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Sample records for canola quality winter

  1. CO2 Dynamics in winter wheat and canola under different management practices in the Southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, P.; Manjunatha, P.; Gowda, P. H.; Northup, B. K.; Neel, J. P. S.; Turner, K.; Steiner, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and increased air temperature and climatic variability concerns have prompted considerable interest regarding CO2 dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems in response to major climatic and biophysical factors. However, detailed information on CO2 dynamics in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) under different agricultural management practices is lacking. As a part of the GRL-FLUXNET, a cluster of eight eddy covariance (EC) systems was deployed on the 420-ha Grazinglands Research on agroEcosystems and the ENvironment (GREEN) Farm at the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), Grazinglands Research Laboratory (GRL), El Reno, OK. The GRL is also one of 18 USDA-ARS Long-Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network sites in the United States. A 4-year crop rotation plan at the farm includes winter wheat for grain only, graze-grain, and graze-out, and canola under conventional till and no-till management conditions. Biometric measurements such as biomass, leaf area index (LAI), canopy cover %, canopy height, and chlorophyll content were collected approximately every 16 days to coincide with Landsat satellite overpass dates. As expected, biomass and LAI were highest in the grain only wheat fields followed by graze-grain and graze-out wheat fields, but they were similar for till and no-till wheat fields within the same grazing practice. Biomass and LAI were similar in till and no-till canola in fall 2016, but both were substantially lower in no-till compared to tilled canola during spring 2017 due to more severe winter damage. Because net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) is strongly regulated by vegetation cover, the magnitudes of NEE were highest in the grain only wheat fields due to more biomass and LAI, followed by graze-grain and graze-out wheat fields. Similarly, the magnitudes of NEE were also higher in tilled canola (i.e., higher biomass and LAI) than

  2. Qualidade e produtividade de sementes de canola (Brassica napus após aplicação de dessecantes em pré-colheita Quality and yield of canola (Brassica napus seeds after pre-harvest desiccant application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Marchiori Jr.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A cultura de canola é indicada nos esquemas de rotação de culturas, bem como para diversificação agrícola e cobertura vegetal do solo no período de inverno na Região Sul do Brasil. Contudo, a colheita mecanizada é uma das operações mais críticas do sistema de produção, uma vez que os frutos do tipo síliqua apresentam maturação desuniforme, gerando grandes perdas de produtividade devido à deiscência natural. O uso de dessecantes químicos permite uma colheita com as síliquas em maturação mais uniforme, porém é importante a manutenção da qualidade do produto obtido. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da aplicação de herbicidas dessecantes na produtividade e na qualidade fisiológica e sanitária das sementes de canola cultivar Hyola 401. Os herbicidas utilizados foram o glufosinato de amônio (0,5 kg ha-1, carfentrazone-ethyl (0,03 kg ha-1, paraquat (0,4 kg ha-1 e diquat (0,3 kg ha-1, mais a testemunha sem aplicação. A qualidade das sementes foi avaliada por meio dos testes de germinação, de envelhecimento acelerado, de condutividade elétrica, de emergência em areia, de velocidade de emergência e de sanidade. A aplicação dos produtos dessecantes permitiu uma antecipação de sete dias na colheita das sementes de canola. A produtividade de sementes não foi afetada pela dessecação. A aplicação do glufosinato de amônio e carfentrazone-ethyl reduziu (PCanola crop is indicated to integrate crop rotation systems, as well as for agricultural diversification and vegetal ground cover during winter in southern Brazil. However, mechanical harvest is critical to crop production, since pods present a non-uniform ripening, leading to great yield losses, due to natural dehiscence. Desiccants are usually applied to provide a more uniform harvest, maintaining the quality of the product. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of desiccant application on productivity and physiological/sanitary quality of

  3. Effect of Packaging Films on the Quality of Canola Oil under Photooxidation Conditions

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    Hao Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of packaging films on the quality of canola oil which contains high concentration of fat under photooxidation condition and get the oxidation kinetics based on measuring the oxidation intensities including peroxide value, hexanal, and photosensitizer (chlorophyll. The canola oil was packaged by PET/CPP; KPET/PE was used for experiments. The change of light and oxygen transmission rate (OTR of PET/CPP which was considered as the typical fatty foods packaging film under different light intensities was also tested. The results show that the peroxide value increased rapidly under light conditions and fitted the zero order kinetics; also the oxygen transmission rate had great impact on it; hexanal fitted the zero order kinetic in oil whose package of low OTR generated a lot; however package in high OTR films changed very slowly that might be dependent on the performance of hexanal through plastic films. The degradation of chlorophyll fitted the first order kinetic and decreased quickly under light but was almost independent of OTR of transparent packaging material. Light reduced the oxygen barrier properties of the films, which should be considered as the photooxidation condition (and the photooxidation condition thus should be considered.

  4. Flowering Without Vernalization in Winter Canola (Brassica napus: use of Virus-Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS to accelerate genetic gain

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    Raúl Álvarez-Venegas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ciclos de reproducción cortos y la oportunidad de incrementar la ganancia genética, junto con el estudio de las bases moleculares de la vernalización, son áreas esenciales de investigación dentro de la biología de plantas. Varios métodos se han empleado para lograr el silenciamiento génico en plantas, pero ninguno reportado a la fecha para canola (Brassica napus, y en particular para inducir la floración sin vernalización en líneas de invierno a través del uso de secuencias sentido de DNA en vectores diseñados para el silenciamiento génico inducido por virus (VIGS. La presente investigación provee los métodos para transitoriamente regular a la baja, por medio de VIGS, genes de la vernalización en plantas anuales de invierno, específicamente la familia de genes de Flowering Locus C (FLC en canola de invierno (BnFLC1 a BnFLC5. La regulación a la baja de estos genes permite a las plantas anuales de invierno florecer sin vernalización y, consecuentemente, provee los medios para acelerar la ganancia genética. El sistema de silenciamiento propuesto puede ser utilizado para regular a la baja familias de genes, para determinar la función génica, y para inducir la floración sin la vernalización en líneas de invierno tanto del género Brassica como de muchos cultivos importantes de invierno.

  5. Effects of Source and Rate of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield, Yield Components and Quality of Winter Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Efecto de la Fuente y Dosis de Fertilizantes Nitrogenados en el Rendimiento, Componentes de Rendimiento y Calidad de Semilla de Canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özden Öztürk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L. has potential to become an alternate oilseed crop both for edible oil production and energy agriculture (biofuel production for Turkey. This study was conducted to determine the effect of year, N sources and doses on the yield and quality traits of winter rapeseed in a cereal system in calcareous soils over two seasons, 2000-2001 and 2001-2002, in Central Anatolia. Three N sources, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and urea, were applied as hand broadcast on the soil surface at five doses (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg N ha-1. The traits investigated were plant height, number of branches and pods per plant, number of seed per pod, thousand seed weight, seed yield, oil and protein content. There were significantly effects on seed yield, oil and protein content, and other yield components due to N sources and rates. In general, ammonium sulfate and urea gave higher seed yield than ammonium nitrate. Mean values of both seasons indicated that 100 and 150 kg N ha-1 rate increased significantly yield and quality traits with regard to other N treatments. The present results highlight the practical importance of adequate N fertilization and true N source in seed yield in winter rapeseed and suggest that ammonium sulfate at 150 kg N ha-1 will be about adequate to meet crop N requirements.El raps (Brassica napus L. tiene potencial para convertirse en un cultivo oleaginoso alternativo para producción de aceite comestible y agricultura energética (producción de biodiesel en Turquía. Este estudio fue conducido para determinar el efecto del año, fuente y dosis de N en las características de rendimiento y calidad de raps en un sistema cerealero en suelos calcáreos en dos temporadas, 2000-2001 y 2001-2002, en Anatolia Central. Se aplicaron al voleo tres fuentes de N (sulfato de amonio, nitrato de amonio y urea en cinco dosis (0, 50, 100, 150 y 200 kg N ha-1. Las características investigadas fueron altura de planta, n

  6. Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2011-08-01

    Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley straw Jaya Shankar Tumuluru*, L. G. Tabil, Y. Song, K. L. Iroba and V. Meda Biomass is a renewable energy source and environmentally friendly substitute for fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum products. Major limitation of biomass for successful energy application is its low bulk density, which makes it very difficult and costly to transport and handle. To overcome this limitation, biomass has to be densified. The commonly used technologies for densification of biomass are pelletization and briquetting. Briquetting offers many advantages at it can densify larger particles sizes of biomass at higher moisture contents. Briquetting is influenced by a number of feedstock and process variables such as moisture content, particle size distribution, and some operating variables such as temperature and densification pressure. In the present study, experiments were designed and conducted based on Box-Behnken design to produce briquettes using barley, wheat, canola and barley straws. A laboratory scale hydraulic briquette press was used for the present study. The experimental process variables and their levels used in the present study were pressure levels (7.5, 10, 12.5 MPa), three levels of temperature (90, 110, 130 C), at three moisture content levels (9, 12, 15% w.b.), and three levels of particle size (19.1, 25.04, 31.75 mm). The quality variables studied includes moisture content, initial density and final briquette density after two weeks of storage, size distribution index and durability. The raw biomass was initially chopped and size reduced using a hammer mill. The ground biomass was conditioned at different moisture contents and was further densified using laboratory hydraulic press. For each treatment combination, ten briquettes were manufactured at a residence time of about 30 s after compression pressure setpoint was achieved. After compression, the initial

  7. Desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras semipesadas alimentadas com dietas contendo óleos de soja e canola Performance and eggs quality in laying hens fed diets with soybean and canola oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar a influência da adição de níveis crescentes de óleo de soja e canola sobre os índices de desempenho e qualidade interna e externa dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais semipesadas da linhagem Bovans Goldline durante cinco períodos de 28 dias. Foram utilizadas 280 aves com 18 semanas de idade, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos em um esquema fatorial 2 × 3 + 1 (dois tipos de óleo e três níveis de óleo mais um testemunha adicional com cinco repetições e oito aves por unidade experimental. Os níveis de óleo de soja e de canola não alteraram o consumo de ração, os pesos dos ovos, de albúmen, de gema e de casca, as porcentagens de albúmen, de gema e de casca e a gravidade específica dos ovos. Houve influência significativa da interação tipo × nível de óleo sobre a produção de ovos e a conversão por massa e por dúzia de ovos. Com o aumento do nível de óleo de soja, os resultados obtidos para estas variáveis melhoraram, entretanto, a conversão por massa de ovo piorou com o aumento dos níveis de óleo de canola. A adição de óleo de soja promoveu desempenho melhor que o obtido com óleo de canola.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of soybean and canola oil added in crescent levels on production performance indexes and internal and external egg quality of brown commercial layers of the strain Bovans Goldline during five periods of 28 days. Two hundred and eighty hens with 18 weeks old were distributed in a completely randomized design, with seven diets in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement (oil type and oil level, and an additional control, with 5 replicates of 8 hens per experimental unit. The soybean and canola oil levels did not affect the feed consumption; egg, albumen, yolk and shell weights; albumen, yolk and shell percentages, neither the specific gravity. There was an interaction between type and oils levels on egg production and mass

  8. EFFECTS OF PLANT NUTRITION ON CANOLA (Brassica napus L. GROWTH

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    Sami Süzer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus L. is an important edible oilseed crop in the World and in Turkey. It has a healthy vegetable oil because of its balance with omega 3-6-9 essential fatty acids, making canola oil a healthy vegetable oil throughout the World for cooking and processed food industry. Canola production of high yield and good quality usually depends on well-balanced plant nutrition and growing conditions. A well-balanced soil condition also affects canola plants responses to stress factors such as disease and bad weather conditions. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK are some of the major nutrients required to significantly increase canola yield. Fertilizer application dosages in canola production vary because of the variable occurrence of NPK in the soil. A high yielding canola production needs a well-balanced fertilization program.

  9. Effect of different methods of soil fertility increasing via application of organic, chemical and biological fertilizers on grain yield and quality of canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohammadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Different resource of fertilizers had an effect on grain yield, oil and grain quality. Information regarding the effect of simultaneous application of organic, chemical and biological fertilizers on canola (Brassica napus L. traits is not available. In order to study the effect of different systems of soil fertility on grain yield and quality of canola (Talayeh cultivar, an experiment was conducted at experimental farm of Agricultural Research Center of Sanandaj, Iran, during two growing seasons of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. The experimental units were arranged as split plots based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Main plots consisted of five methods for obtaining the basal fertilizers requirement including (N1: farm yard manure; (N2: compost; (N3: chemical fertilizers; (N4: farm yard manure + compost and (N5: farm yard manure + compost + chemical fertilizers; and control (N6. Sub plots consisted four levels of biofertilizers were (B1: Bacillus lentus and Pseudomonas putida; (B2: Trichoderma harzianum; (B3: Bacillus lentus and Pseudomonas putida and Trichoderma harzianum; and (B4: control, (without biofertilizers. Results showed that basal fertilizers and biofertilizers have a significant effect on grain yield. The highest grain yield was obtained from N5 treatment in which organic and chemical fertilizers were applied simultaneously applied. Basal fertilizers, biofertilizers have a significant effect on leaf chlorophyll. The highest nitrogen content (42.85 mg.g-1 and least amount of (N/S were obtained from N5 treatment. The highest oil percent was obtained from N1 and N2 treatments and highest oil yield was obtained from N5 treatment. Finally, application of organic manure and biofertilizers with chemical fertilizer led to an increase in yield and quality of canola grain.

  10. Bread-Making Quality of Standard Winter Wheat Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Ćurić, Duška; Novotni, Dubravka; Bauman, Ingrid; Krička, Tajana; Jukić, Željko; Voća, Neven; Kiš, Darko

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define an impact of the cultivar, year and cultivation area of the standard Croatian winter wheat on the bread-making quality. The bread-making quality of cultivars ‘Divana’, ‘Žitarka’ and ‘Sana’ from the crop years 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006, and from Zagreb and Osijek location was analyzed. Wheat from the cultivar tests cultivated under the same agro technological conditions was used for this testing. The tested winter wheat bread-making quality primari...

  11. Effect of seeding rate on grain quality of winter wheat

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    Veselinka Zecevic

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Planting density is important factor which influence yield and quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. For this reason, in scientific investigations is constantly investigated optimization of plant number per unit area. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of seeding rate in grain quality of winter wheat cultivars. The experiment was conducted with four winter wheat genotypes ('Ana Morava', 'Vizija', 'L-3027', and 'Perla' at the Small Grains Research Centre of Kragujevac, Serbia, in 3 yr at two seeding rates (SR1 = 500 and SR2 = 650 germinating seeds m-2. The 1000-kernel weight, Zeleny sedimentation, and wet gluten content in divergent wheat genotypes were investigated depending on the seeding rate and ecological factors. Significant differences in quality components were established between investigated seeding rates. The highest values of all investigated quality traits were established in SR2 variant when applied 650 seeds m-2. Genotypes reacted differently to seeding rate. 'Perla' in average had the highest mean sedimentation value (42.2 mL and wet gluten content (33.76% in SR2 variant and this cultivar responded the best to seeding rate. Significant differences for sedimentation value and wet gluten content were found among cultivars, years, seeding rate, and for all their interactions. Also, ANOVA for 1000-kernel weight showed highly significant differences among investigated varieties, seeding rate and growing seasons, but all their interactions were not significant. In all investigated genotypes, better quality was established in SR2 variant when applied 650 seeds m-2.

  12. Canola versus Wheat Rotation Effects on Subsequent Wheat Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter canola (Brassica napus L.) (WC) is considered the most promising, domestically-produced oilseed feedstock for biodiesel production and for diversifying wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-based cropping systems in the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA (PNW). A law passed in 2006 requires that at least t...

  13. Study of Winter Wheat Yield Quality Analysis at ARDS Turda

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    Ovidiu Adrian Ceclan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the potential for yield and quality indicators for winter wheat genotypes in terms of pedological and climate condition and applied technology, at ARDS Turda during 2014 – 2015. Depending on the climatic conditions that are associated with applied technology is a decisive factor in successful wheat crop for all genotypes that were studied at Ards Turda during the 2014 – 2016. That’s wy each genotype responded differently to the conditions of the ARDS Turda also through the two levels of fertilisations applied in the winter with fertilizers 20:20:0, 250 kg/ha assuring 50 kg/ha N and P active substance and second level of fertilisations with 150 kg/ha ammonium nitrate assuring 50 kg/ha N active substance. All genotype that were studied in terms of yield and quality indicators were influenced by the fertilization level. The influence of pedo-climatic conditions, applied technologies and fertilizers level at ARDS Turda showed that all genotypes with small yield had higher protein and gluten content respectively Zeleny index.

  14. Satellite remote sensing of air quality in winter of Lanzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dawei; Han, Tao; Jiang, Youyan; Li, Lili; Ren, Shuyuan

    2018-03-01

    Fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameters of less than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) air pollution has become one of the global environmental problem, endangering the existence of residents living, climate, and public health. Estimation Particulate Matter (aerodynamic diameters of less than 10 μm, PM10) concentration and aerosol absorption was the key point in air quality and climate studies. In this study, we retrieve the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from the Earth Observing System (EOS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and PM2.5, PM10 in winter on 2014 and 2015, using Extended Dense Dark Vegetation Algorithm and 6S radiation model to analysis the correlation. The result showed that at the condition of non-considering the influence of primary pollutants, the correlation of two Polynomials between aerosol optical depth and PM2.5 and PM10 was poor; taking the influence of the primary pollutants into consideration, the aerosol optical depth has a good correlation with PM2.5 and PM10. The version of PM10 by aerosol optical depth is higher than that of PM2.5, so the model can be used to realize the high precision inversion of winter PM10 in Lanzhou.

  15. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with dried distillers grains with solubles at 2 dietary crude protein levels on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    Dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) is an alternative source of feed protein for dairy cows. Previous studies found that DDGS, based on grains other than corn, can substitute for soybean meal and canola cake as a dietary protein source without reducing milk production or quality....... As societal concerns exist, and in many areas strict regulation, regarding nitrogen excretion from dairy cows, the dairy industry has focused on reducing dietary protein level and nitrogen excretion. In the present study, we investigated the use of DDGS as a protein source, at a marginally low dietary crude...... protein (CP) levels, in a grass-clover and corn silage-based ration. The experiment involved 24 Holstein cows and 2 protein sources (DDGS or soybean-canola mixture) fed at 2 levels of CP (14 or 16%) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both protein source...

  16. Assessing winter cover crop nutrient uptake efficiency using a water quality simulation model

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, I.-Y.; Lee, S.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Beeson, P. C.; Hively, W. D.; McCarty, G. W.; Lang, M. W.

    2014-01-01

    Winter cover crops are an effective conservation management practice with potential to improve water quality. Throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed (CBW), which is located in the mid-Atlantic US, winter cover crop use has been emphasized, and federal and state cost-share programs are available to farmers to subsidize the cost of cover crop establishment. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of planting winter cover crops to improve water quality a...

  17. The effect of palm oil or canola oil on feedlot performance, plasma and tissue fatty acid profile and meat quality in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, M; Ponnampalam, E N; Hopkins, D L

    2013-06-01

    Twenty-four entire male Kacang kid goats were fed diets containing 3% canola (n=12) or palm oil (n=12) supplements for 16 weeks. The goats had an initial live weight of 14.2±1.46 kg and were fed a mixed ration ad libitum (10.4 MJ/ME and 14% crude protein). There was no difference in feedlot performance due to diet. Inclusion of canola oil reduced (Pgoats' diet increased muscle omega-3 fatty acid content, but lipid oxidation was lowered in the blood and muscle LL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Invasion of Winter Moth in New England: Effects of Defoliation and Site Quality on Tree Mortality

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    Michael J. Simmons

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Widespread and prolonged defoliation by the European winter moth, Operophtera brumata L., has occurred in forests of eastern Massachusetts for more than a decade and populations of winter moth continue to invade new areas of New England. This study characterized the forests of eastern Massachusetts invaded by winter moth and related the duration of winter moth defoliation estimated using dendrochronology to observed levels of tree mortality and understory woody plant density. Quercus basal area mortality in mixed Quercus and mixed Quercus—Pinus strobus forests in eastern Massachusetts ranged from 0–30%; mortality of Quercus in these forests was related to site quality and the number of winter moth defoliation events. In addition, winter moth defoliation events lead to a subsequent increase in understory woody plant density. Our results indicate that winter moth defoliation has been an important disturbance in New England forests that may have lasting impacts.

  19. Effects of pineapple byproduct and canola oil as fat replacers on physicochemical and sensory qualities of low-fat beef burger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Saldaña, Erick; Spada, Fernanda P; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-02-01

    Pineapple byproduct and canola oil were evaluated as fat replacers on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-fat burgers. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple byproduct (PA), canola oil (CO), pineapple byproduct and canola oil (PC). Higher water and fat retention and lower cooking loss and diameter reduction were found in burgers with byproduct addition. In raw burgers, byproduct incorporation reduced L*, a*, and C* values, but these alterations were masked after cooking, leading to products similar to CN. Low-fat treatments were harder, chewier, and more cohesive than full-fat burgers. However, in Warner Bratzler shear measurements, PA and PC were as tender as CN. In QDA, no difference was found between CN and PC. Pineapple byproducts along with canola oil are promising fat replacers in beef burgers. In order to increase the feasibility of use of pineapple byproduct in the meat industry, alternative processes of byproduct preparation should be evaluated in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system based on remote sensing and environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haiyang, Yu; Yanmei, Liu; Guijun, Yang; Xiaodong, Yang; Chenwei, Nie; Dong, Ren

    2014-01-01

    To achieve dynamic winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting in larger scale regions, the objective of this study was to design and develop a winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system by using a remote sensing index and environmental factors. The winter wheat quality trend was forecasted before the harvest and quality was monitored after the harvest, respectively. The traditional quality-vegetation index from remote sensing monitoring and forecasting models were improved. Combining with latitude information, the vegetation index was used to estimate agronomy parameters which were related with winter wheat quality in the early stages for forecasting the quality trend. A combination of rainfall in May, temperature in May, illumination at later May, the soil available nitrogen content and other environmental factors established the quality monitoring model. Compared with a simple quality-vegetation index, the remote sensing monitoring and forecasting model used in this system get greatly improved accuracy. Winter wheat quality was monitored and forecasted based on the above models, and this system was completed based on WebGIS technology. Finally, in 2010 the operation process of winter wheat quality monitoring system was presented in Beijing, the monitoring and forecasting results was outputted as thematic maps

  1. 7 CFR 457.161 - Canola and rapeseed crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: Canola and Rapeseed Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order of... application of disease control measures; (e) Wildlife; (f) Earthquake; (g) Volcanic eruption; or (h) Failure... injurious to human or animal health. (3) Quality will be a factor in determining your loss in canola...

  2. Modeling the yield potential of dryland canola under current and future climates in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, N.; Kaffka, S.; Beeck, C.; Bucaram, S.; Zhang, J.

    2012-12-01

    Models predict that the climate of California will become hotter, drier and more variable under future climate change scenarios. This will lead to both increased irrigation demand and reduced irrigation water availability. In addition, it is predicted that most common Californian crops will suffer a concomitant decline in productivity. To remain productive and economically viable, future agricultural systems will need to have greater water use efficiency, tolerance of high temperatures, and tolerance of more erratic temperature and rainfall patterns. Canola (Brassica napus) is the third most important oilseed globally, supporting large and well-established agricultural industries in Canada, Europe and Australia. It is an agronomically useful and economically valuable crop, with multiple end markets, that can be grown in California as a dryland winter rotation with little to no irrigation demand. This gives canola great potential as a new crop for Californian farmers both now and as the climate changes. Given practical and financial limitations it is not always possible to immediately or widely evaluate a crop in a new region. Crop production models are therefore valuable tools for assessing the potential of new crops, better targeting further field research, and refining research questions. APSIM is a modular modeling framework developed by the Agricultural Production Systems Research Unit in Australia, it combines biophysical and management modules to simulate cropping systems. This study was undertaken to examine the yield potential of Australian canola varieties having different water requirements and maturity classes in California using APSIM. The objective of the work was to identify the agricultural regions of California most ideally suited to the production of Australian cultivars of canola and to simulate the production of canola in these regions to estimate yield-potential. This will establish whether the introduction and in-field evaluation of better

  3. Improvement of baking quality traits through a diverse soft winter wheat population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding baking quality improvements into soft winter wheat (SWW) entails crossing lines based on quality traits, assessing new lines, and repeating several times as little is known about the genetics of these traits. Previous research on SWW baking quality focused on quantitative trait locus and ge...

  4. Assessing winter cover crop nutrient uptake efficiency using a water quality simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, In-Young; Lee, Sangchui; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Beeson, Peter C.; Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Greg W.; Lang, Megan W.

    2013-01-01

    Winter cover crops are an effective conservation management practice with potential to improve water quality. Throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW), which is located in the Mid-Atlantic US, winter cover crop use has been emphasized and federal and state cost-share programs are available to farmers to subsidize the cost of winter cover crop establishment. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of planting winter cover crops at the watershed scale and to identify critical source areas of high nitrate export. A physically-based watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), was calibrated and validated using water quality monitoring data and satellite-based estimates of winter cover crop species performance to simulate hydrological processes and nutrient cycling over the period of 1991–2000. Multiple scenarios were developed to obtain baseline information on nitrate loading without winter cover crops planted and to investigate how nitrate loading could change with different winter cover crop planting scenarios, including different species, planting times, and implementation areas. The results indicate that winter cover crops had a negligible impact on water budget, but significantly reduced nitrate leaching to groundwater and delivery to the waterways. Without winter cover crops, annual nitrate loading was approximately 14 kg ha−1, but it decreased to 4.6–10.1 kg ha−1 with winter cover crops resulting in a reduction rate of 27–67% at the watershed scale. Rye was most effective, with a potential to reduce nitrate leaching by up to 93% with early planting at the field scale. Early planting of winter cover crops (~30 days of additional growing days) was crucial, as it lowered nitrate export by an additional ~2 kg ha−1 when compared to late planting scenarios. The effectiveness of cover cropping increased with increasing extent of winter cover crop implementation. Agricultural fields with well-drained soils

  5. Indicators of soil quality in the implantation of no-till system with winter crops.

    OpenAIRE

    NOGUEIRA, M. A.; TELLES, T. S.; FAGOTTI, D. dos S. L.; BRITO, O. R.; PRETE, C. E. C.; GUIMARÃES, M. de F.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the effect of different winter crops on indicators of soil quality related to C and N cycling and C fractions in a Rhodic Kandiudult under no-till system at implantation, during two growing seasons, in Londrina PR Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with split-plot in time arrangement, with four replications. The parcels were the winter crops: multicropping of cover crops with black oat (Avena strigosa), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) and fodder radish (Raphanus sat...

  6. Indoor air quality in 300 homes in Kingston/Harriman, Tennessee: winter phase status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Uziel, M.; Vo-Dinh, T.; Cohen, M.A.; Orebaugh, C.T.; Miller, G.H.; Ironsides, K.; Monar, K.P.; Dudney, C.S.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1986-10-01

    This report summarizes the status of the 300-Home Kingston/Harriman Indoor Air Quality Study at the end of the winter phase of monitoring. Plans for the summer monitoring phase are also presented. The report is organized by the major pollutants monitored. Reporting focuses on study protocols and summaries of winter monitoring activities. A minimum of results are presented since, for many pollutants, laboratory analyses are not yet complete.

  7. Nutritional evaluation of canola meals produced from new varieties of canola seeds for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Parr, C; Utterback, P; Parsons, C M

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the nutritional value of 14 canola meals from new varieties of canola and compared them to conventional canola meal samples and soybean meals in chickens. Five experiments that included different sources of canola meals or soybean meals were conducted. For each experiment, a precision-fed rooster assay with conventional or cecectomized roosters was conducted to determine TMEn or amino acid digestibility. Analyzed nutritional composition of the canola meal samples indicated increases in crude protein and amino acids for all test canola meals (49.41 to 50.58% crude protein on a dry matter basis) compared to conventional canola meals (40.73 to 43.01%). All test canola meals also contained lower amounts of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. Most test canola meals had significantly higher TMEn values than the conventional canola meals (P nutritional value of the canola meal from new varieties of canola was greater than conventional canola meal for poultry. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Management Effects On Quality of Organically Grown Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Schweinzer, A.; Friedel, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for improving wheat grain quality by management strategies involving crop rotation, catch crops, and organic manure was tested in organic long-term experiments in Denmark and Austria. Growing grass clover in a four-year rotation resulted in a higher wheat yield increase that could n...

  9. Yield and grain quality of winter wheat under Southern Steppe of Ukraine growing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. М. Корхова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of three years study of the effect of sowing time and seed application rates on yield and grain quality of different varieties of winter wheat under the conditions of South Steppe of Ukraine were presented. It was found that winter wheat provides optimal combination of high yield and grain quality in case of sowing in October 10 with seed application rate of 5,0 million seeds/ha. The highest yield – 4,59 t/ha on average in 2011–2013 was obtained for the variety of Natalka when sowing in October 10 with seed application rate  of 5 million germinable seeds. With increasing seed application rate from 3 to 5 million seeds/ha, protein content in winter wheat was decreased by 0,3%, gluten – by 0,6%. The variety Natalka  formed the highest quality grains when sowing in October 20 with seed application rate of 3 million seeds/ha, in this case protein content was 15,8%, gluten – 32,9%. It is proved that early sowing time  – September 10 leads to yields reduction and grain   quality deterioration for all winter wheat varieties.

  10. Assessing winter cover crop nutrient uptake efficiency using a water quality simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, I.-Y.; Lee, S.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Beeson, P. C.; Hively, W. D.; McCarty, G. W.; Lang, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Winter cover crops are an effective conservation management practice with potential to improve water quality. Throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed (CBW), which is located in the mid-Atlantic US, winter cover crop use has been emphasized, and federal and state cost-share programs are available to farmers to subsidize the cost of cover crop establishment. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of planting winter cover crops to improve water quality at the watershed scale (~ 50 km2) and to identify critical source areas of high nitrate export. A physically based watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), was calibrated and validated using water quality monitoring data to simulate hydrological processes and agricultural nutrient cycling over the period of 1990-2000. To accurately simulate winter cover crop biomass in relation to growing conditions, a new approach was developed to further calibrate plant growth parameters that control the leaf area development curve using multitemporal satellite-based measurements of species-specific winter cover crop performance. Multiple SWAT scenarios were developed to obtain baseline information on nitrate loading without winter cover crops and to investigate how nitrate loading could change under different winter cover crop planting scenarios, including different species, planting dates, and implementation areas. The simulation results indicate that winter cover crops have a negligible impact on the water budget but significantly reduce nitrate leaching to groundwater and delivery to the waterways. Without winter cover crops, annual nitrate loading from agricultural lands was approximately 14 kg ha-1, but decreased to 4.6-10.1 kg ha-1 with cover crops resulting in a reduction rate of 27-67% at the watershed scale. Rye was the most effective species, with a potential to reduce nitrate leaching by up to 93% with early planting at the field scale. Early planting of cover crops (~ 30

  11. Cold pressed versus refined winterized corn oils: quality, composition and aroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydeniz Güneşer, B.; Yılmaz, E.; Ok, S.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize and compare cold pressed and fully refined winterized corn oils. Free fatty acidity (FFA), peroxide (PV) and p-anisidin (p-AV) values, saponification number, total carotenoid and phenolic contents of cold pressed corn oils were higher than that of the refined winterized corn oils. Linoleic and oleic acids (approximately 53-54% and 30-31%, respectively) were detected as the major fatty acids in both oil samples. Fifteen different sterols with a majority of β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol were quantified in both oil samples. Although phenolic compounds were not quantified in the refined winterized oil samples, some flavonoids (hesperidin, rutin) and phenolic acids (gallic, syringic, rosmaniric and trans-ferulic) were detected in the cold pressed oil samples. This study concludes that cold pressed corn oils could be superior in terms of bioactive compounds but still need some quality improvements for sensory attributes. [es

  12. Quality of life, coach behaviour and competitive anxiety in Winter Youth Olympic Games participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledochowski, Larissa; Unterrainer, Christine; Ruedl, Gerhard; Schnitzer, Martin; Kopp, Martin

    2012-12-01

    To ensure the highest technical performance, speed, safety, excellent control and to improve competitive performance, a successful regulation of competitive anxiety is necessary. Therefore, it seems crucial to identify factors influencing competitive anxiety of adolescent athletes. Research suggests that people reporting high quality of life are more capable to cope with stressful and challenging situations than others. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of quality of life, the involvement of parents in sports career and coach's leadership behaviour on competitive anxiety in Winter Youth Olympic Games participants. During the first Winter Youth Olympic Games 2012 in Innsbruck/Austria, 662 (316 women) participants completed questionnaires and single items to assess quality of life, coach's leadership behaviour, parental involvement in sports career and competitive anxiety. Multiple regression analysis revealed positive influences of high quality of life and useful coach instruction on competitive anxiety. The relationship between quality of life, coach behaviour and competitive anxiety in young elite athletes competing at the first Winter Youth Olympic Games should be considered in long-term programmes for reducing competitive stress.

  13. Nutritional evaluation of treated canola straw for ruminants using in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that organic matter digestibility (OMD) and metabolizable energy (ME) for treated canola straw were significantly higher than that of untreated canola straw (control) (p<0.001). Gas productions at 24 h for untreated canola straw (control) and treated canola straw were 20.03 and 27.07 ml, respectively.

  14. Indicators of soil quality in the implantation of no-till system with winter crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Nogueira

    Full Text Available We assessed the effect of different winter crops on indicators of soil quality related to C and N cycling and C fractions in a Rhodic Kandiudult under no-till system at implantation, during two growing seasons, in Londrina PR Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with split-plot in time arrangement, with four replications. The parcels were the winter crops: multicropping of cover crops with black oat (Avena strigosa, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa and fodder radish (Raphanus sativus; sunflower (Heliantus annuus intercropped with Urochloa ruziziensis; corn (Zea mays intercropped with Urochloa; and corn; fodder radish; or wheat (Triticum aestivum as sole crops. The subplots were the years: 2008 and 2009. Determinations consisted of total organic C, labile and resistant C, total N, microbial biomass C and N, the C/N ratio of soil organic matter, and the microbial quotient (qMic, besides microbiological and biochemical attributes, assessed only in 2009. The attributes significantly changed with the winter crops, especially the multicropping of cover crops and fodder radish, as well as effect of years. Despite stimulating the microbiological/biochemical activity, fodder radish cropping decreased the soil C in the second year, likewise the wheat cropping. The multicropping of cover crops in winter is an option for management in the establishment of no-till system, which contributes to increase the concentrations of C and stimulate the soil microbiological/biochemical activity.

  15. Mineral nutrition as a factor of stability of technological quality in winter wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Veselinka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Afield trial was carried out with eight cultivars (Libellula, Drina, Sremica NSR-2, Jugoslavija, Somborka, Lasta and Pobeda of winter wheat (Trticum aestivum L representing several different periods in our country's wheat selection and having different potentials for technological grain quality. Six different rates of nitrogen fertilizer were tested: 0, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 kgNha-1. Increasing N fertilizer rates resulted in a linear increase of the direct and indirect indicators of quality. The best results were obtained with the cultivar Sremica and the poorest with Lasta, while Jugoslavija and Pobeda were shown to be of approximately the same quality. The contribution of N fertilizer variance to total variance was the largest for protein content (43.7%. N nutrition had a greater influence on protein content in cultivars from the earlier periods of selection. Its effect on sedimentation value, on the other hand, was greater in the recently released cultivars. The contribution of the genetic factor to total variance was the highest for crumb value number (CVN (58.7% and bread volume yield (44.2% and the lowest for protein content (20.8%. The absence of significant differences in the CVN means at any of the N nutrition levels studied resulted from the variability of the indirect indicators closely linked with the direct indicators of baking quality, showing the importance of N nutrition for maintaining the stability of technological quality in winter wheat cultivars.

  16. Winter fine particulate air quality in Cranbrook, British Columbia, 1973 to 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, L.E.

    2001-06-01

    Fine particulate levels in Cranbrook, BC, are analyzed and reported based on monitoring records which began in 1973. Prior to 1988 the sampler collected all particle sizes, but was subsequently replaced with a selective size inlet to capture only PM 1 0 particles or smaller. A mathematical relationship was produced and used to convert historical total suspended particulates measurements to PM 1 0. It was determined that only monitoring records obtained during the winter months could be reliably converted in this fashion; however, that was not a problem since the winter months happen to correspond to the highest levels of fine particulates. Results of the analysis showed increased levels of PM 1 0 from the early 1970s to the early 1980s; during this time average and maximum annual PM 1 0 levels in Cranbrook were higher than those in Los Angeles in 1999. Winter PM 1 0 levels began to fall through the late 1980s and early 1990s. The lowest average and maximum (18 microgram/cubic metre and 47 microgram/cubic metre, respectively) was recorded in the winter of 1996/1997. Worst conditions were recorded in 1980/1981 when 15 of 21 samples exceeded the current provincial PM 1 0 air quality objective of 50 microgram/cubic metre. In the five winters between 1994/1995 and 1998/1999 only three of 109 samples exceeded the provincial objective. There appears to be no correlation between known changes in industrial and mobile sources of pollutants and historical patterns of fine particulate air pollution in Cranbrook, BC. Observation and experience over three decades suggest that the major source of PM 1 0 in Cranbrook was combustion of wood for home heating. The most probable major cause of the improvements in winter air quality was identified as the gradual conversion from wood to natural gas fired appliances through the 1980s and the 1990s. The 115 per cent increase in the cost of natural gas in the last two years unfortunately, will again make wood an attractive alternative

  17. Competition and habitat quality influence age and sex distribution in wintering rusty blackbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Hamel, Paul B; Hofmann, Gerhard; Zenzal, Theodore J; Pellegrini, Anne; Malpass, Jennifer; Garfinkel, Megan; Schiff, Nathan; Greenberg, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes.

  18. Competition and habitat quality influence age and sex distribution in wintering rusty blackbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mettke-Hofmann

    Full Text Available Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes.

  19. Winter Performance of Inter-Locking Pavers—Stormwater Quantity and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Chu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effectiveness of open-joint inter-locking pavers in a permeable pavement in cold (winter conditions. A field-scale inter-locking paver cell (UNI Eco-Optiloc® was built to evaluate the hydraulic performance and water quality improvements experienced during freeze-thaw and frozen conditions in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Hydraulic performance was assessed using stormwater runoff reduction (peaks and volumes and surface infiltration capacity. Water quality performance for removal of total suspended solids (TSS, total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorous (TP and three heavy metals: copper, lead and zinc, was assessed. Results from the study demonstrated that the inter-locking pavers were effective in attenuating stormwater runoff peak volumes. The surface infiltration capacity decreased significantly due to the deposition of sanding and de-icing materials on the pavement surface during winter operation. Infiltrated stormwater was stored and treated within the pavement structure, which showed removal rates of 91% for TSS, 78% for TP, 6% for TN, 68% for zinc, 69% for copper and 55% for lead.

  20. Energetic solutions of Rock Sandpipers to harsh winter conditions rely on prey quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; Piersma, Theunis

    2018-01-01

    Rock Sandpipers Calidris ptilocnemis have the most northerly non-breeding distribution of any shorebird in the Pacific Basin (upper Cook Inlet, Alaska; 61°N, 151°W). In terms of freezing temperatures, persistent winds and pervasive ice, this site is the harshest used by shorebirds during winter. We integrated physiological, metabolic, behavioural and environmental aspects of the non-breeding ecology of Rock Sandpipers at the northern extent of their range to determine the relative importance of these factors in facilitating their unique non-breeding ecology. Not surprisingly, estimated daily energetic demands were greatest during January, the coldest period of winter. These estimates were greatest for foraging birds, and exceeded basal metabolic rates by a factor of 6.5, a scope of increase that approaches the maximum sustained rate of energetic output by shorebirds during periods of migration, but far exceeds these periods in duration. We assessed the quality of their primary prey, the bivalve Macoma balthica, to determine the daily foraging duration required by Rock Sandpipers to satisfy such energetic demands. Based on size-specific estimates of M. balthica quality, Rock Sandpipers require over 13 h/day of foraging time in upper Cook Inlet in January, even when feeding on the highest quality prey. This range approaches the average daily duration of mudflat availability in this region (c. 18 h), a maximum value that annually decreases due to the accumulation of shore-fast ice. Rock Sandpipers are likely to maximize access to foraging sites by following the exposure of ice-free mudflats across the upper Cook Inlet region and by selecting smaller, higher quality M. balthica to minimize foraging times. Ultimately, this unusual non-breeding ecology relies on the high quality of their prey resources. Compared with other sites across their range, M. balthica from upper Cook Inlet have relatively light shells, potentially the result of the region

  1. Determination of critical pH and Al concentration of acidic Ultisols for wheat and canola crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulaha-Al Baquy, M.; Li, Jiu-Yu; Xu, Chen-Yang; Mehmood, Khalid; Xu, Ren-Kou

    2017-02-01

    Soil acidity has become a principal constraint in dry land crop production systems of acidic Ultisols in tropical and subtropical regions of southern China, where winter wheat and canola are cultivated as important rotational crops. There is little information on the determination of critical soil pH as well as aluminium (Al) concentration for wheat and canola crops. The objective of this study is to determine the critical soil pH and exchangeable aluminium concentration (AlKCl) for wheat and canola production. Two pot cultures with two Ultisols from Hunan and Anhui (SE China) were conducted for wheat and canola crops in a controlled growth chamber. Aluminium sulfate (Al2(SO4)3) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) were used to obtain the target soil pH levels from 3.7 (Hunan) and 3.97 (Anhui) to 6.5. Plant height, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, and chlorophyll content (SPAD value) of wheat and canola were adversely affected by soil acidity in both locations. The critical soil pH and AlKCl of the Ultisol from Hunan for wheat were 5.29 and 0.56 cmol kg-1, respectively. At Anhui, the threshold soil pH and AlKCl for wheat were 4.66 and 1.72 cmol kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the critical soil pH for canola was 5.65 and 4.87 for the Ultisols from Hunan and Anhui, respectively. The critical soil exchangeable Al for canola cannot be determined from the experiment of this study. The results suggested that the critical soil pH and AlKCl varied between different locations for the same variety of crop, due to the different soil types and their other soil chemical properties. The critical soil pH for canola was higher than that for wheat for both Ultisols, and thus canola was more sensitive to soil acidity. Therefore, we recommend that liming should be undertaken to increase soil pH if it falls below these critical soil pH levels for wheat and canola production.

  2. Habitat quality affects stress responses and survival in a bird wintering under extremely low ambient temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cīrule, Dina; Krama, Tatjana; Krams, Ronalds; Elferts, Didzis; Kaasik, Ants; Rantala, Markus J.; Mierauskas, Pranas; Luoto, Severi; Krams, Indrikis A.

    2017-12-01

    Animals normally respond to stressful environmental stimuli by releasing glucocorticoid hormones. We investigated whether baseline corticosterone (CORT), handling-induced corticosterone concentration(s), and body condition indices of members of willow tit ( Poecile montanus) groups differed while wintering in old growth forests and managed young forests in mild weather conditions and during cold spells. Willow tits spend the winter season in non-kin groups in which dominant individuals typically claim their priority to access resources, while subordinate individuals may experience greater levels of stress and higher mortality, especially during cold spells. We captured birds to measure baseline CORT and levels of handling-induced CORT secretion after 20 min of capture. Willow tits in the young forests had higher baseline CORT and a smaller increase in CORT in response to capture than individuals in the old forests. Baseline CORT was higher in females and juvenile birds compared to adult males, whereas handling-induced CORT secretion did not differ between birds of different ages. During cold spells, baseline CORT of willow tits increased and handling-induced CORT secretion decreased, especially in birds in young forests. Willow tits' survival was higher in the old forests, with dominant individuals surviving better than subordinates. Our results show that changes in CORT secretion reflect responses to habitat quality and climate harshness, indicating young managed coniferous forests as a suboptimal habitat for the willow tit.

  3. Impact of Triticum mosaic virus infection on hard winter wheat milling and bread baking quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rebecca A; Martin, T Joe; Seifers, Dallas L

    2012-03-15

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a newly discovered wheat virus. Information regarding the effect of wheat viruses on milling and baking quality is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of TriMV infection on the kernel characteristics, milling yield and bread baking quality of wheat. Commercial hard winter varieties evaluated included RonL, Danby and Jagalene. The TriMV resistance of RonL is low, while that of Danby and Jagalene is unknown. KS96HW10-3, a germplasm with high TriMV resistance, was included as a control. Plots of each variety were inoculated with TriMV at the two- to three-leaf stage. Trials were conducted at two locations in two crop years. TriMV infection had no effect on the kernel characteristics, flour yield or baking properties of KS96HW10-3. The effect of TriMV on the kernel characteristics of RonL, Danby and Jagalene was not consistent between crop years and presumably an environmental effect. The flour milling and bread baking properties of these three varieties were not significantly affected by TriMV infection. TriMV infection of wheat plants did not affect harvested wheat kernel characteristics, flour milling properties or white pan bread baking quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Canola meal on starting pigs feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria Peñuela-Sierra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional values and evaluate the performance of piglets fed on canola meal. In experiment I, a digestibility assay was conducted using fourteen barrow pigs, with an initial body weight of 20.62±3.30 kg. The evaluated feedstuff was canola meal, with a level of 250 g/kg in the basal diet (corn + soybean meal-based. The experimental unit consisted of one pig, with a total of seven experimental units per diet. The values as (fed basis of digestible (DE and metabolizable (ME energy of canola meal were 2,995 kcal/kg and 2,796 kcal/kg, respectively. In experiment II, ileal digestibility assays were carried out to determine the apparent and true ileal digestibility coefficient and digestible amino acids. Three crossbred pigs were used, with a BW of 38.6±1.98 kg. The treatments consisted of two diets, with a single source of protein (canola meal and one protein-free diet (OFD. The values of digestible amino acids in canola meal were as follows: lysine: 11.8 g/kg; methionine+cystine: 9.1 g/kg; threonine: 7.9 g/kg; tryptophan: 2.4 g/kg; leucine: 15.7 g/kg; and isoleucine: 8.7 g/kg. In experiment III, 60 piglets (BW= 15.08±0.72 kg to 30.26±2.78 kg were allotted in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four diets with increasing levels of canola meal (50, 100, 150 and 200 g/kg, six replicates and experimental unit consisted of two pigs. Additionally, a control diet was formulated containing 0.0 g/kg CM. Regression analysis indicates that there was no effect (P?0.05 of the level of canola meal inclusion on pigs performance. The performance results suggest that it is feasible to use up to 200 g/kg of canola meal in starting pigs diet, without impairing performance and the feeding cost.

  5. Influence of bird feces to water quality in paddy fields during winter season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somura, H.; Takeda, I.; Masunaga, T.; Mori, Y.; Ide, J.

    2009-12-01

    Thousands of migratory birds such as tundra swan came to the paddy fields for overwintering in recent years in the study area. They stayed in paddy fields during night time for sleeping and used around the fields as a feeding ground during day time. During the birds stay, it was observed that water pooled in the paddy fields gradually turned green and gave off a bad smell. In this study, we tried to estimate the influence of the bird’s feces to water quality in the paddy fields. The study area is in the southeastern portion of Matsue City in Shimane Prefecture, Japan. In several paddy fields, puddling procedure was executed after harvesting rice and then water was stored in the paddy fields during winter season. This is because of being easier of farming activities such as weeding next season and of avoiding using pesticide for weeding with rising of environmental awareness. Water in the paddy fields was collected once or twice a month from the target fields and analyzed nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon in 2007. In the study in 2006, as water was sampled once a week and the changes in the water quality had been grasped, we paid attention to behavior of the birds in a day in the field investigation in 2007. The number of the birds was counted once an hour from visible 7 am to 6 pm once a month. In addition to this, fresh feces were sampled from the fields and analyzed the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon in the feces. As results, average water qualities of TN, TP, and TOC from November 2007 to March 2008 showed very high concentrations compared with a river water concentration used as irrigation water. More than 70% of TN in the water was ammonia nitrogen. Moreover, comparing with a standard fertilizer amount of nitrogen and phosphorus for paddy fields during irrigation period, it was estimated that the amount of nitrogen excreted by the bird’s feces during the winter season was equivalent to the standard fertilizer amount and the

  6. OIL QUALITY OF CANOLA CULTIVARS IN RESPONSE TO WATER STRESS AND SUPER ABSORBENT POLYMER APPLICATION QUALIDADE DE ÓLEO DE CULTIVARES DE CANOLA EM RESPOSTA AO ESTRESSE HÍDRICO E APLICAÇÃO DE POLÍMERO HIDROABSORVENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zahedi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Water stress significantly limits plant growth and crop yield. Hence, the efficient management of soil moisture and the study of metabolic changes which occur in response to drought stress are important for agriculture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of six oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. genotypes (Rgs003, Sarigol, Option500, Hyola401, Hyola330, and Hyola420, with and without drought stress, and with and without the use of super absorbent polymer, on oil quality and content. A complete randomized blocks design, with a split-plot arrangement, in a 2x2x6 factorial scheme (drought stress x polymer x genotypes, with three replications, was used. The research was carried out in a farm owned by the Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, in Karaj, Iran. Results showed a significant difference for drought stress levels, presence of super absorbent and genotypes on oil content and composition, as well as on glucosinolate content in the oil. Drought stress conditions decreased the oil and linoleic acid contents, but increased the glucosinolate and stearic acid contents. The use of super absorbent polymer increased the linoleic acid content, but decreased other components. It was possible to conclude that, under drought stress conditions, the super absorbent polymer application, for reserving higher amounts of water in itself, increased the soil ability to store water, what increased the plant vegetative period and consequently the oil quality by decreasing saturate fatty acids and increasing unsaturated fatty acids.

    Sensory, yield and quality differences between organically and conventionally grown winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arncken, Christine M; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Weibel, Franco P

    2012-11-01

    Consumers expect organic produce to have higher environmental, health and sensory related qualities than conventional produce. In order to test sensory differences between bio-dynamically, bio-organically and conventionally grown winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Runal), we performed double-blinded triangle tests with two panels on dry wholemeal flour from the harvest years 2006, 2007 and 2009 and from two field replicates of the 'DOK' long-term farming system comparison field trial near Basel, Switzerland. Yield and quality parameters were also assessed. Significant farming system effects were found for yield (up to 42% reduction in the organic system), thousand kernel weight, hectolitre weight and crude protein content across the three years. In the triangle tests one out of 12 pair-wise farming system comparisons (PFSCs) on wholemeal flour made from the different wheat samples showed significant sensory differentiation (between bio-dynamically and conventionally grown wheat). When all data from the three harvest years and two panels were aggregated, a statistically significant effect (P = 0.045) of PFSCs on the number of correct answers became evident. Although testing of dry wholemeal flour was very challenging for panellists, we were able to show that sensory differences between farming systems can occur. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The high-quality genome of Brassica napus cultivar 'ZS11' reveals the introgression history in semi-winter morphotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengming; Fan, Guangyi; Hu, Qiong; Zhou, Yongming; Guan, Mei; Tong, Chaobo; Li, Jiana; Du, Dezhi; Qi, Cunkou; Jiang, Liangcai; Liu, Weiqing; Huang, Shunmou; Chen, Wenbin; Yu, Jingyin; Mei, Desheng; Meng, Jinling; Zeng, Peng; Shi, Jiaqin; Liu, Kede; Wang, Xi; Wang, Xinfa; Long, Yan; Liang, Xinming; Hu, Zhiyong; Huang, Guodong; Dong, Caihua; Zhang, He; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yaolei; Li, Liangwei; Shi, Chengcheng; Wang, Jiahao; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Guan, Chunyun; Xu, Xun; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Xin; Chalhoub, Boulos; Hua, Wei; Wang, Hanzhong

    2017-11-01

    Allotetraploid oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is an agriculturally important crop. Cultivation and breeding of B. napus by humans has resulted in numerous genetically diverse morphotypes with optimized agronomic traits and ecophysiological adaptation. To further understand the genetic basis of diversification and adaptation, we report a draft genome of an Asian semi-winter oilseed rape cultivar 'ZS11' and its comprehensive genomic comparison with the genomes of the winter-type cultivar 'Darmor-bzh' as well as two progenitors. The integrated BAC-to-BAC and whole-genome shotgun sequencing strategies were effective in the assembly of repetitive regions (especially young long terminal repeats) and resulted in a high-quality genome assembly of B. napus 'ZS11'. Within a short evolutionary period (~6700 years ago), semi-winter-type 'ZS11' and the winter-type 'Darmor-bzh' maintained highly genomic collinearity. Even so, certain genetic differences were also detected in two morphotypes. Relative to 'Darmor-bzh', both two subgenomes of 'ZS11' are closely related to its progenitors, and the 'ZS11' genome harbored several specific segmental homoeologous exchanges (HEs). Furthermore, the semi-winter-type 'ZS11' underwent potential genomic introgressions with B. rapa (A r ). Some of these genetic differences were associated with key agronomic traits. A key gene of A03.FLC3 regulating vernalization-responsive flowering time in 'ZS11' was first experienced HE, and then underwent genomic introgression event with A r , which potentially has led to genetic differences in controlling vernalization in the semi-winter types. Our observations improved our understanding of the genetic diversity of different B. napus morphotypes and the cultivation history of semi-winter oilseed rape in Asia. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Conjugated linoleic acid content in milk of Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions and supplemented with canola seed (Brassica napus concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Avilez Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is limited and contradictory information about the effects of the use of canola (Brassica napus seed as supplement on the contents of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in milk of grazing cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement with canola seed on the production and composition of milk, and CLA concentration in Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions. Three experiments were done. Experiment 1: control group was fed 5 kg d-1 of commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC1 and treatment group that was fed 3.75 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.16 kg of whole canola seed (1.16-TC1. Experiment 2: Control group was fed 8 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC2 and treatment group that was fed 6.2 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.2 kg of ground canola seed (1.2-TC2. Experiment 3: control group was fed 6 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC3 and treatment group was fed 6 kg of commercial concentrate with 20% of whole canola seed (1.2 kg d-1, 1.2-TC3. The duration of each experiment was 60 days. No differences in milk production and quality were observed among the experimental groups in every assay. The CLA isomers trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 were higher than those normally found in the scientific literature. There was no effect of the inclusion of canola seed on total CLA content or the content of cis-9, trans-11, trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 isomers.

  9. [ORGANIZATION OF THE QUALITY CONTROL OF PLACEMENT AND ACCOMMODATION OF PARTICIPANTS ATTENDANTS AND GUESTS OF THE XXII OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES AND XI PARALYMPIC WINTER GAMES OF 2014 IN THE RESORT CITY OF SOCHI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorskiĭ, A A; Gus'kov, A S; Pochtareva, E S; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaia, T V; Vechemyaia, E A; Biriukov, V A; Bozhko, I I; Kulichenko, A N; Taran, T V; Zaĭtsev, A A; Tushina, O V

    2015-01-01

    There is presented the analysis of activities of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights protection and Human Welfare to ensure adequate conditions of accommodation of the participants, attendants and guests of the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in the Resort city of Sochi according to regulated requirements. There were detected ways of the strengthening the supervision for the quality of the accommodation during mass sports activities for the assurance of the rights for consumers.

  10. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with grain-based dried distillers grains with solubles as a protein source on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    corn) appear to be relevant sources of feed and protein for dairy cows. To date, most of the studies investigating DDGS have been performed with corn-based DDGS. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the proportion of gDDGS in the diet on feed intake, milk production, and milk...... of soybean meal, canola cake, and beet pulp. Dry matter intake and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet. Daily milk yield decreased with the H diet compared with the L and M diets. The percentage of fat in milk was higher when cows were fed the H diet compared...... by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet or when milk was stored for 7 d. Linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid cis-9,trans-11 in milk increased with increasing proportion of gDDGS. To conclude, gDDGS can replace soybean meal and canola cake as a protein source in the diet of dairy cows. Up to 13.5% of the diet...

  11. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah N Phillips

    Full Text Available Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN. During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10, crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10, and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10. Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  12. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale) versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Hannah N; Heins, Bradley J; Delate, Kathleen; Turnbull, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN). During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10), crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10), and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10). Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  13. Effects of Partial Substitution of Lean Meat with Pork Backfat or Canola Oil on Sensory Properties of Korean Traditional Meat Patties (Tteokgalbi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imm, Bue-Young; Kim, Chung Hwan; Imm, Jee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Korean traditional meat patties (Tteokgalbi) were prepared by replacing part of the lean meat content with either pork backfat or canola oil and the effect of substitution on sensory quality of the meat patties was investigated. Compared to the control patties, pork-loin Tteokgalbi with 10% pork backfat or 10% canola oil had significantly higher overall acceptability and higher perceived intensity of meat flavor, sweetness, umami, and oiliness. The pork-loin patties containing 10% fat also had lower perceived firmness, toughness, and chalkiness of than the control Tteokgalbi. The chicken breast Tteokgalbi with 10% canola oil had the lowest perceived firmness and chalkiness (control > pork backfat > canola oil). No significant difference was noted in the overall acceptability of chicken breast patties with 10% pork backfat and those with 10% canola oil. These results indicate that substituting 10% of lean meat of Tteokgalbi with fat improved the sensory acceptability of the product for Korean customers regardless of the lean meat and/or fat source used in the patties. Lean meat patties formulated with a limited amount of vegetable oil such as canola oil can be a healthy option for Korean consumers by providing desirable fatty acid profiles without sacrificing sensory quality of the product. PMID:26761287

  14. Winter cover crops on processing tomato yield, quality, pest pressure, nitrogen availability, and profit margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfry, Kimberly D; Trueman, Cheryl; Vyn, Richard J; Loewen, Steven A; Van Eerd, Laura L

    2017-01-01

    Much of cover crop research to date focuses on key indicators of impact without considering the implications over multiple years, in the absence of a systems-based approach. To evaluate the effect of three years of autumn cover crops on subsequent processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production in 2010 and 2011, a field split-split-plot factorial design trial with effects of cover crop type, urea ammonium nitrate fertilizer rate (0 or 140 kg N ha-1 preplant broadcast incorporated) and tomato cultivar (early vs. late) was conducted. The main plot factor, cover crop, included a no cover crop control, oat (Avena sativa L.), winter cereal rye (hereafter referred to as rye) (Secale cereale L.), oilseed radish (OSR) (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg Stokes), and mix of OSR and rye (OSR + rye) treatments. Cover crop biomass of 0.5 to 2.8 and 1.7 to 3.1 Mg ha-1 was attained in early Oct. and the following early May, respectively. In general, OSR increased soil mineral N during cover crop growth and into the succeeding summer tomato growing season, while the remaining cover crops did not differ from the no cover crop control. The lack of a cover crop by N rate interaction in soil and plant N analyses at harvest suggests that growers may not need to modify N fertilizer rates to tomatoes based on cover crop type. Processing tomato fruit quality at harvest (rots, insect or disease damage, Agtron colour, pH, or natural tomato soluble solids (NTSS)) was not affected by cover crop type. In both years, marketable yield in the no cover crop treatment was lower or not statistically different than all planted cover crops. Partial profit margins over both years were 1320 $ ha-1 higher with OSR and $960 higher with oat compared to the no cover crop control. Thus, results from a systems-based approach suggest that the cover crops tested had no observed negative impact on processing tomato production and have the potential to increase marketable yield and profit margins.

  15. Winter cover crops on processing tomato yield, quality, pest pressure, nitrogen availability, and profit margins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly D Belfry

    Full Text Available Much of cover crop research to date focuses on key indicators of impact without considering the implications over multiple years, in the absence of a systems-based approach. To evaluate the effect of three years of autumn cover crops on subsequent processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. production in 2010 and 2011, a field split-split-plot factorial design trial with effects of cover crop type, urea ammonium nitrate fertilizer rate (0 or 140 kg N ha-1 preplant broadcast incorporated and tomato cultivar (early vs. late was conducted. The main plot factor, cover crop, included a no cover crop control, oat (Avena sativa L., winter cereal rye (hereafter referred to as rye (Secale cereale L., oilseed radish (OSR (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg Stokes, and mix of OSR and rye (OSR + rye treatments. Cover crop biomass of 0.5 to 2.8 and 1.7 to 3.1 Mg ha-1 was attained in early Oct. and the following early May, respectively. In general, OSR increased soil mineral N during cover crop growth and into the succeeding summer tomato growing season, while the remaining cover crops did not differ from the no cover crop control. The lack of a cover crop by N rate interaction in soil and plant N analyses at harvest suggests that growers may not need to modify N fertilizer rates to tomatoes based on cover crop type. Processing tomato fruit quality at harvest (rots, insect or disease damage, Agtron colour, pH, or natural tomato soluble solids (NTSS was not affected by cover crop type. In both years, marketable yield in the no cover crop treatment was lower or not statistically different than all planted cover crops. Partial profit margins over both years were 1320 $ ha-1 higher with OSR and $960 higher with oat compared to the no cover crop control. Thus, results from a systems-based approach suggest that the cover crops tested had no observed negative impact on processing tomato production and have the potential to increase marketable yield and profit

  16. Association Mapping of Malting Quality Quantitative Trait Loci in Winter Barley: Positive Signals from Small Germplasm Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Gutiérrez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Malting quality comprises one of the most economically relevant set of traits in barley ( L.. It is a complex phenotype, expensive and difficult to measure, that would benefit from a marker-assisted selection strategy. Malting quality is a target of the U.S. Barley Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP and development of winter habit malting barley varieties is a key objective of the U.S. barley research community. The objective of this work was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL for malting quality traits in a winter breeding program that is a component of the U.S. Barley CAP. We studied the association between five malting quality traits and 3072 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the barley oligonucleotide pool assay (BOPA 1 and 2, assayed in advanced inbred lines from the Oregon State University (OSU breeding program from three germplasm arrays (CAP I, CAP II, and CAP III. After comparing 16 models we selected a structured association model with posterior probabilities inferred from software STRUCTURE (QK approach to use on all germplasm arrays. Most of the marker-trait associations are germplasm- and environment-specific and close to previously mapped genes and QTL relevant for malt and beer quality. We found alleles fixed by random genetic drift, novel unmasked alleles, and genetic-background interaction. In a relatively small population size study we provide strong evidence for detecting true QTL.

  17. Predicting the yield and quality of winter wheat grown on calcareous chernozem in the lower Don Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Biryukova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies have revealed a system of indicators for predicting the yield of winter wheat grown on a calcareous chernozem. It has been established that the prediction and integrated assessment of the yield and quality of grain should be performed with consideration for the balance of macro- and micronutrients in the grain and the above-ground biomass of plants. It has been shown that the contents of protein and gluten in winter wheat grain are mainly determined by the supply of plants with nitrogen and its balance with Mn, Р, Fe, Zn, and K. Possibility of predicting the contents of macro- and micronutrients in wheat grain from the chemical composition of plants at the shooting stage has been revealed.

  18. Genotype, environment, seeding rate, and top-dressed nitrogen effects on end-use quality of modern Nebraska winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Madhav; Regassa, Teshome; Rose, Devin J; Baenziger, P Stephen; Eskridge, Kent M; Santra, Dipak K; Poudel, Rachana

    2017-12-01

    Fine-tuning production inputs such as seeding rate, nitrogen (N), and genotype may improve end-use quality of hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivium L.) when growing conditions are unpredictable. Studies were conducted at the Agronomy Research Farm (ARF; Lincoln, NE, USA) and the High Plains Agricultural Laboratory (HPAL; Sidney, NE, USA) in 2014 and 2015 in Nebraska, USA, to determine the effects of genotype (6), environment (4), seeding rate (3), and flag leaf top-dressed N (0 and 34 kg N ha -1 ) on the end-use quality of winter wheat. End-use quality traits were influenced by environment, genotype, seeding rate, top-dressed N, and their interactions. Mixograph parameters had a strong correlation with grain volume weight and flour yield. Doubling the recommended seeding rate and N at the flag leaf stage increased grain protein content by 8.1% in 2014 and 1.5% in 2015 at ARF and 4.2% in 2014 and 8.4% in 2015 at HPAL. The key finding of this research is that increasing seeding rates up to double the current recommendations with N at the flag leaf stage improved most of the end-use quality traits. This will have a significant effect on the premium for protein a farmer could receive when marketing wheat. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Canola Root–Associated Microbiomes in the Canadian Prairies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ying Lay

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Canola is one of the most economically important crops in Canada, and the root and rhizosphere microbiomes of a canola plant likely impact its growth and nutrient uptake. The aim of this study was to determine whether canola has a core root microbiome (i.e., set of microbes that are consistently selected in the root environment, and whether this is distinct from the core microbiomes of other crops that are commonly grown in the Canadian Prairies, pea, and wheat. We also assessed whether selected agronomic treatments can modify the canola microbiome, and whether this was associated to enhanced yield. We used a field experiment with a randomized complete block design, which was repeated at three locations across the canola-growing zone of Canada. Roots and rhizosphere soil were harvested at the flowering stage of canola. We separately isolated total extractable DNA from plant roots and from adjacent rhizosphere soil, and constructed MiSeq amplicon libraries for each of 60 samples, targeting bacterial, and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and the fungal ITS region. We determined that the microbiome of the roots and rhizosphere of canola was consistently different from those of wheat and pea. These microbiomes comprise several putative plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria, including Amycolatopsis sp., Serratia proteamaculans, Pedobacter sp., Arthrobacter sp., Stenotrophomonas sp., Fusarium merismoides, and Fusicolla sp., which correlated positively with canola yield. Crop species had a significant influence on bacterial and fungal assemblages, especially within the roots, while higher nutrient input or seeding density did not significantly alter the global composition of bacterial, fungal, or archaeal assemblages associated with canola roots. However, the relative abundance of Olpidium brassicae, a known pathogen of members of the Brassicaceae, was significantly reduced in the roots of canola planted at higher seeding density. Our results suggest that

  1. Canola/rapeseed protein-functionality and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanasundara Janitha P.D.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein rich meal is a valuable co-product of canola/rapeseed oil extraction. Seed storage proteins that include cruciferin (11S and napin (2S dominate the protein complement of canola while oleosins, lipid transfer proteins and other minor proteins of non-storage nature are also found. Although oil-free canola meal contains 36–40% protein on a dry weight basis, non-protein components including fibre, polymeric phenolics, phytates and sinapine, etc. of the seed coat and cellular components make protein less suitable for food use. Separation of canola protein from non-protein components is a technical challenge but necessary to obtain full nutritional and functional potential of protein. Process conditions of raw material and protein preparation are critical of nutritional and functional value of the final protein product. The storage proteins of canola can satisfy many nutritional and functional requirements for food applications. Protein macromolecules of canola also provide functionalities required in applications beyond edible uses; there exists substantial potential as a source of plant protein and a renewable biopolymer. Available information at present is mostly based on the protein products that can be obtained as mixtures of storage protein types and other chemical constituents of the seed; therefore, full potential of canola storage proteins is yet to be revealed.

  2. Effects of elevated O3 exposure on nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain in Yangtze River Delta, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Feixiang; Wang, Xiaoke; Zhang, Weiwei; Hou, Peiqiang; Lu, Fei; Du, Keming; Sun, Zhongfu

    2013-01-01

    With the open-top chambers (OTCs) in situ in Yangtze River Delta, China in 2007 and 2008, the effects of elevated O 3 exposure on nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain were investigated. Grain yield per plant of winter wheat and rice declined in both years. The N and S concentrations increased under elevated O 3 exposure in both years and C–N ratios decreased significantly. The concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, P, Mn, Cu and Zn in winter wheat and the concentrations of Mg, K, Mn and Cu in rice increased. The concentrations of protein, amino acid and lysine in winter wheat and rice increased and the concentration of amylose decreased. The increase in the nutrient concentration was less than the reduction of grain yield in both winter wheat and rice, and, hence, the absolute amount of the nutrients was reduced by elevated O 3 . -- Highlights: •The nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain response to ozone had been investigated for two years in China. •Grain yield per plant of winter wheat and rice were reduced in both years. •The extent of ozone impact on the nutrient elements concentrations of winter wheat and rice were different. •The concentrations of protein, amino acid and lysine increased but the concentrations of amylose decreased. •The absolute amount of the nutrients was reduced by elevated O 3 . -- The nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain were seriously affected under the elevated O 3 exposure

  3. Effect of endogenous reference genes on digital PCR assessment of genetically engineered canola events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigst Demeke

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR has been used for absolute quantification of genetically engineered (GE events. Absolute quantification of GE events by duplex ddPCR requires the use of appropriate primers and probes for target and reference gene sequences in order to accurately determine the amount of GE materials. Single copy reference genes are generally preferred for absolute quantification of GE events by ddPCR. Study has not been conducted on a comparison of reference genes for absolute quantification of GE canola events by ddPCR. The suitability of four endogenous reference sequences (HMG-I/Y, FatA(A, CruA and Ccf for absolute quantification of GE canola events by ddPCR was investigated. The effect of DNA extraction methods and DNA quality on the assessment of reference gene copy numbers was also investigated. ddPCR results were affected by the use of single vs. two copy reference genes. The single copy, FatA(A, reference gene was found to be stable and suitable for absolute quantification of GE canola events by ddPCR. For the copy numbers measured, the HMG-I/Y reference gene was less consistent than FatA(A reference gene. The expected ddPCR values were underestimated when CruA and Ccf (two copy endogenous Cruciferin sequences were used because of high number of copies. It is important to make an adjustment if two copy reference genes are used for ddPCR in order to obtain accurate results. On the other hand, real-time quantitative PCR results were not affected by the use of single vs. two copy reference genes. Keywords: Canola, Digital PCR, DNA extraction, GMO, Reference genes

  4. Genomic Prediction of Testcross Performance in Canola (Brassica napus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Habib U.; Abbadi, Amine; Lücke, Sophie; Nichols, Richard A.; Snowdon, Rod J.

    2016-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a modern breeding approach where genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker profiles are simultaneously used to estimate performance of untested genotypes. In this study, the potential of genomic selection methods to predict testcross performance for hybrid canola breeding was applied for various agronomic traits based on genome-wide marker profiles. A total of 475 genetically diverse spring-type canola pollinator lines were genotyped at 24,403 single-copy, genome-wide SNP loci. In parallel, the 950 F1 testcross combinations between the pollinators and two representative testers were evaluated for a number of important agronomic traits including seedling emergence, days to flowering, lodging, oil yield and seed yield along with essential seed quality characters including seed oil content and seed glucosinolate content. A ridge-regression best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP) model was applied in combination with 500 cross-validations for each trait to predict testcross performance, both across the whole population as well as within individual subpopulations or clusters, based solely on SNP profiles. Subpopulations were determined using multidimensional scaling and K-means clustering. Genomic prediction accuracy across the whole population was highest for seed oil content (0.81) followed by oil yield (0.75) and lowest for seedling emergence (0.29). For seed yieId, seed glucosinolate, lodging resistance and days to onset of flowering (DTF), prediction accuracies were 0.45, 0.61, 0.39 and 0.56, respectively. Prediction accuracies could be increased for some traits by treating subpopulations separately; a strategy which only led to moderate improvements for some traits with low heritability, like seedling emergence. No useful or consistent increase in accuracy was obtained by inclusion of a population substructure covariate in the model. Testcross performance prediction using genome-wide SNP markers shows considerable

  5. CLEAN-ROADS project: air quality considerations after the application of a novel MDSS on winter road maintenance activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretto, Ilaria; Malloci, Elisa; Tonidandel, Gabriele; Benedetti, Guido; Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Apolloni, Roberto; Cavaliere, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    With this poster we present the environmental benefit on air quality derived by the application of the CLEAN-ROADS pilot project. The CLEAN-ROADS project addresses the problem of the environmental pollution caused by de-icing salts during winter road maintenance activities in the Province of Trento (Italy). A demonstrative Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS) has been developed in order to improve the intervention procedures of the road management service. Specifically it aims to optimize the efficiency of how available resources (e.g., salt consumption) are currently used while guaranteeing the current level of road safety. The CLEAN-ROADS project has been tested and validated on a test area located in a valley bottom (Adige Valley), where the highest optimization margins are to be expected. The project supports current road maintenance practices, which has proved to be reliable and accurate, with a new scalable and energy-efficient road monitoring system. This system is based on a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route. It is capable to collect real-time data about the road conditions and to perform short-term and now-cast road weather forecasts, which actively integrate weather data and bulletins covering the target area [1]. This poster presents the results obtained from a three-year monitoring activity with the aim to (1) determine the impact of de-icing salts on air quality and (2) quantify the improvements obtained by the application of the CLEAN-ROADS project on air quality. The Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe Directive (2008/50/EC) states that contributions to exceedances of particulate matter PM10 limit values that are attributable to road winter salting may be subtracted when assessing compliance with air quality limit values, once provided that reasonable measures have been taken to lower concentrations [2]. As the de-icing salts used in road maintenance are mainly based

  6. Productivity, quality and sustainability of winter wheat underlong-term conventional and organic management in Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Jochen; Gunst, Lucie; Mäder, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Long-term sustainability and high resource use efficiency are major goals for high quality baking wheatproduction throughout the world. Present strategies are low input systems such as organic agriculture orimproved conventional systems (integrated). The fertilisation level and strategy, crop...... was fertilised exclusively minerally at level 2 (CONMIN)and a control remained unfertilised (NOFERT). We compared crop yields, baking quality parameters, thenitrogen use efficiency and the effect of maize and potatoes as preceding crops obtained between 2003and 2010 along with long-term soil sustainability......-bers of ears per m2and the thousand kernel weight. The apparent nitrogen use efficiency decreased withincreasing N fertilisation. Doubling the organic fertilisation in the organic systems only slightly improvedwheat grain yields but was not able to improve grain baking quality, due to low mineral N additions...

  7. Modelling of air quality for Winter and Summer episodes in Switzerland. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreani-Aksoyoglu, S.; Keller, J.; Barmpadimos, L.; Oderbolz, D.; Tinguely, M.; Prevot, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Villigen (Switzerland); Alfarra, R. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sandradewi, J. [Jisca Sandradewi, Hoexter (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    This final report issued by the General Energy Research Department and its Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) reports on the results obtained from the modelling of regional air quality for three episodes, January-February 2006, June 2006 and January 2007. The focus of the calculations is on particulate matter concentrations, as well as on ozone levels in summer. The model results were compared with the aerosol data collected by an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), which was operated during all three episodes as well as with the air quality monitoring data from further monitoring programs. The air quality model used in this study is described and the results obtained for various types of locations - rural, city, high-altitude and motorway-near - are presented and discussed. The models used are described.

  8. Wastewater impact on physiology, biomass and yield of canola (brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.U.; Khan, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of domestic/municipal wastewater (mww) of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan was assessed through its effects on biomass, physiology and yield of canola (Brassica napus L.). The pot experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications in net house during winter season 2006-07 and 2007-08 at Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. Treatments included were T0 (tube well/tap water), T/sub 1/ (20% mww), T/sub 2/ (40% mww), T/sub 3/ (80% mww) and T/sub 4/ (100% mww/raw-form municipal wastewater). The quality and chemical composition of wastewater was deviating from international (Anon., 1985) as well as NEQS (2005) standard. Analysis of wastewater showed that biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and total suspended solids (TSS) were above the permissible limit of irrigation. In pods per plant, the reduction was 61.55% by recording 110 pods per plant with T/sub 4/ (100% mww) as compared to control T0 (286.1 pods per plant). Similarly pod length (reduced by 59.72%), seeds per pod (reduced by 42.53%), Seeds per plant (reduced by 82%), seed weight per plant (reduced by 88%), 100-seed weight (reduced by 19.54%) and straw yield (reduced by 54.23%) were significantly reduced by applying 100% wastewater. The most affected yield contributing traits were seeds per plant and seed weight per plant with 82% and 88% reduction, respectively due to T/sub 4/ (100% mww). On average, the decrease was 60% in the first stage and a further decrement of 4.83% was observed when the obtained seeds were re-sown in 2007-08. Results revealed that utilizing municipal wastewater of the area under investigation for irrigation purpose of food and feed crops might not be safe. The major reason seems to be the high salinity and sodium adsorption ratio that restricted crop growth and yield. (author)

  9. Evaluation of air quality in arenas on the Island of Montreal : winter 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.; Beausoleil, M.; Lefebvre, L.

    2007-03-01

    For the past twenty years, cases of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning have been reported in arenas in Quebec. A 1997 evaluation of air quality in 332 arenas in 9 different countries revealed that 40 per cent of arenas worldwide have high concentration of NO 2 . In Quebec, an air quality review at arenas in Montreal drew similar conclusions, that 69 per cent of the arenas have high concentrations of CO and/or NO 2 . In 1997, Quebec's environmental health committee established criteria of 20 ppm for CO, and 0.5 ppm for NO 2 in arenas, in order to ensure that athletes and the public at large do not suffer negative effects related to the presence of combustible gases. This information was distributed to the administrative personnel in arenas in Quebec by means of an awareness and information campaign. Since then, the number of arenas that have met these criteria for air quality in arenas in Montreal has climbed from 31 per cent in 1997 to 83 per cent in 2004. The practices put into action by arena administrators include: 1) regular maintenance of ice surface cleaning machines and other equipment that use fuel, 2) judicious use of ventilation so that gases can be evacuated from the premises, and, 3) periodic measurements of CO and NO 2 during peak usage times such as tournaments. Other means of lowering gas emissions have also shown to be helpful, such as replacement of ice surface cleaning machines with electrical ones, installation of CO and NO 2 detectors close to the rink surface so that ventilation machines could be activated, and the measurement and constant registration of these gases. It was concluded that these measures could help maintain good air quality in arenas. 15 refs., 1 tabs., 1 fig

  10. Needles in faeces: an index of quality of wild ungulate winter diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamler, Jiří; Homolka, Miloslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2011), s. 63-69 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/03/P134 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : ruminant diet * diet quality * diet indicator * spectroscopy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.554, year: 2011 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/60/1/10_2011.pdf

  11. Interactive Role of Fungicides and Plant Growth Regulator (Trinexapac on Seed Yield and Oil Quality of Winter Rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ijaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the role of growth regulator trinexapac and fungicides on growth, yield, and quality of winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. The experiment was conducted simultaneously at different locations in Germany using two cultivars of rapeseed. Five different fungicides belonging to the triazole and strobilurin groups, as well as a growth regulator trinexapac, were tested in this study. A total of seven combinations of these fungicides and growth regulator trinexapac were applied at two growth stages of rapeseed. These two stages include green floral bud stage (BBCH 53 and the course of pod development stage (BBCH 65. The results showed that plant height and leaf area index were affected significantly by the application of fungicides. Treatments exhibited induced photosynthetic ability and delayed senescence, which improved the morphological characters and yield components of rape plants at both locations. Triazole, in combination with strobilurin, led to the highest seed yield over other treatments at both experimental locations. Significant effects of fungicides on unsaturated fatty acids of rapeseed oil were observed. Fungicides did not cause any apparent variation in the values of free fatty acids and peroxide of rapeseed oil. Results of our study demonstrate that judicious use of fungicides in rapeseed may help to achieve sustainable farming to obtain higher yield and better quality of rapeseed.

  12. Spatial Variability Analysis of Within-Field Winter Wheat Nitrogen and Grain Quality Using Canopy Fluorescence Sensor Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Song

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain protein content (GPC is a key component when evaluating wheat nutrition. It is also important to determine wheat GPC before harvest for agricultural and food process enterprises in order to optimize the wheat grading process. Wheat GPC across a field is spatially variable due to the inherent variability of soil properties and position in the landscape. The objectives of this field study were: (i to assess the spatial and temporal variability of wheat nitrogen (N attributes related to the grain quality of winter wheat production through canopy fluorescence sensor measurements; and (ii to examine the influence of spatial variability of soil N and moisture across different growth stages on the wheat grain quality. A geostatistical approach was used to analyze data collected from 110 georeferenced locations. In particular, Ordinary Kriging Analysis (OKA was used to produce maps of wheat GPC, GPC yield, and wheat canopy fluorescence parameters, including simple florescence ratio and Nitrogen Balance Indices (NBI. Soil Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N content and soil Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR value in the study field were also interpolated through the OKA method. The fluorescence parameter maps, soil NO3-N and soil TDR maps obtained from the OKA output were compared with the wheat GPC and GPC yield maps in order to assess their relationships. The results of this study indicate that the NBI spatial variability map in the late stage of wheat growth can be used to distinguish areas that produce higher GPC.

  13. Quality characteristics of northern-style Chinese steamed bread prepared from soft red winter wheat flours with waxy wheat flour substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality characteristics of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) prepared from two soft red winter (SRW) wheat flours blended with 0-30% waxy wheat flour (WWF) were determined to estimate the influence of starch amylose content. The increased proportion of WWF in blends raised mixograph absorption with insign...

  14. Effects of Zn, macronutrients, and their interactions through foliar applications on winter wheat grain nutritional quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxia Wang

    Full Text Available Although application of Zn combined with macronutrients (K, P, and N can be used to fortify wheat grain with Zn, little is known about their interactions when foliar application is employed or the influences of common soil fertility management practices (e.g. N and straw management on their efficiency. Therefore, the effects of foliar-applied Zn and N, P, or K on grain nutritional quality (especially Zn were investigated in wheat grown under different soil N rates at two sites with (Sanyuan or without (Yangling employing straw return. A 4-year-long field experiment was also conducted to evaluate the environmental stability of the foliar formulations. Across 6 site-years, foliar Zn application alone or combined with N, P, or K fertilizers resulted in 95.7%, 101%, 67.9% and 121% increases in grain Zn concentration, respectively. In terms of increasing grain Zn concentration, foliar-applied Zn positively interacted with N (at Sanyuan and K (at Yangling, but negatively interacted with P at any condition tested, suggesting depressive effects of foliarly-applied P on physiological availability of Zn. Although these interaction effects were the major factor that governing the efficiency of foliar-applied Zn combined with N, P, or K on grain Zn concentration, the magnitude of the increase/decrease in grain Zn (-3.96~5.71 mg kg-1 due to these interactions was much less than the average increases following Zn+K (31.3, Zn+P (18.7, and Zn+N (26.5 mg kg-1 treatments relative to that observed in foliar Zn-only treatment. The combined foliar application of Zn with N, P, or K did not cause any adverse impact on grain yield and other nutritional quality and in some cases slightly increased grain yield and macronutrient concentrations. Grain phytic acid:Zn molar ratios were respectively 52.0%, 53.1%, 43.4% and 63.5% lower in the foliar Zn, Zn+N, Zn+P and Zn+K treatments than in the control treatment. These effects were consistent over four years and across three

  15. Effects of Zn, macronutrients, and their interactions through foliar applications on winter wheat grain nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoxia; Li, Meng; Liu, Ke; Tian, Xiaohong; Li, Shuo; Chen, Yanlong; Jia, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Although application of Zn combined with macronutrients (K, P, and N) can be used to fortify wheat grain with Zn, little is known about their interactions when foliar application is employed or the influences of common soil fertility management practices (e.g. N and straw management) on their efficiency. Therefore, the effects of foliar-applied Zn and N, P, or K on grain nutritional quality (especially Zn) were investigated in wheat grown under different soil N rates at two sites with (Sanyuan) or without (Yangling) employing straw return. A 4-year-long field experiment was also conducted to evaluate the environmental stability of the foliar formulations. Across 6 site-years, foliar Zn application alone or combined with N, P, or K fertilizers resulted in 95.7%, 101%, 67.9% and 121% increases in grain Zn concentration, respectively. In terms of increasing grain Zn concentration, foliar-applied Zn positively interacted with N (at Sanyuan) and K (at Yangling), but negatively interacted with P at any condition tested, suggesting depressive effects of foliarly-applied P on physiological availability of Zn. Although these interaction effects were the major factor that governing the efficiency of foliar-applied Zn combined with N, P, or K on grain Zn concentration, the magnitude of the increase/decrease in grain Zn (-3.96~5.71 mg kg-1) due to these interactions was much less than the average increases following Zn+K (31.3), Zn+P (18.7), and Zn+N (26.5 mg kg-1) treatments relative to that observed in foliar Zn-only treatment. The combined foliar application of Zn with N, P, or K did not cause any adverse impact on grain yield and other nutritional quality and in some cases slightly increased grain yield and macronutrient concentrations. Grain phytic acid:Zn molar ratios were respectively 52.0%, 53.1%, 43.4% and 63.5% lower in the foliar Zn, Zn+N, Zn+P and Zn+K treatments than in the control treatment. These effects were consistent over four years and across three soil N

  16. Qualitative analysis of pure and adulterated canola oil via SIMCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Katrul Nadia; Khir, Mohd Fared Abdul; Rani, Rozina Abdul; Sharif, Zaiton; Rusop, M.; Zoolfakar, Ahmad Sabirin

    2018-05-01

    This paper demonstrates the utilization of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to classify pure and adulterated sample of canola oil. Soft Independent Modeling Class Analogies (SIMCA) algorithm was implemented to discriminate the samples to its classes. Spectral data obtained was divided using Kennard Stone algorithm into training and validation dataset by a fixed ratio of 7:3. The model accuracy obtained based on the model built is 0.99 whereas the sensitivity and precision are 0.92 and 1.00. The result showed the classification model is robust to perform qualitative analysis of canola oil for future application.

  17. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model for Simulating Winter Ozone Formation in the Uinta Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matichuk, Rebecca; Tonnesen, Gail; Luecken, Deborah; Gilliam, Rob; Napelenok, Sergey L.; Baker, Kirk R.; Schwede, Donna; Murphy, Ben; Helmig, Detlev; Lyman, Seth N.; Roselle, Shawn

    2017-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models were used to simulate a 10 day high-ozone episode observed during the 2013 Uinta Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS). The baseline model had a large negative bias when compared to ozone (O3) and volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements across the basin. Contrary to other wintertime Uinta Basin studies, predicted nitrogen oxides (NOx) were typically low compared to measurements. Increases to oil and gas VOC emissions resulted in O3 predictions closer to observations, and nighttime O3 improved when reducing the deposition velocity for all chemical species. Vertical structures of these pollutants were similar to observations on multiple days. However, the predicted surface layer VOC mixing ratios were generally found to be underestimated during the day and overestimated at night. While temperature profiles compared well to observations, WRF was found to have a warm temperature bias and too low nighttime mixing heights. Analyses of more realistic snow heat capacity in WRF to account for the warm bias and vertical mixing resulted in improved temperature profiles, although the improved temperature profiles seldom resulted in improved O3 profiles. While additional work is needed to investigate meteorological impacts, results suggest that the uncertainty in the oil and gas emissions contributes more to the underestimation of O3. Further, model adjustments based on a single site may not be suitable across all sites within the basin.

  18. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  19. One Novel Multiple-Target Plasmid Reference Molecule Targeting Eight Genetically Modified Canola Events for Genetically Modified Canola Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuqing; Li, Xiang; Wang, Canhua; Song, Guiwen; Pi, Liqun; Zheng, Lan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2017-09-27

    Multiple-target plasmid DNA reference materials have been generated and utilized as good substitutes of matrix-based reference materials in the analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Herein, we report the construction of one multiple-target plasmid reference molecule, pCAN, which harbors eight GM canola event-specific sequences (RF1, RF2, MS1, MS8, Topas 19/2, Oxy235, RT73, and T45) and a partial sequence of the canola endogenous reference gene PEP. The applicability of this plasmid reference material in qualitative and quantitative PCR assays of the eight GM canola events was evaluated, including the analysis of specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and performance of pCAN in the analysis of various canola samples, etc. The LODs are 15 copies for RF2, MS1, and RT73 assays using pCAN as the calibrator and 10 genome copies for the other events. The LOQ in each event-specific real-time PCR assay is 20 copies. In quantitative real-time PCR analysis, the PCR efficiencies of all event-specific and PEP assays are between 91% and 97%, and the squared regression coefficients (R 2 ) are all higher than 0.99. The quantification bias values varied from 0.47% to 20.68% with relative standard deviation (RSD) from 1.06% to 24.61% in the quantification of simulated samples. Furthermore, 10 practical canola samples sampled from imported shipments in the port of Shanghai, China, were analyzed employing pCAN as the calibrator, and the results were comparable with those assays using commercial certified materials as the calibrator. Concluding from these results, we believe that this newly developed pCAN plasmid is one good candidate for being a plasmid DNA reference material in the detection and quantification of the eight GM canola events in routine analysis.

  20. Effect of endogenous reference genes on digital PCR assessment of genetically engineered canola events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeke, Tigst; Eng, Monika

    2018-05-01

    Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) has been used for absolute quantification of genetically engineered (GE) events. Absolute quantification of GE events by duplex ddPCR requires the use of appropriate primers and probes for target and reference gene sequences in order to accurately determine the amount of GE materials. Single copy reference genes are generally preferred for absolute quantification of GE events by ddPCR. Study has not been conducted on a comparison of reference genes for absolute quantification of GE canola events by ddPCR. The suitability of four endogenous reference sequences ( HMG-I/Y , FatA(A), CruA and Ccf) for absolute quantification of GE canola events by ddPCR was investigated. The effect of DNA extraction methods and DNA quality on the assessment of reference gene copy numbers was also investigated. ddPCR results were affected by the use of single vs. two copy reference genes. The single copy, FatA(A), reference gene was found to be stable and suitable for absolute quantification of GE canola events by ddPCR. For the copy numbers measured, the HMG-I/Y reference gene was less consistent than FatA(A) reference gene. The expected ddPCR values were underestimated when CruA and Ccf (two copy endogenous Cruciferin sequences) were used because of high number of copies. It is important to make an adjustment if two copy reference genes are used for ddPCR in order to obtain accurate results. On the other hand, real-time quantitative PCR results were not affected by the use of single vs. two copy reference genes.

  1. EFFECT OF FEEDING CANOLA AND SOYBEAN OILS ON SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN COMMERCIAL LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakoor. H. I., M. L. Khan, Z. Nasir, N. Mukhtar and M. S. Rehman

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of canola oil and soybean oil on production performance and serum lipid profile in layers. In this study 15 experimental units (8 layers per experimental unit were randomly allotted to 5 different dietary treatments viz control (A. containing 2.5 % canola oil (B, 5% canola oil (C, 2.5% soybean oil (D and 5% soybean oil (E for a period of 9 weeks. Effects of five treatments on production parameters including egg production, egg quality, weight gain and serum lipid profile, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein were monitored. Serum lipid profile was determined 0.31 and 63 days from start of experiment. Significantly (P<0.05 less serum cholesterol was found in treatment C (295.1 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (321 mg/dl. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL was significantly (P<0.01 , less in treatment C ( 131.7 mg/dl as compared with treatment A. ( 161 mg/dl and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL was significantly (P<0.01 high in treatment C (31.76 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (25.42 mg/dl and triglyceride (TG was found significantly (P<0.01 less in treatment E ( 907.3 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (960 mg/dl. The results suggested that as the percentage of oils increased in the diet, serum lipid profile showed a positive trend.

  2. Gamma irradiation on canola seeds affects herbivore-plant and host-parasitoid interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akandeh, M.; Kocheili, F.; Rasekh, A.; Soufbaf, M.

    2017-01-01

    As an agricultural modernization, gamma irradiation is an important method for enhancing crop yield and quality. Nevertheless, its use can alter other plant traits such as nutrition and resistance to different biotic/abiotic stresses that consequently affect plant-insect interactions. A tritrophic system was utilized based on two canola mutant lines produced through gamma irradiation (RGS 8-1 and Talaye 8-3). Plutella xylostella (L.), as a worldwide pest of Brassicaceae and Cotesia vestalis (Holiday) as a key biocontrol agent of P. xylostella were examined for the potential indirect effects of canola seed irradiation on the experimental insects' performance when acting on the respective mutant lines. This study showed that physical mutation did not affect plant nitrogen and herbivore-damaged total phenolics; however, phenolic compounds showed greater concentration in damaged leaves than undamaged leaves of both mutant and control plants. The relative growth rate and pupal weight of P. xylostella reared on RGS 8-1 were significantly higher than those reared on the control RGS. There was no significant difference by performance parameters of the parasitoid, C. vestalis, including total pre-oviposition period, adult longevity, adult fresh body weight of males and females, pupal weight, forewing area, and total longevity of both sexes on tested canola cultivars in comparison with their mutant lines. Life table parameters of C. vestalis on mutant lines of both cultivars, RGS and Talaye, were not significantly different from their control treatments. Comprehensive studies should be conducted to find out the mechanisms under which gamma rays affect plant-insect interactions. (author)

  3. Gamma irradiation on canola seeds affects herbivore-plant and host-parasitoid interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akandeh, M.; Kocheili, F.; Rasekh, A. [Dept. of Entomology, Shahid Chamran Univ of Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soufbaf, M., E-mail: msoufbaf@nrcam.org [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    As an agricultural modernization, gamma irradiation is an important method for enhancing crop yield and quality. Nevertheless, its use can alter other plant traits such as nutrition and resistance to different biotic/abiotic stresses that consequently affect plant-insect interactions. A tritrophic system was utilized based on two canola mutant lines produced through gamma irradiation (RGS 8-1 and Talaye 8-3). Plutella xylostella (L.), as a worldwide pest of Brassicaceae and Cotesia vestalis (Holiday) as a key biocontrol agent of P. xylostella were examined for the potential indirect effects of canola seed irradiation on the experimental insects' performance when acting on the respective mutant lines. This study showed that physical mutation did not affect plant nitrogen and herbivore-damaged total phenolics; however, phenolic compounds showed greater concentration in damaged leaves than undamaged leaves of both mutant and control plants. The relative growth rate and pupal weight of P. xylostella reared on RGS 8-1 were significantly higher than those reared on the control RGS. There was no significant difference by performance parameters of the parasitoid, C. vestalis, including total pre-oviposition period, adult longevity, adult fresh body weight of males and females, pupal weight, forewing area, and total longevity of both sexes on tested canola cultivars in comparison with their mutant lines. Life table parameters of C. vestalis on mutant lines of both cultivars, RGS and Talaye, were not significantly different from their control treatments. Comprehensive studies should be conducted to find out the mechanisms under which gamma rays affect plant-insect interactions. (author)

  4. Nutritional evaluation of treated canola straw for ruminants using in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... value of molasses treated with canola straw using in vitro gas production technique with Taleshi native ... As straw is poorly fermented, it has low rates of ... Gas production was measured as the volume of gas in the calibrated syringes and was recorded before incubation and 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24,. 48, 72 and 96 ...

  5. Glucosinolates and other anti-nutritive compounds in canola meals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Canola meals from six varieties cultivated in Egypt (Seru4 and Pactol) and Japan (Kirariboshi, Tohoku95, Oominantane and Kizakinonatane) were investigated regarding anti-nutritive compounds, namely glucosinolates, phytic acid, sinapine and total phenols. All varieties except Kirariboshi contained a high level of total ...

  6. UTILIZAÇÃO DO FARELO DE CANOLA EM RAÇÕES PARA POEDEIRAS COMERCIAIS FORMULADAS COM BASE EM AMINOÁCIDOS TOTAIS E DIGESTÍVEIS CANOLA MEAL IN LAYING HENS DIETS FORMULATED ACCORDING TO TOTAL AND DIGESTIBLE AMINO ACID BASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Assuena

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da inclusão do farelo de canola em rações para poedeiras comerciais, formuladas com diferentes recomendações de aminoácidos. Foram utilizadas 144 poedeiras comerciais, distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições de seis aves cada, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, constituído da combinação de duas recomendações de aminoácidos (totais e digestíveis e quatro níveis de inclusão do farelo de canola (0%, 4%, 8% e 12%. Durante quatro ciclos de 21 dias, avaliaram-se o desempenho e nos dois últimos dias de cada ciclo a qualidade dos ovos. As aves que receberam a ração formulada com aminoácidos digestíveis apresentaram menor massa de ovos e pior conversão alimentar (P<0,05. O farelo de canola pode ser incluído em até 8% da ração sem prejuízo ao desempenho e qualidade da casca dos ovos. Na região de condução da pesquisa o custo do farelo de canola onerou o custo da ração. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Alimento alternativo, desempenho, nutrição, qualidade de ovos This experiment was conducted to evaluated increasing levels of canola meal in laying hens diets formulated based in different amino acid recommendations. 144 commercial laying hens was allotted in laying cages during 4 periods of 21 days. Performance and egg quality parameters were evaluated In the last two days of each period. Hens were distributed in a complete randomized design, in factorial arrangement 2x4, with eight treatments and three replicates of six hens each. The factors were diets formulated based on total and digestible aminoacids and increasing levels of canola meal on these diets (0; 4; 8 and 12%. Recommendations of digestible amino acid promoted worst feed conversion and lower egg mass output. Canola meal can be included in laying hens diets until 8% without decrease performance and egg shell quality. However, canola meal increased feed cost on the region where the experiment was

  7. The role of calcium, silicon and salicylic acid treatment in protection of canola plants against boron toxicity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, Ashraf M; Radi, Abeer A; El-Shazoly, Rasha M; Hamada, Afaf M

    2018-01-22

    Boron (B) toxicity often limits crop yield and the quality of production in agricultural areas. Here, we investigated the effects of calcium (Ca), silicon (Si) and salicylic acid (SA) on development of B toxicity, B allocation in canola (Brassica napus cultivar Sarw 4) and its role in non-enzymatic antioxidants in relation to yield of this cultivar under B toxicity. Canola seedlings were subjected to four B levels induced by boric acid in the absence or presence of Ca, Si and SA. The results showed that Ca, Si and SA addition ameliorated the inhibition in canola growth, water content (WC), and improved siliqua number, siliqua weight and seed index. The B content in shoots and roots and total B accumulation in the whole plant were increased in control plants under B-toxicity-stress, and these parameters were significantly decreased by addition of Ca, Si and SA. The shoot ascorbate pool (ascorbate, AsA, and dehydroascorbate, DHA), α-tocopherol and phenolics (free and bound) were increased under B toxicity, and were significantly decreased in most cases by addition of Ca, Si and SA, except α-tocopherol, which increased at low B levels (0, 25 and 50 mg kg soil -1 ). The glutathione content did not obviously change by B stress, while added Ca, Si and SA inhibited its accumulation under B stress. In addition, B toxicity reduced the shoot flavonoids content; however, this reduction was not alleviated by the use of Ca, Si and SA treatments. It could be concluded that growth and yield of canola plants grown under high B concentration improved after external application of Ca, Si or SA.

  8. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on ruminal digestion, fermentation pattern, omasal nutrient flow, and performance in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrusion-treated canola meal (TCM) was produced in an attempt to increase the rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fraction of canola meal (CM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with CM or TCM on ruminal digestion, fermentation pattern, omasal nutr...

  9. Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Canola and Flaxseed Oils on Physicochemical Properties of Emulsion Sausages from Spent Layer Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Ho Baek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of canola and flaxseed oils on the physicochemical properties and sensory quality of emulsion-type sausage made from spent layer meat. Three types of sausage were manufactured with different fat sources: 20% pork back fat (CON, 20% canola oil (CA and 20% flaxseed oil (FL. The pH value of the CA was significantly higher than the others (p<0.05. The highest water holding capacity was also presented for CA; in other words, CA demonstrated a significantly lower water loss value among the treatments (p<0.05. CA had the highest lightness value (p<0.05. However, FL showed the highest yellowness value (p<0.05 because of its own high-density yellow color. The texture profile of the treatments manufactured with vegetable oils showed higher values than for the CON (p<0.05; furthermore, CA had the highest texture profile values (p<0.05 among the treatments. The replacement of pork back fat with canola and flaxseed oils in sausages significantly increased the omega-3 fatty acid content (p<0.05 over 15 to 86 times, respectively. All emulsion sausages containing vegetable oil exhibited significantly lower values for saturated fatty acid content and the omega-6 to omega-3 ratios compared to CON (p<0.05. The results show that using canola or flaxseed oils as a pork fat replacer has a high potential to produce healthier products, and notably, the use of canola oil produced characteristics of great emulsion stability and sensory quality.

  10. Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Canola and Flaxseed Oils on Physicochemical Properties of Emulsion Sausages from Spent Layer Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Ki Ho; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Seung Gyu; An, Byoung Ki; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of canola and flaxseed oils on the physicochemical properties and sensory quality of emulsion-type sausage made from spent layer meat. Three types of sausage were manufactured with different fat sources: 20% pork back fat (CON), 20% canola oil (CA) and 20% flaxseed oil (FL). The pH value of the CA was significantly higher than the others (p<0.05). The highest water holding capacity was also presented for CA; in other words, CA demonstrated a significantly lower water loss value among the treatments (p<0.05). CA had the highest lightness value (p<0.05). However, FL showed the highest yellowness value (p<0.05) because of its own high-density yellow color. The texture profile of the treatments manufactured with vegetable oils showed higher values than for the CON (p<0.05); furthermore, CA had the highest texture profile values (p<0.05) among the treatments. The replacement of pork back fat with canola and flaxseed oils in sausages significantly increased the omega-3 fatty acid content (p<0.05) over 15 to 86 times, respectively. All emulsion sausages containing vegetable oil exhibited significantly lower values for saturated fatty acid content and the omega-6 to omega-3 ratios compared to CON (p<0.05). The results show that using canola or flaxseed oils as a pork fat replacer has a high potential to produce healthier products, and notably, the use of canola oil produced characteristics of great emulsion stability and sensory quality.

  11. Rolled-crimped winter rye cover effects on hand-weeding times and fruit yield and quality of cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit and vegetables produced without pesticides are in demand by some segments of society. However, weeds often are deleterious in such crops, and managing them without herbicides is difficult. Stale seedbeds and rolled-crimped winter rye cover crops are non-chemical methods that may help manage we...

  12. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern hemisp...... of contracts for workers is more likely to explain differences in seasonal activity than climatic or technological factors....

  13. A large-scale field study examining effects of exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola on honey bee colony health, development, and overwintering success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Christopher Cutler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In summer 2012, we initiated a large-scale field experiment in southern Ontario, Canada, to determine whether exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola (oil seed rape has any adverse impacts on honey bees. Colonies were placed in clothianidin seed-treated or control canola fields during bloom, and thereafter were moved to an apiary with no surrounding crops grown from seeds treated with neonicotinoids. Colony weight gain, honey production, pest incidence, bee mortality, number of adults, and amount of sealed brood were assessed in each colony throughout summer and autumn. Samples of honey, beeswax, pollen, and nectar were regularly collected, and samples were analyzed for clothianidin residues. Several of these endpoints were also measured in spring 2013. Overall, colonies were vigorous during and after the exposure period, and we found no effects of exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola on any endpoint measures. Bees foraged heavily on the test fields during peak bloom and residue analysis indicated that honey bees were exposed to low levels (0.5–2 ppb of clothianidin in pollen. Low levels of clothianidin were detected in a few pollen samples collected toward the end of the bloom from control hives, illustrating the difficulty of conducting a perfectly controlled field study with free-ranging honey bees in agricultural landscapes. Overwintering success did not differ significantly between treatment and control hives, and was similar to overwintering colony loss rates reported for the winter of 2012–2013 for beekeepers in Ontario and Canada. Our results suggest that exposure to canola grown from seed treated with clothianidin poses low risk to honey bees.

  14. A large-scale field study examining effects of exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola on honey bee colony health, development, and overwintering success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, G Christopher; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D; Sultan, Maryam; McFarlane, Andrew D; Brewer, Larry

    2014-01-01

    In summer 2012, we initiated a large-scale field experiment in southern Ontario, Canada, to determine whether exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola (oil seed rape) has any adverse impacts on honey bees. Colonies were placed in clothianidin seed-treated or control canola fields during bloom, and thereafter were moved to an apiary with no surrounding crops grown from seeds treated with neonicotinoids. Colony weight gain, honey production, pest incidence, bee mortality, number of adults, and amount of sealed brood were assessed in each colony throughout summer and autumn. Samples of honey, beeswax, pollen, and nectar were regularly collected, and samples were analyzed for clothianidin residues. Several of these endpoints were also measured in spring 2013. Overall, colonies were vigorous during and after the exposure period, and we found no effects of exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola on any endpoint measures. Bees foraged heavily on the test fields during peak bloom and residue analysis indicated that honey bees were exposed to low levels (0.5-2 ppb) of clothianidin in pollen. Low levels of clothianidin were detected in a few pollen samples collected toward the end of the bloom from control hives, illustrating the difficulty of conducting a perfectly controlled field study with free-ranging honey bees in agricultural landscapes. Overwintering success did not differ significantly between treatment and control hives, and was similar to overwintering colony loss rates reported for the winter of 2012-2013 for beekeepers in Ontario and Canada. Our results suggest that exposure to canola grown from seed treated with clothianidin poses low risk to honey bees.

  15. Winter Wonderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  16. Application of Artificial Neural Networks in Canola Crop Yield Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Sajadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Crop yield prediction has an important role in agricultural policies such as specification of the crop price. Crop yield prediction researches have been based on regression analysis. In this research canola yield was predicted using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN using 11 crop year climate data (1998-2009 in Gonbad-e-Kavoos region of Golestan province. ANN inputs were mean weekly rainfall, mean weekly temperature, mean weekly relative humidity and mean weekly sun shine hours and ANN output was canola yield (kg/ha. Multi-Layer Perceptron networks (MLP with Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation learning algorithm was used for crop yield prediction and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE and square of the Correlation Coefficient (R2 criterions were used to evaluate the performance of the ANN. The obtained results show that the 13-20-1 network has the lowest RMSE equal to 101.235 and maximum value of R2 equal to 0.997 and is suitable for predicting canola yield with climate factors.

  17. Adaptability and stability of canola hybrids in different sowing dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique da Silva Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Canola is an important crop in the world market, mainly for its oil being used for human consumption and biodiesel production, being a great economical option for the farmer, which are the reasons to the increase in its cultivation in Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the adaptability and stability of canola hybrids, depending on the sowing dates. The canola hybrids (Hyola 61, Hyola 76, Hyola 411 and Hyola 433 were evaluated in three sowing dates (04/10, 04/25 and 05/10 in the agricultural years of 2013 and 2014, under a randomized complete block design with five replications. The response variables analyzed were seed yield and oil content. Adaptability and stability of the hybrids were evaluated by three methods: Wricke's ecovalence (1962; confidence index (ANNICCHIARICO, 1992 and method of maximum ideal deviation (LIN; BINNS, 1988. The methodology proposed by Wricke (1962 highlighted as stable the hybrids Hyola 61 for seed yield and Hyola 411 for oil content. In the methodology proposed by Lin and Binns (1988 and Annicchiarico (1992, the hybrids with higher general adaptability and stability were Hyola 411 and 433. These hybrids presented the highest means for seed yield and oil content with predictable and responsive behavior to changes in sowing dates tested in the region of Maringá-PR.

  18. Molecular and systems approaches towards drought-tolerant canola crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengmeng; Monroe, J Grey; Suhail, Yasir; Villiers, Florent; Mullen, Jack; Pater, Dianne; Hauser, Felix; Jeon, Byeong Wook; Bader, Joel S; Kwak, June M; Schroeder, Julian I; McKay, John K; Assmann, Sarah M

    2016-06-01

    1169 I. 1170 II. 1170 III. 1172 IV. 1176 V. 1181 VI. 1182 1183 References 1183 SUMMARY: Modern agriculture is facing multiple challenges including the necessity for a substantial increase in production to meet the needs of a burgeoning human population. Water shortage is a deleterious consequence of both population growth and climate change and is one of the most severe factors limiting global crop productivity. Brassica species, particularly canola varieties, are cultivated worldwide for edible oil, animal feed, and biodiesel, and suffer dramatic yield loss upon drought stress. The recent release of the Brassica napus genome supplies essential genetic information to facilitate identification of drought-related genes and provides new information for agricultural improvement in this species. Here we summarize current knowledge regarding drought responses of canola, including physiological and -omics effects of drought. We further discuss knowledge gained through translational biology based on discoveries in the closely related reference species Arabidopsis thaliana and through genetic strategies such as genome-wide association studies and analysis of natural variation. Knowledge of drought tolerance/resistance responses in canola together with research outcomes arising from new technologies and methodologies will inform novel strategies for improvement of drought tolerance and yield in this and other important crop species. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Investigation of seed vigor and germination of canola cultivars under less irrigation in padding stage and after it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, S Ahmad Sadat; Khalaj, Hamideh; Rad, A Hosein Shirani; Alahdadi, Iraj; Akbari, Gh Abbas; Abadi, M Reza Labafi H

    2007-09-01

    The laboratory experiment was a factorial based on a Completely Randomized Design with four replications during 2005. Factors included two irrigation levels (normal irrigation (irrigation after 60 mm evaporation from class a pan) and less irrigation in padding stage and after it) and six winter cultivars (Licord, Okapi, Orient, SLMO64, Zarfam and Opera). The seeds used in this experiment produced under less irrigation (moderate drought stress) and they were three months in storage. The seed vigor was tested in laboratory experiment by three vigor tests, including Standard Germination test, cold test, Accelerated Ageing Test. Result showed that the accelerated aging test had significant differences on all of character in this study. Mean Comparing, showed canola cultivars had significant effect on Root/ Shoot ratio, abnormal seedling, hard seed, seedling fresh weight, MTG and FGP. Less irrigation levels had significant effect on total and shoot length, ratio root/shoot length and MTG.

  20. Using microbiological tracers to assess the impact of winter land use restrictions on the quality of stream headwaters in a small catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Raymond M; Deakin, Jenny; Archbold, Marie; Cushnan, Hugh; Kilroy, Kate; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Misstear, Bruce D

    2016-01-15

    Diverse land use activities can elevate risk of microbiological contamination entering stream headwaters. Spatially distributed water quality monitoring carried out across a 17 km(2) agricultural catchment aimed to characterize microbiological contamination reaching surface water and investigate whether winter agricultural land use restrictions proved effective in addressing water quality degradation. Combined flow and concentration data revealed no significant difference in fecal indicator organism (FIO) fluxes in base flow samples collected during the open and prohibited periods for spreading organic fertilizer, while relative concentrations of Escherichia coli, fecal streptococci and sulfite reducing bacteria indicated consistently fresh fecal pollution reached aquatic receptors during both periods. Microbial source tracking, employing Bacteroides 16S rRNA gene markers, demonstrated a dominance of bovine fecal waste in river water samples upstream of a wastewater treatment plant discharge during open periods. This contrasted with responses during prohibited periods where human-derived signatures dominated. Differences in microbiological signature, when viewed with hydrological data, suggested that increasing groundwater levels restricted vertical infiltration of effluent from on-site wastewater treatment systems and diverted it to drains and surface water. Study results reflect seasonality of contaminant inputs, while suggesting winter land use restrictions can be effective in limiting impacts of agricultural wastes to base flow water quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.; Ebrahimi, S. R.; Azizi, S.; Shawrang, P.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased ( Pruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  2. Anti-nutritional factors in canola produced in the Western and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of low erucic acid, low glucosinolate cultivars of canola seed has led to the availability of a feed ingredient with considerable potential to replace soyabean meal in diets for all classes of farm animals. The sinapine and glucosinolate content of various canola cultivars cultivated in two areas of the Western ...

  3. Impact of endogenous canola phenolics on the oxidative stability of oil‐in‐water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Friel, James; Winkler‐Moser, Jill K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative effect of phenolics naturally present in canola seeds and meal. Individual phenolics were extracted from ground, defatted canola seeds, and meal. Fractionated extracts rich in sinapic acid, sinapine, or canolol as well as a non......‐fractionated extract were used. These extracts (100 and 350 µM) were evaluated as antioxidants in stripped canola oil‐in‐water (o/w) emulsion. For comparison, the antioxidative effect of phenolic standards for sinapic acid and sinapine (as sinapine thiocyanate) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BTH) as a positive control....... Therefore, these canola extracts can be used for protecting canola oil emulsion or other emulsions against lipid oxidation. However, the results indicate that the antioxidant activity of the extracts rich in sinapine and canolol had a concentration‐sensitive effect. In order to get the best antioxidative...

  4. Effect of the New Plant Growth Biostimulants Based on Amino Acids on Yield and Grain Quality of Winter Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popko, Małgorzata; Michalak, Izabela; Wilk, Radosław; Gramza, Mateusz; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Górecki, Henryk

    2018-02-21

    Field and laboratory experiments were carried out in 2012-2013, aimed at evaluating the influence of new products stimulating plant growth based on amino acids on crop yield, characteristics of grain and content of macro- and micronutrients in winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). The tests included two formulations produced in cooperation with INTERMAG Co. (Olkusz, Poland)-AminoPrim and AminoHort, containing 15% and 20% amino acids, respectively, and 0.27% and 2.1% microelements, respectively. Field experiments showed that the application of products based on amino acids influenced the increase of grain yield of winter wheat (5.4% and 11%, respectively, for the application of AminoPrim at a dose 1.0 L/ha and AminoHort at dose 1.25 L/ha) when compared to the control group without biostimulant. Laboratory tests showed an increase of technological characteristics of grain such as ash content, Zeleny sedimentation index and content of protein. The use of the tested preparations at different doses also contributed to the increase of the nutrients content in grains, in particular copper (ranging 31-50%), as well as sodium (35-43%), calcium (4.3-7.9%) and molybdenum (3.9-16%). Biostimulants based on amino acids, tested in the present study, can be recommended for an efficient agricultural production.

  5. DHA-enriched high–oleic acid canola oil improves lipid profile and lowers predicted cardiovascular disease risk in the canola oil multicenter randomized controlled trial123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter JH; Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David JA; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Charest, Amélie; Baril-Gravel, Lisa; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A; McCrea, Cindy E; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is well recognized that amounts of trans and saturated fats should be minimized in Western diets; however, considerable debate remains regarding optimal amounts of dietary n−9, n−6, and n−3 fatty acids. Objective: The objective was to examine the effects of varying n−9, n−6, and longer-chain n−3 fatty acid composition on markers of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Design: A randomized, double-blind, 5-period, crossover design was used. Each 4-wk treatment period was separated by 4-wk washout intervals. Volunteers with abdominal obesity consumed each of 5 identical weight-maintaining, fixed-composition diets with one of the following treatment oils (60 g/3000 kcal) in beverages: 1) conventional canola oil (Canola; n−9 rich), 2) high–oleic acid canola oil with docosahexaenoic acid (CanolaDHA; n−9 and n−3 rich), 3) a blend of corn and safflower oil (25:75) (CornSaff; n−6 rich), 4) a blend of flax and safflower oils (60:40) (FlaxSaff; n−6 and short-chain n−3 rich), or 5) high–oleic acid canola oil (CanolaOleic; highest in n−9). Results: One hundred thirty individuals completed the trial. At endpoint, total cholesterol (TC) was lowest after the FlaxSaff phase (P < 0.05 compared with Canola and CanolaDHA) and highest after the CanolaDHA phase (P < 0.05 compared with CornSaff, FlaxSaff, and CanolaOleic). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were highest, and triglycerides were lowest, after CanolaDHA (P < 0.05 compared with the other diets). All diets decreased TC and LDL cholesterol from baseline to treatment endpoint (P < 0.05). CanolaDHA was the only diet that increased HDL cholesterol from baseline (3.5 ± 1.8%; P < 0.05) and produced the greatest reduction in triglycerides (−20.7 ± 3.8%; P < 0.001) and in systolic blood pressure (−3.3 ± 0.8%; P < 0.001) compared with the other diets (P < 0.05). Percentage reductions in Framingham 10-y CHD risk scores (FRS) from

  6. Evaluation Physiological Characteristics and Grain Yield Canola Cultivars under end Seasonal Drought Stress in Weather Condition of Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Seyed Ahmadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate canola cultivars response to physiological characteristics and grain yield end seasonal drought stress in weather condition of Ahvaz, farm experiments were done at research farm of Khuzestan agriculture and natural resources center. During 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 crop years. Farm test comprised drought stress was done as split plot form with randomize complete block design with four replication, treatments consist of drought stress (main factor including 50, 60 and 70 percent of water use content, which was applied from early heading stage until physiological maturity, and three spring canola cultivar including Shirali, Hayola 401 and R.G.S. were considered as sub plots. Measurements include biological yield, grain yield, harvesting index, number of pod per plant 1000 grain weight, number of grain in pod, plant height, and stem diameter, oil and protein percentage. Results showed that drought stress reduced significantly grain yield, biological yield, harvest index and the average of reduction of them during 2 years for per unit reduce moisture from 50% to 70% were 2, 1.35, and 0.81 percent, respectively. During two years, 1000 grain weight, number of pods per plant and number of grain per pod reduced 27, 36 and 20 percent, respectively. Terminal Drought stress reduced significantly plant height, stem diameter, stem number per plant and pod length, this reduced were 12, 46, 36 and 14 percent, respectively. Stem diameter, and stem number per plant reduced more than other characteristics. In this study oil grain decreased 12 % and protein grain increased 18.5% but oil and protein yield decreased 44.9% and 27.1% respectively..Finally, in weather condition of Khuzestan, terminal drought stress on February and March in which has simultaneous with early flowering stage and filling seed, significantly, reduced yield and compounded yield and affects on stem growth and qualities oil and protein negatively. Therefore, with irrigation

  7. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model for Simulating Winter Ozone Formation in the Uinta Basin with Intensive Oil and Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matichuk, R.; Tonnesen, G.; Luecken, D.; Roselle, S. J.; Napelenok, S. L.; Baker, K. R.; Gilliam, R. C.; Misenis, C.; Murphy, B.; Schwede, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    The western United States is an important source of domestic energy resources. One of the primary environmental impacts associated with oil and natural gas production is related to air emission releases of a number of air pollutants. Some of these pollutants are important precursors to the formation of ground-level ozone. To better understand ozone impacts and other air quality issues, photochemical air quality models are used to simulate the changes in pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere on local, regional, and national spatial scales. These models are important for air quality management because they assist in identifying source contributions to air quality problems and designing effective strategies to reduce harmful air pollutants. The success of predicting oil and natural gas air quality impacts depends on the accuracy of the input information, including emissions inventories, meteorological information, and boundary conditions. The treatment of chemical and physical processes within these models is equally important. However, given the limited amount of data collected for oil and natural gas production emissions in the past and the complex terrain and meteorological conditions in western states, the ability of these models to accurately predict pollution concentrations from these sources is uncertain. Therefore, this presentation will focus on understanding the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model's ability to predict air quality impacts associated with oil and natural gas production and its sensitivity to input uncertainties. The results will focus on winter ozone issues in the Uinta Basin, Utah and identify the factors contributing to model performance issues. The results of this study will help support future air quality model development, policy and regulatory decisions for the oil and gas sector.

  8. Effect of Different Salinity levels on some Photosynthetic Characters of Canola (Brassica napus L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tahmasbi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Salinity is one of the most important factors limiting crop production in arid and semiarid regions of the world that affects crop yield. Salt tolerance of Brassica species are very complex due to genetic relationships. Because of low erucic acid (less than 2% of total fatty acids and glucosinolates contents (less than 3 µmol g-1, oil of Canola has many consumers around the world. Because Canola have tolerance potential against toxicity of salinity and its minerals, its growth can be successful in saline condition. According to the recent ongoing drought and the need to use low quality irrigation water for crops such as Canola, aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of salinity on changes in carbon fixation process and photosynthetic pigments of three Canola genotypes under salinity as well as determine most salt tolerant genotype for use in saline regions. Materials and Methods An experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of Shahid Chamran University during 2007-2008 growing season in factorial test based on a completely randomized design with four replications. The first factor (genotype included Hayola 401, RGS0003 and Shiraly and the second factor (salinity levels had four levels of salinity (50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl as well as distilled water as a control. Sources of salinity were NaCl and CaCl2 with equal ratio as most resembles to lower water quality resources in the region. Date and time of stress were considered four weeks after planting (four-leaf stage. A Stepped irrigation method using saline water was done every 12 days over three steps period. To perform this study 10 liters volume pots were used. Three pots per each treatment, and totally 144 pots were used. SAS (version 9.1, Excel and MSTAT-C software's was used for statistical analysis. The comparison of means was done by Duncan method. Results and Discussion The results showed that content of chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids in all three genotypes

  9. Consumo e digestibilidade em ovinos alimentados com grãos e subprodutos da canola Intake and digestibility of sheep fed grains and by-products of canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Silva Neubern de Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a inclusão de 8% de grãos e subprodutos da canola (farelo ou torta nas dietas sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade. Seis ovinos machos não-castrados da raça Santa Inês (210 e 240 dias de idade e peso corporal de 44,8 + 4,2kg receberam dietas contendo 40% de feno de capim Tifton e 60% de concentrado composto por milho em grão, farelo de soja, mistura mineral, além de canola em grão integral, farelo de canola e torta de canola, que constituíram os três tratamentos. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 para o consumo de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, extrato etéreo (EE, energia bruta (EB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, carboidratos totais (CT e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF entre as dietas experimentais, no ensaio de digestibilidade. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 de tratamento para a digestibilidade de MS, MO, EE, PB, EB, FDN, CT e CNF. Recomenda-se incluir até 8% de grãos e subprodutos da canola (farelo ou torta na dieta de ovinos.The effect of feeding 8% of grains and byproducts (meal or cake of canola on intake and digestibility was evaluated. Six non castrated Santa Ines sheep (from 210 to 240 days old and body weight of 44.8 + 4.2kg were fed diets composed by 40% of Tifton hay and 60% of concentrate based on corn grain, soybean meal, whole grain canola, canola meal, canola cake and mineral mixture. No differences on the intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, ether extract (EE, gross energy (GE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, total carbohydrates (TC and non fiber carbohydrate (NFC were observed among treatments, in the digestibility trial. No treatment effect on the digestibilities of DM, OM, EE, CP, GE, NDF, TC and NFC was observed. It is recommended to include up to 8% of grains and byproducts (meal or cake of canola in the sheep diet.

  10. Effect of Repeated Application of Manure on Herbage Yield, Quality and Wintering Ability during Cropping of Dwarf Napiergrass with Italian Ryegrass in Hilly Southern Kyushu, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renny Fatmyah Utamy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of two levels of manure application (184 and 275 kg N ha−1 year−1 on herbage yield, quality, and wintering ability during the cropping of a dwarf genotype of late-heading (DL Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach oversown with Italian ryegrass (IR; Lolium multiflorum Lam. were examined and compared with chemical fertilizer application (234 kg N ha−1 year−1 for 4 years to determine a sustainable and environmentally harmonized herbage production in a hilly area (340 m above sea level. No significant (p > 0.05 differences in growth attributes of plant height, tiller density, percentage of leaf blade, or dry matter yield appeared in either DL Napiergrass or IR among moderate levels (184–275 kg N ha−1 year−1 of manure and chemical fertilizer treatments. IR exhibited no significant detrimental effect on spring regrowth of DL Napiergrass, which showed a high wintering ability in all treatments. In vitro dry matter digestibility of DL Napiergrass tended to increase with increasing manure application, especially at the first defoliation in the first three years. Manure application improved soil chemical properties and total nitrogen and carbon content. The results suggested that the lower rate of manure application of 184 kg nitrogen ha−1 year−1 would be suitable, which would be a good substitute for chemical fertilizer application with an equilibrium nitrogen budget for sustainable DL Napiergrass and IR cropping in the hilly region of southern Kyushu.

  11. [Algal community structure and water quality assessment on drawdown area of Kaixian waters in Three Gorges Reservoir during winter storage period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing-Song; Xie, Dan; Li, Zhe; Chen, Yuan; Sun, Zhi-Yu; Chen, Yong-Bo; Long, Man

    2012-04-01

    The old town area of Kaixian county was flooded and showed reservoir characteristics after the water level of Three Gorges Reservoir got 172. 8 m in December 2008. The aquatic ecology and nutritional status of Kaixian drawdown area after water storage are still rarely reported. To understand the current water environment and changes in algal community structure of Kaixian drawdown area after 172.8 m water level, the algal composition, abundance, biomass distribution and changes of its sampling spots including Hanfeng Lake were observed twice during winter storage period in January and December 2009. The trends in phytoplankton community structure were analyzed and the water quality assessment of nutritional status was carried out. The results indicated that 6 phylums, 37 genera, 69 species of phytoplankton in total were identified in the two sampling, and the dominant species were Dinophyta and Cryptophyta. The cell density and biomass in December 2009 were lower than those in January 2009. The evaluation results of algal population structure and pollution indicators showed that the nutrition level of Kaixian drawdown area during the winter storage period was mesotrophic to eutrophic type, while diversity analysis result indicated moderate pollution.

  12. Physico-chemical characteristics and sensory acceptance of Italiantype salami with canola oil addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelcindo Nascimento Terra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of partial pork fat replacement with emulsified canola oil in Italian-type salami. Three treatments were done: Control (100% pork fat, without fat replacement, T1 (15% pork fat was replaced by emulsified canola oil and T2 (30% pork fat was replaced by emulsified oil canola. There were evaluated the salamis’ physicochemical characteristics (pH, water activity, weight loss, color and lipid oxidation during the manufacture and storage period, and sensory evaluation after the manufacture process. The emulsified canola oil addition at different levels did not change the pH and color during the manufacture process, even though significant differences were found in these parameters during the storage period. The water activity did not differ significantly among the treatments. However, the treatments with emulsified canola oil added have a lower weight loss than the control. It was possible to observe an elevation on lipid oxidation values in the T2 during manufacture and storage periods, while in the T1, the values did not differ from the control at the end of manufactures and remained lower than the control during the storage period. Even more, the partial replacement of pork fat by emulsified canola oil did not affect the acceptance of the product for aroma, flavor, color, texture and visual appearance. Thus, the 15% pork fat replacement by emulsified canola oil in Italian-type salami is a viable alternative for the product diversification.

  13. Processing and characteristics of canola protein-based biodegradable packaging: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yachuan; Liu, Qiang; Rempel, Curtis

    2018-02-11

    Interest increased recently in manufacturing food packaging, such as films and coatings, from protein-based biopolymers. Among various protein sources, canola protein is a novel source for manufacturing polymer films. It can be concentrated or isolated by aqueous extraction technology followed by protein precipitation. Using this procedure, it was claimed that more than 99% of protein was extracted from the defatted canola meal, and protein recovery was 87.5%. Canola protein exhibits thermoplastic properties when plasticizers are present, including water, glycerol, polyethylene glycol, and sorbitol. Addition of these plasticizers allows the canola protein to undergo glass transition and facilitates deformation and processability. Normally, canola protein-based bioplastics showed low mechanical properties, which had tensile strength (TS) of 1.19 to 4.31 MPa. So, various factors were explored to improve it, including blending with synthetic polymers, modifying protein functionality through controlled denaturation, and adding cross-linking agents. Canola protein-based bioplastics were reported to have glass transition temperature, T g , below -50°C but it highly depends on the plasticizer content. Canola protein-based bioplastics have demonstrated comparable mechanical and moisture barrier properties compared with other plant protein-based bioplastics. They have great potential in food packaging applications, including their use as wraps, sacks, sachets, or pouches.

  14. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-II

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12%...

  15. Effects of canola meal on growth and digestion of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry

    OpenAIRE

    YİĞİT, Nalan Özgür; KOCA, Seval BAHADIR; BAYRAK, Halit; DULLUÇ, Arife; DİLER, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    A 12-week feeding trial was conducted with rainbow trout fry (initial weight of 1.57 ± 0.01 g) to examine the effects of partial substitution of canola meal in prepared diets on growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR), nutrient digestibility, somatic indices, and survival rate. Five isonitrogenous (44% crude protein) and isocaloric (4000 kcal/kg digestible energy) diets were formulated to contain 8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% canola meal against no canola meal (control group). A total of 375 rainbow trou...

  16. WINTER SAECULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  17. Examining winter visitor use in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mae A. Davenport; Wayne A. Freimund; William T. Borrie; Robert E. Manning; William A. Valliere; Benjamin Wang

    2000-01-01

    This research was designed to assist the managers of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) in their decision making about winter visitation. The focus of this report is on winter use patterns and winter visitor preferences. It is the author’s hope that this information will benefit both the quality of winter experiences and the stewardship of the park resources. This report...

  18. Meteorological and air quality data quarterly report WIPP site: Eddy County, New Mexico. Winter quarter, December 1976-February 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocalujka, L.P.; Babij, E.; Church, H.W.

    1979-08-01

    The Wipp meteorological, air quality, and radiological measurements program was implemented to support the environmental effort for the evaluations of the site selection suitability. This data report is the third of a series of seasonal quarterly data summaries to be issued for the southeastern New Mexico site

  19. Some rape/canola seed oils: fatty acid composition and tocopherols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2016-03-01

    Seed samples of some rape and canola cultivars were analysed for oil content, fatty acid and tocopherol profiles. Gas liquid chromotography and high performance liquid chromotography were used for fatty acid and tocopherol analysis, respectively. The oil contents of rape and canola seeds varied between 30.6% and 48.3% of the dry weight (ptocopherols were found in rape and canola oils in various amounts: α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, β-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol. The major tocopherol in the seed oils of rape and canola cultivars were α-tocopherol (13.22-40.01%) and γ-tocopherol (33.64-51.53%) accompanied by α-T3 (0.0-1.34%) and δ-tocopherol (0.25-1.86%) (ptocopherol contents differ significantly among the cultivars.

  20. Canola Oil Fuel Cell Demonstration: Volume 2 - Market Availability of Agricultural Crops for Fuel Cell Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, John W; Cassarino, Craig; Spangler, Lee; Johnson, Duane; Lindstrom, Joel; Binder, Michael J; Holcomb, Franklin H; Lux, Scott M

    2006-01-01

    .... The reformation of vegetable oil crops for fuel cell uses is not well known; yet vegetable oils such as canola oil represent a viable alternative and complement to traditional fuel cell feedstocks...

  1. Science and sustainability? Biodegradable polymers from canola and flaxseed oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narins, S.S. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Alberta Bioplastics Network

    2002-07-01

    Little progress has been made in value-added development to crops. The development of biodegradable plastics was spurred by environmental concerns and the use of renewable resources. There is a worldwide market for such products, which complements the strategy of the petrochemical industry. Greater sustainability achieved by partnering with the value-added agricultural industry. The drivers impacting the future polymer industry are: environmental and health concerns, consumer attitudes, cost of cheap feedstocks, carbon credits, greenhouse gases reduction, and criteria air contaminant reduction. Two niche markets are food packaging and biomedical products. The opportunity exists for the development of poly lactic acid (PLA) using canola as a primary feedstock in Alberta as there is a well established petrochemical industry, a vegetable oil infrastructure, and a desire to match petrochemical with bio-renewable. The benefits are higher value processing and a new source of monomers from renewable biomass. The main objective is the development of bio-polymer industry in Alberta based on canola and flaxseed oils. Food and agricultural materials have a similar structure and identical instrumentation to study structure and functionality. The author displayed pictures of the major instrumentation required to conduct this type of research. The rheological properties of polymers include flow, mechanical strength, and thermal properties. The author, along with colleagues, has developed a unique approach. The team members were identified, as well as an overview of the expertise required to perform this research. The author is about to file three related patents. This process is not energy intensive and does not use solvent. The author is about to move into scale-up phase of the reactions which produce the monomers. tabs., figs.

  2. Quality of life, human insecurity, and distress among Palestinians in the Gaza Strip before and after the Winter 2008-2009 Israeli war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoudeh, Weeam; Hogan, Dennis; Giacaman, Rita

    2013-11-01

    This study investigates changes in the quality of life (QoL) of Gaza Palestinians before and after the Israeli winter 2008-2009 war using the World Health Organization's WHOQOL-Bref; the extent to which this instrument adequately measures changing situations; and its responsiveness to locally developed human insecurity and distress measures appropriate for context. Ordinary least squares regression analysis was performed to detect how demographic and socioeconomic variables usually associated with QoL were associated with human insecurity and distress. We estimated the usual baseline model for the three QoL domains, and a second set of models including these standard variables and human insecurity and distress to assess how personal exposure to political violence affects QoL. No difference between the quality of life scores in 2005 and 2009 was found, with results suggesting lack of sensitivity of WHOQOL-Bref in capturing changes resulting from intensification of preexisting political violence. Results show that human insecurity and individual distress significantly increased in 2009 compared to 2005. Results indicate that a political domain may provide further understanding of and possibly increase the sensitivity of the instrument to detect changes in the Qol of Palestinians and possibly other populations experiencing intensified political violence.

  3. Impact of Endogenous Phenolics in Canola Oil on the Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Friel, James; Moser, Jill

    canola seeds. Fractionated extracts of Sinapic acid, Sinapine and Canolol was used as well as a non fractionated extract. These extracts was added (100 and 350 μM) to 10% o/w emulsion with stripped canola oil in order to evaluate their effect on lipid oxidation in emulsions. For comparison......Canola oil is low in saturated fat, high in monounsaturated fat and has a favourable omega-6:omega-3 ratio . Therefore, Canola oil has a healthier fatty acid profile compared to other plant oils such as soy oil. Therefore, canola oil is also an ingredient in many food products. However, the content...... of unsaturated lipid makes canola oil susceptible towards lipid oxidation. Many food products are lipid containing emulsions and a lot of efforts have been put into developing methods to protect the lipids against oxidation. Since lipid oxidation has a negative influence on the shelf life of the foods, efficient...

  4. Exploration of process parameters for continuous hydrolysis of canola oil, camelina oil and algal oil

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2012-07-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of triglycerides to form free fatty acid (FFA) is a well-established industry practice. Recently, this process has been employed as a first step in the production of biofuels from lipids. To that end, batch and continuous hydrolysis of various feedstocks has been examined at the laboratory scale. Canola, the primary feedstock in this paper, camelina and algal oils were converted to high quality FFA. For the different reaction temperatures, the continuous hydrolysis system was found to provide better yields than the laboratory batch system. In addition, CFD simulation with ANSYS-CFX was used to model the performance and reactant/product separation in the continuous, counter-flow reactor. The effects of reaction temperature, water-to-oil ratio (ratio of water and oil volumetric inflow rate), and preheating of the reactants were examined experimentally. Optimization of these parameters has resulted in an improved, continuous process with high mass yields (89-93%, for reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1) and energy efficiency (76%, for reactor temperature of 250°C and water-to-oil ratio of 2:1). Based on the product quality and energy efficiency considerations, the reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1 have provided the optimal condition for the lab scale continuous hydrolysis reaction. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Exploration of process parameters for continuous hydrolysis of canola oil, camelina oil and algal oil

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng; Turner, Timothy L.; Stikeleather, Larry F.; Roberts, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of triglycerides to form free fatty acid (FFA) is a well-established industry practice. Recently, this process has been employed as a first step in the production of biofuels from lipids. To that end, batch and continuous hydrolysis of various feedstocks has been examined at the laboratory scale. Canola, the primary feedstock in this paper, camelina and algal oils were converted to high quality FFA. For the different reaction temperatures, the continuous hydrolysis system was found to provide better yields than the laboratory batch system. In addition, CFD simulation with ANSYS-CFX was used to model the performance and reactant/product separation in the continuous, counter-flow reactor. The effects of reaction temperature, water-to-oil ratio (ratio of water and oil volumetric inflow rate), and preheating of the reactants were examined experimentally. Optimization of these parameters has resulted in an improved, continuous process with high mass yields (89-93%, for reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1) and energy efficiency (76%, for reactor temperature of 250°C and water-to-oil ratio of 2:1). Based on the product quality and energy efficiency considerations, the reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1 have provided the optimal condition for the lab scale continuous hydrolysis reaction. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Assessing quality and quantity of groundwater DOC in relation to plant export from different over-winter green-cover treatments in tillage farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premrov, Alina; Coxon, Catherine; Hackett, Richard; Richards, Karl

    2010-05-01

    The biogeochemistry of nitrogen is often connected to carbon and C/N dynamics. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) electron donor availability can be related to groundwater denitrification (Buss, et al. 2005). Therefore groundwater nitrate attenuation processes are also frequently linked to carbon availability. In recent years the role of over-winter green cover in tillage farming has been studied extensively. Nevertheless further research on the biogeochemical effect of green cover on soil/sediment and groundwater quality is still needed. In particular plant roots are known to exude different types of organic compounds, but their role in groundwater quality has not been investigated in depth. According to Cannavo et al. (2004a,b), in addition to quantity, the quality of water-extractable soil organic matter (e.g. molecular size/weight) has also an important role for microbial activity. In this study we investigate the effect of over-winter green-cover on potential DOC export to shallow groundwater (2 - 5 m below ground level), located on tillage land in Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland. The experiment includes three over-winter green-cover treatments: natural green-cover, mustard and no-cover (sprayed with herbicide following harvest); and is underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer. The site is equipped with 4 shallow piezometers per treatment (total no. of piezometers is 20, including treatments and surrounding piezometers). In addition to monitoring the quantity of DOC concentrations in shallow groundwater under different green cover treatments over time, an attempt was made to evaluate the quality of dissolved organic matter in shallow groundwater using Excitation Emission Fluorescence Matrix (EEFM) profiles obtained from analyses performed on a Varian Fluorescence Spectrophotometer of a single batch of samples (from all 20 installed piezometers in September 2009). To evaluate the quality of dissolved organic matter in shallow groundwater, computation of the

  7. The effect of nitrogen fertilizing and fungicide application on the yield and selected parameters of grain quality of winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Bezdíčková

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2001–2004 an influence of gradually increased portions of nitrogen (100–130–160 kg/N.ha–1 applied on the wheat variety Ebi in combination with the modified fungicidal protection in the yield and the selected quality grain parameters were observed within the small-plot field trials. Nitrogenous fertilizers according to the amount of nitrogen contained were applied in 2–4 terms during vegetation in regeneration (55kg/N.ha–1, 1st production (45kg/N.ha–1, 2nd production (30kg/N.ha–1 and qualitative portion (30kg/N.ha–1. The fungicidal protection was based on the equal treatment in the phase of BBCH 37 and with regard to the varieties different treatment in the phase of BBCH 55. The dependence on the year was proved at all observed parameters. Higher intensity of nitrogenous fertilization had no decisive impact on the yields. From the point of view of increased yields, the second production nitrogenous fertilization had the strongest impact; it increased the grain yields by 0.084–0.461 t./ha–1. Higher intensity of nitrogenous fertilization positively influenced the baker’s grain quality. The increased portions of nitrogen decisively increased the volume of N-substances in all trial years. The second production nitrogenous fertilization increased the N-substances volume from 0.1 to 0.8%. Qualitative additional fertilization increased their volume from 0.26 to 1.38%. Higher N portions increased sedimentation in most cases. The falling number was not considerably influenced. The mechanical grain qualities (volume weight, number full grains, and GTW were relatively less influenced than the baker’s quality by the nitrogenous fertilization. The application of fungicides positively influenced not only the yields but also mechanical qualities of the grain, i.e. volume weight, thousand grains weight and portion of Full grains. On the contrary the baker’s quality was not decisively influenced. It was proved that the decisive

  8. Determining of Degradation and Digestion Coefficients of Canola meal Using of In situ and Gas production Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Younes Tahmazi; Akbar Taghizadeh; Yousef Mehmannavaz; Mehdi Moghaddam

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to the determination of nutritive value of canola meal using naylon bag and cumulative gas production techniques in Gizel sheep. Tow fistulated Gizel sheep with average BW 45±2 kg used in a complete randomized design. The cumulative gas production was measured at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36 and 48 h and ruminal DM and CP disappearance were measured up to 96 h. Coefficients of soluble CP degradation of canola meal (A), canola meal treated with 0.5% urea (B) and canola...

  9. Mapping the Distribution and Flora of the Weeds in Canola Fields of Gorgan Township by Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sahar jannati ataie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oil seeds are the second world’s food supply after cereals. These crops are grown primarily for the oil contained in the seeds. The major world sources of edible seed oils are soybeans, sunflowers, canola, cotton and peanuts. Canola is one of the most important plants in the world that has great importance. The plant belongs to the Brassica genus, the botanical family that includes cauliflower and cabbages. Weeds are one of the major problems in canola production that reduce yield and its quality. In general, one of the most important factors in development of management plans is information about the weed’s flora and geographic distribution. Knowledge of weed flora enables one to use the required herbicide and formulate other suitable management strategies. It is also useful in exploiting abundant weeds as a cover crop or pasture and for other economic uses. The geographic information system has the proper use in weed science and management of agricultural information and their analysis. In this study, distribution and flora of the weeds in canola fields of Gorgan Township investigated by Geographic Information System. Material and Methods: Crop sampling was conducted during May and June 2014, in 58 canola fields in Gorgan Township (Golestan province and the weed species were sampled and detected using a W method and by specific formula of density, frequency, uniformity, and abundance of each weed species was calculated. Also, geographic coordinates of fields (latitude, altitude and elevation were determined by using GPS model Garmin map 60. After collecting data, in order to create a database of weed distribution, the data was transferred from GPS to ArcGIS 9/3.1 software. From all information obtained, consistently a database with location was created and after separation of data based on present or absence of weeds on fields, distribution maps were produced. Results and Discussion: The results showed that there are 35 weed

  10. Hard Winter Wheat and Flour Properties in Relation to Breadmaking Quality of Straight-dough Bread: Flour Particle Size and Bread Crumb Grain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S H Park; O K Chung; P A Seib

    2006-01-01

    Samples of 12 hard winter wheats and their flours that produced breads varying in crumb grain scores were studied for 38 quality parameters including: wheat physical and chemical characteristics; flour ash and protein contents, starch damage,swelling power, pasting characteristics, and flour particle size distribution; dough properties determined by a mixograph; and breadmaking properties for pup loaves (100g flour). Only two parameters, the protein content of wheat and the granulation of flour, showed significant correlations with bread crumb grain scores. Protein content of wheat ranging 12.9%~ 14.5% determined by an NIR method showed a weak inverse relationship (r =-0.61, p < 0.05) with bread crumb grain score. Flour particle size distribution measured by both Alpine Air Jet Sieve and NIR methods revealed that the weight wt % of particles less than 38μ m in size and representing 9.6%~ 19.3% of the flour weights was correlated positively (r =0.78, p < 0.01) with crumb grain score, whereas wt % of flour particles larger than 125μm had an inverse relationship (r =-0.60, p<0.05) with crumb grain score.

  11. Characteristics of Oxidative Storage Stability of Canola Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Stabilised with Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirto Prakoso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The storage effects on the oxidation characteristics of fatty acid methyl ester of canola oil (CME were investigated in this study. CME stabilised with two antioxidants, i.e. 2,6-di-tert-bytyl-p-cresol (BHT and 6,6-di-tert-butyl-2, 2’-methylendi-p-cresol (BPH, was stored at 20, 40 and 60°C. The oxidation stability data were measured by the Rancimat test method and it was found that both BHT and BPH addition increased the oxidation resistance of the CME. The results showed that when BPH or BHT was added at a concentration of 100 ppm, the oxidation induction period of the neat CME samples increased from 5.53 h to 6.93 h and 6.14 h, respectively. Comparing both antioxidants, BPH proved to be more effective in increasing the oxidation resistance when both antioxidants were added at the same concentration. Furthermore, the oxidation induction time decreased linearly with the storage time. It was shown that the oxidation occurred rapidly in the first 8 weeks of storage. Later, a kinetic study was undertaken and first-order kinetics were applied to explain the oxidation characteristics of the CME added with antioxidants. This kinetic study focused on exploiting the activation energy values obtained from the Arrhenius equations. Also, the oxidation effects on other quality parameters, including acid value, peroxide value, kinematic viscosity, and water content, were examined.

  12. Evaluation of the Effect of Sulfur Application and Thiobacillus on Some Soil Chemical Characteristics and Yield of Canola in Wheat-Canola Rotation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Besharati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After soybean and palm oil, canola is third important oil seed in the world which belongs to the genus Brassicaceae, that its seeds contain about 40% oil. The per capita consumption of oil in Iran is about 14 kg, so approximately 900 thousand tons of oil will be required for each year. However, only less than 10% of this oil is produced in the country. In recent years, special attention has been paid to canola cultivation in order to increase oil production, so during recent years an apparent increase in canola cultivated lands is significant. In most of these canola cultivated lands, the soil is calcareous therefore; some available nutrients such as phosphorus, iron and zinc are less than the amounts required by plants. Increasing qualitative and quantitative yield of canola in calcareous soils is a priority to canola cultivation improvement. Sulfur plays an important role in oil content of oily seed crops. On the other hands sulfur oxidation in calcareous soils can improve some nutrients availability. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of sulfur on yield, oil content and nutrients uptake and also its impact on soil chemical properties with 8 treatments, in 3 replications. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Ekbatan research station in Hamedan province for 2 years as completely randomized block design with 8 treatments and 3 repetitions. The treatments were: T1: Control (Without sulfur and Thiobacillus, T2: Application of 150 kg sulfur per ha, T3: T2+ Thiobacillus inoculums (2% of applied sulfur, T4: Application of 300 kg sulfur per ha, T5: T4+ Thiobacillus inoculums (2% of applied sulfur, T6: Application of 600 kg sulfur per ha, T7: T6+ Thiobacillus inoculums (2% of applied sulfur T8: Fertilizing based on soil test without sulfur and Thiobacillus. Thiobacillus inoculant containing about 107 cells of Thiobacillus bacteria which belonged to neutrophile Thiobacilli were prepared at soil biology

  13. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on nitrogen metabolism and total tract digestibility in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary canola meal (CM) has been shown to improve N efficiency in dairy cows when compared with soybean meal (SBM). Treating CM may increase amino acid (AA) supply from the rumen undegradable protein fraction and improve absorbable AA in the metabolizable protein. The objective of this study was to...

  14. Genome-Wide Association Studies and Comparison of Models and Cross-Validation Strategies for Genomic Prediction of Quality Traits in Advanced Winter Wheat Breeding Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S. Kristensen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the this study was to identify SNP markers associated with five important wheat quality traits (grain protein content, Zeleny sedimentation, test weight, thousand-kernel weight, and falling number, and to investigate the predictive abilities of GBLUP and Bayesian Power Lasso models for genomic prediction of these traits. In total, 635 winter wheat lines from two breeding cycles in the Danish plant breeding company Nordic Seed A/S were phenotyped for the quality traits and genotyped for 10,802 SNPs. GWAS were performed using single marker regression and Bayesian Power Lasso models. SNPs with large effects on Zeleny sedimentation were found on chromosome 1B, 1D, and 5D. However, GWAS failed to identify single SNPs with significant effects on the other traits, indicating that these traits were controlled by many QTL with small effects. The predictive abilities of the models for genomic prediction were studied using different cross-validation strategies. Leave-One-Out cross-validations resulted in correlations between observed phenotypes corrected for fixed effects and genomic estimated breeding values of 0.50 for grain protein content, 0.66 for thousand-kernel weight, 0.70 for falling number, 0.71 for test weight, and 0.79 for Zeleny sedimentation. Alternative cross-validations showed that the genetic relationship between lines in training and validation sets had a bigger impact on predictive abilities than the number of lines included in the training set. Using Bayesian Power Lasso instead of GBLUP models, gave similar or slightly higher predictive abilities. Genomic prediction based on all SNPs was more effective than prediction based on few associated SNPs.

  15. The effect of biological fertilizers on yield, yield components and seed oil contents of three cultivars of canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Canola is the world third oil crop with 25 to 55 percent oil content (Hezbavi & Minaei, 2008. In recent years, tendency towards expansion of the acreage of canola in Iran has been increasing and for the years 2010-2011 an area of 93000 ha with a total production of 190000 tons has been reported (Ministry of Jihad of Agriculture, 2013. Application of biological fertilizers which are environmentally friendly agents have been reported to enhance yield and quality of different crops (Shoghi Kalkhoran et al., 2012; Afrasiabi et al., 2011. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of biological fertilizers on quantitative and quality criteria of canola. Material and methods For this study, a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design and three replicates was used. The experimental treatments were three canola cultivars namely Okapi, Zarfam and Modena which was combined with four levels of biological fertilizers: Nitroxin, Phosphat solubilizing bacteria (PSB, Nitroxin+PSB and a control. Seeds were planted in plots of 2×3 m2. All field managements were carried out based on conventional practices. The measured criteria were plant height, number of pods per plant, 1000- seed weight, biomass yield, harvest index, oil content and yield. Results and discussion The results showed that in all studied criteria except 1000- seed weight there were significant differences between cultivars. Different fertilizer treatments had a significant effect on all criteria except 1000- seed weight and HI. Modena cultivar had the highest oil yield and quantitative characteristics. Composition of phosphate solubilizing bacteria+nitroxin also had the highest oil yield and quantitative characteristics. The interactions between biofertilizer treatments and cultivars in all criteria were not significant. The result of this experiment indicated the effectiveness of use of biofertilizers. References Afrasiabi, M., Amini

  16. Glyphosate-Resistant and Conventional Canola (Brassica napus L.) Responses to Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid (AMPA) Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Elza Alves; Dayan, Franck E; Owens, Daniel K; Rimando, Agnes M; Duke, Stephen O

    2016-05-11

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola contains two transgenes that impart resistance to the herbicide glyphosate: (1) the microbial glyphosate oxidase gene (gox) encoding the glyphosate oxidase enzyme (GOX) that metabolizes glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and (2) cp4 that encodes a GR form of the glyphosate target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase. The objectives of this research were to determine the phytotoxicity of AMPA to canola, the relative metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA in GR and conventional non-GR (NGR) canola, and AMPA pool sizes in glyphosate-treated GR canola. AMPA applied at 1.0 kg ha(-1) was not phytotoxic to GR or NGR. At this AMPA application rate, NGR canola accumulated a higher concentration of AMPA in its tissues than GR canola. At rates of 1 and 3.33 kg ae ha(-1) of glyphosate, GR canola growth was stimulated. This stimulatory effect is similar to that of much lower doses of glyphosate on NGR canola. Both shikimate and AMPA accumulated in tissues of these glyphosate-treated plants. In a separate experiment in which young GR and NGR canola plants were treated with non-phytotoxic levels of [(14)C]-glyphosate, very little glyphosate was metabolized in NGR plants, whereas most of the glyphosate was metabolized to AMPA in GR plants at 7 days after application. Untreated leaves of GR plants accumulated only metabolites (mostly AMPA) of glyphosate, indicating that GOX activity is very high in the youngest leaves. These data indicate that more glyphosate is transformed to AMPA rapidly in GR canola and that the accumulated AMPA is not toxic to the canola plant.

  17. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of canola oil on blood vessel function in peripheral arterial disease: rationale and design of the Canola-PAD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enns JE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer E Enns,1,2 Peter Zahradka,1–3 Randolph P Guzman,4,5 Alanna Baldwin,1 Brendon Foot,1 Carla G Taylor1–31Canadian Centre for Agri-Food Research in Health and Medicine, St Boniface Research Centre, Winnipeg, Canada; 2Department of Physiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 3Department of Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 4IH Asper Clinical Research Institute, St Boniface Hospital, Winnipeg, Canada; 5Section of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, St Boniface Hospital, Winnipeg, CanadaBackground: Individuals with peripheral arterial disease (PAD are at high risk for cardiac events due to atherosclerosis. Dietary fatty acid composition has been shown to modulate blood vessel properties, but whether a diet enriched in conventional canola oil can improve clinical endpoints in PAD is not known.Purpose: To describe the rationale and design of a clinical trial testing the effect of canola oil consumption on vascular function and cardiovascular risk factors in an 8-week dietary intervention in individuals with PAD.Methods: The Canola-PAD Study was a single center, prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 50 patients over 40 years old with PAD. Participants were randomized into two groups and consumed food items containing either conventional canola oil (25 g/day or an oil mixture representing the Western diet (25 g/day for 8 weeks as part of their usual diet. The primary outcome was vascular function (ankle-brachial index, arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction, walking capacity, and cognitive function. Secondary measurements included anthropometrics, serum lipid profile and fatty acid composition, markers of inflammation and glycemic control, and serum metabolite profile.Discussion: The Canola-PAD Study uses an innovative and noninvasive approach to evaluate the effect of canola oil on clinically relevant outcomes in individuals with PAD, including

  18. Application of Canola Oil Biodiesel/Diesel Blends in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the application effects of canola oil biodiesel/diesel blends in a common rail diesel engine was experimentally investigated. The test fuels were denoted as ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel, BD20 (20% canola oil blended with 80% ULSD by volume, and PCO (pure canola oil, respectively. These three fuels were tested under an engine speed of 1500 rpm with various brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs. The results indicated that PCO can be used well in the diesel engine without engine modification, and that BD20 can be used as a good alternative fuel to reduce the exhaust pollution. In addition, at low engine loads (0.13 MPa and 0.26 MPa, the combustion pressure of PCO is the smallest, compared with BD20 and ULSD, because the lower calorific value of PCO is lower than that of ULSD. However, at high engine loads (0.39 MPa and 0.52 MPa, the rate of heat release (ROHR of BD20 is the highest because the canola oil biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel that promotes combustion, shortening the ignition delay period. For exhaust emissions, by using canola oil biodiesel, the particulate matter (PM and carbon monoxide (CO emissions were considerably reduced with increased BMEP. The nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased only slightly due to the inherent presence of oxygen in biodiesel.

  19. Antioxidant properties of Australian canola meal protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alashi, Adeola M; Blanchard, Christopher L; Mailer, Rodney J; Agboola, Samson O; Mawson, A John; He, Rong; Girgih, Abraham; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-03-01

    Antioxidant activities of canola protein hydrolysates (CPHs) and peptide fractions prepared using five proteases and ultrafiltration membranes (1, 3, 5, and 10kDa) were investigated. CPHs had similar and adequate quantities of essential amino acids. The effective concentration that scavenged 50% (EC50) of the ABTS(+) was greatest for the <1kDa pancreatin fraction at 10.1μg/ml. CPHs and peptide fractions scavenged DPPH(+) with most of the EC50 values being <1.0mg/ml. Scavenging of superoxide radical was generally weak, except for the <1kDa pepsin peptide fraction that had a value of 51%. All CPHs inhibited linoleic acid oxidation with greater efficiency observed for pepsin hydrolysates. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity of Alcalase, chymotrypsin and pepsin hydrolysates was found to be better than that of glutathione (GSH) (p<0.05). These results show that CPHs have the potential to be used as bioactive ingredients in the formulation of functional foods against oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of competitive and economic indices in canola and pea intercropping at different rates of nitrogen fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyfollah fallah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in order to evaluate of competitive and economic indices in canola and pea intercropping at different rates of nitrogen fertilizer at Shahrekord University research farm during 1390 - 1391. Intercropping and sole cropping treatments (100% canola; 66% canola + 33% pea, 50% canola + 50% pea; 33% canola + 66% pea; 100% pea were evaluated as the first factor and nitrogen rates (100% need; 75% need and 50% need as the second factor in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The calculated competitive indices were included land equivalent ratio (LER, relative crowding coefficient (K, aggressively (A, the system production index (SPI, actual yield loss (AYL, competitive ratio (CR and economy indices included monetary advantage index (MAI, and the intercropping advantage (IA. Results showed that all the competitive and economic indices had the highest amount in 50 and 75% of nitrogen requirement. The amounts of AYLt and SPI and economic indices (MAI and IA were positive for all intercropping ratios. Also, LERt and Kt for all intercropping ratio were greater than one, that indicating the superiority of intercropping over sole cropping any of the two plants. The positive values aggressively index and the greater than one values competitive ratio for canola, indicated canola was superior competitor in compared to pea. In conclusion, the evaluation of competitive and economic indices appropriately describes intercropping advantage of canola with pea in reduced nitrogen fertilizer conditions.

  1. Anaerobic co-digestion of canola straw and buffalo dung: optimization of methane production in batch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, A.R.; Brohi, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    In several regions of the Pakistan, crop cultivation is leading to the production crop residues and its disposal problems. It has been suggested that the co-digestion of the crop residues with the buffalo dung might be a disposal way for the wasted portion of the crops residue. The objective of present study was to optimize the anaerobic co-digestion of canola straw and the buffalo dung through batch experiments in order to obtain maximum methane production. The optimization was carried out in three stages. In first stage, the best canola straw to buffalo dung ratio was evaluated. In second stage, the best concentration of sodium hydrogen carbonate was assessedas the alkaline pretreatment chemical, whereas in the third stage most suitable particle size of the canola strawwas evaluated. The assessment criteria for the optimization of a co-digestion were cumulative methane production and ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability). The results yield that anaerobic co-digestibility of the canola straw and the buffalo dung is obviously influenced by all the three factors of optimization. The maximum methane production was obtained as 911 NmL from the canola straw to buffalo dung ratio of 40:60, the alkaline doze of 0.6 gNaHCO/sub 3/ gVS and canola straw particle size of 2mm. However, because of the higher shredding cost to produce 2mm sized canola straw, particle size 4mm could be the best canola straw particle size. (author)

  2. Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Canola Straw and Buffalo Dung: Optimization of Methane Production in Batch Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque Sahito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In several regions of the Pakistan, crop cultivation is leading to the production crop residues and its disposal problems. It has been suggested that the co-digestion of the crop residues with the buffalo dung might be a disposal way for the wasted portion of the crops' residue. The objective of present study was to optimize the anaerobic co-digestion of canola straw and the buffalo dung through batch experiments in order to obtain maximum methane production. The optimization was carried out in three stages. In first stage, the best canola straw to buffalo dung ratio was evaluated. In second stage, the best concentration of sodium hydrogen carbonate was assessedas the alkaline pretreatment chemical, whereas in the third stage most suitable particle size of the canola strawwas evaluated. The assessment criteria for the optimization of a co-digestion were cumulative methane production and ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability. The results yield that anaerobic co-digestibility of the canola straw and the buffalo dung is obviously influenced by all the three factors of optimization. The maximum methane production was obtained as 911 NmL from the canola straw to buffalo dung ratio of 40:60, the alkaline doze of 0.6 gNaHCO3 / gVS and canola straw particle size of 2mm. However, because of the higher shredding cost to produce 2mm sized canola straw, particle size 4mm could be the best canola straw particle size.

  3. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  4. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  5. Winter weather demand considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  6. Impact of Solid and Hollow Varieties of Winter and Spring Wheat on Severity of Wheat Stem Sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) Infestations and Yield and Quality of Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniec, Adrianna; Glover, Karl D; Berzonsky, William

    2015-10-01

    Wheat stem sawfly (WSS), Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), has recently emerged as a key pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains and Canadian provinces. The expanding impact of WSS has caused considerable economic losses to wheat production. Solid-stem varieties of wheat remain the only effective measure of suppression of WSS, and the goal of this research was to test whether five solid- and hollow-stem varieties of winter and spring wheat reduce survival of WSS in South Dakota. We reported that solid-stem varieties had significantly lower numbers of WSS larvae, and this effect was especially evident when WSS infestation rates exceeded 15%. We also observed that the yield of solid-stem varieties was significantly lower than hollow-stem varieties when the abundance of WSS was low, but not when populations of WSS were relatively high. We did not observe consistent differences in grain quality between solid- and hollow-stem varieties, however, and in case of protein levels of grain, solid-stem wheat varieties performed better than hollow-stem wheat. We conclude that solid-stem varieties of wheat appear to effectively suppress WSS survival, and reduced yield of these varieties is less apparent when populations of C. cinctus are high enough to affect the yield of hollow-stem wheat. This is the first report to describe the effectiveness of solid-stem varieties of wheat on WSS in South Dakota. More research in the state is necessary before more robust conclusions can be drawn. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Modeling identifies optimal fall planting times and irrigation requirements for canola and camelina at locations across California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas George

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In California, Brassica oilseeds may be viable crops for growers to diversify their cool-season crop options, helping them adapt to projected climate change and irrigation water shortages. Field trials have found germination and establishment problems in some late-planted canola, but not camelina at the same locations. We used computer modeling to analyze fall seedbed conditions to better understand this phenomenon. We found seedbeds may be too dry, too cold, or both, to support germination of canola during late fall. Based on seedbed temperatures only, canola should be sown no later than the last week of November in the Central Valley. Camelina has broader temperature and moisture windows for germination and can be sown from October to December with less risk, but yields of camelina are lower than canola yields. In areas without irrigation, growers could plant canola opportunistically when seedbed conditions are favorable and use camelina as a fallback option.

  8. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiol, L; Assolari, S; Sacco, P; Zerbi, G

    2004-11-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels.

  9. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchiol, L.; Assolari, S.; Sacco, P.; Zerbi, G.

    2004-01-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels

  10. Pterostilbene Is a Potential Candidate for Control of Blackleg in Canola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C O Koh

    Full Text Available Two stilbenes, resveratrol and pterostilbene, exhibit antifungal activity against Leptosphaeria maculans, the fungal pathogen responsible for blackleg (stem canker in canola (Brassica napus. In vitro studies on the effect of these stilbenes on L. maculans mycelial growth and conidia germination showed that pterostilbene is a potent fungicide and sporicide, but resveratrol only exerted minor inhibition on L. maculans. Cell viability of hyphae cultures was markedly reduced by pterostilbene and SYTOX green staining showed that cell membrane integrity was compromised. We demonstrate that pterostilbene exerts fungicidal activity across 10 different L. maculans isolates and the compound confers protection to the blackleg-susceptible canola cv. Westar seedlings. The potential of pterostilbene as a control agent against blackleg in canola is discussed.

  11. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiol, L.; Assolari, S.; Sacco, P.; Zerbi, G

    2004-11-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels.

  12. Winter-to-winter variations in indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Kline, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations in northern Virginia and central Maryland show a strong dependence on weather. Winter tends to be associated with higher than average indoor radon, and summer with lower than average. However, compared to the winter of 1986-1987, the winter of 1987-1988 was warmer and drier. Consequently, winter-to-winter indoor radon decreased by about 25%. This winter-to-winter decrease is unexpectedly large, and simulates winter-to-summer variations that have been reported

  13. Aclimatação ao frio e dano por geada em canola Acclimatization to cold and frost-injury in canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genei Antonio Dalmago

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da aclimatação ao frio sobre o dano causado pela geada em diferentes estádios fenológicos de genótipos de canola. Foram realizados cinco experimentos em ambiente controlado, em 2006, 2007 e 2008. Os fatores avaliados foram: genótipos, aclimatação (com; sem, intensidades de geada, estádios de desenvolvimento de plantas, regimes de aclimatação e regimes de geada. As variáveis avaliadas foram: queima de folhas, massa de matéria seca, estatura de plantas, duração de subperíodo, componentes de rendimento e rendimento de grãos. A aclimatação ao frio, antes da geada, resultou em menor queima de folhas e maior massa de matéria seca, em comparação a plantas não aclimatadas. As geadas foram prejudiciais a partir de -6°C no início do ciclo de desenvolvimento, principalmente em plantas não aclimatadas, e a partir de -4ºC na floração, com redução do número de síliquas e do número de grãos por síliqua. A aclimatação após as geadas não contribuiu para a tolerância da canola a esse evento. Geadas consecutivas não acarretaram maior prejuízo à canola. A aclimatação de plantas de canola antes da geada reduz os danos, principalmente quando a geada ocorre no início do desenvolvimento das plantas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of cold acclimatization on frost damage at different phenological stages of canola genotypes. Five experiments were carried out under controlled conditions, in 2006, 2007, and 2008. The evaluated factors were: genotypes, acclimatization (with; without, frost gradient, plant developmental stages, acclimatization regimes and frost regimes. The evaluated variables were: leaf scorching symptoms, dry weight, plant height, length of subperiod, yield components and grain yield. The acclimatization before frost resulted in lesser leaf scorching symptoms and higher dry matter in comparison to plants not acclimated. Frosts were

  14. Características de carcaça de cordeiros alimentados com grãos e subprodutos da canola = Carcass characteristics in lambs fed with grains and by-products of canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Barbosa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi estudar a introdução de 8% de grãos e subprodutos (farelo ou torta da canola em dietas para cordeiros. Para a avaliação das características quantitativas da carcaça, foram utilizadas 24 carcaças de cordeiros, utilizando delineamento inteiramente casualizado. As dietas com média de 15,4% de PB na MS e 80,2% de NDT foram compostas por 40% de feno de capim-Tifton e 60% de concentrado composto por milho em grão, farelo de soja, canola em grão integral, farelo de canola, torta de canola e mistura mineral. A utilização de grãos e subprodutos da canola na dieta de borregos terminados em confinamento não influenciou (p > 0,05 as características quantitativas da carcaça. Em relação aos rendimentos dos cortes, não houve efeito dos tratamentos para nenhuma das variáveis analisadas. Assim, a introdução de 8% de grãos e subprodutos (farelo ou torta da canola possibilitaram bons resultados podendo ser recomendados nas formulações de dietas para cordeiros.The aim of this work was to evaluate the introduction of 8% grains and by-products (meal or cake of canola in the diets of lambs. To evaluate quantitative carcass characteristics, 24 Santa Ines lambs were used in a completely randomized design. Diets with averages of 15.4% of CP in DM and 80.2% of TDN were composed for 40% Tifton hay and 60% concentrate based on corn grain, soybean meal, whole grain canola, canola meal, canola cake and mineral mixture. The use of whole grains and by-products of canola in the diet of lambs finished in feedlot did not influence (p > 0.05 quantitative carcass characteristics. For cut dressing in relation to the CCW, no effect was observed for the analyzed variables among treatments. It was concluded that the introduction of grains and by-products of canola allow for satisfactory results, and could be recommended in the formulations of lamb diets.

  15. In vitro digestion and fermentation characteristics of canola co-products simulate their digestion in the pig intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyengo, T A; Jha, R; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2016-06-01

    Canola co-products are sources of amino acid and energy in pig feeds, but their fermentation characteristics in the pig intestine are unknown. Thus, we determined the in vitro fermentation characteristics of the canola co-products Brassica juncea solvent-extracted canola meal (JSECM), Brassica napus solvent-extracted canola meal (NSECM), B. napus expeller-pressed canola meal (NEPCM) and B. napus cold-pressed canola cake (NCPCC) in comparison with soybean meal (SBM). Samples were hydrolysed in two steps using pepsin and pancreatin. Subsequently, residues were incubated in a buffer solution with fresh pig faeces as inocula for 72 h to measure gas production. Concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) per gram of dry matter (DM) of feedstuff was measured in fermented solutions. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent hindgut fermentation (AHF) of gross energy (GE) for feedstuffs were obtained from pigs fed the same feedstuffs. On DM basis, SBM, JSECM, NSECM, NEPCM and NCPCC contained 15, 19, 22, 117 and 231 g/kg ether extract; and 85, 223, 306, 208 and 176 g/kg NDF, respectively. In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDDM) of SBM (82.3%) was greater (Pfermentation characteristics of canola co-products and SBM simulated their fermentation in the small and large intestine of pigs, respectively. The 30% greater VFA production for JSECM than NSECM due to lower lignified fibre of JSECM indicates that fermentation characteristics differ between canola species. The NSECM had the highest fermentability followed by NEPCM and then NCPCC, indicating that fat in canola co-products can limit their fermentability in the hindgut.

  16. Selective isolation and characterization of agriculturally beneficial endopytic bacteria from wild hemp using canola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, I.; Iqrar, I.

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria can provide a useful alternative to synthetic fertilizers to improve plant growth. Wild plants are little investigated as a source of growth promoting endophytic bacteria for commercial application to crops. In present study, endophytic bacteria were isolated from Cannabis sativa L. (hemp) using two different methods to examine their ability to promote canola growth. Besides direct isolation from the roots, endophytic bacteria were also selectively isolated from the rhizosphere of C. sativa using canola. Under gnotobiotic conditions, six bacteria from the selective isolation significantly improved canola root growth, as compared to the two bacteria isolated from direct method. Overall, three isolates performed distinctly well, namely, Pantoea vagans MOSEL-t13, Pseudomonas geniculata MOSEL-tnc1, and Serratia marcescens MOSEL-w2. These bacteria tolerated high salt concentrations and promoted canola growth under salt stress. Further, the isolated bacteria possessed plant growth promoting traits like IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and siderophore production. Most isolates produced plant cell-wall degrading enzymes, cellulase and pectinase. Some isolates were also effective in hindering the growth of two phytopathogenic fungi in dual culture assay, and displayed chitinase and protease activity. Paenibacillus sp. MOSEL-w13 displayed the greatest antifungal activity among all the isolates. Present findings conclude that wild plants can be a good source for isolating beneficial microbes, and validates the employed selective isolation for improved isolation of plant-beneficial endophytic bacteria. (author)

  17. Canola-Wheat Rotation versus Continuous Wheat for the Southern Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Duke, Jason C.; Epplin, Francis M.; Vitale, Jeffrey D.; Peeper, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Crop rotations are not common in the wheat belt of the Southern Plains. After years of continuous wheat, weeds have become increasingly difficult and expensive to manage. Yield data were elicited from farmers and used to determine if canola-wheat-wheat rotations are economically competitive with continuous wheat in the region.

  18. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical composition and ruminal protein degradation of canola meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawrang, P.; Nikkhah, A.; Zare-Shahneh, A.; Sadeghi, A. A.; Raisali, G.; Moradi-Shahrebabak, M.

    2008-07-01

    Gamma irradiation of canola meal (at doses of 25, 50 and 75 kGy) could alter its ruminal protein degradation characteristics by cross-linking of the polypeptide chains. This processing resulted in decrease (linear effect, Pruminal protein degradation and increase (linear effect, Pruminant nutrition.

  19. Oil-structuring characterization of natural waxes in canola oil oleogels: Rheological, thermal, and oxidative properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural waxes (candelilla wax, carnauba wax, and beeswax) were utilized as canola oil structurants to produce oleogels and their physicochemical properties were evaluated from rheological, thermal, and oxidative points of view. The oleogels with candelilla wax exhibited the highest hardness, followe...

  20. Effects of Intercropping (Canola-Faba Bean on Density and Diversity of Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hossain GHARINEH

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the biological effect and interference of crop and weed in canola-faba bean intercropping in comparison with mono culture, an experiment was conducted in randomize completely blocks design with three replication at Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources, University. In this experiment treatments were different compositions of canola (Brassica napus L. var. haylo and faba bean (local cultivar. Plant densities (0, 20 and 40 plants per m2 for canola and four levels include (0, 20, 40 and 60 plants per m2 for faba bean in accordance with additive form mixed culture system respectively. Weed dry weight was affected by culture system and different levels of plant densities in mixed culture and there were significant difference 1%. Lowest weed dry weight was obtained in 20-60 and 40-60 plants m-2 canola-bean intercropping. In the intercropping parts only two species was observed while in the sole culture more than three species were exist. Results showed that with increasing in bean diversity, weed dry weight declines. According to our results, it is possible to control weed effectively by using intercropping system, but more studied is required. Diversity of weeds had been clearly affected. Results showed that only Beta and Malva species were existed in intercropping comparing to sole cultures that Brassica, Beta, Rumex and Malva were existed.

  1. Chemical modification of nanocellulose with canola oil fatty acid methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liqing Wei; Umesh P. Agarwal; Kolby C. Hirth; Laurent M. Matuana; Ronald C. Sabo; Nicole M. Stark

    2017-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), produced from dissolving wood pulp, were chemically functionalized by transesterification with canola oil fatty acid methyl ester (CME). CME performs as both the reaction reagent and solvent. Transesterified CNC (CNCFE) was characterized for their chemical structure, morphology, crystalline structure, thermal stability, and hydrophobicity...

  2. The Allelopathic Effect of the Exotic Tree Acacia saligna on the Germination of Wheat and Canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Kamel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the allelopathic effect of aqueous extracts derived from leaves and stems of Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L.Wendl. upon two agricultural crops, wheat and canola. Seed germination (%, shoot and root elongation, fresh and dry weight, vigor index and phytotoxicity parameters were estimated. Leaf extract exhibits higher inhibitory effect than stem extract. Wheat seeds were more tolerant to the allelopathic action of A. saligna extracts than canola. Canola germination minimized to 8.33% at concentration 10% of leaf extract but the percent of germination was 60% in the case of stem extract. At 10% leaf extract, 76.67% of wheat seeds germinated; but at 10% stem extract, 93.33% of the seeds were germinated. The other growth parameters as shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight and vigor index also showed continued decrease with the increasing of allelopathic extract concentration. Leaf extract exhibits the stronger allelopathic effect. The phytotoxic effect was stronger on the germination of canola compared with wheat. It reached up to 91.76% inhibition at concentration 10%, but reached up only 23.33% in the case of wheat, respectively

  3. Exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola has no long-term impact on honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, G Christopher; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D

    2007-06-01

    We conducted a long-term investigation to ascertain effects on honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colonies during and after exposure to flowering canola, Brassica napus variety Hyola 420, grown from clothianidin-treated seed. Colonies were placed in the middle of 1-ha clothianidin seed-treated or control canola fields for 3 wk during bloom, and thereafter they were moved to a fall apiary. There were four treated and four control fields, and four colonies per field, giving 32 colonies total. Bee mortality, worker longevity, and brood development were regularly assessed in each colony for 130 d from initial exposure to canola. Samples of honey, beeswax, pollen, and nectar were regularly collected for 130 d, and the samples were analyzed for clothianidin residues by using high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. Overall, no differences in bee mortality, worker longevity, or brood development occurred between control and treatment groups throughout the study. Weight gains of and honey yields from colonies in treated fields were not significantly different from those in control fields. Although clothianidin residues were detected in honey, nectar, and pollen from colonies in clothianidin-treated fields, maximum concentrations detected were 8- to 22-fold below the reported no observable adverse effects concentration. Clothianidin residues were not detected in any beeswax sample. Assessment of overwintered colonies in spring found no differences in those originally exposed to treated or control canola. The results show that honey bee colonies will, in the long-term, be unaffected by exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola.

  4. Effect of Calcium Levels on Strontium Uptake by Canola Plants Grown on Different Texture Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shazly, A.A.; Rezk, M. A.; Abdel-Sabour, M.F.; Mousa, E.A.; Mostafa, M.A.Z.; Lotfy, S.M.; Farid, I.M.; Abbas, M.H.H.; Abbas, H.H.

    2016-01-01

    Canola is considered aphytoremediator where, it can remove adequate quantities of heavy metals when grown on polluted soils.This study aimed to investigate growth performance of canola plants grown on clayey non-calcareous, sandy non-calcareous and sandy clay loam calcareous soils with different CaCO 3 contents. These soils were artificially contaminated with 100 mg Sr kg -1 and cultivated with canola plants under three levels of applied calcium i.e. 0, 60 and 85 mg Ca kg -1 in the form of CaCl 2 . The grown plants were kept under the green house conditions until (pot experiment) maturity. Afterwards, plants were harvested, separated into shoots, roots and seeds, and analyzed for their contents of calcium and strontium. Application of calcium to the sandy soil increased Ca uptake by canola plants whereas, Sr uptake, plant growth and seed yield were reduced. In the other soils, Ca and Sr uptake values were increased with minimized Ca rate. Such increases were associated with significant increases in the plant biomass and crop yield in the clayey soil; whereas, in the sandy clay loam calcareous soil, such increases were insignificant. Increasing the dose of the applied Ca (its higher rate) was associated with significant reduction in the plant growth and seed yield in these two soils. Both the biological concentration factor and the biological accumulation factors were relatively high (>1). The biological transfer factor was also high indicating high translocation of Sr from root to shoot. However, Sr translocation decreased with Ca applications. Accordingly canola plants are highly recommended for phytoextraction of Sr from polluted soils

  5. Thallium and potassium uptake kinetics and competition differ between durum wheat and canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkema, Heidi; Koopmans, Amy; Hale, Beverley; Berkelaar, Edward

    2015-02-01

    Thallium (Tl) is very toxic to mammals but little is known about its accumulation by plants, and it would be useful if prediction of Tl accumulation could be done using potassium (K) accumulation models. The objectives of this study were to compare the uptake kinetics of Tl(+) and K(+), and to determine how readily K(+) can inhibit Tl(+) uptake. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) and spring canola (Brassica napus L.) were grown hydroponically and exposed to 0-75 μM Tl or 0-250 μM K for up to 150 min (kinetics experiment), or to 0.1 or 10 μM Tl with Tl to K ratios of 1:1 to 1:10,000 for up to 300 min (competition experiment). The rate of uptake of Tl(+) by canola was about three to five times faster than by wheat, while the rate of Tl(+) uptake in wheat was the same as the rate of K(+) uptake by either species. Uptake of Tl(+) was more readily suppressed by K(+) in wheat than in canola. When exposed to 0.1 uM Tl for 300 min with 100 or 1,000 uM K(+), Tl(+) uptake by wheat was reduced by 20 % and 50 %, respectively, while Tl(+) uptake by canola was not reduced. Our results suggest that predicting Tl accumulation using a K accumulation model with a correction factor may be possible for canola, but would be much more difficult for wheat, since uptake of Tl(+) is very sensitive to levels of K(.)

  6. Electro-catalytic biodiesel production from canola oil in methanolic and ethanolic solutions with low cost stainless steel and hybrid ion-exchange resin grafted electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allioux, Francois-Marie; Holland, Brendan J.; Kong, Lingxue; Dumée, Ludovic F.

    2017-07-01

    Biodiesel is a growing alternative to petroleum fuels and is produced by the catalysed transesterification of fats in presence of an alcohol base. Transesterification processes using homogeneous catalysts are considered to be amongst the most efficient methods but rely on the feedstock quality and low water content in order to avoid undesirable saponification reactions. In this work, the electro-catalytic conversion of canola oil to biodiesel in a 1% aqueous methanolic and ethanolic reaction mixture was performed without the addition of external catalyst or co-solvent. An inexpensive stainless steel electrode and a hybrid stainless steel electrode coated with an ion-exchange resin catalyst were used as cathode materials while the anode was composed of a plain carbon paper. The cell voltages were varied from 10 to 40 V and the reaction temperature maintained at 20 or 40°C. The canola oil conversion rates were found to be superior at 40°C without saponification reactions for cell voltages below 30 V. The conversion rates were as high as 87% for the hybrid electrode and 81% for the plain stainless steel electrode. This work could inspire new process development for the conversion of high water content feedstock for the production of second-generation biodiesel.

  7. Electro-Catalytic Biodiesel Production from Canola Oil in Methanolic and Ethanolic Solutions with Low-Cost Stainless Steel and Hybrid Ion-Exchange Resin Grafted Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Marie Allioux

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a growing alternative to petroleum fuels and is produced by the catalyzed transesterification of fats in presence of an alcohol base. Transesterification processes using homogeneous catalysts are considered to be among the most efficient methods but rely on the feedstock quality and low water content in order to avoid undesirable saponification reactions. In this work, the electro-catalytic conversion of canola oil to biodiesel in a 1% aqueous methanolic and ethanolic reaction mixture was performed without the addition of external catalyst or cosolvent. An inexpensive stainless steel (SS electrode and a hybrid SS electrode coated with an ion-exchange resin catalyst were used as cathode materials while the anode was composed of a plain carbon paper. The cell voltages were varied from 10 to 40 V and the reaction temperature maintained at 20 or 40°C. The canola oil conversion rates were found to be superior at 40°C without saponification reactions for cell voltages below 30 V. The conversion rates were as high as 87% for the hybrid electrode and 81% for the plain SS electrode. This work could inspire new process development for the conversion of high water content feedstock for the production of second-generation biodiesel.

  8. Evaluation of biochemical parameters and productive performance of japanese quail in response to the replacement of soybean meal with canola meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Saki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluation the different levels canola meal (CM replacement by soybean meal (SBM in Japanese quails diets on productive performance, egg quality trails and blood parameters including blood protein, minerals concentration, liver enzymes and thyroid hormones. In this study, 160 of Japanese quails in second laying phase from 46 to 56 weeks of age were divided in four treatments with four replicates and 10 quail in each per replicate, on a completely randomized design (CRD.Treatments consisted:T1 control (without CM, T2, T3 and T4 replacing 30, 60 and 90% of SBM with CM respectively. The results were shown no significant variation in body weight between treatments in initial and end of the experiment (p > 0.05. There was significant decrease in feed intake by increasing level of CM (p 0.05. However, the egg shell thickness showed significantly decreased with increasing levels of canola meal in the diet  (p < 0.05. According to this study results, 30% replacement of SBM by CM in the diet (contained 10% CM has no adverse effect on quail’s performance.

  9. Notice and Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final Renewable Fuel Standard Program from Canola Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This rule finalizes the determination that canola oil biodiesel meets the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction threshold of 50 required by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA).

  10. Nutritional and histopathological studies on Black Cutworm Agrotis Ipsilon (HUFN.) fed on irradiated Canola and bean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizk, S.A.; Mansour, W.; Abdel-Hamid, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    The black cutworm (fifth instar) were fed on leaves of canola and bean plants irradiated as seeds at the dose levels 10, 20 and 30 Gy. Their effects on food utilization, consumption, digestion and on the mid gut were detected. It was noticed that using irradiated bean and canola plants leads to decrease in values of consumption index and growth rate than control. Also, approximate digest ability (A.D), efficiency of conversion of digested food (E.C.D) and efficiency of conversion of ingested food (E.C.I) were also less than control in most treatments. A. ipsilon larvae fed on bean and canola plants gamma irradiated at the dose levels 10 and 30 Gy in both bean and canola plants, respectively, caused some histopathological changes such as separation of muscle layers, breakdown of epithelium with the appearance of some gaps as well as disintegration of epithelial cells and appearance of vacuoles

  11. Winters fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter's pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter's, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year's STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories

  12. Endogenous Phenolics in Hulls and Cotyledons of Mustard and Canola: A Comparative Study on Its Sinapates and Antioxidant Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Aachary, Ayyappan; Thiyam-Holländer, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous sinapic acid (SA), sinapine (SP), sinapoyl glucose (SG) and canolol (CAN) of canola and mustard seeds are the potent antioxidants in various lipid-containing systems. The study investigated these phenolic antioxidants using different fractions of canola and mustard seeds. Phenolic compounds were extracted from whole seeds and their fractions: hulls and cotyledons, using 70% methanol by the ultrasonication method and quantified using HPLC-DAD. The major phenolics from both hulls and...

  13. Application potential of ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy in animal nutrition: revelation of protein molecular structures of canola meal and presscake, as affected by heat-processing methods, in relationship with their protein digestive behavior and utilization for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Katerina; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-06-12

    Protein quality relies not only on total protein but also on protein inherent structures. The most commonly occurring protein secondary structures (α-helix and β-sheet) may influence protein quality, nutrient utilization, and digestive behavior. The objectives of this study were to reveal the protein molecular structures of canola meal (yellow and brown) and presscake as affected by the heat-processing methods and to investigate the relationship between structure changes and protein rumen degradations kinetics, estimated protein intestinal digestibility, degraded protein balance, and metabolizable protein. Heat-processing conditions resulted in a higher value for α-helix and β-sheet for brown canola presscake compared to brown canola meal. The multivariate molecular spectral analyses (PCA, CLA) showed that there were significant molecular structural differences in the protein amide I and II fingerprint region (ca. 1700-1480 cm(-1)) between the brown canola meal and presscake. The in situ degradation parameters, amide I and II, and α-helix to β-sheet ratio (R_a_β) were positively correlated with the degradable fraction and the degradation rate. Modeling results showed that α-helix was positively correlated with the truly absorbed rumen synthesized microbial protein in the small intestine when using both the Dutch DVE/OEB system and the NRC-2001 model. Concerning the protein profiles, R_a_β was a better predictor for crude protein (79%) and for neutral detergent insoluble crude protein (68%). In conclusion, ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy may be used to rapidly characterize feed structures at the molecular level and also as a potential predictor of feed functionality, digestive behavior, and nutrient utilization of canola feed.

  14. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.; Ebrahimi, S.R.; Azizi, S.; Shawrang, P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased (P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased (P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved (P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  15. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M., E-mail: mtaghinejad@iaut.ac.i [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, P.O. Box 51589, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, S.R. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 37515-374, Shahr-e-Qods (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azizi, S. [Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, P.O. Box 57155-1177, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shawrang, P. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased (P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased (P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved (P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  16. Effect of different forms of nitrogen fertlizers applied in the end of tillering on yield and quality of winter wheat grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Ducsay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1999 to 2001 in conditions of small-plot field experiments was carried out on loamy degraded chernozems at the Plant Breeding Station of Sládkovičovo-Nový Dvor to solve the problems of topdressing winter wheat (Triticum aestivum, L., variety Astella, with different forms of nitrogenous fertilizers. Nitrogenous fertilizers were applied at the growth phase of the 6th leaf (Zadoks = 29. Four various forms of fertilizers were exemined: urea solution, DAM-390, DAM-390 + Dumag, DASA. Different weather conditions statistically highly significantly influenced grain yield in respective experimental years. Topdressing with nitrogen (30 kg N.ha–1 caused statistically highly significant increase of grain yield in all fertilized variants ranging from +0.29 t.ha–1 (applied of DAM-390 to +0.69 t.ha–1 (applied of DASA according to respective treatments. Average grain yield in unfertilized control variant represented 7.23 t.ha–1. Nitrogen nutrition showed positive effect on the main macroelements offtake (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S by winter wheat grain in all fertilized variants. Nitrogen fertilizing positively influenced formation of wet gluten and crude protein with highest increment in variant with DASA and variant with DAM-390 + Dumag.

  17. Food grade microemulsion systems: canola oil/lecithin:n-propanol/water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Soleiman; Radi, Mohsen

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the capability of a natural surfactant, lecithin, and the influence of ionic strength, pH, and temperature on some properties of a food grade microemulsion system were evaluated. For this purpose, the pseudoternary phase diagrams of canola oil/lecithin:n-propanol/water microemulsions in the presence of different salts (NaCl and CaCl2), ionic strengths, pHs, and temperatures were constructed. Our findings showed that the presence of salts slightly increased the W/O areas on the phase diagrams, whereas pH variation was not effective on the microemulsion formation. The expansion of microemulsion areas with temperature indicated the greater triglycerides solubilization capacity of lecithin based microemulsions at higher temperatures. These findings revealed the efficiency of lecithin-based microemulsion system for solubilization of triglycerides which can potentially be used for extraction of edible vegetable oils particularly canola oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fungal enzyme production in seeds of transgenic canola plants for conversion of cellulosic materials to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, K.J.; Beauchemin, K.A. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Moloney, M.M. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1997-07-01

    The fuel alcohol industry makes use of industrial enzymes to effectively degrade fibrous plant cell walls. Carbohydrates in cellulosic materials are in the form of complex sugars that can be hydrolyzed to simple sugars by fungal fibrolytic enzymes such as cellulases and xylanases. This study was conducted to find a cost effective way to produce fibrolytic enzymes using gene fusion technology in which a xylanase gene and a cellulase gene from two fungal species are introduced into canola to be a carrier for the production of these enzymes. The two genes had been analyzed for maximal enzymatic activity to minimize side effects. Results of the study demonstrated the stability and potential of transgenic oil-bodies as an immobilized enzyme matrix, and showed that it is possible to express fibrolytic enzymes in canola.

  19. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  20. Deer Wintering Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  1. Light response of sunflower and canola as affected by plant density, plant genotype and N fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, A

    2017-08-01

    Crop response to light is an important parameter determining crop growth. Three field (split plots) experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of plant density, plant genotype and N fertilization on the light absorption and light extinction of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.). A detailed set of plant growth, light absorption and crop yield and oil related parameters were determined. Light was measured at noon during the sunny days with clear sky. In experiment I, although the plant density (PD) of 14 resulted in the highest rate of sunflower light absorption (31.37%) and light extinction (0.756), the highest rate of grain yield and grain oil yield was resulted at PD12 at 3639 and 1457.9kg/ha, respectively; as well as by genotype SUP.A. In experiment II (canola), PD80 resulted in the highest rate of light absorption (13.13%), light extinction (0.63), grain yield (2189.4kg/ha) and grain oil yield (556.54kg/ha). This was also the case for Genotype H. In experiment III (canola), although N150 resulted in the highest rate of light absorption (10.74%) and light extinction (0.48), the highest rate of grain yield (3413.6kg/ha) and grain oil yield (891.86kg/ha) was resulted at N100 as well as by Genotype H401. Results indicate how light properties, crop growth and yield of sunflower and canola can be affected by plant and environmental parameters, which are also of practical use by farmers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genome-wide Association Study Identifies New Loci for Resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans in Canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Raman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is a significant disease which affects the sustainable production of canola. This study reports a genome-wide association study based on 18,804 polymorphic SNPs to identify loci associated with qualitative and quantitative resistance to L. maculans. Genomic regions delimited with 503 significant SNP markers, that are associated with resistance evaluated using 12 single spore isolates and pathotypes from four canola stubble were identified. Several significant associations were detected at known disease resistance loci including in the vicinity of recently cloned Rlm2/LepR3 genes, and at new loci on chromosomes A01/C01, A02/C02, A03/C03, A05/C05, A06, A08, and A09. In addition, we validated statistically significant associations on A01, A07 and A10 in four genetic mapping populations, demonstrating that GWAS marker loci are indeed associated with resistance to L. maculans. One of the novel loci identified for the first time, Rlm12, conveys adult plant resistance and mapped within 13.2 kb from Arabidopsis R gene of TIR-NBS class. We showed that resistance loci are located in the vicinity of R genes of A. thaliana and B. napus on the sequenced genome of B. napus cv. Darmor-bzh. Significantly associated SNP markers provide a valuable tool to enrich germplasm for favorable alleles in order to improve the level of resistance to L. maculans in canola.

  3. Lipid composition and emulsifying properties of canola lecithin from enzymatic degumming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Meizhen; Dunford, Nurhan Turgut

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the polar lipid composition and emulsifying properties of canola lecithin from enzymatic degumming (CLED). Phospholipase A 1 was used for enzymatic degumming of crude canola oil to collect lecithin sample. Canola lecithin from water degumming (CLWD) was also collected and served as the control. The results showed that the contents of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (2.99%) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) (6.59%) in CLED were significantly lower than that in CLWD (PE 15.55% and PC 21.93%); while the content of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) (19.45%) in CLED was significantly higher than that in CLWD (3.27%). Unsaturated fatty acids accounted for a higher percentage of the total fatty acids in CLED than in CLWD. CLED promoted more stable o/w emulsions than CLWD. This study provides a better understanding of the chemical nature of CLED, and important information for utilization of CLED as o/w emulsifier. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of feeding high protein or conventional canola meal on dry cured and conventionally cured bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, K L; Bohrer, B M; Stein, H H; Boler, D D

    2015-05-01

    Objectives were to compare belly, bacon processing, bacon slice, and sensory characteristics from pigs fed high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). Soybean meal was replaced with 0 (control), 33, 66, or 100% of both types of canola meal. Left side bellies from 70 carcasses were randomly assigned to conventional or dry cure treatment and matching right side bellies were assigned the opposite treatment. Secondary objectives were to test the existence of bilateral symmetry on fresh belly characteristics and fatty acid profiles of right and left side bellies originating from the same carcass. Bellies from pigs fed CM-HP were slightly lighter and thinner than bellies from pigs fed CM-CV, yet bacon processing, bacon slice, and sensory characteristics were unaffected by dietary treatment and did not differ from the control. Furthermore, testing the existence of bilateral symmetry on fresh belly characteristics revealed that bellies originating from the right side of the carcasses were slightly (P≤0.05) wider, thicker, heavier and firmer than bellies from the left side of the carcass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensitivity of Canola Seeds Associated Fungi to Gamma Rays During Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botros, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of using the gamma radiation to elongate the storage periods of canola seeds (Brassica naps L.). In this respect, canola seeds were irradiated at doses of 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy gamma rays and stored at room temperature for periods 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. The isolated fungi from non-irradiated post-harvest canola seeds included different species identified as Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. condidus, A. fumigatus, A. ochraceus, A. parasiticus, Fusarium oxysporium, F. moniliforme, Penicillium expansum, P. crysogenum, Alternaria brassicae, A. raphani and Trichoderma spp. It was noticed that the predominant species were A. ochraceus, A. flavus, A. niger and F. oxysporium at percentages 16.18, 14.73, 11.00 and 10.53%, respectively. The effective gamma irradiation on the predominant fungi (the sub-lethal dose) was 3.5 kGy for A. ochraceus and 5.0 kGy for F. oxysporium and F. moniliforme. Increasing the irradiated dose up to 7.5 kGy decreased significantly the growth of most isolated fungi. The data also showed that there was a decrease in the total fungal count in stored seeds under the effect of gamma rays for 12 months storage. Also, mycotoxins at the stored seeds were not detected after 12 months storage

  6. Time-Series Analyses of Transcriptomes and Proteomes Reveal Molecular Networks Underlying Oil Accumulation in Canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Huafang; Cui, Yixin; Ding, Yijuan; Mei, Jiaqin; Dong, Hongli; Zhang, Wenxin; Wu, Shiqi; Liang, Ying; Zhang, Chunyu; Li, Jiana; Xiong, Qing; Qian, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the regulation of lipid metabolism is vital for genetic engineering of canola ( Brassica napus L.) to increase oil yield or modify oil composition. We conducted time-series analyses of transcriptomes and proteomes to uncover the molecular networks associated with oil accumulation and dynamic changes in these networks in canola. The expression levels of genes and proteins were measured at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after pollination (WAP). Our results show that the biosynthesis of fatty acids is a dominant cellular process from 2 to 6 WAP, while the degradation mainly happens after 6 WAP. We found that genes in almost every node of fatty acid synthesis pathway were significantly up-regulated during oil accumulation. Moreover, significant expression changes of two genes, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and acyl-ACP desaturase, were detected on both transcriptomic and proteomic levels. We confirmed the temporal expression patterns revealed by the transcriptomic analyses using quantitative real-time PCR experiments. The gene set association analysis show that the biosynthesis of fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids are the most significant biological processes from 2-4 WAP and 4-6 WAP, respectively, which is consistent with the results of time-series analyses. These results not only provide insight into the mechanisms underlying lipid metabolism, but also reveal novel candidate genes that are worth further investigation for their values in the genetic engineering of canola.

  7. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of diet NE and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance and physiological parameters of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet or diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). A total of 492 pigs...... (initial BW: 9.15 ± 0.06 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design with 12 dietary treatments and 9 pens per treatment. A control diet based on corn and SBM and 4 diets containing 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV were formulated to a similar NE by adjusting inclusion of choice white grease....... Four additional diets also contained 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV, but no additional choice white grease, and NE in these diets, therefore, was less than in the control diet. The control diet and the diets containing 30% CM-HP or CM-CV without increased choice white grease were also formulated...

  8. The use of PCR assay for quality testing of grain of winter wheat cultivated in organic, integrated, conventional system and monoculture in phytopathological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Łukanowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of experiments was to evaluate the occurrence of fungi on grain of winter wheat cv. Roma cultivated in four systems on the experimental fields owned by the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation. Among pathogenic species, fungi from genus Fusarium dominated. Their number was the lowest on grain harvested in organic system and the highest in integrated one. Saprotrophic species were represented mainly by Alternaria alternata, which occurred the most often in organic system. Determination of F. avenaceum, F. culmorum and F. poae with microscope was confirmed with a PCR assay. All isolates of F. culmorum and F. poae gave an amplification product of Tri 5 gene coding the possibility of trichocene production, while none of isolates of F. avenaceum.

  9. The economic and environmental cost of delayed GM crop adoption: The case of Australia's GM canola moratorium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biden, Scott; Smyth, Stuart J; Hudson, David

    2018-01-02

    Incorporating socio-economic considerations (SECs) into national biosafety regulations regarding genetically modified (GM) crops have opportunity costs. Australia approved the cultivation of GM canola through a science-based risk assessment in 2003, but allowed state moratoria to be instituted based on potential trade impacts over the period 2004 to 2008 and 2010 in the main canola growing states. This analysis constructs a counterfactual assessment using Canadian GM canola adoption data to create an S-Curve of adoption in Australia to measure the environmental and economic opportunity costs of Australia's SEC-based moratoria between 2004 and 2014. The environmental impacts are measured through the amount of chemical active ingredients applied during pest management, the Environmental Impact Quotient indicator, and greenhouse gas emissions. The economic impacts are measured through the variable costs of the weed control programs, yield and the contribution margin. The environmental opportunity costs from delaying the adoption of GM canola in Australia include an additional 6.5 million kilograms of active ingredients applied to canola land; a 14.3% increase in environmental impact to farmers, consumers and the ecology; 8.7 million litres of diesel fuel burned; and an additional 24.2 million kilograms of greenhouse gas (GHG) and compound emissions released. The economic opportunity costs of the SEC-based moratoria resulted in foregone output of 1.1 million metric tonnes of canola and a net economic loss to canola farmers' of AU$485.6 million. The paper provides some of the first quantified, post-adoption evidence on the opportunity cost and environmental impacts of incorporating SECs into GM crop regulation.

  10. Oxidative stability of rice bran, corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils d baking process and storage of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Jahani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of bread lipids during baking and storage reduces the nutritional value of the product and leads to the formation of off-flavors and off-odors. In this research, oxidative stability of rice bran, corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils during Brotchen bread baking process and storage was evaluated. Baking process caused a significant increase in oxidative indices such as peroxide, anisidine, Totox and thiobarbitoric acid values and free fatty acid content. However, storage of breads for 6 days in room temperature did not affect the value of the indices. Generaly, the value of the indices in bread containing rice bran oil was lower than those of the other breads, which indicated the higher oxidative stability of rice bran oil in baking process and storage. Pure oils treated in simulated baking process and storage had an oxidative quality similar to that of breads. This means that bread ingridients may not have an effect on oil oxidative stability. Bread containing rice bran oil gained also higher scores in sensory evaluation, which of course were in agree with its better oxidative status.

  11. The nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhow, Y.P.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear winter is an example of possible secondary effects, and if we speak of secondary we are thinking of small-scale second-order effects, but a nuclear winter is not a second-order effect. If you calculate the amount of heat produced by a nuclear explosion, it is a very small amount which does not have any chance of changing the Earth's climate, but a nuclear explosion drives or stars some new mechanism - the mechanism of nuclear winter - after 100 megatons of dust are transferred to the upper atmosphere. Another example of such amplification is radioactive fall-out, especially long-life radioactive fall-out after the possible elimination of the nuclear power industry, nuclear storage and distribution of storage waste around the globe. This is a very powerful amplification mechanism

  12. Endogenous Phenolics in Hulls and Cotyledons of Mustard and Canola: A Comparative Study on Its Sinapates and Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamchand Mayengbam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous sinapic acid (SA, sinapine (SP, sinapoyl glucose (SG and canolol (CAN of canola and mustard seeds are the potent antioxidants in various lipid-containing systems. The study investigated these phenolic antioxidants using different fractions of canola and mustard seeds. Phenolic compounds were extracted from whole seeds and their fractions: hulls and cotyledons, using 70% methanol by the ultrasonication method and quantified using HPLC-DAD. The major phenolics from both hulls and cotyledons extracts were SP, with small amounts of SG, and SA with a significant difference of phenolic contents between the two seed fractions. Cotyledons showed relatively high content of SP, SA, SG and total phenolics in comparison to hulls (p < 0.001. The concentration of SP in different fractions ranged from 1.15 ± 0.07 to 12.20 ± 1.16 mg/g and followed a decreasing trend- canola cotyledons > mustard cotyledons > mustard seeds > canola seeds > mustard hulls > canola hulls. UPLC-tandem Mass Spectrometry confirmed the presence of sinapates and its fragmentation in these extracts. Further, a high degree of correlation (r = 0.93 was noted between DPPH scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

  13. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayats, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  14. Effect of phytase supplementation to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on phosphorus and calcium balance in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, W.C.; Cervantes, M.; He, J.M.M.; Schulze, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two metabolism experiments were carried out, to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on P and Ca balance in growing. pigs; In experiment 1, six barrows (29.6kg: initial LW) were fed a barley-canola meal diet, without or. with phytase

  15. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  16. Impact of planting dates and insecticide strategies for managing crucifer flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in spring-planted canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knodel, Janet J; Olson, Denise L; Hanson, Bryan K; Henson, Robert A

    2008-06-01

    Integration of cultural practices, such as planting date with insecticide-based strategies, was investigated to determine best management strategy for flea beetles (Phyllotreta spp.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in canola (Brassica napus L.). We studied the effect of two spring planting dates of B. napus and different insecticide-based management strategies on the feeding injury caused by fleabeetles in North Dakota during 2002-2003. Adult beetle peak emergence usually coincided with the emergence of the early planted canola, and this resulted in greater feeding injury in the early planted canola than later planted canola. Use of late-planted canola may have limited potential for cultural control of flea beetle, because late-planted canola is at risk for yield loss due to heat stress during flowering. Flea beetle injury ratings declined when 1) the high rate of insecticide seed treatment plus a foliar insecticide applied 21 d after planting was used, 2) the high rate of insecticide seed treatment only was used, or 3) two foliar insecticide sprays were applied. These insecticide strategies provided better protection than the low rates of insecticide seed treatments or a single foliar spray, especially in areas with moderate-to-high flea beetle populations. The foliar spray on top of the seed treatment controlled later-emerging flea beetles as the seed treatment residual was diminishing and the crop became vulnerable to feeding injury. The best insecticide strategy for management of flea beetle was the high rate of insecticide seed treatment plus a foliar insecticide applied at 21 d after planting, regardless of planting date.

  17. In Vitro Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Fatty Acid Profiles Added with Calcium Soap of Canola/Flaxseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suharti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to assess the effect of adding canola oil and flaxseed oil which were protected with calcium soap (Ca-soap on the fermentation characteristics, rumen microbial population, and the profile of fatty acids in the rumen during 4 and 8 hours in the in vitro fermentation. The research design used in this study was a completely randomized block design with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments consisted of control ration (Napier grass and concentrate at the ratio of 60 : 40, control + 6% of Ca-soap of canola oil, and control + 6% of Ca-soap of flaxseed oil. Variables observed were pH value, NH3 concentration, volatile fatty acid (VFA, dry matter and organic matter digestibility, and fatty acid profile.  The results showed that the addition of Ca-soap of canola or flaxseed oil did not affect the pH value, NH3 concentration, dry matter digestibility, organic matter digestibility, total population of bacteria and protozoa in the rumen. However, the total production of ruminal VFA was increased (P<0.05 with the addition of Ca soap of canola oil/flaxseed oil. The use of Ca-soap of flaxseed oil increased (P<0.05 the content of unsaturated fatty acids in the rumen at 4 h incubation. The addition of Ca-soap of flaxseed oil resulted the lowest (P<0.05 level of unsaturated fatty acids biohydrogenation compared to the other treatments at 4 h incubation. In conclusion, the addition of Ca soap of canola/flaxseed oil could improve VFA total production. Vegetable oils protected using calcium soap could inhibit unsaturated fatty acid biohidrogenation by rumen microbes. Ca-soap of flaxseed oil could survive from rumen biohydrogenation in the rumen better than Ca-soap of canola oil.

  18. Digestibilidade aparente de dietas com diferentes níveis de farelo de canola para cavalos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Kátia de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados quatro eqüinos, machos, com média de 3,5 anos e peso vivo entre 400-450 kg, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental em quadrado latino 4 x 4 (período x animal. Os níveis de inclusão do farelo de canola nas rações foram de 0,0; 2,5; 4,5 e 7,0%, substituindo, respectivamente, 0; 35; 65 e 100% da proteína bruta (PB do farelo de soja. As rações foram isoprotéicas (13% PB e isocalóricas (4250 kcal/kg. Utilizou-se o método de coleta total de fezes para determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade dos nutrientes. Não houve efeito entre os níveis de substituição da proteína bruta do farelo de soja pelo farelo de canola para nenhum dos nutrientes avaliados. Os valores médios obtidos para os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, energia bruta, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido foram, respectivamente, 64,04; 55,82; 62,89; 51,20 e 42,05%. Os concentrados para eqüinos podem ser formulados com substituição total da proteína bruta do farelo de soja pelo farelo de canola (nível de inclusão de 7%, sem afetar adversamente a digestibilidade dos nutrientes, tornando-se, assim, uma fonte protéica alternativa para as dietas desta espécie.

  19. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter J H; MacKay, Dylan S; Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A; Hantgan, Roy R; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2015-02-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets: 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p = 0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p = 0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p = 0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. EFFECTS OF SEED IRRADIATION ON 14C FIXATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF VITAMIN C AND TOTAL PHENOLS OF CANOLA LEAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAMEL, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Seeds of canola were gamma irradiated with doses of 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 Gy then cultivated in 30 cm plastic pots containing 7 kg clay soil. After 45 days of cultivation, plants were used to measure 14 C fixation capacity, vitamin C, total phenol, free proline and peroxidase activity in addition to the antioxidant activity. The results showed decrease in the chlorophyll content and 14 C fixation at all gamma doses. Irradiation of canola seeds caused significant reduction in vitamin C and phenol content, while significant increase was occurred in free proline and peroxidase activity. Antioxidant activity of vitamin C was higher than that of phenols at all doses used

  1. Effects of Drought Stress on Canola (Brassica napus L. Genotypes Yield and Yield Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Khani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Canola (Brassica napus L. genotypes with wide adaptability to environmental conditions could play a major role in Iran’s oilseed crop production. Selection of high performing genotypes is very important for developing canola cultivation. Water stress can reduce crop yield by affecting both source and sink for assimilation. Canola yield depends on genotype and environmental conditions and response of genotypes to environmental factors. Canola genotypes response to stress depends on the developmental stage and the events occurring prior to and during flowering stage. Resistance to water stress is divided to avoidance and tolerance. Some species are tolerable against water stress. In a while, other species respond ending life cycle, falling leaves and other reactions into water stress. Therefore, investigation of canola genotypes response to water stress in phenological growth stages can be valuable in order to determine resistant or tolerant genotypes. Materials and Methods In order to study the effect of drought stress on canola genotypes yield and its components, an experiment was conducted in 2013-2014 as a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the research farm, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of East-Azarbaijan, Tabriz-Iran. Three levels of drought stress were considered as main plot (No-stress, stress at the flowering and pod setting growth stages and 18 canola genotypes including HW113, RS12, Karaj1, KR18, L73, L72, HW101, L146, L210, L183, SW101, L5, L201, HW118, KR4, Karaj2, Karaj3 and KS7 as subplots. Flood irrigation was scheduled at 50% field capacity, 30 and 30% field capacity for no-stress, stress at the flowering and pod setting growth stages, respectively; i.e. soil moisture capacity was maintained at 30% by irrigating to 100% field capacity when available moisture reached 30% in drought stress treatments. An ANOVA was conducted using the PROC-GLM procedure

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical composition and ruminal protein degradation of canola meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawrang, P. [Agriculture, Medical and Industrial Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tehran University P.O. Box 4111, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: parvinshawrang@yahoo.co.uk; Nikkhah, A.; Zare-Shahneh, A. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tehran University P.O. Box 4111, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, A.A. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14515-4933, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raisali, G. [Radiation Applications Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 11365-3486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi-Shahrebabak, M. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tehran University P.O. Box 4111, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    Gamma irradiation of canola meal (at doses of 25, 50 and 75 kGy) could alter its ruminal protein degradation characteristics by cross-linking of the polypeptide chains. This processing resulted in decrease (linear effect, P<0.001) of ruminal protein degradation and increase (linear effect, P<0.001) of intestinal protein digestibility. The results showed that gamma irradiation at doses higher than 25 kGy can be used as a cross-linking agent to improve protein properties of supplements in ruminant nutrition.

  3. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical composition and ruminal protein degradation of canola meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawrang, P.; Nikkhah, A.; Zare-Shahneh, A.; Sadeghi, A.A.; Raisali, G.; Moradi-Shahrebabak, M.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma irradiation of canola meal (at doses of 25, 50 and 75 kGy) could alter its ruminal protein degradation characteristics by cross-linking of the polypeptide chains. This processing resulted in decrease (linear effect, P<0.001) of ruminal protein degradation and increase (linear effect, P<0.001) of intestinal protein digestibility. The results showed that gamma irradiation at doses higher than 25 kGy can be used as a cross-linking agent to improve protein properties of supplements in ruminant nutrition

  4. Genetic variation and inheritance of phytosterol and oil content in a doubled haploid population derived from the winter oilseed rape Sansibar × Oase cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Lishia; Möllers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Identification of QTL for phytosterol content, oil content, fatty acids content, protein content of defatted meal, and seed weight by multiple interval mapping in a Brassica napus DH population. Phytosterols are minor seed constituents in oilseed rape which have recently drawn wide-interest from the food and nutrition industry due to their health benefit in lowering LDL cholesterol in humans. To understand the genetic basis of phytosterol content and its relationship with other seed quality traits in oilseed rape, QTL mapping was performed in a segregating DH population derived from the cross of two winter oilseed rape varieties, Sansibar and Oase, termed SODH population. Both parental lines are of canola quality which differ in phytosterol and oil content in seed. A genetic map was constructed for SODH population based on a total of 1638 markers organized in 23 linkage groups and covering a map length of 2350 cM with a mean marker interval of 2.0 cM. The SODH population and the parental lines were cultivated at six environments in Europe and were phenotyped for phytosterol content, oil content, fatty acids content, protein content of the defatted meal, and seed weight. Multiple interval mapping identified between one and six QTL for nine phytosterol traits, between two and six QTL for four fatty acids, five QTL for oil content, four QTL for protein content of defatted meal, and three QTL for seed weight. Colocalizations of QTL for different traits were more frequently observed than individual isolated QTL. Major QTL (R (2) ≥ 25%) were all located in the A genome, and the possible candidate genes were investigated by physical localization of the QTL to the reference genome sequence of Brassica rapa.

  5. Cold pressed versus refined winterized corn oils: quality, composition and aroma; Aceites de maiz prensados en frío Vs. refinado y winterizado: calidad, composición y aroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydeniz Güneşer, B.; Yılmaz, E.; Ok, S.

    2017-07-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize and compare cold pressed and fully refined winterized corn oils. Free fatty acidity (FFA), peroxide (PV) and p-anisidin (p-AV) values, saponification number, total carotenoid and phenolic contents of cold pressed corn oils were higher than that of the refined winterized corn oils. Linoleic and oleic acids (approximately 53-54% and 30-31%, respectively) were detected as the major fatty acids in both oil samples. Fifteen different sterols with a majority of β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol were quantified in both oil samples. Although phenolic compounds were not quantified in the refined winterized oil samples, some flavonoids (hesperidin, rutin) and phenolic acids (gallic, syringic, rosmaniric and trans-ferulic) were detected in the cold pressed oil samples. This study concludes that cold pressed corn oils could be superior in terms of bioactive compounds but still need some quality improvements for sensory attributes. [Spanish] Los objetivos de este estudio fueron caracterizar y comparar los aceites de maíz prensados en frío y los totalmente winterizados y refinados. Los valores de acidez libre (FFA), peróxidos (PV) y p-anisidina (p-AV), índice de saponificación, contenido total de carotenoides y compuestos fenólicos de los aceites de maíz prensados en frío fueron superiores a los de los aceites de maíz refinados. Los ácidos linoleico y oleico (aproximadamente 53-54% y 30-31%, respectivamente) fueron los ácidos grasos mayoritarios en ambas muestras de aceite. Quince esteroles diferentes fueron cuantificados en ambos aceites siendo los mayoritarios β-sitosterol, campesterol y estigmasterol. Aunque los compuestos fenólicos no se cuantificaron en las muestras refinadas de aceites winterizados, se detectaron algunos flavonoides (hesperidina, rutina) y ácidos fenólicos (gálico, siríngico, rosmarínico y trans-ferúlico) en muestras de aceite prensado en frío. En este estudio se concluye que los

  6. Severe European winters in a secular perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Andreas; Hänsel, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    Temperature conditions during the winter time are substantially shaped by a strong year-to-year variability. European winters since the late 1980s - compared to previous decades and centuries - were mainly characterised by a high temperature level, including recent record-warm winters. Yet, comparably cold winters and severe cold spells still occur nowadays, like recently observed from 2009 to 2013 and in early 2017. Central England experienced its second coldest December since start of observations more than 350 years ago in 2010, and some of the lowest temperatures ever measured in northern Europe (below -50 °C in Lapland) were recorded in January 1999. Analysing thermal characteristics and spatial distribution of severe (historical) winters - using early instrumental data - helps expanding and consolidating our knowledge of past weather extremes. This contribution presents efforts towards this direction. We focus on a) compiling and assessing a very long-term instrumental, spatially widespread and well-distributed, high-quality meteorological data set to b) investigate very cold winter temperatures in Europe from early measurements until today. In a first step, we analyse the longest available time series of monthly temperature averages within Europe. Our dataset extends from the Nordic countries up to the Mediterranean and from the British Isles up to Russia. We utilise as much as possible homogenised times series in order to ensure reliable results. Homogenised data derive from the NORDHOM (Scandinavia) and HISTALP (greater alpine region) datasets or were obtained from national weather services and universities. Other (not specifically homogenised) data were derived from the ECA&D dataset or national institutions. The employed time series often start already during the 18th century, with Paris & Central England being the longest datasets (from 1659). In a second step, daily temperature averages are involved. Only some of those series are homogenised, but

  7. Interactions between Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci and associations of selected molecular markers with quality traits in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) DH lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystkowiak, Karolina; Langner, Monika; Adamski, Tadeusz; Salmanowicz, Bolesław P; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Krajewski, Paweł; Surma, Maria

    2017-02-01

    The quality of wheat depends on a large complex of genes and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci controlling technological quality traits and their stability across environments, and to assess the impact of interaction between alleles at loci Glu-1 and Glu-3 on grain quality. DH lines were evaluated in field experiments over a period of 4 years, and genotyped using simple sequence repeat markers. Lines were analysed for grain yield (GY), thousand grain weight (TGW), protein content (PC), starch content (SC), wet gluten content (WG), Zeleny sedimentation value (ZS), alveograph parameter W (APW), hectolitre weight (HW), and grain hardness (GH). A number of QTLs for these traits were identified in all chromosome groups. The Glu-D1 locus influenced TGW, PC, SC, WG, ZS, APW, GH, while locus Glu-B1 affected only PC, ZS, and WG. Most important marker-trait associations were found on chromosomes 1D and 5D. Significant effects of interaction between Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci on technological properties were recorded, and in all types of this interaction positive effects of Glu-D1 locus on grain quality were observed, whereas effects of Glu-B1 locus depended on alleles at Glu-3 loci. Effects of Glu-A3 and Glu-D3 loci per se were not significant, while their interaction with alleles present at other loci encoding HMW and LMW were important. These results indicate that selection of wheat genotypes with predicted good bread-making properties should be based on the allelic composition both in Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, and confirm the predominant effect of Glu-D1d allele on technological properties of wheat grains.

  8. Editorial - The winter Atomiades

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    As we wrote in our previous editorial, the Staff Association gives direct support to sports events, such as the Atomiades, a section of the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, which brings together sportsmen and women from 38 European research centres in 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland). The summer Atomiades take place between the months of June and September every three years. Thirteen such events have taken place since 1973, the last one in June 2009 in Berlin. As far as the winter Atomiades are concerned, also organized every three years, and alternating with the summer Atomiades, there have been eleven since 1981, the last one at the end of January this year in neighbouring France. The following article tells the wonderful adventure of the CERN staff who took part in this event. A positive outcome for CERN skiers at the winter Atomiades The 11t...

  9. Winter forage quality of oats (avena sativa), barley (hordeum vulgare) and vetch (vicia sativa) in pure stand and cereal legume mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Z.

    2015-01-01

    A field study was carried out for two consecutive years in subtropical rainfed conditions of Rawalpindi, Pakistan to evaluate the forage quality of oats, barley and vetch grown in pure stands and cereal-legume mixtures. Treatments comprised oats pure stand, oats in oats-vetch mixture, barley pure stand, barley in barley-vetch mixture, vetch pure stand, vetch in oats-vetch mixture and vetch in barley-vetch mixture. Forage yield and quality of oats and barley were improved in oats-vetch and barley-vetch mixtures than their respective pure stands. The higher values of crude protein (CP) and lower values of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) reflected quality forage. CP for oats in oats-vetch -1 -1 mixture and barley in barley-vetch mixture was 175 g kg and 170 g kg, -1 respectively. NDF and ADF for oats in oats-vetch mixture were 494 g kg /sup -1/ and 341 g kg, respectively; while these values for barley in barley-vetch -1 -1 mixture were 340 g kg and 176 g kg, respectively. (author)

  10. Winter is losing its cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S.

    2017-12-01

    Winter seasons have significant societal impacts across all sectors ranging from direct human health to ecosystems, transportation, and recreation. This study quantifies the severity of winter and its spatial-temporal variations using a newly developed winter severity index and daily temperature, snowfall and snow depth. The winter severity and the number of extreme winter days are decreasing across the global terrestrial areas during 1901-2015 except the southeast United States and isolated regions in the Southern Hemisphere. These changes are dominated by winter warming, while the changes in daily snowfall and snow depth played a secondary role. The simulations of multiple CMIP5 climate models can well capture the spatial and temporal variations of the observed changes in winter severity and extremes during 1951-2005. The models are consistent in projecting a future milder winter under various scenarios. The winter severity is projected to decrease 60-80% in the middle-latitude Northern Hemisphere under the business-as-usual scenario. The winter arrives later, ends earlier and the length of winter season will be notably shorter. The changes in harsh winter in the polar regions are weak, mainly because the warming leads to more snowfall in the high latitudes.

  11. Characterization (environmental Signature) and Function of the Main Instrumented (monitoring Water Quality Network in Real Time) Rivers Atoyac and Zahuapan in High Atoyac Basin; in Dry, Rain and Winter Season 2013-2014; Puebla-Tlaxcala Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavera, E. M.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, P. F.; Morales-Garcia, S. S.; Muñoz-Sevilla, N. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Zahuapan and Atoyac rivers were characterized in the Upper Atoyac through the integration of physical and chemical parameters (environmental firm) determining the behavior and function of the basin as a tool for measuring and monitoring the quality and management of water resources of the water in one of the most polluted rivers in Mexico. For the determination of the environmental signature proceeded to characterize the water through 11 physicochemical parameters: temperature (T), potential hydrogen (pH), dissolved oxygen (DO), spectral absorption coefficient (SAC), the reduction of oxide potential (ORP), turbidity (Turb), conductivity (l), biochemical oxygen demand in 5 days (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS ), which were evaluated in 49 sites in the dry season, 47 for the rainy season and 23 for the winter season in the basin and Atoyac Zahuapan Alto Atoyac, Puebla-Tlaxcala, Mexico river; finding a mathematical algorithm to assimilate and better represent the information obtained. The algorithm allows us to estimate correlation greater than 0.85. The results allow us to propose the algorithm used in the monitoring stations for purposes of processing information assimilated form.This measurement and monitoring of water quality supports the project, the monitoring network in real time and the actions to clean up Atoyac River, in the urban area of the city of Puebla.

  12. Effect of rhizobacteria inoculation and humic acid application on canola (Brassica napus L.) crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Duar, I.; Solaimani, S.G.A.; Mahmood, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and humic acid (HA) as bio-stimulants to improve the growth, yield and nutrition of canola (Brassica napus L.). In this study, we isolated 20 indigenous rhizobacterial strains that were subsequently screened and characterized for their plant growth promoting traits. After that one promising PGPR strain identified as Acinetobacter pittii by 16S rRNA gene sequencing was selected for field trial. The field experiment was conducted using RCB design with split-plot arrangement that was replicated four times. Three levels of humic acid (0, 10 and 20 kg ha-1) as main plot factor and two treatments of PGPR (with and without PGPR) as sub-plot factor were used. Data was recorded on plant height (cm), root dry matter plant-1, number of lateral root plant-1, number of pods plant-1, number of seeds pod-1, 1000 seed weight (g), seed yield(kg ha-1), oil content (%), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) contents and uptake. For most of the above mentioned parameters, significant enhancement was observed with the increment of humic acid, and also PGPR treatments were better than their respective control treatments. Maximum values of these parameters were recorded for the interaction of 20 kg HA ha-1 with the PGPR strain. It can be concluded that integrated application of HA and PGPR is a better strategy to improve nutrition and yield of canola. (author)

  13. Abnormal spindles in second meiosis in canola (Brassica napus and Brassica campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Maria de Souza

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the occurrence of abnormal spindles in the second meiotic division in some canola cultivars recently introduced in Brazil. Fusion of spindles was observed in metaphase II rejoining the two sets of chromosomes segregated in anaphase I and also sequential and tripolar spindles were discovered rejoining two sets of chromatids segregated in anaphase II. The frequency of cells with abnormal spindles ranged from 3.18 to 8.10%. The results suggested that this abnormality was caused by environmental stress that affected the plants during the blooming period.O presente estudo descreve a ocorrência de fusos anormais na segunda divisão meiótica em algumas cultivares da canola recentemente introduzidas no Brasil. Fusão de fusos foi observada em metáfase II reunindo os dois conjuntos cromossômicos segregados na anáfase I; fusos sequenciais e tripolares reunindo cromátides segregadas na anáfase II também foram observados. A frequência de células com fusos anormais variou de 3,18 a 8,10% entre as variedades. Os resultados sugerem que estas anormalidades foram causadas por condições climáticas adversas que afetaram as plantas no período de florescimento. As implicações genéticas destas anormalidades são descritas.

  14. Applying a particle filtering technique for canola crop growth stage estimation in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Abhijit; Tan, Weikai; Li, Yifeng; McNairn, Heather; Jiao, Xianfeng; Hosseini, Mehdi

    2017-10-01

    Accurate crop growth stage estimation is important in precision agriculture as it facilitates improved crop management, pest and disease mitigation and resource planning. Earth observation imagery, specifically Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data, can provide field level growth estimates while covering regional scales. In this paper, RADARSAT-2 quad polarization and TerraSAR-X dual polarization SAR data and ground truth growth stage data are used to model the influence of canola growth stages on SAR imagery extracted parameters. The details of the growth stage modeling work are provided, including a) the development of a new crop growth stage indicator that is continuous and suitable as the state variable in the dynamic estimation procedure; b) a selection procedure for SAR polarimetric parameters that is sensitive to both linear and nonlinear dependency between variables; and c) procedures for compensation of SAR polarimetric parameters for different beam modes. The data was collected over three crop growth seasons in Manitoba, Canada, and the growth model provides the foundation of a novel dynamic filtering framework for real-time estimation of canola growth stages using the multi-sensor and multi-mode SAR data. A description of the dynamic filtering framework that uses particle filter as the estimator is also provided in this paper.

  15. Binding of carbonyl flavours to canola, pea and wheat proteins using GC/MS approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Arntfield, Susan D

    2014-08-15

    Interactions of homologous aldehydes (hexanal, heptanal, and octanal) and ketones (2-hexanone, 2-heptanone, and 2-octanone) to salt and alkaline-extracted canola and pea proteins and commercial wheat gluten were studied using GC/MS. Long-chain aldehyde flavours exhibited higher binding affinity, regardless of protein type and isolation method. Salt-extracted canola protein isolates (CPIs) revealed the highest binding capacity to all aldehydes followed by wheat gluten and salt-extracted pea protein isolates (PPIs), while binding of ketone flavours decreased in the order: PPIs>wheat gluten>CPIs. Two aldolisation products, 2-butyl-2-octenal and 2-pentyl-2-nonenal, were detected from the interactions between CPIs with hexanal and heptanal, respectively. Protein thermal behaviour in the presence of these compounds was analysed by differential scanning calorimeter, where decreased ΔH inferred potential conformational changes due to partial denaturation of PPIs. Compared to ketones, aldehyde flavours possessed much higher "unfolding capacity" (lower ΔH), which accounted for their higher binding affinities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extrusion enhances metabolizable energy and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljuobori Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of extrusion process on apparent metabolizable energy (AME, crude protein (CP and amino acid (AA digestibility of canola meal (CM in broiler chickens. A total of 36, 42-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into adaptation diets (no CM or 30% CM with six replicates. After 4 days of adaptation period, on day 47, birds were allowed to consume the assay diets that contain CM or extruded canola meal (ECM as the sole source of energy and protein. Following 4 h after feeding, the birds were killed and ileal contents were collected. The results showed that ECM had greater (P<0.001 AME (10.87 vs 9.39 MJ/kg compared to CM. The extrusion also significantly enhanced apparent ileal digestibility of CP and some of AA such as Asp, Glu, Ser, Thr and Trp. In conclusion, the extrusion treatment appeared to be a practical and effective approach in enhancing the digestibility of AME, CP and some AA of CM in broiler chickens.

  17. Short Distance Standoff Raman Detection of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Adulterated with Canola and Grapeseed Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Carlton; Kassu, Aschalew; Bose, Nayana; Jackson-Davis, Armitra; Boateng, Judith; Ruffin, Paul; Sharma, Anup

    2017-06-01

    A short distance standoff Raman technique is demonstrated for detecting economically motivated adulteration (EMA) in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Using a portable Raman spectrometer operating with a 785 nm laser and a 2-in. refracting telescope, adulteration of olive oil with grapeseed oil and canola oil is detected between 1% and 100% at a minimum concentration of 2.5% from a distance of 15 cm and at a minimum concentration of 5% from a distance of 1 m. The technique involves correlating the intensity ratios of prominent Raman bands of edible oils at 1254, 1657, and 1441 cm -1 to the degree of adulteration. As a novel variation in the data analysis technique, integrated intensities over a spectral range of 100 cm -1 around the Raman line were used, making it possible to increase the sensitivity of the technique. The technique is demonstrated by detecting adulteration of EVOO with grapeseed and canola oils at 0-100%. Due to the potential of this technique for making measurements from a convenient distance, the short distance standoff Raman technique has the promise to be used for routine applications in food industry such as identifying food items and monitoring EMA at various checkpoints in the food supply chain and storage facilities.

  18. Blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans) Severity and Yield Loss in Canola in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sheau-Fang; Strelkov, Stephen E.; Peng, Gary; Ahmed, Hafiz; Zhou, Qixing; Turnbull, George

    2016-01-01

    Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is an important disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Canada and throughout the world. Severe epidemics of blackleg can result in significant yield losses. Understanding disease-yield relationships is a prerequisite for measuring the agronomic efficacy and economic benefits of control methods. Field experiments were conducted in 2013, 2014, and 2015 to determine the relationship between blackleg disease severity and yield in a susceptible cultivar and in moderately resistant to resistant canola hybrids. Disease severity was lower, and seed yield was 120%–128% greater, in the moderately resistant to resistant hybrids compared with the susceptible cultivar. Regression analysis showed that pod number and seed yield declined linearly as blackleg severity increased. Seed yield per plant decreased by 1.8 g for each unit increase in disease severity, corresponding to a decline in yield of 17.2% for each unit increase in disease severity. Pyraclostrobin fungicide reduced disease severity in all site-years and increased yield. These results show that the reduction of blackleg in canola crops substantially improves yields. PMID:27447676

  19. Blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans Severity and Yield Loss in Canola in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheau-Fang Hwang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is an important disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. in Canada and throughout the world. Severe epidemics of blackleg can result in significant yield losses. Understanding disease-yield relationships is a prerequisite for measuring the agronomic efficacy and economic benefits of control methods. Field experiments were conducted in 2013, 2014, and 2015 to determine the relationship between blackleg disease severity and yield in a susceptible cultivar and in moderately resistant to resistant canola hybrids. Disease severity was lower, and seed yield was 120%–128% greater, in the moderately resistant to resistant hybrids compared with the susceptible cultivar. Regression analysis showed that pod number and seed yield declined linearly as blackleg severity increased. Seed yield per plant decreased by 1.8 g for each unit increase in disease severity, corresponding to a decline in yield of 17.2% for each unit increase in disease severity. Pyraclostrobin fungicide reduced disease severity in all site-years and increased yield. These results show that the reduction of blackleg in canola crops substantially improves yields.

  20. Water and temperature stresses impact canola (Brassica napus L.) fatty acid, protein and yield over nitrogen and sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interactive effects of weather and soil nutrient status often control crop productivity. An experiment was conducted to determine effects of N and S fertilizer rate, soil water, and atmospheric temperature on canola fatty acid (FA), total oil, protein and grain yield. Nitrogen and S were assessed in...

  1. Raapzaadeiwitconcentraat en erwteneiwitconcentraat in biologisch biggenvoer = Canola protein concentrate and pea protein concentratrate in diets for organically housed piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Diepen, van J.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    At the Experimental Farm Raalte it was investigated whether canola protein concentrate and pea protein concentrate are suitable protein-rich feedstuffs for organically housed piglets. It is concluded that both protein concentrates are suitable protein-rich feedstuffs for piglets. Feed intake and

  2. Effect of extrusion conditions on the physico-chemical properties and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Liu, Guo; Ying, Danyang; Sanguansri, Luz; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2017-10-01

    Canola meal has potential as a high protein food ingredient. The extrusion-induced changes in color, pH, extractable protein and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal under different extrusion conditions was assessed. The extrusion barrel moisture (24%, 30% or 36%) and screw kneading block length (0, 30 or 60mm) were used as independent process parameters. Extrusion at high barrel moisture (36%) favored protein aggregation resulting in lower extractable protein compared to extrusion at the lowest barrel moisture (24%). At lower barrel moisture contents (24% and 30%), a longer kneading block length increased extractable protein but this was not the case at 36% barrel moisture. Canola protein digestibility was improved upon extrusion at 30% barrel moisture but there was no significant change at lower (24%) or higher (36%) barrel moisture. The kneading block length of the screw had no significant effect on the canola protein digestibility within the same barrel moisture level. The relationship between the physico-chemical parameters and in vitro digestibility was examined. This study highlighted the complex interplay of extrusion processing variables that affect protein degradation and the interaction of components, with consequent effects on protein digestibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tribological Performance of Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon (a-C: H DLC Coating when Lubricated with Biodegradable Vegetal Canola Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Mobarak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing environmental awareness and demands for lowering energy consumptions are strong driving forces behind the development of the vehicles of tomorrow. Without the advances of lubricant chemistry and adequate lubricant formulation, expansion of modern engines would not have been possible. Considering environmental awareness factors as compared to mineral oils, vegetal oil based biolubricants are renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic and have a least amount of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, improvement in engine performance and transmission components, which were impossible to achieve by applying only lubricants design, is now possible through diamond like carbon (DLC coatings. DLC coatings exhibit brilliant tribological properties, such as good wear resistance and low friction. In this regard, tribological performance of a-C: H DLC coating when lubricated with Canola vegetal oil has been investigated by the help of a ball-on-flat geometry. Experimental results demonstrated that the a-C: H DLC coating exhibited better performance with Canola oil in terms of friction and wear as compared to the uncoated materials. Large amount of polar components in the Canola oil significantly improved the tribological properties of the a-C:H coating. Thus, usage of a-C: H DLC coating with Canola oil in the long run may have a positive impact on engine life.

  4. Use of Se-enriched mustard and canola seed meals as potential bioherbicides and green fertilizers in strawberry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    New plant-based products can be produced from seed harvested from Brassica species used for phytomanaging selenium (Se) in the westside of central California. We tested Se-enriched seed meals produced from canola (Brassica napus) and mustard (Sinapis alba) plants as potential bio-herbicides and as g...

  5. Kinetic Modeling of Glycerolysis – Hydrolysis of Canola Oil in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Media Using Equilibrium Data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moquin, P.H.L.; Temelli, F.; Sovová, Helena; Saldana, M.D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2006), s. 417-424 ISSN 0896-8446. [International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids. Orlando, 01.05.2005-04.05.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : canola oil * glycrolysis * kinetics Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.037, year: 2006

  6. Determining of Degradation and Digestion Coefficients of Canola meal Using of In situ and Gas production Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Tahmazi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to the determination of nutritive value of canola meal using naylon bag and cumulative gas production techniques in Gizel sheep. Tow fistulated Gizel sheep with average BW 45±2 kg used in a complete randomized design. The cumulative gas production was measured at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36 and 48 h and ruminal DM and CP disappearance were measured up to 96 h. Coefficients of soluble CP degradation of canola meal (A, canola meal treated with 0.5% urea (B and canola meal treated with micro wave (C were 4.74, 15.81 and 15%, and for fermentable portion were 31.05, 39.62 and 65.55%, respectively. The cumulative gas production of soluble and insoluble portions (a+b were 252.13, 213.57 and 240.88 ml/g DM. Metabolizable protein of treatments A, B and C were 283.11, 329.33 and 284.39 g/kg DM, that were not significantly different. The relationship between dry matter and cumulative gas production values for treatments obtained about 0.958, 0.976 and 0.932 and this parameter for crude protein and cumulative gas production achieved 0.987, 0.994 and 0.989, respectively. High correlation between in situ and cumulative gas production techniques indicated that digestibility values can be predicted from cumulative gas production data.

  7. Milk and methane production in lactating dairy cattle consuming distillers dried grains and solubles or canola meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of byproducts as an alternative feed source is becoming increasingly popular among dairy producers. A study using 12 multiparous (79 ± 16 DIM) (mean ± SD) lactating Jersey cows, was conducted over 5 months to evaluate the effects of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or canola meal...

  8. Rumen fermentation and nutrient flow to the omasum in Holstein cows fed extruded canola seeds treated with or without lignosulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallacy Barbacena Rosa dos Santos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Four multiparous Holstein cows averaging 548 kg of body weight and 74 d in lactation were used in a Latin square design with four 21-d experimental periods to determine effects of feeding extruded versus non-extruded canola seed, with or without 50 g/kg lignosulfonate on rumen fermentation, nutrient flow to the omasum, and degradability of dry matter (DM and N of each diet. The DM effective degradability increased with extrusion and lignosulfonate treatment had no effect. The effective degradability of N was similar between diets. Lignosulfonate treatment of extruded versus non-extruded canola seeds decreased ruminal and total tract apparent digestibility of organic matter. The lowest apparent ruminal and highest intestinal digestibilities of protein, expressed as a percentage of N intake were observed for cows fed extruded canola seeds without lignosulfonate. Lignosulfonate treatment and extrusion had no effect on pH and concentrations of ammonia N and volatile fatty acids in the rumen. Results suggest that extruded canola seed untreated with formaldehyde may stimulate efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and is an effective means of increasing the availability of protein in the small intestine without affecting the total tract apparent digestibility of protein.

  9. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  10. Honey bee contribution to canola pollination in Southern Brazil Abelhas melíferas na polinização de canola no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelise de Souza Rosa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although canola, (Brassica napus L., is considered a self-pollinating crop, researchers have indicated that crop productivity increases as a result of honey bee Apis mellifera L. pollination. Given this crop's growing importance in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, this work evaluated the increase in pod and seed productivity with respect to interactions with anthophilous insects and manual pollination tests. The visiting frequency of A. mellifera was correlated with the crop's blooming progression, and productivity comparisons were made between plants visited by insects, manually pollinated plants (geitonogamy and xenogamy and plants without pollination induction. Pod set and seed production per plant were determined for each treatment. Among the 8,624 recorded flower-visiting insects, Hymenoptera representatives were the most prevalent (92.3%, among which 99.8% were A. mellifera. The correlation between these bees and blooming progression was positive (r = 0.87; p = 0.002. Pollination induction increased seed productivity from 28.4% (autogamy to 50.4% with insect visitations, as well as to 48.7 (geitonogamy and to 55.1% (xenogamy through manual pollination.A canola (Brassica napus L. é considerada autocompatível, embora pesquisadores indiquem aumento na produtividade da cultura resultante da polinização efetuada por Apis mellifera L.. Considerando-se a crescente importância dessa cultura no Rio Grande do Sul, avaliou-se o incremento da produtividade de síliquas e sementes a partir de interações com insetos antófilos e com testes de polinização manual. A freqüência de visitas de A. mellifera foi relacionada com o desenvolvimento da floração da cultura e a produtividade foi comparada entre plantas visitadas por insetos, polinizadas manualmente (geitonogamia e xenogamia e com ausência de indução de polinização. Em cada tratamento avaliou-se a produtividade de síliquas e de sementes formadas por planta. Dentre os 8.624 insetos

  11. Winter Frost and Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This somewhat oblique blue wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 174 km (108 mi) diameter crater, Terby, and its vicinity in December 2004. Located north of Hellas, this region can be covered with seasonal frost and ground-hugging fog, even in the afternoon, despite being north of 30oS. The subtle, wavy pattern is a manifestation of fog. Location near: 28oS, 286oW Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  12. Economics of small-scale on-farm use of canola and soybean for biodiesel and straight vegetable oil biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, Seth R.; Porter, Paul; Jordan, Nicholas; Lazarus, William

    2011-01-01

    While the cost competitiveness of vegetable oil-based biofuels (VOBB) has impeded extensive commercialization on a large-scale, the economic viability of small-scale on-farm production of VOBB is unclear. This study assessed the cost competitiveness of small-scale on-farm production of canola- [Brassica napus (L.)] and soybean-based [Glycine max (L.)] biodiesel and straight vegetable oil (SVO) biofuels in the upper Midwest at 2007 price levels. The effects of feedstock type, feedstock valuation (cost of production or market price), biofuel type, and capitalization level on the cost L -1 of biofuel were examined. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, the cost of canola-based biodiesel ranged from 0.94 to 1.13 L -1 and SVO from 0.64 to 0.83 L -1 depending on capitalization level. Comparatively, the cost of soybean-based biodiesel and SVO ranged from 0.40 to 0.60 L -1 and from 0.14 to 0.33 L -1 , respectively, depending on capitalization level. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, soybean biofuels were cost competitive whereas canola biofuels were not. Valuing feedstock at its market price, canola biofuels were more cost competitive than soybean-based biofuels, though neither were cost competitive with petroleum diesel. Feedstock type proved important in terms of the meal co-product credit, which decreased the cost of biodiesel by 1.39 L -1 for soybean and 0.44 L -1 for canola. SVO was less costly to produce than biodiesel due to reduced input costs. At a small scale, capital expenditures have a substantial impact on the cost of biofuel, ranging from 0.03 to 0.25 L -1 . (author)

  13. Economics of small-scale on-farm use of canola and soybean for biodiesel and straight vegetable oil biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, Seth R.; Porter, Paul; Jordan, Nicholas [Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, Borlaug 411, The University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55108 (United States); Lazarus, William [Department of Applied Economics, 231 Classroom Office Building, 1994 Buford Avenue, The University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55108 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    While the cost competitiveness of vegetable oil-based biofuels (VOBB) has impeded extensive commercialization on a large-scale, the economic viability of small-scale on-farm production of VOBB is unclear. This study assessed the cost competitiveness of small-scale on-farm production of canola- [Brassica napus (L.)] and soybean-based [Glycine max (L.)] biodiesel and straight vegetable oil (SVO) biofuels in the upper Midwest at 2007 price levels. The effects of feedstock type, feedstock valuation (cost of production or market price), biofuel type, and capitalization level on the cost L{sup -1} of biofuel were examined. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, the cost of canola-based biodiesel ranged from 0.94 to 1.13 L{sup -1} and SVO from 0.64 to 0.83 L{sup -1} depending on capitalization level. Comparatively, the cost of soybean-based biodiesel and SVO ranged from 0.40 to 0.60 L{sup -1} and from 0.14 to 0.33 L{sup -1}, respectively, depending on capitalization level. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, soybean biofuels were cost competitive whereas canola biofuels were not. Valuing feedstock at its market price, canola biofuels were more cost competitive than soybean-based biofuels, though neither were cost competitive with petroleum diesel. Feedstock type proved important in terms of the meal co-product credit, which decreased the cost of biodiesel by 1.39 L{sup -1} for soybean and 0.44 L{sup -1} for canola. SVO was less costly to produce than biodiesel due to reduced input costs. At a small scale, capital expenditures have a substantial impact on the cost of biofuel, ranging from 0.03 to 0.25 L{sup -1}. (author)

  14. Decontamination and winter conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenild, C.; Tveten, U.

    1984-12-01

    The report deals with two decontamonation experiments under winter conditions. A snow-covered parking lot was contaminated, and the snow was subsequently removed using standard snow-moving equipment. The snow left behind was collected and the content of contaminant was determined. A non-radioactive contaminant was used. A decontamination factor exceeding 100 was obtained. Although the eksperimental conditions were close to ideal, it is reason to believe that extremely efficient removal of deposited materials on a snow surface is achivable. In another investigation, run-off from agricultural surface, contaminated while covered with snow, was measured A lycimeter was used in this experiment. A stable layer of ice and snow was allowed to form before contamination. The run-off water was collected at each thaw period until all snow and ice was gone. Cs-134 was used as contaminant. Roughly 30% of the Cs-134 with which the area was contaminated ran off with the melt water. Following a reactor accident situation, this would have given a corresponding reduction in the long term doses. Both of these experiments show that consequence calculation assumptions, as they are currently applied to large accident assessment, tend to overestimate the consequences resulting from accidents taking place under winter conditions

  15. Spirit's Winter Work Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version This portion of an image acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera shows the Spirit rover's winter campaign site. Spirit was parked on a slope tilted 11 degrees to the north to maximize sunlight during the southern winter season. 'Tyrone' is an area where the rover's wheels disturbed light-toned soils. Remote sensing and in-situ analyses found the light-toned soil at Tyrone to be sulfate rich and hydrated. The original picture is catalogued as PSP_001513_1655_red and was taken on Sept. 29, 2006. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  16. Winter School Les Houches

    CERN Document Server

    Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino

    1986-01-01

    The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super­ lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron­ ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...

  17. Evaluation of Promising Mutant Lines of Canola Grown under New Reclamation Lands (Harsh Lands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, I.M.; Farrag, M.E.; Soliman, S.S.; Hassan, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Canola seed lots of four varieties (Serow4, Serow6, Pactol as local cultivars and Evita as exotic variety) were treated with gamma rays at four doses (0, 100, 400 and 600 Gy). The present study aims to evaluate useful mutations in canola which possess high seed yield and oil content under new reclamation desert land at Ras-Suder-Sinai (saline) and Inshas (harsh and poor fertility) in M 4 and M 5 generations. The results at M 4 and M 5 generations showed that the 13-selected mutant lines on the bases of number of pods and seed yield/plant differed in their yield response according to environmental conditions. Over the two locations, the highest number of pods plant and seed yield was found at line 75 (M4) and line 11 for seed yield and line 78 for number of pods in M5 compared to other genotypes. More over, all the mutant lines compared to their parents showed significant or insignificant increases for all studies traits during the two successive generations. Over the two generations, the highest mean value compared to all genotypes was found in line 22 for plant height at Sudr and line 11 at Inshas, for fruiting zone length, the highest value was noticed in line 18 at Sudr and line 75 at Inshas, for the highest number of pods, (125/plant) it was found in line 63 at Sudr and (193/plant) in line 75 at Inshas which reflected the highest seed yield ( 8 g/plant).The highest mean value compared to all genotypes was found for 100 seed-weight in line 8 at Sudr and line 11 at Inshas which appeared the highest seed yield at Suder. Over all studied conditions, the mutant line 75 derived from Evita variety was characterized by the highest mean values for fruiting zone length of plant and number of pods/plant, reflecting a high seed yield (6.47 g/plant ) or about 83.87% over its parent. The increase of seed yield/plant for mutant line 11 over its parent was about 68.8% followed by line 8 surpassed its parent for seed yield by about 60.2 %. The oil content of canola seeds in

  18. Digestibilidade aparente da energia e nutrientes do farelo de canola pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Apparent nutrient and energy digestibility of canola meal for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Massamitu Furuya

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a energia digestível e a digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes do farelo de canola pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. O óxido de crômio (0,1% foi utilizado como indicador inerte em dieta semi-purificada, com coleta de fezes pelo sistema Guelph. Os peixes foram alimentados até saciedade aparente. O farelo de canola apresentou valores de energia e nutrientes digestíveis de: 77,84; 71,99; 86,92; 88,19; 67,16 e 29,86% para a matéria seca, energia, proteína, lipídios, cálcio e fósforo, respectivamente, correspondendo a 2969,98 (kcal/kg; 69,97; 32,6; 1,2; 0,41 e 0,28%, de energia digestível, matéria seca, proteína e lipídios digestíveis e cálcio e fósforo disponíveis, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho evidenciam que a tilápia do Nilo pode utilizar eficientemente o farelo de canola.This study was carried out to determine the digestible energy and apparent nutrient digestibility of canola meal for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. The chromic oxide (0.1% was used as an inert indicador in the semi-purified diet and faeces were collected by Guelph system. Fish were fed to apparent satiation. The apparent nutrient and energy digestibility of canola meal were: 77.84, 71.99, 86.92, 88.19, 67.16, and 29.86% for dry matter, energy, protein, lipids, calcium and phosphorus, respectively, corresponding to 2969,98 (kcal/kg; 69.97, 32.6, 1.2, 0.41, and 0.28% of, digestible energy, dry matter, protein and lipids and available calcium and phosphorus, respectively. The results obtained in this experiment evidence that Nile tilapia may be able to utilize canola meal eficiently.

  19. Evaluation of canola seeds of different cultivars with special emphasis on the quantification of erucic acid and glucosinolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, Farooq

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the characterization of the seeds and seed oils of five locally grown canola cultivars: Zafar-2002, Bulbul (Frontier, Dunkeld, Oscar and Con-11. The oil contents from canola seeds ranged from 34.3 to 39.3%. The levels of protein, fiber, ash and moisture were found to be 22.1-41.0, 12.0-14.0, 3.0-3.5 and 4.0-7.5%, respectively. The glucosinolate (GSL contents in the canola seeds examined ranged from 49.7 to 78.1 mmol g-1. The extracted canola seed oils revealed an iodine value of 118.2-124.6 g of I/100g of oil; refractive index (40 °C, 1.460-1.464; density (24 °C, 0.914-0.919 mg m-1; saponification value, 187-195; unsaponifiable matter, 0.51-1.10%; acidity (% as oleic acid, 0.40-1.40, and color (1-in. cell, 1.35-1.73 R + 21.0-38.0 Y. Peroxide value (meq/ kg of oil and specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm were determined to be 2.00-7.08, 2.17-3.16 and 0.44-0.91, respectively. The seed oils of the five canola cultivars mainly consisted of oleic (C18:1, linoleic (C18:2 and linolenic (C18:3 acids at levels of 49.16-62.14, 14.61, 23.45 and 6.97-9.10%, respectively. The concentrations of palmitic (C16:0, stearic (C18:0, erucic (C22:1 and gadoleic (C20:1 acids ranged from 3.47 to 6.00, 1.51 to 2.10, traces to 13.03 and 1.30 to 10.63%, respectively. A small amount of arachidic acid (20:0 with a contribution below 1% was also detected. The contents of tocopherols (α, γ, and δ in the canola oils accounted for 77.1-270.3, 191-500, 3.5-15.6 mg kg-1, respectively.The presence of rather high levels of erucic acid and GSL in the present analysis of canola emphasized the need to further reduce the contents of these two antinutritional constituents in the investigated cultivars.Este estudio describe de la caracterización de semillas y de sus aceites de cinco cultivos locales de canola: Zafar2002, Bulbul (Frontier, Dunkeld, Oscar y Con 11. El contenido de aceite de las semillas de canola varió entre un 34.3 y un 39.3%. Los niveles

  20. Product sampling during transient continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of canola oil and development of a kinetic model

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2013-11-01

    A chemical kinetic model has been developed for the transient stage of the continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of triglycerides to free fatty acids and glycerol. Departure functions and group contribution methods were applied to determine the equilibrium constants of the four reversible reactions in the kinetic model. Continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of canola oil in subcritical water was conducted experimentally in a lab-scale reactor over a range of temperatures and the concentrations of all neutral components were quantified. Several of the rate constants in the model were obtained by modeling this experimental data, with the remaining determined from calculated equilibrium constants. Some reactions not included in the present, or previous, hydrolysis modeling efforts were identified from glycerolysis kinetic studies and may explain the slight discrepancy between model and experiment. The rate constants determined in this paper indicate that diglycerides in the feedstock accelerate the transition from "emulsive hydrolysis" to "rapid hydrolysis". © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Wheat bran extracts: a potent source of natural antioxidants for the stabilization of canola oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Chatha, Shahzad Ali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the antioxidant activity of different solvent extracts of wheat (var. Inqalab 91 bran was evaluated following different antioxidant assays using canola oil as the oxidation substrate. The bran samples were extracted with 80% and 100% methanol and acetone. A preliminary assessment of the antioxidant activity of the 80 and 100% acetone and methanolic extracts of wheat bran was done by the measurement of % inhibition of peroxidation in a linoleic acid system, total phenolic contents (TPC and bleachability of β-carotene in the linoleic acid system. Additionally, the canola oil samples were stabilized with crude concentrated extracts and subjected to ambient aging (6 months. The extent of oxidative deterioration was followed by the measurement of peroxide-, p-anisidine-, conjugated dienes-, and trienes- values. The results of ambient stored samples revealed a significant improvement in these oxidation parameters. The overall order of antioxidant activity of the extracts as determined by various antioxidant assays was determined to be; 80% methanolic extract > 100% methanolic extract > 80% acetone extracts . 100% acetone extract. The results of the present comprehensive analysis demonstrate that extracts of the wheat bran indigenous to Pakistan are a viable source of natural antioxidants and might be exploited for commercial and neutraceutical applications.

    En el presente trabajo la actividad antioxidante de diferentes extractos obtenidos con disolventes del salvado de trigo (var. Inqalab 91 fue evaluada mediante diferentes ensayos antioxidantes y aceite de canola como substrato de oxidación. Las muestras de salvado fueron extraídas con metanol y acetona al 80% y al 100%. La evaluación preliminar de la actividad antioxidante de los extractos de metanol y de acetona al 80% y 100% fue hecha mediante la medida del % de inhibición de la peroxidación en un sistema con ácido linoleico, el contenido total de fenoles

  2. Spirit Scans Winter Haven

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand. This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  3. Winter fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD's I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD's, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city

  4. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  5. Effect of pressing and combination of three storage temperatures and times on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of canola expellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Guadagnin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment investigated the effects of combinations of three temperatures and storage times on chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and oxidative stability of canola expellers obtained from the cold-pressing extraction of oil. Canola seeds were single-crushed at moderate temperatures (60°C during 3 pressing sessions. Nine samples (100±1 g of each session were collected, inserted into sealed bags, stored at three temperatures (12, 24, 36°C over 3 periods of time (10, 20, 30 d. Then, samples (100±1 g of canola seeds collected before each pressing session and canola expellers collected before and after each storage time were analyzed for chemical composition, fatty acid profile, peroxide number and Kreis test. Before storage, the fatty acid profile of canola seeds and expellers differed significantly, except for myristic (P=0.18, palmitic (P=0.57, oleic (P=0.07, and α-linolenic acids (P=0.45. Compared to canola seeds, expellers showed greater content of saturated, poly-unsaturated, and n-6 fatty acids (P<0.01, but a lower content of mono-unsaturated fatty acids (P<0.01. Peroxide values were definitely (P<0.01 greater for expellers and averaged 4.22 and 4.11 mEq/kg fat before and after storage, respectively. The Kreis test was negative for all samples. Under different temperatures and times of storage, canola expellers showed to maintain a good oxidative stability, as highlighted by low peroxide values (<10 mEq/kg fat and negative response for Kreis test. Canola expellers obtained by on-farm cold extraction, despite great oil residual (from 17 to 19% ether extracts on dry matter basis, can be stored at farm without significant chemical and nutritional changes.

  6. A large-scale field study examining effects of exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola on honey bee colony health, development, and overwintering success

    OpenAIRE

    Cutler, G. Christopher; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D.; Sultan, Maryam; McFarlane, Andrew D.; Brewer, Larry

    2014-01-01

    In summer 2012, we initiated a large-scale field experiment in southern Ontario, Canada, to determine whether exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola (oil seed rape) has any adverse impacts on honey bees. Colonies were placed in clothianidin seed-treated or control canola fields during bloom, and thereafter were moved to an apiary with no surrounding crops grown from seeds treated with neonicotinoids. Colony weight gain, honey production, pest incidence, bee mortality, number of adults, ...

  7. Resistance of canola cultivars affect life table parameters of Nysius cymoides (Spinola (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollashahi Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A life table can be used as an important and appropriate tool to evaluate the susceptibility or resistance level of different host plant cultivars to insect pests. In the current study, we determined the suitability or inferiority of five different canola cultivars (Hayula420, Hayula401, Hayula50, Hayula60, RGS to Nysius cymoides, under laboratory conditions. Data were analysed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. Nysius cymoides which fed on Hayula420 had the longest nymphal period, while those which fed on Hayula50 had the shortest nymphal period. Developmental times (sum of incubation and nymphal periods was longest for those which fe d on Hayula420 and the shortest for those which fed on Hayula50. The adult pre-oviposition period (APOP, total pre-oviposition period (TPOP, mean fecundity, and adult longevity of adults reared on different canola cultivars showed significant differences. The highest and lowest net reproductive rates (R0 were obtained for those which fed on Hayula420 (11.40 offspring per individual and Hayula401 (5.47 offspring per individual, respectively. The highest value (0.0395 d-1 for the intrinsic rate of increase (r was obtained for those which fed on Hayula 60 cultivar and the lowest value (0.0261 d-1 for those which fed on Hayula401 cultivar. The shortest and longest mean generation times (T were obtained for those which fed on RGS and H401 cultivars, respectively. The lowest and highest values of life expectancy (exj were obtained for those which fed on RGS and Hayula420 cultivars, respectively. The results showed that Hayula401 and RGS were not susceptible cultivars to N. cymoides. These cultivars showed higher resistance to N. cymoides, while Hayula60, Hayula420, and Hayula50 were found to be suitable cultivars but with lower resistance to N. cymoides, respectively.

  8. Lipase immobilization and production of fatty acid methyl esters from canola oil using immobilized lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuecel, Yasin; Demir, Cevdet; Dizge, Nadir; Keskinler, Buelent

    2011-01-01

    Lipase enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae (EC 3.1.1.3) was immobilized onto a micro porous polymeric matrix which contains aldehyde functional groups and methyl esters of long chain fatty acids (biodiesel) were synthesized by transesterification of crude canola oil using immobilized lipase. Micro porous polymeric matrix was synthesized from styrene-divinylbenzene (STY-DVB) copolymers by using high internal phase emulsion technique and two different lipases, Lipozyme TL-100L ® and Novozym 388 ® , were used for immobilization by both physical adsorption and covalent attachment. Biodiesel production was carried out with semi-continuous operation. Methanol was added into the reactor by three successive additions of 1:4 M equivalent of methanol to avoid enzyme inhibition. The transesterification reaction conditions were as follows: oil/alcohol molar ratio 1:4; temperature 40 o C and total reaction time 6 h. Lipozyme TL-100L ® lipase provided the highest yield of fatty acid methyl esters as 92%. Operational stability was determined with immobilized lipase and it indicated that a small enzyme deactivation occurred after used repeatedly for 10 consecutive batches with each of 24 h. Since the process is yet effective and enzyme does not leak out from the polymer, the method can be proposed for industrial applications. -- Research highlights: → Lipozyme TL-100L and Novozym 388 were immobilized onto micro porous polymeric matrix by both physical adsorption and covalent linking. → Immobilized enzymes were used for synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters by transesterification of canola oil and methanol using semi-continuous operation system. → According to chromatographic analysis, Lipase Lipozyme TL-100L resulted in the highest yield of methyl ester as 92%.

  9. A comparative study on the effect of unsaturation degree of camelina and canola oils on the optimization of bio-diesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transesterification is the most common method of producing biodiesel from vegetable oils. A comparative study on the optimization of reaction variables for refined canola oil, unrefined canola oil, and unrefined camelina oil using a four-factor (temperature, time, molar ratio of methanol to oil, and catalyst loading face-centered central composite design (FCCCD was carried out. The optimum settings of these four factors that jointly maximize product, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME and biodiesel yields for each of refined canola, unrefined canola and unrefined camelina were determined. Results showed that the optimized conditions were associated with the fatty acid profile and physical properties of the parent oils. The optimum temperature of vegetable oil with low polyunsaturation degree was higher than that of oils with high polyunsaturation degree. High free fatty acid content in parent oils led to low optimized catalyst concentration, and the decreased reaction rate could be compensated by increased reaction temperature due to significant interaction effect between reaction temperature and catalyst loading in the transesterification process. The highest biodiesel yields from the optimum setting for refined canola oil, unrefined canola oil, and unrefined camelina oil were 97.7%, 95.2%, and 95.6%, respectively. This study provided guidelines on how to optimize different reaction variables taking economic viability and feedstock availability into consideration when producing biodiesel at plant scale.

  10. Tolerance of transgenic canola plants (Brassica napus) amended with plant growth-promoting bacteria to flooding stress at a metal-contaminated field site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farwell, Andrea J.; Vesely, Susanne; Nero, Vincent; Rodriguez, Hilda; McCormack, Kimberley; Shah, Saleh; Dixon, D. George; Glick, Bernard R.

    2007-01-01

    The growth of transgenic canola (Brassica napus) expressing a gene for the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase was compared to non-transformed canola exposed to flooding and elevated soil Ni concentration, in situ. In addition, the ability of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas putida UW4, which also expresses ACC deaminase, to facilitate the growth of non-transformed and transgenic canola under the above mentioned conditions was examined. Transgenic canola and/or canola treated with P. putida UW4 had greater shoot biomass compared to non-transformed canola under low flood-stress conditions. Under high flood-stress conditions, shoot biomass was reduced and Ni accumulation was increased in all instances relative to low flood-stress conditions. This is the first field study to document the increase in plant tolerance utilizing transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria exposed to multiple stressors. - Using transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria as phytoremediation methods increased plant tolerance at a metal-contaminated field site under low flood conditions

  11. Perfil dos ácidos graxos da carcaça de cordeiros alimentados com grãos de canola em diferentes formas Meat fatty acid profile of lambs fed processed or unprocessed canola seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis fonseca de Macedo

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a alteração do perfil dos ácidos graxos da carcaça de ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo grãos inteiros de canola (CI em duas formas de processamentos (quebrados - CQ ou peletizados - CP. Foram utilizados 28 cordeiros, distribuídos num delineamento inteiramente casualizado e abatidos com média de peso vivo entre 31 e 33kg, coletando-se amostras entre a 12ª e 13ª costela. Houve diferença significativa para os ácidos graxos C10:0, C14:1ω5, C15:0, C16:0, C16:1ω7e C17:0, cujas médias foram maiores que na dieta controle. Os ácidos graxos C18:0, C18:1ω9, C18:3ω6, C18:3ω3, C20:0, C20:1ω9, C22:0 e C24:0 sofreram alterações com a inclusão de grãos de canola. Também foi observado diferença significativa para os totais de ácidos graxos mono-insaturados, porém, os totais de ácidos graxos polinsaturados e a relação entre ácidos graxos polinsaturados e saturados foram inalterados. Os resultados levam à conclusão de que a inclusão de grãos inteiros de canola nas dietas para cordeiros altera o perfil dos ácidos graxos independentemente da forma de apresentação.The objective of this experiment was to compare carcass fatty acids profile of lambs fed a control diet and diets containing either whole (WC, cracked (CC or pelleted (PC canola seeds. Twenty-eight lambs assigned to a completely randomized design were fed their respective diets for 132 days and slaughtered between 31 and 33kg of body weight. Samples of muscle Longissimus dorsi, Psoas maior and Psoas menor were collected on the left side of the carcass between the 12th and 13th ribs and 11 cm from the carcass midline. Concentrations of C10:0, C14:ω5, C15:0, C16:0, C16:1ω7. C17:0 and, C18:3ω3 were significantly higher (P < 0.05 in the carcass of lambs fed the three canola seed diets than in the carcass of those fed the control diet. Pelleted canola seeds increased the percentages of C18:1ω9, C18:3ω6, C20:0, C20:1ω9, C22

  12. Desempenho e digestibilidade in vivo de cordeiros alimentados com dietas contendo canola em grão integral em diferentes formas Performance and digestibility in vivo of lambs fed diets with whole canola grain in different forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei Bett

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes de cordeiros alimentados com concentrados formulados com farelo de soja (FS, canola integral (CI canola quebrada (CQ ou canola peletizada (CP e feno de aveia, fornecidos na relação 30/70 (volumoso/conconcentrado, %MS foram avaliados. Vinte oito cordeiros machos com idade inicial entre 60 e 90 dias e 17 kg PV foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. As ingestões (g/d de MS, PB, FDA, FDN e EB (Mcal/dia, o ganho médio diário e a conversão alimentar, foram semelhantes. Não houve diferenças para digestibilidade aparente da MS, PB e EB, exceto para digestibilidade de FDN (46,84; 60,11; 50,10; e 38,88% e FDA (45,84; 54,19; 46,57; e 29,59% para FS, CI, CQ e CP, respectivamente. Houve menor retenção de nitrogênio para CP (3,0 g/d em comparação às outras dietas (entre 5,0 e 7,3 g/d. Os tratamentos não diferiram na concentração de propionato, mas reduziram as concentrações de butirato (7,08; 4,87; 4,08; e 4,29 μM/mL de líquido ruminal e N-amoniacal (12,17; 8,69; 8,40; e 7,66 mg/100 mL de líquido de rúmen. O uso de canola, nas diferentes formas, não influenciou a ingestão e a digestão, proporcionando desempenho semelhante entre os tratamentos.The performance and digestibility of nutrients of lambs fed concentrates formulated with soybean meal (SM and whole canola grain (WC, cracked canola grain (CC or pelleted canola (PC and oat hay, fed in a 30:70 (forage to concentrate ratio, %DM were evaluated. Twenty-eight male lambs with initial age from 60 to 90 days and 17 kg LW were allotted to a completely randomized design. The intakes (g/d of DM, CP, ADF, NDF and GE (Mcal/d, the average daily gain and feed: gain ratio, were similar. There were no differences for apparent digestibilities of MS, PB and GE, except for the NDF digestibility (46.84, 60.11, 50.10, and 38.88% and ADF (45.84, 54.19, 46.57, and 29.59% for SM, WC, CC and PC, respectively. There was lower nitrogen

  13. Conseqüências da multicolinearidade sobre a análise de trilha em canola Multicolinearity consequence on path analysis in canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luís Meirelles Coimbra

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A análise estatística do tipo multivariada vem crescendo consideravelmente, motivando a sua ampla utilização por parte dos pesquisadores criando, assim, grande demanda por conhecimentos específicos tanto a respeito da sua aplicação quanto das suas pressuposições ou limitações. Para que a avaliação do grau de associação entre diferentes caracteres de importância agronômica tenha uma estimativa confiável em termos biológico, é de fundamental importância identificar e quantificar o grau de multicolinearidade entre as variáveis estudadas. Além disso, os tipos de modelos estatísticos e matemáticos utilizados na determinação desta dependência linear entre as variáveis classificatórias ou independentes podem ou não ser adequados a estimativas dos parâmetros biológicos avaliados. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar uma avaliação crítica sobre o grau de multicolinearidade identificado e avaliado sobre a análise de trilha analisada sobre partes de um experimento de canola. Os resultados permitem inferir que a aplicação da análise de trilha sobre o grau de multicolinearidade severa produz resultados sem nenhuma importância biológica para o melhorista de plantas. No entanto, esta limitação pode ser facilmente identificada e corrigida através da análise de trilha com colinearidade empregando uma constante (k na diagonal da matriz X‘X. O modelo de análise com multicolinearidade severa, entretanto, superestimou, valores de coeficientes de correlação simples, comparativamente com a multicolinearidade fraca. Mesmo assim, pode não ser necessariamente mais precisa, principalmente em virtude da avaliação de um número restrito de variáveis incluídas na análise ou de uma sobreposição destas variáveis explicativas.The statistical multivariate analysis has a widespread use by researchers, creating a large demand for specific knowledge regarding its application concerning its assumptions and or

  14. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  15. Klaus Winter (1930 - 2015)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    We learned with great sadness that Klaus Winter passed away on 9 February 2015, after a long illness.   Klaus was born in 1930 in Hamburg, where he obtained his diploma in physics in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 he held a scholarship at the Collège de France, where he received his doctorate in nuclear physics under the guidance of Francis Perrin. Klaus joined CERN in 1958, where he first participated in experiments on π+ and K0 decay properties at the PS, and later became the spokesperson of the CHOV Collaboration at the ISR. Starting in 1976, his work focused on experiments with the SPS neutrino beam. In 1984 he joined Ugo Amaldi to head the CHARM experiment, designed for detailed studies of the neutral current interactions of high-energy neutrinos, which had been discovered in 1973 using the Gargamelle bubble chamber at the PS. The unique feature of the detector was its target calorimeter, which used large Carrara marble plates as an absorber material. From 1984 to 1991, Klau...

  16. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  17. Microwave-Assisted Alkali Pre-Treatment, Densification and Enzymatic Saccharification of Canola Straw and Oat Hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, Obiora S; Tabil, Lope G; Dumonceaux, Tim

    2017-03-26

    The effects of microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment on pellets' characteristics and enzymatic saccharification for bioethanol production using lignocellulosic biomass of canola straw and oat hull were investigated. The ground canola straw and oat hull were immersed in distilled water, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide solutions at two concentrations (0.75% and 1.5% w/v) and exposed to microwave radiation at power level 713 W and three residence times (6, 12 and 18 min). Bulk and particle densities of ground biomass samples were determined. Alkaline-microwave pre-treated and untreated samples were subjected to single pelleting test in an Instron universal machine, pre-set to a load of 4000 N. The measured parameters, pellet density, tensile strength and dimensional stability were evaluated and the results showed that the microwave-assisted alkali pre-treated pellets had a significantly higher density and tensile strength compared to samples that were untreated or pre-treated by microwave alone. The chemical composition analysis showed that microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment was able to disrupt and break down the lignocellulosic structure of the samples, creating an area of cellulose accessible to cellulase reactivity. The best enzymatic saccharification results gave a high glucose yield of 110.05 mg/g dry sample for canola straw ground in a 1.6 mm screen hammer mill and pre-treated with 1.5% NaOH for 18 min, and a 99.10 mg/g dry sample for oat hull ground in a 1.6 mm screen hammer mill and pre-treated with 0.75% NaOH for 18 min microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatments. The effects of pre-treatment results were supported by SEM analysis. Overall, it was found that microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment of canola straw and oat hull at a short residence time enhanced glucose yield.

  18. Resistance of Four Canola Genotypes Against Cabbage Aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. MousaviAnzabi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Canola (Brassica napus L. is one of the prominent oil seed plants in Iran. This plant has good agricultural and food nourishment properties, such as resistant to drought, cold and salinity stresses and low level of cholesterol. Cabbage waxy aphid Brevicorynebrassicae (L. is the most important and cosmopolitan pest of cruciferous crops. This aphid is reduced 9 to 77% grain yields and up to 11% oil content. Developing environmental-friendly methods, such as deploying insect-resistant varieties to pest control was advised by scientists. Resistant varieties decrease production costs and can be integrated with other pest control policies in IPM programs. In a greenhouse experiment plants of cabbage, cauliflower wassusceptible host plant and broccoli, turnip, rapeseed, showed resistance to cabbage aphid. With the aim of identifying the existence of resistance resources, a laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of seven canola genotypes on biological parameters of cabbage aphid. Detected resistant variety could be used as a resistance source. Material and Methods: In order to resistancy evaluation of canola, genotypes contain “RGS”,“Hyola-308”,“Hyola-401” and “Sarigol” to cabbage aphid, two experiments was conducted under field and greenhouse conditions in Kahriz region of West Azerbaijan province in 2010.In this study infestation index and tolerance in Field conditions and antibiosis study in greenhouse conditions was evaluated.To study antibiosis, genotypes were planted in pots with 10 replications based on completely random design and cabbage aphid population intrinsic rate of increase (rm was calculated. As followed: (Lotka 1924: 1= other population parameters computed by Carey (1993 method. Field experiment contains10 replications wereperformed based on complete randomized blocks experimental designs that five of them were under natural infestation and five others, free of infestation (control. To

  19. Effect of Different Levels of Sulphur Bentonite on Yield and Yield Components of Canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Rahimi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of different levels of sulfur bentonite on yield and yield components of canola a factorial experiment was conducted on the basis of randomized complete block design with three replications in Mashhad in 2009-2010 growing season. Factors included four levels of sulfur bentonite (0, 300, 400 and 500 kg.h-1 and two varieties of canola (Modena and Zarfam. The result showed that the increase in sulfur increased some vegetative traits such as leaf area index and plant height. Using sulfur caused increased pod number, seed weight, in addition of oil and protein content and seed yield. Grain yield increase was due to seed weight and LAI. Two varieties were different to responses the sulfur. While in no sulfur application there was no significant difference in seed yield, in 500 Kg sulfur application yield of Zarfam compared to Modena increased about 29.63. According to the results there are significant differences between cultivars in terms of response to the sulfur fertilizer. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate effect of sulfur application of canola productivity in different climate conditions of Iran.

  20. Application of gamma rays for induction of tolerance mutants to environmental stress conditions in canola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.E.S.F.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to induce useful mutations in canola possess high seed yield and oil content under new reclamation desert land at Ras-Suder-Sina (saline) and Inshas (harsh and poor fertility). Canola seeds of four varieties (Serow 4, Serow 6, Pactol as local cultivars and Evita as exotic variety) were treated with gamma rays at four doses (0, 100, 400 and 600 Gy). Thirty mutant plants for number of pods/plant and changes in morphological criteria were selected at M 2 generation. The mutants at M 3 generation confirmed that induction of mutant lines possessed higher number of pods and seed yield/plant than the mother varieties. The mutant lines possessed homogeneity at M 3 generation were 5, 8,10, 11, 18 and 22 at serow 4, 38 and 45 at serow 6, 63 and 66 at Pactol and mutant lines 74,75, 78,92 at Evita. Highest number of pods/plant (110) was recorded at line 74 derived from Evita variety. The results were appeared the same trend for seed yield/plant with number of pods/plant, the lines which possessed high number of pods/plant were had high seed yield/plant. The results at M 4 and M 5 generations for 13 homogeneity mutant lines selected from M 3 generation contained different response of mutant genotypes for different conditions on the bases of number of pods and seed yield/plant. Promising mutant lines were detected under both conditions possessed significant increases at both M 4 and M 5 generations. Oil percent as well as acid value at M 4 and M 5 were recorded the highest mean value was found at Inshas in line 75 and the lowest acid value was noticed at line 5. Finally nine mutant lines possessed promising traits of this study, lines 11, 66 and 87 under both conditions (Suder and Inshas), lines 8, 38 and 63 under Ras-Sudr and lines 74, 75 and 92 under Inshas condition.

  1. Maternal consumption of canola oil suppressed mammary gland tumorigenesis in C3(1) TAg mice offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, Gabriela; Akinsete, Juliana A; Hardman, W Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Maternal consumption of a diet high in omega 6 polyunsaturated fats (n-6 PUFA) has been shown to increase risk whereas a diet high in omega 3 polyunsaturated fats (n-3 PUFA) from fish oil has been shown to decrease risk for mammary gland cancer in female offspring of rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether increasing n-3 PUFA and reducing n-6 PUFA by using canola oil instead of corn oil in the maternal diet might reduce the risk for breast cancer in female offspring. Female SV 129 mice were divided into two groups and placed on diets containing either 10% w/w corn oil (which is 50% n-6 PUFA, control diet) or 10% w/w canola oil (which is 20% n-6 PUFA, 10% n-3 PUFA, test diet). After two weeks on the diets the females were bred with homozygous C3(1) TAg transgenic mice. Mother mice consumed the assigned diet throughout gestation and nursing of the offspring. After weaning, all female offspring were maintained on the control diet. Compared to offspring of mothers fed the corn oil diet (CO/CO group), offspring of mothers fed the canola oil diet (CA/CO group) had significantly fewer mammary glands with tumors throughout the experiment. At 130 days of age, the CA/CO group had significantly fewer tumors per mouse (multiplicity); the tumor incidence (fraction of mice with any tumor) and the total tumor weight (per mouse that developed tumor) was less than one half that of the CO/CO group. At 170 days of age, the total tumor weight per mouse was significantly less in the CA/CO group and if a tumor developed the rate of tumor growth rate was half that of CO/CO group. These results indicate that maternal consumption of canola oil was associated with delayed appearance of mammary gland tumors and slowed growth of the tumors that developed. Substituting canola oil for corn oil is an easy dietary change for people to make; such a change to the maternal diet may decrease risk for breast cancer in the daughter

  2. Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment (MONEX) was conducted during the First Global GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Experiment (FGGE). An international...

  3. The meaning of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the author reviews the history and origins of the basic ideas underlying nuclear winter; and findings and predictions of several groups regarding this topic. The author reviews some of the further developments and scientific analyses regarding nuclear winter since the initial announcements of 1983, touching on some of the revisions and controversies and trying to indicate the current status of the field

  4. Effect of Zeolite, Selenium and Silicon on Yield, Yield Components and Some Physiological Traits of Canola under Salt Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bybordi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Canola can be cultivated in large areas of the country due to its specific characteristics such as suitable composition of the fatty acids, its germination ability under low temperature, as well as its good compatibility with different climates. Canola is a high demanding crop in terms of fertilizers so that it uptakes considerable amount of nutrients from the soil during the growing season. Canola cultivation in poor soils or application of imbalanced fertilizers, especially nitrogen, can reduce qualitaty and quantity of final yield. On the other hand, salinity is known as one of the major limiting factors in canola production. Therefore, the aim of this study is the application of zeolite, selenium and silicon treatments to amend soil and increasing salinity tolerance in canola. Materials and Methods In order to study the effect of soil applied zeolite and foliar application of selenium and silicon on yield, yield components and some physiological traits of canola grown under salinity stress, a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design was conducted in Agriculture and Natural Resource Research Center in East Azerbaijan during 2011-2013 cropping seasons. Zeolite was applied at three levels (0, 5 and 10 ton ha-1 and foliar selenium and silicon were applied at three levels as well (each one zero, 2 and 4 g l-1. For this purpose, seedbed was prepared using plow and disk and then plot were designed. Canola seeds, cultivar Okapi, were sown in sandy loam soil with 4 dS.m-1 salinity at the depth of 2-3 cm. Irrigation was performed using local well based on 60% field capacity using the closed irrigation system. Potassium selentae and potassium silicate were used for selenium and silicon treatments. Treatments at rosette and stem elongation stages were sprayed on plants using a calibrated pressurized backpack sprayer. At flowering stage, photosynthesis rate was recorded. Then leaf samples were randomly collected to assay

  5. Effect of Sugarcane Filter Muds, Chemical and Biological Fertilizers on Absorption of Some Macro- and Micro-Elementsand Heavy Metals by Canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Monjezi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of sugarcane (Sacharum officinarum L. filter muds and chemical and biological fertilizers application on macro- and micronutrient elements and some heavy metals (Pb and Cd absorption by canola (Brassica napus L. grains, a factorial experiment was conducted in 2012 in the Experimental Farm of Ramin (Mollasani Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khouzestan, Iran. A complete blocks design was used for the experiment with three replications. Different integrated treatments of filter muds and chemical fertilizers (A1: 100% filter muds, A2: 75% filter muds + 25% chemical fertilizers, A3: 50% filter muds + 50% chemical fertilizers, A4: 25% filter muds + 75% chemical fertilizers and A5: 100% chemical fertilizers along with two levels of biological fertilizers application (with and without biological fertilizers were investigated. The biological fertilizers investigated in this study were Nitroxin and Barvar2. Application of filter muds led to decreases in nitrogen, phosphorus and Cd of canola seeds. On the other hand, increase of filter muds application led to increase of Zn, Cu, Fe and Pb content in canola seeds. Biological and chemical fertilizers application resulted in increases of nitrogen, phosphorus and cadmium contents in canola seeds. Biofertilizers also increased phosphorus and cadmium contents in canola seeds.

  6. Evaluation of biohydrogenation rate of canola vs. soya bean seeds as unsaturated fatty acids sources for ruminants in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaei, S; Ghoorchi, T; Yamchi, A

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study disappearance of C14 to C18 fatty acids, lag times and biohydrogenation (BH) rates of C18 fatty acids of ground soya bean and canola seeds in situ. Three ruminally fistulated Dallagh sheep were used to determine ruminal BH of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs). Differences in the disappearance of fatty acids through the bags and lag times were observed between the oilseeds. We saw that the longer the incubation time of the oilseeds in the rumen, the lower the content of C18:2 and C18:3. Significantly higher lag times for both C18:2 and C18:3 were observed in ground canola compared to ground soya bean. BH rates of C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids in soya bean were three times higher than those of canola. These results suggest that the fatty acid profile of fat source can affect the BH of UFAs by rumen micro-organisms. So that UFAs of canola had higher ability to escape from ruminal BH. It seems that fatty acid profile of ruminant products is more affected by canola seed compared to soya bean seed. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Pineapple by-product and canola oil as partial fat replacers in low-fat beef burger: Effects on oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Rasera, Mariana L; Marabesi, Amanda C; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-05-01

    The effect of freeze-dried pineapple by-product and canola oil as fat replacers on the oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile of low-fat beef burgers was evaluated. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple by-product (PA), canola oil (CO), and pineapple by-product and canola oil (PC). Low-fat cooked burgers showed a mean cholesterol content reduction of 9.15% compared to the CN. Canola oil addition improved the fatty acid profile of the burgers, with increase in the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and decrease in the n-6/n-3 ratio, in the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. The oxidative stability of the burgers was affected by the vegetable oil addition. However, at the end of the storage time (120 days), malonaldehyde values of CO and PC were lower than the threshold for the consumer's acceptance. Canola oil, in combination with pineapple by-product, can be considered promising fat replacers in the development of healthier burgers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Growth Indices and Estimation Seed Yield Loss Threshold of Canola in Response to Various Densities of Crop and Wild Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Anafjeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to study the effect of various densities of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. on growth indices of Canola (Brassica napus L. in climate of Molathani, Ahvaz, an experiment was conducted in the experimental field of Ramin Agricultural and Natural Resources University, in 2006-2007. The split-plot set of treatments was arranged within randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments included of wild mustard at five levels (0, 7, 14, 21 and 35 plants m2 and Canola at three densities (60, 80 and 100 plants m2. The results showed that the increase in mustard density rates lead to decreasing total dry matter, leaf area index, crop growth rate, relative growth rate and mean pod dry matter in three canola densities (60, 80 and 100 plants m2. Somewhat the lowest growth indices was obtained in 35 plants mustard (that is the highest mustard density. In addition damage rate of mustard decreased canola seed yield for 7, 14, 21 and 35 plants mustard up to 61, 71, 76 and 91%, respectively. Keywords: Plant density, Competition, Yield loss threshold, Growth indices, Canola, Mustard

  9. Ameliorating influence of sulfur on germination attributes of canola (brassica napus l.) under chromium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, S.; Iqbal, S.; Jabeen, K.; Sadaf, S.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was performed to evaluate the role of sulfur to induce tolerance in Brassica napus L. against chromium stress by estimating the changes in germination parameters. Petriplates were assembled in Randomized Complete Block Design. A total 9 sets of treatments viz., control, chromium treated (40 and 160ppm), sulfur treated (50 and 150ppm) and sulfur (50 and 150ppm) combined with chromium (40 and 160ppm) with three replicates was used. Chromium under both concentrations was responsible for significant decline in germination parameters i.e. germination percentage, germination rate, seedling vigor index, shoot and root length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedlings. Sulfur application under chromium stress resulted in improvement of germination parameters such as germination percentage, germination rate, seedling vigor index, shoot and root length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedlings in contrast to chromium treatment. So, it can be concluded that sulfur in appropriate dose can be used to ameliorate the negative effects of chromium by increasing the germination potential of canola. (author)

  10. Assessment of commercially available pheromone lures for monitoring diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenden, M L; Gries, R

    2010-06-01

    Sex pheromone monitoring lures from five different commercial sources were compared for their attractiveness to male diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola, Brassica napus L., fields in western Canada. Lures that had the highest pheromone release rate, as determined by aeration analyses in the laboratory, were the least attractive in field tests. Lures from all the commercial sources tested released more (Z)-11-hexadecenal than (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and the most attractive lures released a significantly higher aldehyde to acetate ratio than less attractive lures. Traps baited with sex pheromone lures from APTIV Inc. (Portland, OR) and ConTech Enterprises Inc. (Delta, BC, Canada) consistently captured more male diamondback moths than traps baited with lures from the other sources tested. In two different lure longevity field trapping experiments, older lures were more attractive to male diamondback moths than fresh lures. Pheromone release from aged lures was constant at very low release rates. The most attractive commercially available sex pheromone lures tested attracted fewer diamondback moth males than calling virgin female moths suggesting that research on the development of a more attractive synthetic sex pheromone lure is warranted.

  11. Winter severity determines functional trait composition of phytoplankton in seasonally ice-covered lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkundakci, Deniz; Gsell, Alena S; Hintze, Thomas; Täuscher, Helgard; Adrian, Rita

    2016-01-01

    How climate change will affect the community dynamics and functionality of lake ecosystems during winter is still little understood. This is also true for phytoplankton in seasonally ice-covered temperate lakes which are particularly vulnerable to the presence or absence of ice. We examined changes in pelagic phytoplankton winter community structure in a north temperate lake (Müggelsee, Germany), covering 18 winters between 1995 and 2013. We tested how phytoplankton taxa composition varied along a winter-severity gradient and to what extent winter severity shaped the functional trait composition of overwintering phytoplankton communities using multivariate statistical analyses and a functional trait-based approach. We hypothesized that overwintering phytoplankton communities are dominated by taxa with trait combinations corresponding to the prevailing winter water column conditions, using ice thickness measurements as a winter-severity indicator. Winter severity had little effect on univariate diversity indicators (taxon richness and evenness), but a strong relationship was found between the phytoplankton community structure and winter severity when taxon trait identity was taken into account. Species responses to winter severity were mediated by the key functional traits: motility, nutritional mode, and the ability to form resting stages. Accordingly, one or the other of two functional groups dominated the phytoplankton biomass during mild winters (i.e., thin or no ice cover; phototrophic taxa) or severe winters (i.e., thick ice cover; exclusively motile taxa). Based on predicted milder winters for temperate regions and a reduction in ice-cover durations, phytoplankton communities during winter can be expected to comprise taxa that have a relative advantage when the water column is well mixed (i.e., need not be motile) and light is less limiting (i.e., need not be mixotrophic). A potential implication of this result is that winter severity promotes different

  12. Efeito da substituição do farelo de algodão pelo farelo de canola no desempenho de novilhas Nelore confinadas Effect of cottonseed meal replacement by canola meal on performance of feedlot Nellore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanor Nunes do Prado

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito da substituição do farelo de algodão pelo farelo de canola sobre ganho em peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e rendimento de carcaça de novilhas Nelore confinadas. Trinta novilhas com, em média, 225 kg PV inicial e 20 meses de idade foram distribuídas ao acaso em dois tratamentos (farelo de algodão - FAG ou farelo de canola - FAC como fontes de proteína com 15 animais por tratamento. O experimento foi realizado em três períodos de 28 dias, mais 14 dias de adaptação. O ganho médio diário no tratamento FAC (1,05 kg foi maior que no tratamento FAG (0,87 kg. Da mesma forma, a conversão alimentar da MS no tratamento FAC (6,72 foi melhor que no tratamento FAG (8,13; todavia, o rendimento de carcaça foi semelhante para ambos os tratamentos (51,6 e 51,7%, para FAC e FAG, respectivamente. O uso de farelo de canola, em comparação ao farelo de algodão, como fonte de proteína alternativa na ração de novilhas Nelore em crescimento e terminação, mostrou-se viável, uma vez que o ganho em peso e a conversão alimentar dos animais foram melhores.The objective of this work was to study the effect of the substitution of cottonseed meal by canola meal on weight gain, feed intake, feed:gain ratio and dressing percentage of the feedlot Nellore heifers. Thirty Nellore heifers averaging initial of 225 kg LW and 20 months of age were randomly allotted to two treatments (cottonseed meal - COM or canola meal - CAM as protein sources with 15 animals for each treatment. The experiment was carried out in three periods of 28 days each, plus 14 days of adaptation. The daily average weight gain in CAM treatment (1.05 kg was higher than in the COM treatment (.87 kg. In the same way, feed:gain ratio of DM in CAM treatment (6.72 was better than COM treatment (8.13. However, the dressing percentage was similar for both treatments (51.6 and 51.7, for CAM and COM, respectively. The use of canola meal

  13. Dinâmica floral e abortamento de flores em híbridos de canola e mostarda castanha Floral dynamics and flower abortion in hybrids of canola and Indian mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Battisti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a dinâmica floral e determinar o índice de abortamento de flores de híbridos de canola (Brassica napus e de mostarda castanha (Brassica juncea, bem como determinar suas relações com as condições meteorológicas do Sul do Brasil. Durante a floração, dez híbridos de canola e dois de mostarda foram avaliados a cada três dias quanto ao número de flores abertas, de síliquas e de flores abortadas. O número acumulado e relativo de flores foi usado para avaliação da dinâmica floral. A relação desses números com a soma térmica acumulada durante a floração foi determinada por meio de modelo logístico. A partir dos coeficientes desse modelo, identificaram-se grupos de genótipos com diferentes taxas de emissão de flores. O abortamento de flores entre híbridos variou de 10,53 a 45,96% e correlacionou-se com a temperatura e a demanda evaporativa da atmosfera. Genótipos com maiores tempos térmicos entre o período de máxima emissão de flores e o final da floração geralmente apresentam maiores percentagens de abortamento de flores. O ajuste dos dados de emissão de flores aos de soma térmica do período da floração, por meio de modelo logístico, permite simular a dinâmica floral de híbridos de canola e mostarda castanha.The objective of this work was to evaluate the floral dynamics and to determine the index of flower abortion in canola (Brassica napus and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea hybrids, as well as to determine their relation with meteorological conditions of southern Brazil. During flowering, ten hybrids of canola and two of Indian mustard were evaluated every three days as to the number of open flowers, pods, and aborted flowers. The cumulative and the relative number of flowers were used to evaluate floral dynamics. The relation of these numbers with the accumulated thermal sum during flowering was determined with a logistic model. Groups of genotypes with different

  14. Effect of Nitrogen Foliar Application on Canola Yield (Brassica napus L. and Nitrogen Efficiency across Different Sowing Dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Doori

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Between oil seeds, from the quality, quantity and nutrition index point of view, canola has the top level . Because of the solubility of N fertilizers, the time of urea application, is very important and one of the main reasons of the reduction in N application efficiency is utilization of urea in an inappropriate time. By precisely foliar application of nitrogen, the efficiency of nitrogen transformation to the grain will be very high because in this method the leaf is considered the main organ of nitrogen uptake and a low amount of absorbed nitrogen was transferred to the root and entered the soil. The more division of N application in growth stages and in accordance with plant need and foliar application result in increasing nitrogen use efficiency. The delay in sowing will result in the reduction of yield and this is due to low LAI, and thus low radiation absorb in vegetable phase and shorter reproductive phase with high temperature in flowering and subsequent stages that result in low prolific silique and make disorder in transferring stored material to grain. In this experiment using N foliar application to decrease the adverse effect of delay in sowing is objective. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted in 2013-2014 in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resource University of Khuzestan. Experiment was conducted as split plots in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications. In this experiment sowing date]optimum sowing (27 November, 17 December and late sowing (30 December [were assigned to main plots and several time of N-foliar application with 5 percent density from urea (20 liter per ha, ]TO (control, T1 (foliar N application in rosette stage, T2 (foliar N application in budding stage, T3 (foliar N application in flowering stage[ were placed in sub-plots in randomized way. Fertilizing was based on the results of soil examination. Therefore, 162 kg ha-1 of pure nitrogen (from resource urea in the way

  15. Dietary high oleic canola oil supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid attenuates plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels in participants with cardiovascular disease risk: A randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Shuaihua; Rodríguez-Pérez, Celia; Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-12-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a novel circulating protein which plays an important role in regulation of cholesterol metabolism by promoting hepatic LDL receptor degradation. However, the action of dietary fat composition on PCSK9 levels remains to be fully elucidated. The objective was to investigate the action of different dietary oils on circulating PCSK9 levels in the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT). COMIT employed a double-blinded crossover randomized control design, consisting of five 30-d treatment periods. Diets were provided based on a 3000Kcal/d intake, including a 60g/d treatment of conventional canola oil (Canola), a high oleic canola/DHA oil blend (CanolaDHA), a corn/safflower oil blend (CornSaff), a flax/safflower oil blend (FlaxSaff) or a high oleic canola oil (CanolaOleic). Plasma PCSK9 levels were assessed using ELISA at the end of each phase. Lipid profiles (n=84) showed that CanolaDHA feeding resulted in the highest (P<0.05) serum total cholesterol (TC, 5.06±0.09mmol/L) and LDL-cholesterol levels (3.15±0.08mmol/L) across all five treatments. CanolaDHA feeding also produced the lowest (P<0.05) plasma PCSK9 concentrations (216.42±8.77ng/mL) compared to other dietary oil treatments. Plasma PCSK9 levels positively correlated (P<0.05) with serum TC, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A, and apolipoprotein B levels but did not correlate to HDL-cholesterol levels. Results indicate that post-treatment response in PCSK9 may be altered with the CanolaDHA diet. In conclusion, the elevated LDL-C levels from a DHA oil treatment may not be relevant for the observed decline in PCSK9 levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of sheep fed diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Oliveira Maia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils on intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês sheep. Four rumen-cannulated animals of 90.2±11.4 kg average body weight were assigned to a 4 × 4 latin square. Animals remained individually in cages for the metabolism assay and were fed diets containing roughage at 500 g/kg and concentrate based on ground corn and soybean meal also at 500 g/kg. No oil was added to the control diet, whereas the others had canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg (DM basis. There was no difference for the intake of DM and nutrients, except for ether extract, which was greater when animals received oil. The digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates and neutral detergent fiber were not changed; however, the addition of oil increased the ether extract digestibility. The values of total digestible nutrients (TDN, g/kg of DM, digestible energy (DE, Mcal/kg of DM, TDN intake and DE intake also did not change with the addition of lipids. Concerning the ruminal constituents, the addition of vegetable oils reduced the concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids. Adding canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg in diets with 500 g roughage/kg and 500 g concentrate/kg does not impair the intake or digestibility of nutrients in sheep, although it reduces the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the rumen.

  17. Clothianidin in agricultural soils and uptake into corn pollen and canola nectar after multiyear seed treatment applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianbo; Dyer, Dan G; McConnell, Laura L; Bondarenko, Svetlana; Allen, Richard; Heinemann, Oliver

    2016-02-01

    Limited data are available on the fate of clothianidin under realistic agricultural production conditions. The present study is the first large-scale assessment of clothianidin residues in soil and bee-relevant matrices from corn and canola fields after multiple years of seed-treatment use. The average soil concentration from 50 Midwest US corn fields with 2 yr to 11 yr of planting clothianidin-treated seeds was 7.0 ng/g, similar to predicted concentrations from a single planting of Poncho 250-treated corn seeds (6.3 ng/g). The water-extractable (i.e., plant-bioavailable) clothianidin residues in soil were only 10% of total residues. Clothianidin concentrations in soil reached a plateau concentration (amount applied equals amount dissipated) in fields with 4 or more application years. Concentrations in corn pollen from these fields were low (mean: 1.8 ng/g) with no correlation to total years of use or soil concentrations. For canola, soil concentrations from 27 Canadian fields with 2 yr to 4 yr of seed treatment use (mean = 5.7 ng/g) were not correlated with use history, and plant bioavailability was 6% of clothianidin soil residues. Average canola nectar concentrations were 0.6 ng/g and not correlated to use history or soil concentrations. Under typical cropping practices, therefore, clothianidin residues are not accumulating significantly in soil, plant bioavailability of residues in soil is limited, and exposure to pollinators will not increase over time in fields receiving multiple applications of clothianidin. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  18. Factors Influencing Male Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) Capture Rates in Sex Pheromone-Baited Traps on Canola in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miluch, C E; Dosdall, L M; Evenden, M L

    2014-12-01

    Optimization of male moth trapping rates in sex pheromone-baited traps plays a key role in managing Plutella xylostella (L.). We investigated various ways to increase the attractiveness of pheromone-baited traps to P. xylostella in canola agroecosystems in AB, Canada. Factors tested included pheromone blend and dose, addition of a green leaf volatile to the pheromone at different times during the season, lure type, trap color, and height. The industry standard dose of 100 μg of pheromone (four-component blend) per lure (ConTech Enterprises Inc., Delta, British Columbia [BC], Canada) captured the most moths in the two lure types tested. Traps baited with pheromone released from gray rubber septa captured more males than those baited with red rubber septa. Traps baited with lures in which Z11-16: Ac is the main component attracted significantly more moths than those in which Z11-16: Ald is the main component. The addition of the green leaf volatile, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, to pheromone at a range of doses, did not increase moth capture at any point during the canola growing season. Unpainted white traps captured significantly more male moths than pheromone-baited traps that were painted yellow. Trap height had no significant effect on moth capture. Recommendations for monitoring P. xylostella in canola agroecosystems of western Canada include using a pheromone blend with Z11-16: Ac as the main component released from gray rubber septa at a dose of 100 μg. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  19. Technical and Economical Evaluations of Canola Harvesting Losses in Different Maturity Stages Using Three Different Combine Harverster Heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taghinazhad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed cultivation in Iran is growing rapidly while this product has been facing specific problems. Every year a significant portion of edible oil is imported to the country from other countries. Despite this deficit, a great amount of canola is being lost every year. Therefore, in compliance with technical points, adding a suitable platform to the exisiting machineries may reduce the losses. A field study was conducted in Moghan Agricultural Research Centre to study the technical and economical characteristics of harvesting machineries and evaluate Canola harvesting losses in different maturity stages, using three different combine harvester heads. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized\tsplit split plot design with four replications. The main plot included seed maturity stage at three levels: A 60%, B 70% and C 80%, and the subplot was the harvester’s ground speed at three levels: A 1.5, B 2.5 and C 3.5 km h-1. The sub-subplot was combine head type with three forms: A Mechanical, B Hydraulically Joybar and C Hydraulically Biso's Head. The results of ANOVA showed that maximum cutter bar losses occurred with Mechanical Head (5.36% while the loss of Hydraulically Joybar's and Biso's head were 4.28 and 4.13 %, respectively. The results also showed that the maximum cutter bar losses occurred when 80% of seeds were matured and adequate time for canola harvesting was 70% of seeds maturity. The results of analysing the effects of harvesting ground speeds showed that the maximum cutter bar losses occurred with the speed of 3.5 km h-1. Finally, the results showed that the minimum cutter bar loss was obtained with Hydraulically Joybar's head considering the benefit per cost ratio. The cost for Mechanical head and Hydraulically Biso's head were 13500 and 262500 Rial ha-1, respectively.

  20. Seed bank modelling of volunteer oil seed rape: from seeds fate in the soil to seedling emergence Modelagem do banco de sementes de canola: do destino das sementes no solo à emergência das plântulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Soltani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to estimate parameters and relationships associated with sub-processes in soil seed banks of oilseed rape in Gorgan, Iran. After one month of burial, seed viability decreased to 39%, with a slope of 2.03% per day, and subsequently decreased with a lower slope of 0.01 until 365 days following burial in the soil. Germinability remained at its highest value in autumn and winter and decreased from spring to the last month of summer. Non-dormant seeds of volunteer oilseed rape did not germinate at temperatures lower than 3.8 ºC and a water potential of -1.4 MPa ºd. The hydrothermal values were 36.2 and 42.9 MPa ºd for sub- and supra-optimal temperatures, respectively. Quantification of seed emergence as influenced by burial depth was performed satisfactorily (R² = 0.98 and RMSE = 5.03. The parameters and relationships estimated here can be used for modelling soil seed bank dynamics or establishing a new model for the environment.Estudos foram realizados para estimar os parâmetros e as relações ligados a subprocessos em bancos de sementes de canola no solo, em Gorgan, Iran. Após um mês de enterrio, a viabilidade das sementes diminuiu para 39%, com inclinação de 2,03% ao dia; posteriormente, diminuiu com menor inclinação: de 0,01 até 365 dias após o enterrio no solo. A germinação manteve-se em seu maior valor no outono e inverno, reduzindo da primavera ao último mês do verão. Sementes de canola não dormentes não germinaram em temperaturas abaixo de 3,8 °C e potencial hídrico abaixo de -1,4 Mpaºd. Os valores hidrotermais foram de 36,2 e 42,9 Mpaºd para temperaturas sub e supraótima, respectivamente. A quantificação da emergência das sementes sob influência da profundidade de enterrio foi delineada de forma satisfatória (R²= 0,98 e RMSE = 5,03. Os parâmetros e as relações estimadas neste estudo podem ser utilizados em modelagens do banco de sementes do solo ou para estabelecer um novo modelo para

  1. Sustainable use of winter Durum wheat landraces under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the two checks cultivars. Bi- plot analysis showed that some promising lines with reasonable grain yields, good quality parameters, winter hardiness and drought tolerances among yellow rust resistance durum wheat landraces can be selected for semiarid conditions of Mediterranean countries for sustainable production.

  2. Clothianidin in agricultural soils and uptake into corn pollen and canola nectar after multiyear seed treatment applications

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Tianbo; Dyer, Dan G.; McConnell, Laura L.; Bondarenko, Svetlana; Allen, Richard; Heinemann, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Limited data are available on the fate of clothianidin under realistic agricultural production conditions. The present study is the first large?scale assessment of clothianidin residues in soil and bee?relevant matrices from corn and canola fields after multiple years of seed?treatment use. The average soil concentration from 50 Midwest US corn fields with 2 yr to 11 yr of planting clothianidin?treated seeds was 7.0?ng/g, similar to predicted concentrations from a single planting of ...

  3. Impact of municipal waste water of Quetta city on biomass, physiology and yield of canola (brassica napus l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakar, S.R.; Tareen, R.B.; Kayani, S.A.; Tariq, M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out in order to investigate the impact of municipal wastewater effluents of Quetta city on the biomass, physiology, and productivity of two canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars viz., Oscar and Rainbow. Plants were grown in pots from seed to maturity during 2005-2006 growth season. Different concentrations of effluents (T1: 20% ,T2: 40%, T3: 60% T4: 80; T5: 100%) were supplied to plants as a soil drench compared to control plants (T0) receiving normal tap water. The wastewater effluents were highly alkaline in nature along with very high Electrical Conductivity, Biological Oxygen Demand; Chemical Oxygen Demand; Sodium Adsorption Ratio, Total Suspended Solids and minerals concentrations have found well above threshold limits set for the usage of municipal wastewater for irrigation purposes. Growth performance of both canola cultivars showed statistically significant effects on some physiological attributes. All treated plants showed reductions in growth and yield parameters, but T5 treated plants were most affected compared to control. There were significantly higher reductions in stomatal conductance (49% in Oscar; 53% in Rainbow), transpiration rate (62% Oscar; 67% in Rainbow), and photosynthetic rate (62% in Oscar; 69% in Rainbow) of T5 treatment plants compared with control. Both pigments of chlorophyll (a and b) responded efficiently to the applied stress of wastewater effluents showing reductions in chlorophyll a and b by 68-82% in cv. Oscar and 74-86% in cv. Rainbow. Similarly, fresh and dry biomass also showed reductions in different effluents treated plants (T1 to T5) ranging from 2-78% in both the cultivars of canola. Drastic reductions were recorded in the number of siliqua per plant (70-72%), seeds per plant (84-85%), seed weight per plant (87-90), and in the harvest index (72-74%) in cultivars Oscar and Rainbow, respectively than that of control. The overall result of the municipal wastewater impacts on canola cultivars are

  4. Effect of Planting Date on Physiological and MorphologicalCharacteristics of Four Canola Cultivars in Yasouj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Fallah Heki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the physiological and morphological characteristics of canola cultivars at different planting dates, an experiment was carried out in 2008-2009 at the Agriculture Research Station of Yasouj. A factorial with Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications was conducted. Four planting dates (September 12, September 22, October 2 and October 12 and four cultivars (Zarfam, Okapi, Elite and SLM-046 were used in this study. Results showed that cultivars and planting dates had significant effects on more characteristics. In addition, interaction of planting date and cultivar was significant on plant height, height to lowest silique, number of branches, growth indices and grain yield. Zarfam and Elite cultivars had lower initial fluorescence (Fo and higher maximum fluorescence (Fm and photochemical capacity of photosystem II (Fv/Fm than Okapi and SLM-046 cultivars. Elite cultivar at September 12 planting date had the highest plant height (173 cm and height to lowest silique (87.5 cm and Okapi cultivar at October 12 planting date showed the lowest plant height (91 cm and height to lowest silique (43.7 cm. At September 12 planting date, Elite cultivar had the greatest leaf area index (5.21 and grain yield (5231 kg/ha. At other planting dates, Zarfam cultivar because of priority in leaf area index, crop growth rate and total dry matter have the greatest grain yield than other cultivars. In general, seems at September 12 planting date, Elite cultivar and for delayed sowing, Zarfam cultivar had better reaction than other cultivars.

  5. Evaluation of Application Methods Efficiency of Zinc and Iron for Canola(Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluation of application method efficiency of zinc and iron microelements in canola, an experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Research Station of Eastern Azerbaijan province in 2008. The experimental design was a RCBD with eight treatments (F1: control, F2: iron, F3: zinc, F4: iron + zinc in the form of soil utility, F5: iron, F6: zinc, F7: iron+ zinc in the form of solution foliar application, and F8: iron + zinc in the form of soil utility and foliar application. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among treatments on given traits, antioxidant enzymes activity, fatty acids percentage, plant height, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio, protein percentage, oil percentage, oil yield, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium percentage of leaves, zinc and iron content of leaves and capitulum diameters. The highest seed yield, oil yield, oil percentage, 1000 seed weight, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio and protein percentage were obtained from the soil and foliar application of iron + zinc treatments (F8. Also, the highest amounts of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium concentration in leaves were achieved from control treatment which was an indication of non-efficiency of iron and zinc on the absorption rate of these substances in the leaves. The correlation between effective traits on the seed yield, such as, capitalism diameter, number of seed rows in capitulum, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio and 1000 seed weight were positively significant. In general, foliar and soil application of zinc and iron had the highest efficiency in aspect of seed production. The comparison of the various methods of fertilization showed that foliar application was more effective than soil application. Also, micronutrient foliar application increased concentration of elements, especially zinc and iron. Antioxidant enzymes activity was different in response to treatments also the

  6. Selective Breeding under Saline Stressed Conditions of Canola Mutations Induced by Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, I.M.; Moustafa, H.A.M.; Mansour, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Mutation breeding program has been initiated for inducing canola mutations tolerance to saline stressed conditions for growing at harsh land in Egypt. Therefore, seed lots of three cultivars and exotic variety (Bactol, Serow 4, Serow 6 and Evita) were subjected to 100,400 and 600 Gy of gamma rays. Mass selection with 20 % intensity for high number of pods per plant has been done in each treatment in M2 generation. However, individually plants with high number of pods / plant were selected from each variety in M3 generation for test under saline stressed conditions at Ras Sudr region in M4 (8600 and 8300 ppm salinity for soil and irrigation, respectively). The obtained results revealed that eight mutated families from 12- test families in M4 generation surpassed their parents in seed yield / plant and related characters ( plant height ,fruiting zone length , No. of branches , No. of pods / plant ). In addition, the mutant F93 characterized by fast growing and non shuttering pods reflecting 50.4% over Evita control in seed yield/ plant. Twelve mutant lines in M5 represented the mutant families were grown in sandy-loam soil at Inshas region. The three mutant lines (L 22, L 38 and L 45) continuously surpassed their parents in seed yield and related characters, but the increases were less than the previous generation. The increase was 22.3 %, 38.7 % and 36.7 % over seed yield of respective parents. Moreover, mutant L66 exhibited an increase in its yield components in M5 at Inshas only, suggesting that gene expression and genomic structure extremely influenced by environmental factors. Genetic stability for the obtained mutations could be done at different environmental conditions in further studies

  7. Effect of incremental levels of crude degummed canola oil on milk progesterone, plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Otto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation of lactating cows with fat can alter the profiles of key reproductive hormones and boost postpartum energy balance. However, published data under Australian pasture-based dairy production conditions are scanty and inconsistent. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether dietary inclusion of crude degummed canola oil (CDCO at incremental levels for eight-weeks will have significant influence on progesterone (P4, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH of primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows grazing pastures. We tested the hypothesis that postpartum supplementation of primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows with dietary CDCO in a pasture-based system will alter the concentrations of P4, LH and FSH reproductive hormones. A random allocation of twenty primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows into four treatment groups that consisted of a wheat-based pelleted basal diet with no supplemental CDCO (control, or a wheat-based pelleted basal diet with CDCO added at 25 ml/kg (low, 35 ml/kg (medium and 50 ml/kg (high was employed in an eight-week feeding trial after two weeks of adjustment. Supplementation levels of CDCO and week of data collection were significant sources of variation (P  0.05. It was apparent that cows in the high (0.459 ng/ml, medium (0.367 ng/ml and low (0.251 ng/ml levels of oil treatments had higher mean plasma FSH concentrations compared to the control (0.172 ng/ml cows. It was concluded that the current levels of CDCO can be used in pasture-based dairy systems to increase FSH, but not LH and P4.

  8. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and climate change: Importance of winter forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thrine Moen Heggberget

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, climate change is predicted to be particularly pronounced, although regionally variable, in the vast arctic, sub-arctic and alpine tundra areas of the northern hemisphere. Here, we review winter foraging conditions for reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus living in these areas, and consider diet, forage quality and distribution, accessibility due to snow variation, and effects of snow condition on reindeer and caribou populations. Finally, we hypothesise how global warming may affect wild mountain reindeer herds in South Norway. Energy-rich lichens often dominate reindeer and caribou diets. The animals also prefer lichens, and their productivity has been shown to be higher on lichen-rich than on lichen-poor ranges. Nevertheless, this energy source appears to be neither sufficient as winter diet for reindeer or caribou (at least for pregnant females nor necessary. Some reindeer and caribou populations seem to be better adapted to a non-lichen winter diet, e.g. by a larger alimentary tract. Shrubs appear to be the most common alternative winter forage, while some grasses appear to represent a good, nutritionally-balanced winter diet. Reindeer/caribou make good use of a wide variety of plants in winter, including dead and dry parts that are digested more than expected based on their fibre content. The diversity of winter forage is probably important for the mineral content of the diet. A lichen-dominated winter diet may be deficient in essential dietary elements, e.g. minerals. Sodium in particular may be marginal in inland winter ranges. Our review indicates that most Rangifer populations with lichen-dominated winter diets are either periodically or continuously heavily harvested by humans or predators. However, when population size is mainly limited by food, accessible lichen resources are often depleted. Plant studies simulating climatic change indicate that a warmer, wetter

  9. Learning through a Winter's Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, Kristie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience during the final semester of Year 11 Theatre Studies when she performed a monologue about Hermione from "The Winter's Tale". This experience was extremely significant to her because it nearly made her lose faith in one of the most important parts of her life, drama. She believes this…

  10. Value-added potential of expeller-pressed canola oil refining: characterization of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols from byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yougui; Thiyam-Hollander, Usha; Barthet, Veronique J; Aachary, Ayyappan A

    2014-10-08

    Valuable phenolic antioxidants are lost during oil refining, but evaluation of their occurrence in refining byproducts is lacking. Rapeseed and canola oil are both rich sources of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols. The retention and loss of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols in commercially produced expeller-pressed canola oils subjected to various refining steps and the respective byproducts were investigated. Loss of canolol (3) and tocopherols were observed during bleaching (84.9%) and deodorization (37.6%), respectively. Sinapic acid (2) (42.9 μg/g), sinapine (1) (199 μg/g), and canolol (344 μg/g) were found in the refining byproducts, namely, soap stock, spent bleaching clay, and wash water, for the first time. Tocopherols (3.75 mg/g) and other nonidentified phenolic compounds (2.7 mg sinapic acid equivalent/g) were found in deodistillates, a byproduct of deodorization. DPPH radical scavenging confirmed the antioxidant potential of the byproducts. This study confirms the value-added potential of byproducts of refining as sources of endogenous phenolics.

  11. Effect of solid state fermentation on nutrient content and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljuobori Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of Lactobacillus salivarius solid state fermentation for reduction of glucosinolate content in canola meal (CM as well as the improvement of its nutrient digestibility for broiler chickens. Canola meal was treated with the L. salivarius in solid state fermentation for 30 days. Nutrients ileal digestibility was tested using 42-day-old broilers fed by either CM or fermented CM (FCM as the sole source of energy and protein. The results showed that fermentation of CM using L. salivarius reduced glucosinolate content of CM by 38%. The digestibility coefficient was improved significantly for crude protein, Met, Cys, Arg, Asp, Glu, and Ser in FCM compared to CM. However, apparent metabolisable energy of CM was not affected by fermentation. It appears that fermentation treatment of CM using L. salivarius may improve the overall nutritive value of CM for broiler chickens, reducing its total glucosinolate and crude fibre content by 38 and 16%, respectively.

  12. Improving Methane Production through Co-Digestion of Canola Straw and Buffalo Dung by H2O2 Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALTAF ALAM NOONARI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study an effect of acidic pre-treatment on the CS (Canola Straw and BD (Buffalo Dung by anaerobic co-digestion was investigated. H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide is a mainly accustomed reagent, used as a bleaching agent in the different industries such as paper and wood. In the present study, it was used as a pre-treatment chemical at varying concentrations in batch reactors. The co-digestion of CS and BD was carried out in SAMPTS (Semi-Automatic Methane Potential Test System at mesophilic (37±1oC conditions. The CS was pretreated in glass bottles with different concentrations of the H2O2 for seven days. The inoculum used in the present study was an effluent of the CSTR (Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor, which was treating BD at mesophilic conditions. The specific methane production from the codigestion of canola straw and BD, by the pre-treatment of H2O2 at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% were 530.8, 544.5, and 510.3 NmL CH4 g/VS, respectively. The significant reduction in the volatile solids of CS was observed at the optimum pre-treatment of 1.0% H2O2.

  13. A mutant Brassica napus (canola population for the identification of new genetic diversity via TILLING and next generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin J Gilchrist

    Full Text Available We have generated a Brassica napus (canola population of 3,158 EMS-mutagenised lines and used TILLING to demonstrate that the population has a high enough mutation density that it will be useful for identification of mutations in genes of interest in this important crop species. TILLING is a reverse genetics technique that has been successfully used in many plant and animal species. Classical TILLING involves the generation of a mutagenised population, followed by screening of DNA samples using a mismatch-specific endonuclease that cleaves only those PCR products that carry a mutation. Polyacrylamide gel detection is then used to visualise the mutations in any gene of interest. We have used this TILLING technique to identify 432 unique mutations in 26 different genes in B. napus (canola cv. DH12075. This reflects a mutation density ranging from 1/56 kb to 1/308 kb (depending on the locus with an average of 1/109 kb. We have also successfully verified the utility of next generation sequencing technology as a powerful approach for the identification of rare mutations in a population of plants, even in polyploid species such as B. napus. Most of the mutants we have identified are publically available.

  14. Baixas temperaturas sobre a fluorescência da clorofila a em plantas de diferentes híbridos de canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Tessari Perboni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar os efeitos de baixas temperaturas sobre o aparato fotossintético de híbridos de canola. Plantas de canola foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação e, 50 dias após a semeadura, acondicionadas em câmara de crescimento com ausência de luz, onde foram submetidas a temperaturas de 0 ou 4oC pelo período de 1 ou 4 horas. Avaliou-se a cinética de emissão da fluorescência da clorofila a. Os híbridos apresentaram o mesmo comportamento em relação à fluorescência da clorofila em resposta ao estresse. Os parâmetros da fluorescência foram amplamente afetados em todos os tratamentos e a análise da cinética revelou efeitos da temperatura, principalmente no passo J, que representa o acúmulo de plastoquinona reduzida e na fase I-P, que reflete a redução dos aceptores de elétrons finais do lado aceptor do fotossistema I. Conclui-se que os parâmetros mais responsivos às condições impostas pelo frio são os que descrevem o grau de reoxidação do aceptor final de elétrons do fotossistema II e a atividade do fotossistema I

  15. Improvement of Canola (Brassica napus L.) Inoculated with Rhizobium, Azospirillum and/or Mycorrhizal Fungi Under Salinity Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghandour, I. A.; Galal, Y.G; Ebraheem, Rabab M.M.; Yousef, Khayria A.

    2004-01-01

    Bio fertilization technology was applied for improving canola plant growth and nutrient acquisition in sandy saline soil ,as a biological mean used to develop plant growth and nutrient uptake under salinity stress. Canola was cultivated in pots packed at rate of 7 kg saline sandy soil pot -1 , and inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viceae, Azospirillum brasilense strain no. 40 and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi either solely or in combinations of them. Nitrogen fertilizer was added in form ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 with 5% 15 N atom excess at rate of 0.99 g N pot -1 . Maximum dry matter accumulation induced by composite inoculation (Rh + Azo + AM). Na concentrations were frequently affected by Rhizobium and /or mycorrhizae while K was affected by Azospirillum and /or mycorrhizae. Azospirillum enhanced Ca uptake whereas Mg content was responded well to composite inoculants of Rh + Azo + AM. Dual inoculation with Rh + Azo resulted in the highest values of N uptake by plant. Similar effect was noticed with P uptake when dual inoculums of Azo + AM were applied. Data of 15 N isotope showed that the highest portion and value of N 2 -fixed was recorded with composite inoculums followed by dual inoculations. On the other hand, the infection with AM fungi gave the highest proportion of N derived from fertilizer as compared to other inoculants or uninoculated control. In the same trend, the fertilizer use efficiency (FUE%) was enhanced by AM infection. Dual inoculums of Rh + Azo induced highest content of proline in leaves. (Authors)

  16. The impact of winter heating on air pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qingyang; Ma, Zongwei; Li, Shenshen; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Fossil-fuel combustion related winter heating has become a major air quality and public health concern in northern China recently. We analyzed the impact of winter heating on aerosol loadings over China using the MODIS-Aqua Collection 6 aerosol product from 2004-2012. Absolute humidity (AH) and planetary boundary layer height (PBL) -adjusted aerosol optical depth (AOD*) was constructed to reflect ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. GIS analysis, standard statistical tests, and statistical modeling indicate that winter heating is an important factor causing increased PM2.5 levels in more than three-quarters of central and eastern China. The heating season AOD* was more than five times higher as the non-heating season AOD*, and the increase in AOD* in the heating areas was greater than in the non-heating areas. Finally, central heating tend to contribute less to air pollution relative to other means of household heating.

  17. Comparison of Technical and Economical Effect of Different Planters using Varied Seed Rates on Canola Yield in Moghan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taghinazhad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the most important agricultural crops is rape seed oil as its special features can play an important role in the agricultural region. Due to the presence of more than 40% oil and 25% protein in the grain can play an important role in the supply of edible oil. After determining of various factors such as uniformity of planting depth, evenness between shrub, plant height and grain yield concluded that Nordsten drill along the seeding density of 75 cm for mechanized planting is acceptable yield. Afzali nia et al. (1999 in one study aimed to assess the performance of common grain drills in Iran in Zarghan area in Fars Province showed that differences between treatments in terms of seed distribution uniformity factor, plant population per unit area and yield product is not significant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and select the most suitable types of canola planter and variable seed rate planting density and aims to increase the canola cultivated area by the highest yield. Materials and Methods Moghan Plain, located in the north areas of Ardebil province, is considered as an important areas of canola planting in Iran. This study was performed in the agricultural research center of Ardabil Province (Moghan (39°39´N; 48°88´E; 78 m a.s.l. in Northwest of Iran. To evaluate different planters with varied seed rates on canola yield. The experimental design was carried out in a randomized complete block design with strip splits (varied seed rates 6, 8 and10 kg per hectare and different drills consist of B1: Barzagar Hamadani drill (conventional method B2: Amazon drill pals teeth harrow, B3: Gaspardo drill pals teeth harrow and B4: Agromaster drill and four replications. To investigatethe different treatments in the experiment, various parameters such as percent germination, seeding uniformity of width and depth intervals, plant establishment, effective field capacity, fuel consumption rate andgrain yield were measured

  18. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing, tobogganing and similar winter sports are prohibited on Presidio Trust roads and in parking areas open to...

  19. Classification guide: Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games classification guide is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) and International Federations (IFs) with information about the classification policies and procedures that will apply to the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games.

  20. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...

  1. Investigation of growth indices and yield of canola (Brassica napus L. in competition with wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. as influenced by different amount of nitrogen application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Soleymani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on growth indices and competitive ability of canola (Brassica napus L. against wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L., a split plot trial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications, was carried out at Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University, during 2008-2009. Experimental factors were amounts of nitrogen fertilizer of urea at four levels (100, 150, 200 and 250 kgN.ha-1 and five wild mustard plant densities (0, 4, 8, 16 and 32 plants.m-2. The results showed that wild mustard interference led to reduction of leaf area index (LAI, dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate (CGR, leaf area index duration (LAID, dry matter duration (BMD and seed yield of canola, while these characteristics were increased with more nitrogen fertilizer application. The maximum indices were obtained at 250 kg N.ha-1 and weed-free condition, but generally, the least reduction in maximum LAI, CGR, LAID and BMD of canola affected by wild mustard competition occurred at 200 kg N.ha-1. In conclusion, the results showed that optimum level of fertilizer 200 kg N.ha-1, increased competitive ability of canola against wild mustard and improved yield and growth indices.

  2. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal b...

  3. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of canola oil with caprylic acid to produce medium-, long- and medium-chain-type structured lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yingyao; Xia, Luan; Xu, Xuebing

    2012-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of canola oil with caprylic acid was performed to produce structured lipids (SLs) containing medium-chain fatty acid (M) at position sn-1,3 and long-chain fatty acid (L) at the sn-2 position in a solvent-free system. Six commercial lipases from different sources were...

  4. of integrated application of farmyard manure, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and chemical fertilizers on production of canola (Brassica napus L. in saline soil of Qum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sabahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus L. is one of the most important oil seed crops. In order to evaluate the effects of integrated fertilization (chemical, manure and biofertilizers on canola (B. napus variety Hyola 401 yield and uptake of mineral nutrients in saline soil and water, a field experiment was conducted in randomized complete blocks (RCBD arrangement with eight treatments in three replications in Qum Province, Iran. Treatments were: (1 Control, P%100 (Phosphorus %100, (2 P%75B1 (Phosphorus %75+ Barvar biofertilizer, (3 P%75B2 (Phosphorus %75+ Nitroxin biofertilizer, (4 P%75M (Phosphorus %75+ farmyard manure, (5 P%75B1M (Phosphorus %75+ Barvar + Farmyard manure, (6 P%75B2M (Phosphorus %75+ Nitroxin+ Farmyard manure, (7 P%100B1 (Phosphorus %100 + Barvar and (8 P%125B2 (Phosphorus %125+ Nitroxin. The results showed that the highest yield was obtained from P%75B1M. Difference between integrated fertilization of farmyard manure and other treatments was significant. Farmyard manure increased canola yield which was attributed to increase in availability of mineral nutrients, decreasing effects of salinity and toxic ions. Integrated application of 5 t. ha-1 of farmyard manure and %75 recommended chemical P increased yield and decreased fertilizer consumption. The results revealed that integrated applications of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizer and after that integrated use of bio- and chemical fertilizer are the best strategies to increase nutrient availability and improving canola yield in saline soil.

  5. Influence of supplemental canola or soybean oil on milk yield, fatty acid profile and postpartum weight changes in grazing dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma-Reyes, Israel; Mendoza-Martínez, German D; Rojo-Rubio, Rolado; Mejia, Mario; García-Lopez, J C; Lee-Rangel, Héctor A

    2018-02-01

    This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with soybean or canola oil on milk production and the composition of long chain fatty acids as well as weight changes in the goats and their kids. Thirty nine mulitparous crossed Alpine×Nubian goats (initial body weight [BW] 43.5±1.7 kg) from the day of parturition were assigned to the treatments: grazing control (n = 15); grazing plus 20 mL/goat/d of supplemental soybean oil (n = 12); and grazing plus 20 mL/goat/d of supplemental canola oil (n = 12) from November 26, 2014 to March 7, 2015. The planned contrasts were: CI (control vs supplemented with oils); CII (soybean vs canola oil) to compare the treatment effects. The vegetable oil supplementation reduced weight losses in lactating goats (CI: -0.060 vs 0.090 kg/d; p = 0.03) but did not improve milk production or affect kids' growth. The content of C4, C6, C8, C10, C11, C14, and C18:1n9t in the milk was increased (poils compared to the control group. Supplementation with 20 mL/d of soybean or canola oil did not affect milk production or kids' performance; however, it increased CLA concentration and reduced the reduced weight losses in lactating goats.

  6. Interactions between Obesity Status and Dietary Intake of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Oils on Human Gut Microbiome Profiles in the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaihua Pu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Long-term dietary fatty acid intake is believed to induce changes in the human gut microbiome which might be associated with human health or obesity status; however, considerable debate remains regarding the most favorable ratios of fatty acids to optimize these processes. The objective of this sub-study of a double-blinded randomized crossover clinical study, the canola oil multi-center intervention trial (COMIT, was to investigate effects of five different novel oil blends fed for 30 days each on the intestinal microbiota in 25 volunteers with risk of metabolic syndrome. The 60 g treatments included three MUFA-rich diets: 1 conventional canola oil (Canola; 2 DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (CanolaDHA; 3 high oleic canola oil (CanolaOleic; and two PUFA-rich diets: 4 a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75 (CornSaff; and 5 a blend of flax/safflower oil (60:40 (FlaxSaff. Stool samples were collected at the end of each period. DNA was extracted and amplified for pyrosequencing. A total of 17 phyla and 187 genera were identified. While five novel oil treatments failed to alter bacterial phyla composition, obese participants produced a higher proportion of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes than overweight or normal weight groups (P = 0.01. Similarly at the genus level, overall bacterial distribution was highly associated with subjects’ body mass index (BMI. Treatment effects were observed between MUFA- and PUFA-rich diets, with the three MUFA diets elevating Parabacteroides, Prevotella, Turicibacter, and Enterobacteriaceae (F’s populations, while the two PUFA-rich diets favored the abundance of Isobaculum. High MUFA content feedings also resulted in an increase of Parabacteroides and a decrease of Isobaculum in obese, but not overweight subjects. Data suggest that BMI is a predominant factor in characterization of human gut microbiota profiles, and that MUFA-rich and PUFA-rich diets impact the composition of gut microbiota at lower taxonomical levels

  7. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of virulence factors in Leptosphaeria maculans during compatible and incompatible interactions with canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humira Sonah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Leptosphaeria maculans is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes blackleg of canola (Brassica napus, one of the most devastating diseases of this crop. In the present study, transcriptome profiling of L. maculans was performed in an effort to understand and define the pathogenicity genes that govern both the biotrophic and the necrotrophic phase of the fungus, as well as those that separate a compatible from an incompatible interaction. For this purpose, comparative RNA-seq analyses were performed on L. maculans isolate D5 at four different time points following inoculation on susceptible cultivar Topas-wild or resistant near isogenic line Topas-Rlm2. Analysis of 1.6 billion Illumina reads readily identified differentially expressed genes that were over represented by candidate secretory effector proteins, CAZymes, and other pathogenicity genes. Comparisons between the compatible and incompatible interactions led to the identification of 28 effector proteins whose chronology and level of expression suggested a role in the establishment and maintenance of biotrophy with the plant. These included all known Avr genes of isolate D5 along with eight newly characterized effectors. In addition, another 15 effector proteins were found to be exclusively expressed during the necrotrophic phase of the fungus, which supports the concept that L. maculans has a separate and distinct arsenal contributing to each phase. As for CAZymes, they were often highly expressed at 3 dpi but with no difference in expression between the compatible and incompatible interactions, indicating that other factors were necessary to determine the outcome of the interaction. However, their significantly higher expression at 11 dpi in the compatible interaction confirmed that they contributed to the necrotrophic phase of the fungus. A notable exception was LysM genes whose high expression was singularly observed on the susceptible host at 7 dpi. In the case of TFs, their higher

  8. Chemical and ruminal in vitro evaluation of Canadian canola meals produced over 4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Glen A; Colombini, Stefania; Costa, Sara; Karsli, Mehmet A; Faciola, Antonio P

    2016-10-01

    To test the effects of year and processing plant on the nutritional value of canola meal (CM), 3 CM samples/yr were collected from each of 12 Canadian production plants over 4yr (total=144). Samples of CM were analyzed for differences in chemical composition and for in vitro ruminal protein degradability using the Michaelis-Menten inhibitor in vitro (MMIIV) method. In the MMIIV method, protein degradation rate (kd) was estimated by 2 methods: from net release (i.e., blank corrected) of (1) ammonia plus AA determined by o-phthaldialdehyde fluorescence (OPAF) assay or (2) ammonia, AA, plus oligopeptides determined by o-phthaldialdehyde absorbance (OPAA) assay; rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) was computed assuming passage rates of 0.16 and 0.06/h for, respectively, soluble and insoluble protein. Casein, solvent soybean meal (SSBM), and expeller soybean meal (ESBM) were included in all incubations as standard proteins. Differences among years and plants were assessed using the mixed procedures of SAS. Small but significant differences were found in CM among years for chemical composition, including N solubility; some of these differences may have been related to changes in our analytical methods over time. However, adjustment of degradation activity of individual in vitro incubations based on the mean degradation activity over all incubations yielded kd and RUP that did not differ by year using either assay. Simultaneously incubating CM samples from 2yr in the same in vitro runs confirmed that no year effects existed for kd or RUP. Differences existed in chemical composition of CM among the 12 processing plants over the 4yr of sample collection. Moreover, consistent differences in kd and RUP were observed among plants: kd ranged from 0.069 to 0.113/h (OPAA assay) and 0.075 to 0.120/h (OPAF assay), and RUP estimates ranged from 51 to 43% (OPAA assay) and 49 to 41% (OPAF assay). Regression of kd on insoluble N content of CM yielded correlation coefficients (R(2

  9. Investigation of rheological properties of winter wheat varieties during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Móré M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the results of some experimental researches on the rheological characteristics of the dough obtained from the flour of three winter wheat varieties. We used valorigraph test to determine the rheological properties of wheat flour dough, because it determines the quality of the end-products. Winter wheat varieties (Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag were produced and their samples were collected on Látókép Research Farm of the University of Debrecen in the crop year of 2011/2012. We have carried out a short-term storage experiment (from July to August, 2012. We analysed the changes in water absorption capacity, dough stability time and valorigraph quality number for 3 times (24.07.2012, 31.07.2012, 21.08.2012 during short-term storage. Our results showed that the baking quality of Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag improved during the storage period.

  10. Leadership in American Indian Communities: Winter Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metoyer, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Winter lessons, or stories told in the winter, were one of the ways in which tribal elders instructed and directed young men and women in the proper ways to assume leadership responsibilities. Winter lessons stressed the appropriate relationship between the leader and the community. The intent was to remember the power and purpose of that…

  11. 46 CFR 45.73 - Winter freeboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Winter freeboard. 45.73 Section 45.73 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Freeboards § 45.73 Winter freeboard. The minimum winter freeboard (fw) in inches is obtained by the formula: fw=f(s)+T s...

  12. Apparent and true ileal and total tract digestibility of fat in canola press-cake or canola oil and effects of increasing dietary fat on amino acid and energy digestibility in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2017-06-01

    Digestibility of remaining oil in canola press-cake (CPC) may be lower than that of extracted, liquid canola oil (CO) because oil may be partly entrapped in the CPC matrix. To determine true digestibility of fat in ingredients, endogenous fat losses should be estimated. Dietary fat may interact with digestion of other dietary components. To test these hypotheses, 10 ileal-cannulated pigs (initial BW, 25.4 kg) were fed 10 diets for 8 periods in a 10 × 8 Youden square. A basal diet was formulated based on wheat, barley, and canola meal. The 4 CPC and 4 CO test diets were prepared by replacing identical portion of basal diet with 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% CPC, or 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% CO, respectively, to match the fat content of CPC diet with CO diet at each fat level. An N-free diet based on corn starch was prepared to measure basal endogenous losses of AA. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE) were calculated for each diet. True ileal digestibility (TID) and true total tract (TTTD) digestibility of AEE in CPC and CO, and total endogenous losses of AEE were estimated by regressing apparent digestible AEE (g/kg of DMI) against dietary AEE intake (g/kg of DM) at the total tract and distal ileum, respectively. The mean AID and ATTD of AEE in CPC diets were 78.9% and 61.5%, which were lower ( digestible AEE content in CPC and CO diets increased linearly ( 0.05) total tract or ileal endogenous losses of AEE. The TID and TTTD of AEE in CPC were 92.3% and 94.5%, respectively, lower ( digestibility (SID) of CP, Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp, and quadratically increased ( digestibility of AEE in CPC than in CO indicates that fat digestibility of CPC should be considered to predict its nutritional value accurately. Dietary inclusion of CO may increase digestibility of CP and energy originating from the balance of the diet.

  13. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.

  14. Effects of high-protein or conventional canola meal on growth performance, organ weights, bone ash, and blood characteristics of weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, C K; Liu, Y; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of 2 high-protein canola meals (canola meal A [CMA]: 45.69% CP and canola meal B [CMB]: 46.97% CP) and a conventional canola meal (CM-CV: 35.10% CP) on growth performance, organ weights, bone ash, and blood parameters of weanling pigs. Inclusion rates of canola meal (CM) in the diets were 10, 20, 30, or 40% for CMA and CM-CV, whereas inclusions were 10, 20, or 30% for CMB. A control diet containing no CM was also formulated. Therefore, 12 diets were used in this experiment. A total of 420 pigs (initial BW: 9.8 ± 1.1 kg) were divided into 3 blocks and randomly allotted to 1 of the 12 diets with 8 replicate pens per treatment and 4 or 5 pigs per pen. The ADG, ADFI, and G:F were calculated, and at the conclusion of the experiment, 1 pig in each pen was euthanized to allow measurements of organ weights, collection of blood, and collection of the third and fourth metacarpals from the left foot. Results indicate that ADFI was linearly (P ash percentage in the metacarpals. Inclusion of CMA or CM-CV linearly (P < 0.05) decreased concentrations of serum triiodothyronine, and the inclusion of CMA also linearly (P < 0.05) decreased serum thyroxine concentrations. No differences were observed for complete blood counts or blood urea nitrogen if CM was added to the diets. In conclusion, up to 20% high-protein CM or CM-CV may be included in diets for weanling pigs from 2 wk postweaning without reducing growth performance or negatively affecting organ, bone, or blood parameters. In some instances, it may also be possible to use greater inclusion rates.

  15. Effects of fall and spring seeding date and other agronomic factors on infestations of root maggots, Delia spp. (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), in canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosdall, L M; Clayton, G W; Harker, K N; O'Donovan, J T; Stevenson, F C

    2006-10-01

    Several agronomic benefits can result from fall seeding of canola (Brassica spp.), but extensive research data are lacking on the potential impact of this practice on infestations of root maggots (Delia spp.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), which are major pests of the crop in western Canada. Field experiments making up 13 location by year combinations were conducted in central Alberta, Canada, from 1998 to 2001 to determine the effect of fall versus spring seeding of canola on root maggot damage. Depending on the experiment, interactions with seeding rate, seed treatment, timing of weed removal, and canola species (cultivar) also were investigated. Root maggot damage declined with an increase in seeding rate for plots seeded in May but not in fall or April. Susceptibility to infestation was greater for plants of Brassica rapa L. than Brassica napus L., but seed treatment had no effect on damage by these pests. Combined analysis using data from all experiment by location by year combinations indicated that seeding date had no significant effect on root maggot damage. The extended emergence of Delia spp. adults, which spans the appearance of crop stages vulnerable to oviposition regardless of seeding date, prevented reduced root maggot attack. Covariance analysis demonstrated the importance of increasing seeding rate for reducing root maggot infestations, a practice that can be especially beneficial for May-seeded canola when growing conditions limit the ability of plants to compensate for root maggot damage. Results determined with the small plot studies described here should be validated in larger plots or on a commercial field scale, but both the combined and covariance analyses indicate that seeding canola in fall does not predispose plants to greater damage by larval root maggots than seeding in spring.

  16. Visualizing tissue molecular structure of a black type of canola (Brassica) seed with a thick seed coat after heat-related processing in a chemical way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-02-20

    Heat-related processing of cereal grains, legume seeds, and oil seeds could be used to improve nutrient availability in ruminants. However, different types of processing may have a different impact on intrinsic structure of tissues. To date, there is little research on structure changes after processing within intact tissues. The synchrotron-based molecular imaging technique enables us to detect inherent structure change on a molecular level. The objective of this study was to visualize tissue of black-type canola (Brassica) seed with a thick seed coat after heat-related processing in a chemical way using the synchrotron imaging technique. The results showed that the chemical images of protein amides were obtained through the imaging technique for the raw, wet, and dry heated black type of canola seed tissues. It seems that different types of processing have a different impact on the protein spectral profile in the black type of canola tissues. Wet heating had a greater impact on the protein α-helix to β-sheet ratio than dry heating. Both dry and wet heating resulted in different patterns in amide I, the second derivative, and FSD spectra. However, the exact differences in the tissue images are relatively difficult to be obtained through visual comparison. Future studies should focus on (1) comparing the response and sensitivity of canola seeds to various processing methods between the yellow-type and black-type of canola seeds; (2) developing a sensitive method to compare the image difference between tissues and between treatments; (3) developing a method to link images to nutrient digestion, and (4) revealing how structure changes affect nutrient absorption in humans and animals.

  17. Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, N.; Jeffries, J.; Mach, J.; Robson, M.; Pajot, D.; Harrigan, J.; Lebsack, T.; Mullen, D.; Rat, F.; Theys, P.

    1993-01-01

    What is quality? How do you achieve it? How do you keep it once you have got it. The answer for industry at large is the three-step hierarchy of quality control, quality assurance and Total quality Management. An overview is given of the history of quality movement, illustrated with examples from Schlumberger operations, as well as the oil industry's approach to quality. An introduction of the Schlumberger's quality-associated ClientLink program is presented. 15 figs., 4 ills., 16 refs

  18. Farelo de canola para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, linhagem Chitralada - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1896 Canola meal for juvenile Nile tilapia, Chitralada strain - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1896

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Romano Fernandes

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de diferentes níveis de farelo de canola em rações, sobre o desempenho e composição de carcaça de juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L., linhagem Chitralada. Foram utilizadas 15 caixas de polipropileno com capacidade para 310L, com dez peixes por unidade. Os peixes foram alimentados à saciação com cinco rações isoprotéicas (28% e isocalóricas (2900 Kcal ED/Kg, duas vezes ao dia, durante seis meses. O farelo de canola foi utilizado em quatro níveis (TT=0%, T1=8%, T2=16%, T3=24%, e T4=32%/dieta, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e três repetições. Os valores obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (p0,1 sobre a composição corporal dos peixes, sendo que os níveis de 16% e 24% de farelo de canola proporcionaram os melhores ganhos de peso. Conclui-se que a utilização do farelo de canola é viável quando incluído em até 24% na ração para a tilápia do Nilo, linhagem Chitralada.This work evaluated the inclusion of several levels of canola meal in ration used in the development and carcass compositions of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L., Chitralada strain. Were used 15 polypropylene boxes, with 310 liters (10 fish each. The fish were fed with five isonitrogenous (28% and isocaloric ration (2900 Kcal EM/kg, twice a day for six months. The canola meal was used in four levels (TT = 0%, T1 = 8%, T2 = 16%, T3 = 24% and T4 = 32% / diet, in a completely randomized design, with 5 treatments and three repetitions each. The data obtained were submitted to variance analysis (ANOVA and the averages compared by the Tukey test (p0,1 on fishes body composition, however had best body weight gain with canola meal on levels 16% and 24%. These values seem to show that for the Nile Tilapia, Chilatrada strain, the use of canola meal is viable when included in up

  19. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment

  20. Glyphostate-drift but not herbivory alters the rate of transgene flow from single and stacked trait transgenic canola (Brassica napus L.) to non-transgenic B. napus and B. rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    While transgenic plants can offer agricultural benefits, the escape of transgenes out of crop fields is a major environmental concern. Escape of transgenic herbicide resistance has occurred between transgenic Brassica napus (canola) and weedy species in numerous locations. In t...

  1. Effects of protein concentration and heat treatment on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on amino acid digestibility in four sources of canola meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Song, M; Maison, T; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine DE and ME and the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 4 sources of canola meal (high-protein [CM-HP], high-temperature-processed [CM-HT], low-temperature-processed [CM-LT], and conventional [CM-CV] canola meal) and in conventional soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 48 growing barrows (initial BW: 39.7 ± 1.58 kg) were individually housed in metabolism cages and randomly assigned to 6 treatments in a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 24 pigs and 8 replicate pigs per treatment. The 6 diets included a corn-based basal diet and 5 diets that were formulated by mixing corn and 1 of the sources of canola meal (39.0% inclusion) or SBM (28.5% inclusion). Feces and urine were collected for 5 d following a 5-d adaptation period. The DE and ME in each source of canola meal and in SBM were calculated using the difference procedure. The DE and ME in the 4 sources of canola meal were less (P sources of canola meal. In Exp. 2, 12 growing barrows (initial BW: 34.0 ± 1.41 kg) that had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum were randomly allotted to a repeated 6 × 6 Latin square design with 6 diets and 6 periods in each square. Five diets that contained 35% SBM or 45% of 1 of the 4 sources of canola meal as the sole source of CP and AA were formulated, and a N-free diet was also used. Each period lasted 7 d and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The AID and SID of CP and all AA in SBM were greater (P sources of canola meal. Compared with CM-CV, CM-HP had greater (P < 0.05) AID of Ile, Lys, Asp, Cys, and Pro and greater (P < 0.05) SID of Lys and Cys. However, no differences between CM-HT and CM-LT were observed. In conclusion, regardless of the concentration of CP and the processing used, canola meal provides less DE and ME to pigs than corn and SBM, and the SID of AA in canola meal is less than in SBM. The processing

  2. Nutritional Evaluation of Distillery Sludge and Its Effect as a Substitute of Canola Meal on Performance of Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Shahzad, M. A.; Rehman, S.; Khan, S.; Ali, R.; Khan, M. L.; Khan, K.

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the chemical composition of distillery yeast sludge and its inclusion in broiler diets to replace canola meal. Raw distillery yeast sludge was washed with water using water and sludge in the ratio 6:1, respectively. Proximate analysis of raw distillery yeast sludge and washed distillery sludge was carried out for crude protein (CP), true protein (TP), ether extract (EE), ash, acid insoluble ash and nitrogen free extract (NFE) determination. Mineral contents and amino acid profile of raw distillery yeast sludge and washed distillery sludge were also determined. After chemical evaluation, four iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous broiler starter and finisher diets were prepared in mash form using 0 (control), 4, 8 and 12% levels of washed distillery sludge replacing canola meal. One hundred and twenty day-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 12 experimental units in such a way that each diet was offered to three experimental units, each comprising of 10 chicks. It was observed that washing affected the nutrients either by decreasing or increasing their concentration. It decreased the total mineral contents whereas CP, TP, EE and NFE contents increased. Washing also increased amino acid profile. Average feed intake and weight gain were higher in birds fed diet containing 8% washed distillery sludge and lower in birds fed diet containing 0% washed distillery sludge. Feed cost per kg live weight gain decreased significantly as the level of washed distillery sludge was increased in the diet. Average heart, liver and pancreas weights decreased with increased level of washed distillery sludge in the diet. The study revealed that after washing, distillery yeast sludge can be used successfully in broiler diets up to the level of 8% without any adverse effect on broiler’s performance. PMID:25049579

  3. Nutritional Evaluation of Distillery Sludge and Its Effect as a Substitute of Canola Meal on Performance of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sharif

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the chemical composition of distillery yeast sludge and its inclusion in broiler diets to replace canola meal. Raw distillery yeast sludge was washed with water using water and sludge in the ratio 6:1, respectively. Proximate analysis of raw distillery yeast sludge and washed distillery sludge was carried out for crude protein (CP, true protein (TP, ether extract (EE, ash, acid insoluble ash and nitrogen free extract (NFE determination. Mineral contents and amino acid profile of raw distillery yeast sludge and washed distillery sludge were also determined. After chemical evaluation, four iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous broiler starter and finisher diets were prepared in mash form using 0 (control, 4, 8 and 12% levels of washed distillery sludge replacing canola meal. One hundred and twenty day-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 12 experimental units in such a way that each diet was offered to three experimental units, each comprising of 10 chicks. It was observed that washing affected the nutrients either by decreasing or increasing their concentration. It decreased the total mineral contents whereas CP, TP, EE and NFE contents increased. Washing also increased amino acid profile. Average feed intake and weight gain were higher in birds fed diet containing 8% washed distillery sludge and lower in birds fed diet containing 0% washed distillery sludge. Feed cost per kg live weight gain decreased significantly as the level of washed distillery sludge was increased in the diet. Average heart, liver and pancreas weights decreased with increased level of washed distillery sludge in the diet. The study revealed that after washing, distillery yeast sludge can be used successfully in broiler diets up to the level of 8% without any adverse effect on broiler’s performance.

  4. Winter therapy for the accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of people are hard at work during the year-end technical stop as all the accelerators are undergoing maintenance, renovation and upgrade operations in parallel.   The new beam absorber on its way to Point 2 before being lowered into the LHC tunnel for installation. The accelerator teams didn’t waste any time before starting their annual winter rejuvenation programme over the winter. At the end of November, as the LHC ion run was beginning, work got under way on the PS Booster, where operation had already stopped. On 14 December, once the whole complex had been shut down, the technical teams turned their attention to the other injectors and the LHC. The year-end technical stop (YETS) provides an opportunity to carry out maintenance work on equipment and repair any damage as well as to upgrade the machines for the upcoming runs. Numerous work projects are carried out simultaneously, so good coordination is crucial. Marzia Bernardini's team in the Enginee...

  5. Estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and energy use efficiency (EUE) analysis in rainfed canola production (case study: Golestan province, Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazemi, Hossein; Bourkheili, Saeid Hassanpour; Kamkar, Behnam; Soltani, Afshin; Gharanjic, Kambiz; Nazari, Noor Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the use of energy inputs in agricultural section has been led to numerous environmental concerns such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, high consumption of non-renewable resources, loss of biodiversity and environment pollutions. The study was aimed to analyze the energy use efficiency (EUE) and estimation of GHG emissions from rainfed–based canola production systems (RCPSs) in Iran. In this study, data were collected from 35 farms in Golestan province (northeast of Iran) by a face to face questionnaire performed and statistical yearbooks of 2014. The amount of GHG emissions (per hectare) from inputs used in RCPSs was calculated using CO 2 emissions coefficient of agricultural inputs. Results showed that the EUE and net energy (NE) were as 3.44 and 35,537.81 MJ ha −1 , respectively. The value of these indices for the study area indicated that surveyed fields are approximately efficient in the use of energy for canola production. The highest share of energy consumption belonged to nitrogen fertilizer (42.09%) followed by diesel fuel (39.81%). In production of rainfed canola, GHG emission was estimated as 1009.91 kg CO 2 equivalent per hectare. Based on the results, nitrogen fertilizer (44.15%), diesel fuel (30.16%) and machinery (14.49%) for field operations had the highest share of GHG emission. The total consumed energy by inputs could be classified as direct energy (40.09%), and indirect energy (59.91%) or renewable energy (2.02%) and nonrenewable energy (97.98%). These results demonstrate that the share of renewable energies in canola production is very low in the studied region and agriculture in Iran is very much dependent on non-renewable energies. In this study, the energy use status in RCPSs has analyzed and the main involved causes have been interpreted. - Highlights: • Fertilizers had the highest share in GHG emission. • The share of renewable energy was low in canola production. • Canola production is efficient in Iran.

  6. Impact of Flax Seed and Canola Oils Mixture Supplementation on The Physiological and Biochemical Changes Induced by Monosodium Glutamate in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.; Mohamed, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important problems in the human health nutrition field is the use of food flavor. Monosodium glutamate is one of the main flavors used as an ingredient in various food products, however it produces physiological and biochemical changes. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the supplementation of flax seed and canola oils mixture against the physiological and biochemical changes induced by monosodium glutamate in rats. In addition to analyses the physical and chemical characteristics of flax seed and canola oil and fatty acids composition by using gas liquid chromatography. The results concerning that unsaturated fatty acids of flax seed oil were oleic (18:1) 22%, linoleic acid (18:2) 30 % and linolenic acid (18:3) 36%. Total unsaturated fatty acids percentage in flaxseed oil was 88% and total saturated fatty acids 12%. The unsaturated fatty acids of canola oil were oleic (18:1) 66%, linoleic acid (18:2) 18% and linolenic acid (18:3) 7%, total unsaturated fatty acids percentage in canola oil was 92% and total saturated fatty acids was 8%. On the other hand, treatment of rats with monosodium glutamate for ten consecutive days led to a decrease in RBCs, Hb, Hct % and increased platelet count with decrease in WBCs and undesirable changes in its differential count. There is also, high significant increase in testicular thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) which is accompanied with significant reduction in catalase (CAT) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and serum testosterone level. These disturbances were associated with significant increase in the liver enzymes ALT,AST and ALP and increase in the level of total biluribin and glucose. Also, significant increase in urea, creatinine and uric acid were recorded. The supplementation with mixture of flax seed and canola oils mixture for one month after the injection of monosodium glutamate caused noticeable amelioration in the damage occurred as a result of this flavor. To

  7. NEW GENOTYPES AND TECHNOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF WINTER TRITICALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Z.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to conduct basic screening of new lines and cultivars of winter hexaploid triticale by the technological and molecular genetics indicators. Molecular and genetic research conducted by polymerase chain reaction allelic variants of gene loci Wx-A1, Wx-B1, and quality parameters of grain, flour and bread – on technological markers. The new cultivars and lines of winter hexaploid triticale of Nosivka Breeding and Research Station of Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat by technological indicators of grain, flour and bread quality were studied. According to representative criteria’s the most promising genotypes, which are the main products in terms Forest-Steppe ecotypes’ and a high-quality raw materials for bakeries and bioethanol were identified. Molecular and genetic identifications of allelic variants of genes loci Wx-A1, Wx-B1 triticale, which in the early stages of ontogenesis to predict targeted uses genotypes were conducted. The first among a series of triticale cultivars and lines Forest-Steppe ecotypes and biotypes with nonfunctional b gene allele WxA1, which defines a high content of amylopectin of starch, an important release for more ethanol was identified. It was found that technological characteristics of grain, flour and bread of new cultivars and lines of winter triticale meet the modern requirements production dietetic food and bioenergy products is important and relevant in the context of food security of Ukraine.

  8. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  9. Aircraft measurements to characterize polluted winter boundary layers: Overview of twin otter flights during the Utah Winter Fine Particulate Matter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. S.; Baasandorj, M.; Franchin, A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Goldberger, L.; Thornton, J. A.; Dube, W. P.; McDuffie, E. E.; Womack, C.; Fibiger, D. L.; Moravek, A.; Clark, J. C.; Murphy, J. G.; Mitchell, R.

    2017-12-01

    Winter air pollution is a significant public health concern. In many regions of the U.S., Europe and Asia, wintertime particulate matter concentrations exceed national and / or international air quality standards. Winter air pollution also represents a scientific challenge because these events occur during stagnation events in shallow, vertically stratified boundary layers whose composition is difficult to probe from surface level measurements. Chemical processes responsible for the conversion of primary emissions to secondary pollutants such as ammonium nitrate aerosol vary with height above ground level. Sources of oxidants are poorly understood and may result from both local chemical production and mixing between shallow inversion layers and background air. During the Utah Winter Fine Particulate Study (UWFPS) in January - February 2017, the NOAA twin otter executed 23 research flights with a payload designed to characterize the formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol in three mountain valleys of northern Utah (Salt Lake, Cache, and Utah). These valleys are subject to periodic episodes of winter aerosol pollution well in excess of U.S. national ambient air quality standards. This presentation will describe the measurement strategy of the twin otter flights to address the specific features of aerosol pollution within winter boundary layer of this region. This strategy is relevant to understanding the broader issue of winter air pollution in other regions and potentially to the design of future studies. The presentation will summarize findings from UWFPS related to boundary layer structure, emissions and chemical processes responsible for ammonium nitrate aerosol in this region.

  10. Effect of Sugarcane Filter Muds, Chemical and Biological Fertilizers on Absorption of Some Macro- and Micro-Elementsand Heavy Metals by Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    H. Monjezi; M. R Moradi-Telavat; S. A. Siadat; A. Koochakzadeh; H. Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of sugarcane (Sacharum officinarum L.) filter muds and chemical and biological fertilizers application on macro- and micronutrient elements and some heavy metals (Pb and Cd) absorption by canola (Brassica napus L.) grains, a factorial experiment was conducted in 2012 in the Experimental Farm of Ramin (Mollasani) Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khouzestan, Iran. A complete blocks design was used for the experiment with three replications. Differe...

  11. Influence of supplemental canola or soybean oil on milk yield, fatty acid profile and postpartum weight changes in grazing dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Lerma-Reyes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with soybean or canola oil on milk production and the composition of long chain fatty acids as well as weight changes in the goats and their kids. Methods Thirty nine mulitparous crossed Alpine×Nubian goats (initial body weight [BW] 43.5±1.7 kg from the day of parturition were assigned to the treatments: grazing control (n = 15; grazing plus 20 mL/goat/d of supplemental soybean oil (n = 12; and grazing plus 20 mL/goat/d of supplemental canola oil (n = 12 from November 26, 2014 to March 7, 2015. The planned contrasts were: CI (control vs supplemented with oils; CII (soybean vs canola oil to compare the treatment effects. Results The vegetable oil supplementation reduced weight losses in lactating goats (CI: −0.060 vs 0.090 kg/d; p = 0.03 but did not improve milk production or affect kids’ growth. The content of C4, C6, C8, C10, C11, C14, and C18:1n9t in the milk was increased (p<0.05 with respect to control. However, C12, C14, C16, C18, C18:1n9c, C18:2n6c, and C18:3n3 were reduced (p<0.05 in supplemented goats. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA was increased (p<0.05 in goats supplemented with oils compared to the control group. Conclusion Supplementation with 20 mL/d of soybean or canola oil did not affect milk production or kids’ performance; however, it increased CLA concentration and reduced the reduced weight losses in lactating goats.

  12. Effects of canola oil supplemented with atherogenic element and nigella sativa (kalonji) on serum lipids in albino rats - an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.; Farooq, M.; Kousar, N.

    2015-01-01

    To compare effects of canola oil supplemented with atherogenic element and Nigella sativa on serum lipids in albino rats. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Pathology Department of Postgraduate Medical Institute, for 12 weeks. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trials. Material and Methods: Seventy two albino rats were selected and randomly divided into six groups of twelve animals with equal number of male and female in each. Fourteen days after acclimatization to the environment and basal diet, fasting blood samples (zero week) were collected by heart puncture under ether anesthesia and experimental diets were started which were continued for 12 weeks. All parameters were measured using enzymatic colorimetric methods. Results: Estimations of serum lipids showed increase in total cholesterol (TC) and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c) levels but fall in LDL-c concentrations in groups fed on canola oil diet. On the other hand, even atherogenic supplemented groups had decrease in cardio-protective HDL-c and raised LDL-c; although statistically non-significant. Thus canola oil diets were not hyperlipidaemic and prevented adiposity. Nigella sativa (NS) diets significantly decreased serum total cholesterol and LDL-c while HDL-c was raised but non-significantly. Thus Nigella sativa prevented deposition of lipids in tissues, thus preventing tendency to obesity and atherogenesis by decreasing LDL-c in serum. Conclusion: Nigella sativa produces antilipidaemic and anti-obesity effects by decreasing low density lipoprotein cholesterol level which is statistically significant in two out of the three groups fed on Ns; it also increased high density cholesterol which was however non-significant in comparison with Canola oil alone. (author)

  13. Effect of date of termination of a winter cereal rye cover crop (Secale cereale) on corn seedling disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover cropping is an expanding conservation practice that offers substantial benefits to soil protection, soil health, water quality, and potentially crop yields. Presently, winter cereals are the most widely used cover crops in the upper Midwest. However, winter cereal cover crops preceding corn, ...

  14. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.109 Winter Harbor...

  15. Study on Replacement Probability of Organic with Chemical Fertilizers in Canola (Brassica napus under Two Deficit and Full Irrigation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Azimzadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In agricultural ecosystems, organic fertilizers play an important role in producing sustainable agricultural production. Considering this Sajjadi Nik et al (2011 reported that with increasing of vermicompost inoculation with nitroxin biofertilizer, capsule number per sesame plant increased, so that the most of capsule number per plant (124.7 was observed in 10 t/h vermicompost with nitroxin inoculation. Seyyedi and Rezvani Moghaddam (2011 reported that seed number per plant and the thousand kernel weight in treatment of 80 t/h mushroom compost in comparison with control were increased by 2.98 and 1.56 fold. In another experiment, Kato and Yamagishi (2011 reported that seed yield of wheat in application of manures equal to 80 t/h/ year more than 10 years in comparison with application of nitrogen fertilizer at the rate of 204 kg/h, showed significant increasing from 725 to 885 gr/m2. In another study, Rezvani Moghaddam et al (2010 reported that the most (74.08 and the least (60.94 seed number per capsule in sesame was obtained in the treatments of cow manure and control treatments respectively. The aim of this experiment was evaluation the effects of municipal waste compost, vermicompost and cow manure fertilizers in comparison with chemical fertilizer on yield and yield components of canola under two levels of deficit and full irrigation. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the replacement probability of organic fertilizer with chemical fertilizers in canola cultivation, an experiment was conducted at research farm of Mashhad Faculty of Agriculture in year of 2013. Treatments were fertilizer and irrigation. Irrigation treatments included full and deficit irrigation. Fertilizer treatments included municipal waste compost, vermicompost, manure and chemical fertilizer. Chemical fertilizer included Nitrogen and Phosphorus. Experiment was conducted as split plot in randomized complete block design with three replications. Organic

  16. Responses of the cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to seed treatments of canola (Brassica napus L.) with the neonicotinoid compounds clothianidin and imidacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosdall, Lloyd M

    2009-12-01

    The cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham), is a major pest in the production of canola (Brassica napus L.) in North America and Europe, and effective population control is often essential for economical crop production. In North America, neonicotinoid insecticides have been used for several years in canola as seed treatments for reducing herbivory by flea beetles. The neonicotinoids clothianidin and imidacloprid were investigated to determine their effects on preimaginal development and on emergence of new-generation adults of C. obstrictus in comparison with effects of lindane, a chlorinated hydrocarbon seed treatment. Mean numbers of second- and third-instar larvae were significantly higher in plants seed-treated with lindane than in plants treated with the neonicotinoid compounds, even though weevil oviposition was similar for all treatments. Emergence of new-generation adults was reduced by 52 and 39% for plants seed-treated with clothianidin and imidacloprid, respectively, compared with emergence from plants treated with lindane. Seed treatment with both clothianidin and imidacloprid produced systemic insecticidal effects on larvae of C. obstrictus, with clothianidin slightly more effective than imidacloprid. Use of clothianidin or imidacloprid as seed treatments can comprise an important component in the integrated management of cabbage seedpod weevil in canola. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effects of Two Traditional Chinese Cooking Oils, Canola and Pork, on pH and Cholic Acid Content of Faeces and Colon Tumorigenesis in Kunming Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Qiong; Duan, Jia-Li; Zhou, Jin; Song, Zhong-Yu; Cichello, Simon Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Faecal pH and cholate are two important factors that can affect colon tumorigenesis, and can be modified by diet. In this study, the effects of two Chinese traditional cooking oils (pork oil and canola/rapeseed oil) on the pH and the cholic acid content in feces, in addition to colon tumorigenesis, were studied in mice. Kunming mice were randomized into various groups; negative control group (NCG), azoxymethane control group (ACG), pork oil group (POG), and canola oil Ggroup (COG). Mice in the ACG were fed a basic rodent chow; mice in POG and COG were given 10% cooking oil rodent chow with the respective oil type. All mice were given four weekly AOM (azoxymethane) i.p. injections (10 mg/kg). The pH and cholic acid of the feces were examined every two weeks. Colon tumors, aberrant crypt foci and organ weights were examined 32 weeks following the final AOM injection. The results showed that canola oil significantly decreased faecal pH in female mice (P0.05). Pork oil significantly increased the feces pH in both male and female mice (Pcooking oil effects faecal pH, but does not affect the faecal cholic acid content and thus AOM-induced colon neoplastic ACF is modified by dietary fat.

  18. Interim Report 'Winter smog and traffic'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, H.; Blom, T.; Bogaard, van den C.; Boluyt, N.; Bree, van L.; Brunekreef, B.; Hoek, G.; Zee, van der S.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a halfway score of the research project "Winter smog and Traffic", one of the themes of the research programme "Air Pollution and Health". A state of the art is presented of the health effects associated with exposure to winter smog and of the toxicological effects caused by the

  19. Nuclear Winter: Scientists in the Political Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2001-03-01

    The nuclear winter phenomenon is used to illustrate the many paths by which scientific advice reaches decision makers in the United States government. Because the Reagan administration was hostile to the strategic policy that the scientific discovery seemed to demand, the leading proponent of nuclear winter, Carl Sagan, used his formidable talent for popularization to reach a larger audience.

  20. How to Have a Healthy Winter | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Without a doubt, winter is here. Between the icy weather and the recent hustle and bustle of the holidays, everyone is at an increased risk of getting sick. With that in mind, Occupational Health Services has a few simple tips for staying healthy this winter.

  1. Chapter 7: Migration and winter ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Jean-Luc E. Cartron

    2000-01-01

    The willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) is a Neotropical migrant that breeds in North America, but winters in Central and northern South America. Little specific information is known about migration and wintering ecology of the southwestern willow flycatcher (E. t. extimus) (Yong and Finch 1997). Our report applies principally...

  2. Winter ecology of the Porcupine caribou herd, Yukon: Part III, Role of day length in determining activity pattern and estimating percent lying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Russell

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on the activity pattern, proportion of time spent lying and the length of active and lying periods in winter are presented from a 3 year study on the Porcupine caribou herd. Animals were most active at sunrise and sunset resulting in from one (late fall, early and mid winter to two (early fall and late winter to three (spring intervening lying periods. Mean active/lying cycle length decreased from late fall (298 mm to early winter (238 min, increased to a peak in mid winter (340 min then declined in late winter (305 min and again in spring (240 min. Mean length of the lying period increased throughout the 3 winter months from 56 min m early winter to 114 min in mid winter and 153 min in late winter. The percent of the day animals spent lying decreased from fall to early winter, increased throughout the winter and declined in spring. This pattern was related, in part, to day length and was used to compare percent lying among herds. The relationship is suggested to be a means of comparing quality of winter ranges.

  3. Determination of the water use and water use response of canola to solar radiation and temperature by using heat balance stem flow gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angadi, S.V.; Cutforth, H.W.; McConkey, B.G.

    2003-01-01

    Sap flow gauges using a heat balance have been reliable for measuring real-time transpiration in a number of crops. However, information on the accuracy of sap flow gauges in canola is lacking. Therefore, a study was conducted to validate the sap flow system in canola and to observe sap flow response to variations in temperature and solar radiation. There were strong relationships between sap flow measured with sap flow gauges and actual transpiration measured by the gravimetric method over short periods of 1 h (r 2 = 0.93 and RMSE = 2.34 g h -1 ), and over longer periods of 1 d (r 2 0.83 and RMSE = 48 g d -1 ), although sap flow slightly overestimated transpiration. In both cases the slope was not significantly different from 1. Water use in canola, estimated with sap flow gauges or from actual transpiration measurement, was dependent upon temperature (r 2 = 0.94 to 0.96). Water use increased until daytime temperatures reached 36 o C, after which water use decreased. Sap flow followed solar radiation trends in the field. Heat is lost or dissipated from the gauges convectively as the sap flows through the stem, conductively through the solid stem material, and radially into the surrounding air. As the convective proportion of the heat loss from the gauge increased, the accuracy of the water use estimation using the sap flow gauges increased. For sunny days, convective heat loss through sap flow accounted for a major portion of the total heat input to the gauges, while on cloudy days radial heat loss from the gauges accounted for a, major portion of the heat input. Thus, at low sap flow rates during cloudy days, the possibility of error in the sap flow system was high. Overall, sap flow in canola was strongly related to daily solar radiation (r 2 = 0.92). The sensitive response to weather variations and the possibility of improving the accuracy at high flow rates in the field makes the use of sap flow gauges a viable option for measuring real-time transpiration in

  4. Evaluation of air quality in arenas on the Island of Montreal : winter 2006-2007; Evaluation de la qualite de l'air dans les arenas de l'Ile de Montreal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, K.; Beausoleil, M.; Lefebvre, L.

    2007-03-15

    For the past twenty years, cases of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning have been reported in arenas in Quebec. A 1997 evaluation of air quality in 332 arenas in 9 different countries revealed that 40 per cent of arenas worldwide have high concentration of NO{sub 2}. In Quebec, an air quality review at arenas in Montreal drew similar conclusions, that 69 per cent of the arenas have high concentrations of CO and/or NO{sub 2}. In 1997, Quebec's environmental health committee established criteria of 20 ppm for CO, and 0.5 ppm for NO{sub 2} in arenas, in order to ensure that athletes and the public at large do not suffer negative effects related to the presence of combustible gases. This information was distributed to the administrative personnel in arenas in Quebec by means of an awareness and information campaign. Since then, the number of arenas that have met these criteria for air quality in arenas in Montreal has climbed from 31 per cent in 1997 to 83 per cent in 2004. The practices put into action by arena administrators include: 1) regular maintenance of ice surface cleaning machines and other equipment that use fuel, 2) judicious use of ventilation so that gases can be evacuated from the premises, and, 3) periodic measurements of CO and NO{sub 2} during peak usage times such as tournaments. Other means of lowering gas emissions have also shown to be helpful, such as replacement of ice surface cleaning machines with electrical ones, installation of CO and NO{sub 2} detectors close to the rink surface so that ventilation machines could be activated, and the measurement and constant registration of these gases. It was concluded that these measures could help maintain good air quality in arenas. 15 refs., 1 tabs., 1 fig.

  5. Habitat-effectiveness index for elk on Blue Mountain Winter Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Ward Thomas; Donavin A. Leckenby; Mark Henjum; Richard J. Pedersen; Larry D. Bryant

    1988-01-01

    An elk-habitat evaluation procedure for winter ranges in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon and Washington is described. The index is based on an interaction of size and spacing of cover and forage areas, roads open to traffic per unit of area, cover quality, and quantity and quality of forage.

  6. Nuclear winter or nuclear fall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, André

    Climate is universal. If a major modern nuclear war (i.e., with a large number of small-yield weapons) were to happen, it is not even necessary to have a specific part of the world directly involved for there to be cause to worry about the consequences for its inhabitants and their future. Indeed, smoke from fires ignited by the nuclear explosions would be transported by winds all over the world, causing dark and cold. According to the first study, by Turco et al. [1983], air surface temperature over continental areas of the northern mid-latitudes (assumed to be the nuclear war theatre) would fall to winter levels even in summer (hence the term “nuclear winter”) and induce drastic climatic conditions for several months at least. The devastating effects of a nuclear war would thus last much longer than was assumed initially. Discussing to what extent these estimations of long-term impacts on climate are reliable is the purpose of this article.

  7. Effects of graded levels of microbial phytase on apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in four sources of canola meal and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Y; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2017-05-01

    One hundred twenty pigs were used to determine effects of graded levels of microbial phytase on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in 4 sources of canola meal and in 1 source of soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. The 4 sources of canola meal were produced from 1 source of high-protein canola seeds and 2 sources of conventional canola seeds with 1 of the conventional canola seeds being divided into 2 separate batches before crushing. Pigs (16.2 ± 5.3 kg initial BW) were individually housed in metabolism crates and were randomly allotted to 1 of 20 diets in a 5 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments with 5 ingredients and 4 levels of phytase. There were 6 replicate pigs per diet. Five basal diets based on high-protein canola meal (CM-HP), high-temperature processed canola meal (CM-HT), low-temperature processed canola meal (CM-LT), conventional canola meal (CM-CV), or SBM were formulated. The basal diets contained no phytase. Fifteen additional diets were prepared by adding approximately 500, 1,500, or 2,500 phytase units/kg to each of the 5 basal diets. Feces were quantitatively collected for 5 d based on the marker-to-marker approach after a 7-d adaptation period. Results indicated that supplementation of microbial phytase increased (linear, phytase also increased (linear and quadratic, phytase was added, but no differences were observed in the ATTD and STTD of P in SBM, CM-HP, CM-HT, or CM-CV if the highest amount of phytase were added (interaction, phytase on the STTD of P in CM-HP, CM-HT, CM-LT, CM-CV, and SBM. In conclusion, inclusion of graded levels of microbial phytase increased the ATTD and STTD of P in CM-HP, CM-HT, CM-LT, CM-CV, and SBM and the response to microbial phytase added to each ingredient can be predicted by regression equations.

  8. Temperature characteristics of winter roost-sites for birds and mammals: tree cavities and anthropogenic alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüebler, Martin U.; Widmer, Silv; Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Naef-Daenzer, Beat

    2014-07-01

    The microclimate of potential roost-sites is likely to be a crucial determinant in the optimal roost-site selection of endotherms, in particular during the winter season of temperate zones. Available roost-sites for birds and mammals in European high trunk orchards are mainly tree cavities, wood stacks and artificial nest boxes. However, little is known about the microclimatic patterns inside cavities and thermal advantages of using these winter roost-sites. Here, we simultaneously investigate the thermal patterns of winter roost-sites in relation to winter ambient temperature and their insulation capacity. While tree cavities and wood stacks strongly buffered the daily cycle of temperature changes, nest boxes showed low buffering capacity. The buffering effect of tree cavities was stronger at extreme ambient temperatures compared to temperatures around zero. Heat sources inside roosts amplified Δ T (i.e., the difference between inside and outside temperatures), particularly in the closed roosts of nest boxes and tree cavities, and less in the open wood stacks with stronger circulation of air. Positive Δ T due to the installation of a heat source increased in cold ambient temperatures. These results suggest that orchard habitats in winter show a spatiotemporal mosaic of sites providing different thermal benefits varying over time and in relation to ambient temperatures. At cold temperatures tree cavities provide significantly higher thermal benefits than nest boxes or wood stacks. Thus, in winter ecology of hole-using endotherms, the availability of tree cavities may be an important characteristic of winter habitat quality.

  9. Efeito da suplementação de linhaça, óleo de canola e vitamina E na dieta sobre as concentrações de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados em ovos de galinha Effect of dietary supplementation of flaxseed, canola oil and vitamin E upon polyunsaturated fatty acids in chicken eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.G. Pita

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito de diferentes fontes de ácidos graxos insaturados (óleo de canola e semente de linhaça, acrescidas de diferentes teores de alfa-tocoferol nas dietas de poedeiras, sobre a composição de ácidos graxos da gema do ovo foi estudado. Foram utilizadas 288 galinhas da linhagem Babcock que receberam dietas com 6% de óleo de canola, 20% de semente de linhaça moída ou 3% de óleo de canola e 10% de linhaça moída com teores de 0, 100 e 200UI/kg de alfa-tocoferol. As dietas com 20% de semente de linhaça proporcionaram teores mais elevados de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados no ovo com aumento, em particular, dos teores de ácido alfa-linolênico e EPA (ácido eicosapentaenóico e diminuição de ácido araquidônico na gema. Os teores de vitamina E contidos nas rações experimentais não determinaram alteração significativa na deposição dos diferentes ácidos graxos na gema dos ovos, exceto com relação aos ácidos graxos saturados.The effect of dietary sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids - canola oil and flaxseed - with different vitamin E supplementation on the fatty acid deposition into the eggs of 288 Babcock laying hens was investigated. Birds were fed diets containing 6% of canola oil, 20% of flaxseed or a combination of 3% of canola oil and 10% of flaxseed, enriched with 0, 100 or 200Ul of dl-alpha-tocopheril acetate. The inclusion of flaxseed in the diets increased the yolk polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly alpha-linolenic acid and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid. The concentration of alpha-tocopherol in the diet did not change the egg yolk, fatty acids deposition but changed the saturated fatty acids deposition.

  10. VALOR NUTRICIO Y CONTENIDO DE SAPONINAS EN GERMINADOS DE HUAUZONTLE (Chenopodium nuttalliae Saff., CALABACITA (Cucurbita pepo L., CANOLA (Brassica napus L. Y AMARANTO (Amaranthus leucocarpus S. Watson syn. hypochondriacus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Barrón-Yánez

    2009-01-01

    (Brassica napus L. y amaranto (Amaranthus leucocarpus S. Watson syn. hypochondriacus L.. Se realizó un análisis proximal y la cuantificación de saponinas en semillas y germinados de las cuatro especies. El contenido de proteína fue más alto en los germinados de canola que en las semillas, pero en huauzontle, calabacita y amaranto no varió. El contenido de lípidos en las semillas de canola, huauzontle y amaranto disminuyó en sus germinados, pero se incrementó en calabacita. El contenido de saponinas en los germinados fue de 2,873.23 en huauzontle, 155.40 en calabacita, 429.81 en canola, y 491.45 mg 100·g-1 de peso seco en amaranto. El contenido de saponinas en semillas fue de 5280.57, 0.00, 35.77 y 42.84 mg 100·g-1 en peso seco, respectivamente. Los niveles del contenido de saponinas en semillas y germinados para las cuatro especies estudiadas no representan toxicidad para humanos. El valor nutricio fue mejor en el germinado de canola que en el de huauzontle, calabaza y amaranto. El sabor de los germinados de huauzontle y amaranto fue mejor que en los de canola y calabacita.

  11. Detect the sensitivity and response of protein molecular structure of whole canola seed (yellow and brown) to different heat processing methods and relation to protein utilization and availability using ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi; Theodoridou, Katerina; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-03-15

    The objectives of this experiment were to detect the sensitivity and response of protein molecular structure of whole canola seed to different heat processing [moisture (autoclaving) vs. dry (roasting) heating] and quantify heat-induced protein molecular structure changes in relation to protein utilization and availability. In this study, whole canola seeds were autoclaved (moisture heating) and dry (roasting) heated at 120 °C for 1h, respectively. The parameters assessed included changes in (1) chemical composition profile, (2) CNCPS protein subfractions (PA, PB1, PB2, PB3, PC), (3) intestinal absorbed true protein supply, (4) energy values, and (5) protein molecular structures (amide I, amide II, ratio of amide I to II, α-helix, β-sheet, ratio of α-helix to β-sheet). The results showed that autoclave heating significantly decreased (Pseed. Future study is needed to study response and impact of heat processing to each inherent layer of canola seed from outside to inside tissues and between yellow canola and brown canola. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of canola proteins and hydrolysates on adipogenic differentiation of C3H10T/2 mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alashi, Adeola M; Blanchard, Christopher L; Mailer, Rodney J; Agboola, Samson O; Mawson, A John; Aluko, Rotimi E; Strappe, Padraig

    2015-10-15

    This study assessed the ability of canola protein isolate (CPI) and enzymatic hydrolysates (CPHs) to inhibit adipogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 murine mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Cell viability was maintained at concentrations of 60 μg/ml of sample. Cells treated with Alcalase hydrolysate demonstrated a higher reduction in anti-adipogenic differentiation through quantitation by oil-red O staining. qPCR analysis showed that CPI and CPH-treated cells significantly inhibited PPARγ expression, a key transcription factor involved in adipocyte differentiation, as evident in an ∼ 60-80% fold reduction of PPARγ mRNA. Immunofluorescence staining for PPARγ protein also showed a reduced expression in some treated cells when compared to differentiated untreated cells. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of CPI, CPHs and their membrane ultrafiltration fractions on pancreatic lipase (PL) activity ranged between 0.75 and 2.5 mg/ml, (p < 0.05) for the hydrolysed and unhydrolysed samples. These findings demonstrate that CPI and CPHs contain bioactive components which can modulate in vitro adipocyte differentiation. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of soybean lecithin on iron-catalyzed or chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of canola oil emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jeesu; Oh, Boyoung; Choe, Eunok

    2014-11-01

    The effect of soybean lecithin addition on the iron-catalyzed or chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of emulsions consisting of purified canola oil and water (1:1, w/w) was studied based on headspace oxygen consumption using gas chromatography and hydroperoxide production using the ferric thiocyanate method. Addition levels of iron sulfate, chlorophyll, and soybean lecithin were 5, 4, and 350 mg/kg, respectively. Phospholipids (PLs) during oxidation of the emulsions were monitored by high performance liquid chromatography. Addition of soybean lecithin to the emulsions significantly reduced and decelerated iron-catalyzed oil oxidation by lowering headspace oxygen consumption and hydroperoxide production. However, soybean lecithin had no significant antioxidant effect on chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of the emulsions. PLs in soybean lecithin added to the emulsions were degraded during both oxidation processes, although there was little change in PL composition. Among PLs in soybean lecithin, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol were degraded the fastest in the iron-catalyzed and the chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation, respectively. The results suggest that addition of soybean lecithin as an emulsifier can also improve the oxidative stability of oil in an emulsion. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Crystallization of low saturated lipid blends of palm and canola oils with sorbitan monostearate and fully hydrogenated palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Karina Martins; Cardoso, Lisandro Pavie; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan; Kieckbusch, Theo Guenter; Buscato, Monise Helen Masuchi

    2018-03-01

    Several scientific investigations have focused on providing new strategies for supporting the development of low saturated and zero trans lipid materials, as healthier fat alternatives for food application. This work evaluated the consistency, crystallization behavior, microstructure and polymorphism of six blends composed of palm and canola oils at different concentrations (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100, in w/w%) added with 5.0% of fully hydrogenated palm oil (FHPO) or with a mixture of 2.5% of FHPO and 2.5% of sorbitan monostearate (SMS). The results were compared with the non-structured blends (standard samples). Through microstructure images, the formation of a more homogeneous and denser packed crystal network was observed for samples added with both crystallization modifiers (FHPO/SMS) compared to the corresponding standard samples, after stabilization at 25 °C during 3 h. In particular, enhanced crystallization modifications were observed for the 40:60 blend, in which the crystal form β' emerged after the addition of FHPO/SMS. Moreover, the 40:60 blend structured with FHPO/SMS showed increased consistency (from 30 to 658 g F /cm 2 ) and induced onset crystallization in a higher temperature (from 13.1 to 23.9 °C) compared with the non-structured one, due to the specific crystallization effects provided by both added structurants.

  15. Effects of Canola Oil Biodiesel Fuel Blends on Combustion, Performance, and Emissions Reduction in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Ki Yoon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of canola oil biodiesel (BD to improve combustion and exhaust emissions in a common rail direct injection (DI diesel engine using BD fuel blended with diesel. Experiments were conducted with BD blend amounts of 10%, 20%, and 30% on a volume basis under various engine speeds. As the BD blend ratio increased, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at the low engine speed of 1500 rpm, while they increased at the middle engine speed of 2500 rpm. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC increased at all engine speeds while the carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions were considerably reduced. On the other hand, the nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions only increased slightly. When increasing the BD blend ratio at an engine speed of 2000 rpm with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR rates of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, the combustion pressure and IMEP tended to decrease. The CO and PM emissions decreased in proportion to the BD blend ratio. Also, the NOx emissions decreased considerably as the EGR rate increased whereas the BD blend ratio only slightly influenced the NOx emissions.

  16. Challenges in devising economic spray thresholds for a major pest of Australian canola, the redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Aston L; Hoffmann, Ary A; Umina, Paul A

    2015-10-01

    A key component for spray decision-making in IPM programmes is the establishment of economic injury levels (EILs) and economic thresholds (ETs). We aimed to establish an EIL for the redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor Tucker) on canola. Complex interactions between mite numbers, feeding damage and plant recovery were found, highlighting the challenges in linking H. destructor numbers to yield. A guide of 10 mites plant(-1) was established at the first-true-leaf stage; however, simple relationships were not evident at other crop development stages, making it difficult to establish reliable EILs based on mite number. Yield was, however, strongly associated with plant damage and plant densities, reflecting the impact of mite feeding damage and indicating a plant-based alternative for establishing thresholds for H. destructor. Drawing on data from multiple field trials, we show that plant densities below 30-40 plants m(-2) could be used as a proxy for mite damage when reliable estimates of mite densities are not possible. This plant-based threshold provides a practical tool that avoids the difficulties of accurately estimating mite densities. The approach may be applicable to other situations where production conditions are unpredictable and interactions between pests and plant hosts are complex. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Determination of performance and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with canola and waste palm oil methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozsezen, Ahmet Necati [Department of Automotive Engineering Technology, Kocaeli University, 41380 Izmit (Turkey); Alternative Fuels R and D Center, Kocaeli University, 41040 Izmit (Turkey); Canakci, Mustafa, E-mail: canakci@kocaeli.edu.t [Department of Automotive Engineering Technology, Kocaeli University, 41380 Izmit (Turkey); Alternative Fuels R and D Center, Kocaeli University, 41040 Izmit (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    In this study, the performance, combustion and injection characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine have been investigated experimentally when it was fueled with canola oil methyl ester (COME) and waste (frying) palm oil methyl ester (WPOME). In order to determine the performance and combustion characteristics, the experiments were conducted at constant engine speeds under the full load condition of the engine. The results indicated that when the test engine was fueled with WPOME or COME instead of petroleum based diesel fuel (PBDF), the brake power reduced by 4-5%, while the brake specific fuel consumption increased by 9-10%. On the other hand, methyl esters caused reductions in carbon monoxide (CO) by 59-67%, in unburned hydrocarbon (HC) by 17-26%, in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) by 5-8%, and smoke opacity by 56-63%. However, both methyl esters produced more nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions by 11-22% compared with those of the PBDF over the speed range.

  18. Determination of performance and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with canola and waste palm oil methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsezen, Ahmet Necati; Canakci, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the performance, combustion and injection characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine have been investigated experimentally when it was fueled with canola oil methyl ester (COME) and waste (frying) palm oil methyl ester (WPOME). In order to determine the performance and combustion characteristics, the experiments were conducted at constant engine speeds under the full load condition of the engine. The results indicated that when the test engine was fueled with WPOME or COME instead of petroleum based diesel fuel (PBDF), the brake power reduced by 4-5%, while the brake specific fuel consumption increased by 9-10%. On the other hand, methyl esters caused reductions in carbon monoxide (CO) by 59-67%, in unburned hydrocarbon (HC) by 17-26%, in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) by 5-8%, and smoke opacity by 56-63%. However, both methyl esters produced more nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions by 11-22% compared with those of the PBDF over the speed range.

  19. [Paediatric emergencies; example of the management of winter epidemics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Jean-Christophe; Bellettre, Xavier; Lejay, Émilie; Desmarest, Marie; Titomanlio, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Every year, epidemics of viral bronchiolitis and gastroenteritis occur with a significant increase in the number of visits (by a factor 1.8) and hospitalisations that can over-exceed bed capacity leading to transfer sick children to other hospitals. This kind of hospital 'crisis' is not limited to paediatrics, big cities or western nations. It is a worldwide worrying problem. Because our hospital sits in the Northern districts of Paris where a large community of m.ncants lives in poverty, our number of visits is high (mean 250 per day), and winter epidemics further jeopardise the difficult equilibrium achieved between quality management and waiting times. Thus, we have taken various initiatives in terms of organisation of the paediatric emergency department and other wards, including a "fast track" clinic, the opening of beds dedicated to winter epidemics, the institution of a "bed manager" in order to more easily find a bed, and a larger use of home hospitalisations. Furthermore, we created a specific committee which may decide on various indicators of tension whether it is necessary to cancel programmed hospitalisations or surgery.in order to resolve the emergency crisis. This kind of organisation can serve as a model for other hospitals facing winter epidemics crises.

  20. Advanced decision support for winter road maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the Federal Highway Administration's winter Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS). The MDSS is a decision support tool that has the ability to provide weather predictions focused toward the road surface. The...

  1. Overview of climatic effects of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.M.; Malone, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    A general description of the climatic effects of a nuclear war are presented. This paper offers a short history of the subject, a discussion of relevant parameters and physical processes, and a description of plausible nuclear winter scenario. 9 refs

  2. Unusial winter 2011/2012 in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faško, P.; Lapin, M.; Matejovič, P.; Pecho, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2012), s. 19-26 ISSN 1335-339X Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : winter characteristics * climate variabilit * climate change * global warming Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  3. Drought and Winter Drying (Pest Alert)

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    Drought and winter drying have periodically caused major damage to trees. Drought reduces the amount of water available in the soil. In the case of winter drying, the water may be in the soil, but freezing of the soil makes the water unavailable to the tree. In both cases, more water is lost through transpiration than is available to the plant. Symptoms of drought and...

  4. Coming to grips with nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherr, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    This editorial examines the politics related to the concept of nuclear winter which is a term used to describe temperature changes brought on by the injection of smoke into the atmosphere by the massive fires set off by nuclear explosions. The climate change alone could cause crop failures and lead to massive starvation. The author suggests that the prospect of a nuclear winter should be a deterrent to any nuclear exchange

  5. Barriers to wheelchair use in the winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripat, Jacquie D; Brown, Cara L; Ethans, Karen D

    2015-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that challenges to community participation posed by winter weather are greater for individuals who use scooters, manual and power wheelchairs (wheeled mobility devices [WMDs]) than for the general ambulatory population, and to determine what WMD users identify as the most salient environmental barriers to community participation during the winter. Cross-sectional survey organized around 5 environmental domains: technological, natural, physical, social/attitudinal, and policy. Urban community in Canada. Convenience sample of WMD users or their proxy (N=99). Not applicable. Not applicable. Forty-two percent identified reduced outing frequency in winter months, associated with increased age (χ(3)=6.4, P=.04), lack of access to family/friends for transportation (χ(2)=8.1, P=.04), and primary type of WMD used in the winter (scooter χ(2)=8.8, P=.003). Most reported tires/casters becoming stuck in the snow (95%) or slipping on the ice (91%), difficulty ascending inclines/ramps (92%), and cold hands while using controls or pushing rims (85%); fewer identified frozen wheelchair/scooter batteries, seat cushions/backrests, or electronics. Sidewalks/roads were reported to be problematic by 99%. Eighty percent reported needing additional help in the winter. Limited community access in winter led to a sense of loneliness/isolation, and fear/anxiety related to safety. Respondents identified policies that limited participation during winter. People who use WMDs decrease their community participation in cold weather because of multiple environmental barriers. Clinicians, researchers, and policymakers can take a multidimensional approach to mitigate these barriers in order to enhance community participation by WMD users in winter. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Carryover effects associated with winter location affect fitness, social status, and population dynamics in a long-distance migrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedinger, James S; Schamber, Jason L; Ward, David H; Nicolai, Christopher A; Conant, Bruce

    2011-11-01

    We used observations of individually marked female black brant geese (Branta bernicla nigricans; brant) at three wintering lagoons on the Pacific coast of Baja California-Laguna San Ignacio (LSI), Laguna Ojo de Liebre (LOL), and Bahía San Quintín (BSQ)-and the Tutakoke River breeding colony in Alaska to assess hypotheses about carryover effects on breeding and distribution of individuals among wintering areas. We estimated transition probabilities from wintering locations to breeding and nonbreeding by using multistratum robust-design capture-mark-recapture models. We also examined the effect of breeding on migration to wintering areas to assess the hypothesis that individuals in family groups occupied higher-quality wintering locations. We used 4,538 unique female brant in our analysis of the relationship between winter location and breeding probability. All competitive models of breeding probability contained additive effects of wintering location and the 1997-1998 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event on probability of breeding. Probability of breeding in non-ENSO years was 0.98 ± 0.02, 0.68 ± 0.04, and 0.91 ± 0.11 for females wintering at BSQ, LOL, and LSI, respectively. After the 1997-1998 ENSO event, breeding probability was between 2% (BSQ) and 38% (LOL) lower than in other years. Individuals that bred had the highest probability of migrating the next fall to the wintering area producing the highest probability of breeding.

  7. Carryover effects associated with winter location affect fitness, social status, and population dynamics in a long-distance migrant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedinger, James S.; Schamber, Jason L.; Ward, David H.; Nicolai, Christopher A.; Conant, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    We used observations of individually marked female black brant geese (Branta bernicla nigricans; brant) at three wintering lagoons on the Pacific coast of Baja California—Laguna San Ignacio (LSI), Laguna Ojo de Liebre (LOL), and Bahía San Quintín (BSQ)—and the Tutakoke River breeding colony in Alaska to assess hypotheses about carryover effects on breeding and distribution of individuals among wintering areas. We estimated transition probabilities from wintering locations to breeding and nonbreeding by using multistratum robust-design capture-mark-recapture models. We also examined the effect of breeding on migration to wintering areas to assess the hypothesis that individuals in family groups occupied higher-quality wintering locations. We used 4,538 unique female brant in our analysis of the relationship between winter location and breeding probability. All competitive models of breeding probability contained additive effects of wintering location and the 1997–1998 El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event on probability of breeding. Probability of breeding in non-ENSO years was 0.98 ± 0.02, 0.68 ± 0.04, and 0.91 ± 0.11 for females wintering at BSQ, LOL, and LSI, respectively. After the 1997–1998 ENSO event, breeding probability was between 2% (BSQ) and 38% (LOL) lower than in other years. Individuals that bred had the highest probability of migrating the next fall to the wintering area producing the highest probability of breeding.

  8. Simulating the influences of various fire regimes on caribou winter habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, T. Scott; Olson, Mark; Adams, Layne G.; Dale, Bruce W.; Joly, Kyle; Henkelman, Jonathan; Collins, William B.; Starfield, Anthony M.

    2006-01-01

    Caribou are an integral component of high‐latitude ecosystems and represent a major subsistence food source for many northern people. The availability and quality of winter habitat is critical to sustain these caribou populations. Caribou commonly use older spruce woodlands with adequate terrestrial lichen, a preferred winter forage, in the understory. Changes in climate and fire regime pose a significant threat to the long‐term sustainability of this important winter habitat. Computer simulations performed with a spatially explicit vegetation succession model (ALFRESCO) indicate that changes in the frequency and extent of fire in interior Alaska may substantially impact the abundance and quality of winter habitat for caribou. We modeled four different fire scenarios and tracked the frequency, extent, and spatial distribution of the simulated fires and associated changes to vegetation composition and distribution. Our results suggest that shorter fire frequencies (i.e., less time between recurring fires) on the winter range of the Nelchina caribou herd in eastern interior Alaska will result in large decreases of available winter habitat, relative to that currently available, in both the short and long term. A 30% shortening of the fire frequency resulted in a 3.5‐fold increase in the area burned annually and an associated 41% decrease in the amount of spruce–lichen forest found on the landscape. More importantly, simulations with more frequent fires produced a relatively immature forest age structure, compared to that which currently exists, with few stands older than 100 years. This age structure is at the lower limits of stand age classes preferred by caribou from the Nelchina herd. Projected changes in fire regime due to climate warming and/or additional prescribed burning could substantially alter the winter habitat of caribou in interior Alaska and lead to changes in winter range use and/or population dynamics.

  9. Winter Dew Harvest in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias-Torres Jorge Ernesto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents experimental and theoretical results of winter dew harvest in México City in terms of condensation rate. A simplified theoretical model based on a steady-state energy balance on a radiator-condenser was fitted, as a function of the ambient temperature, the relative humidity and the wind velocity. A glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted were used as samples over the outdoor experiments. A good correlation was obtained between the theoretical and experimental data. The experimental results show that there was condensation in 68% of the winter nights on both condensers. The total winter condensed mass was 2977 g/m2 and 2888 g/m2 on the glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted, respectively. Thus, the condensed mass on the glass was only 3% higher than that on the painted surface. The maximum nightly dew harvests occurred during December, which linearly reduced from 50 g/m2 night to 22 g/m2 night as the winter months went by. The condensation occurred from 1:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m., with maximum condensation rates between 6:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. The dew harvest can provide a partial alternative to the winter water shortage in certain locations with similar climates to the winter in Mexico City, as long as pollution is not significant.

  10. New winter hardy winter bread wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L. Voloshkova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. М. Голик

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Creation of Initial raw for breeding of winter wheat by change of the development type under low temperatures influence was described. Seeds of spring wheat were vernalized in aluminum weighting bottle. By using low temperatures at sawing of M2-6 at the begin ind of optimal terms of sawing of winter wheat, new winter-hardy variety of Voloshkova was bred.

  11. Performance of blueberry cultivars under mild winter conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilberto Sousa Medeiros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Evaluation of yield performance is important to find the most adapted blueberry cultivars in a particular region. This research aimed to evaluate the flowering and hasvesting periods, the production per plant, and fruit quality of eight rabbiteye blueberry cultivars (Aliceblue, Bluebelle, Bluegem, Briteblue, Climax, Delite, Powderblue, and Woodard and two highbush blueberries (Georgiagem and O’Neal, in mild winter conditions in Pinhais-PR. Flowering and harvesting periods, production, berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, ratio and color of the fruits were evaluated in the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 growing seasons, when the plants had two and three years old, respectively. Cultivars flowered from August to September, and harvest was concentrated in November and December. Berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids and acidity varied among the cultivars. The average ratios of 14.97 and 13.39 for each crop proved that the cultivars have good fruit quality. There was little variation in fruit color in the two years evaluated. Blueberry cultivars showed the staining characteristics and physical and chemical attributes of quality compatible to blueberry from other traditional regions. Under mild winter conditions, young plants of rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, Climax, Delite, Bluegem and Powderblue, are the most productive, while the highbusch cultivars bear few fruits.

  12. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and canola oil on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) causes adverse effects on quality of eggs by modifying the fatty acid composition of the yolk. Supplementing oils prevent CLA-induced changes, but cause a decrease in the level of egg CLA. The objective of the study was to investigate the incorporation of CLA into the egg and its effect ...

  13. Farelo de canola na alimentação do piavuçu, Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, na fase inicial Canola bran in piavuçu Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski feeding, during initial phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Rossetto Barriviera Furuya

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo determinar os efeitos da inclusão de farelo de canola (FC em substituição à proteína do farelo de soja (FS na alimentação do piavuçú, Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski (Characiformes, Anastomidae, na fase inicial. Foram utilizados 100 alevinos (8,51 ± 0,07g, distribuídos em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos, cinco repetições, sendo que cada unidade experimental era constituída por cinco peixes. Foram elaboradas quatro rações isocalóricas (3.000kcal ED/kg e isoprotéicas (30% de PB com base em milho, farelo de soja e farinha de peixe, contendo 0%, 19%,12%; 38%,24% e 57,36% de FC. A análise de variância não apresentou efeitos dos níveis de inclusão de FC sobre as variáveis de consumo, sobrevivência, rendimento e composição química da carcaça, gordura visceral e índice hepatossomático. Foi observado efeito quadrático dos níveis de inclusão sobre a porcentagem de ganho de peso, ocorrendo o ponto máximo no nível de 19,11% de inclusão de FC. Com o aumento nos níveis de FC, foi observado piora linear sobre a conversão alimentar e taxa de eficiência protéica. A inclusão de 11,19% de FC resultou em melhor desempenho e rendimento de carcaça.This research aimed to investigate the effects of canola bran (CB inclusion, replacing the soybean bran crude protein in piavuçu diet, Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski (Characiformes, Anastomidae, in initial phase. One hundred fingerlings (8.51 ± 0.07g were assigned to a completely randomized block design with five replications, totalizing 25 fishes per treatment. Four isocaloric (3,000kcal ED/kg and isoproteic (30% CP diets were formulated, based on corn, soybean bran and fish flour, containing 0%; 19.12%; 38.24% and 57.36% CB. Variance analysis showed no effect of CB inclusion on feed intake survival, carcass yield and composition, visceral fat and hepato somatic index. Quadratic effect of CM inclusion was

  14. On a Molecular Basis, Investigate Association of Molecular Structure with Bioactive Compounds, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Chemical and Nutrient Profiles of Canola Seeds and Co-Products from Canola Processing: Comparison Crusher Plants within Canada and within China as well as between Canada and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Walaa M S; Mosaad, Gamal M; Yu, Peiqiang

    2018-04-21

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) Use molecular spectroscopy as a novel technique to quantify protein molecular structures in relation to its chemical profiles and bioenergy values in oil-seeds and co-products from bio-oil processing. (2) Determine and compare: (a) protein molecular structure using Fourier transform infrared (FT/IR-ATR) molecular spectroscopy technique; (b) bioactive compounds, anti-nutritional factors, and chemical composition; and (c) bioenergy values in oil seeds (canola seeds), co-products (meal or pellets) from bio-oil processing plants in Canada in comparison with China. (3) Determine the relationship between protein molecular structural features and nutrient profiles in oil-seeds and co-products from bio-oil processing. Our results showed the possibility to characterize protein molecular structure using FT/IR molecular spectroscopy. Processing induced changes between oil seeds and co-products were found in the chemical, bioenergy profiles and protein molecular structure. However, no strong correlation was found between the chemical and nutrient profiles of oil seeds (canola seeds) and their protein molecular structure. On the other hand, co-products were strongly correlated with protein molecular structure in the chemical profile and bioenergy values. Generally, comparisons of oil seeds (canola seeds) and co-products (meal or pellets) in Canada, in China, and between Canada and China indicated the presence of variations among different crusher plants and bio-oil processing products.

  15. Effects of derived meals from juncea (Brassica juncea, yellow and black seeded canola (Brassica napus and multicarbohydrase enzymes supplementation on apparent metabolizable energy in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandar Jayaraman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to determine the nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn of differently processed meals from Juncea (Brassica juncea, yellow and black seeded canola (Brassica napus, with or without supplementation of multi-carbohydrase enzymes (Enz in diets for broiler chickens. The first experiment was a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the main factors being seed type (yellow [Yellow] or black [B1] canola seeds and Juncea seeds, processed at two temperatures (high temperature desolventized-toasted [HTDT] at 95°C or low temperature desolventized-toasted [LTDT] at 57°C, with or without Enz. In Exp. 1, a total of 384 one-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 64 battery cages, with 6 birds/cage. The second experiment was a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the main factors being seed type (Yellow or black [B2], seed source (Scott, Saskatchewan or Truro, Nova Scotia and Enz (with or without supplementation. A total of 264 one-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 44 battery cages, with 6 birds per cage. In Exp. 1 and 2, all birds were fed a common starter diet from 1 to 14 days of age. From d 15 to 21, the birds were fed one of the test treatments, a basal grower diet or the basal grower diet replaced with 30% test ingredient with celite (0.8% added as an inert marker. Excreta was collected on d 20 and 21. In Exp. 1, there were no interactions (P > 0.05 among seed type, processing temperature and Enz. Processing temperature and dietary Enz did not affect (P > 0.05 AMEn of different canola meals. The AMEn of prepress solvent extracted canola and juncea meals (PSEM from Yellow (11.2 MJ/kg was higher (P  0.05 among seed color, location and Enz. Supplementation of dietary Enz did not affect (P > 0.05 AMEn of different cold press canola meals. The AMEn of cold press canola meals (CPM from Yellow (14.7 MJ/kg was higher (P < 0.05 compared with B2 (12.2

  16. Growth and physiological responses of canola (Brassica napus) to three components of global climate change: temperature, carbon dioxide and drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qaderi, M.M.; Kurepin, L.V.; Reid, D.M. [Univ. of Calgary, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2006-12-15

    Elevated CO{sub 2} appears to be a significant factor in global warming, which will likely lead to drought conditions in many areas. Few studies have considered the interactive effects of higher CO{sub 2}, temperature and drought on plant growth and physiology. We grew canola (Brassica napus cv. 45H72) plants under lower (22/18 deg. C) and higher (28/24 deg. C) temperature regimes in controlled-environment chambers at ambient (370 {mu}mol mol-1) and elevated (740 {mu}mol mol-1) CO{sub 2} levels. One half of the plants were watered to field capacity and the other half at wilting point. In three separate experiments, we determined growth, various physiological parameters and content of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid and ethylene. Drought-stressed plants grown under higher temperature at ambient CO{sub 2} had decreased stem height and diameter, leaf number and area, dry matter, leaf area ratio, shoot/root weight ratio, net CO{sub 2} assimilation and chlorophyll fluorescence. However, these plants had increased specific leaf weight, leaf weight ratio and chlorophyll concentration. Elevated CO{sub 2} generally had the opposite effect. and partially reversed the inhibitory effects of higher temperature and drought on leaf dry weight accumulation. This study showed that higher temperature and drought inhibit many processes but elevated CO{sub 2} partially mitigate some adverse effects. As expected, drought stress increased ABA but higher temperature inhibited the ability of plants to produce ABA in response to drought. (au)

  17. Genomes and transcriptomes of partners in plant-fungal-interactions between canola (Brassica napus and two Leptosphaeria species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan G T Lowe

    Full Text Available Leptosphaeria maculans 'brassicae' is a damaging fungal pathogen of canola (Brassica napus, causing lesions on cotyledons and leaves, and cankers on the lower stem. A related species, L. biglobosa 'canadensis', colonises cotyledons but causes few stem cankers. We describe the complement of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZys and peptidases of these fungi, as well as of four related plant pathogens. We also report dual-organism RNA-seq transcriptomes of these two Leptosphaeria species and B. napus during disease. During the first seven days of infection L. biglobosa 'canadensis', a necrotroph, expressed more cell wall degrading genes than L. maculans 'brassicae', a hemi-biotroph. L. maculans 'brassicae' expressed many genes in the Carbohydrate Binding Module class of CAZy, particularly CBM50 genes, with potential roles in the evasion of basal innate immunity in the host plant. At this time, three avirulence genes were amongst the top 20 most highly upregulated L. maculans 'brassicae' genes in planta. The two fungi had a similar number of peptidase genes, and trypsin was transcribed at high levels by both fungi early in infection. L. biglobosa 'canadensis' infection activated the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid defence pathways in B. napus, consistent with defence against necrotrophs. L. maculans 'brassicae' triggered a high level of expression of isochorismate synthase 1, a reporter for salicylic acid signalling. L. biglobosa 'canadensis' infection triggered coordinated shutdown of photosynthesis genes, and a concomitant increase in transcription of cell wall remodelling genes of the host plant. Expression of particular classes of CAZy genes and the triggering of host defence and particular metabolic pathways are consistent with the necrotrophic lifestyle of L. biglobosa 'canadensis', and the hemibiotrophic life style of L. maculans 'brassicae'.

  18. Estimating winter survival of winter wheat by simulations of plant frost tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergjord Olsen, A.K.; Persson, T.; Wit, de A.; Nkurunziza, L.; Sindhøj, E.; Eckersten, H.

    2018-01-01

    Based on soil temperature, snow depth and the grown cultivar's maximum attainable level of frost tolerance (LT50c), the FROSTOL model simulates development of frost tolerance (LT50) and winter damage, thereby enabling risk calculations for winter wheat survival. To explore the accuracy of this

  19. Root development of fodder radish and winter wheat before winter in relation to uptake of nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Ellen Margrethe; Hansen, Elly Møller; Mandel, A.

    2015-01-01

    occurred. Quantitative data is missing on N leaching of a catch crop compared to a winter cereal in a conventional cereal-based cropping system. The aim of the study was to investigate whether fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (FR) would be more efficient than winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (WW...

  20. Payment mechanisms for winter road maintenance services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Abdi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In countries with severe winters a major part of the annual budget for road maintenance is allocated on performance of winter road maintenance tasks. Finding appropriate remuneration forms to compensate entrepreneurs for performed road measures during winter is not an easy task in order to minimise or eliminate disputes and satisfy both client organisations and contractors. On the other hand improper reimbursement models lead either to the client’s annual budget imbalance due to unnecessary cost overruns or affect contractor’s cash-flow. Such cases in turn affect just-in-time winter road maintenance and then traffic safety. To solve such problems, a number of countries in cold regions like Sweden have developed different remuneration models based more on weather data called Weather Index. Therefore the objective of this paper is to investigate and evaluate the payment models applied in Sweden. The study uses a number of approaches namely; domestic questionnaire survey, analysis of a number of contract documents, a series of meetings with the project managers and an international benchmarking. The study recognised four remuneration models for winter maintenance service of which one based on weather data statistics. The study reveals the payment model based on weather data statistics is only applied for the roads with higher traffic flow and the model generates most uncertainty.

  1. Risk management model of winter navigation operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A.; Goerlandt, Floris; Kuzmin, Vladimir; Kujala, Pentti; Montewka, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    The wintertime maritime traffic operations in the Gulf of Finland are managed through the Finnish–Swedish Winter Navigation System. This establishes the requirements and limitations for the vessels navigating when ice covers this area. During winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland, the largest risk stems from accidental ship collisions which may also trigger oil spills. In this article, a model for managing the risk of winter navigation operations is presented. The model analyses the probability of oil spills derived from collisions involving oil tanker vessels and other vessel types. The model structure is based on the steps provided in the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and adapted into a Bayesian Network model. The results indicate that ship independent navigation and convoys are the operations with higher probability of oil spills. Minor spills are most probable, while major oil spills found very unlikely but possible. - Highlights: •A model to assess and manage the risk of winter navigation operations is proposed. •The risks of oil spills in winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland are analysed. •The model assesses and prioritizes actions to control the risk of the operations. •The model suggests navigational training as the most efficient risk control option.

  2. Mortality impact of extreme winter temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Julio; García, Ricardo; López, César; Linares, Cristina; Tobías, Aurelio; Prieto, Luis

    2005-01-01

    During the last few years great attention has been paid to the evaluation of the impact of extreme temperatures on human health. This paper examines the effect of extreme winter temperature on mortality in Madrid for people older than 65, using ARIMA and GAM models. Data correspond to 1,815 winter days over the period 1986 1997, during which time a total of 133,000 deaths occurred. The daily maximum temperature (Tmax) was shown to be the best thermal indicator of the impact of climate on mortality. When total mortality was considered, the maximum impact occured 7 8 days after a temperature extreme; for circulatory diseases the lag was between 7 and 14 days. When respiratory causes were considered, two mortality peaks were evident at 4 5 and 11 days. When the impact of winter extreme temperatures was compared with that associated with summer extremes, it was found to occur over a longer term, and appeared to be more indirect.

  3. The engineering approach to winter sports

    CERN Document Server

    Cheli, Federico; Maldifassi, Stefano; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports presents the state-of-the-art research in the field of winter sports in a harmonized and comprehensive way for a diverse audience of engineers, equipment and facilities designers, and materials scientists. The book examines the physics and chemistry of snow and ice with particular focus on the interaction (friction) between sports equipment and snow/ice, how it is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature and pressure, as well as by contaminants and how it can be modified through the use of ski waxes or the microtextures of blades or ski soles. The authors also cover, in turn, the different disciplines in winter sports:  skiing (both alpine and cross country), skating and jumping, bob sledding and skeleton, hockey and curling, with attention given to both equipment design and on the simulation of gesture and  track optimization.

  4. Prevalence of operator fatigue in winter maintenance operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camden, Matthew C; Medina-Flintsch, Alejandra; Hickman, Jeffrey S; Bryce, James; Flintsch, Gerardo; Hanowski, Richard J

    2018-02-02

    Similar to commercial motor vehicle drivers, winter maintenance operators are likely to be at an increased risk of becoming fatigued while driving due to long, inconsistent shifts, environmental stressors, and limited opportunities for sleep. Despite this risk, there is little research concerning the prevalence of winter maintenance operator fatigue during winter emergencies. The purpose of this research was to investigate the prevalence, sources, and countermeasures of fatigue in winter maintenance operations. Questionnaires from 1043 winter maintenance operators and 453 managers were received from 29 Clear Road member states. Results confirmed that fatigue was prevalent in winter maintenance operations. Over 70% of the operators and managers believed that fatigue has a moderate to significant impact on winter maintenance operations. Approximately 75% of winter maintenance operators reported to at least sometimes drive while fatigued, and 96% of managers believed their winter maintenance operators drove while fatigued at least some of the time. Furthermore, winter maintenance operators and managers identified fatigue countermeasures and sources of fatigue related to winter maintenance equipment. However, the countermeasures believed to be the most effective at reducing fatigue during winter emergencies (i.e., naps) were underutilized. For example, winter maintenance operators reported to never use naps to eliminate fatigue. These results indicated winter maintenance operations are impacted by operator fatigue. These results support the increased need for research and effective countermeasures targeting winter maintenance operator fatigue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Winter sport injuries in childhood (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausbrandt, D; Höllwarth, M; Ritter, G

    1979-01-01

    3374 accidents occurring on the field of sport during the years 1975--1977 accounted for 19% of all accidents dealt with at the Institute of Kinderchirurgie in Graz. 51% of the accidents were caused by the typical winter sports: skiing, tobogganing, ice-skating and ski-jumping with skiing accounting for 75% of the accidents. The fracture localization typical of the different kinds of winter sport is dealt with in detail. The correct size and safety of the equipment were found to be particularly important in the prevention of such accidents in childhood.

  6. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Euro Pannacci; Francesco Tei; Marcello Guiducci

    2017-01-01

    Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08) in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l.) in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i) spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days) in t...

  7. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-(that) would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications.

  8. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-[that] would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications

  9. Effects of Pilot Injection Timing and EGR on Combustion, Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Common Rail Diesel Engine Fueled with a Canola Oil Biodiesel-Diesel Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel as a clean energy source could reduce environmental pollution compared to fossil fuel, so it is becoming increasingly important. In this study, we investigated the effects of different pilot injection timings from before top dead center (BTDC and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR on combustion, engine performance, and exhaust emission characteristics in a common rail diesel engine fueled with canola oil biodiesel-diesel (BD blend. The pilot injection timing and EGR rate were changed at an engine speed of 2000 rpm fueled with BD20 (20 vol % canola oil and 80 vol % diesel fuel blend. As the injection timing advanced, the combustion pressure, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, and peak combustion pressure (Pmax changed slightly. Carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions clearly decreased at BTDC 20° compared with BTDC 5°, but nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased slightly. With an increasing EGR rate, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at BTDC 20° compared to other injection timings. However, the Pmax showed a remarkable decrease. The BSFC and PM emissions increased slightly, but the NOx emission decreased considerably.

  10. A jojoba beta-Ketoacyl-CoA synthase cDNA complements the canola fatty acid elongation mutation in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassner, M W; Lardizabal, K; Metz, J G

    1996-02-01

    beta-Ketoacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthase (KCS) catalyzes the condensation of malonyl-CoA with long-chain acyl-CoA. This reaction is the initial step of the microsomal fatty acyl-CoA elongation pathway responsible for formation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs, or fatty acids with chain lengths > 18 carbons). Manipulation of this pathway is significant for agriculture, because it is the basis of conversion of high erucic acid rapeseed into canola. High erucic acid rapeseed oil, used as an industrial feedstock, is rich in VLCFAs, whereas the edible oil extracted from canola is essentially devoid of VLCFAs. Here, we report the cloning of a cDNA from developing jojoba embryos involved in microsomal fatty acid elongation. The jojoba cDNA is homologous to the recently cloned Arabidopsis FATTY ACID ELONGATION1 (FAE1) gene that has been suggested to encode KCS. We characterize the jojoba enzyme and present biochemical data indicating that the jojoba cDNA does indeed encode KCS. Transformation of low erucic acid rapeseed with the jojoba cDNA restored KCS activity to developing embryos and altered the transgenic seed oil composition to contain high levels of VLCFAs. The data reveal the key role KCS plays in determining the chain lengths of fatty acids found in seed oils.

  11. High-purity fatty acid methyl ester production from canola, soybean, palm, and yellow grease lipids by means of a membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Peigang; Dube, Marc A.; Tremblay, Andre Y.

    2008-01-01

    High-purity fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was produced from different lipids, such as soybean oil, canola oil, a hydrogenated palm oil/palm oil blend, yellow grease, and brown grease, combined with methanol using a continuous membrane reactor. The membrane reactor combines reaction and separation in a single unit, provides continuous mixing of raw materials, and maintains a high molar ratio of methanol to lipid in the reaction loop while maintaining two phases during the reaction. It was demonstrated that the membrane reactor can be operated using a very broad range of feedstocks at highly similar operating conditions to produce FAME. The total glycerine and free glycerine contents of the FAME produced were below the ASTM D6751 standard after a single reaction step. Under essentially the same reaction conditions, a conventional batch reaction was not able to achieve the same degree of FAME purity. The effect of the fatty acid composition of the lipid feedstocks on the FAME purity was also shown. It was demonstrated that, due to the fatty acid composition, FAME from virgin soybean oil and virgin canola oil was produced in the membrane reactor within ASTM specifications even without a water washing step

  12. Improving methane production through co-digestion of canola straw and buffalo dung by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonari, A.A.; Sahito, A.R.; Brohi, K.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study an effect of acidic pre-treatment on the CS (Canola Straw) and BD (Buffalo Dung) by anaerobic co-digestion was investigated. H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide) is a mainly accustomed reagent, used as a bleaching agent in the different industries such as paper and wood. In the present study, it was used as a pre-treatment chemical at varying concentrations in batch reactors. The co-digestion of CS and BD was carried out in SAMPTS (Semi-Automatic Methane Potential Test System) at mesophilic (37+-1oC) conditions. The CS was pretreated in glass bottles with different concentrations of the H2O2 for seven days. The inoculum used in the present study was an effluent of the CSTR (Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor), which was treating BD at mesophilic conditions. The specific methane production from the codigestion of canola straw and BD, by the pre-treatment of H2O2 at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% were 530.8, 544.5, and 510.3 NmL CH4 g/VS, respectively. The significant reduction in the volatile solids of CS was observed at the optimum pre-treatment of 1.0% H2O2. (author)

  13. Degummed crude canola oil, sire breed and gender effects on intramuscular long-chain omega-3 fatty acid properties of raw and cooked lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flakemore, Aaron Ross; Malau-Aduli, Bunmi Sherifat; Nichols, Peter David; Malau-Aduli, Aduli Enoch Othniel

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 long-chain (≥C 20 ) polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) confer important attributes to health-conscious meat consumers due to the significant role they play in brain development, prevention of coronary heart disease, obesity and hypertension. In this study, the ω3 LC-PUFA content of raw and cooked Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle from genetically divergent Australian prime lambs supplemented with dietary degummed crude canola oil (DCCO) was evaluated. Samples of LTL muscle were sourced from 24 first cross ewe and wether lambs sired by Dorset, White Suffolk and Merino rams joined to Merino dams that were assigned to supplemental regimes of degummed crude canola oil (DCCO): a control diet at 0 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOC); 25 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOM) and 50 mL/kg DCCO (DCCOH). Lambs were individually housed and offered 1 kg/day/head for 42 days before being slaughtered. Samples for cooked analysis were prepared to a core temperature of 70 °C using conductive dry-heat. Within raw meats: DCCOH supplemented lambs had significantly ( P  culinary preparation method can be used as effective management tools to deliver nutritionally improved ω3 LC-PUFA lamb to meat consumers.

  14. Winter rye cover crops as a host for corn seedling pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover cropping is a prevalent conservation practice that offers substantial benefits to soil protection, soil health and water quality. However, emerging implementations of cover cropping, such as winter cereals preceding corn, may dampen beneficial rotation effects by putting similar crop species i...

  15. Flour quality and kernel hardness connection in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó B. P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kernel hardness is controlled by friabilin protein and it depends on the relation between protein matrix and starch granules. Friabilin is present in high concentration in soft grain varieties and in low concentration in hard grain varieties. The high gluten, hard wheat our generally contains about 12.0–13.0% crude protein under Mid-European conditions. The relationship between wheat protein content and kernel texture is usually positive and kernel texture influences the power consumption during milling. Hard-textured wheat grains require more grinding energy than soft-textured grains.

  16. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    forcing that leads to the observed high productivity during winter in the northern Arabian Sea. The weak northerly winds and increased solar insolation during the inter-monsoon period, led to the development of a highly stratified upper layer with warm sea...

  17. Winter mortality in relation to climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keatinge, W. R.; Donaldson, G. C.; Bucher, K.; Jendritzky, G.; Cordioli, E.; Martinelli, M.; Katsouyanni, K.; Kunst, A. E.; McDonald, C.; Näyhä, S.; Vuori, I.

    2000-01-01

    We report further details of the Eurowinter survey of cold related mortalities and protective measures against cold in seven regions of Europe, and review these with other evidence on the relationship of winter mortality to climate. Data for the oldest subject group studied, aged 65-74, showed that

  18. Come back on the french gas winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The document analyzes the french gas market behavior during the winter 2005/2006: the gas consumption, the imports decrease was offset by the the liquefied natural gas supply increase at Fos, the stocks levels and the transparency of the information. (A.L.B.)

  19. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...

  20. Stay Safe and Healthy This Winter!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics offer some simple ways to stay safe and healthy during the winter holiday season.  Created: 11/23/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 11/23/2010.

  1. Winter Video Series Coming in January | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Library’s annual Summer Video Series was so successful that it will be offering a new Winter Video Series beginning in January. For this inaugural event, the staff is showing the eight-part series from National Geographic titled “American Genius.” 

  2. Music Activities for Lemonade in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    "Lemonade in Winter: A Book About Two Kids Counting Money" is a children's book about math; however, when sharing it in the music classroom, street cries and clapping games emerge. Jenkins' and Karas' book provides a springboard to lessons addressing several music elements, including form, tempo, and rhythm, as well as…

  3. Winter Secrets: An Instant Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Cam

    1997-01-01

    Outdoor lesson plan aims to stimulate student interest in animals' adaptations to winter and the various signs and clues to animal behavior. Includes questions for class discussion, tips for guiding the hike, and instructions for two games that illustrate the predator-prey relationship. Notes curriculum connections to the East York (Ontario) Board…

  4. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Asch, van Margriet; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  5. Farelo de canola na alimentação de alevinos de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella V. Use of canola meal in the diet of grasscarp fry (Ctenopharyngodon idella V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Rossetto Barriviera Furuya

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos da substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS pela proteína do farelo de canola (FC, em dietas para alevinos de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella. Foram utilizados 100 alevinos com peso vivo médio de 1,33 gramas e comprimento médio de 5,06cm, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, em 20 aquários com capacidade para 50 litros, com 5 peixes por unidade. Foram utilizados cinco níveis de substituição de proteína do FS pela do FC (0,00%; 20,00%; 40,00%; 60,00% e 80,00%, o que correspondeu a 0,00%; 8,03%; 16,10%; 24;10% e 32,15% de inclusão de FC nas dietas. As dietas, formuladas de modo a serem isoprotéicas, isocálcicas e isofosfóricas, foram fornecidas durante 28 dias; ao mesmo tempo, os parâmetros físico-químicos foram monitorados. Ao final do período experimental, foram avaliadas as características de desempenho. O ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento relativo, taxa de eficiência protéica, conversão alimentar, sobrevivência e custo de ração/peso ganho não foram afetados pelos níveis de substituição da proteína do FS pela do FC. Entretanto, foram observados efeitos quadráticos para o peso final (Y = 2,39190 + 0,01327X - 0,00019X2, r2 = 0,78, comprimento total (Y = 6,15270 + 0,01195X - 0,00016X2, r2 = 0,86 e incremento em comprimento total (Y = 1,10340 + 0,01198X - 0,00016X2, r2 = 0,86. Os parâmetros físico-químicos permaneceram dentro dos níveis adequados. O nível de substituição de 35,79% de proteína do FS pela do FC ou a inclusão de 14,40% de FC na dieta levou ao melhor desempenho em alevinos de carpa-capim.One hundred fry with 1.33 mean weight and 5.06cm mean length distributed in twenty 50-liter aquarium, with 5 fish each, were used in a completely randomized plotted experiment, with 4 replications, to evaluate the effects of soybean meal (SM protein replacement by canola meal (CM protein in diets for

  6. Impact of warm winters on microbial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgander, Johanna; Rousk, Johannes; Axel Olsson, Pål

    2014-05-01

    Growth of soil bacteria has an asymmetrical response to higher temperature with a gradual increase with increasing temperatures until an optimum after which a steep decline occurs. In laboratory studies it has been shown that by exposing a soil bacterial community to a temperature above the community's optimum temperature for two months, the bacterial community grows warm-adapted, and the optimum temperature of bacterial growth shifts towards higher temperatures. This result suggests a change in the intrinsic temperature dependence of bacterial growth, as temperature influenced the bacterial growth even though all other factors were kept constant. An intrinsic temperature dependence could be explained by either a change in the bacterial community composition, exchanging less tolerant bacteria towards more tolerant ones, or it could be due to adaptation within the bacteria present. No matter what the shift in temperature tolerance is due to, the shift could have ecosystem scale implications, as winters in northern Europe are getting warmer. To address the question of how microbes and plants are affected by warmer winters, a winter-warming experiment was established in a South Swedish grassland. Results suggest a positive response in microbial growth rate in plots where winter soil temperatures were around 6 °C above ambient. Both bacterial and fungal growth (leucine incorporation, and acetate into ergosterol incorporation, respectively) appeared stimulated, and there are two candidate explanations for these results. Either (i) warming directly influence microbial communities by modulating their temperature adaptation, or (ii) warming indirectly affected the microbial communities via temperature induced changes in bacterial growth conditions. The first explanation is in accordance with what has been shown in laboratory conditions (explained above), where the differences in the intrinsic temperature relationships were examined. To test this explanation the

  7. Canola and hydrogenated soybean oils accelerate ectopic bone formation induced by implantation of bone morphogenetic protein in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Hashimoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Canola oil (Can and hydrogenated soybean oil (H2-Soy are commonly used edible oils. However, in contrast to soybean oil (Soy, they shorten the survival of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP rats. It has been proposed that the adverse effects of these oils on the kidney and testis are caused at least in part by dihydro-vitamin K (VK 1 in H2-Soy and unidentified component(s in Can. Increased intake of dihydro-VK1 is associated with decreased tissue VK2 levels and bone mineral density in rats and humans, respectively. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of these oils on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-induced ectopic bone formation, which is promoted by VK2 deficiency, in relation to the role of VK in the γ-carboxylation of osteocalcin and matrix Gla protein. A crude extract of BMPs was implanted into a gap in the fascia of the femoral muscle in 5-week-old mice maintained on a Soy, Can, or H2-Soy diet. Newly formed bone volume, assessed by three-dimensional X-ray micro-computed tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction imaging for bone, was 4-fold greater in the Can and H2-Soy groups than in the Soy group. The plasma carboxylated osteocalcin (Gla-OC and total OC (Gla-OC plus undercarboxylated osteocalcin [Glu-OC] levels were significantly lower in the Can group than in the Soy group (p < 0.05. However, these levels did not significantly differ between the H2-Soy and Soy groups. The plasma Gla-OC/Glu-OC ratio in the Can and H2-Soy groups was significantly lower (in Can; p = 0.044 or was almost significantly lower (in H2-Soy; p = 0.053 than that in the Soy group. In conclusion, Can and H2-Soy accelerated BMP-induced bone formation in mice to a greater extent than Soy. Further research is required to evaluate whether the difference in accelerated ectopic bone formation is associated with altered levels of VK2 and VK-dependent protein(s among the three dietary groups.

  8. Digestibility marker and ileal amino acid digestibility in phytase-supplemented soybean or canola meals for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, A; Ragland, D; Vieira, S L; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Adeola, O

    2014-12-01

    Two experiments using soybean meal (SBM) or canola meal (CM) were conducted to investigate whether the choice of digestibility marker influenced the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) or standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of N and AA in diets supplemented with phytase. In each experiment, 18 barrows fitted with T-cannulas at the ileocecal junction were assigned to 3 diets consisting of a N-free diet to determine endogenous losses of N and AA, a semipurified diet (SBM in Exp. 1 or CM in Exp. 2), and the semipurified diet supplemented with phytase at 1,000 phytase units/kg. Three digestibility markers including acid-insoluble ash (AIA), chromic oxide (Cr2O3), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) were added to each diet at 3 g/kg. Each diet was fed for 7 d, consisting of a 5-d adjustment and a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. In both studies, basal ileal endogenous losses determined with Cr2O3 as a digestibility marker were lower (Pdigestibility markers. Using SBM as the protein source in Exp. 1, there was no interaction between phytase and digestibility marker on AID or SID of AA. The AID of N and AA in SBM using AIA as a digestibility marker tended to be lower (Pdigestibility markers. Phytase supplementation increased (Pdigestibility marker tended to be associated with lower (Pdigestibility marker and phytase. Phytase supplementation had effects (Pdigestibility marker. With Cr2O3 or TiO2 as the digestibility marker in the CM diets, phytase supplementation increased (Pdigestibility marker. In contrast, there were no clear improvements in AA digestibility from phytase supplementation for SBM. Phytase effects on AID or SID of AA were dependent on the digestibility marker used in diets when CM was used as the protein source but not when SBM was used as the protein source. Therefore, AA digestibility response to phytase supplementation may depend on the protein being evaluated as well as the choice of digestibility marker.

  9. Nuclear Winter: The implications for civil defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to hypothesized cooling in the northern hemisphere following a nuclear war due to injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the original paper in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. The widespread use of 3-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling; 15 to 25 0 C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought are likely to be direct threats to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures; The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and could present problems to third parties without food reserves; and Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor unexpected threat from nuclear war to the US and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the US due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year. 6 refs

  10. Nuclear Winter: Implications for civil defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1988-05-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to the cooling hypothesized to occur in the Northern Hemisphere following a nuclear war as the result of the injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the paper was published in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. Three-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling---15 to 25/degree/C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought is likely to be a direct threat to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures. The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and this could present problems to third parties who are without food reserves. Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor an unexpected threat from nuclear war to the United States and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the United States due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year.

  11. Effect of Tocotrienols enriched canola oil on glycemic control and oxidative status in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Vafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tocotrienols have been shown to improve glycemic control and redox balance in an animal study, but their effects on patients with diabetes are unknown. The study aimed to investigate whether tocotrienols improves glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and oxidative stress in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Materials and Methods: This study was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. A total of 50 patients, aged 35-60 years, with T2DM treated by noninsulin hypoglycemic drugs were randomly assigned to receive either 15 mL/day tocotrienols (200 mg enriched canola oil (n = 25 or pure canola oil (n = 25 for 8 weeks. Fasting blood sugar (FBS, fasting insulin, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, malondialdehyde (MDA, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were determined before and after the intervention. The data were compared between and within groups, before and after the intervention. Results: Baseline characteristics of participants including age, sex, physical activity, disease duration, and type of drug consumption were not significantly different between the two groups. In tocotrienol enriched canola oil, FBS (mean percent change: -15.4% vs. 3.9%; P = 0.006 and MDA (median percent change: -35.6% vs. 16.3%; P = 0.003 were significantly reduced while TAC was significantly increased (median percent change: 21.4% vs. 2.3%; P = 0.001 compared to pure canola oil. At the end of the study, patients who treated with tocotrienols had lower FBS (P = 0.023 and MDA (P = 0.044 compared to the pure canola oil group. However, tocotrienols had no effect on insulin concentrations and HOMA-IR. Conclusion: Tocotrienols can improve FBS concentrations and modifies redox balance in T2DM patients with poor glycemic control and can be considered in combination with hypoglycemic drugs to better control of T2DM.

  12. Incorporating Yearly Derived Winter Wheat Maps Into Winter Wheat Yield Forecasting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, S.; Franch, B.; Roger, J.-C.; Vermote, E.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C.; Santamaría-Artigas, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. Timely and accurate forecast of wheat yield and production at global scale is vital in implementing food security policy. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) developed a generalized empirical model for forecasting winter wheat production using remote sensing data and official statistics. This model was implemented using static wheat maps. In this paper, we analyze the impact of incorporating yearly wheat masks into the forecasting model. We propose a new approach of producing in season winter wheat maps exploiting satellite data and official statistics on crop area only. Validation on independent data showed that the proposed approach reached 6% to 23% of omission error and 10% to 16% of commission error when mapping winter wheat 2-3 months before harvest. In general, we found a limited impact of using yearly winter wheat masks over a static mask for the study regions.

  13. Nutritional composition and in vitro digestibility of grass and legume winter (cover) crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A N; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Thomason, W E; Teutsch, C D

    2018-03-01

    attributed to low concentrations of sugars of mixtures with HV (10.5%). Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes reduced the fiber digestibility of both winter crops (75.7% to 72.8% NDF). Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes did not affect estimated DM yield, nutritional composition, or digestibility of the succeeding summer crops. In conclusion, growing grasses in mixtures with legumes as winter forage crops can increase forage estimated DM yields and its nutritional quality in dairy farming sytems. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke in large urban centres such as London is becoming increasingly important with the changing nature of domestic heating partly due to the installation of biomass burning heaters to meet renewable energy targets imposed by the EU and also a rise in so-called recreational burning for aesthetic reasons (Fuller et al., 2013). Recent work in large urban centres (London, Paris and Berlin) has demonstrated an increase in the contribution of wood smoke to ambient particles during winter that can at times exceed traffic emissions. In Europe, biomass burning has been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits during winter (Fuller et al., 2013). In light of the changing nature of emissions in urban areas there is a need for on-going measurements to assess the impact of biomass burning in cities like London. Therefore we aimed to determine quantitatively the contribution of biomass burning in London and surrounding rural areas. We also aimed to determine whether local emissions or regional sources were the main source of biomass burning in London. Sources of wood smoke during winter in London were investigated at an urban background site (North Kensington) and two surrounding rural sites (Harwell and Detling) by analysing selected wood smoke chemical tracers. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated, indicating a similar source of these species at the three sites. Based on the conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at Detling, North Kensington and Harwell was 0.78, 0.87 and 1.0 µg m-3, respectively. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest source of OC and EC found to be secondary organic aerosols and traffic emissions, respectively. Peaks in levoglucosan concentrations at the sites were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, suggesting domestic heating as

  15. Winter climate variability and classification in the Bulgarian Mountainous Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkova, Nadezhda; Koleva, Ekaterina

    2004-01-01

    The problems of snowiness and thermal conditions of winters are of high interest of investigations because of the more frequent droughts, occurred in the region. In the present study an attempt to reveal tendencies existing during the last 70 years of 20 th century in the course winter precipitation and,temperature as well as in some of the snow cover parameters. On the base of mean winter air temperature winters in the Bulgarian mountains were analyzed and classified. The main results of the study show that winter precipitation has decrease tendencies more significant in the highest parts of the mountains. On the other hand winter air temperature increases. It shows a relatively well-established maximum at the end of the studied period. In the Bulgarian mountains normal winters are about 35-40% of all winters. (Author)

  16. Replacing wheat with canola meal and maize grain in the diet of lactating dairy cows: Feed intake, milk production and cow condition responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Ruairi P; Staines, Martin vH

    2017-08-01

    This research paper describes the effect of partially replacing wheat with maize grain and canola meal on milk production and body condition changes in early lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows consuming a grass silage-based diet over an 83-d period. Two groups of 39 cows were stratified for age, parity, historical milk yield and days in milk (DIM), and offered one of two treatment diets. The first treatment (CON) reflected a typical diet used by Western Australian dairy producers in summer and comprised (kg DM/cow per d); 8 kg of annual ryegrass silage, 6 kg of crushed wheat (provided once daily in a mixed ration), 3·6 kg of crushed lupins (provided in the milking parlour in two daily portions) and ad libitum lucerne haylage. The second treatment diet (COMP) was identical except the 6 kg of crushed wheat was replaced by 6 kg of a more complex concentrate mix (27% crushed wheat, 34% maize grain and 37% canola meal). Lucerne haylage was provided independently in the paddock to all cows, and no pasture was available throughout the experiment. The COMP group had a greater mean overall daily intake (22·5 vs 20·4 kg DM/cow) and a higher energy corrected milk (ECM) yield (29·2 vs 27·1 kg/cow; P = 0·047) than the CON cows. The difference in overall intake was caused by a higher daily intake of lucerne haylage in COMP cows (4·5 vs 2·3 kg DM/cow). The CON group had a higher concentration of milk fat (42·1 vs 39·3 g/kg; P = 0·029) than COMP cows. Milk protein yield was greater in COMP cows (P < 0·021); however, milk fat yield was unaffected by treatment. It is concluded that partially replacing wheat with canola meal and maize grain in a grass silage-based diet increases voluntary DMI of conserved forage and consequently yields of ECM and milk protein.

  17. Identification and expression analysis of WRKY transcription factor genes in canola (Brassica napus L. in response to fungal pathogens and hormone treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyholos Michael K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of plant WRKY transcription factor families are widely implicated in defense responses and various other physiological processes. For canola (Brassica napus L., no WRKY genes have been described in detail. Because of the economic importance of this crop, and its evolutionary relationship to Arabidopsis thaliana, we sought to characterize a subset of canola WRKY genes in the context of pathogen and hormone responses. Results In this study, we identified 46 WRKY genes from canola by mining the expressed sequence tag (EST database and cloned cDNA sequences of 38 BnWRKYs. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the conserved WRKY domain amino acid sequences, which demonstrated that BnWRKYs can be divided into three major groups. We further compared BnWRKYs to the 72 WRKY genes from Arabidopsis and 91 WRKY from rice, and we identified 46 presumptive orthologs of AtWRKY genes. We examined the subcellular localization of four BnWRKY proteins using green fluorescent protein (GFP and we observed the fluorescent green signals in the nucleus only. The responses of 16 selected BnWRKY genes to two fungal pathogens, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Alternaria brassicae, were analyzed by quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR. Transcript abundance of 13 BnWRKY genes changed significantly following pathogen challenge: transcripts of 10 WRKYs increased in abundance, two WRKY transcripts decreased after infection, and one decreased at 12 h post-infection but increased later on (72 h. We also observed that transcript abundance of 13/16 BnWRKY genes was responsive to one or more hormones, including abscisic acid (ABA, and cytokinin (6-benzylaminopurine, BAP and the defense signaling molecules jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid (SA, and ethylene (ET. We compared these transcript expression patterns to those previously described for presumptive orthologs of these genes in Arabidopsis and rice, and observed both similarities and differences in

  18. Degummed crude canola oil, sire breed and gender effects on intramuscular long-chain omega-3 fatty acid properties of raw and cooked lamb meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Ross Flakemore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA confer important attributes to health-conscious meat consumers due to the significant role they play in brain development, prevention of coronary heart disease, obesity and hypertension. In this study, the ω3 LC-PUFA content of raw and cooked Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL muscle from genetically divergent Australian prime lambs supplemented with dietary degummed crude canola oil (DCCO was evaluated. Methods Samples of LTL muscle were sourced from 24 first cross ewe and wether lambs sired by Dorset, White Suffolk and Merino rams joined to Merino dams that were assigned to supplemental regimes of degummed crude canola oil (DCCO: a control diet at 0 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOC; 25 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOM and 50 mL/kg DCCO (DCCOH. Lambs were individually housed and offered 1 kg/day/head for 42 days before being slaughtered. Samples for cooked analysis were prepared to a core temperature of 70 °C using conductive dry-heat. Results Within raw meats: DCCOH supplemented lambs had significantly (P < 0.05 higher concentrations of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5ω3 and EPA + docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω3 acids than those supplemented with DCCOM or DCCOC; Dorset sired lambs contained significantly (P < 0.05 more EPA and EPA + DHA than other sire breeds; diet and sire breed interactions were significant (P < 0.05 in affecting EPA and EPA + DHA concentrations. In cooked meat, ω3 LC-PUFA concentrations in DCCOM (32 mg/100 g, DCCOH (38 mg/100 g, Dorset (36 mg/100 g, White Suffolk (32 mg/100 g, ewes (32 mg/100 g and wethers (33 mg/100 g, all exceeded the minimum content of 30 mg/100 g of edible cooked portion of EPA + DHA for Australian defined ‘source’ level ω3 LC-PUFA classification. Conclusion These results present that combinations of dietary degummed crude canola oil, sheep genetics and culinary preparation method can be used as

  19. Desempenho e parâmetros sangüíneos de eqüinos em crescimento submetidos a dietas com diferentes níveis de farelo de canola Performance and blood parameters of growing equine fed diets with different levels of canola meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia de Oliveira

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando potros, avaliaram-se dietas em que a proteína do farelo de soja foi substituído em diferentes níveis (0; 35; 65 e 100% pela do farelo de canola. As rações foram isoprotéicas ( 17% PB e isocalóricas (4200 kcal/kg. Foram utilizados 16 eqüinos da raça Mangalarga, sendo oito machos e oito fêmeas, com média de dez meses e 218 kg PV inicial, consumindo um total de 2,5% PV, na matéria seca (MS. A dieta era composta por 40% de volumoso e 60% de concentrado. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, considerando quatro blocos e quatro tratamentos. Não se verificou efeito dos tratamentos sobre as variáveis de desempenho (ganho diário de peso vivo, altura na cernelha, perímetro torácico e perímetro da canela e parâmetros sangüíneos (glicose e uréia dos potros em crescimento. Nos concentrados para potros dos 9 a 11,5 meses de idade, o farelo de soja pode ser substituído pelo farelo de canola.Diets composed by four different levels (0; 53; 65 and 100% of canola meal replacing soybean meal crude protein (CP were evaluated using foals. The diets were isoproteic (17% CP and isocaloric (4200 kcal/kg. Sixteen Managalarga breed foals, eight males and eight females, averaging 10 months and 218 kg LW, fed a total intake of 2.5% LW on dry matter (DM basis were used. The diet was composed by 60:40 forage to concentrate ratio. A completely block experimental design, with four blocks and four treatments, was used. There were no effect of treatments on the performance variables (average daily gain, wither height, heart girth and cannon bone circumference and blood parameters (glucose and urea of growing foals. In the concentrate for growing foals from 9 to 11.5 months old, the soybean meal can be replaced by canola meal.

  20. Análise dos modos de falha e efeitos na otimização dos fatores de produção no cultivo agrícola: subprocesso colheita da canola Failure mode and effect analysis in the optimization of production factors in the agro cultivation: subprocess harvest of canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Cantorski da Rosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O setor agrícola passa por um intenso processo de transformações e moder nização, mas ainda apresenta certo atraso em relação aos demais segmentos da economia, sobretudo na utilização de novas tecnologias e técnicas administrativas, que reflete em problemas que devem ser considerados. Este artigo apresenta uma metodologia para priorizar modos de falha e seus efeitos associados, para a determinação de ações preventivas, visando aperfeiçoar processos no cultivo agrícola de canola, usando a técnica FMEA, com foco no subprocesso colheita. O setor agrícola possui algumas características próprias, razão pela qual foram feitas algumas adaptações para análise deste tipo de processo. A aplicação foi ilustrada através de um estudo de caso em uma lavoura de canola na Escola-Fazenda da Sociedade Educacional Três de Maio (SETREM. A determinação de prioridades dos modos de falha foi feita de forma comparativa, pelo NPR (número de prioridade de risco e de um método gráfico.The agricultural sector has been facing an intense process of transformation and modernization. Nevertheless, it can still be considered underdeveloped if compared to other economic segments, regarding the utilization of new technologies and administrative techniques, resulting problems that deserve consideration. This Article presents a methodology to prioritize problems and their related effects to determine preventive measures, aiming at improving processes of canola cultivation, using the FMEA technique focusing on harvest. The agricultural sector has some particular techniques, which is the reason for some adjustments in order to analyze this type of process. The application was illustrated through an experiment in a plantation of canola at the farm-school of sociedade educacional três de maio (SETREM. The determination of priorities of potential problems was done comparatively through RPN (risk priority number and a graphic method.

  1. AGA predicts winter jump in residential gas price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The American Gas Association predicts the average heating bill for residential gas consumers could increase by as much as 18% this winter. AGA Pres. Mike Baly said, Last year's winter was warmer than normal. If the 1992-93 winter is similar, AGA projects that residential natural gas heating bills will go up about 6%. If we see a return to normal winter weather, our projection show the average bill could rise by almost 18%

  2. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  3. School in nature from spring to winter

    OpenAIRE

    MLSOVÁ, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis "Outdoor school from spring to winter" deals with the influence of field teaching on the locomotor development of preschool children. Based on specialized literature its theoretical part summarizes the influence of the natural environment on the child's development. It describes the benefits of field teaching, it deals with the term "Outdoor school" nowadays and in the past and with the locomotor development of children. The practical part includes an elaborated yearlong...

  4. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  5. A Fleet of Low-Cost Sensor Based Air Quality Monitors Is Used to Measure Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide in Two Settings: In the Ambient Environment to Explore the Regional-Scale Spatial Variability of These Compounds Via a Distributed Network, and in Homes to Investigate How Heating during Winter Months can Impact Indoor Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, J. G.; Hannigan, M.; Collier, A. M.; Coffey, E.; Piedrahita, R.

    2016-12-01

    Affordable, small, portable, quiet tools to measure atmospheric trace gases and air quality enable novel experimental design and new findings. Members of the Hannigan Lab at the University of Colorado in Boulder have been working over the last few years to integrate emerging affordable gas sensors into such an air quality monitor. Presented here are carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements from two field experiments that utilized these tools. In the first experiment, ten air quality monitors were located northeast of Boulder throughout the Denver Julesburg oil and gas basin. The Colorado Department of Health and Environment has several air quality monitoring sites in this broader region, each in an Urban center. One goal of the experiment was to determine whether or not significant spatial variability of EPA criteria pollutants like CO, exists on a sub-regulatory monitoring grid scale. Another goal of the experiment was to compare rural sampling locations with urban sites. The monitors collected continuous data (sampling every 15 seconds) at each location over the course of several months. Our sensor calibration procedures are presented along with our observations and an analysis of the spatial and temporal variability in CO and CO2. In the second experiment, we used eight of our air quality monitors to better understand how home heating fuel type can impact indoor air quality in two communities on the Navajo Nation. We sought to compare air quality in homes using one of four different fuels for heat (wood, wood plus coal, pellet, and gas). There are many factors that contribute to indoor air quality and the impact of an emission source, like a woodstove, within a home. Having multiple, easily deployable, air quality monitors allowed us to account for many of these factors. We sampled four homes at a time, aiming for one home from each of our fuel groups in each sampling period. We sampled inside and outside of each home for a period of 3-4 days

  6. Flowering time control in European winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Martin Langer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time is an important trait in wheat breeding as it affects adaptation and yield potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars. To this end a population of 410 winter wheat varieties was evaluated in multi-location field trials and genotyped by a genotyping-by-sequencing approach and candidate gene markers. Our analyses revealed that the photoperiod regulator Ppd-D1 is the major factor affecting flowering time in this germplasm set, explaining 58% of the genotypic variance. Copy number variation at the Ppd-B1 locus was present but explains only 3.2% and thus a comparably small proportion of genotypic variance. By contrast, the plant height loci Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 had no effect on flowering time. The genome-wide scan identified six QTL which each explain only a small proportion of genotypic variance and in addition we identified a number of epistatic QTL, also with small effects. Taken together, our results show that flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars is mainly controlled by Ppd-D1 while the fine tuning to local climatic conditions is achieved through Ppd-B1 copy number variation and a larger number of QTL with small effects.

  7. Determining effects of an all weather logging road on winter woodland caribou habitat use in south-eastern Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug W. Schindler

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The Owl Lake boreal woodland caribou population is the most southerly population in Manitoba. It is provincially ranked as a High Conservation Concern Population. Forestry operations exist in the area and there are plans for further forest harvest and renewal. The Happy Lake logging road is the only main access through the Owl Lake winter range. This logging road is currently closed to the public and access is limited to forestry operations during specific times of the year. An integrated forestry/caribou management strategy for the area provides for the maintenance of minimum areas of functional habitat. Habitat quality along the road was compared to habitat quality in the winter core use areas, within the winter range and outside the winter range. To evaluate the extent of functional habitat near the road, we conducted animal location and movement analysis using GPS data collected from January 2002 to March 2006. Habitat quality in the winter range, core use areas and along the road were assessed and found to be similar. Analysis of caribou locations and movement illustrate less use of high quality habitat adjacent to the Happy Lake Road. Loss of functional habitat is suggested to occur within 1 kilometre of the road. This potential loss of functional habitat should be incorporated into integrated forestry and caribou conservation strategies. Road management is recommended to minimize the potential sensory disturbance and associated impacts of all weather access on boreal woodland caribou.

  8. Investigation of electron beam irradiation effects on anti-nutritional factors, chemical composition and digestion kinetics of whole cottonseed, soybean and canola seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Mahmoudabad, S. R.; Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.

    2011-12-01

    This study was completed to determine effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on anti-nutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro crude protein (CP) digestibility of whole cottonseed (WCS), soybean (SB) and canola seeds (CS). EB-irradiation eliminated completely ( Pcontent of CS. Trypsin inhibitor activity of 15, 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated SB was decreased by 19, 73 and 88%, respectively. Free gossypol content of WCS was reduced linearly ( P<0.001) by irradiation. EB-irradiation increased linearly ( P<0.001) CP digestibility of feeds. In conclusion, EB-irradiation was an effective processing method for improving the nutritive value of WCS, SB and CS.

  9. Short communication: Effect of canola meal use as a protein source in a starter mixture on feeding behavior and performance of calves during the weaning transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadam, D; Kański, J; Burakowska, K; Penner, G B; Kowalski, Z M; Górka, P

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of canola meal use as a protein source in a starter mixture (SM) on feeding behavior and performance of calves during weaning transition. A total of 36 female Holstein calves of a mean age 14.9±1.6 d and body weight 40.1±4.2 kg (mean ± SD) were allocated to 1 of 3 treatments differing in the main source of protein for the SM (12 calves per treatment): (1) soybean meal (TSBM); (2) soybean meal and canola meal (TSBM/TCM); and (3) canola meal (TCM). The SM was offered for ad libitum consumption beginning on the first day of the study, whereas milk replacer (MR) was fed in amounts equal to 900 g (as fed) per day from d 1 to 35 and 450 g/d from d 36 to 42 of the study. Calves were completely weaned on d 43 of the study (57.9±1.6 d of age; mean ± SD), and their performance was monitored for an additional 2 wk. Calf body weight was recorded weekly, and MR and SM intake and fecal fluidity were recorded daily. Feeding behavior of calves during weaning transition, including frequency (no./d), time (min/d), and rate (g/min) of eating the SM as well as frequency and time of drinking water, was monitored on 6 calves per treatment for 2 consecutive days before MR step-down (d 34-35), at MR step-down (d 41-42), and after weaning (d 48-49 of study). Starter mixture intake tended to be higher for TSBM calves as compared with TSBM/TCM calves from d 1 to 35 of the study but was not different between TSBM and TCM calves and was not different between treatments in the whole study period. Calves from TCM treatment had reduced average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (g of ADG/kg of dry matter intake) and a higher fecal score in the period from d 1 to 35 of the study and had lower feed efficiency and tended to have lower ADG in the whole study period as compared with TSBM calves. Average daily gain and feed efficiency did not differ between TSBM and TSBM/TCM calves. Frequency of eating the SM and drinking water as well as time

  10. Triacylglycerol composition, physico-chemical characteristics and oxidative stability of interesterified canola oil and fully hydrogenated cottonseed oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2015-10-29

    Partial hydrogenation process is used worldwide to produce shortening, baking, and pastry margarines for food applications. However, demand for such products is decreased during last decade due to their possible links to consumer health and disease. This has raised the need to replace hydrogenation with alternative acceptable interesterification process which has advantage in context of modifying the physico-chemical properties of edible fat-based products. Therefore, the main mandate of research was the development of functional fat through chemical interesterification of canola oil (CaO) and fully hydrogenated cottonseed oil (FHCSO) mixtures. Blends were prepared in the proportions of 75:25 (T1), 50:50 (T2) and 25:75 (T3) of CaO:FHCSO (w/w). Interesterification was performed using sodium methoxide (0.2 %) as catalyst at 120 °C, under reduced pressure and constant agitation for 60 minutes. The non-interesterified and interesterified CaO:FHCSO blends were evaluated for triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, physico-chemical characteristics, oxidative stability and consumer acceptability at 0, 30 and 60 days of storage interval. The oleic acid (58.3 ± 0.6 %) was predominantly present in CaO while the contents of stearic acid (72 ± 0.8 %) were significantly higher in FHCSO. Maximum trisaturated (S3) contents (63.9 ± 0.5 %) were found in T3 while monounsaturated (S2U), diunsaturated (U2S) and triunsaturated (U3) contents were quite low in T2 and T3 before interesterification. A marked reduction in S3 and U3 contents with concomitant increase in S2U and U2S contents was observed for all CaO:FHCSO blends on interesterification. During storage, the changes in S3, S2U and U2S contents were not found significant (p ≥ 0.05). However, maximum decrease 13 %, 7.5 and 5.6 % in U3 contents for T1, T2 and T3 was noted after 60-days of interesterification, respectively. The Lovibond color R, melting point, refractive index, specific gravity, peroxide and free

  11. Productividad y eficiencia de uso de nitrógeno y energía en pollos de engorda alimentados con pasta de soya o pasta de canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Gómez Rosales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron dos experimentos de sacrificio para evaluar el crecimiento, contenido y deposición de tejidos y retención de proteína y energía en la carne de la canal en pollos en crecimiento alimentados con pasta de canola (PCAN en sustitución de pasta de soya (PSOY. En el Exp 1, seis pollos machos, de 43 días de edad, se sacrificaron al inicio y 36 pollos fueron asignados a tres dietas con cantidades crecientes de PCAN (0, 10 y 20 % combinadas con dos niveles de lisina digestible (LD: 0.85 y 0.95 %. En el Exp 2, seis hembras y seis machos, de 28 días de edad, se sacrificaron al inicio y 72 pollos fueron asignados, por sexo, a dos dietas (PSOY o PCAN como único ingrediente proteico combinadas con tres niveles de energía (3.0, 3.1 y 3.2 Mcal de EM/kg de alimento. Cada experimento duró dos semanas y al final todos los pollos fueron sacrificados. En el Exp 1, no hubo diferencias estadísticas en la productividad o retención de proteína y energía en la canal entre niveles de PCAN (P>0.05. En el Exp 2, el consumo de alimento, proteína y energía y la deposición de grasa fueron mayores (P<0.05 con PSOY, pero la ganancia de peso, eficiencia alimenticia y retención de proteína y energía en la canal fueron similares entre dietas. Los resultados indican que es factible sustituir parcial o totalmente la pasta de soya por pasta de canola en la dieta de pollos de engorda en crecimiento.

  12. Study of Sowing Date and Seed Priming Effect on Seed Yield, Its Components and Some of Agronomic and Qualitative Properties of Two Spring Canola Cultivars in Hamedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohagheghi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of planting date, cultivar and seed priming on yield, yield components, oil and protein content of seeds of two spring canola cultivars a field experiment was conducted in Bu-Ali Sina University in 2012. The experiment was factorial in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Factors consisted of sowing dates (14 and 24th March and 3rd April, seed priming treatments (no-primed, primed with water and zinc sulfate solution and two canola cultivars (Hayola401 and RGS003. The evaluated traits were number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod, 1000 seeds weight, plant height, oil and protein percentage, yields of seed, oil and biologic and harvest index. The results showed that delay in sowing, except of seed protein percentage, decreased all traits. Seed priming could increase traits of plant height, 1000 seed weight, number of seed per pod, oil percentage and yield and protein percentage in all sowing dates. Seed priming with zinc sulfate solution and water increased the number of pod per plant 16.1 and 10.5 percent, respectively compared to no-primed treatment. The highest seed number per pod was achieved through the priming with water and zinc sulfate solution with an average of 14.3, in the first sowing date for Hayola401 cultivar. Priming with water, especially in the third sowing date increased oil yield by 56 percent in RGS003 cultivar in comparison with its no-primed treatment. Also priming with zinc sulfate and water, increased the harvest index 5.04 and 3.7% respectively compared to no-primed treatment. In general in the case of delay in sowing date in spring rapeseed cultivars especially for RGS003, primed seed preferably with zinc sulfate improves the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the production.

  13. The influence of sowing period and seeding norm on autumn vegetation, winter hardiness and yield of winter cereal crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapova G. N.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available the winter wheat and triticale in the middle part of the Ural Mountains haven’t been seeded before. The technology of winter crop cultivation should be improved due to the production of new varieties of winter rye. Winter hardiness and yield of winter rye are higher in comparison with winter triticale and especially with winter wheat. The sowing period and the seeding rate influence the amount of yield and winter hardiness. The winter hardiness of winter cereals and the yield of the rye variety Iset sowed on August 25 and the yield of the triticale variety Bashkir short-stalked and wheat Kazanskaya 560 sowed on August 15 were higher. It is important to sow winter grain in local conditions in the second half of August. The sowing this period allows to provide plants with the necessary amount of positive temperatures (450–500 °C. This helps the plants to form 3–4 shoots of tillering and a mass of 10 dry plants reaching 3–5 grams. The winter grain crops in the middle part of the Ural Mountains should be sown with seeding rates of 6 and 7 million of sprouting grains per 1 ha, and the seeds must be cultivated with fungicidal preparation before seeding.

  14. Genetic resources as initial material for developing new soft winter wheat varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Кір’ян

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To estimate genetic resources collection of soft winter wheat plants (new collection accessions of Ustymivka Experimental Station for Plant Production and select initial material for breeding of adaptive, productive and qualitative soft winter wheat varieties. Methods. Field experiment, laboratory testing. Results. The authors pre- sented results of study of over 1000 samples of gene pool of soft winter wheat from 25 countries during 2001–2005 in Ustymivka Experimental Station for Plant Production of Plant Production Institute nd. a. V. Ya. Yuriev, NAAS of Ukraine for a complex of economic traits. More than 400 new sources with high adaptive properties were selected that combine traits of high productivity and high quality of grain, early ripening, resistance to biotic and abiotic fac- tors (the assessment of samples for 16 valuable traits is given. The selected material comes from various agro-cli- matic zones, including zones of unsustainable agriculture. Conclusions. Recommended sources of traits that have breeding value will allow to enrich high-quality assortment of wheat and considerably accelerate breeding process du- ring development of new soft winter wheat varieties.

  15. Effect of a 6-month intervention with cooking oils containing a high concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (olive and canola oils) compared with control oil in male Asian Indians with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Priyanka; Bhatt, Suryaprakash; Misra, Anoop; Chadha, Davinder S; Vaidya, Meera; Dasgupta, Jharna; Pasha, Qadar M A

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary intervention with canola or olive oil in comparison with commonly used refined oil in Asian Indians with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This was a 6-month intervention study including 93 males with NAFLD, matched for age and body mass index (BMI). Subjects were randomized into three groups to receive olive oil (n=30), canola oil (n=33), and commonly used soyabean/safflower oil (control; n=30) as cooking medium (not exceeding 20 g/day) along with counseling for therapeutic lifestyle changes. The BMI, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin levels, lipids, homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HOMA denoting β-cell function (HOMA-βCF), and disposition index (DI) were measured at pre- and post-intervention. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference multiple comparison test procedures. Olive oil intervention led to a significant decrease in weight and BMI (ANOVA, P=0.01) compared with the control oil group. In a comparison of olive and canola oil, a significant decrease in fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR, HOMA-βCF, and DI (Poil group. Pre- and post-intervention analysis revealed a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein level (P=0.004) in the olive oil group and a significant decrease in FBG (P=0.03) and triglyceride (P=0.02) levels in the canola oil group. The pre- and post-intervention difference in liver span was significant only in the olive (1.14 ± 2 cm; Poil groups. In the olive and canola oil groups, post-intervention grading of fatty liver was reduced significantly (grade I, from 73.3% to 23.3% and from 60.5% to 20%, respectively [Poil group no significant change was observed. Results suggest significant improvements in grading of fatty liver, liver span, measures of insulin resistance, and lipids with use of canola and olive oil compared with control oils in Asian Indians with NAFLD.

  16. Hellsgate Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    BPA proposes to fund the Hellsgate Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The Project is intended to mitigate for wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs. The Project would allow the sponsors to secure land and conduct wildlife habitat improvement and long-term management activities within the boundaries of the Colville Indian Reservation. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0940) evaluating the potential environmental effects of the proposed Project (Alternative B) and No Action (Alternative A). Protection and re-establishment of riparian and upland habitat on the Colville Indian Reservation, under Alternative B, would not have a significant adverse environmental impact because: (1) there would be only limited, mostly short-term adverse impacts on soils, water quality, air quality, vegetation, and wildlife (including no effect on endangered species); and (2) there would be no adverse effect on water quantity, cultural resources, or land use. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI

  17. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced...... by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO2 equivalents...

  18. Temporal Variability and Characterization of Aerosols across the Pakistan Region during the Winter Fog Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahim Khokhar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fog is a meteorological/environmental phenomenon which happens across the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP and leads to significant social and economic problems, especially posing significant threats to public health and causing disruptions in air and road traffic. Meteorological stations in Pakistan provide limited information regarding fog episodes as these provide only point observations. Continuous monitoring, as well as a spatially coherent picture of fog distribution, is possible through the use of satellite observations. This study focuses on the 2012–2015 winter fog episodes over the Pakistan region using the Moderate Resolution Image Spectrometer (MODIS, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO products. The main objective of the study was to map the spatial distribution of aerosols, their types, and to identify the aerosol origins during special weather conditions like fog in Pakistan. The study also included ground monitoring of particulate matter (PM concentrations, which were conducted during the 2014–2015 winter period only. Overall, this study is part of a multi-country project supported by the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD, started in 2014–2015 winter period, whereby scientists from Bangladesh, India and Nepal have also conducted measurements at their respective sites. A significant correlation between MODIS (AOD and AERONET Station (AOD data from Lahore was identified. Mass concentration of PM10 at all sampling sites within Lahore city exceeded the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS levels on most of the occasions. Smoke and absorbing aerosol were found to be major constituents of winter fog in Pakistan. Furthermore, an extended span of winter fog was also observed in Lahore city during the winter of 2014–2015. The Vertical Feature Mask (VFM provided by CALIPSO satellite confirmed the low-lying aerosol

  19. Spectrum of winter dermatoses in rural Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kamel, Mohamed A

    2016-05-01

    Surveys that have been carried out to determine the prevalence of skin diseases in rural Yemen are scarce or not available. To investigate the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community. A retrospective study was conducted at the dermatology outpatient clinic of the Al-Helal Specialized Hospital (Radaa' district of Al Bayda' Governorate) using data analysis of 700 selected records of patients managed during four months of the 2013-14 winter season. Seven hundred patients with 730 diseases were reported in this study; the major bulk of patients (46.57%) were in the >18-40-year age group, and females outnumbered males. By far, dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders (38.49%) topped the list of the most frequent skin disorders groups, followed by skin infections and infestations (20%) and the pigmentary disorders (13.70%) group. Contact dermatitis (10.68%) was the most prevalent skin disorder, followed by hyperpigmentations (8.77%), acne (8.08%), viral infections (5.75%), atopic dermatitis (5.62%), and parasitic infestations (5.34%). This survey has documented the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community but also reflects the pattern of common dermatoses in the whole country. Dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders, skin infections, and pigmentary disorders are the commonest groups. Contact dermatitis is the most prevalent disorder, and leishmaniasis is the most prevalent skin infectious disease. Climate, occupational, social, and environmental factors are the main contributors. Such statistics can form an important basis for community-based health policies. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  20. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey D.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Roberts, Elizabeth K.

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation—often by non-motorized and motorized activity—is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists ( n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  1. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Pannacci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08 in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l. in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days in the crop sowed at narrow (traditional row spacing (0.15 m; and ii split-hoeing and finger-weeder, alone and combined at T1, in the crop sowed at wider row spacing (0.30 m. At the time T1 winter wheat was at tillering and weeds were at the cotyledons-2 true leaves growth stage. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Six weeks after mechanical treatments, weed ground cover (% was rated visually using the Braun-Blanquet coverabundance scale; weeds on three squares (0.6×0.5 m each one per plot were collected, counted, weighed, dried in oven at 105°C to determine weed density and weed above-ground dry biomass. At harvest, wheat ears density, grain yield, weight of 1000 seeds and hectolitre weight were recorded. Total weed flora was quite different in the three experiments. The main weed species were: Polygonum aviculare L. (exp. 1 and 2, Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve (exp. 1 and 3, Stachys annua (L. L. (exp. 1, Anagallis arvensis L. (exp. 2, Papaver rhoeas L. (exp.3, Veronica hederifolia L. (exp. 3. In the winter wheat sowed at narrow rows, 2 passages with spring-tine harrowing at the same time seems to be the best option in order to reconcile a good efficacy with the feasibility of treatment. In wider rows spacing the best weed control was obtained by split hoeing alone or combined with finger-weeder. The grain yield, on average 10% higher in narrow rows, the lower costs and the good selectivity of spring-tine harrowing

  2. Air pollution episodes associated with East Asian winter monsoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, P.D., E-mail: pdhien@gmail.com [Vietnam Atomic Energy Agency, 59 Ly Thuong Kiet str. Hanoi (Viet Nam); Loc, P.D.; Dao, N.V. [National Hydro-Meteorological Center, 62-A2 Nguyen Chi Thanh str. Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2011-11-01

    A dozen multi-day pollution episodes occur from October to February in Hanoi, Vietnam due to prolonged anticyclonic conditions established after the northeast monsoon surges (cold surges). These winter pollution episodes (WPEs) account for most of the 24-h PM{sub 10} exceedances and the highest concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Hanoi. In this study, WPEs were investigated using continuous air quality monitoring data and information on upper-air soundings and air mass trajectories. The 24-h pollutant concentrations are lowest during cold surges; concurrently rise thereafter reaching the highest levels toward the middle of a monsoon cycle, then decline ahead of the next cold surge. Each monsoon cycle usually proceeds through a dry phase and a humid phase as Asiatic continental cold air arrives in Hanoi through inland China then via the East China Sea. WPEs are associated with nighttime radiation temperature inversions (NRTIs) in the dry phase and subsidence temperature inversions (STIs) in the humid phase. In NRTI periods, the rush hour pollution peak is more pronounced in the evening than in the morning and the pollution level is about two times higher at night than in daytime. In STI periods, broad morning and evening traffic peaks are observed and pollution is as high at night as in daytime. The close association between pollution and winter monsoon meteorology found in this study for the winter 2003-04 may serve as a basis for advance warning of WPEs and for forecasting the 24-h pollutant concentrations. - Highlights: {yields} Dozen pollution episodes from Oct. to Feb in Hanoi associated with anticyclones after monsoon surges. {yields} 24-h concentrations of PM{sub 10}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, CO rise after surge and decline ahead of the next. {yields} Episodes caused by nighttime radiation and subsidence inversions in dry and humid monsoon phases. {yields} Distinct diurnal variations of pollutant concentrations observed in the two periods. {yields} Close

  3. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J; Bergman, Harold L; Cherrington, Brian D

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters (Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  4. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J.; Bergman, Harold L.; Cherrington, Brian D.

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows ( Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters ( Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  5. Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-02-12

    The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 12 to February 18, 2011. Ninety-four participants from ten countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, "New Data From the Energy Frontier." There were 54 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The week's events included a public lecture ("The Hunt for the Elusive Higgs Boson" given by Ben Kilminster from Ohio State University) and attended by 119 members of the public, and a physics cafe geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists. The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was "Indirect and Direct Detection of Dark Matter." It was held from February 6 to February 12, 2011. The 70 participants came from 7 countries and attended 53 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists from other institutions and countries or due to incipient collaborations. In addition, Blas Cabrera of Stanford University gave a public lecture titled "What Makes Up Dark Matter." There were 183 members of the general public in attendance. Before the lecture, 45 people attended the physics cafe to discuss dark matter. This report provides the attendee lists, programs, and announcement posters for each event.

  6. Monitoring water phase dynamics in winter clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Edwin F.; Ware, Randolph; Joe, Paul; Hudak, David

    2014-10-01

    This work presents observations of water phase dynamics that demonstrate the theoretical Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen concepts in mixed-phase winter storms. The work analyzes vertical profiles of air vapor pressure, and equilibrium vapor pressure over liquid water and ice. Based only on the magnitude ranking of these vapor pressures, we identified conditions where liquid droplets and ice particles grow or deplete simultaneously, as well as the conditions where droplets evaporate and ice particles grow by vapor diffusion. The method is applied to ground-based remote-sensing observations during two snowstorms, using two distinct microwave profiling radiometers operating in different climatic regions (North American Central High Plains and Great Lakes). The results are compared with independent microwave radiometer retrievals of vertically integrated liquid water, cloud-base estimates from a co-located ceilometer, reflectivity factor and Doppler velocity observations by nearby vertically pointing radars, and radiometer estimates of liquid water layers aloft. This work thus makes a positive contribution toward monitoring and nowcasting the evolution of supercooled droplets in winter clouds.

  7. Winter-APK voor bijen : Helpt u deze winter mee bij het praktijkonderzoek?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Som de Cerff, B.; Cornelissen, B.; Moens, F.

    2013-01-01

    Om de risico’s van een aanrijding bij sneeuw en gladheid te verminderen, laten steeds meer automobilisten bij het monteren van winterbanden ook een wintercontrole uitvoeren. Zou een dergelijke controle voor de winter ook schade aan onze volken in de vorm van wintersterfte kunnen verminderen? Dat zou

  8. Impacts of winter NPO on subsequent winter ENSO: sensitivity to the definition of NPO index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangfeng; Wu, Renguang

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the linkage between boreal winter North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) and subsequent winter El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) based on seven different NPO indices. Results show that the influence of winter NPO on the subsequent winter El Niño is sensitive to how the NPO is defined. A significant NPO-El Niño connection is obtained when the NPO-related anomalous cyclone over the subtropical North Pacific extends to near-equatorial regions. The anomalous cyclone induces warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies through modulating surface heat fluxes. These warm SST anomalies are able to maintain into the following spring and summer through an air-sea coupled process and in turn induce significant westerly wind anomalies over the tropical western Pacific. In contrast, the NPO-El Niño relationship is unclear when the NPO-related anomalous cyclone over the subtropical North Pacific is confined to off-equatorial regions and cannot induce significant warm SST anomalies over the subtropical North Pacific. The present study suggests that definitions of NPO should be taken into account when using NPO to predict ENSO. In particular, we recommend defining the NPO index based on the empirical orthogonal function technique over appropriate region that does not extend too far north.

  9. Modeling organic aerosol concentrations and properties during winter 2014 in the northwestern Mediterranean region

    OpenAIRE

    Chrit, Mounir; Sartelet, Karine; Sciare, Jean; Majdi, Marwa; Nicolas, José; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Dulac, François

    2018-01-01

    Organic aerosols are measured at a remote site (Ersa) on Corsica Cape in the northwestern Mediterranean basin during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (CharMEx) winter campaign of 2014, when high organic concentrations from anthropogenic origin are observed. This work aims at representing the observed organic aerosol concentrations and properties (oxidation state) using the air-quality model Polyphemus with a surrogate approach for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Becau...

  10. Selection of high hectolitre weight mutants of winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, C.; Jones, P.

    1989-01-01

    Grain quality in wheat includes hectolitre weight (HLW) besides protein content and thousand-grain weight (TGW). The British winter wheat variety ''Guardian'' has a very high yield potential. Although the long grain of ''Guardian'' results in a desirable high TGW the HLW is too low. To select mutants exhibiting increased HLW the character was first analyzed to identify traits that could more easily be screened for using M 2 seeds. In comparison of 6 wheat cultivars, correlation analyses with HLW resulted in coefficients of -0.86 (grain length, L:P 2 seeds for shorter, less prolate grains. Mutagenesis was carried out using EMS sulphonate (1.8 or 3.6%), sodium azide (2 or 20 mM) or X-rays (7.5 or 20 kR). 69 M 2 grains with altered shape were selected. Examination of the M 3 progeny confirmed 6 grain-shape mutants, most of them resulting from EMS treatment (Table). Two of the mutants showed TGW values significantly below the parental variety, but three mutants exhibited HLW and TGW values significantly greater than those of the parental variety. Microplot yield trails on selected M 3 lines are in progress. The influence of physical grain characteristics on HLW offers prospects for mechanical fractionation of large M 2 populations. The application of gravity separators (fractionation on the basis of grain density) and sieves (fractionation on the basis of grain length) in screening mutants possessing improved grain quality is being investigated

  11. Summary of winter honey bee colony losses in Slovakia between the years 2009 and 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Chlebo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Between the seasons 2009/2010 and 2014/2015 was evaluated 1305 questionnaires in total, received from Slovak beekeepers. Standard questionnaires of COST working group COLOSS were used with sets of questions related to overwintering of bee colonies and possible reasons of its losses. In season 2009/2010 winter losses in Slovakia reached 7.10 %, subsequently in 2010/2011 - 5.96 %, 2011/2012 - 9.70 %, 2012/2013 - 9.50 %, 2013/2014 - 8.84 %, 2014/2015 - 10.00 %. Expected causes of winter mortality (starvation, poor queen´s quality, parasitism, robbery were evaluated in the study to detect the presence of depopulation syndrome of bee colonies - CCD (colony collapse disorder reported from some North American and European areas. As acceptable level of winter losses is generally considered level 10 %, which was not exceeded in any season, thereby Slovakia ranks among countries with the lowest winter mortality of bee colonies worldwide. Possible reason of this situation is most probably multiple Varroa treatment throughout the year, but other reasons are discussed as well in the study.

  12. Arctic Sea Ice, Eurasia Snow, and Extreme Winter Haze in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Y.; Wang, Y.; Xie, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Koo, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    Eastern China is experiencing more severe haze pollution in winter during recent years. Though the environmental deterioration in this region is usually attributed to the high intensity of anthropogenic emissions and large contributions from secondary aerosol formation, the impact of climate variability is also indispensable given its significant influence on regional weather systems and pollution ventilation. Here we analyzed the air quality related winter meteorological conditions over Eastern China in the last four decades and showed a worsening trend in poor regional air pollutant ventilation. Such variations increased the probability of extreme air pollution events, which is in good agreement with aerosol observations of recent years. We further identified the key circulation pattern that is conducive to the weakening ventilation and investigated the relationship between synoptic circulation changes and multiple climate forcing variables. Both statistical analysis and numerical sensitivity experiments suggested that the poor ventilation condition is linked to boreal cryosphere changes including Arctic sea ice in preceding autumn and Eurasia snowfall in earlier winter. We conducted comprehensive dynamic diagnosis and proposed a physical mechanism to explain the observed and simulated circulation changes. At last, we examined future projections of winter extreme stagnation events based on the CMIP5 projection data.

  13. Henslow's sparrow winter-survival estimates and response to prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, B.S.; Krementz, D.G.; Woodrey, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Wintering Henslow's sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii) populations rely on lands managed with prescribed burning, but the effects of various burn regimes on their overwinter survival are unknown. We studied wintering Henslow's sparrows in coastal pine savannas at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge, Jackson County, Mississippi, USA, during January and February 2001 and 2002. We used the known-fate modeling procedure in program MARK to evaluate the effects of burn age (1 or 2 growing seasons elapsed), burn season (growing, dormant), and calendar year on the survival rates of 83 radiomarked Henslow's sparrows. We found strong evidence that Henslow's sparrow survival rates differed by burn age (with higher survival in recently burned sites) and by year (with lower survival rates in 2001 likely because of drought conditions). We found some evidence that survival rates also differed by bum season (with higher survival in growing-season sites), although the effects of burn season were only apparent in recently burned sites. Avian predation was the suspected major cause of mortality (causing 6 of 14 deaths) with 1 confirmed loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) depredation. Our results indicated that recently burned savannas provide high-quality wintering habitats and suggested that managers can improve conditions for wintering Henslow's sparrows by burning a large percentage of savannas each year.

  14. Wintering bald eagle trends in northern Arizona, 1975-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    2003-01-01

    Between 1975 and 2000, 4,525 sightings of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were recorded at Mormon Lake in northern Arizona. Numbers of wintering eagles fluctuated little in the 20 years from 1975 through 1994 (5.5 ± 3.0 mean sightings per day). However, during the winters of 1995 through 1997 local record highs of 59 to 118 eagles...

  15. Can GRACE detect winter snows in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heki, Kosuke

    2010-05-01

    Current spatial resolution of the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites is 300-400 km, and so its hydrological applications have been limited to continents and large islands. The Japanese Islands have width slightly smaller than this spatial resolution, but are known to show large amplitude seasonal changes in surface masses due mainly to winter snow. Such loads are responsible for seasonal crustal deformation observed with GEONET, a dense array of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers in Japan (Heki, 2001). There is also a dense network of surface meteorological sensors for, e.g. snow depths, atmospheric pressures, etc. Heki (2004) showed that combined effects of surface loads, i.e. snow (predominant), atmosphere, soil moisture, dam impoundment, can explain seasonal crustal deformation observed by GPS to a large extent. The total weight of the winter snow in the Japanese Islands in its peak season may reach ~50 Gt. This is comparable to the annual loss of mountain glaciers in the Asian high mountains (Matsuo & Heki, 2010), and is above the detection level of GRACE. In this study, I use GRACE Level-2 Release-4 data from CSR, Univ. Texas, up to 2009 November, and evaluated seasonal changes in surface loads in and around the Japanese Islands. After applying a 350 km Gaussian filter and a de-striping filter, the peak-to-peak change of the water depth becomes ~4 cm in northern Japan. The maximum value is achieved in February-March. The region of large winter load spans from Hokkaido, Japan, to northeastern Honshu, which roughly coincides with the region of deep snow in Japan. Next I compiled snow depth data from surface meteorological observations, and converted them to loads using time-dependent snow density due to compaction. By applying the same spatial filter as the GRACE data, its spatial pattern becomes similar to the GRACE results. The present study suggests that GRACE is capable of detecting seasonal mass changes in an island arc not

  16. The History of Winter: teachers as scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned

  17. Home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games 1976-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Darryl; Ramchandani, Girish

    2017-01-01

    There is a limited amount of home advantage research concerned with winter sports. There is also a distinct lack of studies that investigate home advantage in the context of para sport events. This paper addresses this gap in the knowledge by examining home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games. Using a standardised measure of success, we compared the performances of host nations at home with their own performances away from home between 1976 and 2014. Both country level and individual sport level analysis is conducted for this time period. Comparisons are also drawn with the Winter Olympic Games since 1992, the point from which both the Winter Olympic Games and the Winter Paralympic Games have been hosted by the same nations and in the same years. Clear evidence of a home advantage effect in the Winter Paralympic Games was found at country level. When examining individual sports, only alpine skiing and cross country skiing returned a significant home advantage effect. When comparing home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games with the Winter Olympic Games for the last seven host nations (1992-2014), we found that home advantage was generally more pronounced (although not a statistically significant difference) in the case of the former. The causes of home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games are unclear and should be investigated further.

  18. Carry-over effects of winter location contribute to variation in timing of nest initiation and clutch size in black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamber, Jason L.; Sedinger, James S.; Ward, David H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed carry-over effects from winter location on timing of nest initiation and clutch size of Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) using observations of individually marked brant breeding at the Tutakoke River colony in Alaska, and wintering along a latitudinal gradient at three areas on the Pacific coast of Baja California: northernmost Bahia San Quintin (BSQ), Laguna Ojo de Liebre (LOL), and southernmost Laguna San Ignacio (LSI). Black Brant initiated nests according to a north—south trend in winter location, although year was a stronger predictor of initiation date than was wintering site. Female Black Brant that wintered at BSQ initiated nests 2.2 days earlier than females from LSI. Conversely, Black Brant showed only a weak south—north trend in clutch size; individuals from LSI laid slightly larger clutches than individuals from BSQ, probably because a smaller proportion of only high-quality females from the southernmost wintering area in Baja California were able to attain the nutritional condition necessary to breed. These results indicate that winter location can influence individual reproductive performance and, potentially, limit population growth of southern segments of the wintering Black Brant population.

  19. Energy market barometer report - Winter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cartel, Melodie; Shao, Evan; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2017-01-01

    This Winter 2016 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer explores the opinion of French energy experts about the decentralization of the electricity sector in France. French experts were also asked where the focus of French energy policy should be in the next five years. Key findings: - French energy experts sense a clear trend toward the decentralization of the French electricity system; - Technology innovation and self-sufficiency for corporations and municipalities are the two major promises of decentralization; - The major barriers to faster decentralization in France are the high price of energy storage systems and the lack of political will; - 74% of experts believe that energy efficiency should be a top priority for French energy policy in the next five years; - Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and facilitating the decentralization of the electricity sector should also be a top priority for French energy policy in the next five years; - Experts are divided over the future of nuclear energy

  20. Chemical profile of Taxodium distichum winter cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đapić Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the chemical profile of Taxodium distichum winter cones. The extract obtained after maceration in absolute ethanol was subjected to qualitative analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantification was done by gas chromatography/ flame ionization detector. The chromatogram revealed the presence of 53 compounds, of which 33 compounds were identified. The extract contained oxygenated monoterpenes (12.42%, sesquiterpenes (5.18%, oxygenated sesquiterpenes (17.41%, diterpenes (1.15%, and oxygenated diterpenes (30.87%, while the amount of retinoic acid was 0.32%. Monoacylglycerols were detected in the amount of 4.32%. The most abundant compounds were: caryophyllene oxide (14.27%, 6,7-dehydro-ferruginol (12.49%, bornyl acetate (10.96%, 6- deoxy-taxodione (9.50% and trans-caryophyllene (4.20%.

  1. Effect of Phytase Superdoses and Citric Acid on Growth Performance, Plasma Phosphorus and Tibia Ash in Broilers Fed Canola Meal-Based Diets Severely Limited in Available Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taheri HR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase superdoses alone or in combination with citric acid (CA in canola meal-based diets severely limited in available phosphorus (Pa on growth performance, plasma phosphorus (P, and tibia ash (TA in broilers from 22 to 42 d of age. Two hundreds and eighty 21-d-old male broilers were used in 28 pens of 10 birds per each. The experimental diets consisted of a positive control (PC diet and six negative control (NC diets which consisted of two levels of CA (0 and 20 g/Kg and three levels of phytase (0, 1000 and 4000 U/Kg in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. The PC diet contained 4.3 g/Kg Pa, but all NC diets contained 1.5 g/Kg Pa. Results indicated that the birds fed the PC diet had a significantly higher average daily gain (ADG, plasma P and TA, but a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR than those fed the NC diet. The ADG, FCR and plasma P values in birds fed NC diets supplemented with 4000 U/Kg phytase enzyme (with or without CA significantly reached those of birds fed the PC diet. But, addition of phytase enzyme at 1000 U/Kg only plus CA to the NC diet could significantly improve FCR and plasma P. A significant interaction was observed between phytase and CA for FCR and plasma P. Although TA values in NC + 1000 U/Kg phytase treatments (with or without CA were similar to the PC treatment, TA values of NC + 4000 U/Kg phytase treatments (with or without CA was greater than that of the PC treatment. Results of this study showed that, in severely limited Pa corn-canola meal-based diets, supplementing 4000 U/Kg phytase or also 1000 U/Kg phytase plus CA will be sufficient to obtain the comparable feed efficiency in broilers to those fed the adequate Pa diet.

  2. Using ATR-FT/IR to detect carbohydrate-related molecular structure features of carinata meal and their in situ residues of ruminal fermentation in comparison with canola meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hangshu; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-10-01

    There is no information on the co-products from carinata bio-fuel and bio-oil processing (carinata meal) in molecular structural profiles mainly related to carbohydrate biopolymers in relation to ruminant nutrition. Molecular analyses with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT/IR) technique with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and chemometrics enable to detect structural features on a molecular basis. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine carbohydrate conformation spectral features in original carinata meal, co-products from bio-fuel/bio-oil processing; and (2) investigate differences in carbohydrate molecular composition and functional group spectral intensities after in situ ruminal fermentation at 0, 12, 24 and 48 h compared to canola meal as a reference. The molecular spectroscopic parameters of carbohydrate profiles detected were structural carbohydrates (STCHO, mainly associated with hemi-cellulosic and cellulosic compounds; region and baseline ca. 1483-1184 cm-1), cellulosic compounds (CELC, region and baseline ca. 1304-1184 cm-1), total carbohydrates (CHO, region and baseline ca. 1193-889 cm-1) as well as the spectral ratios calculated based on respective spectral intensity data. The results showed that the spectral profiles of carinata meal were significantly different from that of canola meal in CHO 2nd peak area (center at ca. 1091 cm-1, region: 1102-1083 cm-1) and functional group peak intensity ratios such as STCHO 1st peak (ca. 1415 cm-1) to 2nd peak (ca. 1374 cm-1) height ratio, CHO 1st peak (ca. 1149 cm-1) to 3rd peak (ca. 1032 cm-1) height ratio, CELC to total CHO area ratio and STCHO to CELC area ratio, indicating that carinata meal may not in full accord with canola meal in carbohydrate utilization and availability in ruminants. Carbohydrate conformation and spectral features were changed by significant interaction of meal type and incubation time and almost all the spectral parameters were significantly decreased (P

  3. Histological analysis of ovaries of female rabbits fed on canola meal gradually substituting soybean meal Análises histológicas do ovário de coelhas alimentadas com farelo de canola em substituição gradativa ao farelo de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Vieira Lage

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A histological study of New Zealand White female rabbits’ ovaries was undertaken. Rabbits were fed on canola meal as an increasing substitute (00, 33, 66 and 100% for soybean meal so that the tissue’s general aspects could be verified and the number of ovarian follicles from each experimental group could be obtained. Forty-eight female rabbits were slaughtered at 43, 150 and 225 days of age and their ovaries were fixed in Bouin’s liquid, washed and conserved in 70% ethanol and embedded in paraffin. 5µm-thick histological sections were undertaken and stained by HE and Azan techniques. The ovaries were bound by a predominantly simple cubic epithelium followed by the tunica albuginea. Ovarian follicles were observed in different stages of development in the cortical tissue. Interstitial gland cells, blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves were observed in the medullar tissue. Small cysts were also reported. Histological preparations didn’t show any change between groups either in the general morphology of the tissue or in follicle number. This fact suggests that the use of canola as a food of rabbits didn’t interfere in reproduction.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a histologia de ovário de coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia Branca. As coelhas foram alimentadas com farelo de canola em substituição gradativa (00, 33, 66 e 100% ao farelo de soja. Foram estudados os aspectos histológicos gerais dos ovários, assim como a contagem de folículos. Um grupo de 48 coelhas foi dividido ao acaso e abatido aos 43, 150 e 225 dias de idade, e os ovários foram fixados em Bouin, lavados e conservados em solução de etanol a 70% e embebidos em parafina. Cortes histológicos foram realizados com 5µm de espessura e corados com HE e técnica de Azan. Os ovários apresentavam predominantemente epitélio simples cúbico seguidos de túnica albugínea. Os folículos foram observados em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento no estroma cortical. C

  4. On the relation between ionospheric winter anomalies and solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumi, G.C.

    2001-01-01

    There are two different winter anomalies. A small one that appears in connection with ionization at relatively low latitudes in the bottom of the D-region of the ionosphere. There, the electron densities in the winter happen to be less than should be expected. On the other hand, the classic winter anomaly is present when in the winter the upper D-region, again at relatively low latitudes, has more ionization than should be expected. Both these effects are due to the slant compression of the geomagnetic field produced by the solar wind in the wind in the winter season (which is, of course, the summer season when reference is made to events in the other hemisphere). It is shown that the small winter anomaly is a consequence of a hemispheric imbalance in the flux of galactic cosmic rays determined by the obliquely distorted geomagnetic field. It is shown that the standard winter anomaly can be ascribed to the influx of a super solar wind, which penetrates into the Earth's polar atmosphere down to E-region, heights and, duly concentrated through a funneling action at the winter pole of the distorted geomagnetic field, slows down the winter polar vortex. An equatorward motion of the polar air with its content of nitric oxide brings about the excess of ionization in the upper D-region at lower latitudes. The experimentally observed rhythmic recurrence of the upper winter anomaly is correlated to a possible rhythmic recurrence of the super solar wind. The actual detection of the upper winter anomaly could yield some information on the velocity of the basic solar wind. A by-product of the present analysis, the determination of Γ, the coefficient of collisional detachment of the electrons from the O 2 - ions, is presented in the Appendix

  5. On the relation between ionospheric winter anomalies and solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumi, G.C. [Lecco, (Italy)

    2001-06-01

    There are two different winter anomalies. A small one that appears in connection with ionization at relatively low latitudes in the bottom of the D-region of the ionosphere. There, the electron densities in the winter happen to be less than should be expected. On the other hand, the classic winter anomaly is present when in the winter the upper D-region, again at relatively low latitudes, has more ionization than should be expected. Both these effects are due to the slant compression of the geomagnetic field produced by the solar wind in the wind in the winter season (which is, of course, the summer season when reference is made to events in the other hemisphere). It is shown that the small winter anomaly is a consequence of a hemispheric imbalance in the flux of galactic cosmic rays determined by the obliquely distorted geomagnetic field. It is shown that the standard winter anomaly can be ascribed to the influx of a super solar wind, which penetrates into the Earth's polar atmosphere down to E-region, heights and, duly concentrated through a funneling action at the winter pole of the distorted geomagnetic field, slows down the winter polar vortex. An equatorward motion of the polar air with its content of nitric oxide brings about the excess of ionization in the upper D-region at lower latitudes. The experimentally observed rhythmic recurrence of the upper winter anomaly is correlated to a possible rhythmic recurrence of the super solar wind. The actual detection of the upper winter anomaly could yield some information on the velocity of the basic solar wind. A by-product of the present analysis, the determination of {gamma}, the coefficient of collisional detachment of the electrons from the O{sub 2} {sup -} ions, is presented in the Appendix.

  6. Winter climate limits subantarctic low forest growth and establishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A Harsch

    Full Text Available Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52 °S, 169 °E is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  =  -5 with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6 °C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C, dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm. Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally.

  7. Winter Climate Limits Subantarctic Low Forest Growth and Establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Melanie A.; McGlone, Matt S.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52°S, 169°E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  = −5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6°C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally. PMID:24691026

  8. Winter climate limits subantarctic low forest growth and establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Melanie A; McGlone, Matt S; Wilmshurst, Janet M

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52 °S, 169 °E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  =  -5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6 °C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally.

  9. Influence of nutrients on feed intake and condition of captive canvasbacks in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Williams, B.K.; Serafin, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Dramatic changes in the food habits and distribution of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) in Chesapeake Bay during the 1970's generated a need to evaluate the nutritional value of food items and the requirements of this species on its wintering grounds. Groups of captive canvasbacks were maintained ad libitum on 5 diets during the winters of 1978-79 and 1979-80 to evaluate the effects of varying protein and energy levels on feed intake and condition. Feed intake during the 1979-80 winter was 42% greater for those ducks fed the low energy (1,543 kcal/kg) diet than for those fed the high energy (3,638 kcal/kg) diet. Canvasbacks fed the high energy diet, however, consumed 317 kcal/bird day, whereas those fed the low energy diet consumed only 191 kcal/bird day. Body weight of males and females did not differ among groups fed different diets, but there were seasonal differences (P < 0.05) for both sexes aggregated across diets. Data from this study indicate that canvasbacks may be unable to adjust intake rates to compensate for low energy foods and subsequently may store less fat or modify behavior. However, decreased weight, feed intake, and activity of ducks fed ad libitum rations occurred in mid-winter irrespective of diet quality and appeared to be an endogenous component of their annual cycle that persists in captivity. These changes apparently have a selective advantage of increasing the probability of survival in ducks by decreasing energy expenditure during periods of winter stress.

  10. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Wang; P. Ciais; S.L. Piao; C. Ottle; P. Brender; F. Maignan; A. Arain; A. Cescatti; D. Gianelle; C. Gough; L Gu; P. Lafleur; T. Laurila; B. Marcolla; H. Margolis; L. Montagnani; E. Moors; N. Saigusa; T. Vesala; G. Wohlfahrt; C. Koven; A. Black; E. Dellwik; A. Don; D. Hollinger; A. Knohl; R. Monson; J. Munger; A. Suyker; A. Varlagin; S. Verma

    2011-01-01

    Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal...

  11. Downtown People Mover (DPM) Winterization Test Demonstration : Otis Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The Otis Elevator Company Transportation Technology Division (OTIS-TTD) Downtown People Mover (DPM) Winterization Test Demonstration Final Report covers the 1978-79 and 1979-80 winter periods. Tests were performed at the Otis test track in Denver, Co...

  12. Seasonal foreign bodies: the dangers of winter holiday ornamentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Andrew T; Towbin, Alexander J

    2014-12-01

    Foreign bodies, whether ingested, aspirated or retained in the soft tissues, are a particular hazard to pediatric patients. Ornamentation associated with the winter holidays is an uncommon source of foreign bodies in children, and many of these foreign bodies have a distinct appearance on imaging. Knowledge of these appearances and the unusual features of winter holiday foreign bodies might facilitate their identification.

  13. 我的寒假%My Winter Holidays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Winter holidays have about twenty days.During winter holidays, I do all kinds of interesting thing.I like climbing the hill,because it can make me heMthy.I like fishing,it can give me a lot of fun.I like visiting some places of interest, it can enlarge my knowledge.

  14. CAN WINTER DEPRESSION BE PREVENTED BY LIGHT TREATMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEESTERS, Y; LAMBERS, PA; JANSEN, JHC; BOUHUYS, AL; BEERSMA, DGM; VANDENHOOFDAKKER, RH

    1991-01-01

    The administration of light at the development of the first signs of a winter depression appears to prevent it from developing into a full-blown depression. No patient from a group of 10 treated in this way developed any signs of depression during the rest of the winter season, while five of seven

  15. A winter severity index for the state of Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Winter maintenance in the Sate of Maine consumes around twenty percent of the Bureau of : Maintenance and Operations budget each year. Costs are directly related to the length and severity : of a winter season. In addition, the cost of materials and ...

  16. Changes occurring in plain, straining and winter yoghurt during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, winter yoghurt, straining yoghurt and yoghurt samples produced from homogenized and non-homogenized sheep and a mixture of sheep and cows milks were evaluated during the storage periods. Winter yoghurt, straining yoghurt and yoghurt samples were stored in sterile jars in the refrigerator (4°C).

  17. Can winter depression be prevented by light treatment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Ybe; Lambers, Petrus A.; Jansen, Jacob; Bouhuys, Antoinette L.; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1991-01-01

    The administration of light at the development of the first signs of a winter depression appears to prevent it from developing into a full-blown depression. No patient from a group of 10 treated in this way developed any signs of depression during the rest of the winter season, while five of seven

  18. The decline in winter excess mortality in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, A. E.; Looman, C. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    In most countries, numbers of deaths rise considerably during the winter season. This winter excess in mortality has, however, been declining during recent decades. The causes of this decline are hardly known. This paper attempts to derive a number of hypotheses on the basis of a detailed

  19. The elusive gene for keratolytic winter erythema | Hull | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keratolytic winter erythema (KWE), also known as Oudtshoorn skin disease, is characterised by a cyclical disruption of normal epidermal keratinisation affecting primarily the palmoplantar skin with peeling of the palms and soles, which is worse in the winter. It is a rare monogenic, autosomal dominant condition of unknown ...

  20. Zimbabwean fourth social workers conference and winter school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such steps include running the Annual Social Workers Conference & Winter School. This annual observance creates a platform to showcase the goals and accomplishments of diverse social work professionals in the country, give a report on progress and convening a social work winter school for exchanging professional ...

  1. Effects of prescribed burns on wintering cavity-nesting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. Bateman; Margaret A. O' Connell

    2006-01-01

    Primary cavity-nesting birds play a critical role in forest ecosystems by excavating cavities later used by other birds and mammals as nesting or roosting sites. Several species of cavity-nesting birds are non-migratory residents and consequently subject to winter conditions. We conducted winter bird counts from 1998 to 2000 to examine the abundance and habitat...

  2. Overhead irrigation increased winter chilling and floral bud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus nitens requires a sufficiently cold winter to produce flower buds. In areas in South Africa where E. nitens commercial plantations as well as breeding and production seed orchards are located, winter chilling is often insufficient for floral bud initiation. Hence, under such conditions, E. nitens floral bud and seed ...

  3. Winter cover crop effect on corn seedling pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops are an excellent management tool to improve the sustainability of agriculture. Winter rye cover crops have been used successfully in Iowa corn-soybean rotations. Unfortunately, winter rye cover crops occasionally reduce yields of the following corn crop. We hypothesize that one potential...

  4. 46 CFR 42.30-10 - Southern Winter Seasonal Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Island; thence the rhumb line to Black Rock Point on Stewart Island; thence the rhumb line to the point... BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-10 Southern Winter Seasonal Zone. (a) The northern boundary of the Southern Winter Seasonal Zone is the rhumb line from the east coast of the American...

  5. Evolutionary Effects on Morphology and Agronomic Performance of Three Winter Wheat Composite Cross Populations Maintained for Six Years under Organic and Conventional Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Brumlop

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Three winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. composite cross populations (CCPs that had been maintained in repeated parallel populations under organic and conventional conditions from the F5 to the F10 were compared in a two-year replicated field trial under organic conditions. The populations were compared to each other, to a mixture of the parental varieties used to establish the CCPs, and to three winter wheat varieties currently popular in organic farming. Foot and foliar diseases, straw length, ear length, yield parameters, and baking quality parameters were assessed. The overall performance of the CCPs differed clearly from each other due to differences in their parental genetics and not because of their conventional or organic history. The CCPs with high yielding background (YCCPs also yielded higher than the CCPs with a high baking quality background (QCCPs; in the absence of extreme winter stress. The QCCPs performed equally well in comparison to the reference varieties, which were also of high baking quality. Compared to the parental mixture the CCPs proved to be highly resilient, recovering much better from winter kill in winter 2011/12. Nevertheless, they were out yielded by the references in that year. No such differences were seen in 2013, indicating that the CCPs are comparable with modern cultivars in yielding ability under organic conditions. We conclude that—especially when focusing on traits that are not directly influenced by natural selection (e.g. quality traits—the choice of parents to establish a CCP is crucial. In the case of the QCCPs the establishment of a reliable high-quality population worked very well and quality traits were successfully maintained over time. However, in the YCCPs lack of winter hardiness in the YCCP parents also became clearly visible under relevant winter conditions.

  6. Effects of drought and prolonged winter on Townsend's ground squirrel demography in shrubsteppe habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horne, Beatrice; Olson, Gail S.; Schooley, Robert L.; Corn, Janelle G.; Burnham, Kenneth P.

    1997-01-01

    in persistence and density and produced more young per female during the next active season following the drought (1993) than did ground squirrels in grassland habitat, where densities had been significantly higher prior to the drought and prolonged winter.Studies involving habitat comparisons of animal demography should always be placed in the context of long-term weather patterns, because habitat quality rankings based on density, reproduction, and survival may differ with environmental conditions. Physiological effects of environmental “crunches” on consumers may persist beyond the period of influence on food resources, reducing reproductive success and growth rates of future offspring.

  7. Ecological and Geographical Selection of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. А. Уразалієв

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the lead long-term selection works wint involving a World' s collection and intertype and intertype hybridization with purposeful selection on economic-biological attributes highly productive • grades of a winter wheat, with stability to various kinds of illnesses and high technological qualities of grain have been allocated. The adapted grades of a winter wheat for a various environment of various zones of the countries of the Central Asia that allows to realize potential opportunities of grades in different environments of cultivation and by that to prevent losses of a crop from biotic and abiotic stresses that allows to stabilize productivity and adaptability of culture in a zon winter husbandry are created. The long-term field experiences lead by us and laboratory analyses on a level of productivity, qualities of grain and stability to stresses allows to conclude, that alongside with a genotype, stabilityenvironmental conditions render strong and significant influence on all complex of selection attributes.

  8. Scenario modeling potential eco-efficiency gains from a transition to organic agriculture: life cycle perspectives on Canadian canola, corn, soy, and wheat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, N; Arsenault, N; Tyedmers, P

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola (Brassica rapa), corn (Zea mays), soy (Glycine max), and wheat (Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions.

  9. Structural Properties of Cruciferin and Napin of Brassica napus (Canola Show Distinct Responses to Changes in pH and Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneru P. Perera

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The two major storage proteins identified in Brassica napus (canola were isolated and studied for their molecular composition, structural characteristics and the responses of structural features to the changes in pH and temperature. Cruciferin, a complex of six monomers, has a predominantly β-sheet-containing secondary structure. This protein showed low pH unstable tertiary structure, and distinctly different solubility behaviour with pH when intact in the seed cellular matrix. Cruciferin structure unfolds at pH 3 even at ambient temperature. Temperature-induced structure unfolding was observed above the maximum denaturation temperature of cruciferin. Napin was soluble in a wider pH range than cruciferin and has α-helices dominating secondary structure. Structural features of napin showed less sensitivity to the changes in medium pH and temperature. The surface hydrophobicity (S0 and intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan residue appear to be good indicators of cruciferin unfolding, however they were not the best to demonstrate structural changes of napin. These two storage proteins of B. napus have distinct molecular characteristics, therefore properties and functionalities they provide are contrasting rather than complementary.

  10. Investigation of electron beam irradiation effects on anti-nutritional factors, chemical composition and digestion kinetics of whole cottonseed, soybean and canola seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi-Mahmoudabad, S.R.; Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was completed to determine effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on anti-nutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro crude protein (CP) digestibility of whole cottonseed (WCS), soybean (SB) and canola seeds (CS). EB-irradiation eliminated completely (P<0.001) phytic acid of WCS, SB and CS at a dose of 30 kGy. EB-irradiation decreased linearly (P<0.001) the total glucosinolate content of CS. Trypsin inhibitor activity of 15, 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated SB was decreased by 19, 73 and 88%, respectively. Free gossypol content of WCS was reduced linearly (P<0.001) by irradiation. EB-irradiation increased linearly (P<0.001) CP digestibility of feeds. In conclusion, EB-irradiation was an effective processing method for improving the nutritive value of WCS, SB and CS. - Highlights: → Effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on nutritive value of some oilseeds were evaluated. → EB-irradiation eliminated completely phytic acid of seeds at a dose of 30 kGy. → EB-irradiation decreased trypsin inhibitor activity of soybean. → Free gossypol content of whole cottonseed was reduced linearly by EB-irradiation. → EB-irradiation increased escape protein and crude protein digestibility of seeds.

  11. Investigation of electron beam irradiation effects on anti-nutritional factors, chemical composition and digestion kinetics of whole cottonseed, soybean and canola seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi-Mahmoudabad, S.R., E-mail: ebrahimiyazd@yahoo.com [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 37515-374, Shahr-e-Qods (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 51589, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    This study was completed to determine effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on anti-nutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro crude protein (CP) digestibility of whole cottonseed (WCS), soybean (SB) and canola seeds (CS). EB-irradiation eliminated completely (P<0.001) phytic acid of WCS, SB and CS at a dose of 30 kGy. EB-irradiation decreased linearly (P<0.001) the total glucosinolate content of CS. Trypsin inhibitor activity of 15, 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated SB was decreased by 19, 73 and 88%, respectively. Free gossypol content of WCS was reduced linearly (P<0.001) by irradiation. EB-irradiation increased linearly (P<0.001) CP digestibility of feeds. In conclusion, EB-irradiation was an effective processing method for improving the nutritive value of WCS, SB and CS. - Highlights: > Effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on nutritive value of some oilseeds were evaluated. > EB-irradiation eliminated completely phytic acid of seeds at a dose of 30 kGy. > EB-irradiation decreased trypsin inhibitor activity of soybean. > Free gossypol content of whole cottonseed was reduced linearly by EB-irradiation. > EB-irradiation increased escape protein and crude protein digestibility of seeds.

  12. Primary organic pollutants in New Zealand urban aerosol in winter during high PM1 episodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivacsy, Zoltan; Blazso, Marianne; Shooter, David

    2006-01-01

    In the two biggest New Zealand cities, Auckland and Christchurch, the mass concentration of the PM 1 atmospheric aerosol can exceed the 50 μg m -3 24 h health guideline in winter. This high pollution level is thought to be caused mainly by old-fashioned domestic heating systems based on wood combustion. Therefore the chemistry of the carbonaceous aerosol has been investigated in several high-pollution level urban situations in order to assess the origin of the pollution. All the high concentration organic tracers, including levoglucosan and dehydroabietic acid, were characteristic for biomass burn