01

    There is no information on the co-products from carinata bio-fuel and bio-oil processing (carinata meal) in molecular structural profiles mainly related to carbohydrate biopolymers in relation to ruminant nutrition. Molecular analyses with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT/IR) technique with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and chemometrics enable to detect structural features on a molecular basis. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine carbohydrate conformation spectral features in original carinata meal, co-products from bio-fuel/bio-oil processing; and (2) investigate differences in carbohydrate molecular composition and functional group spectral intensities after in situ ruminal fermentation at 0, 12, 24 and 48 h compared to canola meal as a reference. The molecular spectroscopic parameters of carbohydrate profiles detected were structural carbohydrates (STCHO, mainly associated with hemi-cellulosic and cellulosic compounds; region and baseline ca. 1483-1184 cm-1), cellulosic compounds (CELC, region and baseline ca. 1304-1184 cm-1), total carbohydrates (CHO, region and baseline ca. 1193-889 cm-1) as well as the spectral ratios calculated based on respective spectral intensity data. The results showed that the spectral profiles of carinata meal were significantly different from that of canola meal in CHO 2nd peak area (center at ca. 1091 cm-1, region: 1102-1083 cm-1) and functional group peak intensity ratios such as STCHO 1st peak (ca. 1415 cm-1) to 2nd peak (ca. 1374 cm-1) height ratio, CHO 1st peak (ca. 1149 cm-1) to 3rd peak (ca. 1032 cm-1) height ratio, CELC to total CHO area ratio and STCHO to CELC area ratio, indicating that carinata meal may not in full accord with canola meal in carbohydrate utilization and availability in ruminants. Carbohydrate conformation and spectral features were changed by significant interaction of meal type and incubation time and almost all the spectral parameters were significantly decreased (P

  17. Effect of Phytase Superdoses and Citric Acid on Growth Performance, Plasma Phosphorus and Tibia Ash in Broilers Fed Canola Meal-Based Diets Severely Limited in Available Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taheri HR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase superdoses alone or in combination with citric acid (CA in canola meal-based diets severely limited in available phosphorus (Pa on growth performance, plasma phosphorus (P, and tibia ash (TA in broilers from 22 to 42 d of age. Two hundreds and eighty 21-d-old male broilers were used in 28 pens of 10 birds per each. The experimental diets consisted of a positive control (PC diet and six negative control (NC diets which consisted of two levels of CA (0 and 20 g/Kg and three levels of phytase (0, 1000 and 4000 U/Kg in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. The PC diet contained 4.3 g/Kg Pa, but all NC diets contained 1.5 g/Kg Pa. Results indicated that the birds fed the PC diet had a significantly higher average daily gain (ADG, plasma P and TA, but a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR than those fed the NC diet. The ADG, FCR and plasma P values in birds fed NC diets supplemented with 4000 U/Kg phytase enzyme (with or without CA significantly reached those of birds fed the PC diet. But, addition of phytase enzyme at 1000 U/Kg only plus CA to the NC diet could significantly improve FCR and plasma P. A significant interaction was observed between phytase and CA for FCR and plasma P. Although TA values in NC + 1000 U/Kg phytase treatments (with or without CA were similar to the PC treatment, TA values of NC + 4000 U/Kg phytase treatments (with or without CA was greater than that of the PC treatment. Results of this study showed that, in severely limited Pa corn-canola meal-based diets, supplementing 4000 U/Kg phytase or also 1000 U/Kg phytase plus CA will be sufficient to obtain the comparable feed efficiency in broilers to those fed the adequate Pa diet.

  18. Estabilidad oxidativa y contenido de tocoferoles en el aceite de canola extraído con CO2 supercrítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grompone, Maria A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work the characteristics of canola seed oil extracted using supercritical CO2 under different conditions and its oxidative stability were analyzed and compared with those corresponding to the oil extracted with hexane. The oil with the lower oxidative stability was that extracted at 276 Kg/cm2. All the oils extracted with supercritical CO2 showed a lower oxidative stability than the oil obtained by hexane extraction. Although the hexane extracted oil did not show a significant difference in its tocopherol concentration, its carotenoid concentration was the highest, which could be a reason for the higher oxidative stability of that oil. The oil extraction rate was constant during the whole extraction period, but the rate of tocopherol extraction was higher at the beginning of the process, which suggests a possible co-solvent effect of the oil itself on these compounds.En este trabajo se analizan las características del aceite extraído de semillas de canola usando CO2 supercrítico en diferentes condiciones de operación y su estabilidad oxidativa, comparándolas con las correspondientes a las del aceite extraído con hexano. Entre los aceites extraídos con CO2 supercrítico el que presentó una menor estabilidad oxidativa y un menor contenido de tocoferoles fue el extraído a 276 Kg/cm2. En todos los casos los aceites extraídos por este método resultaron menos estables que el extraído con hexano. Aunque este último no presentó un contenido en tocoferoles sustancialmente diferente al de los primeros, mostró un contenido de carotenoides superior, lo que podría estar explicando su mayor estabilidad oxidativa. Si bien la velocidad de extracción del aceite fue constante durante todo el proceso, los tocoferoles mostraron una mayor velocidad de extracción al inicio que al final del mismo, lo que sugiere un posible efecto co-solvente del propio aceite sobre ellos.

  19. Nutrient digestibility and growth performance of pigs fed diets with different levels of canola meal from Brassica napus black and Brassica juncea yellow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjayan, N; Heo, J M; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-09-01

    Nutrient digestibility and the effect of high dietary inclusion of canola meals from Brassica napus black (BNB) and Brassica juncea yellow (BJY) on growing and weaned pigs performance were determined. In Exp.1, 6 ileal cannulated barrows (initial BW = 20.7 ± 1.5 kg) were used to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in BNB and BJY. Pigs were allotted to diets containing either BNB or BJY as the sole source of protein in a crossover design to give 6 replicates per diet. The SID of all AA in BNB and BJY were similar. In Exp. 2, 168 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.61 ± 0.76 kg) were assigned in a randomized complete block design to 7 diets (n = 24) consisting of a wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 6 diets containing 5, 10 or 15% of canola meal derived from either BNB or BJY to determine the effect of different dietary inclusion on growth performance over a 28-d period postweaning. Diets were formulated to contain similar NE and SID of Lys. There were no differences in growth performance among treatments. In Exp. 3, 162 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.26 ± 0.70 kg) were used to determine the effect of high BNB and BJY inclusion level without or with multicarbohydrase supplementation on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP, DM, and GE. A wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 8 diets containing 20 and 25% of either BNB or BJY without or with added multi-carbohydrase were formulated (n = 18) to contain comparable NE and similar SID of Lys contents. Feeding the diets containing 25% of BNB or BJY supported similar growth performance as those containing 20%. The multi-carbohydrase had no effect on growth performance but improved (P pig diets without compromising performance as long as the diets are formulated on an NE and SID of Lys basis. Also, enzyme addition improved the ATTD of CP, DM, and GE in weaned pigs in both BNB and BJY diets. PMID:25057028

  20. Pollution characteristics of atmospheric fine particles and their secondary components in the atmosphere of Shenzhen in summer and in winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Yuwen; HE Lingyan; HU Min; ZHANG Jing; ZHAO Yunliang

    2006-01-01

    Two field measurements for atmospheric fine particles were conducted in Baoan district of Shenzhen during the summer and winter in 2004. Totally 30 sets of 24 h samples were collected, and then the mass concentrations and chemical compositions were determined. The seasonal variations and secondary pollution characteristics of fine particles during the sampling periods were discussed with meteorological factors. The results show that seasonal variations of atmospheric particles are significant in Shenzhen. The average mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in summer were 35 μg·m-3 and 57 μg·m-3, respectively, and those in winter were 99 μg·m-3 and 135 μg·m-3, respectively. The concentrations of both PM2.5 and PM10 in winter increased 184% and 137%, respectively, compared to those in summer. PM2.5 accounted for 61% and 75% of PM10 in summer and in winter, respectively, indicating severe fine particle pollution in Shenzhen. During the summer and winter sampling periods, the mean OC/EC ratios were 3.4 and 1.6, respectively. The estimated secondary organic carbon (SOC) averagely accounted for 56% and 6% of the total OC in summer and in winter, respectively, which implies a major contribution of SOC to OC in summer. During the continuous high temperature period in summer, both the concentrations and fractions of secondary aerosol components in PM2.5 were highly elevated, suggesting severe secondary pollution again. The prevailing wind was from South China Sea in summer, and the air quality was good. The prevailing wind in winter was from Mainland China to the north, and the polluted air mass led to poor air quality.

  1. Root development of fodder radish and winter wheat before winter in relation to uptake of nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Ellen Margrethe; Hansen, Elly Møller; Mandel, A.;

    2015-01-01

    depleting the soil of mineral nitrogen (Nmin) before winter. A secondary aim was to study the agreement between three different root measuring methods: root wash (RW), core break (CB) and minirhizotron (MR). The third aim of the was to correlate the N uptake of FR and WW with RLD. An experiment was made to...

  2. Forage radish winter cover crop suppresses winter annual weeds in fall and before corn planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus) is a new winter cover crop in the Mid-Atlantic region. The objective of this project was to characterize the repeatability, amount, and duration of weed suppression during and after a fall-planted forage radish cover crop and to quantify the sub...

  3. Histological analysis of ovaries of female rabbits fed on canola meal gradually substituting soybean meal Análises histológicas do ovário de coelhas alimentadas com farelo de canola em substituição gradativa ao farelo de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Vieira Lage

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A histological study of New Zealand White female rabbits’ ovaries was undertaken. Rabbits were fed on canola meal as an increasing substitute (00, 33, 66 and 100% for soybean meal so that the tissue’s general aspects could be verified and the number of ovarian follicles from each experimental group could be obtained. Forty-eight female rabbits were slaughtered at 43, 150 and 225 days of age and their ovaries were fixed in Bouin’s liquid, washed and conserved in 70% ethanol and embedded in paraffin. 5µm-thick histological sections were undertaken and stained by HE and Azan techniques. The ovaries were bound by a predominantly simple cubic epithelium followed by the tunica albuginea. Ovarian follicles were observed in different stages of development in the cortical tissue. Interstitial gland cells, blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves were observed in the medullar tissue. Small cysts were also reported. Histological preparations didn’t show any change between groups either in the general morphology of the tissue or in follicle number. This fact suggests that the use of canola as a food of rabbits didn’t interfere in reproduction.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a histologia de ovário de coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia Branca. As coelhas foram alimentadas com farelo de canola em substituição gradativa (00, 33, 66 e 100% ao farelo de soja. Foram estudados os aspectos histológicos gerais dos ovários, assim como a contagem de folículos. Um grupo de 48 coelhas foi dividido ao acaso e abatido aos 43, 150 e 225 dias de idade, e os ovários foram fixados em Bouin, lavados e conservados em solução de etanol a 70% e embebidos em parafina. Cortes histológicos foram realizados com 5µm de espessura e corados com HE e técnica de Azan. Os ovários apresentavam predominantemente epitélio simples cúbico seguidos de túnica albugínea. Os folículos foram observados em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento no estroma cortical. C

  4. GRÃOS DE LINHAÇA E DE CANOLA SOBRE O DESEMPENHO, DIGESTIBILIDADE APARENTE E CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CARCAÇA DE NOVILHAS NELORE TERMINADAS EM CONFINAMENTO WHOLE LINSEED AND CANOLA SEED ON PERFORMANCE APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF NELLORE HEIFERS FINISHED IN FEEDLOT

    OpenAIRE

    Jesuí Virgílio Visentainer; José Luiz Moletta; Robério Rodrigues Silva; Ivanor Nunes do Prado; Fabio Yoshimi Wada; Lucia Maria Zeoula

    2008-01-01

    Avaliaram-se três rações (TES – ração-testemunha; LIN – ração com semente de linhaça integral e CAN – ração com grão integral de canola) sobre o desempenho, digestibilidade aparente, características de carcaça e os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (CDMS), matéria orgânica (CDMO), proteína bruta (CDPB), fibra em detergente neutro (CDFDN), fibra em detergente ácido (CDFDA), energia bruta (CDEB) e extrato etéreo (CDEE) de novilhas Nelore confinadas. O indicador interno ut...

  5. The Effects of Controlled Release Fertilizer and Conventional Complex Fertilizer on the Photosynthetic Characteristics in Winter Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Guoqing Li; Liyuan Yan; Jingtian Yang; Yan Shi

    2014-01-01

    The quantity and quality of the fertilizers affected the photosynthetic characteristic of the winter wheat. So, the rationality applied, reduced fertilizers not only can decline pollution for soil and ground water, but also save the cost. The quantity and quality of the fertilizers determine the relationship between the photosynthetic characteristics. Therefore, the different effects about the using of the Controlled Release Fertilizer (CRF) and the Conventional Complex Fertilizer (CCF) on ph...

  6. Performance of Chlorella sorokiniana under simulated extreme winter conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Cuaresma, M.; Buffing, M.F.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Lobato, C.V.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    High annual microalgae productivities can only be achieved if solar light is efficiently used through the different seasons. During winter the productivity is low because of the light and temperature conditions. The productivity and photosynthetic efficiency of Chlorella sorokiniana were assessed under the worst-case scenario found during winter time in Huelva, south of Spain. The maximum light intensity (800 µmol photons m-2 s-1) and temperature (20°C) during winter were simulated in a lab-s...

  7. Effects of climate variation on winter cereal production in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    C. Rodríguez-Puebla; Ayuso, S. M.; Frías, M. D.; García-Casado, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    Climate variables responsible for inter-annual variations in the winter cereal yield in Spain were identified and climate information was translated into crop production. Empirical orthogonal functions and correlation analyses were applied to regional and large-scale climate variables to ascertain the links between climate and winter cereal yield. Interactions between climate and winter cereal productivity in Spain can be summarized as follows: the start of the growing season depends on minim...

  8. Physical Properties of Normal Grade Biodiesel and Winter Grade Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Azmi Zakaria; W. Mahmood Mat Yunus; Monir Norozi; Harrison Lau Lik Nang; Mohd Maarof Moksin; Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini

    2011-01-01

    In this study, optical and thermal properties of normal grade and winter grade palm oil biodiesel were investigated. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photopyroelectric technique were used to evaluate the samples. The dispersion curve and thermal diffusivity were obtained. Consequently, the variation of refractive index, as a function of wavelength in normal grade biodiesel is faster than winter grade palm oil biodiesel, and the thermal diffusivity of winter grade biodiesel is higher than the the...

  9. The History of Winter: teachers as scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned

  10. Biocontrol traits and antagonistic potential of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJZJSB3 against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a causal agent of canola stem rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuncheng; Yuan, Jun; Raza, Waseem; Shen, Qirong; Huang, Qiwei

    2014-10-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJZJSB3 has shown antagonism of several phytopathogens in vitro, especially Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Both the broth culture and cell suspension of strain NJZJSB3 could completely protect the detached leaves of canola (Brassica napus) from S. sclerotiorum infection. In pot experiments, the application of strain NJZJSB3 cell suspension (10(8) CFU/ml) decreased the disease incidence by 83.3%, a result similar to commercially available fungicide (Dimetachlone). In order to investigate the potential biocontrol mechanisms of strain NJZJSB3, the nonvolatile antifungal compounds it produces were identified as iturin homologs using HPLC-ESI-MS. Antifungal volatile organic compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The detected volatiles toluene, phenol, and benzothiazole showed antifungal effects against S. sclerotiorum in chemical control experiments. Strain NJZJSB3 also produced biofilm, siderophores and cell-wall-degrading enzymes (protease and β-1,3-glucanase). These results suggest that strain NJZJSB3 can be a tremendous potential agent for the biological control of sclerotinia stem rot. PMID:24861342

  11. Quantification, localization, and speciation of selenium in seeds of canola and two mustard species compared to seed-meals produced by hydraulic press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos, Gary S; Walse, Spencer S; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Freeman, John L

    2012-07-17

    Brassica plants accumulate selenium (Se) especially in seeds when grown in soils laden with Se. We report a chemical analysis of Se in Brassica seeds (canola, Indian mustard, and white mustard) and in their hydraulically pressed seed meals, which are used as a Se supplement in livestock animal feeds. Complementary techniques were used to measure total Se concentrations, to map the localization of Se, and to quantify different Se forms. Seeds and hydraulically pressed seed meals contained an average of 1.8 and 2.0 μg Se g(-1) DW, respectively. Selenium was primarily located in cotyledons and roots of seed embryos. Microfocused Se K-edge XANES and bulk XANES showed that seeds contained 90% of Se as C-Se-C forms. Hydraulically pressing seeds for oil caused changes in the forms of Se as follows: 40-55% C-Se-C forms, 33-42% selenocystine, 5-12% selenocysteine, and 11-14% trimethylselenonium ion. Aqueous extracts of seed and seed meals were also analyzed by SAX-HPLC/ICPMS and found to contain mainly the C-Se-C form SeMet, but also another C-Se-C form MeSeCys, which is of dietary pharmacological interest for cancer inhibition. In addition, SAX-HPLC/ICPMS also detected selenocystine and selenocysteine, further confirming the results obtained by XANES analyses. PMID:22747111

  12. Scenario Modeling Potential Eco-Efficiency Gains from a Transition to Organic Agriculture: Life Cycle Perspectives on Canadian Canola, Corn, Soy, and Wheat Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, N.; Arsenault, N.; Tyedmers, P.

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola ( Brassica rapa), corn ( Zea mays), soy ( Glycine max), and wheat ( Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions.

  13. Scenario modeling potential eco-efficiency gains from a transition to organic agriculture: life cycle perspectives on Canadian canola, corn, soy, and wheat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, N; Arsenault, N; Tyedmers, P

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola (Brassica rapa), corn (Zea mays), soy (Glycine max), and wheat (Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions. PMID:18574623

  14. Investigation of electron beam irradiation effects on anti-nutritional factors, chemical composition and digestion kinetics of whole cottonseed, soybean and canola seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi-Mahmoudabad, S.R., E-mail: ebrahimiyazd@yahoo.com [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 37515-374, Shahr-e-Qods (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 51589, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    This study was completed to determine effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on anti-nutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro crude protein (CP) digestibility of whole cottonseed (WCS), soybean (SB) and canola seeds (CS). EB-irradiation eliminated completely (P<0.001) phytic acid of WCS, SB and CS at a dose of 30 kGy. EB-irradiation decreased linearly (P<0.001) the total glucosinolate content of CS. Trypsin inhibitor activity of 15, 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated SB was decreased by 19, 73 and 88%, respectively. Free gossypol content of WCS was reduced linearly (P<0.001) by irradiation. EB-irradiation increased linearly (P<0.001) CP digestibility of feeds. In conclusion, EB-irradiation was an effective processing method for improving the nutritive value of WCS, SB and CS. - Highlights: > Effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on nutritive value of some oilseeds were evaluated. > EB-irradiation eliminated completely phytic acid of seeds at a dose of 30 kGy. > EB-irradiation decreased trypsin inhibitor activity of soybean. > Free gossypol content of whole cottonseed was reduced linearly by EB-irradiation. > EB-irradiation increased escape protein and crude protein digestibility of seeds.

  15. Investigation of electron beam irradiation effects on anti-nutritional factors, chemical composition and digestion kinetics of whole cottonseed, soybean and canola seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was completed to determine effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on anti-nutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro crude protein (CP) digestibility of whole cottonseed (WCS), soybean (SB) and canola seeds (CS). EB-irradiation eliminated completely (P<0.001) phytic acid of WCS, SB and CS at a dose of 30 kGy. EB-irradiation decreased linearly (P<0.001) the total glucosinolate content of CS. Trypsin inhibitor activity of 15, 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated SB was decreased by 19, 73 and 88%, respectively. Free gossypol content of WCS was reduced linearly (P<0.001) by irradiation. EB-irradiation increased linearly (P<0.001) CP digestibility of feeds. In conclusion, EB-irradiation was an effective processing method for improving the nutritive value of WCS, SB and CS. - Highlights: → Effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on nutritive value of some oilseeds were evaluated. → EB-irradiation eliminated completely phytic acid of seeds at a dose of 30 kGy. → EB-irradiation decreased trypsin inhibitor activity of soybean. → Free gossypol content of whole cottonseed was reduced linearly by EB-irradiation. → EB-irradiation increased escape protein and crude protein digestibility of seeds.

  16. Evaluation of Relationship Between Air Pollutant Concentration and Meteorological Elements in Winter Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żyromski Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the evaluation of the relation between meteorological elements and air pollutants’ concentrations. The analysis includes daily concentrations of pollutants and variation of meteorological elements such as wind speed, air temperature and relative humidity, precipitation and total radiation at four monitoring stations located in the province of Lower Silesia in individual months of the winter half-year (November–April, according to hydrological year classification of 2005–2009. Data on air quality and meteorological elements came from the results of research conducted in the automatic net of air pollution monitoring conducted in the range of the State Environment Monitoring. The effect of meteorological elements on analysed pollutant concentration was determined using the correlation and regression analysis at significance level α < 0.05. The occurrence of maximum concentration of NO, NO2, NOX, SO2 and PM10 occurred in the coldest months during winter season (January, February and December confirmed the strong influence of “low emission” on air quality. Among the meteorological factors assessed wind speed was most often selected component in step wise regression procedure, then air temperature, less air relative humidity and solar radiation. In the case of a larger number of variables describing the pollution in the atmosphere, in all analyzed winter seasons the most common set of meteorological elements were wind speed and air temperature.

  17. Exploring the severe winter haze in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Zheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Extreme haze episodes repeatedly shrouded Beijing during the winter of 2012–2013, causing major environmental and health problems. To better understand these extreme events, we analyzed the hourly observation data of PM2.5 and its major chemical composition, with support of model simulations. Severe winter haze was shown to result from stable synoptic meteorological conditions over a large part of northeastern China, rather than from an abrupt increase in emissions. Build-up of secondary species, including organics, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium, was the major driving force behind these polluted periods. The contribution of organic matter decreased with increasing pollution level while sulfate and nitrate contributions increased. Correspondingly, the ratio of secondary organic carbon to elemental carbon decreased and had a stable diurnal pattern during heavily polluted periods, indicating weakened photochemical activity due to the dimming effect of high loading of aerosol particles. Under such conditions, the strong increase in sulfate and nitrate contributions to PM2.5 was attributed to an elevated conversion ratio, reflecting more active heterogeneous reactions with gradually increasing relative humidity. Moreover, we found that high aerosol concentration was a regional phenomenon. The accumulation process of aerosol particles occurred successively from southeast cities to Beijing. The "apparent" sharp increase in PM2.5 concentration of up to several hundred μg m−3 per hour recorded in Beijing represented rapid "recovery" from an "interruption" to the continuous pollution accumulation over the region, rather than purely local chemical production. This suggests that regional transport of pollutants played an important role during these severe pollution events.

  18. Primary organic pollutants in New Zealand urban aerosol in winter during high PM1 episodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the two biggest New Zealand cities, Auckland and Christchurch, the mass concentration of the PM1 atmospheric aerosol can exceed the 50 μg m-3 24 h health guideline in winter. This high pollution level is thought to be caused mainly by old-fashioned domestic heating systems based on wood combustion. Therefore the chemistry of the carbonaceous aerosol has been investigated in several high-pollution level urban situations in order to assess the origin of the pollution. All the high concentration organic tracers, including levoglucosan and dehydroabietic acid, were characteristic for biomass burning. The findings have confirmed via advanced chemical analytical methods that domestic heating can be the main contributor to the high level of wintertime pollution, especially in Christchurch. The results are of great importance in supporting the ambition of authorities and environmental associations to change the domestic heating regimes. - PM1 aerosol concentrations can exceed air quality guidelines during winter in Christchurch, New Zealand

  19. Tajikistan's Winter Energy Crisis : Electricity Supply and Demand Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Fields, Daryl; Kochnakyan, Artur; Mukhamedova, Takhmina; Stuggins, Gary; Besant-Jones, John

    2013-01-01

    Tajikistan's electricity system is in a state of crisis. Approximately 70 percent of the Tajik people suffer from extensive shortages of electricity during the winter. These shortages, estimated at about 2,700 GWh, about a quarter of winter electricity demand, impose economic losses estimated at over United States (US) 200 million dollars per annum or 3 percent of Gross Domestic Product (G...

  20. Environment annual report: Salt Lake 2002 Olympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Protecting and improving the environment is integral to every aspect of the Salt Lake 2002 Olympic Winter Games. Salt Lake Organizing Committee for Olympic Winter Games of 2002 is planning a variety of programs to both conserve and enhance the region’s environment, leaving the Salt Lake area a better, cleaner place than it was before the Games.

  1. The Altar of Patriarchy in John Ehle's "The Winter People."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, M. Katherine

    In John Ehle's "The Winter People," the goddess Persephone is with Hades, and winter is upon the Appalachians in full force. Ehle's novel begins as Wayland Jackson and his daughter, Paula, arrive at the home of Collie Wright and her baby, Jonathan. The Jacksons' truck has broken down on their way from Pennsylvania to Tennessee following the…

  2. Winter climate changes over East Asian region under RCP scenarios using East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ja-Young; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Jhun, Jong-Ghap

    2016-03-01

    The changes in the winter climatology and variability of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) for the late 21st century (2070-2099) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are projected in terms of EAWM indices (EAWMIs). Firstly, the capability of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating the boreal winter climatology and the interannual variability of the EAWM for the late 20th century (1971-2000) is examined. Nine of twenty-three climate models are selected based on the pattern correlations with observation and a multi-model ensemble is applied to the nine model data. Three of twelve EAWMIs that show the most significant temporal correlations between the observation and CMIP5 surface air temperatures are utilized. The ensemble CMIP5 is capable of reproducing the overall features of the EAWM in spite of some biases in the region. The negative correlations between the EAWMIs and boreal winter temperature are well reproduced and 3-5 years of the major interannual variation observed in this region are also well simulated according to power spectral analyses of the simulated indices. The fields regressed onto the indices that resemble the composite strong winter monsoon pattern are simulated more or less weakly in CMIP5 compared to the observation. However, the regressed fields of sea level pressure, surface air temperature, 500-hPa geopotential height, and 300-hPa zonal wind are well established with pattern correlations above 0.83 between CMIP5 and observation data. The differences between RCPs and Historical indicate strong warming, which increases with latitude, ranging from 1 to 5 °C under RCP4.5 and from 3 to 7 °C under RCP8.5 in the East Asian region. The anomalous southerly winds generally become stronger, implying weaker EAWMs in both scenarios. These features are also identified with fields regressed onto the indices in RCPs. The future projections reveal

  3. [Safe wintering and economic and ecological benefit of winter rapeseed in dry and cold areas of northern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-qing; Sun, Wan-cang; Liu, Zi-gang; Wang, Zhi-jiang; Fang, Yuan; Wu, Jun-yan; Li, Xue-cai; Fang, Yan

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to realize the security of safe wintering of winter rapeseed in dry and cold regions of northern China. Experiments were conducted with 18 winter rapeseed (Brassica campestris) varieties at 57 sites from 2008 to 2013 to statistically analyze the wintering rate variation of different varieties in dry and cold regions of northern China. The results showed that, the wintering rate varied from 70% to 90% during the study period in different regions, which had no significant difference between different years and varieties, and had high stability and remarkable economic benefit. With Tianshui as a starting point of winter rapeseed planting, the wintering-safe regions included all Gansu Province , the south of Lasa and Linzhi of Xizang, the east of Minhe of Qinghai, up to Urumqi and Baicheng, and the south of Aletai, Tacheng, the east of Kashi of Xinjiang, it also included the regions along Yellow River eastward to Ningxia, the south of Linhe of Inner Mongolia, the north of Shaanxi, the vicinage of Qixian in Shanxi, Daming in Hebei, Tianjin, Beijing, the north of Weifang of Shandong, the south of Huludao of Liaoning and Yanbian of Jilin. Longyou 6, Longyou 7, Longyou 8 and Longyou 9 were the wintering-safe B. rapa varieties. PMID:26995911

  4. Real-time weed detection, decision making and patch spraying in maize, sugarbeet, winter wheat and winter barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, R; Christensen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    with weed infestation levels higher than the economic weed threshold; a review of such work is provided. This paper presents a system for site-specific weed control in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L...

  5. Greater understanding is need of whether warmer and shorter winters associated with climate change could reduce winter mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebi, Kristie L.

    2015-11-01

    In temperate regions, mortality is higher during winter than summer seasons. Assuming this seasonality is associated with ambient temperature, assessments often conclude that climate change will likely reduce winter mortality. However, there has been limited evaluation of the extent to which cold temperatures are actually the proximal cause of winter mortality in temperate regions. Kinney et al (2015 Environ Res. Lett. 10 064016) analyzed multi-decadal data from 39 cities in the US and France and concluded that cold temperatures are not a primary driver of most winter excess mortality. These analyses suggest that increases in heat-related mortality with climate change will unlikely be balanced by reductions in winter mortality, reinforcing the importance of health systems continuing to ensure adequate health protection against cold temperatures even as temperatures warm.

  6. Nuclear medicine solutions in winter sports problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The diagnostic workup of acute Winter Sports injuries is done by Conventional X Ray, CT and MRI. Chronic injuries as stress reactions are best investigated by Nuclear Medicine procedures: Snow Boarding: In Snow-Boarding chronic injuries are mostly seen as local increased uptake laterally in the lower third of the Fibula of the front leg together with Tibial increase medially in the other leg. Skiing: Chronic Skiing injuries are less asymmetrical and mostly seen on the apex of the patella. Chronic Feet Problems: A different chronic problem is the reduced blood perfusion in the feet if hard, tightened boots are used for longer time by professional ski instructors and racers. Flow difference between the foot in the boot and the other without boot are dramatic as measured by Nuclear Medicine Procedures and MRI. Pulmonary Embolism: Acute pulmonary embolism caused by thrombi originating at the site of constant pressure on the back rim of ski boots is not uncommon in older skiers (seek and you will find), but never seen in the younger group of Snow-Boarders. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  7. Comparison of East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hui

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM indices are compared in this paper. In the research periods, all the indices show similar interannual and decadal-interdecadal variations, with predominant periods centering in 3–4 years, 6.5 years and 9–15 years, respectively. Besides, all the indices show remarkable weakening trends since the 1980s. The correlation coefficient of each two indices is positive with a significance level of 99%. Both the correlation analyses and the composites indicate that in stronger EAWM years, the Siberian high and the higher-level subtropical westerly jet are stronger, and the Aleutian low and the East Asia trough are deeper. This circulation pattern is favorable for much stronger northwesterly wind and lower air temperature in the subtropical regions of East Asia, while it is on the opposite in weaker EAWM years. Besides, EAWM can also exert a remarkable leading effect on the summer monsoon. After stronger (weaker EAWM, less (more summer precipitation is seen over the regions from the Yangtze River valley of China to southern Japan, while more (less from South China Sea to the tropical western Pacific.

  8. 30th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The 30th edition of the Winter Workshop will be held April 6-12th, 2014 in Hotel Galvez & Spa, Galveston, Texas, USA. As with previous years, the workshop will bring together scientists from all fields of nuclear physics for engaging and friendly exchanges of ideas.Much emphasis will be on the recent LHC and RHIC heavy ion results, but advances in the ongoing and future programs at FAIR, FRIB, NICA and JLab will also be featured. The meeting will start with a welcome reception on the evening of Sunday, April 6th. The workshop program will commence on Monday morning and run until Saturday evening. We recommend to arrive on Sunday and leave on Sunday. Talks will be as usual 25+5 minutes, there will be no parallel sessions. If you are interested in presenting your work, please fill out the registration form prior to the registration deadline. After the program committee has met we will confirm your talk via individual invitations. We will also work with the talks committees of all relevant experimenta...

  9. Winter Snowfall Turns an Emerald White

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Ireland's climate is normally mild due to the nearby Gulf Stream, but the waning days of 2000 saw the Emerald Isle's green fields swathed in an uncommon blanket of white. The contrast between summer and winter is apparent in this pair of images of southwestern Ireland acquired by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on August 23, 2000 (left) and December 29, 2000 (right). The corresponding Terra orbit numbers are 3628 and 5492, respectively.The year 2000 brought record-breaking weather to the British Isles. England and Wales experienced the wettest spring and autumn months since 1766. Despite being one of the warmest years in recent history, a cold snap arrived between Christmas and New Year's Day. According to the UK Meteorological Office, the 18 centimeters (7 inches) of snow recorded at Aldergrove, Northern Ireland, on December 27-28 was the deepest daily fall since 1930.Prominent geographical features visible in the MISR images include Galway Bay near the top left. Further south, the mouth of the River Shannon, the largest river in the British Isles, meets the Atlantic Ocean. In the lower portions of the images are the counties of Limerick, Kerry and Cork.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology

  10. 32th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The 32nd edition of the Winter Workshop will be held 28 February - 5 March 2016, Hotel Resort Fort Royal Guadeloupe in Guadeloupe a French overseas territory, is an island group in the southern Caribbean Sea. As with previous years, the workshop will bring together scientists from all fields of nuclear physics for engaging and friendly exchanges of ideas. Much emphasis will be on the recent LHC, RHIC and SPS heavy ion results, but advances in the ongoing and future programs at FAIR, FRIB, EIC, JLab and NICA and will also be featured. The meeting will start with a welcome reception on the evening of Sunday, February 28. The workshop program will commence on Monday morning and run until Saturday. We recommend to arrive on Sunday and leave on Sunday. Talks will be as usual 25+5 minutes, there will be no parallel sessions. If you are interested in presenting your work, please fill out the registration form prior to the registration deadline. After the program committee has met we will confirm your talk via indivi...

  11. VALOR NUTRICIO Y CONTENIDO DE SAPONINAS EN GERMINADOS DE HUAUZONTLE (Chenopodium nuttalliae Saff.), CALABACITA (Cucurbita pepo L.), CANOLA (Brassica napus L.) Y AMARANTO (Amaranthus leucocarpus S. Watson syn. hypochondriacus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Barrón-Yánez; C. Villanueva-Verduzco; García-Mateos, M.R.; M. T. Colinas-León

    2009-01-01

    Los germinados pueden ser considerados vegetales frescos, producidos a bajo costo en cualquier temporada y pueden contribuir con una dieta rica en nutrimentos. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la germinación en la composición nutricional y contenido total de saponinas en germinados de huauzontle (Chenopodium nuttalliae Saff.), calabacita (Cucurbita pepo L.), canola (Brassica napus L.) y amaranto (Amaranthus leucocarpus S. Watson syn. hypochondriacus L.). Se realizó un aná...

  12. Características de carcaça e qualidade de carne de bovinos inteiros ou castrados da raça Nelore, suplementados ou não durante o primeiro inverno Carcass characteristics and meat quality of intact or castrated bovines, supplemented or not during the first winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Malaguido Climaco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar características quantitativas e qualitativas da carcaça e da carne de bovinos inteiros e castrados, suplementados ou não durante o primeiro inverno. Foram utilizados 40 bovinos Nelore, machos, inteiros e castrados, com peso inicial e idade média de 300kg e 14 meses, submetidos a dois tratamentos: SUP - os animais foram mantidos em pasto e receberam suplementação (0,5% do peso vivo constituída por 25% de farelo de soja e 75% de milho em grão triturado, durante o primeiro inverno (01/06/2003 a 21/09/2003; NSU- animais mantidos em pasto, sem suplementação. Após o abate, à idade média de 28 meses, foram avaliadas as características de carcaça. Os animais do tratamento NSU apresentaram maior (P0,05 quanto à espessura de gordura subcutânea entre animais inteiros e castrados (2,20 vs 4,17mm, respectivamente, porém os castrados apresentaram maior (PThis research was aimed at evaluating quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the carcass and meat from intact or castrated beef cattle, supplemented or not supplemented during the first winter. Forty Nellore males, intact or castrated, with initial weight and age of 300kg and 14 months, were submitted to the treatments: 1 SUP - Animals on pasture and supplemented (0.5% of the live body weight with concentrated (25% of soybean meal and 75% of ground corn during the first winter (06/01/2003 to 09/21/2003, and 2 NSU - Animals on pasture, without supplementation. At slaughter, on an average age of 28 months, the carcass characteristics were evaluated. Animals of the NSU treatment presented the largest (P0.05 for fat thickness between castrated and intact animals (4.17 vs 2.20 mm, respectively, however, castrated animals presented greater (P<0.05 fat percentage in the carcass (16.68 vs 11.34% and more tender meat (6.57 vs 7.50kgf than the intact animals. Intact and non-supplemented animals presented backfat thickness lower than required by the

  13. Comparison of the Effects of Edible Oils: Rice Bran, Grape Seed, and Canola on Serum Lipid Profile and Paraoxonase Activity in Hyperlipidemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ranjbar-Zahedani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is considered as one of the crucial contributors to cardio- cerebro-vascular diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the effects of Rice Barn Oil (RBO, Grape Seed Oil (GSO, and Canola Oil (CO on dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, forty hyperlipidemic male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups to receive RBO, GSO, or CO or Soy Bean Oil (SBO, as controls, for 4 weeks following a 3-week period of Atherogenic Diet (AD intake. Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study, after inducing dyslipidemia, and at the end of the experimental period. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 13.0 and analyzed using paired t-test, paired sample Wilcoxon signed rank test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: AD elevated lipid and/or lipoprotein profile and decreased the paraoxonase activity in the hyperlipidemic rats. The results of paired t-test revealed that RBO led to a significant improvement in serum lipoprotein profile and paraoxonase activity. Besides, a significant difference was found in the GSO group regarding all the measured parameters, except for paraoxonase activity. Moreover, CO diet showed a significant hypolipidemic effect on serum Triglyceride (TG and Total Cholesterol (TC and led to a slight improvement in Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C and High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggested that vegetable oils, including RBO, GSO, and CO, might improve dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats. Indeed, substituting saturated fatty acids with unsaturated fatty acids in rats’ diet had beneficial effects on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress. Comparison of the 3 edible oils showed that GSO had a more profound effect on decreasing hyperlipidemia.

  14. Interesterification of engkabang (Shorea macrophylla) fat--canola oil blend with lipase from Candida antarctica to simulate the properties of lard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illiyin, Mohamed Roslan Nur; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohamed Nazrim; Loke, Mei Key; Shuhaimi, Musthafa; Mahiran, Basri; Miskandar, Mat Saari

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to compare the composition and thermal properties of lard (LD) and engkabang fat (EF) - canola oil (CaO) blend interesterified with Candida antartica lipase (C. antartica). A fat blend EF-4 (40% EF in CaO) was prepared and interesterified using C. antartica lipase at 60°C for different time intervals (6 h, 12 h and 24 h) with 200 rpm agitation. The fat blends before and after interesterification were compared to LD with respect to their slip melting points (SMP), fatty acid and triacyglycerol (TAG) compositions, melting, solidification and polymorphic properties. Result showed that the slip melting point (SMP) of the fat blend interesterified for 6 h was the closest to that of LD. The solid fat content (SFC) values of fat blends interesterified for 12 and 24 h were found to become equal to those of LD within the temperature range of 0 to 20°C. In addition, all three interesterified blends had SFC values similar to those of LD within the temperature range of 30-40°C. According to thermal analysis, the transition of the fat blend interesterified for 24 h appearing at -2.39°C was similar to the low melting thermal transition of LD and the transition of the fat blend interesterified for 12 h appearing at 26.25°C was similar to the high melting thermal transition of LD. However, there is no compatibility between LD and all three interesterified blends with regard to polymorphic behaviour. PMID:24389796

  15. Effects of antioxidant additives on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with canola oil methyl ester–diesel blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • BHA, BHT, TBHQ, EHN synthetic antioxidants were employed in the study. • Antioxidant additives are a promising candidate for improving cetane number, oxidation stability and decreasing NOx emissions • Cetane number improving efficiency of the antioxidants was ordered as EHN>BHA>BHT>TBHQ. • Formation of CO emissions has been increased with addition of each of the antioxidants to B20. - Abstract: An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the effect of antioxidants on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with B20 (20 vol.% canola oil methyl ester and 80 vol.% diesel fuel blend). The four synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN), were tested on a Land Rover turbocharged direct injection (TDI) 110 type diesel engine with water cooled, 4-cycl and 4-cylinder. The addition of antioxidants to B20 did not cause any negative effect on basic fuel properties of B20. According to engine performance test results, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of B20 with antioxidants decreased compared to those of B20 without antioxidants. A 1000 ppm concentration of TBHQ was optimal as BSFC values were considerably reduced (10.19%) in the whole engine speeds when compared to B20. EHN antioxidant with B20 presented the best mean oxides of nitrogen (NOx) with a reduction of 4.63%. However, formation of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions has been increased with addition of each of the antioxidants to B20

  16. Substituição da Proteína do Farelo de Soja pela Proteína do Farelo de Canola em Rações para Alevinos de Curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus V. Replacement of Soybean Meal Protein by Canola Meal Protein in "Curimbatá" (Prochilodus lineatus V. Fingerling Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Galdioli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar a influência da substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS pela proteína do farelo de canola (FC, em rações para alevinos de curimbatá, foram utilizados 120 animais com peso médio de 1,88 ± 0,82 g e comprimento total médio de 5,40 ± 0,99 cm, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições em aquários de vidro (50 L, com cinco alevinos por unidade experimental. As rações foram formuladas para serem isoprotéicas (26,00%, isocálcicas (0,90% e isofosfóricas (0,70%, com níveis crescentes de substituição da proteína do FS pela do FC (0,00; 20,00; 40,00; 60,00; 80,00 e 100,00%, o que correspondeu a 0,00; 8,03; 16,10; 24,10; 32,15 e 43,12% de inclusão do FC nas rações e fornecidas por um período de 30 dias. Os parâmetros físico-químicos da água foram medidos a cada sete dias. Observou-se redução linear do ganho de peso e da taxa de eficiência protéica e aumento linear da taxa de conversão alimentar, com aumento da inclusão do FC nas rações. A taxa de sobrevivência e o custo de ração/kg ganho não foram afetados com o uso do FC nas rações. Os valores da temperatura da água, do pH e da condutividade elétrica permaneceram dentro dos níveis adequados. Concluiu-se que o aumento dos níveis de inclusão da proteína do farelo de canola nas rações para alevinos de curimbatá acarretou redução no desempenho dos mesmos.The influence of the substitution of soybean meal protein (SM by canola meal protein (CM in Prochilodus lineatus fingerling diets was verified. One hundred and twenty specimens, averaging weight 1.88±0.82g and total length 5.40±0.99cm, was assigned to a completely randomized randomized design, with six treatments and four replicates, in a 50 L glass aquarium, with five fingerlings in each experimental unit. Isoprotein (26.00%, isocalcium (0.90% and isophosphorus (0.70% diets were formulated with increasing replacement

  17. Sage-grouse habitat selection during winter in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.; Aldridge, C.; Boyce, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during winter, yet few studies have assessed winter habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of winter habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled winter habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust winter habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of winter habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During winter, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  18. Novel psychrotolerant picocyanobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay in the winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongle; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2015-08-01

    Picocyanobacteria are major primary producers in the ocean, especially in the tropical or subtropical oceans or during warm seasons. Many "warm" picocyanobacterial species have been isolated and characterized. However, picocyanobacteria in cold environments or cold seasons are much less studied. In general, little is known about the taxonomy and ecophysiology of picocyanobacteria living in the winter. In this study, 17 strains of picocyanobacteria were isolated from Chesapeake Bay, a temperate estuarine ecosystem, during the winter months. These winter isolates belong to five distinct phylogenetic lineages, and are distinct from the picocyanobacteria previously isolated from the warm seasons. The vast majority of the winter isolates were closely related to picocyanobacteria isolated from other cold environments like Arctic or subalpine waters. The winter picocyanobacterial isolates were able to maintain slow growth or prolonged dormancy at 4°C. Interestingly, the phycoerythrin-rich strains outperformed the phycocyanin-rich strains at cold temperature. In addition, winter picocyanobacteria changed their morphology when cultivated at 4°C. The close phylogenetic relationship between the winter picocyanobacteria and the picocyanobacteria living in high latitude cold regions indicates that low temperature locations select specific ecotypes of picocyanobacteria. PMID:26986796

  19. Influence of Diet and Postmortem Ageing on Oxidative Stability of Lipids, Myoglobin and Myofibrillar Proteins and Quality Attributes of Gluteus Medius Muscle in Goats

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Shittu, Rafiat Morolayo; Sabow, Azad Behnan; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2016-01-01

    This study appraised the effects of dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil and postmortem ageing on oxidative stability, fatty acids and quality attributes of gluteus medius (GM) muscle in goats. Twenty-four Boer bucks were randomly allotted to diet supplemented with 0, 4 and 8% oil blend, fed for 100 days and slaughtered, and the GM muscle was subjected to a 7 d chill storage (4±1°C). Diet had no effect (P> 0.05) on the colour, drip loss, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TB...

  20. An optimal index for measuring the effect of East Asian winter monsoon on China winter temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chundi; Yang, Song; Wu, Qigang

    2015-11-01

    Extreme cold events occur frequently in China. The authors define a representative yet simple index to reveal the monthly changes in China winter temperature associated with the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), which is represented by both the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode and the country-mean temperature index of Chinese 160 gauge stations. A combined technique of correlation and multivariate EOF (Corr-MVEOF) analyses is applied to capture the dominant coupled patterns of EAWM circulation system. Based on the atmospheric circulation features captured by the leading Corr-MVEOF mode, a new EAWM index referred to as CNWMI is derived by using a stepwise regression analysis. The CNWMI highlights the importance of (1) the Mongolia-Siberian High (MSH) and its southward expansion and (2) the Asia-wide meridional dipole anomaly of 500 hPa geopotential height. Compared with the 27 existing EAWM indices, the CNWMI not only best represents the leading modes of both EAWM circulation system and China winter temperature, but also reasonably tracks the intraseasonal-to-interdecadal variations of EAWM so that the monthly intensity of EAWM can be monitored conveniently. In particular, the Aleutian low (AL) is not strongly related to the MSH and may not be responsible for the variability of EAWM/MSH. Moreover, the indices that are highly correlated with the temperature over southern East Asia do not show significant relationships with the AL, which is different from the conventional concept that a strong EAWM/MSH is linked to a deepened AL. In contrast, the anomalous Australia-Maritime Continent low is in good agreement with the variation of EAWM/MSH.

  1. Effect of Winter Disease Cured in Summer by Acupuncturetherapy in Pulmonary Function and Quality of Life of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease of Spleen and Kidney Yang Deficiency%冬病夏治穴位疗法对稳定期脾肾阳虚型慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者肺功能及生存质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马敏敏; 张惠勇; 段晨霞; 鹿振辉; 郭晓燕

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察基于"温阳抗寒法"和"穴位疗法"的冬病夏治穴位疗法对稳定期脾肾阳虚型COPD患者肺功能及生存质量的影响,探讨其可能作用机制及在稳定期COPD防治中的应用价值.方法:纳入72例患者随机分成两组各36例.对照组予西医常规治疗.治疗组予西医常规治疗+冬病夏治("温阳抗寒敷贴方"穴位敷贴+"喘可治"穴位注射),2次/周.12次为1个疗程.观察比较两组治疗前、治疗结束时、治疗结束后6个月中医证候积分、生存质量、肺功能、急性发作情况.结果:治疗结束时,治疗组咳、痰、喘、中医证候总积分、日常生活、焦虑心理较治疗前有显著改善(P0.05),两组间无显著差异(P>0.05).治疗结束后6个月,治疗组咳、痰、喘、闷、中医证候总积分、日常生活、社会活动、抑郁心理症、焦虑心理、生存质量总积分、FEV1/pre、FEV1/FVC较治疗前显著改善(P<0.01),对照组胸闷、FEV1/pre、FEV1/FVC较治疗前显著加重或下降(P<0.01或P<0.05),治疗组显著优于对照组(P<0.01),治疗组急性发作显著少于对照组(P<0.01).结论:基于"温阳抗寒法"和"穴位疗法"的"冬病夏治"特色治疗具改善COPD患者气道通气功能效应,可能延缓或阻止COPD气道通气功能进行性下降;能减少COPD患者急性加重效应,改善COPD患者生存质量,可能通过神经、内分泌、免疫网络发挥综合效应.%Objective: To observe effect of Winter Disease Cured in Summer Which based on "Method of Nourishing Yang to Dispel Cold" and Acupuncturetherapy in Pulmonary Function and Quality of Life of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease of Spleen and Kidney Yang Deficiency, and explore the possible mechanism and value in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.Methods: Seventy-two cases were randomized into two groups: the control group in which 36 cases were treated with Western medicine. And the treatment group in which 36 cases were treated with times

  2. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Joergen E.; Hermansen, John E.; Kristensen, Inge T.; Boergesen, Christen D. [Dept. of Agroecology, Aarhus Univ., Tjele (Denmark)], E-mail: lars.elsgaard@agrsci.dk

    2013-04-15

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2}eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME for winter rapeseed. Results at the regional level (level 2 according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics [NUTS]) ranged from 20.0 to 23.9 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol and from 23.5 to 27.6 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME. Thus, at the regional level emission results varied by up to 20%. Differences in area-based emissions were only 4% reflecting the importance of regional variation in yields for the emission result. Fertilizer nitrogen production and direct emissions of soil N{sub 2}O were major contributors to the final emission result and sensitivity analyses showed that the emission result depended to a large extent on the uncertainty ranges assumed for soil N{sub 2}O emissions. Improvement of greenhouse gas balances could be pursued, e.g., by growing dedicated varieties for energy purposes. However, in a wider perspective, land-use change of native ecosystems to bioenergy cropping systems could compromise the CO{sub 2} savings of bioenergy production and challenge the targets set for biofuel

  3. Asynchronous vegetation phenology enhances winter body condition of a large mobile herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Kate R; Rice, Mindy B; Anderson, Charles R; Bishop, Chad; Hobbs, N T

    2015-10-01

    Understanding how spatial and temporal heterogeneity influence ecological processes forms a central challenge in ecology. Individual responses to heterogeneity shape population dynamics, therefore understanding these responses is central to sustainable population management. Emerging evidence has shown that herbivores track heterogeneity in nutritional quality of vegetation by responding to phenological differences in plants. We quantified the benefits mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) accrue from accessing habitats with asynchronous plant phenology in northwest Colorado over 3 years. Our analysis examined both the direct physiological and indirect environmental effects of weather and vegetation phenology on mule deer winter body condition. We identified several important effects of annual weather patterns and topographical variables on vegetation phenology in the home ranges of mule deer. Crucially, temporal patterns of vegetation phenology were linked with differences in body condition, with deer tending to show poorer body condition in areas with less asynchronous vegetation green-up and later vegetation onset. The direct physiological effect of previous winter precipitation on mule deer body condition was much less important than the indirect effect mediated by vegetation phenology. Additionally, the influence of vegetation phenology on body fat was much stronger than that of overall vegetation productivity. In summary, changing annual weather patterns, particularly in relation to seasonal precipitation, have the potential to alter body condition of this important ungulate species during the critical winter period. This finding highlights the importance of maintaining large contiguous areas of spatially and temporally variable resources to allow animals to compensate behaviourally for changing climate-driven resource patterns. PMID:26009244

  4. Candidate gene association mapping for winter survival and spring regrowth in perennial ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoqing; Pijut, Paula M; Byrne, Stephen; Asp, Torben; Bai, Guihua; Jiang, Yiwei

    2015-06-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is a widely cultivated cool-season grass species because of its high quality for forage and turf. Susceptibility to freezing damage limits its further use in temperate zones. The objective of this study was to identify candidate genes significantly associated with winter survival and spring regrowth in a global collection of 192 perennial ryegrass accessions. Significant differences in winter survival (WS), percentage of canopy green cover (CGC), chlorophyll index (Chl), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were found among accessions. After controlling population structure, LpLEA3 encoding a late embryogenesis abundant group 3 protein and LpCAT encoding a catalase were associated with CGC and Chl, while LpMnSOD encoding a magnesium superoxide dismutase and LpChl Cu-ZnSOD encoding a chlorophyll copper-zinc superoxide dismutase were associated with NDVI or Chl. Significant association was also discovered between C-repeat binding factor LpCBF1b and WS. Three sequence variations identified in LpCAT, LpMnSOD, and LpChl Cu-ZnSOD were synonymous substitutions, whereas one pair of adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LpLEA3 and one SNP in LpCBF1b resulted in amino acid change. The results demonstrated that allelic variation in LpLEA3 and LpCBF1b was closely related to winter survival and spring regrowth in perennial ryegrass. PMID:25900564

  5. CLIMATOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF WINTER TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS IN GUANGDONG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using the monthly mean and minimum temperature data of the 36 observation stations in Guangdong, the climatological features of the temperatures have been analyzed, including characteristics of trends, abrupt changes and periods. And the possible affecting factors on the winter warming in Guangdong have been discussed. The results show that the winter temperatures, particularly the monthly mean minimum temperatures in Guangdong, have a warming trend. The rise of the winter minimum temperatures in Guangdong began in the second half of 1960's and the warming was more evident since the 1980's.

  6. Interannual hydroclimatic variability and its influence on winter nutrient loadings over the Southeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J.; Sankarasubramanian, A.

    2012-07-01

    It is well established in the hydroclimatic literature that the interannual variability in seasonal streamflow could be partially explained using climatic precursors such as tropical sea surface temperature (SST) conditions. Similarly, it is widely known that streamflow is the most important predictor in estimating nutrient loadings and the associated concentration. The intent of this study is to bridge these two findings so that nutrient loadings could be predicted using season-ahead climate forecasts forced with forecasted SSTs. By selecting 18 relatively undeveloped basins in the Southeast US (SEUS), we relate winter (January-February-March, JFM) precipitation forecasts that influence the JFM streamflow over the basin to develop winter forecasts of nutrient loadings. For this purpose, we consider two different types of low-dimensional statistical models to predict 3-month ahead nutrient loadings based on retrospective climate forecasts. Split sample validation of the predictive models shows that 18-45% of interannual variability in observed winter nutrient loadings could be predicted even before the beginning of the season for at least 8 stations. Stations that have very high coefficient of determination (> 0.8) in predicting the observed water quality network (WQN) loadings during JFM exhibit significant skill in predicting seasonal total nitrogen (TN) loadings using climate forecasts. Incorporating antecedent flow conditions (December flow) as an additional predictor did not increase the explained variance in these stations, but substantially reduced the root-mean-square error (RMSE) in the predicted loadings. Relating the dominant mode of winter nutrient loadings over 18 stations clearly illustrates the association with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) conditions. Potential utility of these season-ahead nutrient predictions in developing proactive and adaptive nutrient management strategies is also discussed.

  7. Interannual hydroclimatic variability and its influence on winter nutrient loadings over the Southeast United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Oh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well established in the hydroclimatic literature that the interannual variability in seasonal streamflow could be partially explained using climatic precursors such as tropical sea surface temperature (SST conditions. Similarly, it is widely known that streamflow is the most important predictor in estimating nutrient loadings and the associated concentration. The intent of this study is to bridge these two findings so that nutrient loadings could be predicted using season-ahead climate forecasts forced with forecasted SSTs. By selecting 18 relatively undeveloped basins in the Southeast US (SEUS, we relate winter (January-February-March, JFM precipitation forecasts that influence the JFM streamflow over the basin to develop winter forecasts of nutrient loadings. For this purpose, we consider two different types of low-dimensional statistical models to predict 3-month ahead nutrient loadings based on retrospective climate forecasts. Split sample validation of the predictive models shows that 18–45% of interannual variability in observed winter nutrient loadings could be predicted even before the beginning of the season for at least 8 stations. Stations that have very high coefficient of determination (> 0.8 in predicting the observed water quality network (WQN loadings during JFM exhibit significant skill in predicting seasonal total nitrogen (TN loadings using climate forecasts. Incorporating antecedent flow conditions (December flow as an additional predictor did not increase the explained variance in these stations, but substantially reduced the root-mean-square error (RMSE in the predicted loadings. Relating the dominant mode of winter nutrient loadings over 18 stations clearly illustrates the association with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO conditions. Potential utility of these season-ahead nutrient predictions in developing proactive and adaptive nutrient management strategies is also discussed.

  8. Growth and Yield Stimulation of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brasssica Napus L. by Mg-Titanit Fertiliser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kováčik Peter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effort to achieve higher yields at the required qualitative level has led to the intensive studying the problems of the rational usage of the titanium containing fertilisers by the agricultural research in the course the previous thirty years. Therefore, the objective of the experiment was to evaluate the impact of two doses of Mg-Titanit (0.2 l/ha and 0.4 l/ha on the formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass, also on the total chlorophyll in leaves, on the titanium and nitrogen content in the seeds and straw, on the quantity and quality of winter rape yield. The doses were applied two or three times on the leaves of winter rape (BBCH 50-52, BBCH 59, BBCH 66-67. The experiment was realized on the Haplic Chernozem (48°42´ N, 17°70´ E - Western Slovakia during two farming years (2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The results showed that all three applications of Mg-Titanit in both doses stimulated the formation of aboveground and underground phytomass of winter rape. The highest growth of phytomass was detected after the second application. The application of Mg-Titanit in the growth phases BBCH 50-52 and BBCH 59 increased the contents of both chlorophylls (a and b, where the growth of chlorophyll b content was more considerable than the growth of chlorophyll a content. The third spraying by Mg-Titanit decreased the content of the total chlorophyll. The application of Mg-Titanit had the positive impact on the yield of seeds, straw and fat content in the winter oilseed rape seeds.

  9. Report on 1983 winter muskox census on Nunivak Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 1983 winter ground census of muskox on Nunivak Island was completed between February 23 and 27, 1983. A total of 483 muskox were counted of which 364 were...

  10. Report on 1982 winter muskox census on Nunivak Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 1982 winter ground census of muskox on Nunivak Island was completed between March 1, 1982 and March 4, 1982. A total of 506 muskox were counted of which 460...

  11. Winter Steelhead Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WINTER STEELHEAD contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  12. Washington Maritime NWRC: Initial Survey Instructions for Winter Wildlife Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Due to the logistical challenges of accessing this refuge during the winter months, information on nonbreeding species use of refuge islands is very limited. This...

  13. NEFSC 1999 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL9902, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the winter distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  14. NEFSC 2001 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0102, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the winter distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  15. NEFSC 2000 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0001, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the winter distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  16. Beat the Winter Blues: Shedding Light on Seasonal Sadness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viewed January 2013 Print RSS Find us on Facebook External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe ... winter blues” and a more severe type of depression called seasonal affective disorder, or SAD, for more ...

  17. The winter anomaly in radio-wave absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress towards resolving the winter anomaly in radio-wave absorption is reviewed with particular reference to work carried out by U.C.W. Aberystwyth. The anomaly, a local winter effect, is a D-region phenomenon showing strong latitude dependence. In the long term the effect shows a solar cycle variation but no similar short-term solar control is evident. Three types of winter absorption day are recognised and are reconciled with increased enhancement of D-region electron concentrations. Certainly in the extreme case, and probably in all cases, the enhanced electron concentrations are due to increases in concentration of the minor constituent nitric oxide. Transport from auroral to middle latitudes in winter is inferred with it is suggested, considerable modification of the D-region chemistry at these times

  18. Circle of Life——Symbolism in The Winter's Tale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李潇雨

    2007-01-01

    This essay tries to illustrate Winter's Tale's symbolic meaning about human life.It draws conclusion that Shakespeare's plan is to combine the natural rule of seasonal cycle with the life circle of human world.

  19. Observations of Birds Northern Great Plains: Winter 1980-1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This survey summarizes bird observations in the eastern half of North Dakota during the winter of 19801981. A species list and comments are included in this document.

  20. Winter flight of flies (Diptera in Hongneung Arboretum, Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sung Kwon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter phenology (diapause and activity of insects is expected to change more significantly than that of other seasons, because temperature will increase more in winter than in other seasons in temperate regions. However, studies on winter phenology of insects are rare. It is expected that winter flights of flies (Diptera will increase as climate warms. This study aims to find the relationship between flight of flies and temperature. The survey on flies and weather (temperature and rainfall was carried out in the Hongneung Arboretum in Seoul, Korea. Flies were collected weekly from December 2012 to February 2013 using sweeping and Malaise trap. In the survey, 106 flies belonging to 28 morphospecies and 17 families were collected. Richness and abundance of flies were positively correlated with temperature.

  1. JTEL Winter School for Advanced Technologically Enhanced Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Gruber, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Glahn, C., & Gruber, M. (2010). JTEL Winter School for Advanced Technologically Enhanced Learning. In ~mail. Das Magazin des Tiroler Bildungsinstituts, 01/10, März (p. 3-4). Innsbruck: Grillhof, Medienzentrum.

  2. National FCEV Learning Demonstration: Winter 2011 Composite Data Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes the composite data products produced in Winter 2011 as part of the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration.

  3. Whooping Cranes During the 1985-1986 Winter

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report attempts to summarize whooping crane data collected by the Aransas biologist during the 1985-86 winter. It focuses on the distribution of the Wood...

  4. Whooping Crane Winter Abundance Survey Protocol Aransas National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol is primarily designed to provide a mechanism for monitoring trends in whooping crane abundance on their wintering grounds along the Texas gulf coast....

  5. Malheur NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Trumpeter Swan - Winter Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of the survey is to inform a regional effort to estimate the distribution and total number of wintering swans in Western North America. The survey...

  6. Sino-German winter school on innovation convenes in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Jointly organized by the CAS Institute of Policy and Management (IPM) and the Fraunhofer Institute for System and Innovation Research (ISI), a winter school on innovation policy and sustainable development was held from 15 to 19 December, 2008, in Beijing.

  7. Observations of Birds Northern Great Plains: Winter 1981-1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This survey summarizes bird observations in the eastern half of North Dakota during the winter, between 1211981 to 2281982. A species list and comments are included...

  8. Study of total dry matter and protein extraction from canola meal as affected by the pH, salt addition and use of zeta-potential/turbidimetry analysis to optimize the extraction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzhova, Alina; Mondor, Martin; Benali, Marzouk; Aider, Mohammed

    2016-06-15

    Total dry matter and proteins were differentially and preferentially extracted from canola meal (CM) under different conditions. The effect of the extraction medium pH, CM concentration and salt concentrations were found to have different influences on the extractability of total dry matter and proteins from CM. The pH of the extracting medium had the most significant effect. The maximal total dry matter (42.8±1.18%) extractability was obtained with 5% CM at pH 12 without salt addition, whereas the maximal for total protein (58.12±1.47%) was obtained with 15% CM under the same conditions. The minimal extractability for the dry matter (26.63±0.67%) was obtained with 5% CM at pH 10 without salt added and the minimal protein extractability was observed in a 10% CM at pH 10, in 0.01 NaCl. Turbidity and ζ-potential measurements indicated that pH 5 was the optimum condition for the highest protein extraction yield. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that salt addition contributes to higher solubility of canola proteins specifically cruciferin fraction, although it reduces napin extraction. PMID:26868572

  9. Winter Habitat Preferences for Florida Manatees and Vulnerability to Cold

    OpenAIRE

    Laist, David W.; Taylor, Cynthia; Reynolds, John E.

    2013-01-01

    To survive cold winter periods most, if not all, Florida manatees rely on warm-water refuges in the southern two-thirds of the Florida peninsula. Most refuges are either warm-water discharges from power plant and natural springs, or passive thermal basins that temporarily trap relatively warm water for a week or more. Strong fidelity to one or more refuges has created four relatively discrete Florida manatee subpopulations. Using statewide winter counts of manatees from 1999 to 2011, we provi...

  10. The Spaciotemporal Patterns of Georgian Winter Solstice Festivals

    OpenAIRE

    Nino Abakelia

    2008-01-01

    The article focuses on the rituals and ritual symbols of winter solstice festivals in Georgia, which are discussed from a spaciotemporal perspective and which, in their turn, are based on cosmological symbolism. The article aims to show how everyday life changes through ritual into a winter mythicoritual scenario and how the surrounding built environment of a society is being mythologized. How a place of dwelling as a microcosm is opposed to macrocosm; how symbolism conveys further the dialec...

  11. Rhizome starch as indicator for temperate seagrass winter survival

    OpenAIRE

    Govers, L.L.; Suykerbuyk, W.; Hoppenreijs, J.; Giesen, K.; Bouma, T.J.; Katwijk, M.M. van

    2015-01-01

    Key-ecosystems such as seagrass beds are disappearing on a global scale. In order to counter-act local loss of seagrass beds, seagrass restoration projects have been carried out with varying degrees of success. As seagrass biomass peaks in summer, most restoration projects are monitored during this period, while wintering processes are largely ignored. We here attempted to elucidate some important bottlenecks for wintering survival in temperate areas of the intertidal model species Zostera no...

  12. Efficacies of designer biochars in improving biomass and nutrient uptake of winter wheat grown in a hard setting subsoil layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigua, G C; Novak, J M; Watts, D W; Johnson, M G; Spokas, K

    2016-01-01

    In the Coastal Plains region of the United States, the hard setting subsoil layer of Norfolk soils results in low water holding capacity and nutrient retention, which often limits root development. In this region, the Norfolk soils are under intensive crop production that further depletes nutrients and reduces organic carbon (C). Incorporation of pyrolyzed organic residues or "biochars" can provide an alternative recalcitrant C source. However, biochar quality and effect can be inconsistent and different biochars react differently in soils. We hypothesized that addition of different designer biochars will have variable effects on biomass and nutrient uptake of winter wheat. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of designer biochars on biomass productivity and nutrient uptake of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a Norfolk's hard setting subsoil layer. Biochars were added to Norfolk's hard setting subsoil layer at the rate of 40 Mg ha(-1). The different sources of biochars were: plant-based (pine chips, PC); animal-based (poultry litter, PL); 50:50 blend (50% PC:50% PL); 80:20 blend (80% PC:20% PL); and hardwood (HW). Aboveground and belowground biomass and nutrient uptake of winter wheat varied significantly (p⩽0.0001) with the different designer biochar applications. The greatest increase in the belowground biomass of winter wheat over the control was from 80:20 blend of PC:PL (81%) followed by HW (76%), PC (59%) and 50:50 blend of PC:PL (9%). However, application of PL resulted in significant reduction of belowground biomass by about 82% when compared to the control plants. The average uptake of P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Al, Fe, Cu and Zn in both the aboveground and belowground biomass of winter wheat varied remarkably with biochar treatments. Overall, our results showed promising significance for the treatment of a Norfolk's hard setting subsoil layer since designer biochars did improve both aboveground/belowground biomass and nutrient uptake

  13. Are cold winters in Europe associated with low solar activity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood, M; Harrison, R G; Woollings, T [Space Environment Physics Group, Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, PO Box 243, Reading RG6 6BB (United Kingdom); Solanki, S K, E-mail: m.lockwood@reading.ac.uk [MPI fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Solar activity during the current sunspot minimum has fallen to levels unknown since the start of the 20th century. The Maunder minimum (about 1650-1700) was a prolonged episode of low solar activity which coincided with more severe winters in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. Motivated by recent relatively cold winters in the UK, we investigate the possible connection with solar activity. We identify regionally anomalous cold winters by detrending the Central England temperature (CET) record using reconstructions of the northern hemisphere mean temperature. We show that cold winter excursions from the hemispheric trend occur more commonly in the UK during low solar activity, consistent with the solar influence on the occurrence of persistent blocking events in the eastern Atlantic. We stress that this is a regional and seasonal effect relating to European winters and not a global effect. Average solar activity has declined rapidly since 1985 and cosmogenic isotopes suggest an 8% chance of a return to Maunder minimum conditions within the next 50 years (Lockwood 2010 Proc. R. Soc. A 466 303-29): the results presented here indicate that, despite hemispheric warming, the UK and Europe could experience more cold winters than during recent decades.

  14. Determination of Essential Fatty Acid Composition among Mutant Lines of Canola (Brassica napus), through High Pressure Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghulam Raza; Aquil Siddique; Imtiaz Ahmad Khan; Muhammed Yasin Ashraf; Abdullah Khatri

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to quantify the methyl esters of lenoleic acid (LA), γ-lenolenic acid (LNA) and oleic acid (OL) in the oil of Brassica napus mutants. Five stable mutants (ROO-75/1, ROO-100/6, ROO-125/12, ROO-125/14, and ROO-125/17)of B. napus cv. 'Rainbow' (P) and three mutants (W97-95116, W97-0.75/11 and W97-.075/13) of B. napus cv. 'Westar' (P) at M6 stage, exhibiting better yield and yield components, were analyzed for essential fatty acids. The highest seed yield was observed in the mutant (ROO-100/6) followed by ROO-125/14 of Rainbow, that is, 34% and 32% higher than their parent plants, respectively. Westar mutant W97-75/11 also showed 30% higher seed yield than its parent plant. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of the composition of fatty acids indicated that OL was the most dominant fatty acid, ranging from 39.1 to 66.3%; LA was second (15.3-41.6%) and LNA was third (18.1-28.9%). Mutant ROO-125/14 showed higher OL contents than parent (Rainbow). These results are expected to support the approval of ROO-125/14 in the National Uniform Varietal Yield Trials (NUVYT) as a new variety based on high oil quality.

  15. Gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract in reindeer, free-living and fed baled timothy silage in summer and winter

    OpenAIRE

    Tove H. Aagnes; Svein D. Mathiesen

    1996-01-01

    The gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract was investigated in reindeer calves (Rangtfer tarandus tarandus), free-living and fed two different qualities of timothy silage in September 1992 (summer) and April 1993 (winter) and related to the body condition. At both seasons nine male reindeer calves were taken from a natural pasture. Three animals were slaughtered directly (NP reindeer), three offered first cut (FC) silage and three regrowth (RG) silage ad lib., for 46 days. The FC si...

  16. WATER NEEDS FOR WINTER BEAN CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Klar

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of water use by bean winter crop (Phaseolus vulgaris, L., cv. Carioca was carried out in a Red Yellow Latosol, clay texture. A furrow irrigation system maintained soil water potentials higher than -40 KPa. Two broadcast nitrogen treatments (0 and 30 kg N/ha were applied 25 days after planting. The major objectives were to study the nitrogen and evapotranspiration interaction and measure the crop coefficients (Kc. The maximum average evapotranspiration (ETm was 1.71 mm/day, or 157.16 mm over 92 days of observations; the ETm values for the vegetative (1, flowering (2 and pod formation (3 phases were 1.48, 2.35, and 1.50 mm/day, respectively, for the 30 kg/ha nitrogen treatment, and 1.48, 1.88 and 1.45 mm/day for the no nitrogen treatment. The crop coefficients (Kc = ETm / ETo were 0.62 and 0.78 for the phase 1, 0.80 and 1.10 for the phase 2, 0.45 and 0.55 for the phase 3 and 0.61 and 0.80 for the entire cycle, based on the FAO-Penman and Class A Pan reference methods (ETo, respectively. The latter one was the best approach to estimate maximum water use by winter bean crop. Nitrogen treatments did not affect evapotranspiration significantly. However, the measured evapotranspiration obtained from the water balance method was 59.78 and 27.12% higher in the flowering than in the vegetative phase, respectively, under 30 and 0 kg N/ha.Um estudo sobre o uso de água do feijoeiro de inverno (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Carioca foi realizado num solo Latossol Vermelho Amarelo de textura argilosa. Um sistema de sulcos de infiltração foi usado para proceder a irrigação com o intuito de manter o solo em potenciais de água superiores a -40,0 KPa. Duas doses de aplicação de N em cobertura (0 a 30 Kg N/ha foram colocados 25 dias após o plantio. Os principais objetivos do estudo foram: avaliar a interação entre as duas doses de N com a evapotranspiração e medir os coeficientes de cultura (Kc. A evapotranspiração média máxima (ETm foi 1,71 mm

  17. Understanding the ECMWF winter surface temperature biases over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Emanuel; Sandu, Irina; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Beljaars, Anton; Freville, Helene; Vignon, Etienne; Brun, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric reanalysis provide long-term estimates of the state of the atmosphere and surface. However, the reanalysis quality is dependent on the quality and quantity of observations used by the data assimilation systems and by the performance of the forecast model. Recent studies have found that the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis has a warm bias of surface temperature over Antarctica. We evaluate several factors that could explain this bias of surface temperature, and to some extent 2-meters temperature, in the ECMWF model and ERA-Interim reanalysis over Antarctica during winter. We focused on the Polar night where the solar radiation and latent heat fluxes can be neglected. Four main changes, derived from the surface energy balance, were tested including (i) reduction of the snow thermal inertia, (ii) full decoupling of the skin layer from the surface; (iii) reduced roughness lengths and (iv) different stability functions for the transfer coefficients calculations in the surface layer. Different configurations were tested within the ECMWF Integrated Forecasts System (IFS) in short-range forecasts and in stand-alone surface-only simulations at South Pole station. It was found that the model underestimates strong radiative cooling events and this can be mainly associated with a too strong land-atmosphere coupling over glaciers. The reduction of the snow thermally active depth had a positive effect allowing the model to better represent those radiative cooling effects. The reduction of the roughness lengths and the different stability functions also result in further cooling in stand-alone mode, but their impact was not so pronounced in the coupled forecasts. In general, averaged over the Antarctic continent, the reduction of the snow thermal active depth leads to a cooling of 1 K. The reduction of the roughness lengths resulted in an additional cooling of about 1 K. Our results indicate that the representation of a fast time scale to the thermal exchanges between

  18. Determinación de los coeficientes de digestibilidad ileal aparente y estandarizada de la proteína y aminoácidos de la torta de canola en lechones recién destetados Estimação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente das proteínas e aminoácidos do torta de canola em leitões recém-desmamados Determination of standardized and apparent ileal digestibility coefficients of protein and amino acids from canola meal in weaned piglets.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Mariscal; Tércia C Reis; Jaime E Parra

    2008-01-01

    Para obtener los coeficientes de digestibilidad ileal aparente (CDIA) y estandarizada (CDIE) de la proteína y aminoácidos de pasta de canola (PC), se realizó un experimento en el que se utilizaron 24 lechones destetados a los 17 días de edad con un peso de 5.5 kg, a los cuales se les fijó una cánula simple en “T” al final del íleon distal. Los lechones recibieron uno de los tratamientos: Dieta de Referencia (DR) elaborada con caseína como única fuente de proteína y almidón de maíz...

  19. SERSO: Summer sun against winter ice; SERSO: Mit Sommer-Sonne gegen Winter-Glatteis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eugster, W.J. [Polydynamics Engineering, Zuerich (Switzerland); Hess, K. [Polydynamics Engineering, Bremgarten-Bern (Switzerland); Hopkirk, R.J. [Polydynamics Engineering, Maennedorf (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    Road surfaces absorb energy from the incoming solar radiation in the summer months. The SERSO project was conceived to collect this energy, store it and reuse it during the following winter period to eliminate ice formation on those same road surfaces. The acronym SERSO (Sonnenenergierueckgewinnung aus Strassenoberflaechen) means `solar energy recuperation from road surfaces`. This pilot unit having been conceived, researched an applied to a bridge on the Swiss national expressway A8 near Daerligen on the south side of the lake of Thun was officially opened on 22nd August 1994. Heat exchanger tubes carrying a water/glycol heat transfer fluid were built into the roadbed on the bridge, covering a total area of some 1`300 m{sup 2}. In summer these collect heat from the exposed carriageways, which is then transported in a closed hydraulic circuit to the neighbouring cylindrical underground rock heat storage volume. Within a diameter of 31.5 m and a depth of 65 m heat is exchanged between the heat transfer fluid and the rock via an array of 91 borehole heat exchangers. The operation of the pilot plant has been accompanied by detailed measurement campaign, whereby a total of 132 sensors are interrogated by remote datalogger. The data consist of temperature measurements at several depths and positions both in the roadbed and in the rock storage volume, of energy fluxes in the hydraulic system and of relevant meteorological data. The experiences gianed during the first two years of operation have shown that sufficient heat can indeed be collected in summer to maintain the bridge free of ice during the following winter. Moreover the energy balances derived from the measurements in the low temperature rock heat store have confirmed the predicted storage efficiency. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] cVerkehrsflaechen heizen sich im Sommer durch Sonneneinstrahlung stark auf. Diese Sommerwaerme zu sammeln, zwischenzuspeichern und im Winter zur Verhinderung von Glatteisbildung wieder zu

  20. Dedication to Professor Hannspeter Winter (1941 2006): Dedication to Professor Hannspeter Winter (1941 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Bob

    2007-03-01

    Professor H Winter. It was with great sadness that we learnt of the death of colleague and friend Professor Hannspeter Winter in Vienna on the 8 November 2006. In memory of him and the contribution he made both to our conference and to the field of the physics of highly charged ions we dedicate these proceedings. Hannspeter was one of our distinguished invited speakers at HCI2006 and gave a talk on the status of the ITER programme. His invited paper on the subject is included in these proceedings. Hannspeter will be particularly remembered for his pioneering work on ion-surface interactions that, together with his colleagues at the Vienna University of Technology (TUW), has stimulated a worldwide experimental and theoretical interest in this field. He was appointed Director of the Institut fuer Allgemeine Physik at TUW in 1987 and using both his scientific and management skills has made it one of the leading university physics laboratories in the world. His research publications, of which there are 270, have inspired many others to work in the field of atomic and plasma physics. He was also a great European playing a major role in the EURATOM fusion programme, the European Physical Society and the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and was an evaluator and advisory board member for many national and international institutions. Hannspeter was also an interesting and friendly social companion with interests in current affairs, music and fine wines and will be greatly missed both on a scientific and social level. Our condolences go to his wife Renate, son Dorian and his relatives. R W McCullough Co-chair HCI2006