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Sample records for canine larynx model

  1. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  2. Larynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Larynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Larynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows the ...

  3. Comparison of DCE-CT models for quantitative evaluation of Ktrans in larynx tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterbroek, J.; Bennink, E.; Philippens, M. E. P.; Raaijmakers, C. P. J.; Viergever, M. A.; de Jong, H. W. A. M.

    2015-05-01

    Dynamic contrast enhanced CT (DCE-CT) can be used to estimate blood perfusion and vessel permeability in tumors. Tumor induced angiogenesis is generally associated with disorganized microvasculature with increased permeability or leakage. Estimated vascular leakage (Ktrans) values and their reliability greatly depend on the perfusion model used. To identify the preferred model for larynx tumor analysis, several perfusion models frequently used for estimating permeability were compared in this study. DCE-CT scans were acquired for 16 larynx cancer patients. Larynx tumors were delineated based on whole-mount histopathology after laryngectomy. DCE-CT data within these delineated volumes were analyzed using the Patlak and Logan plots, the Extended Tofts Model (ETM), the Adiabatic Approximation to the Tissue Homogeneity model (AATH) and a variant of AATH with fixed transit time (AATHFT). Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) was used to identify the best fitting model. Ktrans values from all models were compared with this best fitting model. Correlation strength was tested with two-tailed Spearman’s rank correlation and further examined using Bland-Altman plots. AATHFT was found to be the best fitting model. The overall median of individual patient medians Ktrans estimates were 14.3, 15.1, 16.1, 2.6 and 22.5 mL/100 g min  -  1 for AATH, AATHFT, ETM, Patlak and Logan, respectively. Ktrans estimates for all models except Patlak were strongly correlated (P  <  0.001). Bland-Altman plots show large biases but no significant deviating trend for any model other than Patlak. AATHFT was found to be the preferred model among those tested for estimation of Ktrans in larynx tumors.

  4. Experimental Forelimb Allotransplantation in Canine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    As reconstructive transplantation is gaining popularity as a viable alternative for upper limb amputees, it is becoming increasingly important for plastic surgeons to renew surgical skills and knowledge of this area. Forelimb allotransplantation research has been performed previously in rodent and swine models. However, preclinical canine forelimb allotransplantation studies are lacking in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the surgical skills necessary to successfully perform forelimb transplantation in canines as a means to prepare for clinical application. A total of 18 transplantation operations on canines were performed. The recipient limb was shortened at the one-third proximal forearm level. The operation was performed in the following order: bones (two reconstructive plates), muscles and tendons (separately sutured), nerves (median, ulnar, and radial nerve), arteries (two), and veins (two). The total mean time of transplantation was 5 hours ± 30 minutes. All of the animals that received transplantation were treated with FK-506 (tacrolimus, 2 mg/kg) for 7 days after surgery. Most allografts survived with perfect viability without vascular problems during the early postoperative period. The canine forelimb allotransplantation model is well qualified to be a suitable training model for standard transplantation and future research work. PMID:27597952

  5. Experimental Forelimb Allotransplantation in Canine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sa-Hyeok; Eun, Seok-Chan

    2016-01-01

    As reconstructive transplantation is gaining popularity as a viable alternative for upper limb amputees, it is becoming increasingly important for plastic surgeons to renew surgical skills and knowledge of this area. Forelimb allotransplantation research has been performed previously in rodent and swine models. However, preclinical canine forelimb allotransplantation studies are lacking in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the surgical skills necessary to successfully perform forelimb transplantation in canines as a means to prepare for clinical application. A total of 18 transplantation operations on canines were performed. The recipient limb was shortened at the one-third proximal forearm level. The operation was performed in the following order: bones (two reconstructive plates), muscles and tendons (separately sutured), nerves (median, ulnar, and radial nerve), arteries (two), and veins (two). The total mean time of transplantation was 5 hours ± 30 minutes. All of the animals that received transplantation were treated with FK-506 (tacrolimus, 2 mg/kg) for 7 days after surgery. Most allografts survived with perfect viability without vascular problems during the early postoperative period. The canine forelimb allotransplantation model is well qualified to be a suitable training model for standard transplantation and future research work. PMID:27597952

  6. A canine model of multiple portosystemic shunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, L M; Boothe, H W; Miller, M W; Boothe, D M

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and describe an experimental canine model of multiple acquired portosystemic shunts (PSS) similar in nature to spontaneously occurring PSS. Sixteen dogs were used and were divided into a control (n = 6) and a diseased group (n = 10). Dogs of the diseased group were administered dimethylnitrosamine (2 mg/kg of body weight, po) twice weekly, and clinicopathologic, ultrasonographic, and hepatic scintigraphic findings were recorded during the development of hepatic disease and PSS. Surgery was then performed to permit visual verification of multiple shunts, catheter placement for portography examination, and biopsy of the liver. All diseased dogs developed severe hepatic disease and multiple PSS as documented visually at surgery and on portography. Based on this study, dimethylnitrosamine-induced portosystemic shunting appears to be an appropriate model for spontaneously occurring multiple PSS secondary to portal hypertension. PMID:10741951

  7. Establishment of a sensitized canine model for kidney transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Sen; XIA Sui-sheng; TANG Li-gong; CHENG Jun; CHEN Zhi-shui; ZHENG Shan-gen

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To establish a sensitized canine model for kidney transplantation. Methods:12 male dogs were averagely grouped as donors and recipients. A small number of donor canine lymphocytes was infused into different anatomic locations of a paired canine recipient for each time and which was repeated weekly. Specific immune sensitization was monitored by means of Complement Dependent Cytotoxicity (CDC) and Mixed Lymphocyte Culture (MLC) test. When CDC test conversed to be positive and MLC test showed a significant proliferation of reactive lymphocytes of canine recipients, the right kidneys of the paired dogs were excised and transplanted to each other concurrently. Injury of renal allograft function was scheduled determined by ECT dynamic kidney photography and pathologic investigation. Results :CDC test usually conversed to be positive and reactive lymphocytes of canine recipients were also observed to be proliferated significantly in MLC test after 3 to 4 times of canine donor lymphocyte infusions. Renal allograft function deterioration occurred 4 d post-operatively in 4 of 6 canine recipients, in contrast to none in control dogs. Pathologic changes suggested antibody-mediated rejection (delayed) or acute rejection in 3 excised renal allograft of sensitized dogs. Seven days after operation, all sensitized dogs had lost graft function, pathologic changes of which showed that the renal allografts were seriously rejected. 2 of 3 dogs in control group were also acutely rejected. Conclusion:A convenient method by means of repeated stimulation of canine lymphocyte may induce specific immune sensitization in canine recipients. Renal allografts in sensitized dogs will be earlier rejected and result in a more deteriorated graft function.

  8. [Function and morphology of the larynx of the domestic guinea pig. An animal model for laryngologic and phoniatric research?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koitschev, A; Waldmann, B; Ptok, M

    1995-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to collect data on fundamental functional and morphological features of the guinea pig larynx using frequency analysis of animal vocalizations and light and scanning electron microscopy. Vocalizations of healthy animals were recorded in an anechoic chamber and were analyzed with short-time fourier transformation (color spectrograms). From the multitude of vocalization patterns produced by the guinea pig, distress squeals were selected as a typical, reproducible, voiced sound. These were stereotyped, upward-frequency modulated, multiharmonic signals with a formant-like structure. The fundamental frequency of this sound rose by about 1.5 octaves and reached up to 6 kHz near the end of the call. The different regions of the endolaryngeal epithelia showed morphological properties that corresponded to proposed functional significance. Keratinized squamous epithelium covered the supraglottic region. The marginal rim of the vocal cord was covered by a very thin epithelium with very flat cells covered with short microvilli. The subepithelial space was filled with loose connective tissue. The subglottic region was covered by respiratory epithelia. Based on these findings, we propose that the larynx of the guinea pig can be used as a model in phoniatric and laryngological research. PMID:7673001

  9. Physiology of the larynx; Physiologie des Larynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denk, D.M. [Univ. HNO-Klinik, Wien (Austria). Klinische Abt. Phoniatrie-Logopaedie; Swoboda, H. [Univ. HNO-Klinik, Wien (Austria). Klinische Abt. Allgemeine HNO; Steiner, E. [Univ. Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)]|[Inst. Fruehwald, St. Poelten (Austria). Diagnosezentrum

    1998-02-01

    The larynx consists of the cartilaginous-osseous framework, elastic membranes and ligaments, joints, muscles, nerves, vessels, and interior cavity. The laryngeal functions are the protection of the airway during swallowing, respiration (i.e. maintainance of the airway) and phonation. During the pharyngeal phase of swallowing the swallow reflex induces a laryngeal closure in three levels and a superior-anterior movement of the larynx and hyoid bone. The laryngeal airway is maintained by the circumference of the cricoid cartilage. Phonation is the phylogenetically recent function of the larynx and was made possible by the laryngeal descent. The sound production is explained according to the myoelastic-aerodynamic theory. The diagnostics of laryngeal diseases is performed in close cooperation between otorhinolaryngology and radiology. For diagnostic purposes, the physiology of the larynx requires to take into account not only morphological, but also functional aspects. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Kehlkopf besteht aus einem knorpelig-knoechernen Stuetzgeruest, elastischen Membranen und Baendern, Gelenken, Muskulatur, Nerven, Gefaessen und Schleimhaut. Seine intakte Funktion ermoeglicht ein aspirationsfreies Schlucken durch den schlucksynchronen Atemwegsverschluss, die Sicherstellung des Atemweges und die Stimmgebung. Der Schluckreflex loest in der pharyngealen Phase des Schluckaktes einen dreietagigen Larynxverschluss und eine superior-anteriore Bewegung von Hyoid und Larynx aus. Die Atmung wird durch die Zirkumferenz des Ringknorpels sichergestellt. Die phylogenetisch juengste Funktion des Larynx, die Phonation, wurde durch die evolutionaere Deszension des Larynx ermoeglicht. Die myoelastisch-aerodynamische Theorie der Stimmerzeugung erklaert das Zustandekommen der Stimmlippenschwingungen. Die Physiologie des Kehlkopfes erfordert, dass in der Diagnostik von Kehlkopferkrankungen, die in enger Kooperation zwischen HNO-Heilkunde und Radiologie durchgefuehrt wird, neben

  10. Phase-locked flow field analysis in a synthetic human larynx model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodermeyer, Alexander; Becker, Stefan; Döllinger, Michael; Kniesburges, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The fluid flow within a human larynx plays an essential role in the fluid-structure-acoustic interaction during voice production. This study addresses the flow field downstream of aerodynamically driven, synthetic vocal folds. In order to quantitatively investigate the supraglottal formation of the flow field within one oscillation cycle of the vocal folds, a phase-locked PIV technique is introduced. The pseudo-time-resolved measurement results were averaged for each phase angle. When including a supraglottal channel, the jet was deflected from the centerline of the supraglottal channel and changed the direction of deflection in different cycles. The result is a bistable flow field. Therefore, a sorting method based on the mean cyclic supraglottal pressure difference was introduced. For both states of the flow field, a recirculation area was detected, interacting with the arising glottal jet in every oscillation cycle. This interaction could be identified as the major cause for supraglottal jet deflection, and the sense of rotation of the recirculation area defined the direction of deflection. The asymmetric structure of the flow field was caused by the geometric boundary condition, i.e., due to the present supraglottal channel. An additional key factor was found to be the contact between the two vocal folds in each oscillation cycle which interrupted the jet flow periodically. Removing the supraglottal channel resulted in a symmetric jet location. When avoiding vocal fold contact, the bistable behavior vanished and the jet was steadily deflected to one lateral side. In the present study, it cannot be confirmed that the Coanda effect is responsible for the deflection.

  11. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox-larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography-guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy-guided botulinum toxin Treatment; ...

  12. Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene therapy in the canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Dongsheng

    2015-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked lethal muscle disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. Gene therapy has significantly improved the outcome of dystrophin-deficient mice. Yet, clinical translation has not resulted in the expected benefits in human patients. This translational gap is largely because of the insufficient modeling of DMD in mice. Specifically, mice lacking dystrophin show minimum dystrophic symptoms, and they do not respond to the gene therapy vector in the same way as human patients do. Further, the size of a mouse is hundredfolds smaller than a boy, making it impossible to scale-up gene therapy in a mouse model. None of these limitations exist in the canine DMD (cDMD) model. For this reason, cDMD dogs have been considered a highly valuable platform to test experimental DMD gene therapy. Over the last three decades, a variety of gene therapy approaches have been evaluated in cDMD dogs using a number of nonviral and viral vectors. These studies have provided critical insight for the development of an effective gene therapy protocol in human patients. This review discusses the history, current status, and future directions of the DMD gene therapy in the canine model. PMID:25710459

  13. Metastase i larynx fra colonadenokarcinom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dadkhah, Naser; Hahn, Christoffer

    2015-01-01

    Secondary neoplasms of the larynx are rare and account for 0.09-0,4% of all laryngeal tumours. Cutaneous melanomas are the preponderant primaries metastasizing to the larynx, followed by renal cell carcinomas, breast and lung carcinomas. Colonic adenocarcinoma metastases to the larynx are extremely...... rare. Tumours spreading to the larynx may be asymptomatic or may result in hoarseness, stridor or airway obstruction. Patients with metastasis of colonic adenocarcinoma to the larynx usually present with disseminated disease. We present a case of an isolated laryngeal metastasis from a colonic...... adenocarcinoma. The patient was treated with endoscopic surgery and radiation....

  14. Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia in Canines: A Model for Human Metabolic and Genetic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Specht

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A canine model of Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSDIa is described. Affected dogs are homozygous for a previously described M121I mutation resulting in a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase-α. Metabolic, clinicopathologic, pathologic, and clinical manifestations of GSDIa observed in this model are described and compared to those observed in humans. The canine model shows more complete recapitulation of the clinical manifestations seen in humans including “lactic acidosis”, larger size, and longer lifespan compared to other animal models. Use of this model in preclinical trials of gene therapy is described and briefly compared to the murine model. Although the canine model offers a number of advantages for evaluating potential therapies for GSDIa, there are also some significant challenges involved in its use. Despite these challenges, the canine model of GSDIa should continue to provide valuable information about the potential for generating curative therapies for GSDIa as well as other genetic hepatic diseases.

  15. Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia in Canines: A Model for Human Metabolic and Genetic Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Specht; Laurie Fiske; Kirsten Erger; Travis Cossette; John Verstegen; Martha Campbell-Thompson; Struck, Maggie B.; Young Mok Lee; Chou, Janice Y.; Byrne, Barry J; Correia, Catherine E.; Mah, Cathryn S.; Weinstein, David A.; Conlon, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    A canine model of Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSDIa) is described. Affected dogs are homozygous for a previously described M121I mutation resulting in a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase-α. Metabolic, clinicopathologic, pathologic, and clinical manifestations of GSDIa observed in this model are described and compared to those observed in humans. The canine model shows more complete recapitulation of the clinical manifestations seen in humans including “lactic acidosis”, larger size,...

  16. Characteristics of Glottic Closure Reflex in a Canine Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Ho; Kang, Ju Wan; Kim, Kwang-Moon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The most important function of the larynx is airway protection which is provided through a polysynaptic reflex closure triggered by the receptors in the glottic and supraglottic mucosa, evoking the reflex contraction of the laryngeal muscles especially by strong adduction of vocal cords. Based on the hypotheses that central facilitation is essential for this bilateral adductor reflex and that its disturbance can result in weakened laryngeal closure, we designed this study to elucidate...

  17. Antigen profiling analysis of vaccinia virus injected canine tumors: oncolytic virus efficiency predicted by boolean models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Alexander; Gentschev, Ivaylo; Adelfinger, Marion; Nolte, Ingo; Dandekar, Thomas; Szalay, Aladar A

    2014-01-01

    Virotherapy on the basis of oncolytic vaccinia virus (VACV) strains is a novel approach for cancer therapy. In this study we describe for the first time the use of dynamic boolean modeling for tumor growth prediction of vaccinia virus GLV-1h68-injected canine tumors including canine mammary adenoma (ZMTH3), canine mammary carcinoma (MTH52c), canine prostate carcinoma (CT1258), and canine soft tissue sarcoma (STSA-1). Additionally, the STSA-1 xenografted mice were injected with either LIVP 1.1.1 or LIVP 5.1.1 vaccinia virus strains.   Antigen profiling data of the four different vaccinia virus-injected canine tumors were obtained, analyzed and used to calculate differences in the tumor growth signaling network by type and tumor type. Our model combines networks for apoptosis, MAPK, p53, WNT, Hedgehog, TK cell, Interferon, and Interleukin signaling networks. The in silico findings conform with in vivo findings of tumor growth. Boolean modeling describes tumor growth and remission semi-quantitatively with a good fit to the data obtained for all cancer type variants. At the same time it monitors all signaling activities as a basis for treatment planning according to antigen levels. Mitigation and elimination of VACV- susceptible tumor types as well as effects on the non-susceptible type CT1258 are predicted correctly. Thus the combination of Antigen profiling and semi-quantitative modeling optimizes the therapy already before its start.

  18. Irradiation inhibits vascular anastomotic stenosis in a canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The graft patency rate after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) correlates with anastomotic stenosis. Intracoronary radiation therapy is effective for preventing restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We postulated that intracoronary radiation therapy could prevent anastomotic stenosis and tested this hypothesis in an animal model. Femoral arteries and veins of beagle dogs were harvested, and composite arterioarterial and arteriovenous grafts were prepared. After external irradiation of the anastomotic sites, these composite grafts were transplanted into femoral arteries. Histomorphometric and immunohistological analyses of the anastomotic sites were performed. The study groups consisted of controls and animals exposed to 10 Gy, 20 Gy, and 30 Gy (n=5, in each group). In the artery graft model, the ratio of negative remodeling was significantly increased in all groups exposed to ≥10 Gy. The ratio of neointimal hyperplasia was significantly decreased in all groups exposed to ≥10 Gy. Cell density of anti-α-actin antibody-positive cells and anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antibody-positive cells was highest in the adventitial layer, and the density decreased as the dosage increased. Experimental results were almost the same in the vein graft models as in the artery graft models. With double immunohistostaining, the anti-PCNA antibody-positive cells expressed α-actin. Irradiation can inhibit anastomotic stenosis in a canine model. Adventitia is a factor in the creation of stenosis, and irradiation appears to target the adventitia. We speculate that there might be a possible role for intracoronary irradiation in the future to prevent anastomotic stenosis. (author)

  19. β-钛合金在犬前喉裂开治疗中的初步研究%Replacement of a anterior larynx split with α β-type titanium alloy prosthesis in subglottic stenosis :a preliminary study in canine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭爱兴; 成诗银; 崔鹏程; 高鹏飞

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过应用新型的多孔介稳定β型钛合金(TLM)对犬的喉气管软骨缺损的修复,以评估该材料对声门下狭窄治疗的有效性.方法:取5只犬,将犬的喉与气管充分暴露,切除环状软骨及第1气管软骨环的前1/3形成喉前裂开,将“◇”形的生物材料替代切除的部分喉气管组织,按设计予术后3至6个月对受试动物进行气管镜检测.结果:术后所有受试犬均未见任何气道阻塞.未见修复体的移位暴露,内表面无肉芽组织生长及吻合口裂开.结论:该材料是一种很有潜力的新型喉气管缺损的修复材料,值得进一步更大部分喉气管缺损修复的研究.%Objective:To explore the efficacy of a new meta - stable β - type titanium alloys ( TLM) in a canine cricoid and trachea for the treatment of laryngotracheal stenosis. Methods: Porous TLM alloy was used as a tissue scaffold for airway regeneration in five dogs. The larynx and the trachea were exposed. The anterior 1/3 part of the cricoid cartilage ( cover the cricothyroid membrane) and 1 cervical trachea were simultaneously resected by cold in-struments form an artificial anterior larynx open. The " ◇" scaffold material was implanted into the resultant defect. Endoscopic examination was undertaken periodically for a postoperative period of three to six months in all dogs. Re-sults : Endoscopic examination showed the implant located perfectly and the airway was wide enough for breath. There was no airway stenosis in any dogs. Granulation was observed in no cases, and anastomotic dehiscence was not ob-served. Conclusion: It was a promising new type material to repair the laryngotracheal defect,and it was worthy of further research for repair of a larger part laryngotracheal defects.

  20. Antioxidants in the Canine Model of Human Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling, Amy L. S.; Head, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative damage can lead to neuronal dysfunction in the brain due to modifications to proteins, lipids and DNA/RNA. In both human and canine brain, oxidative damage progressively increases with age. In the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain, oxidative damage is further exacerbated, possibly due to increased deposition of beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide in senile plaques. These observations have led to the hypothesis that antioxidants may be beneficial for brain aging and AD. Aged dogs naturally develo...

  1. Development of a totally implantable artificial larynx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerke, GJ; Veenstra, Aalze; de Vries, MP; Schutte, HK; Busscher, HJ; Herrmann, IF; Van der Mei, HC; Rakhorst, G; Clements, MP

    1996-01-01

    Background. The consequences of a life-saving laryngectomy are still very distressing. The Eureka project "Artificial Larynx" aims at realization of an implantable artificial larynx to eliminate all drawbacks. Methods. The artificial larynx will consist of artificial vocal folds of adjustable pitch

  2. Gastrotomy closure using bioabsorbable plugs in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cios, Theodore J; Reavis, Kevin M; Renton, David R; Hazey, Jeffrey W; Mikami, Dean J; Narula, Vimal K; Allemang, Matthew T; Davis, S Scott; Melvin, W Scott

    2008-04-01

    The repair of gastric perforation commonly involves simple suture closure using an open or laparoscopic approach. An endolumenal approach using prosthetic materials may be beneficial. The role of bioprosthetics in this instance has not been thoroughly investigated, thus the authors evaluated the feasibility of gastric perforation repair using a bioabsorbable device and quantified gross and histological changes at the injury site. Twelve canines were anesthetized and underwent open gastrotomy. A 1-cm-diameter perforation was created in the anterior wall of the stomach and plugged with a bioabsorbable device. Intralumenal pH was recorded. Canines were sacrificed at one, four, six, eight, and 12 weeks. The stomach was explanted followed by gross and histological examination. The injury site was examined. The relative ability of the device to seal the perforation was recorded, as were postoperative changes. Tissue samples were analyzed for gross and microscopic tissue growth and compared to normal gastric tissue in the same animal as an internal control. A scoring system of -2 to +2 was used to measure injury site healing (-2= leak, -1= no leak and minimal ingrowth, 0= physiologic healing, +1= mild hypertrophic tissue, +2= severe hypertrophic tissue). In all canines, the bioprosthesis successfully sealed the perforation without leak under ex vivo insufflation. At one week, the device maintained its integrity but there was no tissue ingrowth. Histological healing score was -1. At 4-12 weeks, gross examination revealed a healed injury site in all animals. The lumenal portion of the plug was completely absorbed. The gross and histological healing score ranged from -1 to +1. The application of a bioabsorbable device results in durable closure of gastric perforation with physiologic healing of the injury site. This method of gastrotomy closure may aid in the evolution of advanced endoscopic approaches to perforation closure of hollow viscera.

  3. Targeting VEGF in canine oxygen-induced retinopathy - a model for human retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLeod DS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available D Scott McLeod, Gerard A Lutty Department of Ophthalmology, Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Development of the dog superficial retinal vasculature is similar to the mechanism of human retinal vasculature development; they both develop by vasculogenesis, differentiation, and assembly of vascular precursors called angioblasts. Canine oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR was first developed by Arnall Patz in an effort to experimentally determine the effects of hyperoxia on the development of the retinal vasculature. The canine OIR model has many characteristics in common with human retinopathy of prematurity. Exposure of 1-day-old dogs to hyperoxia for 4 days causes a vaso-obliteration throughout the retina. Vasoproliferation, after the animals have returned to room air, is robust. The initial small preretinal neovascular formations anastomose to form large preretinal membranes that eventually cause tractional retinal folds. The end-stage pathology of the canine model is similar to stage IV human retinopathy of prematurity. Therefore, canine OIR is an excellent forum to evaluate the response to drugs targeting VEGF and its receptors. Evaluation of an antibody to VEGF-R2 and the VEGF-Trap demonstrated that doses should be titered down so that preretinal neovascularization is inhibited but retinal revascularization is able to proceed, vascularizing peripheral retina and preventing it from being a source of VEGF. Keywords: angioblasts, blood vessels, endothelial cells, oxygen, retinopathy, retina, vascular endothelial cell growth factor

  4. Development of an Arthroscopic Joint Capsule Injury Model in the Canine Shoulder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kovacevic

    Full Text Available The natural history of rotator cuff tears can be unfavorable as patients develop fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy that is often associated with a loss of muscle strength and shoulder function. To facilitate study of possible biologic mechanisms involved in early degenerative changes to rotator cuff muscle and tendon tissues, the objective of this study was to develop a joint capsule injury model in the canine shoulder using arthroscopy.Arthroscopic surgical methods for performing a posterior joint capsulectomy in the canine shoulder were first defined in cadavers. Subsequently, one canine subject underwent bilateral shoulder joint capsulectomy using arthroscopy, arthroscopic surveillance at 2, 4 and 8 weeks, and gross and histologic examination of the joint at 10 weeks.The canine subject was weight-bearing within eight hours after index and follow-up surgeries and had no significant soft tissue swelling of the shoulder girdle or gross lameness. Chronic synovitis and macroscopic and microscopic evidence of pathologic changes to the rotator cuff bony insertions, tendons, myotendinous junctions and muscles were observed.This study demonstrates feasibility and proof-of-concept for a joint capsule injury model in the canine shoulder. Future work is needed to define the observed pathologic changes and their role in the progression of rotator cuff disease. Ultimately, better understanding of the biologic mechanisms of early progression of rotator cuff disease may lead to clinical interventions to halt or slow this process and avoid the more advanced and often irreversible conditions of large tendon tears with muscle fatty atrophy.

  5. The establishment of bilateral external iliac artery stenosis model in experimental canines and its angiographic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish an experimental canine model of bilateral external iliac artery stenosis by surgical method with absorbable suture. Methods: Under general anesthesia bilateral external iliac arteries were partly obstructed (about 50%) with absorbable suture in ten dogs. Three months later angiography was performed to evaluate the arterial stricture degree. Results: Bilateral external iliac artery stenosis model was successfully established in eight dogs and the other two dogs died within two weeks after the procedure. Angiography performed three months after the procedure showed that the stricture degree of arterial lumen was (60.6±12.5)%. Conclusion: Satisfactory experimental canine model of bilateral external iliac artery stenosis can be established by surgical method with absorbable suture. This method can be used for reference when peripheral artery stenosis model is to be prepared in larger animals. (authors)

  6. Disease Modeling and Gene Therapy of Copper Storage Disease in Canine Hepatic Organoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantasanti, Sathidpak; Spee, Bart; Kruitwagen, Hedwig S.; Chen, Chen; Geijsen, Niels; Oosterhoff, Loes A.; van Wolferen, Monique E.; Pelaez, Nicolas; Fieten, Hille; Wubbolts, Richard W.; Grinwis, Guy C.; Chan, Jefferson; Huch, Meritxell; Vries, Robert R.G.; Clevers, Hans; de Bruin, Alain; Rothuizen, Jan; Penning, Louis C.; Schotanus, Baukje A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The recent development of 3D-liver stem cell cultures (hepatic organoids) opens up new avenues for gene and/or stem cell therapy to treat liver disease. To test safety and efficacy, a relevant large animal model is essential but not yet established. Because of its shared pathologies and disease pathways, the dog is considered the best model for human liver disease. Here we report the establishment of a long-term canine hepatic organoid culture allowing undifferentiated expansion of progenitor cells that can be differentiated toward functional hepatocytes. We show that cultures can be initiated from fresh and frozen liver tissues using Tru-Cut or fine-needle biopsies. The use of Wnt agonists proved important for canine organoid proliferation and inhibition of differentiation. Finally, we demonstrate that successful gene supplementation in hepatic organoids of COMMD1-deficient dogs restores function and can be an effective means to cure copper storage disease. PMID:26455412

  7. Disease Modeling and Gene Therapy of Copper Storage Disease in Canine Hepatic Organoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathidpak Nantasanti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of 3D-liver stem cell cultures (hepatic organoids opens up new avenues for gene and/or stem cell therapy to treat liver disease. To test safety and efficacy, a relevant large animal model is essential but not yet established. Because of its shared pathologies and disease pathways, the dog is considered the best model for human liver disease. Here we report the establishment of a long-term canine hepatic organoid culture allowing undifferentiated expansion of progenitor cells that can be differentiated toward functional hepatocytes. We show that cultures can be initiated from fresh and frozen liver tissues using Tru-Cut or fine-needle biopsies. The use of Wnt agonists proved important for canine organoid proliferation and inhibition of differentiation. Finally, we demonstrate that successful gene supplementation in hepatic organoids of COMMD1-deficient dogs restores function and can be an effective means to cure copper storage disease.

  8. A comparative study of frictional resistance during simulated canine retraction on typodont model

    OpenAIRE

    Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gulshan K; Tandon, Pradeep; Singh, Gyan P.; SINGH Alka

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Frictional resistance is an important counterforce to orthodontic tooth movement during sliding mechanics. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different bracket-archwire-ligation combinations on “resistance to sliding” during simulated canine retraction on typodont model. Materials and Methods: the frictional resistance was tested between three modern orthodontic brackets-stainless steel, ceramic, and ceramic with metal slot (0.022-inch), and seven different archw...

  9. Influence of Age on Ocular Biomechanical Properties in a Canine Glaucoma Model with ADAMTS10 Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Palko, Joel R.; Morris, Hugh J.; Pan, Xueliang; Harman, Christine D.; Koehl, Kristin L.; Gelatt, Kirk N.; Plummer, Caryn E.; Komáromy, András M.; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue often displays marked age-associated stiffening. This study aims to investigate how age affects scleral biomechanical properties in a canine glaucoma model with ADAMTS10 mutation, whose extracellular matrix is concomitantly influenced by the mutation and an increased mechanical load from an early age. Biomechanical data was acquired from ADAMTS10-mutant dogs (n = 10, 21 to 131 months) and normal dogs (n = 5, 69 to 113 months). Infusion testing was first performed in the whole glob...

  10. Lymphatic Territories (Lymphosomes) in a Canine: An Animal Model for Investigation of Postoperative Lymphatic Alterations

    OpenAIRE

    Suami, Hiroo; Yamashita, Shuji; Soto-Miranda, Miguel A.; Chang, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lymph node dissection is often performed as a part of surgical treatment for breast cancer and malignant melanoma to prevent malignant cells from traveling via the lymphatic system. Currently little is known about postoperative lymphatic drainage pattern alterations. This knowledge may be useful for management of recurrent cancer and prevention of breast cancer related lymphedema. We mapped the complete superficial lymphatic system of a dog and used this canine model to perform pre...

  11. Cardiac atrioventricular conduction improved by autologous transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells in canine atrioventricular block models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoqing Ren; Jielin Pu; Shu Zhang; Liang Meng; Fangzheng Wang

    2007-01-01

    Objective Atrioventricular block (AVB) is a common and serious arrhythmia. At present, there is no perfect method of treatment for this kind of arrhythmia. The purpose of this study was to regenerate cardiac atrioventricular conduction by autologous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and explore new methods for therapy of atrioventricular block. Methods Eleven Mongrel canines were randomized to MSCs transplantation (n=6) or control (n=5) group. The models of permanent and complete AVB in 11 canines were established by ablating His bundle with radiofrequency technique. At 4 weeks after AVB, bone marrow was aspirated from the iliac crest. MSCs were isolated and culture-expanded by means of gradient centrifugal and adherence to growth technique, and differentiated by 5-azacytidine in vitro. Differentiated MSCs (1ml, 1.5×107cells) labeled with BrdU were autotransplanted into His bundle area of canines by direct injection in the experimental group, and 1ml DMEM in the control group. At 1-12 weeks after operation,the effects of autologous MSCs transplantation on AVB models were evaluated by electrocardiogram, pathologic and immunohistochemical staining technique. Results Compared with the control group, there was a distinct improvement in atrioventricular conduction function in the experimental group. MSCs transplanted in His bundle were differentiated into analogous conduction system cells and endothelial cells in vivo, and established gap junction with host cardiomyocytes. Conclusions The committed-induced MSCs transplanted into His bundle area could differentiate into analogous conduction system cells and improve His conduction function in canine AVB models.

  12. An experimental in-vivo canine model for adult shunt infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procop Gary

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detailed human studies of the mechanisms and development of shunt infection in real time are not possible, and we have developed a canine hydrocephalus model to overcome this. The intention of this pilot study was to show that the canine hydrocephalus model could be shunted using conventional "human" shunts, and that a shunt infection could be established so that further studies could then be planned. Methods Hydrocephalus was induced in seven dogs (Canis familiaris by fourth ventricle obstruction. Four weeks later they were shunted using a Hakim Precision valve. Four of the dogs received shunts whose ventricular catheter had been inoculated with Staphylococcus epidermidis, and three were uninoculated controls. Four weeks after shunting the dogs were sacrificed and necropsy was performed. Removed shunts and tissue samples were examined microbiologically and isolates were subjected to detailed identification and genomic comparison. Results All the dogs remained well after shunting. Examination of removed shunt components revealed S. epidermidis in the brain and throughout the shunt system in the four inoculated animals, but in two of these Staphylococcus intermedius was also found. S. intermedius was also isolated from all three "negative" controls. There were slight differences between S. intermedius strains suggesting endogenous infection rather than cross- infection from a point source. Conclusion Shunt infection was established in the canine model, and had the experiment been extended beyond four weeks the typical microbiological, pathological and clinical features might have appeared. The occurrence of unplanned shunt infections in control animals due to canine normal skin flora reflects human clinical experience and underlines the usual source of bacteria causing shunt infection.

  13. Voice after radiotherapy of the larynx carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The study presents the evaluation of the phonatory function of the larynx after radiotherapy. The research covered the patients from the rural areas of Poland who revealed neoplastic changes in the glottis area. Material and methods: The test group consisted of 45 men aged 41-78 years with the carcinoma of the larynx with T1 and T2 progression types of cancer, according to the TNM classification. The analysis of laryngeal tone was performed with the digital analyzer Kay Elemetrics Model CSL 4300 and Multi Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP). A stroboscopic test in all the patients with T1 progression revealed the reduction of vibrations. Results: The acoustic analysis of the voice in the pre-treatment group as compared with the control group allowed for differentiation of the following parameters of a definitely pathologic character: Jita, Jitter, RAP, PPQ, vFo, Shimmer, APQ, vAm, NHR, VTI, SPI, and DUV. Conclusions: In the acoustic analysis of voice in the post-radiotherapy group, the following parameters reached values close to the norm: JITA, JITT, RAP, PPQ, vF0, vAM, DUV, and Schimmer dB.

  14. Effect of rhBMP-2 on tibial plateau fractures in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Susan L; Lu, Yan; Seeherman, Howard; Li, X Jian; Lopez, Mandi J; Markel, Mark D

    2009-04-01

    This study was to determine the efficacy of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protien-2 (rhBMP-2)/calcium phosphate matrix (CPX) paste to accelerate healing in a canine articular fracture model with associated subchondral defect. rhBMP-2/CPX (BMP), CPX alone (CPX) or autogenous bone graft (ABG) was administered to a canine articular tibial plateau osteotomy with a subchondral defect in each of 21 female dogs. The unoperated contralateral limbs served as controls. Ground reaction forces, synovial fluid, radiographic changes, mechanical testing, bone density, and histology of bone and synovium were analyzed at 6 weeks after surgery. Radiographic analysis demonstrated that the BMP and CPX groups showed improved bony healing compared to the ABG group at week 6. Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that the BMP group had significantly increased trabecular bone volume compared to the CPX and ABG groups. Mechanical testing revealed that the BMP group had significantly greater maximum failure loads than the ABG group. Histological analysis demonstrated that the BMP group had significantly less sub-synovial inflammation than CPX group. This study demonstrated that rhBMP-2/CPX accelerated healing of articular fractures with subchondral defect compared to ABG in most of the parameters evaluated, and had less subsynovial inflammation than the CPX alone in a canine model.

  15. Lymphatic territories (lymphosomes in a canine: an animal model for investigation of postoperative lymphatic alterations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroo Suami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lymph node dissection is often performed as a part of surgical treatment for breast cancer and malignant melanoma to prevent malignant cells from traveling via the lymphatic system. Currently little is known about postoperative lymphatic drainage pattern alterations. This knowledge may be useful for management of recurrent cancer and prevention of breast cancer related lymphedema. We mapped the complete superficial lymphatic system of a dog and used this canine model to perform preliminary studies of lymphatic architectural changes in postoperative condition. METHODS: Lymphatic territories (lymphosomes were mapped with 4 female mongrel carcasses using an indocyanine green (ICG fluorescent lymphography and a radiographic microinjection technique. Two live dogs were then subjected to unilateral lymph node dissection of lymph basins of the forelimb, and ICG lymphography and lymphangiogram were performed 6 months after the surgery to investigate lymphatic changes. Lymphatic patterns in the carcass were then compared with postoperative lymphatic patterns in the live dogs. RESULTS: Ten lymphosomes were identified, corresponding with ten lymphatic basins. Postoperative fluorescent lymphographic images and lymphangiograms in the live dogs revealed small caliber lymphatic network fulfilling gaps in the surgical area and collateral lymphatic vessels arising from the network connecting to lymph nodes in the contralateral and ipsilateral neck in one dog and the ipsilateral subclavicular vein in another dog. CONCLUSION: Our canine lymphosome map allowed us to observe lymphatic collateral formations after lymph node dissection in live dogs. This canine model may help clarify our understanding of postoperative lymphatic changes in humans in future studies.

  16. Elemental Content of Calcium Oxalate Stones from a Canine Model of Urinary Stone Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Killilea

    Full Text Available One of the most common types of urinary stones formed in humans and some other mammals is composed of calcium oxalate in ordered hydrated crystals. Many studies have reported a range of metals other than calcium in human stones, but few have looked at stones from animal models such as the dog. Therefore, we determined the elemental profile of canine calcium oxalate urinary stones and compared it to reported values from human stones. The content of 19 elements spanning 7-orders of magnitude was quantified in calcium oxalate stones from 53 dogs. The elemental profile of the canine stones was highly overlapping with human stones, indicating similar inorganic composition. Correlation and cluster analysis was then performed on the elemental profile from canine stones to evaluate associations between the elements and test for potential subgrouping based on elemental content. No correlations were observed with the most abundant metal calcium. However, magnesium and sulfur content correlated with the mineral hydration form, while phosphorous and zinc content correlated with the neuter status of the dog. Inter-elemental correlation analysis indicated strong associations between barium, phosphorous, and zinc content. Additionally, cluster analysis revealed subgroups within the stones that were also based primarily on barium, phosphorous, and zinc. These data support the use of the dog as a model to study the effects of trace metal homeostasis in urinary stone disease.

  17. Non-Hodgkin-lymfom i larynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriychuk, Andriy; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther

    2010-01-01

    Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the larynx is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all laryngeal neoplasms. Fewer than 100 cases have been reported in the literature. This case describes a 76-year-old woman with primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the larynx. To our knowledge, this is the first case...

  18. Canine Distemper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although this brochure provides basic information about canine distemper, your veterinarian is always your best source of ... Consult your veterinarian for more information about canine distemper and its prevention. And Now A Note On ...

  19. Reproduction of a model of lung injury induced by depleted uranium inhalation in canine

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bin; Duan, Yun-You; He, Wen-Bo; Feng, Hua-Song; Ning, Hao-Yong; Ju-yi WEN; Yang, Zhi-Hua; Xiu-jie PAN; Zhen-shan CAO; Mao-xiang ZHU; Xu, Qin-Zhi; Ping-kun ZHOU; Xin-min DING

    2011-01-01

    Objective To reproduce a canine model of subacute lung injury induced by depleted uranium inhalation.Methods Twenty-six dogs were randomized into the control group(CG,n=6),low-dose group(LG,n=10).and high-dose group(HG,n=10).All of them underwent tracheal intubation.In control group,0.2ml/kg of normal saline was intratracheally given.In low dosage group,10mg/kg of depleted uranium(LG),and in high dose group 100mg/ml of depleted uranium(HG) was introduced.The survival time of animals was obser...

  20. A Canine Non-Weight-Bearing Model with Radial Neurectomy for Rotator Cuff Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Ji

    Full Text Available The major concern of using a large animal model to study rotator cuff repair is the high rate of repair retears. The purpose of this study was to test a non-weight-bearing (NWB canine model for rotator cuff repair research.First, in the in vitro study, 18 shoulders were randomized to 3 groups. 1 Full-width transections repaired with modified Mason-Allen sutures using 3-0 polyglactin suture, 2 Group 1 repaired using number 2 (#2 polyester braid and long-chain polyethylene suture, and 3 Partial-width transections leaving the superior 2 mm infraspinatus tendon intact without repair. In the in vivo study of 6 dogs, the infraspinatus tendon was partially transected as the same as the in vitro group 3. A radial neurectomy was performed to prevent weight bearing. The operated limb was slung in a custom-made jacket for 6 weeks.In the in vitro study, mean ultimate tensile load and stiffness in Group 2 were significantly higher than Group 1 and 3 (p<0.05. In the in vivo study, gross inspection and histology showed that the preserved superior 2-mm portion of the infraspinatus tendon remained intact with normal structure.Based on the biomechanical and histological findings, this canine NWB model may be an appropriate and useful model for studies of rotator cuff repair.

  1. Energy-based constitutive modelling of local material properties of canine aortas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmirzadi, Danial; Acosta, Camilo J.; Konofagou, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at determining the in vitro anisotropic mechanical behaviour of canine aortic tissue. We specifically focused on spatial variations of these properties along the axis of the vessel. We performed uniaxial stretch tests on canine aortic samples in both circumferential and longitudinal directions, as well as histological examinations to derive the tissue's fibre orientations. We subsequently characterized a constitutive model that incorporates both phenomenological and structural elements to account for macroscopic and microstructural behaviour of the tissue. We showed the two fibre families were oriented at similar angles with respect to the aorta's axis. We also found significant changes in mechanical behaviour of the tissue as a function of axial position from proximal to distal direction: the fibres become more aligned with the aortic axis from 46° to 30°. Also, the linear shear modulus of media decreased as we moved distally along the aortic axis from 139 to 64 kPa. These changes derived from the parameters in the nonlinear constitutive model agreed well with the changes in tissue structure. In addition, we showed that isotropic contribution, carried by elastic lamellae, to the total stress induced in the tissue decreases at higher stretch ratios, whereas anisotropic stress, carried by collagen fibres, increases. The constitutive models can be readily used to design computational models of tissue deformation during physiological loading cycles. The findings of this study extend the understanding of local mechanical properties that could lead to region-specific diagnostics and treatment of arterial diseases. PMID:27703701

  2. Preclinical Evaluation of the Novel BTK Inhibitor Acalabrutinib in Canine Models of B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie K Harrington

    Full Text Available Acalabrutinib (ACP-196 is a second-generation inhibitor of Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase (BTK with increased target selectivity and potency compared to ibrutinib. In this study, we evaluated acalabrutinib in spontaneously occurring canine lymphoma, a model of B-cell malignancy similar to human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. First, we demonstrated that acalabrutinib potently inhibited BTK activity and downstream effectors in CLBL1, a canine B-cell lymphoma cell line, and primary canine lymphoma cells. Acalabrutinib also inhibited proliferation in CLBL1 cells. Twenty dogs were enrolled in the clinical trial and treated with acalabrutinib at dosages of 2.5 to 20mg/kg every 12 or 24 hours. Acalabrutinib was generally well tolerated, with adverse events consisting primarily of grade 1 or 2 anorexia, weight loss, vomiting, diarrhea and lethargy. Overall response rate (ORR was 25% (5/20 with a median progression free survival (PFS of 22.5 days. Clinical benefit was observed in 30% (6/20 of dogs. These findings suggest that acalabrutinib is safe and exhibits activity in canine B-cell lymphoma patients and support the use of canine lymphoma as a relevant model for human non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL.

  3. Preclinical Evaluation of the Novel BTK Inhibitor Acalabrutinib in Canine Models of B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Bonnie K; Gardner, Heather L; Izumi, Raquel; Hamdy, Ahmed; Rothbaum, Wayne; Coombes, Kevin R; Covey, Todd; Kaptein, Allard; Gulrajani, Michael; Van Lith, Bart; Krejsa, Cecile; Coss, Christopher C; Russell, Duncan S; Zhang, Xiaoli; Urie, Bridget K; London, Cheryl A; Byrd, John C; Johnson, Amy J; Kisseberth, William C

    2016-01-01

    Acalabrutinib (ACP-196) is a second-generation inhibitor of Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase (BTK) with increased target selectivity and potency compared to ibrutinib. In this study, we evaluated acalabrutinib in spontaneously occurring canine lymphoma, a model of B-cell malignancy similar to human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). First, we demonstrated that acalabrutinib potently inhibited BTK activity and downstream effectors in CLBL1, a canine B-cell lymphoma cell line, and primary canine lymphoma cells. Acalabrutinib also inhibited proliferation in CLBL1 cells. Twenty dogs were enrolled in the clinical trial and treated with acalabrutinib at dosages of 2.5 to 20mg/kg every 12 or 24 hours. Acalabrutinib was generally well tolerated, with adverse events consisting primarily of grade 1 or 2 anorexia, weight loss, vomiting, diarrhea and lethargy. Overall response rate (ORR) was 25% (5/20) with a median progression free survival (PFS) of 22.5 days. Clinical benefit was observed in 30% (6/20) of dogs. These findings suggest that acalabrutinib is safe and exhibits activity in canine B-cell lymphoma patients and support the use of canine lymphoma as a relevant model for human non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). PMID:27434128

  4. The development of a canine anorectal autotransplantation model based on blood supply: a preliminary case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Araki

    Full Text Available Colostomy is conventionally the only treatment for anal dysfunction. Recently, a few trials of anorectal transplantation in animals have been published; however, further development of this technique is required. Moreover, it is crucial to perform this research in dogs, which resemble humans in anorectal anatomy and biology. We designed a canine anorectal transplantation model, wherein anorectal autotransplantation was performed by anastomoses of the rectum, inferior mesenteric artery (IMA and vein, and pudendal nerves. Resting pressure in the anal canal and anal canal pressure fluctuation were measured before and after surgery. Graft pathology was examined three days after surgery. The anal blood supply was compared with that in three beagles using indocyanine green (ICG fluorescence angiography. The anorectal graft had sufficient arterial blood supply from the IMA; however, the graft's distal end was congested and necrotized. Functional examination demonstrated reduced resting pressure and the appearance of an irregular anal canal pressure wave after surgery. ICG angiography showed that the pudendal arteries provided more blood flow than the IMA to the anal segment. This is the first canine model of preliminary anorectal autotransplantation, and it demonstrates the possibility of establishing a transplantation model in dogs using appropriate vascular anastomoses, thus contributing to the progress of anorectal transplantation.

  5. Micro-computed tomography (CT) based assessment of dental regenerative therapy in the canine mandible model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khobragade, P.; Jain, A.; Setlur Nagesh, S. V.; Andreana, S.; Dziak, R.; Sunkara, S. K.; Sunkara, S.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.; Ionita, C. N.

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution 3D bone-tissue structure measurements may provide information critical to the understanding of the bone regeneration processes and to the bone strength assessment. Tissue engineering studies rely on such nondestructive measurements to monitor bone graft regeneration area. In this study, we measured bone yield, fractal dimension and trabecular thickness through micro-CT slices for different grafts and controls. Eight canines underwent surgery to remove a bone volume (defect) in the canine's jaw at a total of 44 different locations. We kept 11 defects empty for control and filled the remaining ones with three regenerative materials; NanoGen (NG), a FDA-approved material (n=11), a novel NanoCalcium Sulfate (NCS) material (n=11) and NCS alginate (NCS+alg) material (n=11). After a minimum of four and eight weeks, the canines were sacrificed and the jaw samples were extracted. We used a custombuilt micro-CT system to acquire the data volume and developed software to measure the bone yield, fractal dimension and trabecular thickness. The software used a segmentation algorithm based on histograms derived from volumes of interest indicated by the operator. Using bone yield and fractal dimension as indices we are able to differentiate between the control and regenerative material (p<0.005). Regenerative material NCS showed an average 63.15% bone yield improvement over the control sample, NCS+alg showed 55.55% and NanoGen showed 37.5%. The bone regeneration process and quality of bone were dependent upon the position of defect and time period of healing. This study presents one of the first quantitative comparisons using non-destructive Micro-CT analysis for bone regenerative material in a large animal with a critical defect model. Our results indicate that Micro-CT measurement could be used to monitor invivo bone regeneration studies for greater regenerative process understanding.

  6. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Gene Therapy in the Canine Model

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked lethal muscle disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. Gene therapy has significantly improved the outcome of dystrophin-deficient mice. Yet, clinical translation has not resulted in the expected benefits in human patients. This translational gap is largely because of the insufficient modeling of DMD in mice. Specifically, mice lacking dystrophin show minimum dystrophic symptoms, and they do not respond to the gene therapy vector in the same wa...

  7. Animal-Assisted Therapy for persons with disabilities based on canine tail language interpretation via fuzzy emotional behavior model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanwanich, Warangkhana; Kumdee, Orrawan; Ritthipravat, Panrasee; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2011-01-01

    Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) is the science that employs the merit of human-animal interaction to alleviate mental and physical problems of persons with disabilities. However, to achieve the goal of AAT for persons with severe disabilities (e.g. spinal cord injury and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), real-time animal language interpretation is needed. Since canine behaviors can be visually distinguished from its tail, this paper proposes the automatic real-time interpretation of canine tail language for human-canine interaction in the case of persons with severe disabilities. Canine tail language is captured via two 3-axis accelerometers. Directions and frequency are selected as our features of interests. New fuzzy rules and center of gravity (COG)-based defuzzification method are proposed in order to interpret the features into three canine emotional behaviors, i.e., agitate, happy, and scare as well as its blended emotional behaviors. The emotional behavior model is performed in the simulated dog. The average recognition rate in real dog is 93.75% accuracy.

  8. Establishment and characterization of a canine xenograft model of inflammatory mammary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, L; Peña, L; González Gil, A; Cáceres, S; Díez, L; Illera, J C

    2013-12-01

    Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) and human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) are the most aggressive form of mammary/breast cancer. Both species naturally develop it, sharing epidemiological, clinical and histological characteristics. Thus, IMC has been suggested as a model to study the human disease. We have developed the first IMC xenograft model in SCID mice. Xenografts reproduced the histological features from the primary tumor, were highly aggressive and showed dermal tumor emboli, distinctive hallmarks of IMC/IBC. This model was hormone receptors positive and HER2 negative. Our findings showed that estrogens and androgens are locally produced in tissues. Factors related to tumor vascularization showed positive expression and xenografts with the highest expression of all analyzed vascular factors had the highest rate of tumor proliferation. The role of steroid hormones and the angio/lymphangiogenic properties found in this model, provide additional knowledge for future interventions in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the disease.

  9. A canine model of Cohen syndrome: Trapped Neutrophil Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shearman Jeremy R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trapped Neutrophil Syndrome (TNS is a common autosomal recessive neutropenia in Border collie dogs. Results We used a candidate gene approach and linkage analysis to show that the causative gene for TNS is VPS13B. We chose VPS13B as a candidate because of similarities in clinical signs between TNS and Cohen syndrome, in human, such as neutropenia and a typical facial dysmorphism. Linkage analysis using microsatellites close to VPS13B showed positive linkage of the region to TNS. We sequenced each of the 63 exons of VPS13B in affected and control dogs and found that the causative mutation in Border collies is a 4 bp deletion in exon 19 of the largest transcript that results in premature truncation of the protein. Cohen syndrome patients present with mental retardation in 99% of cases, but learning disabilities featured in less than half of TNS affected dogs. It has been implied that loss of the alternate transcript of VPS13B in the human brain utilising an alternate exon, 28, may cause mental retardation. Mice cannot be used to test this hypothesis as they do not express the alternate exon. We show that dogs do express alternate transcripts in the brain utilising an alternate exon homologous to human exon 28. Conclusion Dogs can be used as a model organism to explore the function of the alternately spliced transcript of VPS13B in the brain. TNS in Border collies is the first animal model for Cohen syndrome and can be used to study the disease aetiology.

  10. GIS modeling for canine dirofilariosis risk assessment in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Mortarino

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in an area of central Italy in order to study the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens in dogs. Blood samples were collected from 283 dogs and examined using a modified Knott’s technique. In addition, in order to detect D. immitis occult infection, 203 serum samples were also analysed for D. immitis antigen detection. The results were analyzed in order to evaluate the behavioural and attitudinal risk factors. A geographical information system (GIS for the study area was constructed, utilizing the following data layers: administrative boundaries, elevation, temperature, rainfall and humidity. Microfilariae were detected in 32 of the 283 dogs surveyed, constituting a total Dirofilaria prevalence of 11.3%. In particular, 20 dogs (7.1% were positive for D. immitis and 12 dogs (4.2% for D. repens microfilariae. One case of D. immitis occult infection was also detected. Choroplethic municipal maps were drawn within the GIS in order to display the distribution of each Dirofilaria species in the study area. Statistical analysis showed a significant association between Dirofilaria infection and animal attitude (hunting/truffle dogs showed a higher prevalence compared to guard/pet dogs. A higher prevalence was also recorded in 2 to 5-years old dogs. Furthermore a GIS-based modelling of climatic data, collected from 5 meteorological stations in the study area, was performed to estimate the yearly number of D. immitis generations in the mosquito vector. The results of the model as depicted by GIS analysis was highly concordant with the territorial distribution of positive dogs and showed that D. immitis spreading is markedly influenced by season. The potential transmission period in the study area was found to be confined to summer months with a peak in July and August, as expected for a temperate region where summer season is the most favourable period for the parasite.

  11. A new experimental carotid siphon aneurysm model in canine based on the MR angiography and rapid prototyping technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of the experiment is to make an intracranial aneurysm model in canine. Methods: A digital tube was made based on raw magnetic resonance images of the human intracranial carotid artery. Then 6 tubes were made in the 3D rapid prototyping machine and coated with silicone. Finally we isolated the common carotid arteries of 6 canines and made them go through the tubes and anastomosed them end-to-side to get the aneurysm model. Six stents were implanted after one week. Results: Six aneurysm models were successfully made in canines. The parent artery had similar geometry of the human carotid siphon. All the aneurysms and parent arteries were patent in one week's follow-up. One canine died of excessive anesthesia after stenting. Two vascular models kept patent in one month without stenosis. The other 3 had some stenosis on the bends of the vessel. Conclusions: The aneurysm model in the experiment has high flexibility and reliability. The model provides an effective tool for research and testing neurovascular devices. It's also a useful device to train the neuroradiologists and interventional physicians. (authors)

  12. Canine pyometra: a model for the analysis of serum CXCL8 in inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Melanie; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Neumann, Stephan

    2016-03-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8 or CXCL8) is a highly selective pro-inflammatory chemokine, that is elevated in sera of humans and animals with various inflammatory diseases. CXCL8 is possibly involved in uncontrolled inflammation and the development of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis. Nevertheless, its behavior and precise properties in the course of inflammation are not fully understood. Thus, we used naturally occurring canine pyometra as a model of inflammation, in order to examine the behavior of serum CXCL8 in relation to the disease intensity and commonly analyzed inflammatory mediators. Using a commercially available canine ELISA kit, a significant increase of CXCL8 was determined in the serum of 23 dogs with pyometra compared with 35 healthy dogs. Interestingly, serum CXCL8 did not increase in severely diseased patients and behaved contrary to white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils and C-reactive protein (CRP). The measurement of serum CXCL8 may provide valuable information about the extent of ongoing lesions and could be a useful complement for existing laboratory tests. PMID:26522810

  13. Toward an Animal Model of the Human Tear Film: Biochemical Comparison of the Mouse, Canine, Rabbit, and Human Meibomian Lipidomes

    OpenAIRE

    Butovich, Igor A.; Lu, Hua; McMahon, Anne; Eule, J Corinna

    2012-01-01

    A side by side comparison of the rabbit and the human meibum demonstrated their vast biochemical differences. Thus, the rabbit seems to be a poor animal model of the human tear film studies. Mice and canines, on the other hand, were found to be very similar to humans and should be considered instead.

  14. Cardiac Ventricular HIFU: Convergence of Experiment and Theory in the Canine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, Robert; Abe, Yukio; Homma, Shunichi; Bernardi, Richard; Kalisz, Andrew; Feleppa, Ernest J.

    2007-05-01

    OBJECTIVE: HIFU is a promising technique for treating cardiac ventricular diseases such as sustained ventricular tachycardia. Ablations can potentially destroy arrhythmogenic foci and block reentrant circuits. Towards this end, we have learned to control HIFU lesions in the canine model in vivo. METHODS: Experiment — Thoracotomies were performed on anesthetized dogs, following IACUC guidelines. In this open-chest configuration, a polyethylene water-filled bag was coupled to the myocardium with degassed ultrasound gel. The transducer was lowered into the water. Ventricular locations were targeted and insonified with multiple 200-ms HIFU bursts of 60-W acoustic power; the bursts were triggered with the electrocardiogram QRS complex. The therapeutic transducer was a 35-mm focal length, 33-mm diameter PZT annular array, excited at 5.25 MHz. Its -3dB focal region dimensions were 2.5 mm axially and 0.3 mm transversely. A confocal diagnostic transducer was used for aiming and for recording backscattered radiofrequency ultrasound data. Theory — A comprehensive acoustic model has been developed. Individual modules numerically simulate physical processes such as ultrasound beam propagation, energy transfer, and heat flow within tissue. One set of modules simulates HIFU ablation in moving tissue. Tissue motion was obtained from digitized B-mode videos of transverse cross sections of a beating canine heart. Epicardial and endocardial surface positions were extracted from the video frames. Additional simulations of static tissue compared linear and nonlinear propagation models. RESULTS: Significant agreement between simulated and measured lesion sizes and between linear and nonlinear propagation models was demonstrated.

  15. Radiographic, densitometric, and biomechanical effects of recombinant canine somatotropin in an unstable ostectomy gap model of bone healing in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the effect of recombinant canine somatotropin (STH) on radiographic, densitometric, and biomechanical aspects of bone healing using an unstable ostectomy gap model. Study Design: After an ostectomy of the midshaft radius, bone healing was evaluated over an 8-week period in control dogs (n = 4) and dogs receiving recombinant canine STH (n = 4). Animals Or Sample Population: Eight sexually intact female Beagle dogs, 4 to 5 years old. Methods: Bone healing was evaluated by qualitative and quantitative evaluation of serial radiographs every 2 weeks. Terminal dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and three-point bending biomechanical testing were also performed. Results: Dogs receiving STH had more advanced radiographic healing of ostectomy sites. Bone area, bone mineral content, and bone density were two to five times greater at the ostectomy sites of treated dogs. Ultimate load at failure and stiffness were three and five times greater in dogs receiving STH. Conclusions: Using the ostectomy gap model, recombinant canine STH enhanced the radiographic, densitometric, and biomechanical aspects of bone healing in dogs. Clinical Relevance: Dogs at risk for delayed healing of fractures may benefit from treatment with recombinant canine STH

  16. Morbillivirus Experimental Animal Models: Measles Virus Pathogenesis Insights from Canine Distemper Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Fontoura Budaszewski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Morbilliviruses share considerable structural and functional similarities. Even though disease severity varies among the respective host species, the underlying pathogenesis and the clinical signs are comparable. Thus, insights gained with one morbillivirus often apply to the other members of the genus. Since the Canine distemper virus (CDV causes severe and often lethal disease in dogs and ferrets, it is an attractive model to characterize morbillivirus pathogenesis mechanisms and to evaluate the efficacy of new prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. This review compares the cellular tropism, pathogenesis, mechanisms of persistence and immunosuppression of the Measles virus (MeV and CDV. It then summarizes the contributions made by studies on the CDV in dogs and ferrets to our understanding of MeV pathogenesis and to vaccine and drugs development.

  17. COMPARISON OF CELLULOSE ACETATE POLYMER AND ELECTROLYTIC DETACHABLE COILS FOR TREATMENT OF CANINE ANEURYSMAL MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨新健; 吴中学; 李佑祥; 孙异临; 尹可

    2002-01-01

    Objective.Electrolytic detachable coils (EDC) have been the main embolic materials for intracranial aneurysms.Liquid aneurysmal embolic materials represented by cellulose acetate polymer (CAP) are still in controversy.In this research,the embolization results and pathological reactions after embolization of canine aneurysmal models with EDC or CAP were observed and compared. Methods.The canine aneurysmal models constructed by anastomosis of venous pouches were randomly grouped.The aneurysms were respectively occluded with CAP and electrolytic detachable coils that was named by Wu electrolytic detachable coil (WEDC) and made by us.Angiogram follow ups were performed at 24 hour,2 week,and 2 month after embolization.The occluded aneurysms were dissected in each stage for light microscopic,electron microscopic,and histochemical research. Results.The effect of embolization was significantly better with WEDC than that with CAP ( χ 2=5.56,P< 0.05) .Post embolized complications such as aneurysm rupture and stenosis of parent arteries could only be found in CAP group.Pathological research showed that CAP mass could packed the aneurysms more densely than coils.Acute chemical damage of aneurysmal wall and inflammatory cell infiltration was prominently found in early stage after CAP embolization.Organization of thrombus inside aneurysms and formation of endothelial tissue over the orifices of aneurysmal necks could be found in both groups 2 months after embolization.But parts of coils might be exposed outside endothelial layer. Conclusions.EDC are still the most safe,efficient,and reliable instruments to embolize aneurysm.CAP should be improved further to solve the problem of strong chemical corrosion and difficulty in control before it is widely used.

  18. Establishment of canine hemangiosarcoma xenograft models expressing endothelial growth factors, their receptors, and angiogenesis-associated homeobox genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human hemangiosarcoma (HSA) tends to have a poor prognosis; its tumorigenesis has not been elucidated, as there is a dearth of HSA clinical specimens and no experimental model for HSA. However, the incidence of spontaneous HSA is relatively high in canines; therefore, canine HSA has been useful in the study of human HSA. Recently, the production of angiogenic growth factors and their receptors in human and canine HSA has been reported. Moreover, the growth-factor environment of HSA is very similar to that of pathophysiological angiogenesis, which some homeobox genes regulate in the transcription of angiogenic molecules. In the present study, we established 6 xenograft canine HSA tumors and detected the expression of growth factors, their receptors, and angiogenic homeobox genes. Six primary canine HSAs were xenografted to nude mice subcutaneously and serially transplanted. Subsequently, the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, basic fibroblast growth factors (bFGF), flt-1 and flk-1 (receptors of VEGF-A), FGFR-1, and angiogenic homeobox genes HoxA9, HoxB3, HoxB7, HoxD3, Pbx1, and Meis1 were investigated in original and xenograft tumors by histopathology, immunostaining, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), using canine-specific primer sets. Histopathologically, xenograft tumors comprised a proliferation of neoplastic cells that were varied in shape, from spindle-shaped and polygonal to ovoid; some vascular-like structures and vascular clefts of channels were observed, similar to those in the original tumors. The expression of endothelial markers (CD31 and vWF) was detected in xenograft tumors by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Moreover, the expression of VEGF-A, bFGF, flt-1, flk-1, FGFR-1, HoxA9, HoxB3, HoxB7, HoxD3, Pbx1, and Meis1 was detected in xenograft tumors. Interestingly, expressions of bFGF tended to be higher in 3 of the xenograft HSA tumors than in the other tumors. We established 6 xenograft canine HSA

  19. Electrocautery versus 23% NaOH infiltration to induce subglottic stenosis in a canine experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauer, Aline D; Fraga, Jose Carlos; Sousa, Joao K; Sanches, Paulo R; Duarte, Marcos E; Ulbrich-Kulczynski, Jane; Filho, Orlando H; Saueressig, Mauricio G

    2007-12-01

    Subglottic stenosis (SGS) is defined as the narrowing of the lower larynx. Difficulties in the management of subglottic stenosis, especially in the pediatric population, justify the development of experimental models. The objective of this study was to compare the two methods of experimental subglottic stenosis induction. Twenty-three dogs were randomly selected and assigned by lottery to either one of the two groups: Gp I (n = 10) of electrocoagulation; and Gp II (n = 13) of 23% NaOH injection. In Gp I, self-interruption electrocoagulation was applied to one point in each of the four quadrants of the cricoid cartilage. In Gp II, 0.2 ml of 23% NaOH was injected in the submucosal layer in the anterior and posterior portions of the cricoid cartilage. Once a week, endoscopy was performed and the caliber of the subglottic region was measured using endotracheal tubes, and the injection was repeated if there were no signs of subglottic stenosis. The animals were killed on day 21; animals that developed respiratory distress were killed before day 21. One animal in Gp I died on day 14 after the injection and during transportation; two animals in Gp II died, one on day 7 due to a tracheoesophageal fistula, and the other of unknown causes on day 5. Significant subglottic stenosis (over 51% obstruction) was found in 67% of the animals in Gp I and in 64% of those in Gp II (P = 0.99). Median time to development of significant stenosis was 21 days in both groups, and required either two or three injections. Mean time for the performance of the procedures was significantly shorter (P subglottic stenosis in dogs, both methods leading to stenosis in the same period of time and after the same number of procedures. However, electrocoagulation was the fastest method.

  20. Exenatide Treatment Alone Improves β-Cell Function in a Canine Model of Pre-Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkrtchyan, Hasmik J.; Stefanovski, Darko; Kabir, Morvarid; Iyer, Malini S.; Liu, Huiwen; Castro, Ana V. B.; Wu, Qiang; Broussard, Josiane L.; Kolka, Cathryn M.; Asare-Bediako, Isaac; Bergman, Richard N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Exenatide’s effects on glucose metabolism have been studied extensively in diabetes but not in pre-diabetes. Objective We examined the chronic effects of exenatide alone on glucose metabolism in pre-diabetic canines. Design and Methods After 10 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD), adult dogs received one injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 18.5 mg/kg). After induction of pre-diabetes, while maintained on HFD, animals were randomized to receive either exenatide (n = 7) or placebo (n = 7) for 12 weeks. β-Cell function was calculated from the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT, expressed as the acute insulin response, AIRG), the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, insulinogenic index) and the graded-hyperglycemic clamp (clamp insulinogenic index). Whole-body insulin sensitivity was assessed by the IVGTT. At the end of the study, pancreatic islets were isolated to assess β-cell function in vitro. Results OGTT: STZ caused an increase in glycemia at 120 min by 22.0% (interquartile range, IQR, 31.5%) (P = 0.011). IVGTT: This protocol also showed a reduction in glucose tolerance by 48.8% (IQR, 36.9%) (P = 0.002). AIRG decreased by 54.0% (IQR, 40.7%) (P = 0.010), leading to mild fasting hyperglycemia (P = 0.039). Exenatide, compared with placebo, decreased body weight (Pfood intake, fasting glycemia, insulinemia, glycated hemoglobin A1c, or glucose tolerance. Exenatide, compared with placebo, increased both OGTT- (P = 0.040) and clamp-based insulinogenic indexes (P = 0.016), improved insulin secretion in vitro (P = 0.041), but had no noticeable effect on insulin sensitivity (P = 0.405). Conclusions In pre-diabetic canines, 12-week exenatide treatment improved β-cell function but not glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity. These findings demonstrate partial beneficial metabolic effects of exenatide alone on an animal model of pre-diabetes. PMID:27398720

  1. Short-term Assessment of Optimal Timing for Postoperative Rehabilitation after Flexor Digitorum Profundus Tendon Repair in a Canine Model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Chunfeng; Amadio, Peter C.; TANAKA, Tatsuro; Yang, Chao; Ettema, Anke M.; Zobitz, Mark E.; An, Kai-Nan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the shortterm outcome following flexor tendon repair for postoperative rehabilitation commencing on day 1 (a common clinical choice) versus day 5 (the day on which, with postoperative immobilization, the initial gliding resistance is least in this model) in an in vivo canine model. Work of flexion (WOF) and tendon strength were evaluated following tendon laceration and repair in 24 dogs sacrificed 10 days postoperatively. Starting postoperative mobiliz...

  2. Application of a canine 238Pu biokinetics/dosimetry model to human bioassay data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, A W; Griffith, W C; Roessler, G S; Guilmette, R A

    1995-03-01

    Associated with the use of 238Pu in thermoelectric power sources for space probes is the potential for human exposure, primarily by inhalation and most likely as 238PuO2. Several models have been developed for assessing the level of intake and predicting the resulting radiation dose following human exposure to 239Pu. However, there are indications that existing models do not adequately describe the disposition and dosimetry of 238Pu following human exposure. In this study, a canine model that accounts for these differences has been adapted for use with human excretion data. The model is based on existing knowledge about organ retention of plutonium. An analysis of the sensitivity of the model to changes in aerosol-associated properties indicated that predictions of urinary excretion are most sensitive to changes in particle solubility and diameter and in the ratio of fragment:particle surface area. Application of the model to urinary excretion data from seven workers exposed to a 238Pu ceramic aerosol gave estimated intakes of 390-8,200 Bq and associated initial pulmonary burdens of 80-1,700 Bq. The resulting 50-y dose commitments to critical organs per Bq of 238Pu intake were estimated to be 0.5 mSv for the thoracic region, 0.2 mSv for the liver, and 1 mSv for the bone surfaces. PMID:7860307

  3. Particle deposition in human and canine tracheobronchial casts: Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work measures deposition patterns and efficiencies of aerosols within realistic, physical models of the tracheobronchial airways of humans and experimental animals over a range of particle sizes from 0.01 to 1.0 μm, for a variety of respiratory modes and rates. Full morphometric and flow distribution measurements were completed on casts of human and canine tracheobronchial airways, which extend from just below the larynx to airways 1 mm in diameter. They show basic similarities in the distribution of airflow, but also species differences which must be considered. The distribution of airflow was measured for minute volumes equivalent to 6, 11, 17 and 22 L min-1 for the human and 3, 6, 8 and 11 L min-1 for the canine for both constant and pulsatile inspiratory flow. Inertance was found to carry more of the flow to airways of the lower lobes at higher flow rates. Basic differences in airway branching pattern result in a more distinct change in airflow distribution as flow rate changes for the canine cast as compared with the human cast. These differences will contribute to differing patterns of mass transfer of inhaled particles in central airways of the two species. 8 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  4. 21 CFR 874.3375 - Battery-powered artificial larynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Battery-powered artificial larynx. 874.3375... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3375 Battery-powered artificial larynx. (a) Identification. A battery-powered artificial larynx is an externally applied...

  5. Total Laryngectomy Versus Larynx Preservation for T4a Larynx Cancer: Patterns of Care and Survival Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, Surbhi; Swisher-McClure, Samuel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Mitra, Nandita; Li, Jiaqi [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Cohen, Roger B. [Department of Hematology Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ahn, Peter H.; Lukens, John N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Chalian, Ara A.; Weinstein, Gregory S.; O' Malley, Bert W. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Lin, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.lin@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: To examine practice patterns and compare survival outcomes between total laryngectomy (TL) and larynx preservation chemoradiation (LP-CRT) in the setting of T4a larynx cancer, using a large national cancer registry. Methods and Materials: Using the National Cancer Database, we identified 969 patients from 2003 to 2006 with T4a squamous cell larynx cancer receiving definitive treatment with either initial TL plus adjuvant therapy or LP-CRT. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess predictors of undergoing surgery. Survival outcomes were compared using Kaplan-Meier and propensity score–adjusted and inverse probability of treatment–weighted Cox proportional hazards methods. Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for unmeasured confounders. Results: A total of 616 patients (64%) received LP-CRT, and 353 (36%) received TL. On multivariable logistic regression, patients with advanced nodal disease were less likely to receive TL (N2 vs N0, 26.6% vs 43.4%, odds ratio [OR] 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.73; N3 vs N0, 19.1% vs 43.4%, OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07-0.77), whereas patients treated in high case-volume facilities were more likely to receive TL (46.1% vs 31.5%, OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.27-2.48). Median survival for TL versus LP was 61 versus 39 months (P<.001). After controlling for potential confounders, LP-CRT had inferior overall survival compared with TL (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% CI 1.10-1.57), and with the inverse probability of treatment–weighted model (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.49). This survival difference was shown to be robust on additional sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: Most patients with T4a larynx cancer receive LP-CRT, despite guidelines suggesting TL as the preferred initial approach. Patients receiving LP-CRT had more advanced nodal disease and worse overall survival. Previous studies of (non-T4a) locally advanced larynx cancer showing no difference in survival between LP-CRT and TL may not

  6. Total Laryngectomy Versus Larynx Preservation for T4a Larynx Cancer: Patterns of Care and Survival Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine practice patterns and compare survival outcomes between total laryngectomy (TL) and larynx preservation chemoradiation (LP-CRT) in the setting of T4a larynx cancer, using a large national cancer registry. Methods and Materials: Using the National Cancer Database, we identified 969 patients from 2003 to 2006 with T4a squamous cell larynx cancer receiving definitive treatment with either initial TL plus adjuvant therapy or LP-CRT. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess predictors of undergoing surgery. Survival outcomes were compared using Kaplan-Meier and propensity score–adjusted and inverse probability of treatment–weighted Cox proportional hazards methods. Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for unmeasured confounders. Results: A total of 616 patients (64%) received LP-CRT, and 353 (36%) received TL. On multivariable logistic regression, patients with advanced nodal disease were less likely to receive TL (N2 vs N0, 26.6% vs 43.4%, odds ratio [OR] 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.73; N3 vs N0, 19.1% vs 43.4%, OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07-0.77), whereas patients treated in high case-volume facilities were more likely to receive TL (46.1% vs 31.5%, OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.27-2.48). Median survival for TL versus LP was 61 versus 39 months (P<.001). After controlling for potential confounders, LP-CRT had inferior overall survival compared with TL (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% CI 1.10-1.57), and with the inverse probability of treatment–weighted model (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.49). This survival difference was shown to be robust on additional sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: Most patients with T4a larynx cancer receive LP-CRT, despite guidelines suggesting TL as the preferred initial approach. Patients receiving LP-CRT had more advanced nodal disease and worse overall survival. Previous studies of (non-T4a) locally advanced larynx cancer showing no difference in survival between LP-CRT and TL may not

  7. Effect of nifekalant on acute electrical remodelling in rapid atrial pacing canine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Min; ZHANG Shu; SUN Qi; HUA Wei; HUANG Cong-xin

    2006-01-01

    Background Nifekalant may prevent atrial fibrillation (AF) and possibly be useful in treatment of atrial tachyarrhythmia in patients with severe heart failure. This study investigated the electophysiologic effect of nifekalant on the acute atrial remodeling in rapid atrial pacing (RAP) model of canine.Methods Twelve mongrel dogs subjected to rapid stimulation (400 beats/min) at left atrial appendage (LAA)for 24 hours, were randomized into the control group (rapid pacing only, n=6) and the nifekalant group (intravenous nifekalant therapy immediately after RAP, n=6). Atrial electrophysiological parameters were measured in right atrium, coronary sinus, LAA, posterior wall of left atrium (PWLA) and left superior pulmonary vein (LSPV), before and after the RAP.Results In the control group, the effective refractory periods (ERP) were shortened greatly at all sites, paced dogs had substantially shorter ERPs in the high right atrium, LAA, and LSPV, but fewer changes in the PWLA,the coefficient variation of ERP (COV ERP) was increased significantly. After rapid atrial stimulation, the inducibility of AF increased significantly [induction number: pre-RAP vs post-RAP, 1.00± 0.89 vs 8.17 ± 2.79,P<0.01; duration of AF: pre-RAP vs post-RAP, (450.34± 362.59) ms vs (9975.77 ±4376.99) ms, P<0.01]. In the nifekalant group, although the ERPs were prolonged at all sites compared with those in pre-RAP state, only the value at LSPV differed significantly from that in pre-RAP state [pre-RAP vs post-RAP, (102.50±5.24) ms vs (132.51 ±5.20) ms, P<0.01]; the COV ERP did not change statistically in this group. The inducibility of AF slightly increased but insignificantly after pacing [induction number: pre-RAP vs post-RAP, 0.83 ±0.75 vs 1.67±0.82, P=0.19; duration of AF: pre-RAP vs post-RAP, (378.67±317.88) ms vs (1124.08±1109.77) ms,P=0.06]. Conduction time values did not alter significantly in either of the two groups after RAP.Conclusions In canine RAP model, nifekalant

  8. Evaluation of helper-dependent canine adenovirus vectors in a 3D human CNS model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, D; Pinto, C; Fernandes, P; Peddie, C J; Piersanti, S; Collinson, L M; Salinas, S; Saggio, I; Schiavo, G; Kremer, E J; Brito, C; Alves, P M

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy is a promising approach with enormous potential for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Viral vectors derived from canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) present attractive features for gene delivery strategies in the human brain, by preferentially transducing neurons, are capable of efficient axonal transport to afferent brain structures, have a 30-kb cloning capacity and have low innate and induced immunogenicity in preclinical tests. For clinical translation, in-depth preclinical evaluation of efficacy and safety in a human setting is primordial. Stem cell-derived human neural cells have a great potential as complementary tools by bridging the gap between animal models, which often diverge considerably from human phenotype, and clinical trials. Herein, we explore helper-dependent CAV-2 (hd-CAV-2) efficacy and safety for gene delivery in a human stem cell-derived 3D neural in vitro model. Assessment of hd-CAV-2 vector efficacy was performed at different multiplicities of infection, by evaluating transgene expression and impact on cell viability, ultrastructural cellular organization and neuronal gene expression. Under optimized conditions, hd-CAV-2 transduction led to stable long-term transgene expression with minimal toxicity. hd-CAV-2 preferentially transduced neurons, whereas human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV5) showed increased tropism toward glial cells. This work demonstrates, in a physiologically relevant 3D model, that hd-CAV-2 vectors are efficient tools for gene delivery to human neurons, with stable long-term transgene expression and minimal cytotoxicity.

  9. Animal model of naturally occurring bladder cancer: Characterization of four new canine transitional cell carcinoma cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Rathore, Kusum; Cekanova, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Development and further characterization of animal models for human cancers is important for the improvement of cancer detection and therapy. Canine bladder cancer closely resembles human bladder cancer in many aspects. In this study, we isolated and characterized four primary transitional cell carcinoma (K9TCC) cell lines to be used for future in vitro validation of novel therapeutic agents for bladder cancer. Methods Four K9TCC cell lines were established from naturally-occurring...

  10. Intravenous administration of apomorphine does not induce long QT syndrome: Experimental evidence from in vivo canine models

    OpenAIRE

    渡辺, 雄大

    2016-01-01

    主査 : 杉薫 / タイトル : Intravenous administration of apomorphine does not induce long QT syndrome: Experimental evidence from in vivo canine models /著者 : Yudai Watanabe, Yuji Nakamura, Xin Cao, Hiroshi Ohara, Yukiko Yamazaki, Norie Murayama, Yosuke Sugiyama, Hiroko Izumi-Nakaseko, Kentaro Ando, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Atsushi Sugiyama /掲載誌 : Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology /巻号・発行年等 : 116 (6):468-475, 2015 /

  11. Secondary neoplasms of the larynx from a colonic adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dadkhah, Naser; Hahn, Christoffer

    2015-01-01

    Secondary neoplasms of the larynx are rare and account for 0.09-0,4% of all laryngeal tumours. Cutaneous melanomas are the preponderant primaries metastasizing to the larynx, fol-lowed by renal cell carcinomas, breast and lung carcinomas. Colonic adenocarcinoma metastases to the larynx...... are extremely rare. Tumours spreading to the larynx may be asymptomatic or may result in hoarseness, stridor or airway obstruction. Patients with metastasis of colonic adenocarcinoma to the larynx usually present with disseminated disease. We present a case of an isolated laryngeal metastasis from a colonic...... adenocarcinoma. The patient was treated with endoscopic surgery and radiation....

  12. Application of a canine {sup 238}Pu dosimetry model to human bioassay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, A.W. Jr. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1991-08-01

    Associated with the use of 2{sup 238}Pu in thermoelectric power sources for space probes and power supplies for cardiac devices is the potential for human exposure to {sup 238}Pu, primarily by inhalation. In the event of human internal exposure, a means is needed for assessing the level of intake and calculating radiation doses. Several bioassay/dosimetry models have been developed for {sup 239}Pu. However, results from studies with laboratory animals have indicated that the biokinetics, and therefore the descriptive models, of {sup 238}Pu are significantly different from those for {sup 239}Pu. A canine model accounting for these differences has been applied in this work to urinary excretion data from seven humans occupationally exposed to low levels of an insoluble {sup 238}Pu compound. The modified model provides a good description of the urinary excretion kinetics observed in the exposed humans. The modified model was also used to provide estimates of the initial intakes of {sup 238}Pu for the seven individuals; these estimates ranged from 4.5 nCi (170 Bq) to 87 nCi (3200 Bq). Autopsy data on the amount and distribution of {sup 238}Pu retained in the organs may be used in the future to validate or refute both these estimates and the assumptions used to formulate the human model. Modification of the human model to simulate an injection exposure to {sup 239}Pu gave patterns of retention in the organs and urinary excretion comparable to those seen previously in humans; further modification of the model using fecal data (unavailable for the subjects of this study) is indicated.

  13. Edaravone attenuates ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting oxidative stress in a canine lung transplantation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jin-zhi; SHEN Bao-zhong; LI Ye; ZHANG Tong; XU Wan-hai; LIU Xiao-wei; LU Hong-guang

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous reports have confirmed that edaravone has protective effects against ischemia-reperfusion(IR) injury of many organs.In this study,we investigated the effect of edaravone on preventing IR injury of the lung in a canine lung transplantation model. Methods Twelve weight-matched pairs of random-bred dogs were randomized into two groups.Within each pair,one dog served as donor and the other as recipient.In the study group,prostaglandin EI(PGEl)(8 μg/kg)was injected into the donor pulmonary artery(PA)before occlusion and the donor lungs were flushed with 1.0L of LPD solution containing edaravone(10mg/kg)and stored in the same LPD solution at a temperature of 1.C for 8 hours.The left single lung transplantation was then performed and recipients received intravenous injection with edaravone l 1 0 mg/kg)at the onset of reperfusion.In the control group,edaravone was substituted by the same volume of sterile saline solution.Another six dogs were obtained as normal control group in which left lungs were dissected after thoracotomy without an IR injury.One hour after repeffusion.or after dissection of the left lung,the right lung was excluded from peffusion and ventilation after which,cardiopulmonary parameters were measured.Wet/dry ratios,malondiaIdehyde(MDA)and myeloperoxidase (MPO)levels were assessed and histological analysis of lung tissue performed at the same time.Results All animals survived until the end of the experiment.The study group showed significantly decreased wet/dry ratios(treated:(74.1±4.2)%vs control:(86.8±5.2)%,P<0.01),MDA levels(treated:0.50±0.08 vs control:0.88±0.15,P <0.01)and MPO activity(treated:0.23±0.05 vs control:0.43±0.07,P

  14. Reproduction of a model of lung injury induced by depleted uranium inhalation in canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin ZHANG

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce a canine model of subacute lung injury induced by depleted uranium inhalation.Methods Twenty-six dogs were randomized into the control group(CG,n=6,low-dose group(LG,n=10.and high-dose group(HG,n=10.All of them underwent tracheal intubation.In control group,0.2ml/kg of normal saline was intratracheally given.In low dosage group,10mg/kg of depleted uranium(LG,and in high dose group 100mg/ml of depleted uranium(HG was introduced.The survival time of animals was observed in one month after intratracheal introduction of various agents,and chest CT scan was performed in the survived animals.They were sacrificed for pathological examination of lung tissues on the 31st day post of them intratracheal introduction of various agents.Results During the observation period,no animal died in CG,one dog in LG died on the 22nd day and 9 of them survived longer than 30 days.All the animals in HG group died within 30 days with a mean survival time of 11.2±8.9 days(median=12d.In comparison with the HG,significant difference on survival time was found between LG and CG,while no significant difference was found between the latter 2 groups(P=0.439.Pathologically,changes were noted in lung tissue of LG,such as escape of inflammatory cells into alveoli,hemorrhage and hyaline membrane formation in alveolar space,dilatation and congestion of alveolar capillaries,and infiltration of inflammatory cells in interstitial tissue.CT scanning revealed patchy effusion and solid consolidation in the left lung.Conclusion The canine model of subacute lung injury induced by a dose of 2mg/kg depleted uranium introduced through tracheal intubation is suitable for the study of subacute toxicity induced by depleted uranium.

  15. Steroid Tumor Environment in Male and Female Mice Model of Canine and Human Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Caceres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC and has been proposed as a good model for studying the human disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of female and male mice to reproduce IMC and IBC tumors and identify the hormonal tumor environment. To perform the study sixty 6–8-week-old male and female mice were inoculated subcutaneously with a suspension of 106 IPC-366 and SUM149 cells. Tumors and serum were collected and used for hormonal analysis. Results revealed that IPC-366 reproduced tumors in 90% of males inoculated after 2 weeks compared with 100% of females that reproduced tumor at the same time. SUM149 reproduced tumors in 40% of males instead of 80% of females that reproduced tumors after 4 weeks. Both cell lines produce distant metastasis in lungs being higher than the metastatic rates in females. EIA analysis revealed that male tumors had higher T and SO4E1 concentrations compared to female tumors. Serum steroid levels were lower than those found in tumors. In conclusion, IBC and IMC male mouse model is useful as a tool for IBC research and those circulating estrogens and intratumoral hormonal levels are crucial in the development and progression of tumors.

  16. Steroid Tumor Environment in Male and Female Mice Model of Canine and Human Inflammatory Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Sara; Peña, Laura; Silvan, Gema; Illera, Maria J; Woodward, Wendy A; Reuben, James M; Illera, Juan C

    2016-01-01

    Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and has been proposed as a good model for studying the human disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of female and male mice to reproduce IMC and IBC tumors and identify the hormonal tumor environment. To perform the study sixty 6-8-week-old male and female mice were inoculated subcutaneously with a suspension of 10(6)IPC-366 and SUM149 cells. Tumors and serum were collected and used for hormonal analysis. Results revealed that IPC-366 reproduced tumors in 90% of males inoculated after 2 weeks compared with 100% of females that reproduced tumor at the same time. SUM149 reproduced tumors in 40% of males instead of 80% of females that reproduced tumors after 4 weeks. Both cell lines produce distant metastasis in lungs being higher than the metastatic rates in females. EIA analysis revealed that male tumors had higher T and SO4E1 concentrations compared to female tumors. Serum steroid levels were lower than those found in tumors. In conclusion, IBC and IMC male mouse model is useful as a tool for IBC research and those circulating estrogens and intratumoral hormonal levels are crucial in the development and progression of tumors. PMID:27195300

  17. Establishing an in vivo model of canine prostate carcinoma using the new cell line CT1258

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer is a frequent finding in man. In dogs, malignant disease of the prostate is also of clinical relevance, although it is a less common diagnosis. Even though there are numerous differences in origin and development of the disease, man and dog share many similarities in the pathological presentation. For this reason, the dog might be a useful animal model for prostate malignancies in man. Although prostate cancer is of great importance in veterinary medicine as well as in comparative medicine, there are only few cell lines available. Thus, it was the aim of the present study to determine whether the formerly established prostate carcinoma cell line CT1258 is a suitable tool for in vivo testing, and to distinguish the growth pattern of the induced tumours. For characterisation of the in vivo behaviour of the in vitro established canine prostate carcinoma cell line CT1258, cells were inoculated in 19 NOD.CB17-PrkdcScid/J (in the following: NOD-Scid) mice, either subcutaneously or intraperitoneally. After sacrifice, the obtained specimens were examined histologically and compared to the pattern of the original tumour in the donor. Cytogenetic investigation was performed. The cell line CT 1258 not only showed to be highly tumourigenic after subcutaneous as well as intraperitoneal inoculation, but also mimicked the behaviour of the original tumour. Tumours induced by inoculation of the cell line CT1258 resemble the situation in naturally occurring prostate carcinoma in the dog, and thus could be used as in vivo model for future studies

  18. Effect of external stents on prevention of intimal hyperplasia in a canine vein graft model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Rong-jiang; ZOU Liang-jian; HUANG Sheng-dong; WANG Yin; HAN Lin; JI Guang-yu; XU Zhi-yun

    2007-01-01

    Background External stents have been used to reduce intimal hyperplasia of vein grafts.The aim of the present study was to define the size of an external stent appropriate for a particular graft by comparing vein grafts with different sizes of external stents.Methods A series of paired trials was performed to compare femoral vein grafts with different sizes of external stents,where 30 modeled canines were equally divided into three groups:6-mm external stent vs non-stent control,4-mm vs 6-mm external stent,and 4-mm vs 8-mm external stent.At day 3 after operation,color Doppler flow imaging(CDFI)was done to observe blood flow in the lumen.Four weeks later,CDFI was re-checked and the veins were harvested,stained and measured.Results All grafts were patent without formation of thrombosis.External stents significantly reduced intimal thickness of the vein grafts with a 6-mm external stent compared with the vein grafts without external stents(P<0.05).The vein grafts with the 4-mm external stent had similar intimal, medial and adventitial thicknesses compared with those with the 6-mm external stent and the 8-mm external stent.Conclusions External stents can reduce intimal hyperplasia of vein grafts.Stents of different diameters exert the similar effect on prevention of intimal hyperplasia.

  19. The Pancreas as an Islet Transplantation Site. Confirmation in a Syngeneic Rodent and Canine Autotransplant Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John I Stagner

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The availability of islet transplantation is limited by both the number of donor pancreata and the number of islets required for successful transplantation. There is evidence that the liver presents a less than optimal environment for islets that contributes to short- and long-term beta cell destruction or failure. Objective It is our hypothesis that the pancreas is a suitable transplant site and may require fewer islets than standard sites such as the liver or kidney, and could lead to improvements in transplantation outcomes. Methods To test this hypothesis both a rodent and a canine model were used. Syngeneic rat islets were transplanted to the pancreas, liver, or kidney of Lewis rats. Fasting blood glucose levels were compared for three months as an index of islet function. Dogs received an islet autotransplant to a pancreatic remnant. Insulin and glucose concentrations were followed for six months. Results In the rat, normoglycemia was maintained with 600 islets transplanted in the pancreas in contrast to the liver (3,200 islets or kidney (1,000-2,000 islets. Dogs remained normoglycemic after receiving an intrapancreatic islet transplant (mean 7,640±3,600 islets. There was no evidence of pancreatitis or nutritional deficiency in either species. Conclusions The pancreas should be considered as an islet transplant site. The pancreas is the native milieu for islets, and offers the advantage of requiring fewer islets than other conventional sites, thereby increasing the possibility that one donor pancreas may serve one or more recipients.

  20. Aliskiren protecting atrial structural remodeling from rapid atrial pacing in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Chen, Yan; Li, Weimin; Wang, Xinghua; Li, Jian; Yang, Wansong; Cheng, Lijun; Liu, Tong; Liu, Enzhao; Li, Guangping

    2016-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) contributing to the increasing mortality risk is the most common disease in clinical practice. Owing to the side effects and relative inefficacy of current antiarrhythmic drugs, some research focuses on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) for finding out the new treatment of AF. The purpose of this study is to confirm whether aliskiren as a proximal inhibitor of renin, which completely inhibits RAS, has beneficial effects on atrial structural remodeling in AF. In this study, rapid atrial pacing was induced at 500 beats per minute for 2 weeks in a canine model. A different dose of aliskiren was given orally for 2 weeks before rapid atrial pacing. HE staining and Masson's staining were used for analysis of myocardial fibrosis. TGF-β1, signal pathways, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were shown for the mechanism of structural remodeling after the treatment of aliskiren. Serious atrial fibrosis was induced by rapid atrial pacing, followed by the elevated TGF-β1, upregulated MEK and ERK1/2, and increased inflammatory factors. Aliskiren could apparently improve myocardial fibrosis by reducing the expression of TGF-β1, inhibiting MEK and ERK1/2 signal pathways, and decreasing IL-18 and TLR4 in both serum and atrial tissue. In conclusion, aliskiren could prevent atrial structural remodeling from rapid atrial pacing for 2 weeks. Aliskiren may play a potential beneficial role in the treatment of AF induced by rapid atrial pacing. PMID:27118660

  1. Transcutaneous Intraluminal Impedance Measurement for Minimally Invasive Monitoring of Gastric Motility: Validation in Acute Canine Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Poscente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous intraluminal impedance measurement (TIIM is a new method to cutaneously measure gastric contractions by assessing the attenuation dynamics of a small oscillating voltage emitted by a battery-powered ingestible capsule retained in the stomach. In the present study, we investigated whether TIIM can reliably assess gastric motility in acute canine models. Methods. Eight mongrel dogs were randomly divided into 2 groups: half received an active TIIM pill and half received an identically sized sham capsule. After 24-hour fasting and transoral administration of the pill (active or sham, two force transducers (FT were sutured onto the antral serosa at laparotomy. After closure, three standard cutaneous electrodes were placed on the abdomen, registering the transluminally emitted voltage. Thirty-minute baseline recordings were followed by pharmacological induction of gastric contractions using neostigmine IV and another 30-minute recording. Normalized one-minute baseline and post-neostigmine gastric motility indices (GMIs were calculated and Pearson correlation coefficients (PCCs between cutaneous and FT GMIs were obtained. Statistically significant GMI PCCs were seen in both baseline and post-neostigmine states. There were no significant GMI PCCs in the sham capsule test. Further chronic animal studies of this novel long-term gastric motility measurement technique are needed before testing it on humans.

  2. A novel device for the occlusion of left atrial appendage: an experimental study in canine models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, safety and biocompatibility of a novel device designed by the authors for the occlusion of left atrial appendage (LAA) in canine models. Methods: The occlusion of LAA was performed in 20 experimental dogs by using a novel LAA occluder, which was delivered to the LAA through a transseptal catheter. During the period of 2 weeks to 6 months after the procedure, the dogs were kept under observation for the device healing, migration, perforation and the formation of thrombus. Both scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to examine the endothelial growth on the surface of the occluder and the structure of the endothelial cells. Results: Of the total 20 dogs, the novel device was successfully implanted in 14. The LAA was occluded completely in 13 dogs. No mobile thrombi caused by the implantation procedure were observed. Endothelialization of the atrium-facing surface was observed at one month after the procedure, and the surface was completely covered with endothelial cells at 3 months after the treatment, which was confirmed by gross, histological and SEM examinations. TEM examination showed that the structure of endothelial cells, the mitochondrion and sarcomere of atrial cardiocyte were all normal. Gross and light microscopic examination of the kidney, lung spleen and liver showed that there was no evidence of embolism or infarction. Conclusion: The novel device is safe and feasible for the occlusion of the LAA in experimental dogs. Further study is needed to observe its long-term safety. (authors)

  3. Human synoviocyte lubricin and bovine synovial fluid lubricin equally improve gliding resistance in a canine model in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Mark D; Sun, Yu-long; Zhao, Chunfeng; Thoreson, Andrew R; Jay, Gregory D; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2011-01-01

    The lubricating ability of human synoviocyte lubricin and bovine lubricin purified from synovial fluid was investigated and compared using a canine in vitro tendon model. Our null hypothesis was that these two forms of lubricin would have equal lubricating ability. Forty two canine hind-limbs were used. The peroneus longus (PL) tendons were harvested, along with the proximal phalanx and flexor digitorum profundus of the second or fifth digit with its proximal fibro-osseous pulley. Forty PL tendons were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups. After gliding resistance testing, two intact PL tendons and two tendons in each group were randomly selected for surface observation with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The variance of the PL saline group mean gliding resistance was significantly different from other groups. There was a significant treatment-cycle interaction effect on the mean gliding resistance. On SEM, the surface of the saline treated PL tendons appeared rough, whereas the other tendon surfaces appeared smooth. Human synoviocyte lubricin functioned as well as bovine synovial fluid lubricin to reduce friction of canine PL tendons in vitro. This data suggest that treatment using the two forms of lubricin are mechanically similar.

  4. Experimental infection of dogs with Leishmania and saliva as a model to study Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Joaquim Costa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, transmitted by the bite of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. Dogs are the main domestic reservoir of the parasite. The establishment of an experimental model that partially reproduces natural infection in dogs is very important to test vaccine candidates, mainly regarding those that use salivary proteins from the vector and new therapeutical approaches. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we describe an experimental infection in dogs, using intradermal injection of Leishmania infantum plus salivary gland homogenate (SGH of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Thirty-five dogs were infected with 1×10(7 parasites combined with five pairs of Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary glands and followed for 450 days after infection and clinical, immunological and parasitological parameters were evaluated. Two hundred and ten days after infection we observed that 31,4% of dogs did not display detectable levels of anti-Leishmania antibodies but all presented different numbers of parasites in the lymph nodes. Animals with a positive xenodiagnosis had at least 3,35×10(5 parasites in their lymph nodes. An increase of IFN-γ and IL-10 levels was detected during infection. Twenty two percent of dogs developed symptoms of CVL during infection. CONCLUSION: The infection model described here shows some degree of similarity when compared with naturally infected dogs opening new perspectives for the study of CVL using an experimental model that employs the combination of parasites and sand fly saliva both present during natural transmission.

  5. Chondrosarcoma of the larynx: a therapeutic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinhar, S; Zik, D; Issakov, J; Rappaport, Y

    2001-08-01

    The diagnosis of laryngeal chondrosarcoma is likely to be missed because of its infrequent occurrence and its indolent pattern of growth. A 53-year-old woman came to our service with an 18-year history of hoarseness and increasing dyspnea. She had been previously documented as having left vocal fold paralysis and a bulging laryngeal mass. Computed tomography revealed the presence of a large calcified tumor that had caused a deformity of the larynx and an erosion of the arytenoid and cricoid cartilages. Direct laryngoscopy detected a large supraglottic mass with a normal-appearing mucosa. Total excision of the tumor was achieved through a lateral neck incision that spared the larynx. This case emphasizes the importance of a high index of suspicion for laryngeal chondrosarcoma in a patient who has unexplained vocal fold paralysis and a submucosal subglottic mass. Every effort should be made to take a conservative surgical approach that preserves laryngeal function when possible.

  6. Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels Krogh; Bjørndal, Kristine; Krogdahl, Annelise;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx are rare. The purpose of this study is to present a national series of laryngeal salivary gland carcinoma patients and to bring a review of recent literature. METHODS: By merging The Danish Cancer Registry, The National Pathology Registry...... and The National Patient Registry all registered patients with laryngeal salivary carcinomas diagnosed from 1990 to 2007 were identified. The histological slides were reviewed and data concerning age, sex, symptoms, topography, histology, treatment and outcome were registered. Based on a supplemented PubMed search...... a review of literature from 1991 to 2010 was performed. RESULTS: Six Danish patients with a malignant salivary gland tumor in the larynx were identified resulting in an incidence of 0.001/100,000 inhabitants/year. Four had adenoid cystic carcinoma and two a mucoepidermoid carcinoma. All patients were male...

  7. Image-Based Macro-Micro Finite Element Models of a Canine Femur with Implant Design Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Krishnan, Ganapathi; Dyce, Jonathan

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive model of a bone-cement-implant assembly is developed for a canine cemented femoral prosthesis system. Various steps in this development entail profiling the canine femur contours by computed tomography (CT) scanning, computer aided design (CAD) reconstruction of the canine femur from CT images, CAD modeling of the implant from implant blue prints and CAD modeling of the interface cement. Finite element analysis of the macroscopic assembly is conducted for stress analysis in individual components of the system, accounting for variation in density and material properties in the porous bone material. A sensitivity analysis is conducted with the macroscopic model to investigate the effect of implant design variables on the stress distribution in the assembly. Subsequently, rigorous microstructural analysis of the bone incorporating the morphological intricacies is conducted. Various steps in this development include acquisition of the bone microstructural data from histological serial sectioning, stacking of sections to obtain 3D renderings of void distributions, microstructural characterization and determination of properties and, finally, microstructural stress analysis using a 3D Voronoi cell finite element method. Generation of the simulated microstructure and analysis by the 3D Voronoi cell finite element model provides a new way of modeling complex microstructures and correlating to morphological characteristics. An inverse calculation of the material parameters of bone by combining macroscopic experiments with microstructural characterization and analysis provides a new approach to evaluating properties without having to do experiments at this scale. Finally, the microstructural stresses in the femur are computed using the 3D VCFEM to study the stress distribution at the scale of the bone porosity. Significant difference is observed between the macroscopic stresses and the peak microscopic stresses at different locations.

  8. Calpain I Inhibition prevents atrial structural remodeling in a canine model with atrial fibrillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Hong-jie; SHAN Hong-bo; LIU Jie; LI Wei-min; LI Yue; GONG Yong-tai; YANG Bao-feng; JIN Cheng-luo; SHENG Li; CHU Shan; ZHANG Li

    2008-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is accompanied by atrial structural remodeling. Calpain activity is induced during AR To lest a causal relationship between calpain activation and atrial structural changes, N-acetyl-Leu-Leu-Met (ALLM), a calpain inhibitor, was utilized in a canine AF model.Methods Fifteen dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham-operated group, control group and calpain inhibitor group; each with 5 dogs. Sustained AF was induced by rapid right atrium pacing at 600 beats per minute for 3 weeks. ALLM was administered at a dosage of 1.0 mg-kg-1·d-1 in the calpain inhibitor group. Three weeks later, the proteolysis, protein expression of TnT and myosin, calpain l localization and expression and structural changes were examined in left atrial free walls, right atrial free walls and the interatrial septum respectively. Atrial size and contractile function were also measured by echocardiography.Results Long-term rapid atrial pacing induced marked structural changes such as enlarged atrial volume, myolysis, degradation of TnT and myosin, accumulation of glycogen and changes in mitochondrial shape and size, which were paralleled by an increase in calpain activity. The positive correlation between calpain activity and the degree of myolysis (rs=0.90 961, P<0.0001) was demonstrated. In addition to structural abnormalities, pacing-induced atrial contractile dysfunction was observed in this study. The pacing-induced atrial structural alterations and loss of contractility were partially prevented by the calpain inhibitor ALLM.Conclusions Activation of calpain represents key features in the progression towards overt structural remodeling. Calpain inhibitor, ALLM, suppressed the increased calpain activity and reversed structural remodeling caused by sustained atrial fibrillation in the present model. Calpain Inhibition may therefore provide a possibility for therapeutic Intervention in AF.

  9. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein by psychotherapeutic drugs in a canine cell model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrickx, J A; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2014-01-01

    Drug-drug interactions related to long-term therapies are of increasing concern. Psychotherapeutic drugs, licensed for the use in dogs for the management of separation anxiety and other behavioural disorders, are examples of drugs used in long-term therapies. In an in vitro system with canine P-glyc

  10. Tailor-made heart simulation predicts the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy in a canine model of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthee, Nirmal; Okada, Jun-ichi; Washio, Takumi; Mochizuki, Youhei; Suzuki, Ryohei; Koyama, Hidekazu; Ono, Minoru; Hisada, Toshiaki; Sugiura, Seiryo

    2016-07-01

    Despite extensive studies on clinical indices for the selection of patient candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), approximately 30% of selected patients do not respond to this therapy. Herein, we examined whether CRT simulations based on individualized realistic three-dimensional heart models can predict the therapeutic effect of CRT in a canine model of heart failure with left bundle branch block. In four canine models of failing heart with dyssynchrony, individualized three-dimensional heart models reproducing the electromechanical activity of each animal were created based on the computer tomographic images. CRT simulations were performed for 25 patterns of three ventricular pacing lead positions. Lead positions producing the best and the worst therapeutic effects were selected in each model. The validity of predictions was tested in acute experiments in which hearts were paced from the sites identified by simulations. We found significant correlations between the experimentally observed improvement in ejection fraction (EF) and the predicted improvements in ejection fraction (Ppositions produced better outcomes compared with the worst positioning in all dogs studied, although there were significant variations in responses. Variations in ventricular wall thickness among the dogs may have contributed to these responses. Thus CRT simulations using the individualized three-dimensional heart models can predict acute hemodynamic improvement, and help determine the optimal positions of the pacing lead. PMID:26973218

  11. Association of C722T polymorphism in XRCC3 gene with larynx cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; You, Hui-Hua; Jia, Yuan-Jing; Guo, Jian-Dong; Du, Huan-Le

    2014-06-01

    Several case-control studies indicated that XRCC3 genetic polymorphism (C722T) was associated with larynx cancer. The present study aimed to further evaluate the relation between the XRCC3 gene C722T polymorphism and larynx cancer. We selected five case-control studies related to XRCC3 gene C722T polymorphism and larynx cancer by searching PubMed, EMBase, Chinese CNKI, and Wanfang database. RevMan 5.0 software was used to perform the analysis. We directly utilized Q test and I (2) test to test the heterogeneity between each study. We utilized the fixed effects model to merge the odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval. There were 1,507 larynx cancer patients and 3,623 cancer-free control subjects included in the present study. By meta-analysis, we did not find any association of XRCC3 gene C722T polymorphism with larynx cancer [OR=1.54, 95 % CI (0.77-3.08); P=0.22]. The present study indicated that XRCC3 gene C722T polymorphism was not associated with larynx cancer. PMID:24523020

  12. Spectral analysis of electrograms during ventricular tachycardia in a canine model: relation with epicardial isochronal maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, G; de Jesús Gómez, M; Le Guyader, P; Soucy, B; Savard, P; Nadeau, R

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the capability of magnitude-squared coherence and bicoherence to differentiate monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (MVT) and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (PVT) in a canine model and to relate these results to the epicardial isochronal maps on a beat-to-beat basis. Unipolar electrograms were simultaneously recorded from the surface of both ventricles with a 127-lead sock electrode array in 12 open-chest anesthetized dogs. The sampling frequency was 500 Hz. Atrioventricular block was induced by formaldehyde injection into the atrioventricular node. The left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded for 60 minutes under ventricular pacing (140 beats/min). During reperfusion, 12 MVT episodes lasting more than 42 seconds were recorded. Left stellate ganglion stimulation induced five PVT episodes lasting more than 42 seconds. Each of these recordings was divided into seven segments of 3,072 points (6.144 seconds). After visual selection, 104 segments were extracted and classified as 73 MVT and 31 PVT segments. Magnitude-squared coherence was estimated as the cross-spectrum from two epicardial signals (on the right and left ventricles, respectively), normalized with the respective autopower spectrum. Bicoherence was estimated as the bispectrum normalized with the autopower spectrum. Magnitude-squared coherence correctly identified 96% of MVT and 81% of PVT segments for a total accuracy of 91%. Bicoherence estimated with the left ventricular lead correctly identified 100% of MVT and 77% of PVT segments with an accuracy of 93%. Beat-to-beat epicardial maps of MVT displayed a cluster of sites of origin close to the reperfusion area, while the sites of origin from beats during PVT were much more dispersed over both ventricles. A strong and significant correlation was found between the number of electrodes with the earliest epicardial activation and coherence (r = .76, P origin. Both spectral techniques seemed powerful

  13. A combination cocktail improves spatial attention in a canine model of human aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Elizabeth; Murphey, Heather L; Dowling, Amy L S; McCarty, Katie L; Bethel, Samuel R; Nitz, Jonathan A; Pleiss, Melanie; Vanrooyen, Jenna; Grossheim, Mike; Smiley, Jeffery R; Murphy, M Paul; Beckett, Tina L; Pagani, Dieter; Bresch, Frederick; Hendrix, Curt

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves multiple pathological processes in the brain, including increased inflammation and oxidative damage, as well as the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques. We hypothesized that a combinatorial therapeutic approach to target these multiple pathways may provide cognitive and neuropathological benefits for AD patients. To test this hypothesis, we used a canine model of human aging and AD. Aged dogs naturally develop learning and memory impairments, human-type Aβ deposits, and oxidative damage in the brain. Thus, 9 aged beagles (98-115 months) were treated with a medical food cocktail containing (1) an extract of turmeric containing 95% curcuminoids; (2) an extract of green tea containing 50% epigallocatechingallate; (3) N-acetyl cysteine; (4) R-alpha lipoic acid; and (5) an extract of black pepper containing 95% piperine. Nine similarly aged dogs served as placebo-treated controls. After 3 months of treatment, 13 dogs completed a variable distance landmark task used as a measure of spatial attention. As compared to placebo-treated animals, dogs receiving the medical food cocktail had significantly lower error scores (t11 = 4.3, p = 0.001) and were more accurate across all distances (F(1,9) = 20.7, p = 0.001), suggesting an overall improvement in spatial attention. Measures of visual discrimination learning, executive function and spatial memory, and levels of brain and cerebrospinal fluid Aβ were unaffected by the cocktail. Our results indicate that this medical food cocktail may be beneficial for improving spatial attention and motivation deficits associated with impaired cognition in aging and AD. PMID:22886019

  14. Dynamic cone beam CT angiography of carotid and cerebral arteries using canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This research is designed to develop and evaluate a flat-panel detector-based dynamic cone beam CT system for dynamic angiography imaging, which is able to provide both dynamic functional information and dynamic anatomic information from one multirevolution cone beam CT scan. Methods: A dynamic cone beam CT scan acquired projections over four revolutions within a time window of 40 s after contrast agent injection through a femoral vein to cover the entire wash-in and wash-out phases. A dynamic cone beam CT reconstruction algorithm was utilized and a novel recovery method was developed to correct the time-enhancement curve of contrast flow. From the same data set, both projection-based subtraction and reconstruction-based subtraction approaches were utilized and compared to remove the background tissues and visualize the 3D vascular structure to provide the dynamic anatomic information. Results: Through computer simulations, the new recovery algorithm for dynamic time-enhancement curves was optimized and showed excellent accuracy to recover the actual contrast flow. Canine model experiments also indicated that the recovered time-enhancement curves from dynamic cone beam CT imaging agreed well with that of an IV-digital subtraction angiography (DSA) study. The dynamic vascular structures reconstructed using both projection-based subtraction and reconstruction-based subtraction were almost identical as the differences between them were comparable to the background noise level. At the enhancement peak, all the major carotid and cerebral arteries and the Circle of Willis could be clearly observed. Conclusions: The proposed dynamic cone beam CT approach can accurately recover the actual contrast flow, and dynamic anatomic imaging can be obtained with high isotropic 3D resolution. This approach is promising for diagnosis and treatment planning of vascular diseases and strokes.

  15. Multi-drug resistance in a canine lymphoid cell line due to increased P-glycoprotein expression, a potential model for drug-resistant canine lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvliet, M; Teske, E; Schrickx, J A

    2014-01-01

    Canine lymphoma is routinely treated with a doxorubicin-based multidrug chemotherapy protocol, and although treatment is initially successful, tumor recurrence is common and associated with therapy resistance. Active efflux of chemotherapeutic agents by transporter proteins of the ATP-Binding Casset

  16. Bone ingrowth through porous titanium granulate around a femoral stem: histological assessment in a six-month canine hemiarthroplasty model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Thomas M; Urban, Robert M; Hall, Deborah J; Andersson, Gunnar B J

    2007-01-01

    The procedure of using of porous titanium granules for cementless fixation of a hip replacement femoral stem was studied in a hemiarthroplasty model in 10 canines for 6 months. A vibrating instrument was used to facilitate both the delivery and distribution of the irregularly shaped porous titanium granules into the femoral canal as well as the subsequent insertion of a titanium alloy stem into the intramedullary bed of granules. Histological examination revealed lamellar bone formation through the mantle of porous titanium granules in continuity with the surrounding cortex resulting in the formation of an integrated mantle of bone and titanium granulate around the prosthesis. PMID:17578819

  17. Intravenous administration of apomorphine does not induce long QT syndrome: Experimental evidence from in vivo canine models

    OpenAIRE

    渡辺, 雄大

    2016-01-01

    主査 : 杉薫 / タイトル : Intravenous administration of apomorphine does not induce long QT syndrome: Experimental evidence from in vivo canine models /著者 : Yudai Watanabe, Yuji Nakamura, Xin Cao, Hiroshi Ohara, Yukiko Yamazaki, Norie Murayama, Yosuke Sugiyama, Hiroko Izumi-Nakaseko, Kentaro Ando, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Atsushi Sugiyama /掲載誌 : Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology /巻号・発行年等 : 116 (6):468-475, 2015 /本文ファイル: 査読後原稿 /This is the peer reviewed version of the following article:Basic & Clinic...

  18. Imaging of Larynx and Pharynx Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malekmaryam Afkar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nThe soft tissues of the neck and the mucosal surfaces of the larynx are readily accessible either by indirect visualization using a mirror or direct visualization by an endoscope. Therefore, endolarynx can entirely be seen and most tumors are diagnosed. If voice problems are suspected, videotaping of direct examination allows assessment of subtle movement disorders. Only if initial clinical evaluation is inconclusive, a direct examination under anesthesia is performed. This inspection allows better direct observation of the laryngeal mucosa as well as better direct examination of the laryngeal ventricle and the subglottic region. Deep soft tissue extension or cartilaginous involvement can not be visualized. Consequently, the evaluation is performed by imaging , carried out as an adjunct to direct assessment. The larynx presents one of the true challenges of head and neck imaging. The organ is small and in almost constant motion. Breathing and swallowing create significant artifacts that can be controlled only briefly. The quality of laryngeal images has always been related to acquisition speed. Despite the mentioned drawbacks, multidetector spiral CT scanning and fast MRI techniques can develop excellent images. The information obtained by modern imaging when combined with surface visualization of modern laryngoscopy, provides excellent understanding of laryngeal pathology. A discussion of the laryngopharynx (hypopharynx is included because of its intimate relationship to the posterior aspect of the larynx. Behind the oral cavity and extending from the base of the skull to the level of the caudal cricoid cartilage, is the mucosa-lined musculomembranous tube known as the pharynx. The pharynx has been subdivided into 3 sections: 1-Nasopharynx, which extends from the skull base to the level of the hard palate. 2-Oropharynx, which extends from the level of the hard palate to the level of the hyoid bone. 3-Hypopharynx which extends from the level

  19. Large Size Cells in the Visceral Adipose Depot Predict Insulin Resistance in the Canine Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, Morvarid; Stefanovski, Darko; Hsu, Isabel R.; Iyer, Malini; Woolcott, Orison O.; Zheng, Dan; Catalano, Karyn J.; Chiu, Jenny D.; Kim, Stella P.; Lisa N Harrison; Ionut, Viorica; Lottati, Maya; Richard N Bergman; Richey, Joyce M.

    2011-01-01

    Adipocyte size plays a key role in the development of insulin resistance. We examined longitudinal changes in adipocyte size and distribution in visceral (VIS) and subcutaneous (SQ) fat during obesity-induced insulin resistance and after treatment with CB-1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant (RIM) in canines. We also examined whether adipocyte size and/or distribution is predictive of insulin resistance. Adipocyte morphology was assessed by direct microscopy and analysis of digital images in pre...

  20. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

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    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  1. Storage and allogeneic transplantation of peripheral nerve using a green tea polyphenol solution in a canine model

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    Noguchi Takashi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our previous study, allogeneic-transplanted peripheral nerve segments preserved for one month in a polyphenol solution at 4°C could regenerate nerves in rodents demonstrated the same extent of nerve regeneration as isogeneic fresh nerve grafts. The present study investigated whether the same results could be obtained in a canine model. Methods A sciatic nerve was harvested from a male beagle dog, divided into fascicules of Sry and β-actin to investigate whether cells of donor origin remained in the allogeneic nerve segments. FK506 concentration was measured in blood samples taken before the animals were killed. Results The total myelinated axon numbers and amplitudes of the muscle action potentials correlated significantly with the blood FK506 concentration. Few axons were observed in the allogeneic-transplanted nerve segments in the PA0.025 group. PCR showed clear Sry-specific bands in specimens from the PA0.1 and PA0.05 groups but not from the PA0.025 group. Conclusions Successful nerve regeneration was observed in the polyphenol-treated nerve allografts when transplanted in association with a therapeutic dose of FK506. The data indicate that polyphenols can protect nerve tissue from ischemic damage for one month; however, the effects of immune suppression seem insufficient to permit allogeneic transplantation of peripheral nerves in a canine model.

  2. Research on Electrical Remodeling After Short Term Pacing in Canine Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kebbati A Hafid; Huang Congxin; Wang Xi; Zhao Qingyan

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the changes in atrial effective refractory period (AERP) proprieties and in ionic currents in PVs myocytes from dogs subjected to rapid atrial pacing in PVs and right atrial appendage (RAA) and to relate these changes to the ability to induce AF. Methods Twelve mongrel dogs in normal sinus rhythm were paced from the superior left PVs or RAA at 500 bpm for 4 hours. Electrophysiologic studies conducted to determine changes in AERP, dispersion and rhythm. Ionic currents were studies with the patch clamp technique in single PVs myocytes in sham operated dogs and compared with those from PVs pacing and RAA pacing groups. Results The presence of rapid atrial pacing was associated with a marked shortening in AERP in both PVs and RAA pacing group with a marked increase of AERP dispersion in PVs pacing. Both L-type calcium current (ICa, L) and the transient outward current (Ito)were reduced in both groups with an increased significance in PVs pacing group. The density of ICa-L WaS decreased significantly from ( - 6.03 ± 0.63 ) pA/pF in the control group to ( -3.21±0.34) pA/pF in PVs pacing group and ( - 4,75 ± 0.41 ) pA/pF in RAA pacing group (n = 6, P<0.05) while the density of Ito was decreased significantly from (8.45±0.71 ) pA/pF in the control group to (5.21 ±0.763 ) pA/pF in PVs pacing group and (6,84 ± 0.69) pA/pF in RAA pacing group (n = 6, P<0.05). Conclusions Our findings provide likely ionic mechanisms of shortened repolarization in induced atrial tachycardia with a decrease in Ica,L and Ito current densities which is the likely mechanism for a decrease in Action potential duration (APD) rate adaptation in the canine rapid pacing model more pronounced in PVs pacing group underlying the crucial role of PVs in initiating AF.

  3. Tracheostoma valves and their fixation : towards an artificial larynx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsema, Albert Anne

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the development of a new generation tracheostoma valves and their fixation; the tissue connector. The tracheostoma valve and tissue connector can be combined resulting in an external artificia larynx. This is a first stage towards an implantable artificial larynx.

  4. CEREBRAL METASTASES CANCER OF THE LARYNX: TWO CASE REPORTS

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    N. V. Sevyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral metastases cancer of the larynx are rare and poorly understood pathology, many questions of diagnostics and treatment of this pathology remain open. In the work presents clinical cases сerebral metastases cancer of the larynx. Special attention is paid to surgical treatment in complex with chemotherapy.

  5. Radiation/hyperthermia in canine hemangiopericytomas: A large animal model for therapeutic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-irradiation followed by microwave induced hyperthermia resulted in a 91% objective response rate in 11 dogs with naturally occurring hemangiopericytomas. The authors used a novel statistical procedure to quantitatively evaluate the clinical behavior of locally invasive, non-metastatic tumors undergoing therapy for control of local disease. Utilizing a small sample size, the procedure demonstrated distribution of the data and classical parametric and non-parametric statistical methods, including setting confidence limits on the population mean and placing tolerance limits on a population percentage. Similarities of canine and human hemangiopericytomas were observed. Application of the statistical methods to human and animal trials were apparent

  6. Chronic neutropenia. A new canine model induced by human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, W. P.; Csiba, E; Canin, A; Hockman, H; Souza, L M; Layton, J E; Dale, D C

    1991-01-01

    Normal dogs were treated with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) at 10 micrograms/kg/day for 30 d, which caused an initial neutrophilia, followed by a prolonged period of chronic neutropenia. A control dog treated with recombinant canine G-CSF (rcG-CSF) showed persistent neutrophilia over 3 mo. Serum from dogs during neutropenia contained an antibody to rhG-CSF, which neutralized the stimulatory effects of both rhG-CSF and rcG-CSF on dog marrow neutrophilic prog...

  7. Coblation of the canine vocal fold: a histologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divi, Venu; Benninger, Michael; Kiupel, Matti; Dobbie, Allison

    2012-11-01

    Controlled ablation (coblation) is a radiofrequency bipolar method of tissue ablation, which destroys tissue at very low temperatures. It has been used in a variety of clinical settings and is most frequently used by the otolaryngologist for tonsillectomy. In this study, we have examined the effect of coblation on the canine larynx by applying coblation to the vocal fold and harvesting the larynx on postoperative days (PODs) 0, 4, and 7. Histologic examination was performed with a variety of stains to examine the healing process. Coblation injury demonstrated complete epithelialization by POD 7. No injury to the underlying vocalis muscle was seen. The inflammatory response demonstrates less inflammation than previously reported with CO(2) laser injury. Coblation is a viable method for removal of tissue from the vocal fold resulting in minimal scar formation and a controlled depth of injury. Further studies should be performed to determine clinical utility in the removal of lesions such as respiratory papillomatosis.

  8. The Mink Model Establishment of Canine Distemper Virus%水貂犬瘟热动物模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王胜乐; 王铮; 郑学星; 杨松涛; 黄耕; 赵永坤; 高玉伟; 夏咸柱; 王铁成; 冯娜; 李元果; 于志君; 丁洁; 许薇薇; 忻悦; 岳秀芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立水貂犬瘟热动物模型,并利用水貂犬瘟热模型评价不同犬瘟热强毒株的毒力,为水貂犬瘟热病毒疫苗的研究奠定基础.方法 从猴、藏獒、犬的病料中分离犬瘟热病毒,测定犬瘟热病毒的毒力,并进行传代培养.利用犬的犬瘟热动物模型筛选稳定的犬瘟热强毒株,进行水貂犬瘟热动物模型的建立及其毒力评估.结果 筛选出了稳定的犬瘟热强毒株并进行了家犬动物实验,同时表现出了强烈的临床症状,并利用不同的代次毒进行了犬瘟热动物模型的建立.结论 成功建立了犬瘟热动物模型并对不同来源的犬瘟热病毒毒力进行了评估.%Objective To establish a mink model of canine distemper virus , and different canine distemper virulent strain virulence was evaluated by the mink animal model for laying the foundation for the study of the canine distemper virus. Methods Different canine distemper viruses were separated from specimens , cell-cultured, passaged and determined virulence of CDV. And we compared the virulence of different generation virulent strains , stable virulent strains were used for establishing mink canine distemper animal model and evaluated their virulence . Results We screened 3 canine distemper virulent strains and made dog animal experiments , the three viruses infected dogs and they showed a strong clinical symptoms , and mink animal model was established using different generations . Conclusion we successfully established the canine distemper animal model and evaluated virulence of CDV .

  9. Biphasic pulses enhance bleomycin efficacy in a spontaneous canine genital tumor model of chemoresistance: Sticker sarcoma

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    Citro Gennaro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sticker's sarcoma (also known as transmissible venereal tumor is a horizontally transmitted neoplasm of the dog, that is passed with coitus. It is a locally aggressive tumor with a low tendency to metastatic spread. The most common locations are the genitals, the nose, the perianal area. Standard treatment consists with chemotherapy with vincristine, however other therapies such as, cryotherapy, immunotherapy or, in selected cases, radiation therapy, have been reported. In this article we describe the outcome of a small cohort of canine patients, with chemotherapy resistant transmissible venereal tumor (TVT, treated with bleomycin selectively driven by trains of biphasic pulses (electrochemotherapy. Three canine patients, with refractory TVT, entered the study and received two sessions of ECT under sedation. The pets had local injection of bleomycin at the concentration of 1.5 mg/ml and five minutes after the chemotherapy, trains of 8 biphasic electric pulses lasting 50 + 50 μs each, with 1 ms interpulse intervals, were delivered by means of modified caliper or, for difficult districts, through paired needle electrode. All the patients responded to the treatment and are still in remission at different times. Electrochemotherapy appears as a safe and efficacious modality for the treatment of TVT and warrants further investigations.

  10. An exploration of the ability of tepoxalin to ameliorate the degradation of articular cartilage in a canine in vitro model

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    Clegg Peter D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study the ability of tepoxalin, a dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX and lipoxygenase (LOX and its active metabolite to reduce the catabolic response of cartilage to cytokine stimulation in an in vitro model of canine osteoarthritis (OA. Grossly normal cartilage was collected post-mortem from seven dogs that had no evidence of joint disease. Cartilage explants were cultured in media containing the recombinant canine interleukin-1β (IL-1β at 100 ng/ml and recombinant human oncostatin-M (OSM at 50 ng/ml. The effects of tepoxalin and its metabolite were studied at three concentrations (1 × 10-5, 1 × 10-6 and 1 × 10-7 M. Total glycosaminoglycan (GAG and collagen (hydroxyproline release from cartilage explants were used as outcome measures of proteoglycan and collagen depletion respectively. PGE2 and LTB4 assays were performed to study the effects of the drug on COX and LOX activity. Results Treatment with IL-1β and OSM significantly upregulated both collagen (p = 0.004 and proteoglycan (p = 0.001 release from the explants. Tepoxalin at 10-5 M and 10-6 M caused a decrease in collagen release from the explants (p = 0.047 and p = 0.075. Drug treatment showed no effect on GAG release. PGE2 concentration in culture media at day 7 was significantly increased by IL-1β and OSM and treatment with both tepoxalin and its metabolite showed a trend towards dose-dependent reduction of PGE2 production. LTB4 concentrations were too low to be quantified. Cytotoxicity assays suggested that neither tepoxalin nor its metabolite had a toxic effect on the cartilage chondrocytes at the concentrations and used in this study. Conclusion This study provides evidence that tepoxalin exerts inhibition of COX and can reduce in vitro collagen loss from canine cartilage explants at a concentration of 10-5 M. We can conclude that, in this model, tepoxalin can partially inhibit the development of cartilage degeneration when it is available locally to

  11. Synergistic myoprotection of L-arginine and adenosine in a canine model of global myocardial ischaemic reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Lei; DIAN Ke; CHEN Hui-jiao; AN Qi; JIA Meng-xing; YANG Ping-liang; WANG Wei; DENG Shuo-zeng; LIU Jin

    2007-01-01

    Background Endogenous nitric oxide and adenosine increase simultaneously to keep the balance of energy demand and supply when the oxygen supply is insufficient, which suggests that nitric oxide and adenosine might exert a synergistic myoprotection during tissue hypoxia. In this study, we tested this hypothesis utilizing a canine model of prolonged global myocardial ischaemic reperfusion injury.Methods In this double blind, controlled study, the hearts of 24 anaesthetized mongrel dogs were arrested for 2 hours with aortic cross clamping and blood cardioplegia. The treatment groups were those supplemented with 2 mmol/L L-arginine (ARG), supplemented with 1 mmol/L adenosine (ADO), ARG + ADO supplemented with both, and no supplementation (control) (n=6 in each group). Haemodynamics, biochemical indices, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and myeloperoxidase activities of myocardium were determined to evaluate myocardial injury. Statistical comparison was performed by two way ANOVA.Results Although the requirements for inotropic supports were higher, the cardiac outputs were lower in control group than in ARG, ADO and the combination groups. Plasma cardiac troponin I levels were higher and the areas of hydropic changes were larger in control group than in ARG and ADO groups. Combination of arginine and adenosine provided further myoprotection with respect to better cardiac performance, lower release of cardiac troponin I, and smaller areas of hydropic changes compared with ARG and ADO groups. ATP content was higher, but myeloperoxidase activities of myocardium were significantly lower in the combination group than in control, ARG and ADO groups (P<0.05).Conclusions Combination of L-arginine and adenosine provides synergistic myoprotection in a canine model of global myocardial ischaemia. Thus, the combination is recommended when the heart is exposed to a prolonged ischaemia during cardiac surgery.

  12. A genetic predictive model for canine hip dysplasia: integration of Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS and candidate gene approaches.

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    Nerea Bartolomé

    Full Text Available Canine hip dysplasia is one of the most prevalent developmental orthopedic diseases in dogs worldwide. Unfortunately, the success of eradication programs against this disease based on radiographic diagnosis is low. Adding the use of diagnostic genetic tools to the current phenotype-based approach might be beneficial. The aim of this study was to develop a genetic prognostic test for early diagnosis of hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers. To develop our DNA test, 775 Labrador Retrievers were recruited. For each dog, a blood sample and a ventrodorsal hip radiograph were taken. Dogs were divided into two groups according to their FCI hip score: control (A/B and case (D/E. C dogs were not included in the sample. Genetic characterization combining a GWAS and a candidate gene strategy using SNPs allowed a case-control population association study. A mathematical model which included 7 SNPs was developed using logistic regression. The model showed a good accuracy (Area under the ROC curve = 0.85 and was validated in an independent population of 114 dogs. This prognostic genetic test represents a useful tool for choosing the most appropriate therapeutic approach once genetic predisposition to hip dysplasia is known. Therefore, it allows a more individualized management of the disease. It is also applicable during genetic selection processes, since breeders can benefit from the information given by this test as soon as a blood sample can be collected, and act accordingly. In the authors' opinion, a shift towards genomic screening might importantly contribute to reducing canine hip dysplasia in the future. In conclusion, based on genetic and radiographic information from Labrador Retrievers with hip dysplasia, we developed an accurate predictive genetic test for early diagnosis of hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers. However, further research is warranted in order to evaluate the validity of this genetic test in other dog breeds.

  13. Pharmacological effects of a C-phycocyanin-based multicomponent nutraceutical in an in-vitro canine chondrocyte model of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Stephanie E; Chen, Yufei; Ho, Emmanuel A; Martinez, Steven A; Davies, Neal M

    2015-07-01

    Multicomponent nutraceuticals are becoming increasingly popular treatments or adjunctive therapies for osteoarthritis in veterinary medicine despite lack of evidence of efficacy for many products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of a commercially available C-phycocyanin-based nutraceutical and select constituent ingredients in an in-vitro model of canine osteoarthritis. Normal canine articular chondrocytes were used in an in-vitro model of osteoarthritis. Inflammatory conditions were induced using interleukin-1β. The nutraceutical preparation as a whole, its individual constituents, as well as carprofen were evaluated at concentrations of 0 to 250 μg/mL for reduction of the following inflammatory mediators and indicators of catabolism of the extracellular matrix: prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TFN-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), nitric oxide, and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs). Validated, commercially available assay kits were used for quantitation of inflammatory mediators. The antioxidant capacities, as well as cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory activities of the whole nutraceutical preparation and select constituents, were also assessed using validated commercially available assay kits. The antioxidant capacity of the nutraceutical and constituents was concentration-dependent. The nutraceutical and constituents appear to display anti-inflammatory activity primarily through the inhibition of COX-2. The nutraceutical displayed similar strength to carprofen in reducing TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-3, nitric oxide, and sGAGs at select concentration ranges. The C-phycocyanin (CPC)-based nutraceutical and constituents may be able to mediate 3 primary pathogenic mechanisms of osteoarthritis: inflammation, chondral degeneration, and oxidative stress in vitro. The nutraceutical may be clinically useful in veterinary

  14. Molecular Characterization of Three Canine Models of Human Rare Bone Diseases: Caffey, van den Ende-Gupta, and Raine Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytönen, Marjo K; Arumilli, Meharji; Lappalainen, Anu K; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Hundi, Sruthi; Salmela, Elina; Venta, Patrick; Sarkiala, Eva; Jokinen, Tarja; Gorgas, Daniela; Kere, Juha; Nieminen, Pekka; Drögemüller, Cord; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-05-01

    One to two percent of all children are born with a developmental disorder requiring pediatric hospital admissions. For many such syndromes, the molecular pathogenesis remains poorly characterized. Parallel developmental disorders in other species could provide complementary models for human rare diseases by uncovering new candidate genes, improving the understanding of the molecular mechanisms and opening possibilities for therapeutic trials. We performed various experiments, e.g. combined genome-wide association and next generation sequencing, to investigate the clinico-pathological features and genetic causes of three developmental syndromes in dogs, including craniomandibular osteopathy (CMO), a previously undescribed skeletal syndrome, and dental hypomineralization, for which we identified pathogenic variants in the canine SLC37A2 (truncating splicing enhancer variant), SCARF2 (truncating 2-bp deletion) and FAM20C (missense variant) genes, respectively. CMO is a clinical equivalent to an infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey disease), for which SLC37A2 is a new candidate gene. SLC37A2 is a poorly characterized member of a glucose-phosphate transporter family without previous disease associations. It is expressed in many tissues, including cells of the macrophage lineage, e.g. osteoclasts, and suggests a disease mechanism, in which an impaired glucose homeostasis in osteoclasts compromises their function in the developing bone, leading to hyperostosis. Mutations in SCARF2 and FAM20C have been associated with the human van den Ende-Gupta and Raine syndromes that include numerous features similar to the affected dogs. Given the growing interest in the molecular characterization and treatment of human rare diseases, our study presents three novel physiologically relevant models for further research and therapy approaches, while providing the molecular identity for the canine conditions. PMID:27187611

  15. Molecular Characterization of Three Canine Models of Human Rare Bone Diseases: Caffey, van den Ende-Gupta, and Raine Syndromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjo K Hytönen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One to two percent of all children are born with a developmental disorder requiring pediatric hospital admissions. For many such syndromes, the molecular pathogenesis remains poorly characterized. Parallel developmental disorders in other species could provide complementary models for human rare diseases by uncovering new candidate genes, improving the understanding of the molecular mechanisms and opening possibilities for therapeutic trials. We performed various experiments, e.g. combined genome-wide association and next generation sequencing, to investigate the clinico-pathological features and genetic causes of three developmental syndromes in dogs, including craniomandibular osteopathy (CMO, a previously undescribed skeletal syndrome, and dental hypomineralization, for which we identified pathogenic variants in the canine SLC37A2 (truncating splicing enhancer variant, SCARF2 (truncating 2-bp deletion and FAM20C (missense variant genes, respectively. CMO is a clinical equivalent to an infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey disease, for which SLC37A2 is a new candidate gene. SLC37A2 is a poorly characterized member of a glucose-phosphate transporter family without previous disease associations. It is expressed in many tissues, including cells of the macrophage lineage, e.g. osteoclasts, and suggests a disease mechanism, in which an impaired glucose homeostasis in osteoclasts compromises their function in the developing bone, leading to hyperostosis. Mutations in SCARF2 and FAM20C have been associated with the human van den Ende-Gupta and Raine syndromes that include numerous features similar to the affected dogs. Given the growing interest in the molecular characterization and treatment of human rare diseases, our study presents three novel physiologically relevant models for further research and therapy approaches, while providing the molecular identity for the canine conditions.

  16. Bioeffects of albumin-encapsulated microbubbles and real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography in an experimental canine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M.M. Dourado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial contrast echocardiography has been used for assessing myocardial perfusion. Some concerns regarding its safety still remain, mainly regarding the induction of microvascular alterations. We sought to determine the bioeffects of microbubbles and real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography (RTMCE in a closed-chest canine model. Eighteen mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to two groups. Nine were submitted to continuous intravenous infusion of perfluorocarbon-exposed sonicated dextrose albumin (PESDA plus continuous imaging using power pulse inversion RTMCE for 180 min, associated with manually deflagrated high-mechanical index impulses. The control group consisted of 3 dogs submitted to continuous imaging using RTMCE without PESDA, 3 dogs received PESDA alone, and 3 dogs were sham-operated. Hemodynamics and cardiac rhythm were monitored continuously. Histological analysis was performed on cardiac and pulmonary tissues. No hemodynamic changes or cardiac arrhythmias were observed in any group. Normal left ventricular ejection fraction and myocardial perfusion were maintained throughout the protocol. Frequency of mild and focal microhemorrhage areas in myocardial and pulmonary tissue was similar in PESDA plus RTMCE and control groups. The percentages of positive microscopical fields in the myocardium were 0.4 and 0.7% (P = NS in the PESDA plus RTMCE and control groups, respectively, and in the lungs they were 2.1 and 1.1%, respectively (P = NS. In this canine model, myocardial perfusion imaging obtained with PESDA and RTMCE was safe, with no alteration in cardiac rhythm or left ventricular function. Mild and focal myocardial and pulmonary microhemorrhages were observed in both groups, and may be attributed to surgical tissue manipulation.

  17. Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx with subglottic extension: is larynx preservation possible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, A.; Blanchard, P.; Lusinchi, A.; Daly-Schveitzer, N.; Tao, Y. [Gustave Roussy, Department of Radiotherapy, Villejuif (France); Temam, S.; Maison, M.M.; Janot, F.; Mirghani, H. [Gustave Roussy, Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Villejuif (France); Bidault, F. [Gustave Roussy, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Villejuif (France); Guigay, J. [Gustave Roussy, Department of Medical Oncology, Villejuif (France); Bourhis, J. [Gustave Roussy, Department of Radiotherapy, Villejuif (France); University Hospital Lausanne, Department of Radiation Oncology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-07-15

    Squamous cell carcinoma of larynx with subglottic extension (sSCC) is a rare location described to carry a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to analyze outcomes and feasibility of larynx preservation in sSCC patients. Between 1996 and 2012, 197 patients with sSCC were treated at our institution and included in the analysis. Stage III-IV tumors accounted for 76 %. Patients received surgery (62 %), radiotherapy (RT) (18 %), or induction chemotherapy (CT) (20 %) as front-line therapy. The 5-year actuarial overall survival (OS), locoregional control (LRC), and distant control rate were 59 % (95 % CI 51-68), 83 % (95 % CI 77-89), and 88 % (95 % CI 83-93), respectively, with a median follow-up of 54.4 months. There was no difference in OS and LRC according to front-line treatments or between primary subglottic cancer and glottosupraglottic cancers with subglottic extension. In the multivariate analysis, age > 60 years and positive N stage were the only predictors for OS (HR 2, 95 % CI 1.2-3.6; HR1.9, 95 % CI 1-3.5, respectively). A lower LRC was observed for T3 patients receiving a larynx preservation protocol as compared with those receiving a front-line surgery (HR 14.1, 95 % CI 2.5-136.7; p = 0.02); however, no difference of ultimate LRC was observed according to the first therapy when including T3 patients who underwent salvage laryngectomy (p = 0.6). In patients receiving a larynx preservation protocol, the 5-year larynx-preservation rate was 55 % (95 % CI 43-68), with 36 % in T3 patients. The 5-year larynx preservation rate was 81 % (95 % CI 65-96) and 35 % (95 % CI 20-51) for patients who received RT or induction CT as a front-line treatment, respectively. Outcomes of sSCC are comparable with other laryngeal cancers when managed with modern therapeutic options. Larynx-preservation protocols could be a suitable option in T1-T2 (RT or chemo-RT) and selected T3 sSCC patients (induction CT). (orig.) [German] Plattenepithelkarzinome des Larynx mit

  18. Gene expression profiling of histiocytic sarcomas in a canine model: the predisposed flatcoated retriever dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M Boerkamp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The determination of altered expression of genes in specific tumor types and their effect upon cellular processes may create insight in tumorigenesis and help to design better treatments. The Flatcoated retriever is a dog breed with an exceptionally high incidence of histiocytic sarcomas. The breed develops two distinct entities of histiocytic neoplasia, a soft tissue form and a visceral form. Gene expression studies of these tumors have value for comparable human diseases such as histiocytic/dendritic cell sarcoma for which knowledge is difficult to accrue due to their rare occurrence. In addition, such studies may help in the search for genetic aberrations underlying the genetic predisposition in this dog breed. METHODS: Microarray analysis and pathway analyses were performed on fresh-frozen tissues obtained from Flatcoated retrievers with localized, soft tissue histiocytic sarcomas (STHS and disseminated, visceral histiocytic sarcomas (VHS and on normal canine spleens from various breeds. Expression differences of nine genes were validated with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR analyses. RESULTS: QPCR analyses identified the significantly altered expression of nine genes; PPBP, SpiC, VCAM1, ENPEP, ITGAD (down-regulated, and GTSF1, Col3a1, CD90 and LUM (up-regulated in the comparison of both the soft tissue and the visceral form with healthy spleen. DAVID pathway analyses revealed 24 pathways that were significantly involved in the development of HS in general, most of which were involved in the DNA repair and replication process. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified altered expression of nine genes not yet implicated in histiocytic sarcoma manifestations in the dog nor in comparable human histiocytic/dendritic sarcomas. Exploration of the downside effect of canine inbreeding strategies for the study of similar sarcomas in humans might also lead to the identification of genes related to these rare malignancies in the human.

  19. Malignant melanoma metastatic to the larynx: treatment and functional outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Lanson, B.G.; Sanfilippo, N.; Wang, B; Grew, D.; DeLacure, M.D.

    2010-01-01

    The review considers management strategies for malignant melanoma metastatic to the larynx. This rare clinical entity lacks clear treatment recommendations because extirpative surgery can often result in severe functional debilitation in patients with limited life expectancy. Here, we report a case of melanoma metastatic to the larynx in a patient with a prior history of Hodgkin lymphoma. The patient was treated with partial laryngectomy and local radiation therapy. The rationale for treatmen...

  20. Leprosy of the Larynx: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Momen Heravi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is an ancient deforming disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, which is still poorly understood and often feared by the general public and even by some in the health care professions Fortunately, the outlook for patients has dramatically improved over the last three decades with the introduction of multi-drug treatment and management strategies that have somewhat diminished the stigma of this diagnosis. We report a rare case of leprosy of larynx. A 45 year old man presented with complaints cough, dyspnea and hoarseness since many years ago. Because of demonstration of acid fast bacilli in smear of his sputum, the diagnosis of tuberculosis was made and anti tuberculosis treatment was initiated. But he developed fever and his symptoms exacerbated. In examination there was a tender erythematous nodule on right supraclavicular region, loss of eyebrows and lashes and disseminated hyper and hypo pigmented cutaneous lesions on abdomen, thorax, back with normal chest x ray. Laryngoscopy to rule out laryngeal tuberculosis was done and granulomatous lesion was seen. Laryngeal and skin biopsy was performed which numerous acid fast bacilli, macrophages and foamy cells suggestive of lepromatous leprosy were demonstrated in both specimens. Treatment was started on multi bacillary regime of WHO multidrug therapy. In conclusion, this report highlights the importance of systemic involvement in lepromatous leprosy especially when the initial presentation is laryngitis or respiratory symptoms. Laryngeal leprosy may mistaken with tuberculosis laryngitis due to respiratory problems and existence of acid fast bacilli in respiratory secretions.

  1. Lubricin Surface Modification Improves Tendon Gliding After Tendon Repair in a Canine Model in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Manabu; Sun, Yu-Long; Zhao, Chunfeng; Zobitz, Mark E.; Cha, Chung-Ja; Jay, Gregory D.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of lubricin on the gliding of repaired flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons in vitro. Canine FDP tendons were completely lacerated, repaired with a modified Pennington technique, and treated with one of the following solutions: saline, carbodiimide derivatized gelatin/hyaluronic acid (cd-HA-gelatin), carbodiimide derivatized gelatin to which lubricin was added in a second step (cd-gelatin + lubricin), or carbodiimide derivatized gelatin/HA + lubricin (cd-HA-gelatin + lubricin). After treatment, gliding resistance was measured up to 1,000 cycles of simulated flexion/extension motion. The increase in average and peak gliding resistance in cd-HA-gelatin, cd-gelatin + lubricin, and cd-HA-gelatin + lubricin tendons was less than the control tendons after 1,000 cycles (p < 0.05). The increase in average gliding resistance of cd-HA-gelatin + lubricin treated tendons was also less than that of the cd-HA-gelatin treated tendons (p < 0.05). The surfaces of the repaired tendons and associated pulleys were assessed qualitatively with scanning electron microscopy and appeared smooth after 1,000 cycles of tendon motion for the cd-HA-gelatin, cd-gelatin + lubricin, and cd-HA-gelatin + lubricin treated tendons, while that of the saline control appeared roughened. These results suggest that tendon surface modification can improve tendon gliding ability, with a trend suggesting that lubricin fixed on the repaired tendon may provide additional improvement over that provided by HA and gelatin alone. PMID:18683890

  2. Improved myocardial perfusion and cardiac function by controlled-release basic fibroblast growth factor using fibrin glue in a canine infarct model*

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Shao-Ping; Wang, Xiao; Qiao, Shi-bin; Zeng, Qiu-Tang; Jiang, Ju-quan; Liu, Xiao-Qing; Zhu, Xiang-ming; Cao, Guo-xiang; Ma, Chang-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Angiogenic therapy is emerging as a potential strategy for the treatment of ischemic heart disease but is limited by a relatively short half-life of growth factors. Fibrin glue (FG) provides a reservoir for controlled-release of growth factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) incorporating FG on angiogenesis and cardiac performance in a canine infarct model. Methods: Acute myocardial infarction was induced by ligation of th...

  3. Effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy on Prostate Volume and Vascularity in the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Pilot Study in a Canine Model

    OpenAIRE

    Leoci, Raffaella; Aiudi, Giulio; Silvestre, Fabio; Lissner, Elaine; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a result of urogenital aging. Recent studies suggest that an age-related impairment of the blood supply to the lower urinary tract plays a role in the development of BPH and thus may be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of BPH. The canine prostate is a model for understanding abnormal growth of the human prostate gland. We studied the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMF) in dogs to modify prostate blood flow and evalu...

  4. Chronic administration of a leupeptin-derived calpain inhibitor fails to ameliorate severe muscle pathology in a canine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    MartinKChilders; DanielJBogan; MelanieHolder; HanselGreiner; RobertGrange

    2012-01-01

    Calpains likely play a role in the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Accordingly, calpain inhibition may provide therapeutic benefit to DMD patients. In the present study, we sought to measure benefit from administration of a novel calpain inhibitor, C101, in a canine muscular dystrophy model. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that treatment with C101 mitigates progressive weakness and severe muscle pathology observed in young dogs with golden retriever muscular dystroph...

  5. Towards immunotherapy with redirected T cells in a large animal model: Ex vivo activation, expansion, and genetic modification of canine T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Melinda; Vera, Juan; Gerken, Claudia; Rooney, Cliona M; Miller, Tasha; Pfent, Catherine; Wang, Lisa L.; Wilson-Robles, Heather M.; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has shown promising anti-tumor activity in early phase clinical studies, especially for hematological malignancies. However, most preclinical models do not reliably mimic human disease. We reasoned that developing an adoptive T-cell therapy approach for spontaneous osteosarcoma (OS) occurring in dogs would more closely reproduce the condition in human cancer. To generate CAR-expressing canine T cells we developed expans...

  6. Successful Regional Delivery and Long-term Expression of a Dystrophin Gene in Canine Muscular Dystrophy: A Preclinical Model for Human Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zejing; Storb, Rainer; Halbert, Christine L.; Banks, Glen B.; Butts, Tiffany M.; Finn, Eric E.; Allen, James M.; Miller, A. Dusty; Jeffrey S. Chamberlain; Tapscott, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal, X-linked muscle disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-mediated gene replacement strategies hold promise as a treatment. Studies in animal models and human trials suggested that immune responses to AAV capsid proteins and transgene products prevented efficient gene therapy. In this study, we used widespread intramuscular (i.m.) injection to deliver AAV6-canine micro-dystrophin (c-µdys) throughout a ...

  7. Influence of a dexamethasone-eluting covered stent on tissue reaction: an experimental study in a canine bronchial model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Choi, Gi Bok; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Suh, Ji-Yeon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Seo, Tae-Seok [Gachon Medical School, Department of Radiology, Gil Medical Center, Inchon (Korea); Yuk, Soon Hong [Hannam University, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Daejeon (Korea); Kim, Young-Hwa [Soonchunhyang University Chonan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Chonan (Korea); Cho, Yong-Mee [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a dexamethasone (DXM)-eluting, covered, self-expanding metallic stent to reduce tissue reaction following stent placement in a canine bronchial model. We placed a DXM-eluting, polyurethane-covered, self-expanding metallic stent (drug stent, DS) and a polyurethane-covered, self-expanding metallic stent (control stent, CS) alternately in each left main bronchus and left lower lobe bronchus in 12 dogs. The stents were 20 mm in diameter and length when fully expanded. The dose of DXM was approximately 36.7 mg in each DS, but was absent in the CS. The dogs were euthanased 1 week (n=4), 2 weeks (n=4) or 4 weeks (n=4) after stent placement. Histologic findings, such as epithelial erosion/ulcer or granulation tissue thickness, were obtained from the mid-portion of the bronchus, where the stent had been placed, and evaluated between DS and CS. There were no procedure-related complications or malpositioning of any of the bronchial stents. Stent migration was detected in one dog just before euthanasia 1 week following stent placement. Stent patency was maintained until euthanasia in all dogs. Epithelial erosion/ulcer (%) was significantly less in the DS (mean{+-}standard deviation, 46.88{+-}23.75) than in the CS (73.75{+-}14.08) (P=0.026) for all time-points. There was a decrease in epithelial erosion/ulcer as the follow-up period increased in both DS and CS. The granulation tissue thickness (mm) was less in DS (2.63{+-}2.05) than in CS (3.49{+-}2.95), although the difference was not significant (P=0.751) for all time-points. There was a tendency toward an increase in granulation tissue thickness and chronic lymphocytic infiltration as the follow-up period increased in both DS and CS. In conclusion, DXM-eluting, covered, self-expanding metallic stent seems to be effective in reducing tissue reaction secondary to stent placement in a canine bronchial model. (orig.)

  8. Influence of a dexamethasone-eluting covered stent on tissue reaction: an experimental study in a canine bronchial model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a dexamethasone (DXM)-eluting, covered, self-expanding metallic stent to reduce tissue reaction following stent placement in a canine bronchial model. We placed a DXM-eluting, polyurethane-covered, self-expanding metallic stent (drug stent, DS) and a polyurethane-covered, self-expanding metallic stent (control stent, CS) alternately in each left main bronchus and left lower lobe bronchus in 12 dogs. The stents were 20 mm in diameter and length when fully expanded. The dose of DXM was approximately 36.7 mg in each DS, but was absent in the CS. The dogs were euthanased 1 week (n=4), 2 weeks (n=4) or 4 weeks (n=4) after stent placement. Histologic findings, such as epithelial erosion/ulcer or granulation tissue thickness, were obtained from the mid-portion of the bronchus, where the stent had been placed, and evaluated between DS and CS. There were no procedure-related complications or malpositioning of any of the bronchial stents. Stent migration was detected in one dog just before euthanasia 1 week following stent placement. Stent patency was maintained until euthanasia in all dogs. Epithelial erosion/ulcer (%) was significantly less in the DS (mean±standard deviation, 46.88±23.75) than in the CS (73.75±14.08) (P=0.026) for all time-points. There was a decrease in epithelial erosion/ulcer as the follow-up period increased in both DS and CS. The granulation tissue thickness (mm) was less in DS (2.63±2.05) than in CS (3.49±2.95), although the difference was not significant (P=0.751) for all time-points. There was a tendency toward an increase in granulation tissue thickness and chronic lymphocytic infiltration as the follow-up period increased in both DS and CS. In conclusion, DXM-eluting, covered, self-expanding metallic stent seems to be effective in reducing tissue reaction secondary to stent placement in a canine bronchial model. (orig.)

  9. Investigation of immunological approaches to enhance engraftment in a 1 Gy TBI canine haematopoietic stem cell transplantation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Sandra; Altmann, Simone; Brandt, Bettina; Adam, Carsten; Riebau, Franziska; Vogel, Heike; Weirich, Volker; Hilgendorf, Inken; Storb, Rainer; Freund, Mathias; Junghanss, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Objective Stable mixed haematopoietic chimerism can be established in a canine stem cell transplantation model using a conditioning consisting of total body irradiation (TBI, 2Gy) and postgrafting immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and cyclosporin (CSA). Reduction of TBI had resulted in graft rejection in this model previously. We investigated whether postgrafting stimulation of donor T-cells against recipient’s haematopoietic antigens or graft augmentation with donor monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) promote engraftment following 1Gy TBI. Methods All dogs received dog leukocyte-antigen-identical bone marrow transplantation. Dogs were conditioned with either 2Gy of TBI (group 1) or 1Gy of TBI followed by repetitive recipient haematopoietic cell lysate vaccinations (group 2) or graft augmentation with MoDC (group 3). Immunosuppression consisted of CSA and MMF. Results In group 1 four animals remained stable chimeras >wk110, and 3 rejected their grafts (wk10, wk14, wk16). All dogs in groups 2 and 3 rejected their graft (median: wk 10 and 11, respectively). Peak chimerism and engraftment duration was shorter in the 1Gy groups (p<0.05) compared to group 1. Conclusion Neither postgrafting vaccination nor graft augmentation with MoDC were effective in supporting durable engraftment. Additional modifications are neccessary to improve potential strategies aimed at establishment of early tissue specific graft-versus-host reactions. PMID:19100524

  10. Thermal and histological effects of bipolar and monopolar electrosurgical resection of the prostate in a canine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Raymond; Chew, Ben H.; Tan, Andrew H. H.; Rowe, Elaine; Razvi, Hassan

    2007-02-01

    Bipolar transurethral resection (TUR) is an alternative to monopolar TUR in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and offers the major advantage of utilizing 0.9% sodium chloride for irrigation. Claims have been made that bipolar electrosurgery in clinical use causes less thermal damage to adjacent tissues. We sought to assess tissue thermometry and histopathologic thermal effects of a bipolar system in comparison to standard monopolar TUR in an animal model. Eight male beagles were studied. A lower midline incision was used to access the prostate. Fiber-optic thermosensors were placed within the prostate. A midline cystotomy was used to perform antegrade resection of the prostate using a bipolar TUR system (VISTA CTR) with normal saline or a monopolar device using glycine. Resection of a 1cm cavity was performed in each lateral lobe. Animals were sacrificed acutely and the prostates excised for histopathological assessment of thermal damage. In both groups, prostatic temperature rises were transient and fell with increasing distance from the resection site. The greatest temperature increase occurred in the monopolar group (24.2 +/- 3.9°C) compared to the bipolar group (6.8 +/- 1.8°C, pprostatic resection in a canine model. The clinical benefits of these findings remain to be determined.

  11. Quantitative comparison of mathematical models to measure surface area of canine teeth prepared to receive full veneer crowns in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlyn eCollins

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was performed in order to determine if mathematical modeling of the canine teeth in dogs could be utilized to provide an accurate and reliable estimation of crown surface area that could be used in both a research and clinical setting.Materials and methods: Actual surface area (aSA calculations for 32 stone dies of clinical crown preparations were acquired utilizing a tridimensional (3D laser scanner and 3D computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM software applications. These calculations were used as a control. Seventeen unique mathematical models from 8 geometric shapes were used to calculate estimated surface area (eSA of each stone die. Linear association and agreement between eSA and aSA calculations were assessed with multiple statistical methods. Results: All methods of eSA showed a significant linear association with aSA. Five of the mathematical models [right elliptical frustum (H3, right elliptical cone (G3, right pyramidal cone (A3, right circular frustum (F2 and right circular cone (E1] were superior to the other 12 models.Conclusions: The H3 mathematical model based on the right elliptical frustum provided the most accurate estimate of crown surface area of dog teeth. However, H3 requires the use of laser scans and a 3D CAD software program. As a result, this model would be recommended for research applications. The E1 mathematical model was similar in accuracy to H3 and, given it requires only two measurements and a comparatively simple equation for calculation, this method would be recommended for clinical chair-side use.

  12. Case report of radiation necrosis of the larynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Eiichi; Inouye, Tetsuzo; Hiraide, Fumihisa; Tsubaki, Yasukiyo; Miyakogawa, Norimasa; Sawada, Masamichi (National Defence Medical Coll., Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan))

    1983-02-01

    A case of radiation necrosis of the larynx is reported. The patient was a 79-year-old man who was radiated with the dosis of 3900 rad for suspected carcinoma of the larynx in 1976 and 5300 rad for carcinoma of the larynx in 1980. After completion of radiation therapy, he started to have hoarseness. He was admitted to the hospital because of severe dyspnea. Fiberoptic examination revealed almost complete obstruction of the laryngeal lumen by necrotic tissues due to radiation necrosis. There was little space reserved for respiration. No motility of the vocal cords and arytenoids was observed. After tracheostomy, conservative local and systemic treatments and repeated removal of necrotic tissues through laryngomicrosurgery were performed. However, an advanced necrosis with infection could not be controlled. Therefore, total laryngectomy was performed. Microscopically, no malignant cells were noted in the larynx. As most soft tissues were degenerated into fibrosis, the pharynx was left open. When infection was entirely controlled, the lining flap method from the anterior chest was applied to close the pharynx. When severe radiation necrosis occurs in the larynx, laryngectomy is sometimes mandatory to be performed. It is important that infection should be controlled before and after laryngectomy. Delayed skin flap method is advised.

  13. Comparative activity of pradofloxacin and marbofloxacin against coagulase-positive staphylococci in a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model based on canine pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körber-Irrgang, B; Wetzstein, H-G; Bagel-Trah, S; Hafner, D; Kresken, M

    2012-12-01

    Pradofloxacin (PRA), a novel veterinary 8-cyano-fluoroquinolone (FQ), is active against Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, the primary cause of canine pyoderma. An in vitro pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model was used to compare the activities of PRA and marbofloxacin (MAR) against three clinical isolates of S. pseudintermedius and reference strain Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538. Experiments were performed involving populations of 10(10) CFU corresponding to an inoculum density of approximately 5 × 10(7) CFU/mL. The time course of free drug concentrations in canine serum was modelled, resulting from once daily standard oral dosing of 3 mg of PRA/kg and 2 mg of MAR/kg. In addition, experimentally high doses of 6 mg of PRA/kg and 16 mg of MAR/kg were tested against the least susceptible strain. Viable counts were monitored over 24 h. At concentrations associated with standard doses, PRA caused a faster and more sustained killing than MAR of all strains. The ratios of free drug under the concentration-time curve for 24 h over MIC and the maximum concentration of free drug over MIC were at least 90 and 26, and 8.5 and 2.1 for PRA and MAR, respectively. At experimentally high doses, PRA was superior to MAR in terms of immediate killing. Subpopulations with reduced susceptibility to either FQ did not emerge. We conclude that PRA is likely to be an efficacious therapy of canine staphylococcal infections.

  14. Hepatocyte growth factor gene transfer effects on the femoral and intramuscular nerve in a canine model of lower limb ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoqin Ha; Bin Liu; Zhen Qian; Tongde Lü; Ling Hui; Guanxian He; Qiang Yin; Tingxian Niu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent advancements in gene therapy have provided new methodology for treating ischemia in lower extremities. Gene transfer of angiogenic factors to ischemic tissues may promote local proliferation of new vessels and form collateral circulation. OBJECTIVE: To observe histopathological changes in the femoral and intramuscular nerve three months after intramuscular injection of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) into the peripheral skeletal muscle in a canine model of lower limb ischemia. DESIGN: Randomized occlusion modelled and verification animal study. SETTING: Experimental Center, Lanzhou General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Area Command of Chinese PLA. MATERIALS: This study was performed at Animal Experimental Center, Lanzhou General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Area Command of Chinese PLA from September to November 2006. A total of eight male mongrel dogs, weighing 12-15 kg and 1.5-3 years of age, were selected for this study. This experimental study was in accordance with local ethics standards. Recombinant plasmid carrying HGF (pUDKH) and occlusion model plasmid (pUDK) were provided by the Third Laboratory of Radiation Medical Institute, Academy of Military Medical Sciences of PLA. METHODS: Grouping and model establishment: under anesthesia, complete vascular occlusion models were established on the left lower extremities. The experimental dogs were randomly divided into a model group and a pUDKH treatment group, with four dogs in each group. Dogs in the pUDKH group were injected with 0.15 mg/kg pUDKH. Ten minutes later, intramuscular injections were performed at three spots into the peripheral skeletal muscle of the left hind limb, as well as lateral injections at two spots. The injection volume at each spot was 0.2 mL. Dogs in the model group were injected with pUDK, and dosage and injection method were identical to the treatment group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Histopathological changes in the femoral nerve, as well as internal and external

  15. Studies of a novel photosensitizer Pd-bacteriopheophorbide (Tookad) for the prostate cancer PDT in canine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Brun, Pierre-Herve; Wilson, Brian C.; Scherz, Avigdor; Salomon, Yoram; Luck, David L.; Beckers, Jill; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2003-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with vascular acting photosensitizer pd-bacteriopheophorbide (Tookad), is investigated as an alternative modality for the total ablation of prostate cancer. In vivo normal canine prostate is used as the animal model. Interstitial PDT was performed by irradiating the surgically exposed prostates with a diode laser (763 nm, 150 mW/cm) to activate the i.v. infused photosensitizer drug. The effects of two-session PDT were evaluated. The prostate and its adjacent tissues were harvested and subjected to histopathological examination. At one-week, post second-session PDT, the animals recovered well with little or no urethral complications. Prostatic urethra and prostate adjacent tissues (bladder and underlying colon) were well preserved. Two-session PDT or one single session PDT induced a similar extent of damage. PDT induced prostate lesions were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis. Maximum lesion size of over 3 cm in dimension could be achieved with a single 1-cm interstitial treatment, suggesting the therapy is very effective in ablating prostatic tissue. Pharmacokinetic studies show that the photosensitizer is cleared rapidly from the circulation. In conclusion, the novel photosensitizer Tookad mediated PDT may provide an effective alternative to treat prostate cancer.

  16. Vocal therapy with larynx compression after partial laryngectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumović Gordana M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish the effects of the vocal therapy by manual compression of the larynx on dysphonia due to a partial laryngectomy and compare them with the effects of the standard vocal therapy. The prospective study included 66 patients submitted to any partial laryngectomy type. The patients were randomly classified into two groups: Group I (33 receiving the standard vocal therapy, and Group II (33 submitted to larynx compression vocal therapy. The 6-week vocal treatment was performed. The treatment effects were evaluated by subjective and objective voice analysis methods. The subjective and objective acoustic voice analysis revealed a significant influence (p<0.05 of either of the two vocal therapy modes on initial dysphonia. The larynx compression vocal therapy had better effects on the acoustic parameters: habitual fundamental frequency, mean fundamental frequency, standard deviation of fundamental frequency, maximal fundamental frequency, harmonics-to-noise ratio, and signal-to-noise ratio.

  17. MICRO LARYNGEAL SURGERY: 25 CASES OF BENIGN LESIONS OF LARYNX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanta Nibedita

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : Micro Laryngeal Surgery (MLS is a procedure where the larynx is seen with the help of endoscope and the view is magnified by use of an operating microscope. This has numerous advantages in regard to delineating the extent of lesion and performing a satisfactory excision or biopsy. This is the procedure of choice in assessment as well as treatment of benign lesions of larynx. Patients who are voice users were benefited by the procedure by getting back their normal voice. Study group comprise of 25 patients with age group varying from 12-48 years. Various abnormalities were detected among these patients, vocal nodule being the commonest. Other pathologies were vocal cord polyp, Reinke’s Oedema, ventricular cyst, chronic laryngitis, tuberculosis and papilomatosis of larynx. MLS is safe, effective and smoothly performed procedure giving a person back his normal voice

  18. Digital radiographic localization for CT scanning of the larynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, P.M.; Korobkin, M.; Rauch, R.F.

    1983-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the larynx is the preferred method for staging laryngeal carcinoma and assessing the extent of injury from trauma. The standard method of examination consists of 5 mm contiguous scans throughout the larynx in quiet respiration. Scans are performed with the patient supine with the neck slightly extended allowing the long axis of the larynx to be perpendicular to the scanning plane. A complete examination requires scanning from the supraglottic region (level of hyoid bone) to the subglottic region (level of cricoid cartlage). In the authors' experience when this method is used, multiple scans are performed cephalad to the level of interest because no upper limit of the examination is established before transaxial scans are done. We have used the lateral digital radiograph of the neck to identify specific landmarks so that the upper and lower limets of the examination can be established before scanning.

  19. Mechanical analysis of congestive heart failure caused by bundle branch block based on an electromechanical canine heart model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou Jianhong; Xia Ling; Zhang Yu; Shou Guofa [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wei Qing; Liu Feng; Crozier, Stuart [School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: xialing@zju.edu.cn

    2009-01-21

    Asynchronous electrical activation, induced by bundle branch block (BBB), can cause reduced ventricular function. However, the effects of BBB on the mechanical function of heart are difficult to assess experimentally. Many heart models have been developed to investigate cardiac properties during BBB but have mainly focused on the electrophysiological properties. To date, the mechanical function of BBB has not been well investigated. Based on a three-dimensional electromechanical canine heart model, the mechanical properties of complete left and right bundle branch block (LBBB and RBBB) were simulated. The anatomical model as well as the fiber orientations of a dog heart was reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI). Using the solutions of reaction-diffusion equations and with a strategy of parallel computation, the asynchronous excitation propagation and intraventricular conduction in BBB was simulated. The mechanics of myocardial tissues were computed with time-, sarcomere length-dependent uniaxial active stress initiated at the time of depolarization. The quantification of mechanical intra- and interventricular asynchrony of BBB was then investigated using the finite-element method with an eight-node isoparametric element. The simulation results show that (1) there exists inter- and intraventricular systolic dyssynchrony during BBB; (2) RBBB may have more mechanical synchrony and better systolic function of the left ventricle (LV) than LBBB; (3) the ventricles always move toward the early-activated ventricle; and (4) the septum experiences higher stress than left and right ventricular free walls in BBB. The simulation results validate clinical and experimental recordings of heart deformation and provide regional quantitative estimates of ventricular wall strain and stress. The present work suggests that an electromechanical heart model, incorporating real geometry and fiber orientations, may be helpful for better

  20. Mechanical analysis of congestive heart failure caused by bundle branch block based on an electromechanical canine heart model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Jianhong; Xia, Ling; Zhang, Yu; Shou, Guofa; Wei, Qing; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Asynchronous electrical activation, induced by bundle branch block (BBB), can cause reduced ventricular function. However, the effects of BBB on the mechanical function of heart are difficult to assess experimentally. Many heart models have been developed to investigate cardiac properties during BBB but have mainly focused on the electrophysiological properties. To date, the mechanical function of BBB has not been well investigated. Based on a three-dimensional electromechanical canine heart model, the mechanical properties of complete left and right bundle branch block (LBBB and RBBB) were simulated. The anatomical model as well as the fiber orientations of a dog heart was reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI). Using the solutions of reaction-diffusion equations and with a strategy of parallel computation, the asynchronous excitation propagation and intraventricular conduction in BBB was simulated. The mechanics of myocardial tissues were computed with time-, sarcomere length-dependent uniaxial active stress initiated at the time of depolarization. The quantification of mechanical intra- and interventricular asynchrony of BBB was then investigated using the finite-element method with an eight-node isoparametric element. The simulation results show that (1) there exists inter- and intraventricular systolic dyssynchrony during BBB; (2) RBBB may have more mechanical synchrony and better systolic function of the left ventricle (LV) than LBBB; (3) the ventricles always move toward the early-activated ventricle; and (4) the septum experiences higher stress than left and right ventricular free walls in BBB. The simulation results validate clinical and experimental recordings of heart deformation and provide regional quantitative estimates of ventricular wall strain and stress. The present work suggests that an electromechanical heart model, incorporating real geometry and fiber orientations, may be helpful for better

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma larynx presenting as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekur R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Association of immune thrombocytpenic purpura with solid malignancy as paraneoplastic manifestation has been reported earlier mainly with lymphoma and breast cancer. We report the case of a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx presenting with idiopathic thombocytopenic purpura (ITP. A 67-year-old lady presented with multiple ecchymotic patches and petechiae all over the body and bleeding from oral cavity was found to have severe thrombocytopenia diagnosed as ITP with bone marrow evidence of peripheral destruction without infiltration of bone marrow. Five months later she was diagnosed to have squamous cell carcinoma of larynx. Platelet count improved after splenectomy.

  2. Unusual foreign body in the larynx: a bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlhan, Ethem; Yaman, Handan; Dost, Burhan; Köse, Gökçe Akman; Yaman, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    Foreign body lodgement in the larynx is a rare situation. Our review of the literature revealed no living foreign body in larynx except for laryngeal leeches and anisakiasis. In this article, we report a patient with unusual laryngeal foreign body lodgement: a bee which presented with sudden odynophagia and stinging sensation in throat. The bee was detected on the laryngeal mucosa in indirect laryngoscopic examination and removed immediately under general anesthesia in apneic period. In this case report, we describe the importance of detailed anamnesis and laryngeal examination even if the patient has no severe symptoms.

  3. [Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the larynx, trachea and thyroid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryczyński, M; Piotrowski, S

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this article was to describe rarely occurred carcinoma adenoides cysticum located in the larynx, trachea and thyroid. Epidemiology, clinical course and medical therapy was demonstrated. In reported case concerning 65-year old woman early bilateral paresis of vocal folds was observed as results of the perineural infiltration. That caused sudden laryngeal dyspnea. It is important to pay attention on local extensiveness of neoplasm. Besides changes in larynx, neoplastic infiltration was found in trachea, preesophageal tissues and right lobe of thyroid. For above reasons there is no possible to exclude thyroid as a primary tumor of carcinoma adenoides cysticum.

  4. Ecological niche model of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Manuela; Cassini, Rudi; Drigo, Michele; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Pietrobelli, Mario; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie

    2014-11-01

    With respect to the epidemiology of leishmaniasis, it is crucial to take into account the ecoclimatic and environmental characteristics that influence the distribution patterns of the vector sand fly species. It is also important to consider the possible impact of on-going climate changes on the emergence of this disease. In order to map the potential distribution of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector species of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy, geographical information systems tools, ecological niche models (ENM) and remotely sensed environmental data were applied for a retrospective analysis of an entomological survey conducted in north-eastern Italy over 12 years. Sand fly trapping was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in 175 sites in the provinces of Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige. We developed a predictive model of potential distribution of P. perniciosus using the maximum entropy algorithm software, based on seasonal normalized difference vegetation index, day and night land surface temperature, the Corine land cover 2006, a digital elevation model (GTOPO30) and climate layers obtained from the WorldClim database. The MaxEnt prediction found the more suitable habitat for P. perniciosus to be hilly areas (100-300 m above the mean sea level) characterised by temperate climate during the winter and summer seasons, high winter vegetation cover and moderate rainfall during the activity season of vector sand fly. ENM provided a greater understanding of the geographical distribution and ecological requirements of P. perniciosus in the study area, which can be applied for the development of future surveillance strategies. PMID:25545936

  5. Ecological niche model of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Signorini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With respect to the epidemiology of leishmaniasis, it is crucial to take into account the ecoclimatic and environ- mental characteristics that influence the distribution patterns of the vector sand fly species. It is also important to consider the possible impact of on-going climate changes on the emergence of this disease. In order to map the potential distribu- tion of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector species of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy, geographical information systems tools, ecological niche models (ENM and remotely sensed environmental data were applied for a retrospective analysis of an entomological survey conducted in north-eastern Italy over 12 years. Sand fly trapping was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in 175 sites in the provinces of Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige. We developed a predictive model of potential distribution of P. perniciosus using the maximum entropy algorithm software, based on seasonal normalized difference vegetation index, day and night land surface temperature, the Corine land cover 2006, a digital elevation model (GTOPO30 and climate layers obtained from the WorldClim database. The MaxEnt pre- diction found the more suitable habitat for P. perniciosus to be hilly areas (100-300 m above the mean sea level charac- terised by temperate climate during the winter and summer seasons, high winter vegetation cover and moderate rainfall during the activity season of vector sand fly. ENM provided a greater understanding of the geographical distribution and ecological requirements of P. perniciosus in the study area, which can be applied for the development of future surveil- lance strategies.

  6. Current developments in canine genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Yvonne; Distl, Ottmar

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, canine genetics had made huge progress. In 1999 the first complete karyotype and ideogram of the dog was published. Several linkage and RH maps followed. Using these maps, sets of microsatellite markers for whole genome scans were compiled. In 2003 the sequencing of the DNA of a female Boxer began. Now the second version of the dog genome assembly has been put online, and recently, a microchip SNP array became available. Parallel to these developments, some causal mutations for different traits have been identified. Most of the identified mutations were responsible for monogenic canine hereditary diseases. With the tools available now, it is possible to use the advantages of the population structure of the various dog breeds to unravel complex genetic traits. Furthermore, the dog is a suitable model for the research of a large number of human hereditary diseases and particularly for cancer genetics, heart and neurodegenerative diseases. There are some examples where it was possible to benefit from the knowledge of canine genetics for human research. The search for quantitative trait loci (QTL), the testing of candidate genes and genome-wide association studies can now be performed in dogs. QTL for skeletal size variations and for canine hip dysplasia have been already identified and for these complex traits the responsible genes and their possible interactions can now be identified. PMID:20690545

  7. Canine models of inherited bleeding disorders in the development of coagulation assays, novel protein replacement and gene therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, T C; Hough, C; Agersø, H; Ezban, M; Lillicrap, D

    2016-05-01

    Animal models of inherited bleeding disorders are important for understanding disease pathophysiology and are required for preclinical assessment of safety prior to testing of novel therapeutics in human and veterinary medicine. Experiments in these animals represent important translational research aimed at developing safer and better treatments, such as plasma-derived and recombinant protein replacement therapies, gene therapies and immune tolerance protocols for antidrug inhibitory antibodies. Ideally, testing is done in animals with the analogous human disease to provide essential safety information, estimates of the correct starting dose and dose response (pharmacokinetics) and measures of efficacy (pharmacodynamics) that guide the design of human trials. For nearly seven decades, canine models of hemophilia, von Willebrand disease and other inherited bleeding disorders have not only informed our understanding of the natural history and pathophysiology of these disorders but also guided the development of novel therapeutics for use in humans and dogs. This has been especially important for the development of gene therapy, in which unique toxicities such as insertional mutagenesis, germ line gene transfer and viral toxicities must be assessed. There are several issues regarding comparative medicine in these species that have a bearing on these studies, including immune reactions to xenoproteins, varied metabolism or clearance of wild-type and modified proteins, and unique tissue tropism of viral vectors. This review focuses on the results of studies that have been performed in dogs with inherited bleeding disorders that closely mirror the human condition to develop safe and effective protein and gene-based therapies that benefit both species. PMID:26924758

  8. Multi-body simulation of a canine hind limb: model development, experimental validation and calculation of ground reaction forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wefstaedt Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among other causes the long-term result of hip prostheses in dogs is determined by aseptic loosening. A prevention of prosthesis complications can be achieved by an optimization of the tribological system which finally results in improved implant duration. In this context a computerized model for the calculation of hip joint loadings during different motions would be of benefit. In a first step in the development of such an inverse dynamic multi-body simulation (MBS- model we here present the setup of a canine hind limb model applicable for the calculation of ground reaction forces. Methods The anatomical geometries of the MBS-model have been established using computer tomography- (CT- and magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI- data. The CT-data were collected from the pelvis, femora, tibiae and pads of a mixed-breed adult dog. Geometric information about 22 muscles of the pelvic extremity of 4 mixed-breed adult dogs was determined using MRI. Kinematic and kinetic data obtained by motion analysis of a clinically healthy dog during a gait cycle (1 m/s on an instrumented treadmill were used to drive the model in the multi-body simulation. Results and Discussion As a result the vertical ground reaction forces (z-direction calculated by the MBS-system show a maximum deviation of 1.75%BW for the left and 4.65%BW for the right hind limb from the treadmill measurements. The calculated peak ground reaction forces in z- and y-direction were found to be comparable to the treadmill measurements, whereas the curve characteristics of the forces in y-direction were not in complete alignment. Conclusion In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that the developed MBS-model is suitable for simulating ground reaction forces of dogs during walking. In forthcoming investigations the model will be developed further for the calculation of forces and moments acting on the hip joint during different movements, which can be of help in context with the in

  9. Preservation of the Larynx in Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Sewnaik (Aniel)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn the last decade the primary treatment of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer was shifted towards organ preservation, i.e. preservation of the larynx. The treatment of laryngeal cancer was changed from standard radiotherapy towards hyperfractionated radiotherapy. Hypopharyngeal can

  10. The management of thyroid carcinoma invading the larynx or trachea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honings, J.; Stephen, A.E.; Marres, H.A.M.; Gaissert, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To describe the controversies in the management of thyroid carcinoma invading the airway. STUDY DESIGN: Contemporary review of literature; level of evidence: 5. RESULTS: Invasion of the larynx or trachea by thyroid carcinoma is uncommon and often identified at the time of oper

  11. Radiation myelopathy after irradiation of a larynx carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphological characteristics and clinical phenomena of radiation myelopathy after X-irradiation of larynx carcinoma are demonstrated. In spite of constant improvement of radiotherapy the occurrence of a radiation damage of the central nervous system must be expected and included into considerations concerning differential diagnosis

  12. Role of radiation in the management of carcinoma of larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    488 Cases of carcinoma of larynx treated at Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, during the years 1974-79, were retrospectively analysed. Distribution of cases with respect to age, sex, anatomical site, stage, clinical presentation and treatment were evaluated. (author). 4 tabs

  13. Altered microRNA Expression Profiles and Regulation of INK4A/CDKN2A Tumor Suppressor Genes in Canine Breast Cancer Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutful Kabir, Farruk Mohammad; DeInnocentes, Patricia; Bird, Richard Curtis

    2015-12-01

    microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling of cancer versus normal cells may reveal the characteristic regulatory features that can be correlated to altered gene expression in both human and animal models of cancers. In this study, the comprehensive expression profiles of the 277 highly characterized miRNAs from the canine genome were evaluated in spontaneous canine mammary tumor (CMT) models harboring defects in a group of cell cycle regulatory and potent tumor suppressor genes of INK4/CDKN2 family including p16/INK4A, p14ARF, and p15/INK4B. A large number of differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in three CMT cell lines to potentially target oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and cancer biomarkers. A group of the altered miRNAs were identified by miRNA target prediction tools for regulation of the INK4/CDKN2 family tumor suppressor genes. miRNA-141 was experimentally validated for INK4A 3'-UTR target binding in the CMT cell lines providing an essential mechanism for the post-transcriptional regulation of the INK4A tumor suppressor gene in CMT models. A well-recognized group of miRNAs including miR-21, miR-155, miR-9, miR-34a, miR-143/145, and miR-31 were found to be altered in both CMTs and human breast cancer. These altered miRNAs might serve as potential targets for advancing the development of future therapeutic reagents. These findings further strengthen the validity and use of canine breast cancers as appropriate models for the study of human breast cancers. PMID:26095675

  14. BENIGN LESIONS OF LARYNX - A CLINICAL STUDY OF 50 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Benign Lesions of Larynx (BLL have been defined as “An abnormal mass of tissue in larynx, the growth of which exceeds and is coordinated with that of normal tissue and persists in the same excessive manner after cessation of stimuli which evoked the change.” These lesions have significant influence on vocal, social and emotional adjustments of patients. These patients present with hoarseness of voice. AIM A clinical study was undertaken at Govt. ENT Hospital, Hyderabad, for 1 year from January 2014 to December 2014. Aim of this study was to analyze age and sex distribution, symptomatology, sites of involvement, management and recurrence of benign lesions of larynx. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 50 patients were studied who were admitted in the hospital. Inclusion criteria: Patients with Hoarseness of Voice (HOV /change of voice, difficulty in breathing and swallowing, vocal fatigue, Foreign Body (FB sensation in the throat. Exclusion criteria: Malignancy of larynx and acute inflammatory conditions of larynx. RESULTS Benign lesions of larynx show male preponderance with M:F ratio of 2.12:1, with common age group between 31 to 40 years. Chronic vocal misuse was the predominant cause and more in professional voice users. The common lesion was Vocal Cord (VC polyp, followed by VC nodules and papillomas. Common side involved was right side. Majority of the patients had to undergo surgery. Majority of recurrence was seen in laryngeal papillomas (33.33%. CONCLUSION Benign lesions of larynx produce symptoms which vary from mild HOV to life threatening stridor. Early diagnosis leads to effective management. Males were more affected and maximum cases seen between 31 to 40 years. Chronic voice abuse, smoking, alcohol, frequent throat clearing and Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR/Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD are precipitating factors. Microlaryngeal Surgery (MLS, voice rest and speech therapy offer a cost effective, useful and safe

  15. Rapid maxillary expansion in alveolar cleft repaired with a tissue-engineered bone in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jialiang; Tian, Bo; Chu, Fengting; Yang, Chenjie; Zhao, Jun; Jiang, Xinquan; Qian, Yufen

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of orthodontic expansion on graft area of a tissue-engineered bone (TEB) BMSCs/β-TCP, and to find an alternative strategy for the therapy of alveolar cleft. A unilateral alveolar cleft canine model was established and then treated with BMSCs/β-TCP under rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Sequential fluorescent labeling, radiography and helical computed tomography were used to evaluate new bone formation and mineralization in the graft area. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Van Gieson׳s picro fuchsin staining were performed for histological and histomorphometric observation. ALP activity, mineralization and the expression of osteogenic differentiation related genes of BMSCs that grew on the β-TCP scaffold were promoted by their cultivation in osteogenic medium. Based on fact, TEB was constructed. After 8 weeks of treatment with BMSCs/β-TCP followed by RME, new bone formation and mineralization of the dogs were markedly accelerated, and bone resorption was significantly reduced, compared with the untreated dogs, or those only treated with autogenous iliac bone. The treatment with both TEB and RME evidently made the bone trabecula more abundant and the area of bone formation larger. What is more, there were no significant differences between BMSCs/β-TCP group and the group treated with autogenous bone and RME. This study further revealed that TEB was not only a feasible clinical approach for patients with alveolar cleft, but also a potential substituent of autogenous bone, and its combination with RME might be an alternative strategy for the therapy of alveolar cleft.

  16. Study of a Novel Small Caliber Vascular Graft in a Canine Model with Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yi-min; QI Song-tao; SHI Xiao-feng; ZENG Shao-wen; LI Wei-qiu; HUANG Guang-long; ZHUANG Bing-rong

    2007-01-01

    A novel biological small-diameter vascular graft was evaluated in a canine model. 3 cm long segments with 4 mm I. D. were implanted end-to-end in the carotid position of 12 dogs for 6 months. Color Doppler sonography was performed at the first week post-operation, and angiography was then administered to 9 grafts at 4th week, 12th week and 24th week respectively to monitor the graft pantency and blood flow characteristics.Vascular samples containing the grafts were collected at 1st week, 8th week, 12th week and 24th week after implantation. Morphological changes of the grafts were observed by optical and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies and compared with that of the original prosthesis and the normal host vessel. All grafts were patent throughout the experiment except one graft. Histopathology and SEM demonstrated both a nearly complete inner capsule of varied thickness lining the graft luminal surface and connective tissue adventitia formation at one-week post-operation. The neointima became confluent at 8 weeks and then compact but had no signs of hyperplasia up to 12 weeks; meanwhile on the neointimal surface newly grown endothelial-like cells were migrating from the stoma to the middle portion. The grafts also illustrated endothelialization in many "islands" in the mid-segment luminal surface of the grafts. In addition, the closer distance the cells towards the stoma were, the more morphological similarity the cells with the normal endothelial were. Taken together, the biological vascular graft remained patent for 24 weeks as a carotid prosthesis,characterized by the early and complete neointima formation plus endothelialization starting before 12 weeks post grafting. Therefore, the graft seems suitable for reconstruction of vascular lesions in dogs. Further studies may be carried out to extend the graft application for the clinical use.

  17. A Posteriori Comparison of Natural and Surgical Destabilization Models of Canine Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Moreau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years Canis familiaris, the domestic dog, has drawn particular interest as a model of osteoarthritis (OA. Here, we optimized the dog model of experimental OA induced by cranial cruciate ligament sectioning. The usefulness of noninvasive complementary outcome measures, such as gait analysis for the limb function and magnetic resonance imaging for structural changes, was demonstrated in this model. Relationships were established between the functional impairment and the severity of structural changes including the measurement of cartilage thinning. In the dog model of naturally occurring OA, excellent test-retest reliability was denoted for the measurement of the limb function. A criterion to identify clinically meaningful responders to therapy was determined for privately owned dogs undergoing clinical trials. In addition, the recording of accelerometer-based duration of locomotor activity showed strong and complementary agreement with the biomechanical limb function. The translation potential of these models to the human OA condition is underlined. A preclinical testing protocol which combines the dog model of experimental OA induced by cranial cruciate ligament transection and the Dog model of naturally occurring OA offers the opportunity to further investigate the structural and functional benefits of disease-modifying strategies. Ultimately, a better prediction of outcomes for human clinical trials would be brought.

  18. New prediction equations for the estimation of maxillary mandibular canine and premolar widths from mandibular incisors and mandibular first permanent molar widths: A digital model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Fazal; Khamis, Mohd Fadhli

    2016-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of the study was to generate new prediction equations for the estimation of maxillary and mandibular canine and premolar widths based on mandibular incisors and first permanent molar widths. Methods A total of 2,340 calculations (768 based on the sum of mandibular incisor and first permanent molar widths, and 1,572 based on the maxillary and mandibular canine and premolar widths) were performed, and a digital stereomicroscope was used to derive the the digital models and measurements. Mesiodistal widths of maxillary and mandibular teeth were measured via scanned digital models. Results There was a strong positive correlation between the estimation of maxillary (r = 0.85994, r2 = 0.7395) and mandibular (r = 0.8708, r2 = 0.7582) canine and premolar widths. The intraclass correlation coefficients were statistically significant, and the coefficients were in the strong correlation range, with an average of 0.9. Linear regression analysis was used to establish prediction equations. Prediction equations were developed to estimate maxillary arches based on Y = 15.746 + 0.602 × sum of mandibular incisors and mandibular first permanent molar widths (sum of mandibular incisors [SMI] + molars), Y = 18.224 + 0.540 × (SMI + molars), and Y = 16.186 + 0.586 × (SMI + molars) for both genders, and to estimate mandibular arches the parameters used were Y = 16.391 + 0.564 × (SMI + molars), Y = 14.444 + 0.609 × (SMI + molars), and Y = 19.915 + 0.481 × (SMI + molars). Conclusions These formulas will be helpful for orthodontic diagnosis and clinical treatment planning during the mixed dentition stage. PMID:27226963

  19. Allogeneic Transplantation of Periodontal Ligament-Derived Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Sheets in Canine Critical-Size Supra-Alveolar Periodontal Defect Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumanuma, Yuka; Iwata, Takanori; Kinoshita, Atsuhiro; Washio, Kaoru; Yoshida, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Azusa; Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Izumi, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that induces the destruction of tooth-supporting tissues, followed by tooth loss. Although several approaches have been applied to periodontal regeneration, complete periodontal regeneration has not been accomplished. Tissue engineering using a combination of cells and scaffolds is considered to be a viable alternative strategy. We have shown that autologous transplantation of periodontal ligament-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (PDL-MSC) sheets regenerates periodontal tissue in canine models. However, the indications for autologous cell transplantation in clinical situations are limited. Therefore, this study evaluated the safety and efficacy of allogeneic transplantation of PDL-MSC sheets using a canine horizontal periodontal defect model. Canine PDL-MSCs were labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and were cultured on temperature-responsive dishes. Three-layered cell sheets were transplanted around denuded root surfaces either autologously or allogeneically. A mixture of β-tricalcium phosphate and collagen gel was placed on the bone defects. Eight weeks after transplantation, dogs were euthanized and subjected to microcomputed tomography and histological analyses. RNA and DNA were extracted from the paraffin sections to verify the presence of EGFP at the transplantation site. Inflammatory markers from peripheral blood sera were quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Periodontal regeneration was observed in both the autologous and the allogeneic transplantation groups. The allogeneic transplantation group showed particularly significant regeneration of newly formed cementum, which is critical for the periodontal regeneration. Serum levels of inflammatory markers from peripheral blood sera showed little difference between the autologous and allogeneic groups. EGFP amplicons were detectable in the paraffin sections of the allogeneic group. These results suggest that

  20. Microdystrophin Ameliorates Muscular Dystrophy in the Canine Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Jin-Hong; Pan, Xiufang; Hakim, Chady H.; Yang, Hsiao T.; Yue, Yongping; Zhang, Keqing; Ronald L Terjung; Duan, Dongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Dystrophin deficiency results in lethal Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Substituting missing dystrophin with abbreviated microdystrophin has dramatically alleviated disease in mouse DMD models. Unfortunately, translation of microdystrophin therapy has been unsuccessful in dystrophic dogs, the only large mammalian model. Approximately 70% of the dystrophin-coding sequence is removed in microdystrophin. Intriguingly, loss of ≥50% dystrophin frequently results in severe disease in patients. T...

  1. Maxillary growth in a congenital cleft palate canine model for surgical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradas-Lara, Irene; Casado-Gómez, Inmaculada; Martín, Conchita; Martínez-Sanz, Elena; López-Gordillo, Yamila; González, Pablo; Rodríguez-Bobada, Cruz; Chamorro, Manuel; Arias, Pablo; Maldonado, Estela; Ortega, Ricardo; Berenguer, Beatriz; Martínez-Álvarez, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    We have recently presented the Old Spanish Pointer dog, with a 15-20% spontaneous congenital cleft palate rate, as a unique experimental model of this disease. This study aimed to describe the cleft palate of these dogs for surgical research purposes and to determine whether congenital cleft palate influences maxillofacial growth. Seven newborn Old Spanish Pointer dogs of both sexes, comprising a cleft palate group (n = 4) and a normal palate group (n = 3), were fed using the same technique. Macroscopic photographs and plaster casts from the palate, lateral radiographs and computer tomograms of the skull were taken sequentially over 41 weeks, starting at week 5. The cleft morphology, the size and the tissue characteristics in these dogs resembled the human cleft better than current available animal models. During growth, the cleft width varies. Most of the transverse and longitudinal measures of the palate were statistically lower in the cleft palate group. The cleft palate group showed hypoplasia of the naso-maxillary complex. This model of congenital cleft palate seems suitable for surgical research purposes. A reduced maxillofacial pre- and post-natal development is associated to the congenital cleft palate in the Old Spanish Pointer dog.

  2. Finite element analysis of rapid canine retraction through reducing resistance and distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie XUE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aims of this study were to compare different surgical approaches to rapid canine retraction by designing and selecting the most effective method of reducing resistance by a three-dimensional finite element analysis. Material and Methods: Three-dimensional finite element models of different approaches to rapid canine retraction by reducing resistance and distraction were established, including maxillary teeth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar. The models were designed to dissect the periodontal ligament, root, and alveolar separately. A 1.5 N force vector was loaded bilaterally to the center of the crown between first molar and canine, to retract the canine distally. The value of total deformation was used to assess the initial displacement of the canine and molar at the beginning of force loading. Stress intensity and force distribution were analyzed and evaluated by Ansys 13.0 through comparison of equivalent (von Mises stress and maximum shear stress. Results: The maximum value of total deformation with the three kinds of models occurred in the distal part of the canine crown and gradually reduced from the crown to the apex of the canine; compared with the canines in model 3 and model 1, the canine in model 2 had the maximum value of displacement, up to 1.9812 mm. The lowest equivalent (von Mises stress and the lowest maximum shear stress were concentrated mainly on the distal side of the canine root in model 2. The distribution of equivalent (von Mises stress and maximum shear stress on the PDL of the canine in the three models was highly concentrated on the distal edge of the canine cervix. . Conclusions: Removal of the bone in the pathway of canine retraction results in low stress intensity for canine movement. Periodontal distraction aided by surgical undermining of the interseptal bone would reduce resistance and effectively accelerate the speed of canine retraction.

  3. Serum and lung endothelin-1 increased in a canine model of ventilator-induced lung injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Tian-shun; CAI Shao-xi; GUO Zhen-hui

    2010-01-01

    Background Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). A change in the balance of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and NO in the ALI/ARDS can also add to these problems. However, the profile of ET-1 and the balance of ET-1 and NO are still unknown in a VILI model.Methods Models of oleic acid induced ALI were established in dogs; these models were then randomized into three groups undergone different tidal volume (VT) mechanical ventilation, which included a VT6 group (VT equaled to 6 ml/kg body weight, positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) equaled to 10 cmH_2O, n=6), a VT10 group (VT equaled to 10 ml/kg body weight, PEEP equaled to 10 cmH_2O, n=4) and a VT20 group (VT equaled to 20 ml/kg body weight, PEEP equaled to 10 cmH_2O, n=6) for 6-hour ventilation. The levels of ET-1 and NO in serum and tissue homogenates of lung were observed throughout the trial.Results PaO_2 was increased after mechanical ventilation, but hypercapnia occurred in the VT6 group. The magnitudes of lung injury in the VT20 group were more severe than those in the VT6 group and the VT10 group. Serum levels of ET-1 and NO increased after ALI models were established and slightly decreased after a 6-hour ventilation in both the VT6 group and the VT20 group. The serum ET-1 level in the VT20 group was higher than that in the VT6 group and the VT10 group after the 6-hour ventilation (P 0.05). There was no significant difference in serum ratio of ET-1/NO between any two out of three groups (P >0.05), although there was a significant positive relationship between serum ET-1 and serum NO (r=0.80, P0.05). In the lung tissue, the ratio of ET-1/NO was significantly higher in the VT20 group than in the VT6 group and VT10 group after the 6-hour ventilation (P<0.05) as there was a significant positive relationship between ET-1 and NO in the lung (r=0.54, P<0.05).Conclusions The production of ET-1 and NO

  4. Immune Protection against Trypanosoma cruzi Induced by TcVac4 in a Canine Model

    OpenAIRE

    José E Aparicio-Burgos; José A Zepeda-Escobar; Roberto Montes de Oca-Jimenez; Estrada-Franco, José G.; Alberto Barbabosa-Pliego; Laucel Ochoa-García; Ricardo Alejandre-Aguilar; Nancy Rivas; Giovanna Peñuelas-Rivas; Margarita Val-Arreola; Shivali Gupta; Felix Salazar-García; Garg, Nisha J.; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is endemic in southern parts of the American continent. Herein, we have tested the protective efficacy of a DNA-prime/T. rangeli-boost (TcVac4) vaccine in a dog (Canis familiaris) model. Dogs were immunized with two-doses of DNA vaccine (pcDNA3.1 encoding TcG1, TcG2, and TcG4 antigens plus IL-12- and GM-CSF-encoding plasmids) followed by two doses of glutaraldehyde-inactivated T. rangeli epimastigotes (TrIE); and challenged with highly pathogenic T...

  5. Probucol attenuates atrial autonomic remodeling in a canine model of atrial fibrillation produced by prolonged atrial pacing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yong-tai; LI Wei-min; LI Yue; YANG Shu-sen; SHENG Li; YANG Ning; SHAN Hong-bo; XUE Hong-jie; LIU Wei; YANG Bao-feng; DONG De-li; LI Bao-xin

    2009-01-01

    Background We hypothesize that increased atrial oxidative stress and inflammation may play an important role in atrial nerve sprouting and heterogeneous sympathetic hyperinnervation during atrial fibrillation (AF). To test the hypothesis, we examined whether the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory treatment with probucol attenuates atrial autonomic remodeling in a canine model of AF produced by prolonged rapid right atrial pacing. Methods Twenty-one dogs were divided into a sham-operated group, a control group and a probucol group. Dogs in the control group and probucol group underwent right atrial pacing at 400 beats per minute for 6 weeks, and those in the probucol group received probucol 1 week before rapid atrial pacing until pacing stopped. After 6-week rapid atrial pacing, general properties including left atrial structure and function, atrial hemodynamics and the inducibility and duration of AF were measured in all the groups. Atrial oxidative stress markers and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration were estimated. The degree of nerve sprouting and sympathetic innervation at the right atrial anterior wall (RAAW) and the left atrial anterior wall (LAAW) were quantified by immunohistochemistry, atdal norepinephrine contents were also detected. Atrial beta-nerve growth factor (beta-NGF) mRNA and protein expression at the RAAW and LAAW were assessed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting respectively. Results Atrial tachypacing induced significant nerve sprouting and heterogeneous sympathetic hyperinnervation, and the magnitude of nerve sprouting and hyperinnervation was higher in the RAAW than in the LAAW. Atrial beta-NGF mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased at the RAAW and LAAW, and the upregulation of beta-NGF expression was greater at the RAAW than at the LAAW in the control group. The beta-NGF protein level was positively correlated with the density of sympathetic nerves in all groups. Probucol decreased the increase of

  6. Experimental model for reproduction of canine visceral leishmaniosis by Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Cotrina, J; Iniesta, V; Belinchón-Lorenzo, S; Muñoz-Madrid, R; Serrano, F; Parejo, J C; Gómez-Gordo, L; Soto, M; Alonso, C; Gómez-Nieto, L C

    2013-02-18

    In this report an experimental model of Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) infection in dogs is described. The data presented are derived from an overall and comparative analysis of the clinical outcomes of three groups of dogs intravenously infected with 500,000 promastigotes on different dates (2003, 2006 and 2008). The parasites used for challenge were isolated from a dog having a patent form of leishmaniosis, classified as MCAN/ES/1996/BCN150 zymodeme MON-1. Late-log-phase promastigote forms derived from cultured amastigotes obtained from the spleen of the heavily infected hamsters were used for infection. Only one single infective dose was administered to each dog. After challenge, the animals were monitored for 12 months. To analyze the disease outcome, several biopathological, immunological and parasitological end-points were considered. The analysis of the infected dogs indicated that the development of the clinical disease was very similar in the three experimental challenges, as shown by the immune response, the parasite load and the clinical and histopathological lesions detected at necropsy. A high similarity was also observed between the disease development after the experimental challenge and the one reported to occur in endemic natural infection areas, as various degrees of susceptibility to the disease and even resistance were observed in the experimentally infected animals. We believe that this challenge model faithfully reproduces and mimics the course of a natural infection and that it could be used as a suitable tool for analyzing the efficacy of anti-Leishmania drugs and vaccines. PMID:23102507

  7. Acid etching does not improve CoCrMo implant osseointegration in a canine implant model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Stig S; Baas, Jorgen; Jakobsen, Thomas; Soballe, Kjeld

    2010-01-01

    Induction of bone ingrowth by topographical changes to implant surfaces is an attractive concept. Topographical modifications achieved by acid etching are potentially applicable to complex 3D surfaces. Using clinically relevant implant models, we explored the effect of wet etching porous bead-coated CoCrMo. The study was designed as two paired animal experiments with 10 dogs. Each dog received four implants; one in each medial femoral condyle (loaded 0.75-mm-gap model) and one in each proximal tibia (press-fit). The implants were observed for 6 weeks and were evaluated by biomechanical pushout tests and histomorphometry. We found that wet etching porous bead-coated CoCrMo implants failed to improve implant performance. Moreover, a tendency towards increased fibrous tissue formation, decreased new bone formation, and decreased mechanical fixation was observed. Surface topography on implants is able to stimulate bone-forming cells, but the clinical performance of an implant surface perhaps relies more on 3D geometrical structure and biocompatibility. Caution should be exercised regarding the results of wet etching of porous bead-coated CoCrMo and there is a need for more preclinical trials. PMID:20544657

  8. Healing of Stoma After Magnetic Biliary-Enteric Anastomosis in Canine Peritonitis Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-hui Li; Long Guo; Wei-jie Yao; Zhi-yong Zhang; Shan-pei Wang; Shi-qi Liu; Zhi-min Geng; Xiao-ping Song; Yi Lv

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assese the healing of stoma after magnetic anastomosis for the reconstruction of biliary-enteric continuity under severe inflammation. Methods Acute bile duct injury was constructed as a bile peritonitis model in mongrel dogs (n=32). Magnetic anastomosis (group A, n=16) and traditional suture anastomosis (group B, n=16) were performed to reconstruct the biliary-enteric continuity in one stage. Half of the dogs in each group were euthanized on the 30th postoperative day, and the other half on the 90th postoperative day to harvest the stoma region. The healing conditions of the stoma after the 2 anastomotic approaches were observed with naked eyes, under light microscope and scanning electron microscope. Results The stoma leakage rate (50%versus 0%on the 30th postoperative day, 37.5%versus 12.5%on the 90th postoperative day, both P Conclusions Magnetic anastomosis stent ensures better healing of the stoma even under the circumstance of severe inflammation.

  9. Characterization of a canine model of glycogen storage disease type IIIa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiqing Yi

    2012-11-01

    Glycogen storage disease type IIIa (GSD IIIa is an autosomal recessive disease caused by deficiency of glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE in liver and muscle. The disorder is clinically heterogeneous and progressive, and there is no effective treatment. Previously, a naturally occurring dog model for this condition was identified in curly-coated retrievers (CCR. The affected dogs carry a frame-shift mutation in the GDE gene and have no detectable GDE activity in liver and muscle. We characterized in detail the disease expression and progression in eight dogs from age 2 to 16 months. Monthly blood biochemistry revealed elevated and gradually increasing serum alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities; serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK activity exceeded normal range after 12 months. Analysis of tissue biopsy specimens at 4, 12 and 16 months revealed abnormally high glycogen contents in liver and muscle of all dogs. Fasting liver glycogen content increased from 4 months to 12 months, but dropped at 16 months possibly caused by extended fibrosis; muscle glycogen content continually increased with age. Light microscopy revealed significant glycogen accumulation in hepatocytes at all ages. Liver histology showed progressive, age-related fibrosis. In muscle, scattered cytoplasmic glycogen deposits were present in most cells at 4 months, but large, lake-like accumulation developed by 12 and 16 months. Disruption of the contractile apparatus and fraying of myofibrils was observed in muscle at 12 and 16 months by electron microscopy. In conclusion, the CCR dogs are an accurate model of GSD IIIa that will improve our understanding of the disease progression and allow opportunities to investigate treatment interventions.

  10. Preservation of the Larynx in Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sewnaik, Aniel

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn the last decade the primary treatment of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer was shifted towards organ preservation, i.e. preservation of the larynx. The treatment of laryngeal cancer was changed from standard radiotherapy towards hyperfractionated radiotherapy. Hypopharyngeal cancer is nowadays mostly treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy instead of primary surgery. Therefore, the greatest shift in treatment protocols found was for hypopharyngeal cancer. ...

  11. Euphorbia tirucalli modulates gene expression in larynx squamous cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Franco-Salla, Gabriela Bueno; Prates, Janesly; Cardin, Laila Toniol; dos Santos, Anemari Ramos Dinarte; Silva Jr, Wilson Araújo da; da Cunha, Bianca Rodrigues; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Oliani, Sonia Maria; Rodrigues-Lisoni, Flávia Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Background Some plants had been used in the treatment of cancer and one of these has attracted scientific interest, the Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli), used in the treatment of asthma, ulcers, warts has active components with activities scientifically proven as antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Methods We evaluate the influence of the antitumoral fraction of the E. tirucalli latex in the larynx squamous cell carcinoma (Hep-2), on the morphology, cell proliferation and gene ...

  12. Tumoral and peritumoral tissue ultrastructure in oropharynx and larynx neoplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Corina Kodjabashija; Grigore Mihăescu

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are the sixth most common cancers in the world. Investigations were carried out to characterize by microscopic methods some advanced stage squamous lesions cases (stages III and IV) and to assess their biological characteristics. The electron microscope transmission images have revealed some of the ultrastructural features both of the tumor cell carcinoma of the oropharynx and larynx, and the tissue adjacent to the tumor, which was considered no...

  13. Larynx carcinoma regulates tumor-associated macrophages through PLGF signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Zhou(Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China); Ying Qi

    2015-01-01

    Cancer neovascularization plays an essential role in the metastasis of larynx carcinoma (LC). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Recently, we reported that placental growth factor (PLGF) regulates expression of matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) through ERK/MAPK signaling pathway in LC. Here, we show that MMP9 upregulated in LC, and appeared to be mainly produced by M2 macrophages (tumor-associated macrophages (TAM)). In a transwell co-culture system, P...

  14. Evaluation of tumor motion effect in canine model for diagnostic and radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sangkeun; Nam, Taewon; Kim, Kyeongmin [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seungwoo; Han, Suchul; Ji, Younghoon [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Nohwon; Eom, Kidong [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The internal organs move up to 35mm maximum and it provides information and uncertainty that has been distorted in the diagnosis and treatment. Previous most studies for the effect of respiration have been performed with external monitoring systems but it cannot represent internal organ motion such as liver, pancreas, and lung. Positron emission tomography (PET) is more influenced by motion than computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since measurement time for image acquisition is longer than CT and MRI. Thus, count of tumor is to be underestimated and region of tumor is to be overestimated. The first aim of this study was developing the artificial pulmonary nodule which can be performed non-invasive transplant into thorax of dogs and second is to assess the effect of respiratory motion on PET image with evaluating the applicability of the artificial model using dogs for diagnosis and treatment. The developed artificial pulmonary nodule showed reproducibility and motion effect as respiratory cycle and it was verified in PET images. Radiation dose estimated was not changed and was reduced slightly of 10 rpm and 15 rpm, respectively, in both of glass dosimeter and ion chamber. The developed artificial pulmonary nodule will be useful tool for evaluating respiratory motion and better research performance for diagnosis and treatment will be expected with performing simulated experiment using the nodule conducted in this study.

  15. Development of artificial model of caval syndrome in canine heartworm disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop an artificial model of caval syndrome (dirofilarial hemoglobinuria), heartworm-like silicone tubes were inserted into the tricuspid valve orifice and right atrium of dogs. Fifteen to 25 tubes with some knots were inserted through the posterior vena cava in 6 dogs (knot-tube group), 7 to 12 tubes without knot (small-number group) through the jugular vein in another 5 dogs, or 25 to 35 tubes (large-number group) in yet another 5 dogs. The tubes remained in the right atrium, and a part of them protruded into the tricuspid valve orifice. The number of tubes at the tricuspid valve orifice was the greatest in the large-number group. After tube insertion, the signs of so-called ''caval syndrome'', such as systolic cardiac murmur, jugular pulse, anemia, and so on, were observed in almost all cases of the 3 groups, the signs were severest in the large-number group. Urine hemoglobin was detected in almost all cases of the knot-tube and large-number groups, and in 1 case in the small-number group. Ascites was observed in 1 case of the knot-tube group at 6 weeks, in 1 case of the small-number group at 7 days and in 3 cases of the large-number group at 7 days after insertion

  16. Hypothyroidism renders protection against lethal ventricular arrhythmias in a conscious canine model of sudden death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, N; Lynch, J J; Uprichard, A C; Kitzen, J M; Singh, B N; Lucchesi, B R

    1991-11-01

    The protective effect of hypothyroidism against lethal ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT) in the subacute phase of experimental myocardial infarction (MI) was investigated in 10 thyroidectomized dogs using a conscious model of sudden coronary death. Four weeks after surgical ablation of the thyroid, and having established biochemical hypothyroidism, anterior MI was produced by 120 min of occlusion-reperfusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. In the subacute phase of MI, the inducibility of VT was investigated using programmed ventricular stimulation (PVS), and the effects on spontaneous development of ventricular fibrillation (VF) were studied by production of posterolateral ischemia at a site remote from the area of the previous infarction. Ischemia was produced by the passage of anodal direct current through a silver wire electrode implanted in the left circumflex coronary (LCX) artery. The results were compared to those from a cohort of 20 existing euthyroid controls that had undergone an identical experimental protocol. No differences were found in heart rate and other electrocardiographic parameters such as the PR, QRS, and QT (paced at 2.5 Hz) and the QTc interval between the hypo- and euthyroid groups. During PVS in the subacute phase of anterior MI, the measured threshold voltage and ventricular refractory periods were similar in both groups. The incidence of inducibility of VT was 100% in the euthyroid animals compared to 60% in the hypothyroid dogs, suggesting an antiarrhythmic effect of hypothyroidism. The incidence of sustained vs. nonsustained VT was similar in both groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1723767

  17. A CASE OF CONGENITAL CYST OF LARYNX IN AN INFANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Congenital Laryngeal Cysts are a rare cause of neonatal airway obstruction. Most cases of the infants with Stridor are usually evaluated for laryngomalacia, croup, acute laryngotracheobronchitis and vocal cord paralysis. Flexible laryngoscopy in awake infant helps in identifying the cause for respiratory embarrassment. It can be easily managed once diagnosed. It will lead to high morbidity and mortality if one misses the true diagnosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A male infant aged 2 months was brought with the complaints of labored breathing since birth and developing Stridor since 3 days. Flexible awake laryngoscopy was done to diagnose the condition as Cyst of the Larynx. It was excised by micro laryngeal surgery. DISCUSSION: Various authors have classified the cysts of larynx depending upon their cell of origin, site of origin and its route of expansion. They are mainly ductal type and saccus type with or without endodermal elements. Treatment is either by endoscopic excision, marsupialization or excision through an external approach. CONCLUSION: Even though rare Cysts of larynx as a cause of infantile respiratory embarrassment should be kept in mind. Initial aspiration will confirm as well as help in intubation before undertaking micro surgery. Proper planning and total excision of the sac wall allowing the dependent drainage will avoid recurrence.

  18. CHANGES IN LARYNX AND TRACHEA IN POSTINTUBATED PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruthi Rao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Present critical care units have a significant number of patients who require intubation for prolonged periods of time. With the advent of high volume low-pressure tubes, it is common for the patients to be ventilated through the endotracheal tube for up to 3 weeks in the ICU. The sequelae of intubation depend on multiple factors and can also at times be a major source of morbidity to the patient during recovery. Laryngeal complications after prolonged intubations have varied incidence rates in the literature. Hoarseness of voice, cough, dysphagia, aspiration and stridor can develop after extubation. Common injuries following long-term intubation can manifest in the form of edema, ulceration, granulomas, arytenoid dislocations, adhesions, subglottic stenosis and vocal fold immobility, etc. This study conducted in our ENT Department is based on cases with changes in larynx and trachea following prolonged intubation in Intensive Care Units of Government General Hospital, attached to Rangaraya Medical College, Kakinada, during a period of about two years (September 2011 to August 2013. In our study, 20 patients (66.67% had lesions only in larynx and 10 patients (33.33% had lesions in both larynx and trachea. Laryngotracheal sequelae in long-term intubation which showed the increased incidence of complications in patients with more than 10-14 days intubation.

  19. Motion subtraction of the larynx using digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of digital radiography (DR) has made it possible to analyze the contour of the laryngeal soft tissue structures in more detail than the conventional screen-film method. The authors first used the DR system for time subtraction of the larynx during inspiration and phonation. The images are acquired by means of frontal tomography of the larynx using the imaging plate during inspiration and phonation separately, and stored into the memory of the DR system. The thickness of the slices is 5.0 mm. Time subtraction between the mask image during inspiration and the live image during phonation is performed using digital processing on CRT. Superimposing the two images at the upper trachea and the thyroid cartilage of the same depth, makes it possible to measure movement of the vocal cord and false vocal cord quantitatively in three dimensions. The authors named this time subtraction as motion subtraction of the larynx. This motion subtraction image can be obtained by on-line digital processing without complicated development technique, but has so high spatial resolution. This image processing seems to be useful in functional radiographic analysis of laryngeal diseases. (author)

  20. Using inverted autogenous veins to substitute arteries in a canine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikeghbalian Saman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : Rapid harvesting of autogenous graft over a wire is an optional way in trauma surgery and it places the inverted conduit so that its adventitial layer is within the lumen of the graft. Our aim of this study was to compare the patency of inverted autogenous graft vs noninverted graft in dogs. Settings and Design : Experimental animal models. Materials and Methods : In this experimental study, 12 dogs were anesthetized and 10 cm of the external jugular vein was excised. The vein was equally divided into two 5-cm sections. One section was inverted and the other was left intact. Afterward, 5 cm of both the femoral arteries were removed and the right (inverted and the left (not inverted arteries were grafted, respectively. The patency of the arteries was evaluated by Color Doppler ultrasonography immediately postoperation and up to 6 months thereafter. Statistical Analysis : Data were analyzed with Fisher′s exact test using SPSS version 15. P value below 0.05 was significant. Results: None of the 12 inverted vein grafts were patent at 3 rd to 14 th days follow-up with Doppler ultrasonography. All of them were completely obstructed by thrombosis. However, 11 (92% of the noninverted vein grafts were patent both at 3 and 6 months follow-up. One of the noninverted grafts was almost completely obstructed with thrombosis (90% and the other 2 were incompletely obstructed with intimal thickening. Conclusions : Despite many favorable results in the previous studies with regard to excellent patency of inverted vein graft, our results were disappointing and we recommend using the graft in the right direction and taking care to preserve the intima intact.

  1. AAV gene transfer delays disease onset in a TPP1-deficient canine model of the late infantile form of Batten disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Martin L.; Tecedor, Luis; Chen, Yonghong; Williamson, Baye G.; Lysenko, Elena; Wininger, Fred A.; Young, Whitney M.; Johnson, Gayle C.; Whiting, Rebecca E. H.; Coates, Joan R.; Davidson, Beverly L.

    2016-01-01

    The most common form of the childhood neurodegenerative disease late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (also called Batten disease) is caused by deficiency of the soluble lysosomal enzyme tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP1) resulting from mutations in the TPP1 gene. We tested whether TPP1 gene transfer to the ependyma, the epithelial lining of the brain ventricular system, in TPP1-deficient dogs would be therapeutically beneficial. A one-time administration of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) expressing canine TPP1 (rAAV.caTPP1) resulted in high expression of TPP1 predominantly in ependymal cells and secretion of the enzyme into the cerebrospinal fluid leading to clinical benefit. Diseased dogs treated with rAAV.caTPP1 showed delays in onset of clinical signs and disease progression, protection from cognitive decline, and extension of life span. By immunostaining and enzyme assay, recombinant protein was evident throughout the brain and spinal cord, with correction of the neuropathology characteristic of the disease. This study in a naturally occurring canine model of TPP1 deficiency highlights the utility of AAV transduction of ventricular lining cells to accomplish stable secretion of recombinant protein for broad distribution in the central nervous system and therapeutic benefit. PMID:26560358

  2. Radiological normal anatomy of the larynx and pharynx and imaging techniques; Radiologische Normalanatomie des Larynx und Pharynx sowie bildgebende Techniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, S.F.; Krestan, C.R.; Noebauer-Huhmann, I.M.; Fruehwald, J.; Peloschek, P.; Kainberger, F.; Czerny, C. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Klinische Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie und muskuloskelettale Radiologie, Wien (Austria); Formanek, M. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenkrankheiten, Wien (Austria)

    2009-01-15

    The larynx and the pharynx represent anatomically as well as functionally a very complex organ which serves as an airway and a nutrition channel. Knowledge of anatomy and anatomical topography is therefore a fundamental basis for the evaluation of any pathological process. Beside the clinical examination and endoscopy performed by ear, nose and throat specialists, imaging techniques play a crucial role in pre-therapeutic and post-therapeutic diagnostics. The radiologist employs a conventional x-ray swallow examination, as well as contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), depending on the medical problem in question. The following article demonstrates the functional and especially the structural anatomy of the larynx and the pharynx. Furthermore, the broad range of imaging techniques in clinical use is discussed. (orig.) [German] Larynx und Pharynx repraesentieren sowohl anatomisch als auch funktionell ein sehr komplexes Organsystem, das als Luft- und Speiseweg dient. Die Kenntnis der Anatomie und anatomischen Topographie ist daher die elementare Grundlage fuer die Beurteilung jeglicher pathologischer Prozesse. Neben der klinischen Untersuchung und der Endoskopie durch den Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Arzt kommt den bildgebenden Verfahren in der prae- und posttherapeutischen Diagnostik eine entscheidende Rolle zu. Der Radiologe bedient sich hierbei - in Abhaengigkeit von der Fragestellung - der konventionellen Roentgenschluckuntersuchung, der kontrastmittelverstaerkten Multidetektorcomputertomographie (MDCT), der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT), der Positronenemissionstomographie (PET) und der Positronenemissionstomographie-Computertomographie (PET-CT). Der folgende Artikel demonstriert die funktionelle und insbesondere die strukturelle Anatomie des Larynx und Pharynx. Darueber hinaus wird das breite Spektrum der bildgebenden

  3. The SimSpay-Student Perceptions of a Low-Cost Build-It-Yourself Model for Novice Training of Surgical Skills in Canine Ovariohysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Toft, Nils; Eriksen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    -type scale, students were asked to rate their perceived levels of competence, confidence, and anatomic knowledge before and after SimSpay training. Results demonstrate a strongly significant (p students' perceived levels...... groups of students. In the Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences of the University of Copenhagen, a low-cost build-it-yourself model, the SimSpay, was developed for novice training of surgical skills in canine ovariohysterectomy. The model did not require the use of trained technical...... staff or costly, hard-to-source supplies. The SimSpay was developed and implemented in the clinical veterinary curriculum in 2013. In 2014, 54 students participated in a questionnaire study to investigate their perception of the usefulness of the SimSpay as a learning tool. On a five-point Likert...

  4. Collateral ventilation quantification using xenon-enhanced dynamic dual-energy CT: Differences between canine and swine models of bronchial occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Ah; Goo, Jin Mo; Park, Sang Joon; Lee, Chang Hyun; Park, Chng Min [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the difference in the degree of collateral ventilation between canine and swine models of bronchial obstruction could be detected by using xenon-enhanced dynamic dual-energy CT. Eight mongrel dogs and six pigs underwent dynamic dual-energy scanning of 64-slice dual-source CT at 12-second interval for 2-minute wash-in period (60% xenon) and at 24-second interval for 3-minute wash-out period with segmental bronchus occluded. Ventilation parameters of magnitude (A value), maximal slope, velocity (K value), and time-to-peak (TTP) enhancement were calculated from dynamic xenon maps using exponential function of Kety model. A larger difference in A value between parenchyma was observed in pigs than in dogs (absolute difference, -33.0 +/- 5.0 Hounsfield units [HU] vs. -2.8 +/- 7.1 HU, p = 0.001; normalized percentage difference, -79.8 +/- 1.8% vs. -5.4 +/- 16.4%, p = 0.0007). Mean maximal slopes in both periods in the occluded parenchyma only decreased in pigs (all p < 0.05). K values of both periods were not different (p = 0.892) in dogs. However, a significant (p = 0.027) difference was found in pigs in the wash-in period. TTP was delayed in the occluded parenchyma in pigs (p = 0.013) but not in dogs (p = 0.892). Xenon-ventilation CT allows the quantification of collateral ventilation and detection of differences between canine and swine models of bronchial obstruction.

  5. Evaluation of the biological differences of canine and human factor VIII in gene delivery: Implications in human hemophilia treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The canine is the most important large animal model for testing novel hemophilia A(HA) treatment. It is often necessary to use canine factor VIII (cFIII) gene or protein for the evaluation of HA treatment in the canine model. However, the different biological properties between cFVIII and human FVII...

  6. Tumoral and peritumoral tissue ultrastructure in oropharynx and larynx neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Corina Kodjabashija

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs are the sixth most common cancers in the world. Investigations were carried out to characterize by microscopic methods some advanced stage squamous lesions cases (stages III and IV and to assess their biological characteristics. The electron microscope transmission images have revealed some of the ultrastructural features both of the tumor cell carcinoma of the oropharynx and larynx, and the tissue adjacent to the tumor, which was considered normal at the visual inspection made during surgery, demosntrating the importance of advanced mciroscopy tehcniques to the correct diagnosis an stadialization of HNSCCs.

  7. Labeling index in squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzi, M.; Ninu, B.M.; Becciolini, A.; Scubla, E.; Boanini, P.; Gallina, E.; Gallo, O.; Fini-Storchi, O.; Bondi, R. (Radiation Biology Laboratory, University of Florence (Italy))

    1991-07-01

    Two cell kinetic parameters, the 3H-thymidine labeling index (TLI) and the mitotic index (MI), were studied in vitro on fragments of squamous cell carcinoma tissue of the larynx. They were evaluated to identify those elements able to characterize the growth of these solid tumors. The values of these parameters were analyzed as a function of the clinical stage and the involvement of the regional lymph nodes. Results showed a statistically significant increase in the TLI from stage T1 to T3. No statistically significant differences in the TLI values were observed between the patients with positive and negative lymph nodes.

  8. A LINE-1 insertion in DLX6 is responsible for cleft palate and mandibular abnormalities in a canine model of Pierre Robin sequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zena T Wolf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cleft palate (CP is one of the most commonly occurring craniofacial birth defects in humans. In order to study cleft palate in a naturally occurring model system, we utilized the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever (NSDTR dog breed. Micro-computed tomography analysis of CP NSDTR craniofacial structures revealed that these dogs exhibit defects similar to those observed in a recognizable subgroup of humans with CP: Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS. We refer to this phenotype in NSDTRs as CP1. Individuals with PRS have a triad of birth defects: shortened mandible, posteriorly placed tongue, and cleft palate. A genome-wide association study in 14 CP NSDTRs and 72 unaffected NSDTRs identified a significantly associated region on canine chromosome 14 (24.2 Mb-29.3 Mb; p(raw = 4.64 × 10(-15. Sequencing of two regional candidate homeobox genes in NSDTRs, distal-less homeobox 5 (DLX5 and distal-less homeobox 6 (DLX6, identified a 2.1 kb LINE-1 insertion within DLX6 in CP1 NSDTRs. The LINE-1 insertion is predicted to insert a premature stop codon within the homeodomain of DLX6. This prompted the sequencing of DLX5 and DLX6 in a human cohort with CP, where a missense mutation within the highly conserved DLX5 homeobox of a patient with PRS was identified. This suggests the involvement of DLX5 in the development of PRS. These results demonstrate the power of the canine animal model as a genetically tractable approach to understanding naturally occurring craniofacial birth defects in humans.

  9. Intraoperative photodynamic therapy for larynx carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukatch, Erwin V.; Latyshevska, Galina; Fekeshgazi, Ishtvan V.

    1995-05-01

    We made an experimental and clinical researches to examine Intraoperative Photodynamic Therapy (IPT) as a method to prevent the recidives of tumors. In experimental researches on models with radio-inducated fibrosarcomas and Erlich carcinomas of mice the best method of IPT was worked out. The therapeutic effect was studied also on patients with laryngeal cancer. In researches on C3H mice the antirecidive effect of IPT established with local administration of methylene blue and Ar-laser. We found that IPT (He-Ne laser combined with methylene blue administration) was endured by patients with laryngeal cancers without problems. We got good results of treatment 42 patients with laryngeal cancers with middle localization during three years with using IPT method. This can show the perspectives of using this method in treatment of other ENT-oncological diseases.

  10. Topographic-anatomical peculiarities of the larynx in fetal period of embryogenesis

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    Popelyuk O.-M.V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of morphogenesis and syntopia of human larynx in connection with organization of adjacent structures was studied. The development and changes of topographic-anatomical correlation of larynx with adjacent structures was researched successively, the formation of its shape, structural organization, the influence of blood vessels and nerves on mentioned area was determined during the fetal period of human ontogenesis.

  11. Patency of heart blood vessels under photosensitization reaction shortly after intravenous injection of talaporfin sodium in canine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Risa; Matsuzaki, Ryota; Ogawa, Emiyu; Arai, Tsunenori

    2016-03-01

    In order to investigate patency of heart blood vessels by photosensitization reaction shortly after intravenous injection of talaporfin sodium, we performed in vitro endothelial cell lethality study and in vivo study of heart blood vessel patency in canine one week after photosensitization reaction. Cell lethality of human umbilical vein endothelial cells under different albumin concentrations corresponding with blood and interstice concentrations were employed and their lethality 2 hours after the reaction was measured by WST assay in vitro. Almost all cells survived by 40 J/cm2 photosensitization reaction with blood albumin concentration. Laser diffuser made of plastic optical fiber with 70 mm in length was used in vivo. Red diode laser of 664nm wavelength was emitted from this diffuser with 17.1-42.9 mW/cm in 10 minutes. We estimated the fluence rate distribution by a ray-trace simulator using pre-measured optical coefficients of myocardium tissue, μa 0.12 mm-1 and μs' 0.36 mm-1. Almost all blood vessels were patent in every irradiation conditions in canine heart. Coronary artery and vein up to 1 mm diameter were patent in typical myocardium sample with 25.7 mW/cm. We estimated fluence rate distribution of this sample and found that blood vessels were patent even fluence rate over 40 J/cm2. This in vivo study could be explained by the result of in vitro study. We suggest that this blood vessel patency after our particular photosensitization reaction might be because of few photosensitizer uptake in the blood endothelial cells and/or reduced oxidation damage by thick albumin concentration in blood.

  12. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

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    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  13. Long-term follow-up in patients treated with larynx preservation approach using sequential chemotherapy and radiation therapy: the Memorial Hospital experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maluf, Fernando; Sherman, Eric J.; Bosl, George J.; Pfister, David G. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Medicine. Div. of Solid Tumor Oncology; Kraus, Dennis H.; Shaha, Ashok; Shah, Jatin P. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States).Dept. of Surgery. Head and Neck Service; Zelefsky, Michael J. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology]. E-mail: pfisterd@mskcc.org

    2000-06-01

    While many combined modality, organ preservation programs are reported in the literature, few provide long-term follow-up with functional outcomes. The goal of this report is to provide this outcome data for patients treated with a sequential chemotherapy/radiotherapy (CT/RT) approach - the only strategy successfully compared to surgery and RT in randomized trials to date - treated at our institution with a median follow-up of over 10 years. Eligible patients had advanced, resectable, histologically-confirmed squamous cell carcinomas of larynx or pharynx for which standard surgical management would have jeopardized the larynx. Treatment occurred as part of three consecutive larynx preservation protocols and consisted of three cycles of induction, cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed, if the primary site had a major response, by definitive dose radiation therapy (65-70 Gy to sites of initial disease bulk) via conventional fractionation (1.8-2 Gy fraction). If the tumor did not respond to the induction chemotherapy or persisted after radiation therapy, appropriate locoregional treatment was pursued. Response to induction chemotherapy, initial rendered disease-free rate, local control with a functional larynx (without any surgery except biopsy to the primary site, permanent tracheostomy or gastrostomy - LCLP), and actuarial survival rates were calculated. A multivariate assessment of prognostic variables was performed using Cox-proportional hazards model to evaluate for predictors of successful larynx preservation. One hundred and ten patients (109 evaluable) with cancer of the larynx (40%), hypopharynx (29%), and oropharynx (30%) were enrolled from 1983 to 1990. The median age was 60 years With a median Karnofsky Performance Status of 80%. The stage of the patients consisted of 33% T4, 74% node positive, and 69% stage IV. The major response rate at the primary site to induction chemotherapy was 74% (complete response in 36%). Seventy-eight percent were rendered

  14. Canine pluripotent stem cells: Are they ready for clinical applications?

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    Dean Harvey Betts

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The derivation of canine embryonic stem cells and generation of canine induced pluripotent stem cells are significant achievements that have unlocked the potential for developing novel cell-based disease models, drug discovery platforms and transplantation therapies in the dog. A progression from concept to cure in this clinically relevant companion animal will not only help our canine patients but also help advance human regenerative medicine. Nevertheless, many issues remain to be resolved before pluripotent cells can be used clinically in a safe and reproducible manner.

  15. Canine retraction with J hook headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala Perez, C; de Alba, J A; Caputo, A A; Chaconas, S J

    1980-11-01

    Several methods have been described for accomplishing distal movement of canines without losing posterior anchorage. An accepted method in canine retraction is the use of headgear with J hooks. Since it incorporates extraoral anchorage, it is most effective in maximum-anchorage cases. It was the purpose of this study to analyze the distribution of force transmitted to the alveolus and surrounding structures by means of photoelastic visualization, utilizing J hook headgear for maxillary canine retraction. A three-dimensional model representing a human skull was used. This model was constructed with different birefringent materials to simulate bone, teeth, and periodontal membranes. Three different vectors of force were applied representing high-, medium-, and low-pull headgear, which were placed at angles of 40, 20, and 0 degrees to the occlusal plane. The photoelastic analysis was made by means of a circular-transmission polariscope arrangement, and the photoelastic data were recorded photographically. The stress areas created by the three different vectors of force were associated with various degrees of canine tipping. This effect was greater with the low-pull force component than with the medium-pull traction. The high-pull headgear produced the least tipping tendency, being closer to a bodily movemment effect. Further, stresses were transmitted to deeper structures of the simulated facial bones; these regions were the frontozygomatic, zygomaticomaxillary, and zygomaticotemporal sutures.

  16. Oxidative stress response in canine in vitro liver, kidney and intestinal models with seven potential dietary ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoungju; Ortega, Maria T; Jeffery, Brett; Riviere, Jim E; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A

    2016-01-22

    In vitro cell culture systems are a useful tool to rapidly assess the potential safety or toxicity of chemical constituents of food. Here, we investigated oxidative stress and organ-specific antioxidant responses by 7 potential dietary ingredients using canine in vitro culture of hepatocytes, proximal tubule cells (CPTC), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) and enterocyte-like cells (ELC). Cellular production of free radical species by denatonium benzoate (DB), epigallocatechin gallate (EPI), eucalyptol (EUC), green tea catechin extract (GTE) and sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC), tetrahydroisohumulone (TRA) as well as xylitol (XYL) were continuously measured for reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and superoxide (SO) for up to 24h. DB and TRA showed strong prooxidant activities in hepatocytes and to a lesser degree in ELC. DB was a weak prooxidant in BMSC. In contrast DB and TRA were antioxidants in CPTC. EPI was prooxidant in hepatocytes and BMSC but showed prooxidant and antioxidant activity in CPTC. SCC in hepatocytes (12.5mg/mL) and CPTC (0.78mg/mL) showed strong prooxidant and antioxidant activity in a concentration-dependent manner. GTE was effective antioxidant only in ELC. EUC and XYL did not induce ROS/RNS in all 4 cell types. SO production by EPI and TRA increased in hepatocytes but decreased by SCC in hepatocytes and ELC. These results suggest that organ-specific responses to oxidative stress by these potential prooxidant compounds may implicate a mechanism of their toxicities. PMID:26602166

  17. Experimental Model of Gene Transfection in Healthy Canine Myocardium: Perspectives of Gene Therapy for Ischemic Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato A. K. Kalil

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the transfection of the gene that encodes green fluorescent protein (GFP through direct intramyocardial injection. METHODS: The pREGFP plasmid vector was used. The EGFP gene was inserted downstream from the constitutive promoter of the Rous sarcoma virus. Five male dogs were used (mean weight 13.5 kg, in which 0.5 mL of saline solution (n=1 or 0.5 mL of plasmid solution containing 0.5 µg of pREGFP/dog (n=4 were injected into the myocardium of the left ventricular lateral wall. The dogs were euthanized 1 week later, and cardiac biopsies were obtained. RESULTS: Fluorescence microscopy showed differences between the cells transfected and not transfected with pREGFP plasmid. Mild fluorescence was observed in the cardiac fibers that received saline solution; however, the myocardial cells transfected with pREGFP had overt EGFP expression. CONCLUSION: Transfection with the EGFP gene in healthy canine myocardium was effective. The reproduction of this efficacy using vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF instead of EGFP aims at developing gene therapy for ischemic heart disease.

  18. O adoecimento pelo cancer de laringe The illness narrative for larynx cancer

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    Márcia Maria Fontão Zago

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de aprimorar a assistência ao laringectomizado, este estudo teve o objetivo de compreender o adoecimento pelo câncer de laringe na visão do paciente e sua família. Participaram do estudo 14 pacientes laringectomizados e familiares, em diferentes períodos pós-operatórios. Na análise das narrativas identificamos categorias que foram interpretadas sob a visão antropológica da cultura. Na interpretação dos participantes, o processo é permeado pelo sofrimento, pela busca de estratégias de enfrentamento, pela valorização de sobreviver à cirurgia, ou seja, pressupostos culturais que diferem do modelo biomédico dos profissionais e que devem ser considerados na sua reabilitação.With the purpose of improving the care of laryngectomized patients, the aim is to understand the illness experience of patients and families of having larynx cancer. The participants were 14 laryngectomized patients and their families, in different post-surgical periods. The narrative analysis searched for categories which were understood on the basis of an anthropological focusing the culture. The understanding that the participants had of the illness experience of having a larynx cancer shows us that this process is one of suffering, of searching of strategies of coping, of evaluating the survival to the surgical treatment, which were based on the cultural system, which is different from the biomedical model of the health professionals and they must be considered in the approach for the rehabilitation.

  19. A case of delayed radionecrosis of the larynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunibe, Isamu; Harabuchi, Yasuaki [Asahikawa Medical School, Hokkaido (Japan); Tosho, Takuro; Takahashi, Mitsuaki

    2001-05-01

    A 65-year-old male, who had a history of radiotherapy to the neck for cervical metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma 8 years previously, newly complained of severe throat pain and dysphagia. He was found to have diffuse pharyngitis and pharyngo-cutaneous fistula. A CT examination showed a necrotic shadow of the thyroid cartilage. A recurrence of the carcinoma was ruled out based on the findings of a biopsy specimen. Both the clinical course as well as the local and histologic features led to a diagnosis of delayed radionecrosis of the larynx. The necrotic thyroid cartilage was resected and the pharyngocutaneous fistula was closed using a deltopectoral flap and, as a result, the laryngeal functions were preserved. (author)

  20. Spindle cell carcinoma of the larynx: A rare case report

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    Binayak Baruah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spindle cell carcinoma (SpCC of the larynx, a subtype and a more aggressive variant of the commonly occurring squamous cell carcinoma, is a unique and rare neoplasm. It comprises of 0.6–1.5% of all laryngeal cancers. Macroscopically, it usually presents as a large pedunculated, polypoidal mass with surface ulceration. Microscopically, however, it is considered as a biphasic tumor that has surface epithelial changes (in situ to invasive carcinoma and an underlying mesenchymal spindle shaped neoplastic proliferation. If detected early, it has a very good prognosis. We present a case of SpCC in a 70-year-old male, who presented with progressive hoarseness since 1 year. The mass was removed under videolaryngoscopic guidance and thereafter, the patient underwent cobalt 60 radiotherapy. His symptoms gradually improved, and he regained good control of his voice.

  1. Larynx carcinoma regulates tumor-associated macrophages through PLGF signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu; Qi, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Cancer neovascularization plays an essential role in the metastasis of larynx carcinoma (LC). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Recently, we reported that placental growth factor (PLGF) regulates expression of matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) through ERK/MAPK signaling pathway in LC. Here, we show that MMP9 upregulated in LC, and appeared to be mainly produced by M2 macrophages (tumor-associated macrophages (TAM)). In a transwell co-culture system, PLGF secreted by LC cells triggered macrophage polarization to a TAM subtype that releases MMP9. Moreover, MMP9 was found to be activated in the PLGF-polarized TAM via transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) receptor signaling activation. Furthermore, PLGF in LC cells induced macrophage polarization in vivo, and significantly promoted the growth of LC. Thus, together with our previous work, our study highlights a pivotal role of cross-talk between TAM and LC in regulating the metastasis of LC. PMID:25961789

  2. Usefulness of ultrasound examination in larynx traumas in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The aim of the paper was to evaluate the usefulness of ultrasonographic examination in diagnosing laryngeal traumas, and monitoring the progress or complications in its treatment. Material/Method: In the years 2004 - 2009, 12 children, including 5 girls and 7 boys with laryngeal injuries, aged 5 - 12 years, were diagnosed and treated. In all the children, US examination of the neck and larynx, using a high-frequency linear transducer, as well as laryngoscopy and radiological examination of the cervical spine and chest were performed. Results: Blunt injury of the larynx was found in 12 children; in 9 children, the injury had been caused by hitting the neck against an obtuse object, 1 child had been kicked in the neck, and in one there had been an attempt of strangling. One of the children had sustained blunt injuries of the neck and chest in a traffic accident. In US examinations, the findings included: unilateral lack of vocal cord mobility in 5 children, asymmetry in vocal cord mobility in 1 child, fractured thyroid cartilage with local hematoma in the affected area in 2 children, and thickened vocal cords in 5 children. In radiological examination, the findings included: subcutaneous emphysema in the cervical area of the chest in 4 children, and mediastinal emphysema in 2 children with traumatic rupture of the trachea shown in laryngoscopy. Conclusions: US examination is helpful in the assessment of the extensiveness of laryngeal trauma, especially in the evaluation of vocal cord mobility, cervical cartilage and the soft tissues of the neck. A high level of conformity was demonstrated between the results of cervical US and the respective laryngoscopic findings. US examination does not allow to differentiate between vocal cord paralysis and their immobilization. (authors)

  3. A case of radiation necrosis of the larynx after 20 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanaoka, Hajime; Kubota, Tetsuaki; Matsui, Kazuo; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Kadokura, Yoshiyuki; Nagase, Dai; Ishida, Makoto; Naitoh, Satoshi; Katsuno, Masahiro [Showa Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Fujigaoka Hospital

    2002-12-01

    A case of radiation necrosis of the larynx is reported. A 68-year-old man suffered from cancer of the larynx, and 20 years ago, he was treated with radiation. He complained of increasing throat pain, and was suspected of having radiation necrosis of the larynx. Antibiotics and steroids were administered, but the radiation necrosis was exacerbated. We recommended surgery but he refused and later become disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and died. Once necrosis of the cartilage occurs, a laryngectomy is required. (author)

  4. Intra-articular Enzyme Replacement Therapy with rhIDUA is Safe, Well-Tolerated, and Reduces Articular GAG Storage in the Canine Model of Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Raymond Y; Aminian, Afshin; McEntee, Michael F; Kan, Shih-Hsin; Simonaro, Calogera M; Lamanna, William; Lawrence, Roger; Ellinwood, N. Matthew; Guerra, Catalina; Le, Steven Q; Dickson, Patricia I; Esko, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment with intravenous enzyme replacement therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type I does not address joint disease, resulting in persistent orthopedic complications and impaired quality of life. A proof-of-concept study was conducted to determine the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of intra-articular recombinant human iduronidase (IA-rhIDUA) enzyme replacement therapy in the canine MPS I model. Methods Four MPS I dogs underwent monthly rhIDUA injections (0.58 mg/joint) into the right elbow and knee for six months. Contralateral elbows and knees concurrently received normal saline. No intravenous rhIDUA therapy was administered. Monthly blood counts, chemistries, anti-rhIDUA antibody titers, and synovial fluid cell counts were measured. Lysosomal storage of synoviocytes and chondrocytes, synovial macrophages and plasma cells were scored at baseline and one month following the final injection. Results All injections were well-tolerated without adverse reactions. One animal required prednisone for spinal cord compression. There were no clinically significant abnormalities in blood counts or chemistries. Circulating anti-rhIDUA antibody titers gradually increased in all dogs except the prednisone-treated dog; plasma cells, which were absent in all baseline synovial specimens, were predominantly found in synovium of rhIDUA-treated joints at study-end. Lysosomal storage in synoviocytes and chondrocytes following 6 months of IA-rhIDUA demonstrated significant reduction compared to tissues at baseline, and saline-treated tissues at study-end. Mean joint synovial GAG levels in IA-rhIDUA joints was 8.62±5.86 μg/mg dry weight and 21.6±10.4 μg/mg dry weight in control joints (60% reduction). Cartilage heparan sulfate was also reduced in the IA-rhIDUA joints (113±39.5 ng/g wet weight) compared to saline-treated joints (142±56.4 ng/g wet weight). Synovial macrophage infiltration, which was present in all

  5. Effect of the Plasmid-DNA Vaccination on Macroscopic and Microscopic Damage Caused by the Experimental Chronic Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in the Canine Model

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    Olivia Rodríguez-Morales

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dog is considered the main domestic reservoir for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and a suitable experimental animal model to study the pathological changes during the course of Chagas disease (CD. Vaccine development is one of CD prevention methods to protect people at risk. Two plasmids containing genes encoding a trans-sialidase protein (TcSP and an amastigote-specific glycoprotein (TcSSP4 were used as DNA vaccines in a canine model. Splenomegaly was not found in either of the recombinant plasmid-immunized groups; however, cardiomegaly was absent in animals immunized only with the plasmid containing the TcSSP4 gene. The inflammation of subendocardial and myocardial tissues was prevented only with the immunization with TcSSP4 gene. In conclusion, the vaccination with these genes has a partial protective effect on the enlargement of splenic and cardiac tissues during the chronic CD and on microscopic hearth damage, since both plasmids prevented splenomegaly but only one avoided cardiomegaly, and the lesions in heart tissue of dog immunized with plasmid containing the TcSSP4 gene covered only subepicardial tissue.

  6. The canine vomeronasal organ.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, D. R.; Wiekamp, M D

    1984-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ was studied in mature dogs with the optical, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopes. The canine vomeronasal complex is structurally well developed. Large blood vessels are present deep to both the lateral, 'non-receptor' and medial, 'receptor' epithelia. In addition to the unmyelinated vomeronasal nerves in the lamina propria deep to the 'receptor' epithelium, numerous nerves containing both myelinated and unmyelinated fibres are present deep to the 'no...

  7. Development of a model based scoring system for diagnosis of canine disseminated intravascular coagulation with independent assessment of sensitivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiinberg, Bo; Jensen, Asger L; Johansson, Pär I; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Rozanski, Elizabeth; Tranholm, Mikael; Kristensen, Annemarie T

    2010-09-01

    A template for a scoring system for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in humans has been proposed by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH). The objective of this study was to develop and validate a similar objective scoring system based on generally available coagulation tests for the diagnosis of DIC in dogs. To develop the scoring system, 100 dogs consecutively admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with diseases predisposing for DIC were enrolled prospectively (group A). The validation involved 50 dogs consecutively diagnosed with diseases predisposing for DIC, admitted to a different ICU (group B). Citrated blood samples were collected daily during hospitalisation and diagnosis of DIC was based on the expert evaluation of an extended coagulation panel. A multiple logistic regression model was developed in group A for DIC diagnosis. The integrity and diagnostic accuracy of the model was subsequently evaluated in a separate prospective study at a different ICU (group B) and was carried out according to The Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) criteria. Thirty-seven dogs were excluded from group A and four from group B due to missing data. Based on expert opinion, 23/63 dogs (37%) had DIC. The final multiple logistic regression model was based on activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, D-Dimer and fibrinogen. The model had a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 90.9% and 90.0%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of the model was sustained by prospective evaluation in group B (sensitivity 83.3%, specificity 77.3%). Based on commonly used, plasma-based coagulation assays, it was possible to design an objective diagnostic scoring system for canine DIC with a high sensitivity and specificity.

  8. Chronic administration of a leupeptin-derived calpain inhibitor fails to ameliorate severe muscle pathology in a canine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

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    Martin K Childers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Calpains likely play a role in the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. Accordingly, calpain inhibition may provide therapeutic benefit to DMD patients. In the present study, we sought to measure benefit from administration of a novel calpain inhibitor, C101, in a canine muscular dystrophy model. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that treatment with C101 mitigates progressive weakness and severe muscle pathology observed in young dogs with golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD. Young (6 week-old GRMD dogs were treated daily with either C101 (17mg/kg twice daily oral dose, n=9 or placebo (vehicle only, n=7 for 8 weeks. A battery of functional tests, including tibiotarsal joint angle, muscle/fat composition, and pelvic limb muscle strength were performed at baseline and every two weeks during the 8-week study. Results indicate that C101-treated GRMD dogs maintained strength in their cranial pelvic limb muscles (tibiotarsal flexors while placebo-treated dogs progressively lost strength. However, concomitant improvement was not observed in posterior pelvic limb muscles (tibiotarsal extensors. C101 treatment did not mitigate force drop following repeated eccentric contractions and no improvement was seen in the development of joint contractures, lean muscle mass or muscle histopathology. Taken together, these data do not support the hypothesis that treatment with C101 mitigates progressive weakness or ameliorates severe muscle pathology observed in young dogs with GRMD.

  9. Comparison of the Frequency-dependent Effects of Amiodarone on Ventricular Electrophysiology in Congestive Heart Failure Canine Models and Normal Dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Shuxian; Zhang Yuling; Lei Juan; Wu Wei; Zhang Xuming

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To compare the frequency-dependent effects of amiodarone (Ami) on ventricular electrophysiology in right ventricular rapid pacing-induced congestive heart failure (CHF) canine models.Methods Thirty-two dogs were randomized into four groups: the control group, the Ami group in which the normal dogs were given Ami orally 300 mg a day for 4~5 weeks, the CHF group induced by right ventricular rapid pacing ( 240 pulses. min -1 for 4 ~ 5 weeks), and the group of CHF dogs fed with Ami orally 300 mg a day for 4 ~ 5 weeks. The techniques of electrical stimulation and monophasic action potential (MAP) recording were used in the electrophysiology studies. Results The effects of Ami on ventricular MAP duration(MAPD90) and effective refractory period (VERP)were not frequency-dependent in CHF dogs. There was also no frequency-dependent effect on the increase in the ratio of VERP to MAPD90 (VERP/MAPD90). The prolongation of ventricular conduction time was frequencydependent. Conclusions The frequency-dependent effects of Ami on ventricular electrophysiology in CHF dogs were similar to that in normal dogs.

  10. Characterization of extracellular matrix proteins during wound healing in the lamina propria of vocal fold in a canine model: a long-term and consecutive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong; Xu, Wen; Ling, Wei; Wang, Qi; Wu, Yan; Han, Demin

    2014-06-01

    The characterization of vocal fold wound healing can be reflected by the changes of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the lamina propria. Although the expression of ECM proteins after vocal fold injury has been widely studied, such observations have lacked time continuity and integrity of marker proteins. In this study, we observed the morphology of injured vocal folds in a canine model. We used immunofluorescence staining to evaluate the expression and distribution of ECM proteins, such as collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, decorin and fibronectin, from 15 days to 6 months after injury. The results showed that large amounts of ECM proteins were secreted 15-40 days after injury. Collagen and fibronectin secretion increased significantly, and were disorderly deposited. The secretion of decorin and elastin increased slightly, while hyaluronic acid decreased. The 15-40 day post-injury period may be the critical intervention stage in wound healing of vocal folds. From 3 to 6 months after injury, the secretion of ECM proteins declined. However, collagen and fibronectin secretion were still significantly higher than normal with irregular arrangement, while the secretion of elastin, hyaluronic acid and decorin decreased significantly at 6 months. This led to vocal fold inelasticity and stiffness, which required effective long-term interventions to treat scar formation.

  11. Intensity modulated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy for larynx preservation of advanced resectable hypopharyngeal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Hsing-Lung; Chang Ying-Nan; Lin Yaoh-Shiang; Lin Chun-Shu; Su Yu-Fu; Chen Chang-Ming; Jen Yee-Min; Huang Wen-Yen; Lin Kuen-Tze; Chang Li-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background To analyze the rate of larynx preservation in patients of locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plus concurrent chemotherapy, and compare the results with patients treated with primary surgery. Methods Between January 2003 and November 2007, 14 patients were treated with primary surgery and 33 patients were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) using IMRT technique. Survival rate, larynx preservation rate wer...

  12. Basaloid squamous carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx with neuro-endocrine features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajjyoti Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basaloid squamous carcinoma (BSC is a rare aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma and occurs mainly at the larynx, oropharynx and tongue of the head and neck region. Neuro-endocrine differentiation of BSC is further rare occurrence in laryngeal cancers. We report here a case of BSC of supraglottic larynx with neuro-endocrine differentiation, which was treated by radiotherapy and its response to treatment.

  13. Involvement of the larynx motor area in singing-voice perception: a TMS study†

    OpenAIRE

    Lévêque, Yohana; Muggleton, Neil; Stewart, Lauren; Schön, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence has reported that the motor system has a role in speech or emotional vocalization discrimination. In the present study we investigated the involvement of the larynx motor representation in singing perception. Twenty-one non-musicians listened to short tones sung by a human voice or played by a machine and performed a categorization task. Thereafter continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over the right larynx premotor area or on the vertex and the ...

  14. Involvement of the larynx motor area in singing-voice perception: a TMS study

    OpenAIRE

    Yohana eLévêque; Neil eMuggleton; Lauren eStewart; Daniele eSchön

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence has reported that the motor system has a role in speech or emotional vocalization discrimination. In the present study we investigated the involvement of the larynx motor representation in singing perception. Twenty-one non-musicians listened to short tones sung by a human voice or played by a machine and performed a categorization task. Thereafter continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over the right larynx pre-motor area or on the vertex and the...

  15. A RARE CASE OF IMPACTED VEGETATIVE FOREIGN BODY IN LARYNX: XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM (CHHOTA GOKHRU)

    OpenAIRE

    Richa,; Surendra Singh

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: - BACKGROUND : Impaction of foreign bodies in the larynx constit utes a medical emergency and requires immediate intervention. We report a rare case of a Xanthium Strumarium (Chhota Gokhru) impacted in larynx in a 10 year old female who pre sented with complaint of respiratory distress & dysphonia in ENT department, S.S. Medical college and associated hospital, Rewa (M.P.). Direct laryngoscopy was performed for its removal. The case report thus...

  16. Absolute quantitation of myocardial blood flow with {sup 201}Tl and dynamic SPECT in canine: optimisation and validation of kinetic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Hidehiro; Kim, Kyeong-Min; Nakazawa, Mayumi; Sohlberg, Antti; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Hayashi, Takuya; Watabe, Hiroshi [National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Department of Investigative Radiology, Suita City, Osaka (Japan); Eberl, Stefan [National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Department of Investigative Radiology, Suita City, Osaka (Japan); Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, PET and Nuclear Medicine Department, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Tamura, Yoshikazu [Akita Kumiai General Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Akita City (Japan); Ono, Yukihiko [Akita Research Institute of Brain, Akita City (Japan)

    2008-05-15

    {sup 201}Tl has been extensively used for myocardial perfusion and viability assessment. Unlike {sup 99m}Tc-labelled agents, such as {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmine, the regional concentration of {sup 201}Tl varies with time. This study is intended to validate a kinetic modelling approach for in vivo quantitative estimation of regional myocardial blood flow (MBF) and volume of distribution of {sup 201}Tl using dynamic SPECT. Dynamic SPECT was carried out on 20 normal canines after the intravenous administration of {sup 201}Tl using a commercial SPECT system. Seven animals were studied at rest, nine during adenosine infusion, and four after beta-blocker administration. Quantitative images were reconstructed with a previously validated technique, employing OS-EM with attenuation-correction, and transmission-dependent convolution subtraction scatter correction. Measured regional time-activity curves in myocardial segments were fitted to two- and three-compartment models. Regional MBF was defined as the influx rate constant (K{sub 1}) with corrections for the partial volume effect, haematocrit and limited first-pass extraction fraction, and was compared with that determined from radio-labelled microspheres experiments. Regional time-activity curves responded well to pharmacological stress. Quantitative MBF values were higher with adenosine and decreased after beta-blocker compared to a resting condition. MBFs obtained with SPECT (MBF{sub SPECT}) correlated well with the MBF values obtained by the radio-labelled microspheres (MBF{sub MS}) (MBF{sub SPECT} = -0.067 + 1.042 x MBF{sub MS}, p < 0.001). The three-compartment model provided better fit than the two-compartment model, but the difference in MBF values between the two methods was small and could be accounted for with a simple linear regression. Absolute quantitation of regional MBF, for a wide physiological flow range, appears to be feasible using {sup 201}Tl and dynamic SPECT. (orig.)

  17. A STUDY OF CLINICO-PATHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS OF CARCINOMA LARYNX

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    Kartikeya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Incidence of carcinoma larynx in India reported to be 1.3 to 8.8 per 100,000 populations in six different regions of the country. The main risk factors for development of carcinoma larynx are consumption of smoke tobacco and alcohol. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinico-pathological parameters in patients with carcinoma larynx. MATERIAL AND METHOD A total of 110 patients newly diagnosed with carcinoma larynx were included in this study after taking informed consent from the patient and clearance from the ethics committee. Previously treated larynx cancer patients with recurrence were excluded. RESULT Pain on swallowing was the commonest presenting symptom present in 101 (91.81% patients. Smoke tobacco consumption was present in 104 (94.54% patients, smokeless tobacco consumption was present in 12 (10.90% patients and alcohol consumption was present in 94 (85.45% patients with cancer larynx. Most of the patients had inadequate dietary intake as per recommended dietary allowance. CONCLUSIONS The most common site involved was supraglottis seen in 70 (63.63% patients. Most of the patients presented with stage III cancer in 43 (39.09% patients. Squamous cell carcinoma was the histopathological variant seen in all patients in our study. Moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma was the most common squamous cell carcinoma variant seen present in 62 (56.36% patients.

  18. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin Before Radiation Therapy With Paclitaxel in Treating HPV-Positive Patients With Stage III-IV Oropharynx, Hypopharynx, or Larynx Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Human Papilloma Virus Infection; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx

  19. A Case of Typical Carcinoid of the Larynx

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    Shintaro Sato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report herein a rare case of typical carcinoid occurring primarily in the epiglottis. The patient was a 70-year-old man. On initial examination, a polypoid lesion with irregular surface near the center right-hand side of the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis was observed, and a biopsy was performed. Pathological examination of the specimen suggested the possibility of adenocarcinoma. Surgical excision was performed by means of laryngomicrosurgery. A Weerda-type laryngoscope was used to open the larynx, supplemented by rigid nasal sinus surgery endoscopes, and the right-hand half of the epiglottis were excised was ensured using a CO2 laser. Postoperative pathological diagnosis was negative for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell cancer; typical carcinoid was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization criteria. Aspiration occurred postoperatively, swallowing training was therefore provided, and the patient was discharged from hospital 2 months after surgery when he was able to eat normally. As of 4 years after surgery, the patient remains under follow-up observation by means of PET-CT and neck, thoracic, and abdominal CT administered at appropriate intervals, but no findings indicating obvious recurrence or metastasis have been observed, and the patient displays good swallowing function.

  20. Study of different dose fractionation in radiotherapy of larynx carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a clinical study the efficacy of a new fractionation scheme of radiotherapy of the carcinoma of the larynx was investigated. Radiation was applied every second day, three times a week, dose fractions being 4 Gy or 3.5 Gy, tumour doses 52 Gy, 52.5 Gy or 56 Gy. The results in 95 patients who were managed using this radiation scheme were compared with those in 129 patients, where the tumour dose, conventionally fractionated, was 60 Gy, 66 Gy or 70 Gy. The results in primarily cured patients, irrespective of the site and the stage of the tumour, were significantly better (p<0.05) with the new fractionation scheme. Statistically significant improvement of primary healing was proved in supraglottal carcinoma of the Ist and IInd stage and in the Ist and IIIrd stage of glottal carcinoma. In the new fractionation scheme higher occurrence of stronger reaction of the mucous membrane and of late radiation edema was found; complications of a more serious nature did not occur. (author)

  1. Pathologies of the larynx and trachea in childhood

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    Sittel, Christian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] Pathologies in the larynx and trachea in the pediatric age can be characterized in 4 main groups: airway stenosis, acute infections, benign neoplasia and foreign body aspiration. In this review main diagnostic strategies and therapeutic options are presented.Laryngomalazia is the most frequent condition of supraglottic stenosis. The term supraglottoplasty summarizes all different techniques used for it’s repair using an endoscopic approach.Glottic stenosis is rare in children. Usually a compromise between voice preservation and airway restoration has to be sought. Type of reconstruction and timing are varying considerably in individual cases, endoscopic approaches should be preferred.Subglottic stenosis remains the largest group in paediatric airway pathology, with cicatrial stenosis being predominant. Today, cricotracheal resection is the most successful treatment option, followed by the classical laryngotracheal reconstruction with autologous cartilage. In early infancy subglottic stenosis is particularly demanding. Endoscopic treatment is possible in selected patients, but open reconstruction is superior in more severe cases.Tracheostomy is not a safe airway in early infancy, it’s indication should be strict.Foreign body aspiration needs to be managed according to a clear algorhythm.Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis should be treated with emphasis on function preservation. The role of adjuvant medication remains unclear.Infectious diseases can be managed conservatively by a pediatrician in the majority of cases.

  2. Adjunctive treatment with ticagrelor, but not clopidogrel, added to tPA enables sustained coronary artery recanalisation with recovery of myocardium perfusion in a canine coronary thrombosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhou, Xiaorong; Huang, Yanming; Khalil, Mazen; Wiktor, Dominik; van Giezen, J J J; Penn, Marc S

    2010-09-01

    Reperfusion therapy for myocardial infarction is limited by significant re-occlusion rates and less-than-optimal myocardial tissue perfusion. It was the objective of this study to assess and compare the effect of ticagrelor, the first reversibly binding oral P2Y12 receptor antagonist, with that of clopidogrel, in conjunction with thrombolytic therapy, on platelet aggregation, thrombus formation, and myocardial perfusion in a canine model. Thrombus formation was induced by electrolytic injury and blood flow was measured with a Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter. All animals received tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) (1 mg/kg over 20 min); 10 animals received clopidogrel (10 mg/kg IV bolus over 5 min), 10 animals received ticagrelor initiated with a 1-min bolus (75 microg/kg/min), followed by continuous infusion (10 microg/kg/min) for 2 h, and 10 animals received IV saline. Re-occlusion rate and cyclic flow variation decreased with ticagrelor compared to saline groups (p<0.05). Adenosine phosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation decreased with ticagrelor (1.9% +/- 2.67) and clopidogrel (1.11% +/- 2.0) vs. saline (26.3% +/- 23.5, p<0.05) at the end of adjunctive therapy. Bleeding time increased in the clopidogrel compared to the ticagrelor group (p=0.01). Infarct size was reduced with ticagrelor compared to the clopidogrel and saline groups (p<0.05). Blood flow remained significantly below baseline values at 20 min after tPA administration in the saline and clopidogrel groups but not in the ticagrelor group. In conclusion, in a dog coronary thrombosis model, ticagrelor blocks ADP-induced platelet activation and aggregation; prevents platelet-mediated thrombosis; prolongs reperfusion time and reduces re-occlusion and cyclic flow variation; and significantly decreases infarct size and rapidly restores myocardial tissue perfusion. PMID:20694285

  3. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of canine histiocytic sarcoma: A spontaneous model for human histiocytic cancer identifies deletion of tumor suppressor genes and highlights influence of genetic background on tumor behavior

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    Abadie Jerome

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histiocytic malignancies in both humans and dogs are rare and poorly understood. While canine histiocytic sarcoma (HS is uncommon in the general domestic dog population, there is a strikingly high incidence in a subset of breeds, suggesting heritable predisposition. Molecular cytogenetic profiling of canine HS in these breeds would serve to reveal recurrent DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs that are breed and/or tumor associated, as well as defining those shared with human HS. This process would identify evolutionarily conserved cytogenetic changes to highlight regions of particular importance to HS biology. Methods Using genome wide array comparative genomic hybridization we assessed CNAs in 104 spontaneously occurring HS from two breeds of dog exhibiting a particularly elevated incidence of this tumor, the Bernese Mountain Dog and Flat-Coated Retriever. Recurrent CNAs were evaluated further by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization and loss of heterozygosity analyses. Statistical analyses were performed to identify CNAs associated with tumor location and breed. Results Almost all recurrent CNAs identified in this study were shared between the two breeds, suggesting that they are associated more with the cancer phenotype than with breed. A subset of recurrent genomic imbalances suggested involvement of known cancer associated genes in HS pathogenesis, including deletions of the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A/B, RB1 and PTEN. A small number of aberrations were unique to each breed, implying that they may contribute to the major differences in tumor location evident in these two breeds. The most highly recurrent canine CNAs revealed in this study are evolutionarily conserved with those reported in human histiocytic proliferations, suggesting that human and dog HS share a conserved pathogenesis. Conclusions The breed associated clinical features and DNA copy number aberrations exhibited by canine HS offer a valuable model

  4. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of canine histiocytic sarcoma: A spontaneous model for human histiocytic cancer identifies deletion of tumor suppressor genes and highlights influence of genetic background on tumor behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histiocytic malignancies in both humans and dogs are rare and poorly understood. While canine histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is uncommon in the general domestic dog population, there is a strikingly high incidence in a subset of breeds, suggesting heritable predisposition. Molecular cytogenetic profiling of canine HS in these breeds would serve to reveal recurrent DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs) that are breed and/or tumor associated, as well as defining those shared with human HS. This process would identify evolutionarily conserved cytogenetic changes to highlight regions of particular importance to HS biology. Using genome wide array comparative genomic hybridization we assessed CNAs in 104 spontaneously occurring HS from two breeds of dog exhibiting a particularly elevated incidence of this tumor, the Bernese Mountain Dog and Flat-Coated Retriever. Recurrent CNAs were evaluated further by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization and loss of heterozygosity analyses. Statistical analyses were performed to identify CNAs associated with tumor location and breed. Almost all recurrent CNAs identified in this study were shared between the two breeds, suggesting that they are associated more with the cancer phenotype than with breed. A subset of recurrent genomic imbalances suggested involvement of known cancer associated genes in HS pathogenesis, including deletions of the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A/B, RB1 and PTEN. A small number of aberrations were unique to each breed, implying that they may contribute to the major differences in tumor location evident in these two breeds. The most highly recurrent canine CNAs revealed in this study are evolutionarily conserved with those reported in human histiocytic proliferations, suggesting that human and dog HS share a conserved pathogenesis. The breed associated clinical features and DNA copy number aberrations exhibited by canine HS offer a valuable model for the human counterpart, providing additional evidence towards

  5. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Larynx and pharynx; Dose de tolerance a l'irradiation des tissus sains: larynx et pharynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debelleix, C. [Service de radiotherapie, centre hospitalier Dax-Cote d' Argent, 40 - Dax (France); Service de radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Andre, CHU de Bordeaux, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Pointreau, Y.; Calais, G. [Service de radiotherapie, centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan, hopital Bretonneau, CHU de Tours, 37 - Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais, 37 - Tours (France); Pointreau, Y. [CNRS, UMR 6239 Genetique, immunotherapie, chimie et cancer, 37 - Tours (France); Laboratoire de pharmacologie-toxicologie, CHRU de Tours, 37 - Tours (France); Lafond, C.; Denis, F. [Centre Jean-Bernard, clinique Victor-Hugo, 72 - Le Mans (France); Bourhis, J.H. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2010-07-15

    For head and neck cancers, the radiation dose usually needed to sterilize a macroscopic tumour is at least 70 Gy in conventional fractionation. In the larynx, this dose level enables optimal tumour control while exposing the patient to a limited risk of severe complications. For oropharynx and nasopharynx tumors, it is sometimes possible to limit the dose received by the larynx according to the extent of the primary lesion. Thus, if the tumour constraints permit, the maximum dose to the larynx must be less than 63 to 66 Gy. To reduce the risk of laryngeal edema, it is recommended if possible to limit the mean non-involved larynx dose to 40 to 45 Gy. In the pharynx, literature's data suggested to minimize the volume of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles receiving a dose greater than or equal to 60 Gy. Limiting the volume receiving a dose greater than or equal to 50 Gy reduces the risk of dysphagia. These dose constraints should be tailored to each patient taking into account the extent of the initial primary lesion, the possible addition of chemotherapy or a modified fractionation radiotherapy. (authors)

  6. A clinical survey of laryngectomy patients to detect presence of the false perception of an intact larynx or the "phantom larynx" phenomenon

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    Pankaj Chaturvedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothesis: The Phantom larynx phenomenon (the false perception on an intact larynx in a laryngectomee exists and is an important issue in the post-laryngectomy rehabilitation of such patients. Objectives: The phantom limb phenomenon has been described after amputation of a limb or other parts of the body. Amputation or removal of any part is usually associated with a global feeling that the missing part is still present. We undertook this study to identify whether a phantom larynx phenomenon actually exists in laryngectomees. We also aimed to elicit its association with the duration following surgery. Patients and Methods: We did a clinical survey of 66 post-laryngectomy patients (30-80 years of age. Twenty-two of these patients were assessed within 6 months following surgery, whereas 44 patients were assessed at least 6 months later. A questionnaire containing 11 questions was served to these laryngectomees pertaining to false perception of persistent laryngeal functions and adaptation to the post-laryngectomy status. Results: All patients showed an evidence of a phantom larynx phenomenon. In the majority of these patients, it persisted even after 6 months following surgery. There was no significant difference in the two groups (less than or more than 6 months except for one question pertaining to occlusion of stoma for speech (77% vs. 29%. False perception of nasal breathing (59% and 43% and olfactory sensation (63% in both groups were the most common. Conclusion: Phantom larynx phenomenon following laryngectomy exists and may cause anxiety and poor rehabilitation among patients. Education and rehabilitation with regards to such a phenomenon is therefore needed in all patients.

  7. Composite mandibular allografts in canines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of transplanting composite mandibular allografts to repair large mandibular defects. Methods: Three composite mandibular transplantation models were established. The first model consisted of hemimandible with the attached teeth, muscle and skin, and oral mucosa. The second model was transplanted in the same way with the first one excluding oral mucosa and some teeth, and third one excluding the oral mucosa and all dental crowns. Fourteen transplanting operations were performed in canines. Cyclosporine A and methylprednisone were given for immunosuppression. Results: The composite mandibular organs had an effective and closed return circuit. Transplantation of vascularized allograft of mandibular compound organs was feasible. Two longest time survivors of 67 d and 76 d were in the third model group. Cyclosporine A was successful in suppressing rejection of transplanted composite allograft and prolonging survival time of transplantation models. Conclusions: The composite mandibular allografts were available with large block of living composite tissue,and helpful in restoration of appearance and function for severe mandibular defects.

  8. The impact of previous para-areolar incision in the upper outer quadrant of the breast on the localization of the sentinel lymph node in a canine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasques, Paulo Henrique Diógenes; Pinheiro, Luiz Gonzaga Porto; de Meneses e Silva, João Marcos; de Moura Torres-de-Melo, José Ricardo; Pinheiro, Karine Bessa Porto; Rocha, João Ivo Xavier

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper discusses the influence of a para-areolar incision in the upper outer quadrant of the breast on the location of the sentinel lymph node in a canine model. METHODS: The sentinel lymph node was marked with technetium-99, which was injected into the subareolar skin of the cranial breast. After the marker had migrated to the axilla, an arcuate para-areolar incision was performed 2 cm from the nipple in the upper outer quadrant. Patent blue dye was then injected above the upper border of the incision. At the marked site, an axillary incision was made, and the sentinel lymph node was identified by gamma probe and/or by direct visualization of the dye. The agreement between the two injection sites and the two sentinel lymph node identification methods was determined. Our sample group consisted of 40 cranial breasts of 23 adult females of the species Canis familiaris. The data were analyzed by using the McNemar test and by determining the kappa agreement coefficient. RESULT: Our findings showed that in 95% of the breasts, the sentinel lymph node was identified by the injection of technetium-99 m into the subareolar region, and in 82% of the cases, the sentinel lymph node was identified by the injection of patent blue dye above the upper border of the incision. The methods agreed 82% of the time. CONCLUSIONS: Previous para-areolar incisions in the upper outer quadrant did not interfere significantly with the biopsy when the dye was injected above the upper border of the incision. PMID:21915493

  9. THE REDUCED CANINE PANCREAS TO STUDY THE EFFECTS OF INTRAOPERATIVE RADIOTHERAPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HEIJMANS, HJ; MEHTA, D; KLEIBEUKER, JH; SLUITER, WJ; HOEKSTRA, HJ

    1993-01-01

    A canine model is described to study the tolerance of the pancreas to intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT). The canine pancreas is a horseshoe-shaped organ. To create a homogeneous delivery of IORT to the whole pancreas surgical manipulation is necessary which may induce pancreatitis. A resection of

  10. Adenovirus-mediated expression of human sodium-iodide symporter gene permits in vivo tracking of adipose tissue-derived stem cells in a canine myocardial infarction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: In vivo tracking of the transplanted stem cells is important in pre-clinical research of stem cell therapy for myocardial infarction. We examined the feasibility of adenovirus-mediated sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene to cell tracking imaging of transplanted stem cells in a canine infarcted myocardium by clinical single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods: Beagle dogs were injected intramyocardially with NIS-expressing adenovirus-transfected canine stem cells (Ad-hNIS-canine ADSCs) a week after myocardial infarction (MI) development. 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) and 99mTc-pertechnetate (99mTcO4−) SPECT imaging were performed for assessment of infarcted myocardium and viable stem cell tracking. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed to monitor any functional cardiac changes. Results: Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was decreased after LAD ligation. There was no significant difference in EF between the groups with the stem cell or saline injection. 125I uptake was higher in Ad-hNIS-canine ADSCs than in non-transfected ADSCs. Cell proliferation and differentiation were not affected by hNIS-carrying adenovirus transfection. 99mTc-MIBI myocardial SPECT imaging showed decreased radiotracer uptake in the infarcted apex and mid-anterolateral regions. Ad-hNIS-canine ADSCs were identified as a region of focally increased 99mTcO4− uptake at the lateral wall and around the apex of the left ventricle, peaked at 2 days and was observed until day 9. Conclusions: Combination of adenovirus-mediated NIS gene transfection and clinical nuclear imaging modalities enables to trace the fate of transplanted stem cells in infarcted myocardium for translational in vivo cell tracking study for prolonged duration

  11. A compendium of canine normal tissue gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Briggs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our understanding of disease is increasingly informed by changes in gene expression between normal and abnormal tissues. The release of the canine genome sequence in 2005 provided an opportunity to better understand human health and disease using the dog as clinically relevant model. Accordingly, we now present the first genome-wide, canine normal tissue gene expression compendium with corresponding human cross-species analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Affymetrix platform was utilized to catalogue gene expression signatures of 10 normal canine tissues including: liver, kidney, heart, lung, cerebrum, lymph node, spleen, jejunum, pancreas and skeletal muscle. The quality of the database was assessed in several ways. Organ defining gene sets were identified for each tissue and functional enrichment analysis revealed themes consistent with known physio-anatomic functions for each organ. In addition, a comparison of orthologous gene expression between matched canine and human normal tissues uncovered remarkable similarity. To demonstrate the utility of this dataset, novel canine gene annotations were established based on comparative analysis of dog and human tissue selective gene expression and manual curation of canine probeset mapping. Public access, using infrastructure identical to that currently in use for human normal tissues, has been established and allows for additional comparisons across species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data advance our understanding of the canine genome through a comprehensive analysis of gene expression in a diverse set of tissues, contributing to improved functional annotation that has been lacking. Importantly, it will be used to inform future studies of disease in the dog as a model for human translational research and provides a novel resource to the community at large.

  12. Surviving Hypopharynx-Larynx Carcinoma in the Era of IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Outcome in locoregionally advanced laryngeal carcinoma and hypopharyngeal carcinoma after conventional radiation techniques is known for modest disease control and considerable late toxicity. Considering the lack of standardization in prescription dose for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), we aimed to compare the results after our methods of simultaneously integrated boost IMRT with published results. Methods and Materials: Between March 2002 and December 2008, 65 hypopharyngeal, 31 supraglottic, and 27 locoregionally advanced glottic tumor patients underwent definitive IMRT (with simultaneous chemotherapy in 86%). Of these, 64% presented with locoregionally advanced disease. Mean follow-up was 26 months (range, 3-83 months), with a median of 21 months. Treatment (2.0-2.2Gy per fraction, 66-72.6Gy) followed a prospectively defined protocol. If the boost volume included more than half of the larynx or a substantial part of the pharynx, dose was limited to 2.0Gy per fraction. Results: The 2-year local, nodal, and locoregional control (LRC) rates for the entire cohort were 82%, 90%, and 77%, respectively; the disease-free and overall survival rates were 75% and 83%, respectively. The ultimate 2-year LRC rate, including salvage surgery, was 86%. Laryngectomy was required in 2 LRC patients needing tracheostoma already before; 2 further LRC patients needed tracheostomy before IMRT and remained tracheostoma dependent, and 3 patients remained feeding tube dependent after IMRT. Salvage laryngectomy was successful in 8 of 11. Of all 123 patients, 91 patients (74%) are locoregionally controlled and live with a functional laryngopharynx. Conclusions: Simultaneously integrated boost IMRT with limited acceptance of dose inhomogeneity resulted in very satisfactory disease control despite a slight left shift of planning target volume curves on the dose-volume histogram. Considering the treatment tolerance, a careful increase in dose in our patients seems possible

  13. A retrospective investigation on canine papillomavirus 1 (CPV1 in oral oncogenesis reveals dogs are not a suitable animal model for high-risk HPV-induced oral cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Porcellato

    Full Text Available CPV1 (also called COPV is a papillomavirus responsible for oral papillomatosis in young dogs. The involvement of this viral type in oral oncogenesis has been hypothesized in oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs, but has never been investigated in other neoplastic and hyperplastic oral lesions of dogs. Aim of this study was to investigate the presence of CPV1 in different neoplastic and hyperplastic lesions in order to assess its role in canine oral oncogenesis; according to the results obtained, a second aim of the study was to define if the dog can be considered a valid animal model for oral high risk HPV-induced tumors. Eighty-eight formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE canine oral lesions including 78 oral tumors (papillomas, SCCs, melanomas, ameloblastomas, oral adenocarcinomas and 10 hyperplastic lesions (gingival hyperplasia were investigated with immunohistochemistry for the presence of papillomavirus L1 protein and with Real-Time PCR for CPV1 DNA. RT-PCR for RNA was performed on selected samples. All viral papillomas tested were positive for immunohistochemistry and Real-time PCR. In 3/33 (10% SCCs, viral DNA was demonstrated but no viral RNA could be found. No positivity was observed both with immunohistochemistry and Real-Time PCR in the other hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity of dogs. Even though the finding of CPV1 DNA in few SCCs in face of a negative immunohistochemistry could support the hypothesis of an abortive infection in the development of these lesions, the absence of viral RNA points out that CPV1 more likely represents an innocent bystander in SCC oncogenesis. The study demonstrates a strong association between CPV1 and oral viral papillomas whereas viral contribution to the pathogenesis of other oral lesions seems unlikely. Moreover, it suggests that a canine model of CPV1 infection for HPV-induced oncogenesis could be inappropriate.

  14. Longitudinal dispersion of Xenon-133 bolus in the oropharynx and the larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aims at confirming that the upper airways (oropharynx) cannot be considered as a simple dead space playing no specific role in the mixing and to establish the transfer function of these airways during inspiration and expiration. The experiments are performed on five healthy subjects. A 133Xe bolus is injected in front of the lips while the subject breathes air at a constant flow rate. The radioactivity is measured during inspiration and expiration by two counter probes in front of the lips and at the level of the upper opening of the trachea. The experimental outputs, under the glottis for inspiration and in front of the lips for expiration, are compared with the responses of a mathematical model which takes into account the longitudinal mixing of gas in the oropharynx and the larynx. This method mades it possible to determine the parameters which the transfer function depends on. Our results suggest that the relationships between the longitudinal dispersion coefficient and the product of the mean axial velocity u by the diameter d or the length L of the upper airways, is linear. The transfer function is the same for the five subjects but the inspiratory and expiratory transfer functions are different

  15. Frequent alteration of the tumor suppressor gene APC in sporadic canine colorectal tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Youmans

    Full Text Available Sporadic canine colorectal cancers (CRCs should make excellent models for studying the corresponding human cancers. To molecularly characterize canine CRC, we investigated exonic sequence mutations of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC, the best known tumor suppressor gene of human CRC, in 23 sporadic canine colorectal tumors, including 8 adenomas and 15 adenocarcinomas, via exon-resequencing analysis. As a comparison, we also performed the same sequencing analysis on 10 other genes, either located at human 5q22 (the same locus as APC or 18q21 (also frequently altered in human CRC, or known to play a role in human carcinogenesis. We noted that APC was the most significantly mutated gene in both canine adenomas and adenocarcinomas among the 11 genes examined. Significantly, we detected large deletions of ≥ 10 bases, many clustered near the mutation cluster region, as well as single or two base deletions in ~70% canine tumors of both subtypes. These observations indicate that like in the human, APC is also frequently altered in sporadic colorectal tumors in the dog and its alteration is an early event in canine colorectal tumorigenesis. Our study provides further evidence demonstrating the molecular similarity in pathogenesis between sporadic human and canine CRCs. This work, along with our previous copy number abnormality study, supports that sporadic canine CRCs are valid models of human CRCs at the molecular level.

  16. Involvement of the larynx motor area in singing-voice perception: a TMS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohana eLévêque

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has reported that the motor system has a role in speech or emotional vocalization discrimination. In the present study we investigated the involvement of the larynx motor representation in singing perception. Twenty-one non-musicians listened to short tones sung by a human voice or played by a machine and performed a categorization task. Thereafter continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over the right larynx pre-motor area or on the vertex and the test administered again. Overall, reaction times were shorter after stimulation over both sites. Nonetheless and most importantly, reaction times became longer for sung than for machine sounds after stimulation on the larynx area. This effect suggests that the right premotor region is functionally involved in singing perception and that sound humanness modulates motor resonance.

  17. Involvement of the larynx motor area in singing-voice perception: a TMS study(†).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévêque, Yohana; Muggleton, Neil; Stewart, Lauren; Schön, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence has reported that the motor system has a role in speech or emotional vocalization discrimination. In the present study we investigated the involvement of the larynx motor representation in singing perception. Twenty-one non-musicians listened to short tones sung by a human voice or played by a machine and performed a categorization task. Thereafter continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over the right larynx premotor area or on the vertex and the test administered again. Overall, reaction times (RTs) were shorter after stimulation over both sites. Nonetheless and most importantly, RTs became longer for sung than for "machine" sounds after stimulation on the larynx area. This effect suggests that the right premotor region is functionally involved in singing perception and that sound humanness modulates motor resonance. PMID:23874314

  18. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers: a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieten, Hille; Gill, Yadvinder; Martin, Alan J; Concilli, Mafalda; Dirksen, Karen; van Steenbeek, Frank G; Spee, Bart; van den Ingh, Ted S G A M; Martens, Ellen C C P; Festa, Paola; Chesi, Giancarlo; van de Sluis, Bart; Houwen, Roderick H J H; Watson, Adrian L; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Hodgkinson, Victoria L; Zhu, Sha; Petris, Michael J; Polishchuk, Roman S; Leegwater, Peter A J; Rothuizen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to Wilson disease, which is characterized by a predominantly hepatic copper accumulation. The low incidence and the phenotypic variability of human copper toxicosis hamper identification of causal genes or modifier genes involved in the disease pathogenesis. The Labrador retriever was recently characterized as a new canine model for copper toxicosis. Purebred dogs have reduced genetic variability, which facilitates identification of genes involved in complex heritable traits that might influence phenotype in both humans and dogs. We performed a genome-wide association study in 235 Labrador retrievers and identified two chromosome regions containing ATP7A and ATP7B that were associated with variation in hepatic copper levels. DNA sequence analysis identified missense mutations in each gene. The amino acid substitution ATP7B:p.Arg1453Gln was associated with copper accumulation, whereas the amino acid substitution ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile partly protected against copper accumulation. Confocal microscopy indicated that aberrant copper metabolism upon expression of the ATP7B variant occurred because of mis-localization of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. Dermal fibroblasts derived from ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile dogs showed copper accumulation and delayed excretion. We identified the Labrador retriever as the first natural, non-rodent model for ATP7B-associated copper toxicosis. Attenuation of copper accumulation by the ATP7A mutation sheds an interesting light on the interplay of copper transporters in body copper homeostasis and warrants a thorough investigation of ATP7A as a modifier gene in copper-metabolism disorders. The identification of two new functional variants in ATP7A and

  19. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers: a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hille Fieten

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to Wilson disease, which is characterized by a predominantly hepatic copper accumulation. The low incidence and the phenotypic variability of human copper toxicosis hamper identification of causal genes or modifier genes involved in the disease pathogenesis. The Labrador retriever was recently characterized as a new canine model for copper toxicosis. Purebred dogs have reduced genetic variability, which facilitates identification of genes involved in complex heritable traits that might influence phenotype in both humans and dogs. We performed a genome-wide association study in 235 Labrador retrievers and identified two chromosome regions containing ATP7A and ATP7B that were associated with variation in hepatic copper levels. DNA sequence analysis identified missense mutations in each gene. The amino acid substitution ATP7B:p.Arg1453Gln was associated with copper accumulation, whereas the amino acid substitution ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile partly protected against copper accumulation. Confocal microscopy indicated that aberrant copper metabolism upon expression of the ATP7B variant occurred because of mis-localization of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. Dermal fibroblasts derived from ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile dogs showed copper accumulation and delayed excretion. We identified the Labrador retriever as the first natural, non-rodent model for ATP7B-associated copper toxicosis. Attenuation of copper accumulation by the ATP7A mutation sheds an interesting light on the interplay of copper transporters in body copper homeostasis and warrants a thorough investigation of ATP7A as a modifier gene in copper-metabolism disorders. The identification of two new functional

  20. Establishment of a model of renal impairment with mild renal insufficiency associated with atrial fibrillation in canines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Liang

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease and occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF are closely related. No studies have examined whether renal impairment (RI without severe renal dysfunction is associated with the occurrence of AF.Unilateral RI with mild renal insufficiency was induced in beagles by embolization of small branches of the renal artery in the left kidney for 2 weeks using gelatin sponge granules in the model group (n = 5. The sham group (n = 5 underwent the same procedure, except for embolization. Parameters associated with RI and renal function were tested, cardiac electrophysiological parameters, blood pressure, left ventricular pressure, and AF vulnerability were investigated. The activity of the sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, inflammation, and oxidative stress were measured. Histological studies associated with atrial interstitial fibrosis were performed.Embolization of small branches of the renal artery in the left kidney led to ischemic RI with mild renal insufficiency. The following changes occurred after embolization. Heart rate and P wave duration were increased. Blood pressure and left ventricular systolic pressure were elevated. The atrial effective refractory period and antegrade Wenckebach point were shortened. Episodes and duration of AF, as well as atrial and ventricular rate during AF were increased in the model group. Plasma levels of norepinephrine, renin, and aldosterone were increased, angiotensin II and aldosterone levels in atrial tissue were elevated, and atrial interstitial fibrosis was enhanced after 2 weeks of embolization in the model group.We successfully established a model of RI with mild renal insufficiency in a large animal. We found that RI with mild renal insufficiency was associated with AF in this model.

  1. Investigation of HER2 expression in canine mammary tumors by antibody-based, transcriptomic and mass spectrometry analysis: is the dog a suitable animal model for human breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrai, G P; Tanca, A; De Miglio, M R; Abbondio, M; Pisanu, S; Polinas, M; Pirino, S; Mohammed, S I; Uzzau, S; Addis, M F; Antuofermo, E

    2015-11-01

    Canine mammary tumors (CMTs) share many features with human breast cancer (HBC), specifically concerning cancer-related pathways. Although the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) plays a significant role as a therapeutic and prognostic biomarker in HBC, its relevance in the pathogenesis and prognosis of CMT is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate HER2 expression in canine mammary hyperplasic and neoplastic tissues as well as to evaluate the specificity of the most commonly used polyclonal anti HER2 antibody by multiple molecular approaches. HER2 protein and RNA expression were determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and by quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR. A strong cell membrane associated with non-specific cytoplasmic staining was observed in 22% of carcinomas by IHC. Adenomas and carcinomas exhibited a significantly higher HER2 mRNA expression when compared to normal mammary glands, although no significant difference between benign and malignant tumors was noticed by qRT-PCR. The IHC results suggest a lack of specificity of the FDA-approved antibody in CMT samples as further demonstrated by Western immunoblotting (WB) and reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA). Furthemore, HER2 was not detected by mass spectrometry (MS) in a protein-expressing carcinoma at the IHC investigation. This study highlights that caution needs to be used when trying to translate from human to veterinary medicine information concerning cancer-related biomarkers and pathways. Further investigations are necessary to carefully assess the diagnostic and biological role specifically exerted by HER2 in CMTs and the use of canine mammary tumors as a model of HER2 over-expressing breast cancer. PMID:26088453

  2. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell... hepatitis, the test is inconclusive and may be repeated. (B) If at least 19 of the 20 vaccinates do...

  3. Creation of distal canine limb lymphedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.C.; Pribaz, J.J.; O' Brien, B.M.; Knight, K.R.; Morrison, W.A.

    1989-06-01

    A canine model of distal limb lymphedema was established in order to study the treatment of this condition by lymph node transfer. This model was more difficult to establish than whole-limb lymphedema. Significant edema was achieved by a combination of preoperative irradiation and circumferential removal of skin from the irradiated areas followed by removal of the contents of the popliteal fossa. Despite these measures, it was not possible to produce lymphedema in every case, possibly because of the presence of lymphaticovenous shunts and panvascular compensation mechanisms.

  4. Clinical Experience With a New Type of Rhino-Larynx Electronic Endoscope PENTAX VNL-1530

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiro Kawaida; Hiroyuki Fukuda; Naoyuki Kohno

    1994-01-01

    We observed recordings of pictures obtained from patients with diseases of the larynx by using a new type of rhino-larynx electronic endoscope, PENTAXVNL-1530 connected to a video processor, PENTAX EPM-3300 (Asahi Optical Co., Ltd.). The electronic endoscope differs from the fiberoptic endoscope in that it contains a small light-sensitive charge coupled device (CCD) chip that is attached to the tip of the endoscope. This electronic endoscope has the smallest CCD camera of 5.1 mm in diameter, ...

  5. Three-dimensional fluid particle trajectories in the human larynx and trachea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, I M; Martonen, T B

    1996-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics software package (FIDAP) has been employed to obtain three-dimensional flow data, which are used herein to calculate the trajectories of fluid particles. Our computations have demonstrated that the flow fields inside the larynx are very complex including eddies in the lumen and reverse motion along the surface. The effects of such flow fields will be to increase the residence times of entrained drug particles. Our computations have also demonstrated that the larynx has pronounced effects on the motion of air in the trachea.

  6. Catamnestic studies of radiosurgical combination therapy of advanced carcinoma of the larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the study summarizes the post-therapeutical course of development of 165 patients who have been treated for advanced internal and external carcinoma of the larynx with a combined, pre- or postoperative radiosurgical therapy, with particular attention being paid to the frequency of focal or lymph node recidivation, post-therapeutical apparent distant metastases and postoperative complications, and also to tumour-independent mortality. The second part of the study is concerned with the determination of survival rates of patients suffering from advanced carcinoma of the larynx or hypopharynx, following low-dose preoperative irradiation (119 patients) or postoperative irradiation (209 patients). (orig./MG)

  7. Removal of Open Safety Pin in Larynx: A Challenging Event for an Otolaryngologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation of foreign body is a serious event. The numbers of foreign bodies that become impacted in the larynx are small and require urgent recognition. We describe the case of a 12 year old girl with an impacted open safety pin in the larynx. The sharp end of the safety pin was upward, below the level of the vocal cords and had pierced the soft tissue. Tracheostomy was required to secure the airway and the child had an uneventful recovery. We discuss the management and describe our method of removal of the foreign body with a brief review of literature.

  8. CT, MR, and Angiography Findings of a Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Larynx: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Suk Ki; Yoon, Dae Young; Choi, Chul Soon; Yun, Eun Joo; Seo, Young Lan; Nam, Eun suk

    2008-01-01

    This report details the CT, MR, and angiography findings of a solitary fibrous tumor involving the larynx of a 34-year-old man. A precontrast CT scan revealed a well-defined isodense mass in the submucosal region of the supraglottic larynx. The tumor appeared as a mixed intensity lesion on the T1- and T2-weighted MR images. A T2-weighted MR image showed a central, round, and low signal intensity area within the mass. For both the CT and MR images, the mass demonstrated heterogeneous enhanceme...

  9. Argyrophilic cells in the larynx of the guinea-pig demonstrated by the method of Grimelius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Romert, P

    1977-01-01

    Argyrophilic cells with branching processes are shown in both the surface epithelium and in the glands in the larynx of adult guinea-pigs using the Grimelius silver technique after GPA fixation. When Bouin's fixative or neutral formalin were used as fixatives argrophilic cells could not be identi......Argyrophilic cells with branching processes are shown in both the surface epithelium and in the glands in the larynx of adult guinea-pigs using the Grimelius silver technique after GPA fixation. When Bouin's fixative or neutral formalin were used as fixatives argrophilic cells could...

  10. Status of larynx in children with congenital cleft of upper lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigora Makhkamova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Study of 215 children with congenital cleft of upper lip and palate in the age of 1.5 to 15 years has established the organic dysphonia in 27.4% of patients. Of the organic diseases of larynx there were edema, hypertrophy, nodules of vocal folds and chronic laryngitis whose frequency is directly dependent on duration and severity of the defect, age of patient and the timing of recovery of velopharyngeal ring. Pathology of the larynx gradually disappears with the growth of the patient after plastic reconstruction of oronasal defect.

  11. A RARE CASE OF IMPACTED VEGETATIVE FOREIGN BODY IN LARYNX: XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM (CHHOTA GOKHRU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: - BACKGROUND : Impaction of foreign bodies in the larynx constit utes a medical emergency and requires immediate intervention. We report a rare case of a Xanthium Strumarium (Chhota Gokhru impacted in larynx in a 10 year old female who pre sented with complaint of respiratory distress & dysphonia in ENT department, S.S. Medical college and associated hospital, Rewa (M.P.. Direct laryngoscopy was performed for its removal. The case report thus emphasizes that early detection by meticulous history, clinica l findings, imaging modality & prompt management remains basis for favourable outcome.

  12. Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection of ferrets as a model for testing Morbillivirus vaccine strategies: NYVAC- and ALVAC-based CDV recombinants protect against symptomatic infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephensen, C B; Welter, J; Thaker, S R; Taylor, J; Tartaglia, J; Paoletti, E.

    1997-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection of ferrets causes an acute systemic disease involving multiple organ systems, including the respiratory tract, lymphoid system, and central nervous system (CNS). We have tested candidate CDV vaccines incorporating the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (HA) proteins in the highly attenuated NYVAC strain of vaccinia virus and in the ALVAC strain of canarypox virus, which does not productively replicate in mammalian hosts. Juvenile ferrets were vaccinated twice ...

  13. Molecular Characterization of Three Canine Models of Human Rare Bone Diseases: Caffey, van den Ende-Gupta, and Raine Syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Hytönen, Marjo K.; Meharji Arumilli; Lappalainen, Anu K; Marta Owczarek-Lipska; Vidhya Jagannathan; Sruthi Hundi; Elina Salmela; Patrick Venta; Eva Sarkiala; Tarja Jokinen; Daniela Gorgas; Juha Kere; Pekka Nieminen; Cord Drögemüller; Hannes Lohi

    2016-01-01

    One to two percent of all children are born with a developmental disorder requiring pediatric hospital admissions. For many such syndromes, the molecular pathogenesis remains poorly characterized. Parallel developmental disorders in other species could provide complementary models for human rare diseases by uncovering new candidate genes, improving the understanding of the molecular mechanisms and opening possibilities for therapeutic trials. We performed various experiments, e.g. combined ge...

  14. Molecular Characterization of Three Canine Models of Human Rare Bone Diseases: Caffey, van den Ende-Gupta, and Raine Syndromes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hytönen, Marjo K.; Arumilli, Meharji; Lappalainen, Anu K; Owczarek, Marta; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Hundi, Sruthi; Salmela, Elina; Venta, Patrick; Sarkiala, Eva; Jokinen, Tarja; Gorgas, Daniela; Kere, Juha; Nieminen, Pekka; Drögemüller, Cord; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    One to two percent of all children are born with a developmental disorder requiring pediatric hospital admissions. For many such syndromes, the molecular pathogenesis remains poorly characterized. Parallel developmental disorders in other species could provide complementary models for human rare diseases by uncovering new candidate genes, improving the understanding of the molecular mechanisms and opening possibilities for therapeutic trials. We performed various experiments, e.g. combined ge...

  15. A pRb-responsive, RGD-modified, and Hyaluronidase-armed Canine Oncolytic Adenovirus for Application in Veterinary Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Laborda, Eduardo; Puig-Saus, Cristina; Rodriguez-García, Alba; Moreno, Rafael; Cascalló, Manel; Pastor, Josep; Alemany, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Human and canine cancer share similarities such as genetic and molecular aspects, biological complexity, tumor epidemiology, and targeted therapeutic treatment. Lack of good animal models for human adenovirotherapy has spurred the use of canine adenovirus 2-based oncolytic viruses. We have constructed a canine oncolytic virus that mimics the characteristics of our previously published human adenovirus ICOVIR17: expression of E1a controlled by E2F sites, deletion of the pRb-binding site of E1a...

  16. Comparison of Ventricular Electrophysiological Effects of Amiodarone in Canine Models With Congestive Heart Failure and Normal Dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuxian Zhou; Yuling Zhang; Juan Lei; Wei Wu; Xuming Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Objectives This study compared the effects of amiodarone on ventricular electrophysiological properties in normal dogs and CHF dogs.Methods Dogs(n=44) were randomized into four groups:Group 1(n=10)was the control.Group 2(n=10) was given amiodarone orally 300 mg·d-1 for4 to 5 weeks.Group 3(n=12)was the congestive heart failure(CHF)models induced by right ventricular rapid pacing(240 pulses·rain-1 for 4 to 5 weeks).Group 4 (n=12) was the CHF models given amiodarone orally 300 mg·d-1 for 4 to 5 weeks.The ventricular electrophysiological variables were evaluated by standard electric stimulation and monophasic action potential(MAP)recording.Results Amiodarone prolonged sinus cycle length(SCL),intra-ventricular conduction time(IVCT),MAP duration(MAPD90),ventricular effective period(VERP),ventricular activation time(VAT)and ventficular recovery time(VRT)without significant effects on the ratio of VERP to MAPD90 (VERP/MAPD90),ventricular fibrillation threshold(VFT),the dispersion of VRT(VRTD),and ventricular late repolarization duration(VLRD)in normal dogs.However,amiodarone did not further prolong the prolonged SCL,MAPD90,VERP,VAT and VRT,but further prolonged IVCT in CHF dogs.Amiodarone normalized the abnormal ventficular electrophysiological properties in CHF dogs as manifested by increasing the decreased VERP/MAPD90 and VFT,shortening the prolonged VLRD,and decreasing the increased VRTD.Amiodarone did not worsen the hemodynamic parameters in normal and CHF dogs.Conclusions Amiodarone had different effects on ventricular electrophysiological properties in normal and CHF dogs.The favorable effects of amiodarone in normalizing some abnormal cardiac electrophysiological properties in CHF models may have potential value on the prevention and treatment of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in CHF.

  17. Dissecting the regulatory microenvironment of a large animal model of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: evidence of a negative prognostic impact of FOXP3+ T cells in canine B cell lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dammy Pinheiro

    Full Text Available The cancer microenvironment plays a pivotal role in oncogenesis, containing a number of regulatory cells that attenuate the anti-neoplastic immune response. While the negative prognostic impact of regulatory T cells (Tregs in the context of most solid tissue tumors is well established, their role in lymphoid malignancies remains unclear. T cells expressing FOXP3 and Helios were documented in the fine needle aspirates of affected lymph nodes of dogs with spontaneous multicentric B cell lymphoma (BCL, proposed to be a model for human non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Multivariable analysis revealed that the frequency of lymph node FOXP3(+ T cells was an independent negative prognostic factor, impacting both progression-free survival (hazard ratio 1.10; p = 0.01 and overall survival (hazard ratio 1.61; p = 0.01 when comparing dogs showing higher than the median FOXP3 expression with those showing the median value of FOXP3 expression or less. Taken together, these data suggest the existence of a population of Tregs operational in canine multicentric BCL that resembles thymic Tregs, which we speculate are co-opted by the tumor from the periphery. We suggest that canine multicentric BCL represents a robust large animal model of human diffuse large BCL, showing clinical, cytological and immunophenotypic similarities with the disease in man, allowing comparative studies of immunoregulatory mechanisms.

  18. Biphasic calcium phosphate nano-composite scaffolds reinforced with bioglass provide a synthetic alternative to autografts in a canine tibiofibula defect model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Dezhi; Xu Guohua; Yang Zhou; Holz Jonathan; Ye Xiaojian; Cai Shu; Yuan Wen

    2014-01-01

    Background Bone grafting is commonly used to repair bone defects.As the porosity of the graft scaffold increases,bone formation increases,but the strength decreases.Early attempts to engineer materials were not able to resolve this problem.In recent years,nanomaterials have demonstrated the unique ability to improve the material strength and toughness while stimulating new bone formation.In our previous studies,we synthesized a nano-scale material by reinforcing a porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramic scaffold with Na2O-MgO-P2O5-CaO bioglass (β-TCP/BG).However,the in vivo effects of the β-TCP/BG scaffold on bone repair remain unknown.Methods We investigated the efficacy of β-TCP/BG scaffolds compared to autografts in a canine tibioflbula defect model.The tibioflbula defects were created in the right legs of 12 dogs,which were randomly assigned to either the scaffold group or the autograft group (six dogs per group).Radiographic evaluation was performed at 0,4,8,and 12 weeks post-surgery.The involved tibias were extracted at 12 weeks and were tested to failure via a three-point bending.After the biomechanical analysis,specimens were subsequently processed for scanning electron microscopy analysis and histological evaluations.Results Radiographic evaluation at 12 weeks post-operation revealed many newly formed osseous calluses and bony unions in both groups.Both the maximum force and break force in the scaffold group (n=6) were comparable to those in the autograft group (n=6,P >0.05),suggesting that the tissue-engineered bone repair achieved similar biomechanical properties to autograft bone repair.At 12 weeks post-operation,obvious new bone and blood vessel formations were observed in the artificial bone of the experimental group.Conclusions The results demonstrated that new bone formation and high bone strength were achieved in the β-TCP/ BG scaffold group,and suggested that the β-TCP/BG scaffold could be used as a synthetic alternative to

  19. A new treatment for human malignant melanoma targeting L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): A pilot study in a canine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, Shinya; Hanazono, Kiwamu [Veterinary Internal Medicine, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan); Fu, Dah-Renn; Endo, Yoshifumi; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi [Veterinary Oncology, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan); Iwano, Hidetomo [Veterinary Biochemistry, Department of Basic Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan); Uchide, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: uchide@rakuno.ac.jp [Veterinary Internal Medicine, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan)

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •LAT1 is highly expressed in tumors but at low levels in normal tissues. •We examine LAT1 expression and function in malignant melanoma (MM). •LAT1 expression in MM tissues and cell lines is higher than those in normal tissues. •LAT1 selective inhibitors inhibit amino acid uptake and cell growth in MM cells. •New chemotherapeutic protocols including LAT1 inhibitors are effective for treatment. -- Abstract: L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), an isoform of amino acid transport system L, transports branched or aromatic amino acids essential for fundamental cellular activities such as cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance. This amino acid transporter recently has received attention because of its preferential and up-regulated expression in a variety of human tumors in contrast to its limited distribution and low-level expression in normal tissues. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using LAT1 inhibitor as a new therapeutic agent for human malignant melanomas (MM) using canine spontaneous MM as a model for human MM. A comparative study of LAT expression was performed in 48 normal tissues, 25 MM tissues and five cell lines established from MM. The study observed LAT1 mRNA levels from MM tissues and cell lines that were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in normal tissues. Additionally, MM with distant metastasis showed a higher expression than those without distant metastasis. Functional analysis of LAT1 was performed on one of the five cell lines, CMeC-1. [{sup 3}H]L-Leucine uptake and cellular growth activities in CMeC-1 were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by selective LAT1 inhibitors (2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acid, BCH and melphalan, LPM). Inhibitory growth activities of various conventional anti-cancer drugs, including carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, dacarbazine, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, nimustine, vinblastine and vincristine, were significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by combination use with BCH or LPM

  20. Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging for assessing lacunar infarction after proximal middle cerebral artery occlusion in a canine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Shan-shan; LIU Sheng; ZU Qing-quan; XU Xiao-quan; WANG Jian-wei; YU Jing; SUN Lei; SHI Hai-bin

    2013-01-01

    Background A new lacunar infarction model was recently established in beagle dogs through proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion by thrombus.This study aimed to characterize the model by multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to investigate its potential role for the future stroke research.Methods The left proximal MCA was embolized with an autologous thrombus in six beagles.Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWl) and T2-weighted imaging (T2Wl) were performed every half hour during the first six hours after occlusion,followed by three time points at 12 hours,24 hours,and one week.Perfusion-weighted imaging (PWl) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were carried out at six hours,24 hours and one week.The PWI-DWl mismatch ratio was defined as (PWI-DWI)/DWI ischemic volume.Results Lacunar infarcts induced by MCA occlusion were located in the left caudate nucleus and internal capsule.All the lesions could be detected within two hours by DWI.Lesion volume on DWI increased in a time dependent manner,from (87.19±67.16) mm3 at one hour up to (368.98±217.05) mm3 at 24 hours (P=-0.009),while that on PWI gradually decreased from (7315.00±2054.38) mm3 at six hours to (4900.33±1319.71) mm3 at 24 hours and (3334.33±1195.11) mm3 at one week (P=0.002).The mismatch ratio was 41.93±22.75 at six hours after ischemia,showing "extensive mismatch",and decreased to 18.10+13.74 at 24 hours (P=0.002).No MCA recanalization was observed within 24 hours after MCA occlusion.Conclusions Lacunar infarction induced by proximal MCA occlusion could be detected early by DWI and was characterized by extensive PWI-DWI mismatch.Multimodal MRI is useful to demonstrate the natural evolution of PWI-DWI mismatch.This ischemic model could be further used for investigating early thrombolysis in lacunar stroke showing extensive mismatch.

  1. Effect of the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor tadalafil on pulmonary hemodynamics in a canine model of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yasutomo; Kondo, Chigusa; Matsui, Maho; Yamagishi, Maki; Okano, Shozo; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Kanai, Kazutaka; Hoshi, Fumio; Itoh, Naoyuki

    2014-11-01

    Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are used for treating pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in dogs. The long-acting PDE5 inhibitor tadalafil was recently approved for treatment of PAH in humans. Basic information related to the pharmacological and hemodynamic effects of tadalafil in dogs is scarce. In this study, the hemodynamic effects of tadalafil after intravenous (IV) and oral administration were investigated in a healthy vasoconstrictive PAH Beagle dog model induced by U46619, a thromboxane A2 mimetic. Six healthy Beagle dogs were anesthetized with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. Fluid-filled catheters were placed into the descending aorta to measure systemic arterial pressure and in the pulmonary artery to measure pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP). U46619 was infused via the cephalic vein to induce PAH. IV infusion of U46619 significantly elevated PAP from baseline in a dose-dependent manner. U46619-elevated PAP and pulmonary vascular resistance was significantly attenuated by the simultaneous infusion of tadalafil at 100 and 200 µg/kg/h. Likewise, oral administration of tadalafil at 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/kg significantly attenuated U46619-elevated PAP in a dose-dependent manner. U46619-elevated systolic and mean PAP decreased significantly 1 h after oral tadalafil administration at 4.0 mg/kg, and this effect was maintained for 6 h. In conclusion, tadalafil had a pharmacological effect in dogs and IV infusion of tadalafil induced pulmonary arterial relaxation, while oral administration of tadalafil decreased PAP. These results suggest that tadalafil may offer a new therapeutic option for treating dogs with PAH.

  2. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL for canine hip dysplasia and canine elbow dysplasia in Bernese mountain dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Pfahler

    Full Text Available A genome-wide association study for canine hip dysplasia (CHD and canine elbow dysplasia (CED using the Illumina canine high density bead chip had been performed for 174 Bernese mountain dogs. General and mixed linear model analysis identified two different regions with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on dog chromosome (CFA 14 significantly associated with CHD and a further significantly CHD-associated region on CFA37. For CED, four SNPs on CFA11 and 27 were significantly associated. The identified SNPs of four associated regions included nearby candidate genes. These possible positional candidates were the genes PON2 on CFA14 and FN1 on CFA37 for CHD and the genes LMNB1 on CFA11 and WNT10B on CFA27 for CED.

  3. HLA-A and -B antigens and larynx carcinoma in Greeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharis, S; Konstantopoulos, K; Bannis, K; Zervas, J

    1997-01-01

    The frequency of HLA antigens in 30 Greek larynx carcinoma patients was more prominent for the A21, A28 and B17 antigens compared to 400 healthy unrelated controls from the same population. It is suggested that immunogenetic factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of this neoplasia.

  4. PROGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR THE COURSE OF SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF THE LARYNX (A REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Gorban

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The review evaluates the use of the most common molecular biological markers to predict the course of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. It is proposed to use the markers Ki-67 and p53 as criteria and to take into account the specific features of the angioarchitectonics of a tumor.

  5. Difficulty Systematized Evaluation of Vocal Folds Exposure in Microsurgery of the Larynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballin, Annelyse Cristine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies addressing preoperative factors that predict difficulty of endotracheal intubation graduated by anesthesiologists, for the scale of the Cormack-Lehane. These parameters were evaluated for the difficulty of location of the laryngoscope in microsurgery of the larynx. There is not a standard scale of difficulty targeted to surgeons of the larynx. Objective: Create a standard scale of difficulty leasing the laryngoscope during microsurgery of the larynx, with a focus on exposure of the vocal folds (vocal cords to evaluate which clinical parameters predict difficulty of exposure of their vocal folds and verify the improvement of laryngeal exposure with the hanger of the laryngoscope. Method: A prospective randomized study, 57 patients undergoing laryngeal microsurgery. The preoperative parameters were evaluated: three epidemiological data, two of history and 13 physical examination. Intraoperatively: the anesthesiologist evaluated the Cormack-Lehane score and the surgeon evaluated according to the proposed scale, before and after placement of the hanger. Results and Conclusion: Several parameters showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value for high inadequate exposure of the larynx. But only distance hiomentual <6.05 cm (p = 0.003 and 2 classes of Cormack-Lehane (p = 0.04 with statistical significance and high sensitivity of 100% and 81% respectively. The use of the hanger of laryngoscope laryngeal exposure improved significantly (p = 0.04. The proposed scale standardizes the visualization and grades the difficulty of exposure of their vocal folds, facilitating comparisons between studies and communication between otolaryngologists.

  6. CD44 Expression Predicts Local Recurrence after Radiotherapy in Larynx Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Monique C.; Pramana, Jimmy; van der Wal, Jacqueline E.; Lacko, Martin; Peutz-Kootstra, Carine J.; Takes, Robert P.; Kaanders, Johannes H.; van der Laan, Bernard F.; Wachters, Jasper; Jansen, Jeroen C.; Rasch, Coen R.; van Velthuysen, Marie-Louise F.; Grenman, Reidar; Hoebers, Frank J.; Schuuring, Ed; van den Brekel, Michiel W.; Begg, Adrian C.; de Jong, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To find molecular markers from expression profiling data to predict recurrence of laryngeal cancer after radiotherapy. Experimental Design: We generated gene expression data on pre-treatment biopsies from 52 larynx cancer patients. Patients developing a local recurrence were matched for T-s

  7. [X-ray computed tomography in non-neoplastic pathology of the larynx].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadalà, G; Di Guglielmo, L; Dore, R; Alerci, M; Santarelli, P; Pricca, P; Failoni, S; Di Giulio, G

    1984-10-01

    The authors describe the CT findings in 57 patients suffering from various non-neoplastic disease of the larynx: chronic laryngitis, pseudotumor, paralysis, post-traumatic lesions, laryngocele, cyst. CT is usefull in evaluating site and extension of the disease, as well as its relations with the surrounding tissues. The densitometric evaluation and the functional tests are important in differential diagnosis with malignant neoplasms.

  8. Intensity modulated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy for larynx preservation of advanced resectable hypopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the rate of larynx preservation in patients of locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plus concurrent chemotherapy, and compare the results with patients treated with primary surgery. Between January 2003 and November 2007, 14 patients were treated with primary surgery and 33 patients were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) using IMRT technique. Survival rate, larynx preservation rate were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis was conducted for significant prognostic factors with Cox-regression method. The median follow-up was 19.4 months for all patients, and 25.8 months for those alive. The 5-year overall survival rate was 33% and 44% for primary surgery and definitive CCRT, respectively (p = 0.788). The 5-year functional larynx-preservation survival after IMRT was 40%. Acute toxicities were common, but usually tolerable. The rates of treatment-related mucositis (≥ grade 2) and pharyngitis (≥ grade 3) were higher in the CCRT group. For multivariate analysis, treatment response and cricoid cartilage invasion strongly correlated with survival. IMRT plus concurrent chemotherapy may preserve the larynx without compromising survival. Further studies on new effective therapeutic agents are essential

  9. [The clinical application of Coblation in operations of the pharynx and larynx].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanan; Li, Huijun; Liu, Jiangtao

    2014-12-01

    The aticle briefly introduced the working principle and clinical applicability of Coblation. The application of Coblation promoted the improvement of traditional surgery and the generation of new operation, it is the most important to hold the indication of the operation strictly. This review summarized that and discussed the advantages and the notes of Coblation in operations of the pharynx and larynx.

  10. Automatic detection of larynx cancer from contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Trushali; Soraghan, John; Grose, Derek; MacKenzie, Kenneth; Petropoulakis, Lykourgos

    2015-03-01

    Detection of larynx cancer from medical imaging is important for the quantification and for the definition of target volumes in radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being increasingly used in RTP due to its high resolution and excellent soft tissue contrast. Manually detecting larynx cancer from sequential MRI is time consuming and subjective. The large diversity of cancer in terms of geometry, non-distinct boundaries combined with the presence of normal anatomical regions close to the cancer regions necessitates the development of automatic and robust algorithms for this task. A new automatic algorithm for the detection of larynx cancer from 2D gadoliniumenhanced T1-weighted (T1+Gd) MRI to assist clinicians in RTP is presented. The algorithm employs edge detection using spatial neighborhood information of pixels and incorporates this information in a fuzzy c-means clustering process to robustly separate different tissues types. Furthermore, it utilizes the information of the expected cancerous location for cancer regions labeling. Comparison of this automatic detection system with manual clinical detection on real T1+Gd axial MRI slices of 2 patients (24 MRI slices) with visible larynx cancer yields an average dice similarity coefficient of 0.78+/-0.04 and average root mean square error of 1.82+/-0.28 mm. Preliminary results show that this fully automatic system can assist clinicians in RTP by obtaining quantifiable and non-subjective repeatable detection results in a particular time-efficient and unbiased fashion.

  11. Intensity modulated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy for larynx preservation of advanced resectable hypopharyngeal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Hsing-Lung

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To analyze the rate of larynx preservation in patients of locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT plus concurrent chemotherapy, and compare the results with patients treated with primary surgery. Methods Between January 2003 and November 2007, 14 patients were treated with primary surgery and 33 patients were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT using IMRT technique. Survival rate, larynx preservation rate were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis was conducted for significant prognostic factors with Cox-regression method. Results The median follow-up was 19.4 months for all patients, and 25.8 months for those alive. The 5-year overall survival rate was 33% and 44% for primary surgery and definitive CCRT, respectively (p = 0.788. The 5-year functional larynx-preservation survival after IMRT was 40%. Acute toxicities were common, but usually tolerable. The rates of treatment-related mucositis (≥ grade 2 and pharyngitis (≥ grade 3 were higher in the CCRT group. For multivariate analysis, treatment response and cricoid cartilage invasion strongly correlated with survival. Conclusions IMRT plus concurrent chemotherapy may preserve the larynx without compromising survival. Further studies on new effective therapeutic agents are essential.

  12. Videostroboscopic and morphological aspects of voice disturbances in patients with larynx atrophy and coexisting hypopharynx cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Falkowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocal folds play a crucial role in voice production. The physiological vibrations of vocal folds depend on the unchanged multilayered structure of the vocal folds mucosa. Morphological changes of mucosa are the cause of voice quality disorders — dysphonia. The aim of this study was to determine the morphological base of dysphonia in patients with vocal folds atrophy. A group of 24 patients with larynx atrophy confirmed by endoscopic (VLS and stroboscopic (VLSS examination of the larynx was included in the study. The morphological assessment of the larynx mucosa was carried out with the use of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Ultramorphological examinations revealed changes in the epithelium, basal membrane and lamina propria of the vocal folds mucosa. An increased number of collagenous fibers, fibroblasts with signs of vacuolar degeneration inflammatory cells and a decreased number of blood vessels and pericytes were observed. Morphological changes found in the epithelium, basal membrane and lamina propria of the vocal folds mucosa were the cause of disorders of vocal folds vibrations registered in the stroboscopic examination of the larynx (VLSS. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 659–663

  13. 犬模型胸主动脉腔内修复术实验研究%Canine Model Experimental Study of Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅泽粮

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过犬模型实验,对湖南埃普特研发的胸主动脉覆膜支架植入胸主脉血管腔内的可行性进行评估;评估支架的组织反应、完整性、密封性能、释放性能,以及非预期的副作用。方法:每只实验犬植入一枚胸主动脉覆膜支架。支架释放后立即评估即刻技术成功情况并记录支架及其输送系统的操作性能,术后观察动物的生存质量。对比分析实验前、后实验犬的血液学检测结果。结果:9例动物试验全部释放成功,支架释放准确、操作相对简单、可操作性强;对实验犬肝、肾功能、炎症免疫系统无影响;不会诱导主动脉炎症反应、钙化等,且密封性能和组织相容性良好;支架未出现支架或覆膜断裂、破损;实验支架通畅性良好,未出现支架内狭窄、闭塞等表现,支架覆膜段内皮化良好,裸支架处内皮化良好且不影响分支血管畅通性;支架顺应性、贴壁性能良好,支架与血管壁贴合良好,无内折、扭曲、移位现象。结论:湖南埃普特所研发的覆膜支架操作性能优良,生物相容性良好,产品性能满足临床使用要求,无非预期副作用发生。但远期效果有待临床试验观察。%Objective: By canine model experiments, APT Medical developed thoracic aortic stent implantation feasibility of endovascular thoracic veins assessed; tissue scaffold response assessment, integrity, sealing performance, the release properties, as well as unintended side effects.Methods: Each dog was implanted with a thoracic aortic stent graft. Immediately after stent assess the situation and immediate technical success record operating performance of the stent and delivery system, and postoperative quality of life of animals. Comparative analysis before the experiment, hematology test results of the experiment in dogs. Results:9 cases of animal testing release of all successful stent accurate, the

  14. Analysis of Hyoid-Larynx Complex Using 3D Geometric Morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Anthony; Corny, Julien; Santini, Laure; Dahan, Laurie; Dessi, Patrick; Adalian, Pascal; Fakhry, Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a quantitative anatomical description of the hyoid bone-larynx complex using modern 3D reconstruction tools. The study was conducted on 104 bones from CT scan images of living adult subjects. Three-dimensional reconstructions were created from CT scan images using AVIZO 6.2 software package. A study of this complex was carried out using metric and morphological analyses. Characteristics of the hyoid bone and larynx were highly heterogeneous and were closely linked with the sex, height, and weight of the individuals. Height and width of larynx were significantly greater in men than in women (24.99 vs. 17.3 mm, p ≤ 0.05 and 46.75 vs. 41.07, p ≤ 0.05), whereas the thyroid angle was larger in females (81.12° vs. 74.48°, p ≤ 0.05). There was a significant correlation between the height and weight of subjects and different measurements of the hyoid-larynx complex. (Pearson's coefficient correlation r = 0.42, p ≤ 0.05 between the height of thyroid ala and the height of subjects and r = 0.1, p ≤ 0.05 between the height of thyroid ala and the weight of subjects). Shape and size analysis of the hyoid-larynx complex showed the existence of a significant sexual dimorphism and high interindividual heterogeneity depending to patient morphology. These results encourage us to go further with functional and imaging correlations.

  15. VEGF concentration from plasma-activated platelets rich correlates with microvascular density and grading in canine mast cell tumour spontaneous model

    OpenAIRE

    Patruno, R; Arpaia, N; Gadaleta, CD; Passantino, L.; N. Zizzo; Misino, A; Lucarelli, NM; Catino, A; Valerio, P; Ribatti, D; Ranieri, G.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Canine cutaneous mast cell tumour (CMCT) is a common cutaneous tumour in dog, with a higher incidence than in human. CMCT is classified in three subgroups, well and intermediately differentiated (G1 and G2), corresponding to a benign disease, and poorly differentiated (G3), corresponding to a malignant disease, which metastasize to lymph nodes, liver, spleen and bone marrow. In this study, we have evaluated serum (S), platelet-poor plasma (P-PP), plasma-activated platelet rich (P-APR...

  16. Establishment of a canine model of chronic multicoronary stenosis%慢性多支冠状动脉狭窄犬模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宾建平; Relb,RA

    2001-01-01

    nearly the baseline levels. Conclusion This canine model of chronic mutilcoronary stenosis simulating the human condition of CAD produces significant RWMA and is appropriate for the study of chronic reversible myocardial contractile dysfunction.

  17. Mapping of the disease locus and identification of ADAMTS10 as a candidate gene in a canine model of primary open angle glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kuchtey

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, with elevated intraocular pressure as an important risk factor. Increased resistance to outflow of aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork causes elevated intraocular pressure, but the specific mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we used genome-wide SNP arrays to map the disease gene in a colony of Beagle dogs with inherited POAG to within a single 4 Mb locus on canine chromosome 20. The Beagle POAG locus is syntenic to a previously mapped human quantitative trait locus for intraocular pressure on human chromosome 19. Sequence capture and next-generation sequencing of the entire canine POAG locus revealed a total of 2,692 SNPs segregating with disease. Of the disease-segregating SNPs, 54 were within exons, 8 of which result in amino acid substitutions. The strongest candidate variant causes a glycine to arginine substitution in a highly conserved region of the metalloproteinase ADAMTS10. Western blotting revealed ADAMTS10 protein is preferentially expressed in the trabecular meshwork, supporting an effect of the variant specific to aqueous humor outflow. The Gly661Arg variant in ADAMTS10 found in the POAG Beagles suggests that altered processing of extracellular matrix and/or defects in microfibril structure or function may be involved in raising intraocular pressure, offering specific biochemical targets for future research and treatment strategies.

  18. Major HGF-mediated regenerative pathways are similarly affected in human and canine cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Spee, Bart; Arends, Brigitte; van den Ingh, Ted SGAM; Roskams, Tania; Rothuizen, Jan; Penning, Louis C

    2007-01-01

    Background The availability of non-rodent animal models for human cirrhosis is limited. We investigated whether privately-owned dogs (Canis familiaris) are potential model animals for liver disease focusing on regenerative pathways. Several forms of canine hepatitis were examined: Acute Hepatitis (AH), Chronic Hepatitis (CH), Lobular Dissecting Hepatitis (LDH, a specific form of micronodulair cirrhosis), and Cirrhosis (CIRR). Canine cirrhotic samples were compared to human liver samples from ...

  19. The Ionic Model of the Canine Left Atrial Action Potential%犬左心房心肌细胞动作电位的计算机建模仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙奇; 唐闽; 夏灵; 张澍

    2013-01-01

    目的 构建犬左心房心肌细胞动作电位的计算机仿真模型.方法 在Ramirez-Nattel-Courtemanche心房肌细胞模型的基础上,根据离子流数据构建左心房心肌细胞的计算机仿真模型.结果 计算机仿真的电流与实验得到的离子流相似,最后得到的动作电位与我们在单个左心房肌细胞记录到的动作电位基本一致.结论 我们根据犬左心房肌细胞离子流数据构建的细胞模型较现有模型更符合左心房细胞的特性,为进一步仿真研究心房颤动的机制打下了良好的基础.%Objective To develop a mathematical model of the left atrial action potential (AP) using experimental data. Methods Using specific formulations of ionic currents, we developed a mathematical model of the left atrial AP. Result The simulated ionic currents in a fashion similar to experimental recordings. The simulated AP resembles AP recorded from canine left atrial myocytes. Conclusion This revised model faithfully reproduced properties of the canine left AP, which would be a useful tool for studying the mechanisms of atrial fibrillation.

  20. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Sant'Anna; L.G.P. Giordano; K.K.M.C. Flaiban; Muller, E.E.; M.I.M. Martins

    2014-01-01

    The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra tre...

  1. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated n

  2. Cellular and Phenotypic Characterization of Canine Osteosarcoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E. Legare, Jamie Bush, Amanda K. Ashley, Taka Kato, William H. Hanneman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine and human osteosarcoma (OSA have many similarities, with the majority of reported cases occurring in the appendicular skeleton, gender predominance noted, high rate of metastasis at the time of presentation, and a lack of known etiology for this devastating disease. Due to poor understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying OSA, we have characterized seven different OSA canine cell lines: Abrams, D17, Grey, Hughes, Ingles, Jarques, and Marisco and compared them to U2, a human OSA cell line, for the following parameters: morphology, growth, contact inhibition, migrational tendencies, alkaline phosphatase staining, heterologous tumor growth, double-strand DNA breaks, and oxidative damage. All results demonstrated the positive characteristics of the Abrams cell line for use in future studies of OSA. Of particular interest, the robust growth of a subcutaneous tumor and rapid pulmonary metastasis of the Abrams cell line in an immunocompromised mouse shows incredible potential for the future use of Abrams as a canine OSA model. Further investigations utilizing a canine cell model of OSA, such as Abrams, will be invaluable to understanding the molecular events underlying OSA, pharmaceutical inhibition of metastasis, and eventual prevention of this devastating disease.

  3. Canine faecal contamination and parasitic risk in the city of Naples (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneziano Vincenzo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dogs are associated with more than 60 zoonotic diseases among which, parasitosis and, in particular, helminthosis, can pose serious public-health concerns worldwide. Many canine gastrointestinal parasites eliminate their dispersion elements (eggs, larvae, oocysts by the faecal route. The quantity of canine faeces deposited on public and private property in cities worldwide is both a perennial nuisance and an important health issue. Public sites such as playgrounds, parks, gardens, public squares and sandpits may be an important source of human infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of both canine faecal contamination in the city of Naples (southern Italy, and presence of canine parasitic elements, with particular regard to those which are potential agents of zoonosis. A regular grid of sub-areas (1 km × 700 m was overlaid on the city map using a Geographical Information System (GIS. In each sub-area the straightest 1 km transect was drawn and digitalized on-screen in the GIS. Between February and May 2005 canine faeces were counted along the 1 km transects in 143 sub-areas, and 415 canine faecal samples were collected and submitted to coprological examinations. Negative binomial regression models and Gaussian random effects models were used to analyze the association between faeces count and human population density taking into account for extraPoisson variability. Logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between positivity to parasitic elements and number of canine faeces. Results Out of the 143 studied sub-areas, 141 (98.6% contained canine faeces. There was a strong spatial gradient with 48% of the total variability accounted by between neighbourhood variability; a positive association between the number of faeces and the human population density was found. Seventy (over 415, 16.9% canine faecal samples were positive for parasitic elements. There was no association between

  4. The gap junction modifier, GAP-134 [(2S,4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamido-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid], improves conduction and reduces atrial fibrillation/flutter in the canine sterile pericarditis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Eric I; Liu, Kun; Morgan, Gwen A; Swillo, Robert E; Krueger, Julie A; Gardell, Stephen J; Butera, John; Gruver, Matthew; Kantrowitz, Joel; Feldman, Hal S; Petersen, Jørgen S; Haugan, Ketil; Hennan, James K

    2009-06-01

    Gap junction uncoupling can alter conduction pathways and promote cardiac re-entry mechanisms that potentiate many supraventricular arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL). Our objective was to determine whether GAP-134 [(2S,4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamido-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid], a small dipeptide gap junction modifier, can improve conduction and ultimately prevent AF/AFL. In rat atrial strips subjected to metabolic stress, GAP-134 prevented significantly conduction velocity slowing at 10 nM compared with vehicle (p < 0.01). In the canine sterile pericarditis model, conduction time (CT; n = 5), atrial effective refractory period (AERP; n = 3), and AF/AFL duration/inducibility (n = 16) were measured 2 to 3 days postoperatively in conscious dogs. CT was significantly faster after GAP-134 infusion (average plasma concentration, 250 nM) at cycle lengths of 300 ms (66.2 +/- 1.0 versus 62.0 +/- 1.0 ms; p < 0.001) and 200 ms (64.4 +/- 0.9 versus 61.0 +/- 1.3 ms; p < 0.001). No significant changes in AERP were noted after GAP-134 infusion. The mean number of AF/AFL inductions per animal was significantly decreased after GAP-134 infusion (2.7 +/- 0.6 versus 1.6 +/- 0.8; p < 0.01), with total AF/AFL burden being decreased from 12,280 to 6063 s. Western blot experiments showed no change in connexin 43 expression. At concentrations exceeding those described in the AF/AFL experiments, GAP-134 had no effect on heart rate, blood pressure, or any electrocardiogram parameters. In conclusion, GAP-134 shows consistent efficacy on measures of conduction and AF/AFL inducibility in the canine sterile pericarditis model. These findings, along with its oral bioavailability, underscore its potential antiarrhythmic efficacy.

  5. The use of TiNi-based endografts in larynx cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulbakin Denis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Laryngeal cancer constitutes 26-30% of all head and neck malignant tumors. It is remarkably common in men and it is primarily distributed between ages 40 and 70 years old, but the frequency rate is the highest between ages 50 and 60. Well-known etiologic factors of laryngeal cancer include smoking, alcohol, human papilloma virus and radiation. It has been reported that the occurrence rate is up to 20 times higher in smokers compared to non-smokers, but the exact pathogenesis of the disease is still unknown.Despite an increasing role of non-adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy in treatment of larynx cancer, the surgical technique is still a basic one both in combined treatment of patients with locally advanced stages of primary larynx cancer and in the cases when recurrence is treated after radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Leading position in the combined treatment of locally advanced carcinoma of the larynx belongs to surgical treatment. Published reports of salvage treatment for larynx reconstruction after partial laryngectomy are available, some of them using structures of the larynx itself, but few aimed on a search of new materials and techniques for sparing laryngeal surgery.Possibility to perform a sparing surgery depends on several factors, including, the possibility of adequate laryngeal replacement after an extensive resection. Meanwhile, surgery improvement goes along with differentiated choice of an adequate degree of surgical intervention. However, the functional results of such surgeries do not always satisfy both patients and professionals, if we consider that large fragments of the organ have to be resected in locally advanced larynx cancers.The larynx reconstruction is a complex goal, it can be explained by several factors. First of all, this is topographic and anatomical feature of the larynx since it is located next to the digestive tract. Fixation and immobilization of the larynx is hard to perform as it is a

  6. [The state of the larynx in the patients presenting with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilifanov, E A; Nevzorova, V A; Artyushkin, S A; Ivanets, I V

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical state of the larynx and its microbial population in 49 patients examined at the stage of stable condition of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Examination of the larynx was carried out with the use of a rigid laryngoscope having a visual angle of 70 degrees, videofibrolaryngoscopy, and stroboscopy using a «TelePac» videocomplex (Karl Storz, Germany). It was supplemented by the study of the bacteriological and mycological paysage. The acoustic analysis of the voice was performed with the help of the Specta PLUS computer program. It was shown that more than 70% of the examined patients presented with various forms of chronic laryngitis. Potentially pathogenic St. pyogenes and yeast-like fungi C. albicans were isolated from 59% and 29% of the patients respectively.

  7. Clinical Significance of Langerhans Cells in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Esteban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cells (LCs may be involved in the immunosurveillance against tumors as antigen-presenting cells. Our objective has been to determine the relevance of LC in progression of larynx squamous cell carcinomas and their relationship with different subpopulations of tumor-infiltrating cells. LCs were investigated by immunohistochemical methods using anti-CD1 antibody. LCs were detected in most of the primary tumors studied (44 out of 50 and also in metastases (6 out of 10 and recurrences (2 out of 3, but we did not find any statistical association between number of LCs and clinical-pathological parameters or survival. However, the number of LCs was increased in patients with evident infiltration of lymphocytes, mainly cytotoxic T cells. We can conclude that although LCs did not show clinical utility as prognostic marker, they may play a role in releasing an active immune response in larynx carcinomas, according to their ability to present antigens to sensitized T cells.

  8. Voice disorders without organic diseases of the larynx. A 10-year review of 62 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Y; Miura, M; Shoji, H

    1983-01-01

    We reviewed the clinical records of 62 patients with voice disorders without organic diseases of the larynx who were examined in the Department of Otolaryngology, Kurume University Hospital during the 10 years from 1971 to 1980. There were 9 patients with psychogenic dysphonia, 24 with vocal abuse, 4 with spastic dysphonia, 9 with mutational voice disturbance, 8 with virilization of voice, 7 with dysphonia attributed to diseases of other organs than the larynx, and 1 with senile change of voice. The clinical service to the patients with these kinds of dysphonia has been poor in Japan for lack of trained voice pathologists. This has been also the case with our department. Recognition for the necessity of voice pathologists is strongly demanded.

  9. Zinc phthalocyanine-conjugated with bovine serum albumin mediated photodynamic therapy of human larynx carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E. P. O.; Santos, E. D.; Gonçalves, C. S.; Cardoso, M. A. G.; Soares, C. P.; Beltrame, M., Jr.

    2016-10-01

    Phthalocyanines, which are classified as second-generation photosensitizers, have advantageous photophysical properties, and extensive studies have demonstrated their potential applications in photodynamic therapy. The present work describes the preparation of a new zinc phthalocyanine conjugated to bovine serum albumin (compound 4a) and its photodynamic efficiency in human larynx-carcinoma cells (HEp-2 cells). The unconjugated precursor (compound 4) was also studied. Compounds 4 and 4a penetrated efficiently into the cell, exhibiting cytoplasmic localization, and showed no cytotoxicity in the dark. However, high photodynamic activities were observed in HEp-2 cells after treatments with 5 µM photosensitizers and 4.5 J cm-2 light. These conditions were sufficient to decrease the cell viability to 57.93% and 32.75% for compounds 4 and 4a, respectively. The present results demonstrated high photodynamic efficiency of zinc phthalocyanine conjugated with bovine serum albumin in destroying the larynx-carcinoma cells.

  10. Radiological normal anatomy of the larynx and pharynx and imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The larynx and the pharynx represent anatomically as well as functionally a very complex organ which serves as an airway and a nutrition channel. Knowledge of anatomy and anatomical topography is therefore a fundamental basis for the evaluation of any pathological process. Beside the clinical examination and endoscopy performed by ear, nose and throat specialists, imaging techniques play a crucial role in pre-therapeutic and post-therapeutic diagnostics. The radiologist employs a conventional x-ray swallow examination, as well as contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), depending on the medical problem in question. The following article demonstrates the functional and especially the structural anatomy of the larynx and the pharynx. Furthermore, the broad range of imaging techniques in clinical use is discussed. (orig.)

  11. Compensatory canine angulation in angle Class II and III patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Carlos Agner Busato

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurence of compensation in mesiodistal axial inclinations of canines in skeletal malocclusions patients. The sample consisted of 25 Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion (group 1 and 19 Angle Class III malocclusion patients (group 2. After measurement of dental angulations through a method that associates plaster model photography and AutoCad software, comparisons between the groups were performed by T-test for independent samples. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 between groups, when maxillary canine angulations were compared. Regarding the mandibular canines, there was a statistically significant difference in dental angulation, expressed by 3.2° for group 1 and 0.15° for group 2. An upright position tendency for mandibular canines was observed in the Angle Class III sample. This configures a pattern of compensatory coronary positioning, since the angulation of these teeth makes them occupy less space in the dental arch and consequently mandibular incisors can be in a more retracted position in the sagittal plane.

  12. Larynx mask I Gel vs ProSeal in breast oncological surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To characterize comparatively the performances of the larynx masks I Gel and ProSeal in the boarding of the air passage in patients subject to procedures of breast oncological surgery. A case control prospective control study blind was carried out at 'Hermanos Ameijeiras' Hospital during the period from September 2009 to April 2012.200 subjects intervened were studied with procedures of ontological breast surgery under general balanced anesthesia at random with equal parts in each group

  13. Proposed computerized protocol for epidemiological study of patients undergoing microsurgery of the larynx

    OpenAIRE

    Catani, Guilherme Simas do Amaral; Carvalho, Bettina; Ido Filho, Jorge Massaaki; Macedo Filho, Evaldo Dacheux de; Pinto, José Simão de Paula; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Stahlke Junior, Henrique Jorge, 1942-

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The merging of medicine with information technology facilitates the retrieval of stored data, aiding the conduct of research with greater scientific rigor. Studies in the field of otorhinolaryngology, specifically in the area of laryngology and voice, are of fundamental importance, since 70% of the economically active need their voice to work. Objective: To create a computerized protocol of the diseases of the larynx, apply and validate it, and use it to evaluate patient...

  14. Evaluation of Larynx-Sparing Techniques With IMRT When Treating the Head and Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Concern exists that widespread implementation of whole-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for the treatment of head-and-neck cancer has resulted in increased levels of dysphagia relative to those seen with conventional planning. Other investigators have suggested an alternative junctioned-IMRT (J-IMRT) method, which matches an IMRT plan to a centrally blocked neck field to restrict the laryngeal dose and reduce dysphagia. The effect on target coverage and sparing of organs at risk, including laryngeal sparing, in the optimization was evaluated and compared with that achieved using a J-IMRT technique. Methods and Materials: A total of 13 oropharyngeal cancer whole-field IMRT plans were planned with and without including laryngeal sparing in the optimization. A comparison of the target coverage and sparing of organs at risk was made using the resulting dose-volume histograms and dose distribution. The nine plans with disease located superior to the level of the larynx were replanned using a series of J-IMRT techniques to compare the two laryngeal-sparing techniques. Results: An average mean larynx dose of 29.1 Gy was achieved if disease did not extend to the level of the larynx, with 38.8 Gy for disease extending inferiorly and close to the larynx (reduced from 46.2 and 47.7 Gy, respectively, without laryngeal sparing). Additional laryngeal sparing could be achieved with J-IMRT (mean dose 24.4 Gy), although often at the expense of significantly reduced coverage of the target volume and with no improvement to other areas of the IMRT plan. Conclusion: The benefits of J-IMRT can be achieved with whole-field IMRT if laryngeal sparing is incorporated into the class solution. Inclusion of laryngeal sparing had no effect on other parameters in the plan

  15. Allergie affections of the larynx in children-a clinico pathological study

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Gobind Chandra

    1999-01-01

    Laryngeal manifestation of allergy though less common than, Rhinosinusitis, tubotympanitis and bronchopulmanary allergy but it is not that uncommon which is usually misdiagnosed and mistreated in children. Hence the importance of larynx as the allergic shock organ in children with spasmodic croup and laryngotracheo bronchits. In the present study in children bellow five years, presenting with stridor and/or hoarsness were evaluated regarding the history of allergy, direct laryngoscopic findin...

  16. A clinico-pathological study of the role of allergy on larynx in children

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Govind Chandra

    1999-01-01

    Laryngeal manifestation of allergy though less common than rhinosinusitis, tubotympanitis and bronchopulmonary allergy is not that uncommon and is usually misdiagnosed and mistreated in children. Hence, the importance of larynx as the allergic shock organ in children with spasmodic croup and laryngotracheo hronchits. In the present study, children below five years, presenting with Stridor and/or hoarseness were evaluated regarding the history of allergy, direct laryngoscopic finding, measurem...

  17. Neuromuscular induced phonation in a human ex vivo perfused larynx preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Berke, Gerald; Mendelsohn, Abie H; Scott Howard, Nelson; Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2013-01-01

    Considering differences in laryngeal anatomy, degree of control, and range of voice qualities between animals and humans, investigations of the neuromuscular process of voice control are better conducted using a living human larynx in which parametric stimulation of individual laryngeal muscles is possible. Due to difficulties in access and monitoring of laryngeal muscle activities, such investigations are impossible in living human subject experiments. This study reports the recent success i...

  18. Synchronous Occurence of Extramedullary Plasmacytoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Larynx

    OpenAIRE

    Senel, Fatma; Kaya, Altan; Karaman, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    Exramedullary plasmacytoma of the larynx is rare, especially when coexisted with squamous cell carcinoma. A 62-year-old male presented with history hoarseness and dyspnea. After laryngoscopic examination biopsy was performed epiglot and left ventricular band. The pathological examination revealed with the diagnosis of plasmacytoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The diagnosis of multiple myeloma was excluded as nonspesific results were obtained flow cytometry and peripheral blood smear. This cas...

  19. CT scans of the hypopharynx and larynx during inspiration, expiration, breath holding and phonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT scans of the hypopharynx and larynx during inspiration, expiration, breath holding and phonation of the letter E were performed on seven volunteers. Two mm contiguous scans were obtained to span the glottis and supraglottic area. The vocal cords were shown in the paramedian or median position on breath holding and phonation. The ditails of the arytenoid cartilages were better visualized with thin slices. The laryngeal ventricles were demonstrable on phonation scans. (author)

  20. Extramedullary Plasmacytoma of the Larynx: A Case Report of Subglottic Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Ramírez-Anguiano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP is a rare neoplasm of plasma cells, described in soft tissue outside the bone marrow. EMP of the larynx represents 0.04 to 0.45% of malignant tumors of the larynx. A male of 57 years old presented with hoarseness, dyspnea, and biphasic stridor of 2 months. The indirect laryngoscopy (IL revealed severe edema of the posterior commissure and a polypoid mass in the right posterior lateral subglottic wall. A biopsy of the subglottic mass was performed by a direct laryngoscopy (DL. The histopathologic diagnosis was EMP CD138+, therefore radiotherapy was given at 54 Gy in 30 sessions. The patient had an adequate postoperative clinical course and a new biopsy was performed having tumor-free margins. All laryngeal lesions should be biopsied prior to treatment to determine an accurate diagnosis to guide a proper management of the condition. Radiation therapy to the EMP is considered the treatment of choice, having local control rates of 80% to 100%. The subglottis is the least accessible area of view and the least frequent location of a laryngeal mass, nevertheless the otolaryngologist should always do a complete and systematic exam of the larynx when a tumor is suspected, to detect diagnoses such as a subglottic plasmacytoma.

  1. Emerging perspectives on hereditary glomerulopathies in canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littman MP

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Meryl P LittmanDepartment of Clinical Studies – Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Familial glomerulopathies have been described in more than two dozen dog breeds. These canine spontaneous cases of glomerular disease are good models for their human counterparts. The dogs present clinically with protein-losing nephropathy and variable signs of hypertension, thromboembolic events, edema/effusions/nephrotic syndrome, or eventually with signs of renal disease such as anorexia, vomiting, weight loss, and/or polyuria/polydipsia. Laboratory changes include proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia, and eventually azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, anemia, and isosthenuria. Renal biopsies examined with transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and thin section light microscopy may show ultrastructural glomerular basement membrane abnormalities, glomerulosclerosis, amyloidosis, non-amyloid fibrillary deposition, or breed-associated predispositions for immune-complex glomerulonephritis. Genome-wide association studies and fine sequencing of candidate genes have led to the discovery of variant alleles associated with disease in some breeds; eg, 1 glomerular basement membrane ultrastructural abnormalities due to defective collagen type IV, caused by different premature stop codons in each of four breeds; ie, in COL4A5 in Samoyeds and Navasota mix breed dogs (X-linked, and in COL4A4 in English Cocker Spaniels and English Springer Spaniels (autosomal recessive; and 2 glomerulosclerosis-related podocytopathy with slit diaphragm protein anomalies of both nephrin and Neph3/filtrin due to non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in conserved regions of their encoding genes, NPHS1 and KIRREL2, in Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers and Airedale Terriers, with a complex mode of inheritance. Age at onset and progression to end-stage renal disease vary depending on the model. Genetic

  2. Simulação tridimensional da laringe Three-dimensional simulation of the larynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Oliveira Rosa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available FORMA DE ESTUDO: Experimental. MÉTODO: Um modelo matemático das equações aerodinâmicas e viscoelásticas da laringe, reproduzindo suas características anatômicos e fisiológicos, é proposto para simular a laringe durante a fonação. OBJETIVO: Fornecer uma ferramenta nova para a disciplina de otorrinolaringologia de maneira a compreender melhor os fenômenos físicos presentes na fonação, tanto em casos normais quanto em patológicos. RESULTADO: Os resultados obtidos mostram que diversos fenômenos físicos como a diferença de fase horizontal e vertical entre os movimentos da superfície das pregas vocais, a formação de pressão negativa sobre a porção superior da glote e a formação de torvelinhos após a constrição glotal são reproduzidos pelo modelo. Adicionalmente, estudos teóricos sobre algumas doenças da laringe são apresentados e discutidos, sugerindo que avaliações prévias e "virtuais" de intervenções cirúrgicas serão passíveis de realização.STUDY DESIGN: Experimental. METHOD: A mathematical model of the aerodynamic and viscoelastic equations of the larynx, reproducing its anatomic and physiologic characteristics, is proposed to simulate the organ during phonation. AIM: Its objective is to provide a new tool to the discipline of otorhinolaryngology in order to better understand the physical phenomena present in phonation, both in normal and pathologic cases. RESULTS: The obtained results showed several physical phenomena, such as the horizontal and vertical phase difference among the vocal fold surface movements, the formation of negative pressure over the superior portion of the glottis, and vortex formation after the glottal constriction are reproduced by the model. Additionally, theoretical studies about some laryngeal diseases are presented and discussed, suggesting that previous and "virtual" evaluations of surgical interventions will be feasible in the future.

  3. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated negative consequences (lengthy placement, impaired wound healing around bulky knots, and the effect of unsightly knots on cosmetics). A study in 9 dogs found that celiotomy closure was easily achiev...

  4. Genome Sequence of Canine Herpesvirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos V Papageorgiou

    Full Text Available Canine herpesvirus is a widespread alphaherpesvirus that causes a fatal haemorrhagic disease of neonatal puppies. We have used high-throughput methods to determine the genome sequences of three viral strains (0194, V777 and V1154 isolated in the United Kingdom between 1985 and 2000. The sequences are very closely related to each other. The canine herpesvirus genome is estimated to be 125 kbp in size and consists of a unique long sequence (97.5 kbp and a unique short sequence (7.7 kbp that are each flanked by terminal and internal inverted repeats (38 bp and 10.0 kbp, respectively. The overall nucleotide composition is 31.6% G+C, which is the lowest among the completely sequenced alphaherpesviruses. The genome contains 76 open reading frames predicted to encode functional proteins, all of which have counterparts in other alphaherpesviruses. The availability of the sequences will facilitate future research on the diagnosis and treatment of canine herpesvirus-associated disease.

  5. Serotonin transporter and dopamine transporter imaging in the canine brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peremans, Kathelijne [Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Goethals, Ingeborg [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Ghent, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Vos, Filip [Laboratory of Radiopharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Dobbeleir, A. [Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Ham, Hamphrey [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Ghent, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Bree, Henri [Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Heeringen, Cees van [Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000, Ghent (Belgium); Audenaert, Kurt [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Ghent, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium) and Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000, Ghent (Belgium)]. E-mail: kurt.audenaert@ugent.be

    2006-10-15

    The serotonergic and dopaminergic systems are involved in a wide range of emotional and behavioral aspects of animals and humans and are involved in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are designed to block the 5-HT transporter (SERT), thereby increasing the available 5-HT in the brain. Functional imaging with specific SERT and dopamine transporter (DAT) ligands contributes to the study of the SSRI-transporter interaction. First, we evaluated the feasibility of a canine model in the study of the SERT and DAT with the radioligands [{sup 123}I]-{beta}-CIT and [{sup 123}I]-FP-CIT as well as single-photon emission computed tomography imaging. Second, we studied the effect of SSRIs (sertraline, citalopram and escitalopram) on the SERT and DAT in two dogs. The position of the canine model in the study of the SERT and DAT is discussed and compared with other animal models.

  6. Functional Characterization of the Canine Heme-Regulated eIF2α Kinase: Regulation of Protein Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimon C. Kanelakis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI negatively regulates protein synthesis by phosphorylating eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF2α thereby inhibiting protein translation. The importance of HRI in regulating hemoglobin synthesis in erythroid cells makes it an attractive molecular target in need of further characterization. In this work, we have cloned and expressed the canine form of the HRI kinase. The canine nucleotide sequence has 86%, 82%, and 81% identity to the human, mouse, and rat HRI, respectively. It was noted that an isoleucine residue in the ATP binding site of human, rat, and mouse HRI is replaced by a valine in the canine kinase. The expression of canine HRI protein by in vitro translation using wheat germ lysate or in Sf9 cells using a baculovirus expression system was increased by the addition of hemin. Following purification, the canine protein was found to be 72 kD and showed kinase activity determined by its ability to phosphorylate a synthetic peptide substrate. Quercetin, a kinase inhibitor known to inhibit mouse and human HRI, inhibits canine HRI in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, quercetin is able to increase de novo protein synthesis in canine reticulocytes. We conclude that the canine is a suitable model species for studying the role of HRI in erythropoiesis.

  7. A comparative study between mixed-type tumours from human salivary and canine mammary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In comparative pathology, canine mammary tumours have special interest because of their similarities with human breast cancer. Mixed tumours are uncommon lesions in the human breast, but they are found most frequently in the mammary gland of the female dogs and in the human salivary glands. The aim of the study was to compare clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical features of human salivary and canine mammary gland mixed tumours, in order to evaluate the latter as an experimental model for salivary gland tumours. Ten examples of each mixed tumour type (human pleomorphic adenoma and carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenomas and canine mixed tumour and metaplastic carcinoma) were evaluated. First, clinical and morphologic aspects of benign and malignant variants were compared between the species. Then, streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of cytokeratins, vimentin, p63 protein, estrogen receptor, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. After standardization, similar age and site distributions were observed in human and canine tumours. Histological similarities were identified in the comparison of the benign lesions as well. Metaplastic carcinomas also resembled general aspects of carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenomas in morphological evaluation. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining further presented similar antigenic expression between lesions. There are many similar features between human salivary and canine mammary gland mixed tumours. This observation is of great relevance for those interested in the study and management of salivary gland tumours, since canine lesions may constitute useful comparative models for their investigations

  8. Selenium Induces an Anti-tumor Effect Via Inhibiting Intratumoral Angiogenesis in a Mouse Model of Transplanted Canine Mammary Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyu; Guo, Mengyao; Liu, Yuzhu; Mu, Weiwei; Deng, Ganzhen; Li, Chengye; Qiu, Changwei

    2016-06-01

    Selenium (Se) has been widely reported to possess anti-tumor effects. Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels and is required to supply oxygen, nutrients, and growth factors for tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. To explore whether the anti-tumor effect of Se was associated with angiogenesis in vivo, we studied the effects of sodium selenite (Sel) and methylseleninic acid (MSA) on tumors induced by canine mammary tumor cells (CMT1211) in mice; cyclophosphamide (CTX) served as a positive control. The results showed that the Se content was significantly increased in the Sel and MSA groups. Se significantly inhibited the tumor weights and volumes. Large necrotic areas and scattered and abnormal small necrotic areas were observed in the Se treatment group. Immunofluorescence double staining showed a reduction in the microvessel density (MVD) and increment in the vessel maturation index (VMI) compared with the untreated control group. As expected, the protein and mRNA levels of the angiogenesis factors angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were decreased in the Se-treated tumors by IHC, as shown by western blotting and RT-QPCR. We also found that organic Se MSA provided stronger inhibition of tumor growth compared with inorganic sodium selenite (Sel). Altogether, our results indicated that Se exerted anti-tumor effects in vivo at least partially by inhibiting angiogenic factors. PMID:26507439

  9. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine. 113.306... Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... distemper virus, each of five canine distemper susceptible ferrets shall be injected with a sample of...

  10. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures.

  11. Morphologic and biochemical studies of canine mucopolysaccharidosis I.

    OpenAIRE

    Shull, R M; Helman, R. G.; Spellacy, E.; Constantopoulos, G.; Munger, R. J.; Neufeld, E F

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the necropsy and biochemical findings on the first dog to die with alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency (mucopolysaccharidosis I, MPS I). Gross pathologic features, light- and electron-microscopic findings, and tissue enzyme, glycosaminoglycan (GAG), and sphingolipid levels are compared with the human disease counterpart and the previously described feline model. Results lend further support for the similarities of the canine disease and human MPS I.

  12. Hybrid Carcinoma of the Larynx: A Case Report (Adenoid Cystic and Adenocarcinoma and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Karasmanis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The nonsquamous carcinomas of the larynx are considered rare with the majority of malignant tumors in this area, reaching the rate of 95%, to be squamous cell neoplasms. Case Report. The case refers to a 53-year-old man that presented with symptomatology of motor nerve disease. During the evaluation of the neurologic disease, a subglottic mass of the larynx was revealed accidentally in the imaging examination. Under general anesthesia, we performed direct laryngoscopy and biopsy of the mass. The histopathologic examination revealed a hybrid carcinoma coexistence of two different carcinomas, an adenoid cystic carcinoma and an adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified with poor differentiation. Regarding the therapeutic plan, the mass was considered inoperable due to its expansion to trachea and the patient received radiotherapy. Conclusions. Both the adenocarcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma are extremely rare types of malignant tumors in the larynx. The special interest of the present case is the coexistence of these two rare tumors in the same region of the larynx, being a hybrid tumor of the salivary glands in the larynx, which is the second reported case, based on our systematic literature review.

  13. Pharmacologic inhibition of MEK signaling prevents growth of canine hemangiosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Nicholas J.; Nickoloff, Brian J.; Dykema, Karl J.; Boguslawski, Elissa A.; Krivochenitser, Roman I.; Froman, Roe E.; Dawes, Michelle J.; Baker, Laurence H.; Thomas, Dafydd G.; Kamstock, Debra A.; Kitchell, Barbara E.; Furge, Kyle A.; Duesbery, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Angiosarcoma (AS) is a rare neoplasm of endothelial origin that has limited treatment options and poor five-year survival. As a model for human AS, we studied primary cells and tumorgrafts derived from canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA), which is also an endothelial malignancy with similar presentation and histology. Primary cells isolated from HSA showed constitutive ERK activation. The MEK inhibitor CI-1040 reduced ERK activation and the viability of primary cells derived from visceral, cutaneous, and cardiac HSA in vitro. HSA-derived primary cells were also sensitive to sorafenib, an inhibitor of B-Raf and multi-receptor tyrosine kinases. In vivo, CI-1040 or PD0325901 decreased the growth of cutaneous cell-derived xenografts and cardiac-derived tumorgrafts. Sorafenib decreased tumor size in both in vivo models, although cardiac tumorgrafts were more sensitive. In human AS, we noted that 50% of tumors stained positively for phosphorylated ERK1/2 and that the expression of several MEK-responsive transcription factors was up-regulated. Our data showed that MEK signaling is essential for the growth of HSA in vitro and in vivo and provided evidence that the same pathways are activated in human AS. This indicates that MEK inhibitors may form part of an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of canine HSA or human AS, and it highlights the utility of spontaneous canine cancers as a model of human disease. PMID:23804705

  14. Alpha-1-antitrypsin studies: canine serum and canine surfactant protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canine serum alpha-1-antitrypsin was isolated by gel filtration and affinity chromatography and characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis. Measurement of the trypsin inhibitory capacity of the separated protein indicated a ninefold concentration of functional trypsin inhibitor during the isolation procedure. Electrophoresis demonstrated the presence of a single protein with alpha-globulin mobility and a molecular weight near that of human alpha-1-antitrypsin. The trypsin inhibitory capacity of pulmonary surfactant protein from five Beagle dogs was measured, related to total surfactant protein concentration, and compared with similar measurements on whole serum from the same animals. Results indicated a variable concentration of trypsin inhibitor in the canine pulmonary surfactant protein. However, the concentration in the surfactant protein was always significantly higher than that in the corresponding serum sample. Preliminary experiments designed to separate the trypsin inhibitory fraction(s) from the other surfactant proteins by gel filtration chromatography indicated that the trypsin inhibitor was probably a single protein with a molecular weight near that of alpha-1-antitrypsin. (U.S.)

  15. Evaluation of the Effects of Temporary Covered Nitinol Stent Placement in the Prostatic Urethra: Short-Term Study in the Canine Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To evaluate the effect of temporary stent placement on the canine prostatic urethra. Methods. Retrievable PTFE-covered nitinol stents were placed in the prostatic urethras of 8 beagle dogs under fluoroscopic guidance. Retrograde urethrography was obtained before and after stenting. Retrograde urethrography and endoscopy were performed 1 and 2 months after deployment. The endoscopic degree of hyperplasia was rated on a scale of 0 to 4 (0 absence, 4 = occlusion). On day 60, stents were removed and urethrography was performed immediately before euthanasia. Pathologic analysis was performed to determine the degree of glandular atrophy, periurethral fibrosis, and urethral dilation. Results. Stent deployment was technically successful in 7 animals, and failed in 1 dog due to a narrow urethral lumen. Complete migration was seen in 2 animals at 1 month, and an additional stent was deployed. On day 30, endoscopy showed slight hyperplasia (grade 1) in 3 animals. On day 60, moderate hyperplasia (grade 2) was evidenced in 4 cases. No impairment of urinary flow was seen during follow-up. Retrieval was technically easy to perform, and was successful in all dogs. The major histologic findings were chronic inflammatory cell infiltrates; prostate glandular atrophy, with a mean value of 1.86 (SD 0.90); periurethral fibrosis, with a mean ratio of 29.37 (SD 10.41); and dilatation of the prostatic urethra, with a mean ratio of 6.75 (SD 3.22). Conclusion. Temporary prostatic stent placement in dogs is safe and feasible, causing marked enlargement of the prostatic urethral lumen. Retrievable covered stents may therefore be an option for bladder outlet obstruction management in men

  16. Leishmaniasis isoleret til larynx som årsag til kronisk laryngitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mikkel; Munch-Petersen, Helga Richert; Møller, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Mucosal leishmaniasis is uncommon outside Central and South America, where it is commonly caused by Leishmania (L.) braziliensis. We present a case of isolated laryngeal leishmaniasis detected in a 78-year-old male, who presented with chronic hoarseness. Histologic examination of biopsies taken...... from the larynx showed L. amastigotes. An L.-specific indirect fluorescent antibody test was positive. Polymerase chain reaction showed infection with L. donovani, L. infantum or L. tropica, species which do not normally cause isolated mucosal infection. This is the first reported case from Scandinavia....

  17. [Verrucous carcinoma of the larynx. An analysis of 20 years of experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Amado, M; Lozano Ramírez, A; Labella Caballero, T

    1997-01-01

    Retrospective study about 10 verrucous carcinomas of the larynx surgically treated in a 20-year-term. This variety accounted por the 1.9 percent of the cancers seen in that period of time. Tabagism and alcoholism predominated in 8 and 6 patients respectively. Glottis was the localization and dysphony the paramount symptom. In the paper are emphasized the most important histologic features. Koilocytosis was present in 6 cases. Four patients developed a second tumor of epidermoid carcinoma type. No one exitus due to the verrucous growth. Only in 3 the death was attributed to the second malignancy. PMID:9199100

  18. Habitual non-traumatic cricothyroid joint dislocation: a rare case of rotated larynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, M; Yahia, D; Nik Fariza Husna, N H; Wan Shah Jihan, W D; Baharudin, A

    2012-02-01

    A case of a 21 year old gentleman is described, with no history of preceding trauma, presenting with intermittent dysphagia to solids and fluids for 4 years. Neck examination at rest was normal. However on deep inspiration, the right thyroid lamina protrudes or becomes more prominent. The patient is able to return the larynx to its normal position with manual manipulation. Laryngeal examination with fibreoptic scope during rest and deep breath shows gross rotation of the laryngeal structures for more than 60 degrees on deep breath, with the vocal cords axis rotated to the left side. Management was conservative.

  19. Effects of the canine rattlesnake vaccine in moderate to severe cases of canine crotalid envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard MJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available McGee J Leonard,1 Catherine Bresee,2 Andrew Cruikshank1 1Animal Specialty and Emergency Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2The Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Research Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: This is a retrospective multicenter study (2006–2012 examining a population of dogs with moderate to severe crotalid envenomation for protective effects of the canine rattlesnake vaccine. Five nonacademic emergency and referral veterinary hospitals in Southern California were involved in the study and contributed records regarding a total of 82 client-owned dogs that were treated for naturally occurring rattlesnake envenomation. All dogs received antivenin (Crotalidae polyvalent, with dosages ranging from one to three vials (mean: 1.3±0.6. Fourteen dogs (17% had a history of prior vaccination against crotalid venom. In univariate logistic regression modeling, cases with lower body weight (P=0.0001 or higher snakebite severity scores (P<0.0001 were associated with greater morbidity. No statistically significant difference in morbidity or mortality between vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs was found. The findings of this study did not identify a significantly protective effect of previous vaccination in the cases of moderate to severe rattlesnake envenomation that require treatment with antivenin. Keywords: rattlesnake envenomation, vaccine, antivenin, canine

  20. Similar decreases in local tumor control are calculated for treatment protraction and for interruptions in the radiotherapy of carcinoma of the larynx in four centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Data on patients with cancer of the larynx are analyzed using statistical models to estimate the effect of gaps in the treatment time on the local control of the tumor. Methods and Materials: Patients from four centers, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Manchester, and Toronto, with carcinoma of the larynx and treated by radiotherapy were followed up and the disease-free period recorded. In all centers the end point was control of the primary tumor after irradiation alone. The local control rates at ≥2 years, Pc, were analyzed by log linear models, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to model the disease-free period. Results: T stage, nodal involvement, and site of the tumor were important determinants of the disease-free interval, as was the radiation schedule used. Elongation of the treatment time by 1 day, or a gap of 1 day, was associated with a decrease in Pc of 0.68% per day for Pc = 0.80, with a 95% confidence interval of (0.28, 1.08)%. An increase of 5 days was associated with a 3.5% reduction in Pc from 0.80 to 0.77. At Pc = 0.60 an increase of 5 days was associated with an 7.9% decrease in Pc. The time factor in the Linear Quadratic model, γ/α, was estimated as 0.89 Gy/day, 95% confidence interval (0.35, 1.43) Gy/day. Conclusions: Any gaps (public holidays are the majority) in the treatment schedule have the same deleterious effect on the disease free period as an increase in the prescribed treatment time. For a schedule, where dose and fraction number are specified, any gap in treatment is potentially damaging

  1. Isolation, genetic manipulation, and transplantation of canine spermatogonial stem cells: progress toward transgenesis through the male germ-line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkey, Michael A; Asano, Atsushi; Zoulas, Mary Ellen; Torok-Storb, Beverly; Nagashima, Jennifer; Travis, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    The dog is recognized as a highly predictive model for preclinical research. Its size, life span, physiology, and genetics more closely match human parameters than do those of the mouse model. Investigations of the genetic basis of disease and of new regenerative treatments have frequently taken advantage of canine models. However, full utility of this model has not been realized because of the lack of easy transgenesis. Blastocyst-mediated transgenic technology developed in mice has been very slow to translate to larger animals, and somatic cell nuclear transfer remains technically challenging, expensive, and low yield. Spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) transplantation, which does not involve manipulation of ova or blastocysts, has proven to be an effective alternative approach for generating transgenic offspring in rodents and in some large animals. Our recent demonstration that canine testis cells can engraft in a host testis, and generate donor-derived sperm, suggests that SSC transplantation may offer a similar avenue to transgenesis in the canine model. Here, we explore the potential of SSC transplantation in dogs as a means of generating canine transgenic models for preclinical models of genetic diseases. Specifically, we i) established markers for identification and tracking canine spermatogonial cells; ii) established methods for enrichment and genetic manipulation of these cells; iii) described their behavior in culture; and iv) demonstrated engraftment of genetically manipulated SSC and production of transgenic sperm. These findings help to set the stage for generation of transgenic canine models via SSC transplantation.

  2. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies

    OpenAIRE

    J. Van Heerden; J. Bingham; M. Van Vuuren; R.E.J. Burroughs; E. Stylianides

    2002-01-01

    Wild dogs Lycaon pictus (n = 8) were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8) (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper) and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8) over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use ...

  3. Evaluation of an extracellular matrix-derived acellular biphasic scaffold/cell construct in the repair of a large articular high-load-bearing osteochondral defect in a canine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qiang; MA Xin-long; HU Yong-cheng; XU Bao-shan; PENG Jiang; LU Shi-bi; GUO Quan-yi; ZHAO Bin; ZHANG Li; WANG Ai-yuan; XU Weng-jing; XIA Qun

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteochondral lesion repair is a challenging area of orthopedic surgery.Here we aimed to develop an extraceliular matrix-derived,integrated,biphasic scaffold and to investigate the regeneration potential of the scaffold loaded with chondrogenically-induced bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in the repair of a large,high-load-bearing,osteochondral defect in a canine model.Methods The biphasic scaffolds were fabricated by combining a decellularization procedure with a freeze-drying technique and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT).Osteochondral constructs were fabricated in vitro using chondrogenically-induced BMSCs and a biphasic scaffold,then assessed by SEM for cell attachment.Osteochondral defects (4.2 mm (diameter) x 6 mm (depth)) were created in canine femoral condyles and treated with a construct of the biphasic scaffold/chondrogenically-induced BMSCs or with a cell-free scaffold (control group).The repaired defects were evaluated for gross morphology and by histological,biochemical,biomechanical and micro-CT analyses at 3 and 6 months post-implantation.Results The osteochondral defects of the experimental group showed better repair than those of the control group.Statistical analysis demonstrated that the macroscopic and histologic grading scores of the experimental group were always higher than those of the control group,and that the scores for the experimental group at 6 months were significantly higher than those at 3 months.The cartilage stiffness in the experimental group (6 months) was (6.95±0.79)N/mm,70.77% of normal cartilage; osteochondral bone stiffness in the experimental group was (158.16±94.30) N/mm,74.95% of normal tissue; glycosaminoglycan content of tissue-engineered neocartilage was (218±21.6) μg/mg (dry weight),84.82% of native cartilage.Micro-CT analysis of the subchondral bone showed mature trabecular bone regularly formed at 3 and 6 months

  4. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Sant'Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra treated surgically. Group 1 consisted of dogs that were discharged within 48 hours after surgery and Group 2 consisted of those who required prolonged hospitalization or died. The findings of hematological, biochemical and blood lactate levels were compared between groups and variables such as bacterial multidrug resistance, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, hyperlactatemia and increased creatinine were analyzed through the dispersion of frequencies between groups. Among the variables studied, the presence of SIRS and elevated serum creatinine >2.5mg/mL were effective in predicting the worsening of the disease and can be used as prognostic markers of canine pyometra.

  5. Malignant Tumors of the Larynx: A Clinicopathological Study of 30 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sathish Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer of the larynx is a common cancer of the head and neck. This cancer has an established correlation with smoking tobacco and alcohol as causative agents. This study has been conducted in a tertiary hospital in Northeastern India. Minimal data about laryngeal cancer from this area was published in the literature. Methods: This prospective study was conducted for a period of two years and enrolled 30 patients. Patients were diagnosed, staged, and treated for the cancer, then followed for 12 months. Results: This study showed that patients in the sixth decade of life were the most common patients that presented with this cancer. There was a male preponderance. Smoking and alcoholism were the most common associated risk factors. Most patients presented with hoarseness followed by a foreign body sensation in the throat. The majority presented with late stage disease. The most common larynx tumor in this study was glottic carcinoma. All cases were squamous cell carcinoma and most were moderately differentiated. Patients underwent treatment with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Conclusion: At the one year follow up, 36.67% of patients were found to be in remission. A total of two patients succumbed to this disease.

  6. Raman spectroscopy: a diagnostic tool for detection of early malignant changes in the larynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas; Stavroulaki, Pelagia; Kendall, Catherine A.; Birchall, Martin; Barr, Hugh

    2000-05-01

    The incidence of laryngeal cancer has risen progressively over the last 25 years. Early diagnosis and treatment of premalignant lesions of the larynx is vital to prevent progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. In the larynx, it has long been recognized that histological evidence of maturation abnormality is associated with a higher risk of transformation to malignancy. Currently, it is extremely difficult if not impossible for the clinician to ascertain the level of abnormality present without removing a biopsy sample and sending it for histopathological analysis. Inherent risks with this technique include damage to vocal chords and loss of speech quality as well as possible selection of unrepresentative biopsy samples. Raman spectroscopy, incorporated into an endoscopic system, has the potential to provide a real-time, non-invasive diagnostic technique able to detect biochemical changes that accompany abnormal pathology. Likely outcomes would be improved biopsy targeting and patient management by providing immediate result of tissue pathology. This paper demonstrates the capacity of near IR Raman spectroscopy combine with statistical data analysis techniques to discriminate between normal, dysplastic and cancerous laryngeal tissue.

  7. RADIONUCLIDE INDICATION OF SENTINEL LYMPH NODES IN LARYNX AND LARYNGOPHARYNX CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Sinilkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to determine the possibility of radionuclide methods in the identification of "sentinel" lymph node (SLN in larynx and laryngopharynx cancer patients.Material and methods: 17 patients with larynx and laryngopharynx cancer were included in research. In all patients for SLN visualization nanocolloid radiopharmaceutical was injection around tumor into mucous coat with the subsequent SPECT and radioguided study.Results: Sensitivity and specificity of SPECT and radioguided study for SLN identification were 100%. We found 22 SLN in 17 patients (from 1 to 2 per patient, on average 1.3. Most often SLN were located in the III level of a neck (lymph nodes around of carotid arteries – 12 SLN (54.5% and IIA level (under lower jaw lymph nodes – 6 (27.2%. One SLN (4.5% was localized in IV level and 3 nodes (13.6% in VI level. In 2 patients (11.8% metastasis in SLN were found. In these patients within 2 years cancer progressing was revealed. Fifteen patients (88.2% had no metastatic in SLN and had no progressing of a cancer.Conclusions: Sensitivity and specificity of SPECT and radioguided study for SLN identification are 100%. In patients with metastatic SLN radical surgery with lymph node dissection is helpful.

  8. [The ultra-rapid cinematography of the larynx, its contributions in speech pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevaillier, G; Sauvaget, E; Herman, P; Tran Ba Huy, P

    2010-01-01

    The development in the medical field of high speed cinematography and its dissemination in the field of speech pathology will probably change the way we view the larynx and diagnose its disorders. So far only the stroboscope could inform us about the appearance of vocal cord vibration but with certain limitations. Indeed the wave motion of the vocal cords is really only apparent motion. It is made possible through the phenomenon of retinal persistence of images and light intermittent vocal folds set to the frequency of the voice and out of phase by a few Hertz. This technique has several disadvantages: The need for the voice to trigger the strobe light; a low number of frames per second (25 fps) recorded; frame loss for the period between unlit two flashes; limitation in the study of the upper voice spectrum (gearing). The ultra-rapid cinematography brings a big difference in design since the digital recording can shoot up to 4000 frames per second with permanent lighting of the larynx. The slow reading of short sequences permits us to view the actual movement of vibrating structures, and to analyze the behavior of the vibrator during the transitional phases of the attack, depreciation and termination of sound. The footage in high resolution permits a detailed analysis of the movements of opening and closing of the vocal cords in phonation and respiration, and the diagnosis of lesions. PMID:21086656

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of the larynx; Resonancia magnetica de la laringe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleaga, L. [Hospital de Basurto. Bilbao (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Larynx and hypopharynx represent difficult anatomical structures to evaluate by imaging. Pathological processes inflammatory conditions and neoplasms are frequently found specially neoplasms. The most common tumor originating in this region is squamous cell carcinoma that represents 90%, of malignancies, magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is used for staging of those tumors. In our study we evaluate the technique used for MRI studies as well as the anatomy of the larynx, hypopharynx and nodes and the different classification system used for neck nodes. We also analyze the different types of neoplasm that can be found being and malignant and the use of MRI for staging neoplasms. Clinical and laryngoscope staging of laryngeal tumors is not accurate if fails to demonstrate deep submucosal and laryngeal spaces invasion (pre-epi glottic. para laryngeal, para glottic, anterior commissures posterior commissure and sub glottis) as well as cartilage infiltration and extra laryngeal extension. We need accurate imaging diagnostic methods like MRI to evaluate the extension of tumors. (Author) 38 refs.

  10. BNCT of canine osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dog was diagnosed with osteosarcoma (8x6x5cm) in the right wing of ilium by radiography, radionuclide scintigraphy and histological study of biopsy material. The treatment plan was as follows: γ-therapy in combination with chemotherapy; prevention of hematogenous pulmonary metastases by the transfusion of 130 ml of allogenic marrow from a healthy donor; administration of 11.4g 10B-boronphenylalanine into the right iliac artery; resection of the right iliac wing with the osteosarcoma lesion; neutron irradiation (MEPhI Reactor) of the bone fragment (dose on healthy osteocytes - 15±4 Gy (W), on tumor - 50±9 Gy (W); reimplantation and fixation of the fragment; three courses of adjuvant chemotherapy. The doses were determined in full-scale calculations of the reactor radiation fields with a model of the bone under the code RADUGA. The 10B concentration (μg/g) in the bone was: normal tissue - 9±3, tumor - 28±5. In 24 hours post operation the dog was able to walk using the treated limb, and 6 months later it moved freely. The patient has been under observation for 30 months. The results of the research demonstrate complete cure. The use of similar treatment plans improves the therapeutic efficiency of BNCT. (author)

  11. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying. Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the nutritional and

  12. Triple bone labeling of canine mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Kwon, P H

    1990-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy was used for evaluation of new bone formation in 16 canine mandibles augmented with hydroxylapatite (HA) granules. Three fluorochromes were injected at different time intervals during therapeutic radiation treatment. Oxytetracycline, DCAF, and alizarin-complexone were give...

  13. New agents for targeting of IL-13RA2 expressed in primary human and canine brain tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Debinski

    Full Text Available Interleukin 13 receptor alpha 2 (IL-13RA2 is over-expressed in a vast majority of human patients with high-grade astrocytomas like glioblastoma. Spontaneous astrocytomas in dogs resemble human disease and have been proposed as translational model system for investigation of novel therapeutic strategies for brain tumors. We have generated reagents for both detection and therapeutic targeting of IL-13RA2 in human and canine brain tumors. Peptides from three different regions of IL-13RA2 with 100% sequence identity between human and canine receptors were used as immunogens for generation of monoclonal antibodies. Recombinant canine mutant IL-13 (canIL-13.E13K and canIL-13.E13K based cytotoxin were also produced. The antibodies were examined for their immunoreactivities in western blots, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and cell binding assays using human and canine tumor specimen sections, tissue lysates and established cell lines; the cytotoxin was tested for specific cell killing. Several isolated MAbs were immunoreactive to IL-13RA2 in western blots of cell and tissue lysates from glioblastomas from both human and canine patients. Human and canine astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas were also positive for IL-13RA2 to various degrees. Interestingly, both human and canine meningiomas also exhibited strong reactivity. Normal human and canine brain samples were virtually negative for IL-13RA2 using the newly generated MAbs. MAb 1E10B9 uniquely worked on tissue specimens and western blots, bound live cells and was internalized in GBM cells over-expressing IL-13RA2. The canIL-13.E13K cytotoxin was very potent and specific in killing canine GBM cell lines. Thus, we have obtained several monoclonal antibodies against IL-13RA2 cross-reacting with human and canine receptors. In addition to GBM, other brain tumors, such as high grade oligodendrogliomas, meningiomas and canine choroid plexus papillomas, appear to express the receptor at high levels

  14. Canine babesiosis: from molecular taxonomy to control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Peter J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused by protozoan haemoparasites. This review article considers recent literature pertaining to the taxonomic classification of Babesia and Theileria species affecting dogs and the geographical distribution of these parasites. The diagnosis of canine babesiosis by traditional, molecular and serological methods is reviewed, together with recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of piroplasmosis, and of the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  15. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment. PMID:2638021

  16. Systemic inflammarory response in canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Boel

    2003-01-01

    Research efforts have focused mainly on the hormonal aspects of canine pyometra for more than 6 decades. However, this disease is often manifested as systemic illness in response to the bacterial uterine infection. Studies I-II were undertaken to clarify bacteriological aspects of canine pyometra; i.e. the origin of the infecting bacteria, the infecting bacteria’s impact on severity of the systemic illness and the presence of bacterial endotoxin in the systemic circulation. Study I, a bacteri...

  17. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment.

  18. Treatment modalities of palatal impacted canines

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Cena; Papakoca, Kiro; Ristoska, Sonja; Kovacevska, Ivona

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The orthodontic treatment of impacted maxillary canine remains a challenge to today’s clinicians. The treatment of this clinical entity usually involves surgical exposure of the impacted tooth, followed by orthodontic traction to guide and align it into the dental arch. The impacted palatal canine requires a combination of both treatment modalities: orthodontic management and oral surgical treatment. Two types of approach are commonly used: simple exposure, or exposure with brac...

  19. Proliferative histiocytic disorders of canine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, D J

    1997-06-01

    Proliferative histiocytic disorders of canine skin present a clinical spectrum from the innocuous self-limiting solitary dermal lesion of cutaneous histiocytoma, through the recurrent deep dermal nodules of cutaneous histiocytosis to the generally fatal condition of Bernese Mountain Dogs termed systemic histiocytosis, in which visceral involvement is commonly encountered. Immunocytochemical characterization of the constituent histiocytic cells and accompanying lymphoid infiltrate using canine species specific reagents has elucidated considerably the mechanism by which these conditions exhibit their various biologic behaviours.

  20. Comparative photoelastic study of dental and skeletal anchorages in the canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Aparecida de Assis Claro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare dental and skeletal anchorages in mandibular canine retraction by means of a stress distribution analysis. METHODS: A photoelastic model was produced from second molar to canine, without the first premolar, and mandibular canine retraction was simulated by a rubber band tied to two types of anchorage: dental anchorage, in the first molar attached to adjacent teeth, and skeletal anchorage with a hook simulating the mini-implant. The forces were applied 10 times and observed in a circular polariscope. The stresses located in the mandibular canine were recorded in 7 regions. The Mann-Whitney test was employed to compare the stress in each region and between both anchorage systems. The stresses in the mandibular canine periradicular regions were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: Stresses were similar in the cervical region and the middle third. In the apical third, the stresses associated with skeletal anchorage were higher than the stresses associated with dental anchorage. The results of the Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the highest stresses were identified in the cervical-distal, apical-distal, and apex regions with the use of dental anchorage, and in the apical-distal, apical-mesial, cervical-distal, and apex regions with the use of skeletal anchorage. CONCLUSIONS: The use of skeletal anchorage in canine retraction caused greater stress in the apical third than the use of dental anchorage, which indicates an intrusive component resulting from the direction of the force due to the position of the mini-implant and the bracket hook of the canine.

  1. Despre babesioza canină

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Nanu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this bibliographic essay, addressed both to veterinary clinicians and researchers, is to bring to mind the disease in terms of etiology, clinical manifestations and therapeutic and prophylactic management, as well as to remind the issues arising from recent researches. Depending on the virulence of the parasite species, body's immune response and therapeutic management approached, the plateau of disease evolution can be quite wide - from a favorable prognosis to a lethal outcome of the animal. The complexity of the pathogenic mechanism in babesiosis is due to soluble parasite antigens (SPA which, according to recent studies, have been obtained in vitro and then used as immunological product in disease prevention. Producing a vaccine against canine babesiosis with parasite antigens of local strains could play an important role to prevent the clinical expression of this disease in Romania.

  2. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversa, Donato; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; La Torre, Francesco; Drake, Jason; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  3. Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, J P; Goddard, A; Leisewitz, A L

    2013-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis has, since its emergence in 1978, remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus' capability to evolve into more virulent and resistant variants with significant local gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae. This paper reviews current knowledge on historical-, signalment-, and clinical factors as well as several haematological-, biochemical- and endocrine parameters that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CPV enteritis. These factors include season of presentation, purebred nature, bodyweight, vomiting, leukopaenia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, hypercoagulability, hypercortisolaemia, hypothyroxinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, elevated C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor, hypocholesterolaemia and hypocitrullinaemia. Factors contributing to the manifestations of CPV infection are multiple with elements of host, pathogen, secondary infections, underlying stressors and environment affecting severity and outcome. The availability of several prognosticators has made identification of patients at high risk of death and their subsequent targeted management more rewarding.

  4. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  5. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  6. Presentation of Neurolytic Effect of 10% Lidocaine after Perineural Ultrasound Guided Injection of a Canine Sciatic Nerve: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    KIM, DAVID D.; Asif, Asma; Kataria, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Background Phenol and alcohol have been used to ablate nerves to treat pain but are not specific for nerves and can damage surrounding soft tissue. Lidocaine at concentrations > 8% injected intrathecal in the animal model has been shown to be neurotoxic. Tests the hypothesis that 10% lidocaine is neurolytic after a peri-neural blockade in an ex vivo experiment on the canine sciatic nerve. Methods Under ultrasound, one canine sciatic nerve was injected peri-neurally with 10 cc saline and anoth...

  7. Cartilage integrity and proteoglycan turnover are comparable in canine experimentally induced and human joint degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Intema

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The value of experimental models of osteoarthritis (OA largely depends on the ability to translate observations to human OA. Surprisingly, direct comparison of characteristics of human and experimental OA is scarce. In the present study, cartilage integrity and matrix turnover in a canine model of joint degeneration were compared to human clinical OA. In 23 Beagle dogs, joint degeneration was induced in one knee, the contra-lateral knee served as a control. For comparison, human osteoarthritic and healthy knee cartilage were obtained at arthroplasty (n=14 and post-mortem (n=13. Cartilage was analyzed by histology and biochemistry. Values for cartilage integrity and proteoglycan (PG synthesis showed species specific differences; GAG content of healthy cartilage was 2-fold higher in canine cartilage and PG synthesis even 8-fold. However, the relative decrease in PG content between healthy and OA cartilage was similar for humans and canines (-17% vs. -15%, respectively, as was the histological damage (+7.0 vs. +6.1, respectively and the increase of PG synthesis (+100% vs. +70%, respectively. Remarkably, the percentage release of total and of newly formed PGs in human and canine controls was similar, as was the increase due to degeneration (+65% vs. +81% and +91% vs. +52%, respectively. Despite differences in control conditions, the observed changes in characteristics of cartilage integrity and matrix turnover are similar in a canine model of joint degeneration and human clinical OA. The canine Groove model shows that its characteristics reflect those of human OA which makes the model appropriate for studying human OA.

  8. 肝前型门静脉高压症动物(犬)模型制作体会%Experiences in making canine models of pre-hepatic portal hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵莉; 李振东; 于增文; 孙静生; 仲智勇

    2001-01-01

    Objective To insure the reliability of animal models ofpre-hepatic portal hypertension.Methods The size of spleen, diameter and pressure of portal vein of 29 canine models were measured. A partial ligation of portal vein was performed narrowing at 95% of its original cross section, or making the portal vein pressure more than three times to its original pressure and the gastrointestinal venous stasis could not be seen. The features of gastrointestinal venous stasis and collateral circulation were observed during reoperation on the 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th and 16th weeks postoperatively.Results Four dogs died from abdominal infection, anesthesia and acute enteric necrosis respectively. The higher pressure of portal vein, retroperitoneal edema, hypertrophy of the intestinal wall were noted. Following the formation of collaterals between portal and systemic circulation , the portal vein pressure decreased gradually from 2nd to 8th weeks. From 12th to 16th weeks postoperatively, the portal vein pressure was stabilized but still higher than that of the normal, retropertioneal edema disappeared and collateral vessels could be clearly seen. The pressure of portal vein in the 12th, 16th weeks was lower than that in 2nd, 4th weeks (P0.05。结论 采用部分结扎门静脉的方法制作肝前型门脉高压症动物模型,缩窄门脉后12~16周为成功;更接近其临床表现,有一定的侧支循环的门脉高压症,此时做肝前型门脉高压症的实验数据最可靠。

  9. Three-dimensional canine loop for management of buccally erupted canines

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    Praveen Mehrotra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary canines are known as the cornerstones of mouth. They are considered to be important for esthetics and for functional occlusion. Any disturbance in the eruption process leading to an aberrant position will hamper esthetics as well as function. Orthodontic tooth movement of total buccally blocked-out canine is usually difficult as it is related with the problems of severe crowding, midline deviation, involvement of long root movement and risk of gingival recession. Such conditions can be treated orthodontically in various ways, but this clinical innovation helps to correct the buccally placed canines into the arch with a precise control of the canine in all the Three-dimensions (3D of space as well as providing maximum comfort to the patient by placing the canine loop on the palatal surface of the tooth, reducing soreness on the labial mucosa. It can be easily fabricated and activated at chairside for either simultaneous or sequential control in 3D.

  10. Characterization and Comparison of Cancer Stem Cells in Human and Canine Glioma Cell Lines

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    Thomas Clements

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are among the most common and malignantforms of primary brain tumors that occur naturally inhumans. They represent about 33% of brain tumorsand 80% of malignant brain tumors. Gliomas alsospontaneously arise in specific breeds in the canine family.Canine gliomas are histologically similar to human gliomaand have similar presentation and response to treatmentin the clinic. A comparison of canine and human gliomascould prove to be invaluable, because the acceptedrodent model has limitations when testing therapies andidentifying targets. Our goal is to obtain global proteinexpression and metabolic profiles of different classificationand grades of human and canine glioma, in order toidentify and compare the tumor survival strategies in bothsystems. Toward this end, we harvested and cultured cellsfrom a naturally occurring grade-3 oligodendrogliomatumor that was isolated from a canine patient at the PurdueUniversity Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Similar to cellsfrom human glioma, these cells formed neurosphereswhen cultured in serum free media in the presence of FGFand EGF. The cells were also sensitive to plating densityand oxygen concentrations.This work was supported by the National Institutes ofHealth, National Cancer Institute R25CA128770 CancerPrevention Internship Program administered by theOncological Sciences Center and the Discovery LearningResearch Center at Purdue University. This work wasalso supported by Showalter Research Foundation and aCollege of Technology Seed Grant.

  11. The Role of c-KIT in Tumorigenesis: Evaluation in Canine Cutaneous Mast Cell Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Webster

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The c-KIT proto-oncogene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neoplastic diseases, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis in humans, and mast cell tumors (MCTs in canines. Cutaneous MCTs are common neoplasms in dogs and have a variable biologic behavior. The goal of this study was to define the prognostic significance of c-KIT mutations identified in canine MCTs and the associations between c-KIT mutations, KIT localization, and KIT expression levels. Microdissection and polymerase chain reaction were performed on 60 MCTs to identify c-KIT mutations. Anti-KIT antibodies were used for immunohistochemical evaluation of KIT localization. Forty-two MCTs were included in a tissue microarray, and KIT expression was quantified using immunofluorescence. Canine MCTs with c-KIT mutations were significantly associated with an increased incidence of recurrent disease and death. c-KIT mutations were also significantly associated with aberrant protein localization; however, the level of KIT expression did not correlate with either c-KIT mutations or changes in protein localization. Considering the high prevalence of canine MCTs and the central role of c-KIT in the tumorigenesis of certain tumors, canine MCTs are an excellent model for characterizing the role of c-KIT in neoplastic diseases and is a potential target for novel therapeutic agents in clinical trials.

  12. Geographical Information Systems and canine faecal contamination: the experience in the city of Naples (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziano, V; Rinaldi, L; Carbone, S; Biggeri, A; Cringoli, G

    2006-06-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can be used to make transect sampling when non-moving objects are to be counted, involving choosing a line or series of lines along which the counts are to take place. This approach has been used by us in order to study canine faecal contamination in the city of Naples (southern Italy), and to evaluate the consequent presence of canine parasitic elements. A GIS was constructed utilizing the geo-referenced digital photographs and the cadastral maps of Naples. In order to uniformly evaluate the canine faecal contamination throughout the city, a grid representing sub-areas of 1 km x 700 m was overlaid on the city map within the GIS. The territory of Naples was divided in 218 equal, rectangular sub-areas. In each sub-area a 1 km transect was drawn, and digitalized on-screen in the GIS. Canine faeces (copros in Greek) were counted along the transects in 143 sub-areas. In these sub-areas, 415 copros were collected and examined. Out of the 143 sub-areas, 141 contained canine copros. The results of the negative binomial regression model showed a positive association between the number of copros and the human population density. Out of the total of 415 copros, 70 (16.9%) were positive for parasitic elements; eggs of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum and Trichuris vulpis were found, as well as oocysts of Isospora canis. PMID:16881413

  13. Antiepiligrin cicatricial pemphigoid of the larynx successfully treated with a combination of tetracycline and niacinamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kikuo; Mori, Kazunori; Hashimoto, Takashi; Yancey, Kim B; Nakashima, Tadashi

    2002-12-01

    A case of antiepiligrin cicatricial pemphigoid that primarily involved the larynx and required a tracheostomy was studied. The diagnosis was based on the direct immunofluorescence findings of a biopsy specimen from the glottis, immunofluorescence using normal and 1M sodium chloride-split normal human skin as substrates, and immunoprecipitation. A dramatic clinical improvement was observed after the combined administration of tetracycline hydrochloride and niacinamide. The tracheal stoma could be shut after the narrow segment was cut by means of carbon dioxide laser therapy. The patient showed no respiratory difficulty during the 2-year follow-up period. The combined therapy of tetracycline and niacinamide is thus considered to be an effective treatment for various types of cicatricial pemphigoid.

  14. Endotracheal tube fires during carbon dioxide laser surgery on the larynx--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C H; Tan, P H; Chen, J J; Peng, C H; Lee, C C; Chung, H C; Tseng, C K

    2001-03-01

    Endotracheal tube (ETT) fire is a catastrophic disaster that may occur during laser surgery of the upper airway. Several means are available for protection of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tube from fire, but they are not perfect in prevention of fires caused by laser beam. The PVC tube is hazardous for carbon dioxide (CO2) laser surgery if it is not well wrapped with metallized foil tape. We report a case that a PVC ETT wrapped with aluminum foil ignited during CO2 laser surgery of the larynx. In this report, we emphasize the shaft of the PVC tube must be completely wrapped with aluminum foil to prevent exposure of any surface if it is used in CO2 laser surgery of the upper aero digestive tract. PMID:11407297

  15. Acute effects of radioiodine therapy on the voice and larynx of basedow-Graves patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves's disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. There are three current therapeutic options: anti-thyroid medication, surgery, and radioactive iodine (I 131). There are few data in the literature regarding the effects of radioiodine therapy on the larynx and voice. The aim of this study was: to assess the effect of radioiodine therapy on the voice of Basedow-Graves patients. Material and method: A prospective study was done. Following the diagnosis of Grave's disease, patients underwent investigation of their voice, measurement of maximum phonatory time (/a/) and the s/z ratio, fundamental frequency analysis (Praat software), laryngoscopy and (perceptive-auditory) analysis in three different conditions: pre-treatment, 4 days, and 20 days post-radioiodine therapy. Conditions are based on the inflammatory pattern of thyroid tissue (Jones et al. 1999). Results: No statistically significant differences were found in voice characteristics in these three conditions. Conclusion: Radioiodine therapy does not affect voice quality. (author)

  16. Proposed computerized protocol for epidemiological study of patients undergoing microsurgery of the larynx

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    Catani, Guilherme Simas do Amaral

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The merging of medicine with information technology facilitates the retrieval of stored data, aiding the conduct of research with greater scientific rigor. Studies in the field of otorhinolaryngology, specifically in the area of laryngology and voice, are of fundamental importance, since 70% of the economically active need their voice to work. Objective: To create a computerized protocol of the diseases of the larynx, apply and validate it, and use it to evaluate patients undergoing laryngoscopic microsurgery of the larynx. Method: We created a database of ENT diseases through a literature review of textbooks and scientific articles. Next, we computerized the data and incorporated it into the SINPE©, creating a master protocol (ENT diseases and a specific protocol (laryngeal diseases. Data were collected prospectively from patients undergoing laryngeal microsurgery in the ENT Hospital of Paraná. The collected data were analyzed with graphs through the SINPE© Analyzer module. Results: We evaluated 245 patients aged 9-79 years, and determined that 36.61% (93 patients underwent surgery for the presence of polyps on the vocal folds, 12.6% (32 underwent surgery for papillomatosis, and 11.83% (29 underwent surgery for intracordal cysts. Conclusions: The creation of an electronic database of clinical ENT diseases was feasible. We were also able to implement and validate the protocol. The database may be released to physicians involved in clinical data collection and retrieval of information to conduct scientific research in an organized manner. The most common laryngeal disorders identified were polyps, papilloma, and intracordal cysts.

  17. The pars interna/media anatomy and histology in the human larynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpied, George L

    2007-01-01

    The pars interna/media (PIM) is a small muscle found in the human larynx that has not been successfully described in contemporary literature on laryngeal structure. The objective of this study was to describe the PIM's anatomy in detail. Thirteen human larynges obtained from postmortem examination were cleaned and preserved. Exposure of the PIM was through a lateral disarticulation of the cricothyroid joint and reflection of the cricothyroid muscle and the thyroid lamina. In the human, the PIM was found to be strap-like in form and to have two bellies with attachments to the medial surface of the thyroid cartilage at the root of the inferior horn and anteriosuperior cricoid arch. It appears to be innervated by a middle division, vestibular branch, of the internal superior laryngeal nerve. The average fiber diameter is 40 mum. Its type 1-to-type 2 fiber ratio places it within the range of other intrinsic laryngeal muscles. A muscle spindle was identified in medial bundle at the PIM's thyroid attachment. Thyroid medial surface attachment is within few millimeters of the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage. These data show that the PIM is a robust muscle and deserves attention anatomically. Its orientation within the thyroid and nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve innervations of the human PIM may place it in the vocal fold tensor group rather than the laryngeal sphincter group. It is possible the PIM reports on cricothyroid distance and right versus left cricothyroid joint stresses. Electromyographic examination of the PIM in the Rhesus larynx may help elucidate its physiology to elaborate its human physiology.

  18. Possibilities and limits of radiotherapy in larynx carcinoma. Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen der Radiotherapie des Larynxkarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fietkau, R.; Sauer, R. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Strahlentherapeutische Klinik und Poliklinik)

    1992-01-01

    Early stage glottic carcinoma can be treated with primary radiotherapy reaching equally good results compared to primary surgery; for supraglottic carcinoma surgery offers only slight advantages over primary radiotherapy. Tumor control for recurrences is considerably improved by salvage surgery. The use of primary radiotherapy allows improved or at least preserved voice and reduced rated of acute complications and late treatment sequelae. However, treatment duration is longer and probably more expensive compared to function preservation microlaryngoscopic surgery. Which treatment approach is chosen, depends in individual patient factors and specific conditions in the clinical setting. In any case, primary radiotherapy deserves a stronger say in the early stage tumor situation. In our institution early stage supraglottic carcinoma undergo primary surgery. Advanced carcinomas (T2b and more) are rarely suited for primary radiotherapy with the exception of some very confined T3 tumors. Surgical approaches should be favoured, since they provide a detailed pathological tumor staging including R-classification, which would be lacking using primary radiotherapy. There are clear reasons to treat the lymph nodes for glottic carcinomas stage T2b and more and for all supraglottic carcinomas with radiotherapy. Specific risk factors are: tumor at the margins of the incision (R1), infiltration of the cartilage and pre-epiglottic space, paratracheal and subglottic extension more than 1 cm, perineural invasion, grade III and IV as well as emergency tracheostomy. Postoperative radiotherapy should be given to the lymph nodes for all positive neck-dissections. New therapeutic approaches are on the horizon, which may improve thee results of radiotherapy even for advanced larynx carcinomas, like hyperfractionation radiotherapy and simultaneous radio-chemotherapy combined enoral resection and postoperative radiotherapy may yield larynx preservation even for advanced stages. (orig./MG).

  19. Canine distemper virus detection in asymptomatic and non vaccinated dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Del Puerto, Helen L; Vasconcelos, Anilton C.; Luciana Moro; Fabiana Alves; Braz, Gissandra F; Almir S. Martins

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed canine distemper virus presence in peripheral blood samples from asymptomatic and non vaccinated dogs. Samples from eleven domestic dogs with no signs of canine distemper and not vaccinated at the month of collection were used. Canine distemper virus vaccine samples in VERO cells were used as positive controls. RNA was isolated with Trizol®, and treated with a TURBO DNA-free kit. Primers were designed for canine distemper virus...

  20. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper...

  1. Canine hypothyroidism. A diagnostic challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrinopathies in dogs. Clinical symptoms and hematological and biochemical parameters lead to a first suspicion. To confirm diagnosis can be challenging, however. Determination of total serum T4 concentration is accepted as the primary screening test for the disease, and low serum T4 concentrations are intuitively suggestive of hypothyroidism. However it is well known that low T4 concentrations are frequently encountered in euthyroid dogs with various nonthyroidal diseases and in dogs receiving certain pharmacologic agents. Since assessment of endogenous TSH (canine TSH) using current canine TSH assays shows normal values in a high percentage of hypothyroid dogs (up to 40%), its diagnostic value is only limited. The TSH-stimulation test can still be recognized as the gold standard for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in dogs. Determination of circulating T4 concentration before and 6 hours after the administration of exogenous TSH (recombinant human TSH, Thyrogen registered) provides an assessment of the functional reserve capacity of the thyroid gland with minimal change in post-TSH T4 concentration, compared with the basal concentration, expected in dogs with hypothyroidism. Also this test can be influenced by nonthyroidal illness and by medications known to affect thyroid function. This suppressing influence seems to be less pronounced using a higher dose of TSH. Therefore, to improve the discriminatory power of the TSH stimulation test to differentiate between euthyroid-sick and primary hypothyroidism, the higher dose should be used in cases in which testing cannot be delayed. More recently, ultrasonography and scintigraphy have been used for the diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. Using ultrasonography, a sensitivity of 98% was reported if size and echogenicity of the gland were combined. However, specificity was as low as 77%. and care must be taken when measuring the gland because of a relatively high interobserver

  2. Establishment of sinoatrial node damage model in canine induced by formaldehyde wet dressing of sinoatrial node aera%窦房结区甲醛湿敷法建立犬窦房结损伤模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志辉; 程军; 宋治远

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility and reliability to build a sinoatrial node damage model in canine induced by formaldehyde wet dressing. Methods Twenty dogs were randomly divided into 4 groups (5 in each group) by means of random number table: 2-hour, 24-hour, 1-week and 4-week groups after wet dressing. The sinoatrial node area of canine was damaged by wet dressing with 20% formaldehyde. Sinus node function was measured before, 2 h after wet dressing and corresponding times of each group. Electrocardiogram (ECG)of body surface were recorded synchronically. Results Average wet dressing time was 6.2±2.6 (3 to 12) rain. Five dogs showed significantly decrease of heart rate (HR) (140±11 vs 89±6 beat/min, P < 0.01)after wet dressing without arrhythmia. Sinus arrhythmia, sinus arrest and premature atrial contraction appeared after wet dressing in 4 dogs, but regular sinus rhythm was observed quickly. In 11 dogs, P waves disappeared after wet dressing and their ECG displayed junctional rhythm. Among of them, 4 dogs had sinus arrhythmia 24 h later with a significantly slower HR in comparison to those before wet dressing. HR of each group was sig-nificantly decreased than that of before wet dressing (P <0.01), while sinus node recovery time (SNRT) and corrected sinus node recovery time (CSNRT) were increased significantly. Conclusion Formaldehyde wet dressing can be used to establish sinoatrial node damage model in canine. This method is convenient and relia-ble relatively, and the change of electrophysiology resemble sick sinus syndrome.%目的 探讨甲醛湿敷法建立犬窦房结损伤模犁的可行性和电生理特征变化.方法 20只实验犬按随机数字表法随机分为湿敷后2 h、4 h、1周及4周组(n=5).用20%甲醛湿敷窦房结区建立窦房结损伤模型.各组于湿敷前、湿敷后各自相对应时间点行电生理功能检测,同步记录体表心电图(electrocardiogram,ECG).结果 20只实验犬甲醛湿敷时间为3~12(6.2±2

  3. Transmigration of mandibular canine – case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmigration is a phenomenon of movement of an unerupted tooth in the bone across the midline. This anomaly is not often found. Transmigration is more prevalent in females than in males, and more often encountered in the mandible than maxilla, it affects mostly canines. The aim of this study was to present a case report of a mandibular canine transmigration in a patient aged 12. Intraoral examination determined hypodontia of right second premolar and delayed eruption of left second premolar in maxilla, as well as persistent deciduous teeth: right second molar, left canine and second molar. The patient was referred for a Cone-Beam CT examination, which allowed precise visualization of the transmigrating canine as well as ruled out resorption of roots of mandibular incisors. The treatment with a maxillary fixed orthodontic appliance was finished after obtaining a satisfactory result. Proper alignment of the incisors in the anterior-posterior plane and correct midline position were accepted by the patient. Transmigrating canine after consultation with the surgeon was designed to further radiological observation

  4. Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.; Brinkhof, B.; Rothuizen, J.; Dekker, A.; Penning, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. Findings The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263 i

  5. Oncolytic Virotherapy of Canine and Feline Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Gentschev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in companion animals such as dogs and cats. Despite recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not been substantially improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic viruses is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells, without causing excessive damage to surrounding healthy tissue, and initiate tumor-specific immunity. The current review describes the use of different oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy and their application to canine and feline cancer.

  6. Tooth fractures in canine clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooth fractures constitute a considerable fraction of all tooth diseases. Out of the 5,370 dogs treated during four years, 492 were presented with dental problems and 28.3 % of the latter were treated for tooth fractures. Canines were the most frequently affected teeth (38.8 %), followed by premolars (33.1 %), incisors (25.9 %), and molars (2.2 %), 55.4 % of the patients with canine and incisor fractures being large breed dogs. Fractures of premolars (mostly of 108, 208) were divided evenly irrespective of breed or body size. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment yielded good therapeutic results in most cases, but repeated treatment was necessary in some patients

  7. A Study of Transmigrated Canine in an Indian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Nagpal, Archna

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of transmigrated canines in a north Indian population and association with gender, side, associated pathologies, and dental anomalies. Subjects and methods. The prospective study consisted of panoramic radiographs of 3000 patients from two dental colleges in north India. The panoramic radiographs were screened for radiographically identified position of the transmigrated tooth, retained canine, and other coexisting dental anomalies. Results. The overall prevalence of transmigrated canines (15 mandibular and 5 maxillary) was 0.66%. The prevalence of mandibular transmigrated canine was 0.5% and maxillary transmigrated canine was 0.16%. All the transmigrated canines were unilateral. The age range was 15–53 years (average age 24.1 years) and there were 12 males (60%) and 8 females (40%). Type 1 mandibular canine transmigration was the commonest type found in our study (10 cases), followed by types 2 and 4 (2 cases each) and 1 case of type 5 transmigration. Conclusion. The prevalence of transmigrated canines in the north Indian population was 0.66% and no gender predilection was evident. The transmigrated canines have a low complication rate (10.0%) and no correlation with other dental anomalies was found. Type 3 canine is the rarest form of mandibular canine transmigration. PMID:27433532

  8. Combination of fluorescence imaging and local spectrophotometry in fluorescence diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of comparative studies of autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX, used in the diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi, are presented. The autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence images of larynx and bronchial tissues are analysed during the endoscopic study. The method of local spectrophotometry is used to verify findings obtained from fluorescence images. It is shown that such a combined approach can be efficiently used to improve the diagnostics of precancer and early cancer, to detect a primary multiple tumours, as well as for the diagnostics of a residual tumour or an early recurrence after the endoscopic, surgery or X-ray treatment. The developed approach allows one to minimise the number of false-positive results and to reduce the number of biopsies, which are commonly used in the white-light bronchoscopy search for occult cancerous loci. (laser biology and medicine)

  9. Pleomorphic Rhabdomyosarcoma Arising from True Vocal Fold of Larynx: Report of a Rare Case and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçüktülü, Eda; Ersöz, Şafak; Çobanoğlu, Bengü

    2016-01-01

    We present an extremely rare case of a pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma of the true vocal fold. The histopathological diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The patient was treated with radical surgery including total laryngectomy and radical neck dissection followed by postoperative radiotherapy. The clinicopathologic features of this rare malignancy are discussed together with a review of the literature. This case report and literature review highlights the more favorable prognosis of pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma in the larynx than in other locations. PMID:27699075

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ACUTE AND CHRONIC LARYNGITIS DEPENDING ON RESULTS OF BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF LARYNX MICROFLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Chuikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes study of larynx microflora in patients with acute laryngtis and exacerbations of chronic laryngitis. Therapeutic algorithm based on bacteriologic examination data was developed reduce. New algorithm helps reduce sickness terms and to decrease prevalence of desease.123 patients of age from 18 to 60 were under observation: 43 patients with acute laryngitis and 80 patients with exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. 22 patients with acute laryngitis and 58 patients with exacerbation of chronic laryngitis underwent etiotropic treatment with antibiotics. The group of comparison with acute laryngitis (21 patients and chronic laryngitis (22 patients received treatment according to the conventional scheme.Bacteriologic examination of larynx mucous, clinical study and functional voice test (time of maximum vowels phonation before and after treatment were carried out.As a result of the research it was established that the most common causative agent of acute and chronic inflammatory larynx diseases is S. aureus as a mono culture or combined with other bacterial associations (S. аnhemolyticus, Str. viridans etc..After the end of antibacterial therapy we found symptoms as hoarseness, irritation, dry laryngopharynx, hyperemia and swelling of larynx mucous reduced eather in new treatment group than controlled group. Time of maximum vowels phonation (in seconds also increased significantly.Sickness terms after prescription of new treatment was shorter than in comparison groups: (10.9 ± 7.9 days for acute laryngitis and (12.6 ± 7.3 days for chronic laryngitis respectively. Health index was 20.8 and 19.5% respectively.

  11. CHARACTERISTICS OF TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ACUTE AND CHRONIC LARYNGITIS DEPENDING ON RESULTS OF BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF LARYNX MICROFLORA

    OpenAIRE

    K. I. Chuikova; T. N. Zaripova; V. I. Mukhina

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes study of larynx microflora in patients with acute laryngtis and exacerbations of chronic laryngitis. Therapeutic algorithm based on bacteriologic examination data was developed reduce. New algorithm helps reduce sickness terms and to decrease prevalence of desease.123 patients of age from 18 to 60 were under observation: 43 patients with acute laryngitis and 80 patients with exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. 22 patients with acute laryngitis and 58 patients with exacerb...

  12. Poor prognostic clinicopathologic features correlate with VEGF expression but not with PTEN expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagoz Filiz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted in chromosome ten (PTEN, angiogenesis and clinicopathological parameters of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. Methods We examined immunohistochemical expression of VEGF and PTEN and CD34 for microvessel density (MVD in sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue blocks of 140 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. The intensity of VEGF and PTEN staining and the proportion of cells staining were scored. Results The tumor grade was not significantly related to PTEN expression, but it was to VEGF expression (p = 0.400; p = 0.015, respectively. While there was no significant relationship between PTEN expression and tumor size and cartilage invasion (p = 0.311, p = 0.128, there was a significant relationship between the severity of VEGF expression and tumor size (p = 0.006 and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.048 but not cartilage invasion (p = 0.129. MVD was significantly higher in high-grade tumors (p = 0.003 but had no significant relationship between MVD, lymph node metastasis, and cartilage invasion (p = 0.815, p = 0.204. There was also no significant relationship between PTEN and VEGF expression (p = 0.161 and between PTEN and VEGF expression and the MVD (p = 0.120 and p = 0.175, respectively. Conclusions Increased VEGF expression may play an important role in the outcome of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. PTEN expression was not related to VEGF expression and clinicopathological features of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx.

  13. Diagnosis, classification and grading of canine mammary tumours as a model to study human breast cancer: an Clinico-Cytohistopathological study with environmental factors influencing public health and medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiee, Radmehr; Javanbakht, Javad; Atyabi, Nahid; Kheradmand, Pegah; Kheradmand, Danial; Bahrami, Alimohammad; Daraei, Hasti; Khadivar, Farshid

    2013-01-01

    Background The human “Elston and Ellis grading method” was utilized in dogs with mammary tumor to examine its relation to prognosis in this species, based on a 2-year follow-up period. Although cytopathology is widely used for early diagnosis of human neoplasms, it is not commonly performed in veterinary medicine. Our objectives in this study were to identify cytopathology criteria of malignancy for canine mammary tumors and the frequency of different types of mammary lesions and their relati...

  14. Larval migration in PERL chambers as an in vitro model for percutaneous infection stimulates feeding in the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum

    OpenAIRE

    Welz Claudia; Epe Christian; Strube Christina; Franke Daniela; Schnieder Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Ancylostoma caninum third-stage larvae are the non-feeding infective stage of this parasite and are able to infect potential hosts via different infection routes. Since percutaneous infection is one of the most important routes and skin penetration is the first step into parasitic life, an existing in vitro model for percutaneous migration was modified and evaluated. The main parameter used to evaluate migration was the migration ratio (migrated larvae as a percentage of t...

  15. Cell tracking and therapy evaluation of bone marrow monocytes and stromal cells using SPECT and CMR in a canine model of myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merrifield Peter

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical application of stem cell therapy for myocardial infarction will require the development of methods to monitor treatment and pre-clinical assessment in a large animal model, to determine its effectiveness and the optimum cell population, route of delivery, timing, and flow milieu. Objectives To establish a model for a in vivo tracking to monitor cell engraftment after autologous transplantation and b concurrent measurement of infarct evolution and remodeling. Methods We evaluated 22 dogs (8 sham controls, 7 treated with autologous bone marrow monocytes, and 7 with stromal cells using both imaging of 111Indium-tropolone labeled cells and late gadolinium enhancement CMR for up to12 weeks after a 3 hour coronary occlusion. Hearts were also examined using immunohistochemistry for capillary density and presence of PKH26 labeled cells. Results In vivo Indium imaging demonstrated an effective biological clearance half-life from the injection site of ~5 days. CMR demonstrated a pattern of progressive infarct shrinkage over 12 weeks, ranging from 67–88% of baseline values with monocytes producing a significant treatment effect. Relative infarct shrinkage was similar through to 6 weeks in all groups, following which the treatment effect was manifest. There was a trend towards an increase in capillary density with cell treatment. Conclusion This multi-modality approach will allow determination of the success and persistence of engraftment, and a correlation of this with infarct size shrinkage, regional function, and left ventricular remodeling. There were overall no major treatment effects with this particular model of transplantation immediately post-infarct.

  16. Larval migration in PERL chambers as an in vitro model for percutaneous infection stimulates feeding in the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welz Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ancylostoma caninum third-stage larvae are the non-feeding infective stage of this parasite and are able to infect potential hosts via different infection routes. Since percutaneous infection is one of the most important routes and skin penetration is the first step into parasitic life, an existing in vitro model for percutaneous migration was modified and evaluated. The main parameter used to evaluate migration was the migration ratio (migrated larvae as a percentage of total number of larvae recovered. Additionally, the skin lag was calculated, expressing the percentage of larvae remaining in the skin and therefore not being recovered. Since initiation of feeding is proposed to be an important step in the transition from free-living to parasitic A. caninum larvae, feeding assays were performed with in vitro percutaneously migrated larvae. Additionally, infective larvae of A. caninum were activated via serum-stimulation and feeding behaviour was analysed and compared between percutaneously migrated and serum-stimulated larvae. Results Maximum skin migration levels of infective larvae were observed at temperatures above 32°C when larvae were placed on the epidermal side of skin for more than 12 hours. The medium beneath the skin had no effect on migration ratio, and no significant difference between the migration ratios through fresh and frozen/thawed skin was observed. Maximum feeding levels of 93.2% were observed for percutaneously migrated larvae after 48 h incubation, whereas serum-stimulated larvae reached the maximum of 91.0% feeding larvae after 24 h. Conclusions The PERL chamber system was optimised and standardised as an in vitro model for percutaneous migration. The larvae recovered after percutaneous migration showed characteristic signs of activation similar to that of serum-stimulated larvae. The observed difference in time course of resumption of feeding indicates that percutaneously migrated larvae are not

  17. Canine Model of Choledochopancreatic Junction Anomaly%异常胰胆管连接动物模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕维富; 许萍; 巫北海; 段恒春; 余昌中; 董家鸿; 张建超

    1995-01-01

    为制作异常胰胆管连接(APBDU)最佳动物模型,笔者用23只犬分两组分别行胆总管→背胰管(13只)和背胰管→胆总管(10只)端侧吻合术.术前,术后5,10,15,30,50,80,120天和处死时(90~270天)动态检测血清淀粉酶、磷脂酶A2活性和甘胆酸含量,结合胰胆管测压、造影和病理切片等的观察表明:①本模型的胰胆管连接形态十分接近人类APBDU的解剖特点.②术后各犬无永久性吻合口狭窄且能保证持续性胆汁和胰液混流.⑧能诱发人类APBDU所合并的多种胰胆系病变.结论:本模型为符合人类APBDU的解剖和病理生理特点,能反映其病理演变规律的最佳模型.%In order to inquire into the best animal model of choledochopancreatic junction anomaly (CPJA), an end to side anastomosis of common bile duct to dorsal pancrea tic duct was performed in 13 dogs and the same anasomo. sis vise versa in 10 dogs. After operation, the phospholipase A_2 activity, amylase activity and level of conjugated glycine bile acid in serum were measured on the 5th, 10th, 15th, 30th, 50th, 80th and 120th day respectively , and cholangiopancreatography, manometry and pathological examination of biliary and pancreatic ducts were performed on 90th to 270th day. the results showed that: 1. this model was similar to human CPJA on anatomy; 2. there was no permanent narrowing at the anastomsis; 3. a free reflux of bile and pancreatic juice was permitted; 4. this model could induce many kinds of pancreatobiliary diseases associated with CPJA including cholecystitis, cholangitis, choledochol dilatation, pancreatitis and so on. This animal model is quite similar to the human CPJA in anatomy and physiology as well as in the pathologic pattern.

  18. Toll-like receptors 4 and 9 are responsible for the maintenance of the inflammatory reaction in canine steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis, a large animal model for neutrophilic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiolini Arianna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis (SRMA is a systemic inflammatory disease affecting young adult dogs and a potential large animal model for neutrophilic meningitis. Similarities between SRMA and infectious central nervous system (CNS diseases in lymphocyte subsets suggest an infectious origin. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are pattern recognition receptors playing an important role in innate immunity. Due to their ability to recognize both self and non-self antigens, we hypothesize that TLRs are among the key factors for the induction of the inflammatory process in SRMA and provide an indirect hint on the etiology of the disease. Methods The expression profile of cell surface TLRs (TLR2, TLR4 and TLR5 and intracellular TLRs (TLR3 and TLR9 of canine leukocytes was analyzed by immunophenotyping and subsequent flow cytometric measurements. Experiments were performed on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and peripheral blood (PB samples of dogs affected with SRMA during the acute phase (n = 14 as well as during treatment (n = 23 and compared with those of dogs with bacterial meningitis (n = 3, meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology (n = 6, neoplasia of the central nervous system (n = 6 and a group of dogs with miscellaneous neurological diseases (n = 9. Two additional control groups consisted of dogs with pyogenic infections (n = 13 and of healthy dogs (n = 6. Results All examined groups showed a high percentage of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR5 positive PB polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs in comparison to healthy dogs. Very high values of TLR9 positive PB PMNs were detected in acute SRMA. Only a few similarities were found between SRMA patients and dogs with pyogenic infections, both groups were characterized by high expression of TLR4 positive PB monocytes. Glucocorticosteroid therapy reduced TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 expression in PB monocytes. Conclusions A relatively high expression of TLR4 and TLR9 in acute SRMA

  19. 犬动脉瘤动物模型的血流动力学分析%Haemodynamic analysis in canine aneurysm model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩; 马勃; 李志强; 王启弘

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore a way to establish a stable, ideal and handy intracranial aneurysm model for related studies. Methods Modified microsurgery technology was applied to establish sidewall, bifurcation, terminal and merged types of aneurysm (n=7 in each type). Two weeks after operation, color Doppler ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (IADSA) were performed and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used for simulation analysis of aneurysm models. Biomechanical properties of aneurysm wall tissues was analyzed by cell culture, then the above examinations were performed again after the aneurysm was embolized by micro coil (MC). Results All models were successfully established, and the MC embolization of aneurysm cavity achieved good efficacy. Vascular endothelial cells (VECs) proliferate well in vitro, and the VECs adhered to the sur⁃face of biodegradable polymeric materials successfully and grow into VEC layer structure. Hemodynamics analysis was per⁃formed in aneurysms model before and after embolization and relevant hemodynamic parameters was obtained. , Blood flow velocity are 2-7 cm/s in aneurysm and 8-26 cm/s in its parental artery. Conclusion A stable, ideal and handy intracranial aneurysm model was established and are essential in aneurysm related research.%目的:探讨建立稳定、理想、快捷的颅内动脉瘤模型的方法,为动脉瘤的相关研究提供可靠的动脉瘤模型。方法在改良的外科显微技术条件下制作侧壁型、分叉部、末端型和真性合并假性囊状动脉瘤,每种类型各7只。术后2周行彩色多普勒超声仪、磁共振成像(MRI)、磁共振血管成像(MRA)、数字减影动脉血管造影(IADSA)检查,进行动脉瘤模型的计算机流体力学(CFD)模拟分析。采用体外细胞培养的方法,对动脉瘤壁的组织生物力学特性进行分析,以微弹簧

  20. Differential genetic regulation of canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengkui Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canine hip dysplasia (HD is a common polygenic trait characterized by hip malformation that results in osteoarthritis (OA. The condition in dogs is very similar to developmental dysplasia of the human hip which also leads to OA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 721 dogs, including both an association and linkage population, were genotyped. The association population included 8 pure breeds (Labrador retriever, Greyhounds, German Shepherd, Newfoundland, Golden retriever, Rottweiler, Border Collie and Bernese Mountain Dog. The linkage population included Labrador retrievers, Greyhounds, and their crosses. Of these, 366 dogs were genotyped at ∼22,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP loci and a targeted screen across 8 chromosomes with ∼3,300 SNPs was performed on 551 dogs (196 dogs were common to both sets. A mixed linear model approach was used to perform an association study on this combined association and linkage population. The study identified 4 susceptibility SNPs associated with HD and 2 SNPs associated with hip OA. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The identified SNPs included those near known genes (PTPRD, PARD3B, and COL15A1 reported to be associated with, or expressed in, OA in humans. This suggested that the canine model could provide a unique opportunity to identify genes underlying natural HD and hip OA, which are common and debilitating conditions in both dogs and humans.

  1. Seroprevalence of Canine Distemper Virus in Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Kazuya; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Chen, Ming-Chu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Lin, James A; Mikami, Takeshi; Kai, Chieko; TAKAHASHI, Eiji

    2001-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in Asian felids revealed that the prevalence of antibodies varied depending on region and, in some cases, exposure to dogs. The serologic pattern in cats with antibodies indicated that they had likely been exposed to field strains rather than typical CDV vaccine strains.

  2. Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  3. Overexpression of vimentin in canine prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, M M P; Rema, A; Gärtner, F;

    2011-01-01

    is associated with the invasive phenotype of human prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to characterize immunohistochemically the expression of vimentin by canine prostatic carcinomas. Primary carcinomas and metastatic tumour foci both showed vimentin expression. This finding suggests...

  4. Canine specific ELISA for coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tom; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Tranholm, Mikael;

    2011-01-01

    available to date. In this study, a canine specific ELISA for measurement of FVII:Ag in plasma was developed and validated. The FVII:Ag ELISA correctly diagnosed homozygous and heterozygous hereditary FVII deficiency. Together with activity based assays, such as FVII:C, the FVII:Ag ELISA should be valuable...

  5. Canine notoedric mange: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Federico

    2007-04-01

    Notoedric mange is a cutaneous ectoparasitic disease of cats caused by Notoedres cati, a mite belonging to the Sarcoptidae family. The disease occurs in felids, occasionally in other mammals and in humans. The canine form, even if cited by some authors, has never been documented. This report describes for the first time a case of notoedric mange in a dog.

  6. Development of a model based scoring system for diagnosis of canine disseminated intravascular coagulation with independent assessment of sensitivity and specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiinberg, Bo; Jensen, Asger Lundorff; Johansson, Per Ingemar;

    2010-01-01

    A template for a scoring system for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in humans has been proposed by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH). The objective of this study was to develop and validate a similar objective scoring system based on generally available...... coagulation tests for the diagnosis of DIC in dogs. To develop the scoring system, 100 dogs consecutively admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with diseases predisposing for DIC were enrolled prospectively (group A). The validation involved 50 dogs consecutively diagnosed with diseases predisposing...... for DIC, admitted to a different ICU (group B). Citrated blood samples were collected daily during hospitalisation and diagnosis of DIC was based on the expert evaluation of an extended coagulation panel. A multiple logistic regression model was developed in group A for DIC diagnosis. The integrity...

  7. Surgical construction of a novel simulated carotid siphon in canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To develop in vivo carotid siphon models by surgical method using the shaped devices for testing the performance of covered stent specially designed for intracranial vascular diseases. Methods: Six carotid siphon-shaped devices were established using stereolithographic biomodeling and the lost-wax technique. Six canines underwent surgery to expose and isolate bilateral CCA. The right CCA origin was ligated and incised distal to the ligation point after the distal right CCA was temporarily closed. The distal left CCA was ligated and incised proximal to the ligation point after the left CCA origin was closed. The proximal isolated left CCA was passed through the shaped device. The distal isolated right CCA and the proximal isolated left CCA were anastomosed end-to-end. Finally, the shaped device of carotid siphon was fixed with suture and embedded in the left neck. The intraarterial DSA was performed on postprocedural 7 days, 2 weeks and 1 month. The morphological characteristics of carotid siphon models were visually evaluated by two observers. The patency of siphon model and the stenosis of anastomotic stoma were followed-up. Results: All animals tolerated the surgical procedure well with mean model time construction of 90 minutes. The morphological characteristics of siphon models were similar to those in human. The anastomotic stoma stenosis occurred in 2 siphon models, and thrombosis of anastomotic stoma in 1, but all siphons of these models were patent on post-procedural follow-up angiography. Conclusion: Surgical construction of an in vivo carotid siphon model of canine with shaped device is practically feasible. This model can be used for testing neurovascular devices. (authors)

  8. Native cellular fluorescence characteristics of normal and malignant epithelial cells from human larynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeswearan, Diagaradjane; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Nalini, R.; Aruna, Prakasa R.; Veeraganesh, V.; Alfano, Robert R.

    1997-08-01

    Many applications of native fluorescence spectroscopy of intrinsic biomolecules such as Try, Tyr, Phe, NADH and FAD are reported on both the characterization and the discrimination of malignant tissues from the normal. In the field of diagnostic oncology, extensive studies have been made to distinguish the normal from malignant condition in breast, cervix, colon and bronchus. From the studies made by Alfano and co-workers, it was found that the emission at 340 and 440 nm under UV excitation have shown statistically significant difference between normal and malignant tissues. As tissues are highly complex in nature, it is worth to known whether the changes arise from cells or from other extracellular tissue components, so as to enable us to have better understanding on the transformation mechanism of normal into malignant and to go for an improved approach in the effective optical diagnosis. In this context, the present study addresses the question of whether there are differences in the native cellular fluorescence characteristics between normal and malignant epithelial cells from human larynx. With this aim, the UV fluorescence emission spectra in the wavelength region of excitation between 270 - 310 nm and the excitation spectra for 340 nm emission were measured and analyzed. In order to quantify the altered fluorescence signal between the normal and malignant cells, different ratio parameters were introduced.

  9. LOSS OF HETEROZYGOSITY ON CHROMOSOME 13 IN SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMAS OF THE LARYNX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Sujuan; Zhang Xue; Wang Jun; Sun Kailai; Fei Shengzhong

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To locate lost region of tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 13q in squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx (LSCC) and to provide clues and evidence for discovering and locating new suppressor gene.Methods: Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 13q was analyzed in 58 LSCC patients by microsatellite polymorphic sequences in loci D13S765 (13q13), RB1.20(13q14.2), D13S133 (13q14.3) and D13S318 (13q21) on chromosome 13 by PCR. Results: There weren't any LOH on chromosome 13q in 3 cases with preinvasive LSCC. Forty-five percentage (24/53) of the 53 invasive LSCC cases showed LOH at one or more loci on chromosome 13q region. The highest percentage of LOH on chromosome 13q was 52% (22/53) at D13S765locus. Conclusion: The deletion region on chromosome 13q was located near by D13S765 locus which is centromeric to RB1. In this region there is suppressor gene, which is related to the genesis and development of LSCC, possibly including RB1. The inactivation of these suppressor genes may be related to the genesis and development of invasive LSCC.

  10. Videofluoroscopic and laryngoscopic evaluation of the upper airway and larynx of professional bassoon players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, J C; Beckford, N S; Chorna, L B; Teachey, J C; McClelland, D K

    2006-06-01

    The bassoon is a demanding double-reed woodwind instrument requiring exquisite control of airflow and air pressure to the reed to produce desired tonal characteristics. Little information is available from direct visualization of the vocal tract and larynx of the bassoonist while playing. Of particular interest is the mechanism(s) of vibrato. This study was undertaken to understand more fully the mechanics of the upper airway in bassoonists during music production. Four adult bassoon players served as subjects. Three players were studied with both sound-synchronized videofluoroscopy and fiber-optic nasal endoscopy. The other subject was studied only by fiber-optic endoscopy. All subjects were evaluated while playing various scales and standard passages common in music pedagogy. The results from this study revealed several findings on the mechanics of upper airway activity during playing: (1) firm velopharyngeal closure was a prerequisite for maximal containment of air pressure and regulation of airflow in the oropharyngeal regions; (2) changes in the pitch and intensity were associated with differential expansion of the pharynx; (3) tongue activity was notable because of its shaping the size and shape of the airway, its role in regulating airflow to the reed, and its contributions to conditioning airflow in vibrato; and (4) slight vocal fold displacements from subglottal airflow and epiglottic movements from tongue base activity contributed to airway changes during vibrato. These seemed to further condition subglottal pressure trains derived primarily from expiration. PMID:16223575

  11. Preclinical evaluation of oncolytic vaccinia virus for therapy of canine soft tissue sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Gentschev

    Full Text Available Virotherapy using oncolytic vaccinia virus (VACV strains is one promising new strategy for canine cancer therapy. In this study we describe the establishment of an in vivo model of canine soft tissue sarcoma (CSTS using the new isolated cell line STSA-1 and the analysis of the virus-mediated oncolytic and immunological effects of two different Lister VACV LIVP1.1.1 and GLV-1h68 strains against CSTS. Cell culture data demonstrated that both tested VACV strains efficiently infected and destroyed cells of the canine soft tissue sarcoma line STSA-1. In addition, in our new canine sarcoma tumor xenograft mouse model, systemic administration of LIVP1.1.1 or GLV-1h68 viruses led to significant inhibition of tumor growth compared to control mice. Furthermore, LIVP1.1.1 mediated therapy resulted in almost complete tumor regression and resulted in long-term survival of sarcoma-bearing mice. The replication of the tested VACV strains in tumor tissues led to strong oncolytic effects accompanied by an intense intratumoral infiltration of host immune cells, mainly neutrophils. These findings suggest that the direct viral oncolysis of tumor cells and the virus-dependent activation of tumor-associated host immune cells could be crucial parts of anti-tumor mechanism in STSA-1 xenografts. In summary, the data showed that both tested vaccinia virus strains and especially LIVP1.1.1 have great potential for effective treatment of CSTS.

  12. Characterization of the novel indolylmaleimides' PDA-66 and PDA-377 effect on canine lymphoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Laura C.; Roolf, Catrin; Pews-Davtyan, Anahit; Rütgen, Barbara C.; Hammer, Sabine; Willenbrock, Saskia; Sekora, Anett; Rolfs, Arndt; Beller, Matthias; Brenig, Bertram; Nolte, Ingo; Junghanss, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase inhibitors are widely used in chemotherapeutic cancer regimens. Maleimide derivatives such as SB-216763 act as GSK-3 inhibitor targeting cell proliferation, cell death and cell cycle progression. Herein, the two arylindolylmaleimide derivatives PDA-66 and PDA-377 were evaluated as potential chemotherapeutic agents on canine B-cell lymphoma cell lines. Canine lymphoma represents a naturally occurring model closely resembling the human high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). PDA-66 showed more pronounced effects on both cell lines. Application of 2.5μM PDA-66 resulted in a significant induction of apoptosis (approx. 11 %), decrease of the metabolic activity (approx. 95 %), anti-proliferative effect (approx. 85 %) and cell death within 48h. Agent induced mode of action was characterized by whole transcriptome sequencing, 12 h and 24 h post-agent exposure. Key PDA-66-modulated pathways identified were cell cycle, DNA replication and p53 signaling. Expression analyses indicated that the drug acting mechanism is mediated through DNA replication and cycle arrest involving the spindle assembly checkpoint. In conclusion, both PDA derivatives displayed strong anti-proliferation activity in canine B-cell lymphoma cells. The cell and molecular PDA-induced effect characterization and the molecular characterization of the agent acting mechanism provides the basis for further evaluation of a potential drug for canine lymphoma serving as model for human NHL. PMID:27177088

  13. The Study of Factors Influencing on Orthodontic Treatment Difficulty of Impacted Maxillary Canine with Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Miresmaeili

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Maxillary canines are esthetically and functionally important, but patients with impacted maxillary canines are perceived to be more difficult and time-consuming to treat than the average orthodontic patient. The aim of this study was to define orthodontic Treatment Difficulty Index (TDI of impacted maxillary canine with CBCT according to experts' opinions.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study, nine variables in CBCT of thirty six consecutive patients with 50 impacted maxillary canines were measured using Dolphin 3D. The related 3D and 2D pictures and the measured data were uploaded on a website. Ten orthodontists were asked to judge the difficulty of bringing the impacted canine to occlusal plane from 1 to 10 (1 = easy, 10 = extremely difficult.Then, they were also asked to evaluate the effect of each variable on treatment from 1 to 5 (1= very low, 5= very high. Random effect linear regression was used in exploration stage and then simple linear regression was used for the application of the model.Results: The patients mean age was 19.08 ± 5.8 years. Mean clinical experience of examiners was 22.7 ±12.02 years. Three variables were deleted at exploration stage and two other in model application stage. Vertical distance to the occlusal plane (P=0.000, overlap in frontal view (P=0.000, angulations of the canine to the occlusal plan (P=0.029, dilacerations (P=0.000, and rotation (P=0.029 had a significant relationship with TDI.Conclusion: Treatment difficulty of impacted maxillary canines could be predicted quantitatively by measuring variables in CBCT.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(3:30-35

  14. Fabrication of Larynx-Shape Porous PHBHH for Cartilage Tissue Engineering and the Cytocompatibility with Chondrocytes%组织工程PHBHH多孔材料喉支架的制备与细胞相容性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙安科; 胡平; 李万同; 孟庆延; 陈伟; 唐维维

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the possibility of using [poly(3 - hydroxybutyrate - co - 3- hydroxy-hexanoate) ,PHBHH] as biomaterials for cartilage tissue engineering of larynx and observe the cytocompatibility between PHBHH and chondrocytes. Methods Larynx-shape porous PHBHH models was fabricated by means of solvent casting,compression molding and paniculate leaching techniques; and the porosity of PHBHH was measured by liquid (alcohol) replacement. The larynx-shape PHBHH models were evaluated by morphological observation. PHBHH porousness, and the attachment, growth condition and distribution between PHBHH and chondrocytes were evaluated by morphological observation and scanning electron microscopy. Results Larynx-shape porous PHBHH models with edges and corners of laryngeal cartilage appeared to be hollow half-trumpet shape and its porosity was 92%±2%. The porous PHBHH looked like netwok. The chondrocytes equallyl attached to the surface of porous PHBHH, filled within porousness, and secrected a large quantity of extracellular matrix, Conclusion Porous PHBHH may be used as biomaterials to fabricate larynx-shape tissue engineering models with suitable mechan-ical support and porosity, and had good cytocompatibility with chondrocytes in vitro.%目的 探索组织工程多孔生物材料喉支架形态塑形物的制备技术,体外观察其细胞相容性,为进一步探寻软骨组织工程适宜生物材料提供实验依据.方法 以新型生物材料聚羟基丁酸酯与聚羟基己酸酯共聚物[ poly(3-hydroxybutyrate- co-3- hydroxyhexanoate),PHBHH,M=60万]为原料,氯化钠盐粒为致孔剂,采用溶剂浇铸、模压成形和颗粒滤沥技术制备多孔PHBHH喉支架形态塑形物,以乙醇置换法测定其孔隙率,负载软骨细胞后体外共同培养,通过大体形态、扫描电镜观察材料模压成形效果、材料孔隙连续性及其与软骨细胞粘附、分布和生长情况.结果 模压成形的组织工程PHBHH材料塑形物类似喉

  15. Molecular portrait-based correlation between primary canine mammary tumor and its lymph node metastasis: possible prognostic-predictive models and/or stronghold for specific treatments?

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    Beha Germana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the molecular phenotype of the primary mammary tumor and its related lymph node metastasis in the dog to develop prognostic-predictive models and targeted therapeutic options. Results Twenty mammary tumor samples and their lymph node metastases were selected and stained by immunohistochemistry with anti-estrogen receptor (ER, -progesterone receptor (PR, -human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (c-erbB-2, -cytokeratin 5/6 (CK 5/6, -cytokeratin 14 (CK14, -cytokeratin 19 (CK 19 and -protein 63 (p63 antibodies. Four phenotypes (luminal A, luminal B, c-erbB2 overexpressing and basal-like were diagnosed in primary tumors and five (luminal A, luminal B, c-erbB-2 overexpressing, basal-like and normal-like in the lymph node metastases. Phenotypic concordance was found in 13 of the 20 cases (65%, and seven cases (35% showed discordance with different lymph node phenotypic profile from the primary tumor. Conclusions The phenotype of the primary tumor assumes a predictive-therapeutic role only in concordant cases, meaning that both the primary tumor and its lymph node metastasis should be evaluated at the same time. A treatment plan based only on the primary tumor phenotype could lead to therapeutic failures if the phenotype of the lymph node metastasis differs from that of the primary tumor.

  16. Bone Regeneration of Hydroxyapatite/Alumina Bilayered Scaffold with 3 mm Passage-Like Medullary Canal in Canine Tibia Model

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    Jong Min Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone regeneration of hydroxyapatite (HA/alumina bilayered scaffold with a 3 mm passage-like medullary canal in a beagle tibia model. A porous HA/alumina scaffold was fabricated using a polymeric template-coating technique. HA/alumina scaffold dimensions were 10 mm in outer diameter, 20 mm in length, and with either a 3 mm passage or no passage. A 20 mm segmental defect was induced using an oscillating saw through the diaphysis of the beagle tibia. The defects of six beagles were filled with HA/alumina bilayered scaffolds with a 3 mm passage or without. The segmental defect was fixated using one bone plate and six screws. Bone regeneration within the HA/alumina scaffolds was observed at eight weeks after implantation. The evaluation of bone regeneration within the scaffolds after implantation in a beagle tibia was performed using radiography, computerized tomography (CT, micro-CT, and fluorescence microscopy. New bone successfully formed in the tibia defects treated with 3 mm passage HA/alumina scaffolds compared to without-passage HA/alumina scaffolds. It was concluded that the HA/alumina bilayered scaffold with 3 mm passage-like medullary canal was instrumental in inducing host-scaffold engraftment of the defect as well as distributing the newly formed bone throughout the scaffold at 8 weeks after implantation.

  17. Comparison of a pulsatile blood pump and a peristaltic roller pump during hemoperfusion treatment in a canine model of paraquat poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Chan; Park, Chan Young; Choi, Seong Wook; Kim, Jeong Chul; Lim, Ki Moo; Kim, Kyuseok; Jung, Sung Koo; Kwak, Young Ho; Shin, Sang Do; Jo, Ik Joon; Suh, Gil Joon; Min, Byoung Goo

    2008-07-01

    This study examined the treatment efficacy and the damage to the blood during hemoperfusion for treating paraquat poisoning using two blood pump mechanisms. Paraquat-poisoned animal models were prepared. A conventional hemodialysis machine, AK90, with a peristaltic roller pump and a cardiopulmonary support system, T-PLS, with a pulsatile blood pump were used during the animal experiments. A total of 12 dogs were treated with hemoperfusion using a charcoal column. Six dogs were treated with hemoperfusion and T-PLS, and the other six were treated with AK90. A paraquat dose of 30 mg/kg was administrated by an intravenous injection. Both pumps maintained blood flow rates of 125 mL/min measured by an ultrasonic flowmeter. For anticoagulation, heparin was administrated by an initial bolus (250 IU/kg) and a continuous injection (100 IU/kg/h). During the experiments, T-PLS and AK90 showed a similar toxin removal efficacy. Both devices decreased the plasma paraquat concentration to 10% of the initial dose within 4-h hemoperfusion. The two pumps showed similar hemolysis properties with acceptable levels. Although T-PLS was developed as a cardiopulmonary bypass system, it can also be used as a hemoperfusion treatment device. PMID:18638308

  18. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndorff, G R; Cooper, B A; Smith, W; Ryan, J R

    2000-01-01

    The Sicilian province of Catania is an active foci for human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Mediterranean area. Approximately 10 to 15 cases of VL are diagnosed via hospital admissions each year in this community. Recently, an increase in VL case reporting by Sicilian physicians was noted, with 38 and 37 VL cases in 1996 and 1997, respectively. Before 1995, there were no reported VL cases among U.S. military personnel or their family members living in Sicily. However, since 1996, there have been four cases referred to Walter Reed Army Medical Center for diagnosis and treatment, all involving the children of personnel assigned to Naval Air Station Sigonella. Exposure histories for all infected individuals excluded exposure to Leishmania parasites outside of Sicily. All patients lived in areas where vectoring sandflies are present. All had dogs as family pets. To evaluate the level of infection among dogs owned by Navy personnel and their families, U.S. Navy Environmental and Preventive Medicine Unit 7, in a collaborative study with the U.S. Army Veterinary Clinic, Naval Air Station Sigonella, and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, performed clinical evaluation and serological testing of 50 dogs residing with U.S. personnel assigned to Naval Air Station Sigonella. The data indicate a high exposure rate to Leishmania (60% of the animals tested had elevated immunoglobulin M antibody levels) in the study population, suggesting that they were infected with Leishmania infantum. Distribution of seropositive dogs by sex was equal. Most of the dogs studied appeared to be in good health. However, inapparent infection of dogs, seen by Italian veterinarians, has been observed throughout all areas of Catania. Sandflies responsible for vectoring L. infantum were trapped in the same locations as the dogs sampled in this study. The level of subclinical infection was 75% among seropositive dogs. The overall level of canine infection observed was higher than expected

  19. Reproduction of a model of lung injury induced by depleted uranium inhalation in canine%贫铀吸入性肺损伤犬模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 朱茂祥; 徐勤枝; 周平坤; 丁新民; 段蕴铀; 贺文博; 冯华松; 宁浩勇; 温居一; 杨陟华; 潘秀颉; 曹珍山

    2011-01-01

    Objective To reproduce a canine model of subacute lung injury induced by depleted uranium inhalation.Methods Twenty-six dogs were randomized into the control group (CG, n=6), low-dose group (LG, n=10).and high-dose group (HG, n=10).All of them underwent tracheal intubation.In control group, 0.2ml/kg of normal saline was intratracbeally given.In low dosage group, 10mg/kg of depleted uranium (LG),and in high dose group 100mg/ml of depleted uranium (HG) was introduced.The survival time of animals was observed in one month after intratracheal introduction of various agents, and chest CT scan was performed in the survived animals.They were sacrificed for pathological examination of lung tissues on the 31st day post of them intratracheal introduction of various agents.Results During the observation period, no animal died in CG, one dog in LG died on the 22nd day and 9 of them survived longer than 30 days.All the animals in HG group died within 30 days with a mean survival time of 11.2 ±8.9 days (median= 12d).In comparison with the HG, significant difference on survival time was found between LG and CG, while no significant difference was found between the latter 2 groups (P=0.439).Pathologically, changes were noted in lung tissue of LG, such as escape of inflammatory cells into alveoli, hemorrhage and hyaline membrane formation in alveolar space, dilatation and congestion of alveolar capillaries, and infiltration of inflammatory cells in interstitial tissue.CT scanning revealed patchy effusion and solid consolidation in the left lung.Conclusion The canine model of subacute lung injury induced by a dose of 2mg/kg depleted uraniun introduced through tracheal intubation is suitable for the study of subacute toxicity induced by depleted uranium.%目的 建立适用于亚急性贫铀吸入性肺损伤研究的犬模型.方法 将26只犬随机分为对照组(n=6)、低剂量组(n=10)和高剂量组(n=10).3组犬麻醉后经气管插管,行左侧肺灌注,对照组给予0.2ml

  20. Exogenous retinoic acid and cytochrome P450 26B1 inhibitor modulate meiosis-associated genes expression in canine testis, an in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, V; Kasimanickam, R

    2014-04-01

    Pharmacological approaches to control spermatogenesis are required to resolve overpopulation in dogs. The objective of the study was to investigate the regulation of meiosis-associated and male germ cell-related genes, stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (STRA8), synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SYCP3), dosage suppressor of mck1 (DMC1), doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (DMRT1) and deleted in azoospermia-like (DAZL) following exogenous administration of retinoic acid (RA) and after the modulation of endogenous RA by a cytochrome P450, family 26, subfamily B, polypeptide 1 inhibitor (CYP26B1-I; R115866) in an in vitro testis model. Testicles of five healthy, medium-sized and mixed-breed dogs were used for the organotypic cultures. All-trans-RA at 2 μM, CYP26B1-I at 1 μM and the control dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) were administered to the testes cultures, and the cultures were maintained for 24 h. Genes STRA8, DAZL and DMRT1 were significantly up-regulated as a result of the direct and indirect increase in the RA levels in the testis, subsequent to the exogenous administration of all-trans-RA and CYP26B1 inhibitor. Up-regulation of STRA8 was very prominent compared to DAZL and DMRT, and the drastic up-regulation of STRA8 was also observed with CY26B1-I than with all-trans-RA. No significant differences were found with the early meiotic markers, SYCP3 and DMC1 with RA, CY26B1-I and vehicle treatments. Because DAZL encodes a germ cell-specific RNA-binding protein, required for the induction of STRA8 and initiation of meiosis, we might see the expression differences temporally with the stage of spermatogenesis. DMRT1 is a unique gonad- and stage-specific transcription factor, directly activates STRA8 and has the temporal influence on its expression. Protein expression of DAZL and STRA8 was greater in RA- and CYP26B1-I-treated testis culture, whereas DMRT1 showed greater protein expression for RA treatment, but not for CYP26B1-I treatment compared to

  1. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy with a Simultaneous Integrated Boost Combined with Chemotherapy in Stages III-IV Hypopharynx-Larynx Cancer: Treatment Compliance and Clinical Outcomes

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    Giovanni Franchin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Retrospective review of our experience using intensity-modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB-IMRT combined with chemotherapy as the primary treatment of locoregionally advanced larynx and hypopharynx cancers. Materials and Methods. Between September 2008 and June 2012, 60 patients (26 with larynx and 34 hypopharynx cancers were treated. Our policy was to offer SIB-IMRT plus concurrent cisplatin to patients affected by larynx cancer stage T3N0-N1 and NCT with TPF (docetaxel/cisplatin/fluorouracil followed by SIB-IMRT to patients with larynx cancer stage T2-4N2-3 or hypopharynx cancer T2-4N0-3. SIB-IMRT consisted in a total dose of 70.95 Gy (2.15 Gy/fraction, 5 fractions/week to the gross primary and nodal disease and differentiated dosages for high risk and low risk nodal regions. Results. Complete remission was achieved in 53/60 (88% of patients. At a median follow up of 31 months (range 9–67, the rate of overall survival and locoregional control with functional larynx at 3 years were 68% and 60%, respectively. T stage (T1–3 versus T4 resulted in being significant for predicting 3-year freedom from relapse (it was 69% and 35%, resp., for T1–T3 and T4 tumors; P=0.04, while site of primary disease (larynx versus hypopharynx was not significant (P=0.35. Conclusion. Our results indicated that combining SIB-IMRT with induction chemotherapy or concurrent chemotherapy is an effective treatment strategy for organ preservation in advanced larynx/hypopharynx cancer.

  2. Effects of canine serum collected from dogs at different estrous cycle stages on in vitro nuclear maturation of canine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun Ju; Fibrianto, Yuda Heru; Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Hossein, M Shamim; Kim, Hye Jin; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2005-08-01

    Canine oocytes are ovulated at prophase of the first meiotic division and undergo maturation in the distal part of the oviduct for at least 48-72 h. Because of these differences from other domestic mammals, the efficiency of in vitro maturation (IVM) of canine oocyte is very low. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of canine serum on IVM of canine oocytes recovered from ovaries in various reproductive states (follicular, luteal or anestrous stages). Oocytes were recovered by mincing ovaries from bitches presented for ovariohysterectomy at various stages of the estrous cycle. Heat-inactivated canine serum was prepared with blood taken from dogs at the anestrous, estrous or diestrous stage of the estrous cycle as determined by progesterone concentration and vaginal cytology. Oocytes were cultured for 72 h in tissue culture medium (TCM)-199 supplemented with 10% canine anestrous, estrous or diestrous serum or fetal bovine serum (FBS) (experiment 1), or supplemented with 0 (control), 5%, 10% or 20% canine estrous serum (experiment 2). In experiment 1, IVM of oocytes collected at the follicular stage of the estrous cycle to metaphase II (MII) stage was higher (p < 0.05) with canine estrous serum (14.2%) than with canine anestrous (5.2%) or diestrous serum (6.3%), FBS (2.2%) or in the control (2.2%). In experiment 2, oocytes collected at the follicular stage of the estrous cycle cultured in TCM-199 with 10% canine estrous serum showed a higher maturation rate to MII stage (13.5%, p < 0.05) compared with those cultured with 5% (1.3% MII) or 20% canine estrous serum (5.1% MII) or the control (2.7% MII). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that supplementing culture medium with 10% canine estrous serum improves IVM of canine follicular stage oocytes. PMID:16261767

  3. 超声引导下犬自体血栓栓塞性急性肺动脉高压模型的建立及意义%Establishment of a canine model with acute thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension guided by echocardiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丹丹; 陈洪茂; 段云友; 尚福军; 梁宁南; 曹玮; 刘禧; 曹铁生

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨超声引导下建立肺动脉血栓栓塞所致犬急性肺动脉高压模型的可行性.方法 模拟人体急性肺动脉血栓栓塞的病理生理过程,建立肺动脉血栓栓塞所致的犬急性肺动脉高压模型.超声引导下经股静脉穿刺,放置右心导管监测肺动脉压力,同时对侧股静脉推注自体血栓,以肺动脉收缩压超过30 mmHg为模型建立成功的标准.结果 超声可以准确引导右心导管的放置.实验用犬27只,成功建立急性肺动脉高压模型24只,成功率88.9%.结论 超声引导下建立肺动脉血栓栓塞所致犬急性肺动脉高压模型的方法具有良好的可行性和可重复性.%Objective To establish a canine model with acute thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension monitored by echocardiography. Methods Simulated the pathophysiologic process of acute thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension in human, the canine model was developed. The femoral vein puncture and the right heart catheterization to monitor pulmonary artery pressure were operated guided by echocardiography, while the autologous blood clot was injected to the contralateral femoral vein. The criteria of model was the pulmonary artery systolic pressure was higher than 30 mmHg. Results Echocardiography can accurately guide the placement of right heart catheterization and ancillarily observe the pressure testing of pulmonary artery. Of twenty seven healthy experiment dogs, twenty four models with acute thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension were successfully developed. The successful rate was 88.9 %. Conclusions This canine model with acute thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension guided by echocardiography is easy to operate and its repeatability is good.

  4. The feasibility of canine rabies elimination in Africa: dispelling doubts with data.

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    Tiziana Lembo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canine rabies causes many thousands of human deaths every year in Africa, and continues to increase throughout much of the continent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This paper identifies four common reasons given for the lack of effective canine rabies control in Africa: (a a low priority given for disease control as a result of lack of awareness of the rabies burden; (b epidemiological constraints such as uncertainties about the required levels of vaccination coverage and the possibility of sustained cycles of infection in wildlife; (c operational constraints including accessibility of dogs for vaccination and insufficient knowledge of dog population sizes for planning of vaccination campaigns; and (d limited resources for implementation of rabies surveillance and control. We address each of these issues in turn, presenting data from field studies and modelling approaches used in Tanzania, including burden of disease evaluations, detailed epidemiological studies, operational data from vaccination campaigns in different demographic and ecological settings, and economic analyses of the cost-effectiveness of dog vaccination for human rabies prevention. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that there are no insurmountable problems to canine rabies control in most of Africa; that elimination of canine rabies is epidemiologically and practically feasible through mass vaccination of domestic dogs; and that domestic dog vaccination provides a cost-effective approach to the prevention and elimination of human rabies deaths.

  5. Ligand-Independent Canonical Wnt Activity in Canine Mammary Tumor Cell Lines Associated with Aberrant LEF1 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wolferen, Monique E.; Rao, Nagesha A. S.; Grizelj, Juraj; Vince, Silvijo; Hellmen, Eva; Mol, Jan A.

    2014-01-01

    Pet dogs very frequently develop spontaneous mammary tumors and have been suggested as a good model organism for breast cancer research. In order to obtain an insight into underlying signaling mechanisms during canine mammary tumorigenesis, in this study we assessed the incidence and the mechanism of canonical Wnt activation in a panel of 12 canine mammary tumor cell lines. We show that a subset of canine mammary cell lines exhibit a moderate canonical Wnt activity that is dependent on Wnt ligands, similar to what has been described in human breast cancer cell lines. In addition, three of the tested canine mammary cell lines have a high canonical Wnt activity that is not responsive to inhibitors of Wnt ligand secretion. Tumor cell lines with highly active canonical Wnt signaling often carry mutations in key members of the Wnt signaling cascade. These cell lines, however, carry no mutations in the coding regions of intracellular Wnt pathway components (APC, β-catenin, GSK3β, CK1α and Axin1) and have a functional β-catenin destruction complex. Interestingly, however, the cell lines with high canonical Wnt activity specifically overexpress LEF1 mRNA and the knock-down of LEF1 significantly inhibits TCF-reporter activity. In addition, LEF1 is overexpressed in a subset of canine mammary carcinomas, implicating LEF1 in ligand-independent activation of canonical Wnt signaling in canine mammary tumors. We conclude that canonical Wnt activation may be a frequent event in canine mammary tumors both through Wnt ligand-dependent and novel ligand–independent mechanisms. PMID:24887235

  6. Ligand-independent canonical Wnt activity in canine mammary tumor cell lines associated with aberrant LEF1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gracanin

    Full Text Available Pet dogs very frequently develop spontaneous mammary tumors and have been suggested as a good model organism for breast cancer research. In order to obtain an insight into underlying signaling mechanisms during canine mammary tumorigenesis, in this study we assessed the incidence and the mechanism of canonical Wnt activation in a panel of 12 canine mammary tumor cell lines. We show that a subset of canine mammary cell lines exhibit a moderate canonical Wnt activity that is dependent on Wnt ligands, similar to what has been described in human breast cancer cell lines. In addition, three of the tested canine mammary cell lines have a high canonical Wnt activity that is not responsive to inhibitors of Wnt ligand secretion. Tumor cell lines with highly active canonical Wnt signaling often carry mutations in key members of the Wnt signaling cascade. These cell lines, however, carry no mutations in the coding regions of intracellular Wnt pathway components (APC, β-catenin, GSK3β, CK1α and Axin1 and have a functional β-catenin destruction complex. Interestingly, however, the cell lines with high canonical Wnt activity specifically overexpress LEF1 mRNA and the knock-down of LEF1 significantly inhibits TCF-reporter activity. In addition, LEF1 is overexpressed in a subset of canine mammary carcinomas, implicating LEF1 in ligand-independent activation of canonical Wnt signaling in canine mammary tumors. We conclude that canonical Wnt activation may be a frequent event in canine mammary tumors both through Wnt ligand-dependent and novel ligand-independent mechanisms.

  7. Combined orthodontic-surgical management of a transmigrated mandibular canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavuoti, Serena; Matarese, Giovanni; Isola, Gaetano; Abdolreza, Jamilian; Femiano, Felice; Perillo, Letizia

    2016-07-01

    The presence of an impacted mandibular canine is one of the most difficult challenges that an orthodontist will meet. Orthodontic treatment is planned on an individual basis after thoroughly considering the patient's overall facial and dentoskeletal characteristics; the duration, risks, and costs of treatment; patient preferences; and the orthodontist's experience. This article reports an orthodontic treatment of a boy, age 12.9 years, with an impacted mandibular canine in the permanent dentition that was successfully managed. Radiographic analysis indicated a transmigration of the mandibular right canine. The orthodontic treatment plan included extraction of the deciduous right canine followed by surgical exposure and ligation of the permanent canine. Eruption was properly guided, and the correct position of the tooth was achieved. This challenging treatment approach is described in detail, including the mechanics used to align the impacted canine. PMID:26502299

  8. Canine oral biofilms: Cultural, molecular, and in vitro studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, D. R.

    2006-01-01

    The canine oral microbiota is poorly understood compared to that of humans. The aim of this work was to improve understanding of the canine oral microbiota. This was achieved by surveying the canine oral microbiota, determining coaggregation interactions between its members, and developing a laboratory microcosm. Bacteria were isolated from the dental plaque and saliva of dogs, and isolates were identified by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing. From 339 isolates, 84 phylotypes belonging to ...

  9. Portrait of a Canine Probiotic – from Gut to Gut

    OpenAIRE

    O'Mahony, D.; Murphy, K. Barry; MacSharry, J.; Boileau, T.; Sunvold, G.; Reinhart, G.; Kiely, B.; Shanahan, F; O'Mahony, L.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The gastrointestinal environment is a complex interactive system involving the host, ingested dietary components, and numerous microbial species. We hypothesised that isolation and screening of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria adherent to healthy canine gastrointestinal tissue would yield strains with commensal activity in canines. The aims of this study were 1) to isolate a bank of commensal organisms from the canine gastrointestinal tract; 2) to screen these novel microbi...

  10. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Wu; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Hille Fieten

    2016-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurological impairments. A lack in genotype-phenotype correlation in Wilson disease points toward the influence of environmental factors or modifying genes. In a number of Non-Wilsonian forms of copper me...

  11. The role of primary radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Taek; Kim, Dong Won; Kwon, Byung Hyun; Nam, Ji Ho [College of Medicine, Pusan National Univ, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Won Joo [College of Medicine, Donga Univ, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    First of all, this study was performed to assess the result of curative radiotherapy and to evaluate different possible prognostic factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx treated at the Pusan National University Hospital. The second goal of this study was by comparing our data with those of other study groups, to determine the better treatment policy of supraglottic cancer in future. Thirty-two patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx were treated with radiotherapy at Pusan National University Hospital, from August 1985 to December 1996. Minimum follow-up period was 29 months. Twenty-seven patients (84.4%.) were followed up over 5 years. Radiotherapy was delivered with 6 MV photons to the primary laryngeal tumor and regional lymphatics with shrinking field technique. All patients received radiotherapy under conventional fractionated schedule (once a. day). Median total tumor dose was 70.2 Gy (range, 55.8 to 75.6 Gy) on primary or gross tumor lesion. Thirteen patients had induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (1-3 cycles). Patient distribution, according to the different stages, were as follows: stage I, 5/32 (15.6%); stage II, 10/32 (31.3%); stage III, 8/32 (25%); stage IV, 9/32 (28. 1 %). The 5-year overall survival rate of the whole series (32 patients) was 51.7%. The overall survival rate at 5-years was 80% in stage I, 66.7% in stage II, 42.9% in stage III, 25% in stage IV.(p= 0,0958). The 5-year local control rates after radiotherapy were as follows: stage I, 100%; stage II, 60%; stage III, 62.5%; stage lV, 44.4% (p=0.233). Overall vocal preservation rates was 65.6%,100% in stage I, 70% in stage II, 62.5% in stage III, 44.4% in stage IV (p=0.210). There was no statistical significance in survival and local control rate between neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy group and radiotherapy alone group. Severe laryngeal edema was found in 2 cases after radiotherapy. emergent tracheostomy

  12. The larynx. Anatomic and dynamic US study; La laringe: studio ecografico anatomico e funzionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zappia, F. [AMT-Associazione Medicina e Tecnologia, Turin (Italy); Campani, R. [Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    2000-03-01

    The aim of the study is the investigation of capabilities of ultrasonography in morphological and functional studies of laryngeal structures. 50 healthy subjects were examined ranging in age 23 to 74 years; 17 of them were professional opera singers. All the anatomical structures that could be measured were clearly demonstrated. In addition to the advantages that ultrasonography is known to provide, it can also permit accurate measurements of the anatomical structures of the larynx and respiratory space at rest and in the dynamic phase, which are important data in some conditions (e.g., cord paralysis) or follow-up of drug or rehabilitation treatment. Finally ultrasonography can permit to detect atypical situations such as those in false/true vocal cords hypertrophy and abnormal cord growth. [Italian] Scopo del lavoro e' stato quello di verificare i risultati ottenibili con l'ecografia nello studio morfologico e funzionale delle strutture laringee. Sono stati eseguiti esami su 50 soggetti sani di eta' compresa tra 23 e 74 anni, tra i quali 17 cantanti lirici professionisti. Sono state evidenziate con chiarezza tutte le strutture anatomiche che e' stato possibile misurare. Oltre ai vantaggi noti e codificati, l'ecografia consente di effettuare precise misurazioni delle strutture anatomiche della laringe e dello spazio respiratorio a riposo e nella fase dinamica, dato importante in alcune malattie (paralisi cordale) e nei controlli dopo terapia farmacologica o logopedica riabilitativa. Puo' consentire di rilevare situazioni atipiche come l'ipertrofia delle false o delle vere corde, nelle anomalie degli accrescimenti cordali.

  13. [The correlation between subjective and objective voice evaluation in organic and functional larynx disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bozena; Pruszewicz, Antoni; Obrebowski, Andrzej; Swidziński, Piotr

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop and introduce into phoniatric diagnostic procedures the complex methodology of vocal function assessment, on the basis of comparison of subjective and objective voice estimation. The set of complex voice evaluation ought to include perceptual examination of the voice quality with quantitative GRBAS scale as a subjective method, vocal folds vibrations in videostroboscopy as a quasi-objective method and acoustic voice estimation in Multi Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) as an objective method. The basic assumption of this report is to prove correlation existence for vocal folds vibration quality in videostroboscopy, parameters describing acoustic wave generating by vibration system in larynx (MDVP) and perceptual subjective voice assessment (GRBAS scale) in organic and functional voice disorders. Research was conducted on 100 subjects (65 with organic and 35 with functional voice disorder), aged 7-74 years randomly chosen from population of patients treated at the Department of Phoniatrics and Audiology, Karol Marcinkowski University School of Medical Sciences in Poznań in 1996-2001 and 60 subjects as a control group without any voice disorders according to phoniatric examination. The research methodology include perceptual voice evaluation based on Japanese (Hirano) GRBAS scale adapted to Polish language, in scale 0 to 3 as well as the vibrations of vocal folds in videostroboscopy with attempt at quantification (scale 1 to 3) of selected measure and for acoustic analysis of Multi Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) for 17 estimated parameters. Due to results and statistic analysis the own, new scale of dysphonia severity was introduced.

  14. Hyperspectral hybrid method classification for detecting altered mucosa of the human larynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ron

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the field of earth observation, hyperspectral detector systems allow precise target detections of surface components from remote sensing platforms. This enables specific land covers to be identified without the need to physically travel to the areas examined. In the medical field, efforts are underway to develop optical technologies that detect altering tissue surfaces without the necessity to perform an excisional biopsy. With the establishment of expedient classification procedures, hyperspectral imaging may provide a non-invasive diagnostic method that allows determination of pathological tissue with high reliability. In this study, we examined the performance of a hyperspectral hybrid method classification for the automatic detection of altered mucosa of the human larynx. Materials and methods Hyperspectral Imaging was performed in vivo and 30 bands from 390 to 680 nm for 5 cases of laryngeal disorders (2x hemorrhagic polyp, 3x leukoplakia were obtained. Image stacks were processed with unsupervised clustering (linear spectral unmixing, spectral signatures were extracted from unlabeled cluster maps and subsequently applied as end-members for supervised classification (spectral angle mapper of further medical cases with identical diagnosis. Results Linear spectral unmixing clearly highlighted altered mucosa as single spectral clusters in all cases. Matching classes were identified, and extracted spectral signatures could readily be applied for supervised classifications. Automatic target detection performed well, as the considered classes showed notable correspondence with pathological tissue locations. Conclusions Using hyperspectral classification procedures derived from remote sensing applications for diagnostic purposes can create concrete benefits for the medical field. The approach shows that it would be rewarding to collect spectral signatures from histologically different lesions of laryngeal disorders in

  15. Prefabrication and prelamination strategies for the reconstruction of complex defects of trachea and larynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranckx, J J; Den Hondt, M; Delaere, P

    2014-03-01

    Complex tracheal and laryngeal defects can be reconstructed using prelamination and prefabrication techniques. Three clinical situations are described in detail in the article. In short segment restenosis defects within scarred surroundings, we restore the fibrocartilaginous defect with a radial forearm fascia flap prelaminated with buccal mucosa or cartilage. This provides a newly vascularized inner lining to the tracheal defect and restores the tubular convexity. For long segment defects we need a technique that can withstand respiratory forces. We use a heterotopic prefabrication strategy to vascularize a tracheal allograft wrapped in forearm fascia. Chimerism is created by replacing donor respiratory epithelium with buccal mucosa of the recipient. After orthotopic transfer, this chimerism allows immunosuppression to be tapered and stopped when bronchoscopy shows mucosal integrity of the new trachea, since the recipient epithelium replaces the allogeneic inner tracheal lining by means of a chronic rejection process. A distinct situation occurs after resection of a unilateral larynx tumor, which usually results in a total laryngectomy with loss of both vocal cords, since reconstruction of the hemilarynx is considered too complex. First, we prefabricate a nearby four-ring autologous tracheal segment using radial forearm fascia. In a second stage, this orthotopically vascularized trachea restores the laryngeal structure with the aim to conserve one vocal cord and thus speech. Orthotopic and heterotopic prelamination and prefabrication strategies offer efficient and reproducible solutions for the restoration of challenging short and long segment tracheal defects, as well as unilateral laryngeal defects. The series in this review article are based on previous studies and case reports. The level of evidence is III-"Study of nonconsecutive patients, without a universally applied gold standard: case-control study". PMID:24399691

  16. Validation of commercially available automated canine-specific immunoturbidimetric method for measuring canine C-reactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillström, Anna; Hagman, Ragnvi; Tvedten, Harold;

    2014-01-01

    with a human CRP assay previously validated for canine CRP determination. Samples from 40 healthy dogs were analyzed to establish a reference interval. RESULTS: Total imprecision was ..., there was good agreement between the validated human CRP assay and the new canine-specific assay. Healthy dogs had CRP concentrations that were less than the limit of quantification of the Gentian cCRP method (6.8 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS: The new canine-specific immunoturbidimetric CRP assay is a reliable and rapid......BACKGROUND: Measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) is used for diagnosing and monitoring systemic inflammatory disease in canine patients. An automated human immunoturbidimetric assay has been validated for measuring canine CRP, but cross-reactivity with canine CRP is unpredictable. OBJECTIVE...

  17. KRAS Mutations in Canine and Feline Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, C; Wood, G A; Foster, R A; Stasi, S; Liu, J H W; Bartlett, J M S; Coomber, B L; Sabine, V S

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals may serve as valuable models for studying human cancers. Although KRAS is the most commonly mutated gene in human ductal pancreatic cancers (57%), with mutations frequently occurring at codons 12, 13 and 61, human pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) lack activating KRAS mutations. In the present study, 32 pancreatic ACC samples obtained from 14 dogs and 18 cats, including seven metastases, were analyzed for six common activating KRAS mutations located in codons 12 (n = 5) and 13 (n = 1) using Sequenom MassARRAY. No KRAS mutations were found, suggesting that, similar to human pancreatic ACC, KRAS mutations do not play a critical role in feline or canine pancreatic ACC. Due to the similarity of the clinical disease in dogs and cats to that of man, this study confirms that companion animals offer potential as a suitable model for investigating this rare subtype of pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:27290644

  18. Comparison of DCE-CT models for quantitative evaluation of K-trans in larynx tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterbroek, J.; Bennink, E.; Philippens, M. E P; Raaijmakers, C. P J; Viergever, M. A.; De Jong, H. W A M

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic contrast enhanced CT (DCE-CT) can be used to estimate blood perfusion and vessel permeability in tumors. Tumor induced angiogenesis is generally associated with disorganized microvasculature with increased permeability or leakage. Estimated vascular leakage (K-trans) values and their reliabi

  19. 介入临时封堵后外科缝合止血方法对犬肾损伤模型的器官功能保护作用%Organ protective effects research of surgical hemostasis after temporary intercurrent block in canine kidney injury model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志强; 梁明; 刘龙; 韩雅玲; 梁延春; 王军

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察损伤控制外科中不同止血方法在肾脏损伤治疗过程中的效果.方法 将14只杂种犬全麻后,在野外介入方舱手术台内经腹手术制作肾损伤模型,并立即行不同止血方法的损伤控制性外科(DCS)治疗.分为:A手术结扎组、B栓塞组、C临时封堵后缝合组、D对照组.统计并比较1~6周后各组犬/肾功能相关数据的差异.结果 14只犬经损伤控制性治疗均得到有效抢救.术后复查动脉造影,止血均成功;术后复查血红蛋白水平各组之间无统计学差异.术后1周A组犬因肾衰死亡1只,其余13只6周后均存活;损伤肾脏功能恢复情况:A组肾功损失最重,B组次之,C组无明显下降.各组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 DCS是战场伤、严重创伤治疗的趋势.DCS采用介入临时封堵后外科缝合止血的方法对损伤器官功能保护具有明显优势,值得进一步研究推广.%Objective To investigate the efficacy of different methods to treat kidney injuries with damage control surgery. Methods 14 intact canines were made kidney injury models after general anesthesia in the field intervention treatment shelter. The canines were divided into four groups according to different damage control surgeries: A was surgery group, B embolism group, C temporary block group and D, control group. The survival rate and kidney functions of the dogs in different groups 1-6 weeks after the surgery were collected and compared. Results All canines were rescued timely. After surgery, ar-tcriography was conducted and hemostasis was proved. One canine in Group A died one week later because of renal failure and the other 13 canines survived. Group B and C could better protect the damaged renal functions than Group A and D (P< 0. 05). However, Group C did a better job than Group B (P<0. 05). Conclusion Damage control surgery is a tendency for treating battle injury and severe trauma. Method of temporary blocking blood vessels by

  20. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane;

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...... of the study was to retrospectively investigate the proportion and possible breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma using the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register for calculations of proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) for the period 1998-2009.......Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The aim...

  1. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  2. Coryneform bacteria associated with canine otitis externa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Bemis, David A.; Schjærff, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the occurrence of coryneform bacteria in canine otitis externa. A combined case series and case-control study was carried out to improve the current knowledge on frequency and clinical significance of coryneform bacteria in samples from canine otitis externa. A total...... of 16 cases of otitis externa with involvement of coryneform bacteria were recorded at two referral veterinary hospitals in Denmark and the US, respectively. Coryneform bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Corynebacterium auriscanis was the most common coryneform species (10...... cases). Small colony variants of this species were also observed. Other coryneform isolates were identified as Corynebacterium amycolatum (3 cases), Corynebacterium freneyi (2 cases) and an Arcanobacterium-like species (1 case). The coryneform bacteria were in all cases isolated together with other...

  3. Different role of COX-2 and angiogenesis in canine inflammatory and non-inflammatory mammary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Mónica; Sánchez-Archidona, Ana Rodríguez; Sardón, David; Díez, Lucía; Martín-Ruiz, Asunción; Caceres, Sara; Sassi, Francesco; Dolores Pérez-Alenza, M; Illera, Juan C; Dunner, Susana; Peña, Laura

    2013-08-01

    Human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) are the most aggressive and fatal types of mammary cancer, and both have a very poor prognosis and low survival rate. Human IBC is characterised by exacerbated angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and lymphangiotropism. Lymphangiotropism is also characteristic of IMC, but microvascular density (MVD) and lymphangiogenesis have not been previously studied in canine IMC. In this study immunohistochemical expression of several angiogenesis-related factors (cyclooxygenase [COX]-2, vascular endothelial growth factors A and D [VEGF-A, VEGF-D], and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 [VEGFR-3]), MVD, lymphatic proliferation index (LPI), and Ki-67 tumour proliferation index (PI) were studied in 21 canine IMC samples, 20 canine high-grade malignant non-IMC mammary tumours (MMTs), and four normal mammary gland samples (NMGs). All mammary neoplasms were histologically categorised as grade III. COX-2 values were also analysed by RT-PCR in seven IMCs, six MMTs and four NMGs. The expressions of COX-2, VEGF-A, and VEGF-D were significantly higher in IMC, MVD and LPI tumours, but not PI. In MMTs, COX-2 immunoexpression was significantly associated with VEGF-A, while in IMCs COX-2 was associated with VEGF-D (lymphangiogenic factor), its receptor VEGFR-3, and LPI. These results suggested that lymphangiogenic pathway stimulation isa specific role of COX-2 in IMC angiogenesis, which justifies the use of COX-2-based targeted palliative therapies in dogs. The exacerbated angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis and the increased expression of angiogenesis-related factors further support canine IMC as a natural model for the study of human IBC.

  4. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying. Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the nutritional and physical quality of the product. Effects of extrusion on the feed quality for other animals than pets have been well recognized. Our studies investigated to what extent extrusion and/or drying of a c...

  5. Cardiac troponin I levels in canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Hagman Ragnvi; Lagerstedt Anne-Sofie; Fransson Boel A; Bergström Annika; Häggström Jens

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Myocardial injury may contribute to unexpected deaths due to pyometra. To detect myocardial damage, measurement of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is currently the most sensitive and specific method. The aims of the present study were to evaluate presence of myocardial damage in canine pyometra by analysis of cTnI, to explore whether myocardial injury was associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and to evaluate whether other clinical or laboratory parameter...

  6. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study...

  7. Remote detection of explosives using trained canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of dogs is a search method which combines high probability of detection, speed of search, and low cost. It was concluded that the canine could be used for explosive screening of personnel, but that it was imperative that the dog be in a position remote from employees and employee traffic. A study was made of the design of booths and air flow for this purpose. Results of tests and conclusions are given and discussed

  8. Treatment of canine scabies with milbemycin oxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W H; de Jaham, C; Scott, D W; Cayatte, S M; Bagladi, M S; Buerger, R G

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of orally administered milbemycin oxime in the treatment of canine scabies. Forty dogs were treated. Mean drug dosage for all dogs was approximately 2 mg/kg body weight. Twenty-seven dogs received 3 doses separated by 7 d, and 13 dogs received 2 doses separated by 14 d. All dogs were clinically normal following treatment and no adverse reactions were detected.

  9. Recurrent High-Grade Invasive Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of Larynx: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Whitney; Ko, Stephen; Miller, Daniel

    2016-06-28

    Recurrent invasive high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx is a rare occurrence. These tumors have been commonly associated with salivary gland tumors, most commonly the parotid gland. The patient usually presents with the following symptoms: hoarseness (if larynx is involved), or changes in voice character, sore throat, cough, odynophagia, dysphagia, otalgia, difficulty breathing, weight loss, lymphadenopathy. Here we present a case of a recurrent invasive high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of larynx and hypopharynx. The patient was a 67-year-old male that originally presented in 2006. At that time he underwent a wide field laryngectomy, right thyroid lobectomy, and biopsy of the right digastric node. He was a clinical stage III, pT3N0M0. No adjuvant radiation therapy was given at that time. The patient remained asymptomatic until February 2014, when he presented with dysphagia and neck swelling. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography showed evidence of recurrence. The patient was treated with definitive intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with concurrent chemotherapy. Treatment for this disease is gathered by scattered case reports. If surgery is a possibility it is considered as first line therapy. Post-surgical radiation is then offered. However, in this case the recurrent tumor was located near the carotid artery, and thus surgery was not a possibility. Therefore, concurrent chemotherapy and radiation with IMRT and weekly cis-platinum was given. While the optimum combination of treatment has not yet been established because of the rarity of this cancer's location site, the current patient appeared to have an excellent response from the definitive IMRT and chemotherapy treatment. PMID:27441076

  10. Recurrent high-grade invasive mucoepidermoid carcinoma of larynx: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney King

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent invasive high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx is a rare occurrence. These tumors have been commonly associated with salivary gland tumors, most commonly the parotid gland. The patient usually presents with the following symptoms: hoarseness (if larynx is involved, or changes in voice character, sore throat, cough, odynophagia, dysphagia, otalgia, difficulty breathing, weight loss, lymphadenopathy. Here we present a case of a recurrent invasive high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of larynx and hypopharynx. The patient was a 67- year-old male that originally presented in 2006. At that time he underwent a wide field laryngectomy, right thyroid lobectomy, and biopsy of the right digastric node. He was a clinical stage III, pT3N0M0. No adjuvant radiation therapy was given at that time. The patient remained asymptomatic until February 2014, when he presented with dysphagia and neck swelling. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography showed evidence of recurrence. The patient was treated with definitive intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT with concurrent chemotherapy. Treatment for this disease is gathered by scattered case reports. If surgery is a possibility it is considered as first line therapy. Post-surgical radiation is then offered. However, in this case the recurrent tumor was located near the carotid artery, and thus surgery was not a possibility. Therefore, concurrent chemotherapy and radiation with IMRT and weekly cis-platinum was given. While the optimum combination of treatment has not yet been established because of the rarity of this cancer’s location site, the current patient appeared to have an excellent response from the definitive IMRT and chemotherapy treatment.

  11. Cooperative Effects of PRF and BMSCs in Alveolar Bone Regeneration in a Canine Model%犬PRF复合BMSCs修复拔牙窝颊侧骨壁缺损的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于佳; 郝永明; 陆家瑜; 邹德荣

    2014-01-01

    (P<0.05). In animal experiments, PRF showed early healing wound ability. On repairing bone defects, at 6 weeks in the tissue engineering group, the bone hight [(2.63 ±0.57) mm] and bone mineral density [(765.19±59.70) HU] was significantly increased (P<0.05), which compared with blood clots group [(5.65± 2.91) mm, (599.08 ±53.88) HU] and PRF group [(4.14 ±1.16) mm, (644.76 ±65.39) HU]. Conclusion: Cooperative of PRF and BMSCs can effectively repair mandible alveolar bone defects in canine model.

  12. An experimental study on application of ultrasound in canine model of acute cerebralcardiac syndrome%超声在急性脑损伤后脑心综合征实验研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱嵘; 孙兵; 赵宝珍; 吴炎

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application of real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography (RTMCE) on evaluating myocardial function and regional microcirculation in traumatic brain injury (TBI).Methods In 18 cases canine model of TBI,RTMCE and strain rate imaging were employed to measure the index including strain rate of different myocardial segments,the time-amplitude curves,the mean ascending slope of the curve and local myocardial blood flow with respectively 6 hours,1 day and 3 day pre and post-TBI.Results Compared with pre-TBI,the segmental myocardial strain rate,the maximal amplitude,the mean ascending slope and myocardial blood flow decreased in 3 cases immediately 6hour after TBI.In 3 days,more significant alteration of previous index was discovered in another 12 cases.Conclusions After acute TBI,myocardial dysfunction in heavy stress responses could result in the cerebral-cardiac syndrome,which develops in 3 days post-TBI.RTMCE and Strain rate imaging clinically provide an earlier way to detect myocardial damage and dysfunction in acute TBI patients.%目的 运用心肌超声造影技术、应变率显像技术评价急性脑损伤时心肌功能、心肌各节段微循环灌注情况.方法 建立18只犬急性颅脑损伤模型,于伤前及伤后6h、1d、3d利用实时心肌声学造影、应变率显像技术检测动物模型左室长轴方向各节段心肌应变率和由心肌再灌注后的时间-密度曲线得出的心肌显像峰值强度、平均斜率及局部心肌血流量等指标.结果 3只犬于伤后6h即出现节段性心肌应变率、心肌显像峰值强度、平均斜率及局部心肌血流量等指标的减低,另有12只犬均在3d内出现相应指标的改变.结论 急性脑损伤后,应激状态下中枢性心功能不全易导致心肌损伤继而并发脑心综合症,且多于伤后3d内发病.声学造影技术及应变率显像技术可为临床早期发现心肌损伤及心肌功能异常提供有效指标.

  13. Dehydromonocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in canine model:a study on dose metrics%脱氢野百合碱诱导建立肺动脉高压犬模型的剂量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林约瑟; 李淑娟; 李轩狄; 朱玲; 戴刚; 王慧深

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the optimal dose of dehydromonocrotaline (DHMC) for establishing canine model of pulmonary hypertension.Methods Thirty-two beagle dogs were divided into 4 groups by random number:1.5 mg/kg DHMC group (n=8),2.0 mg/kg DHMC group (n=8),3.0 mg/kg DHMC group(n=8)and 4.0 mg/kg DHMC group(n=8).Each group underwent puncture with placement of Swan-Ganz catheter in the right jugular vein to measure the pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP),mean pulmonary arterial pressure(MPAP),pulmonary vascular resistance(PVR)and cardiac output(CO).Then,each group of beagle dogs received injection of 1.5,2.0,3.0 and 4.0 mg/kg DHMC via right ventricle,respectively,depending on the dose assignment.All the indicators were measured again at 8 weeks after treatment,and the pathological examination of lung tissues was performed.Results At 8 weeks after treatment,all the experimental dogs in the 1.5 mg/kg DHMC group and 2.0 mg/kg DHMC group survived,whereas 62.5%(5/8)of the dogs in the 3.0 mg/kg DHMC group and 100.0%(8/8)of those in the 4.0 mg/kg DHMC group died.Compared with the baselines,the PASP,MPAP,PVR and CO in the experimental dogs of 1.5 mg/kg DHMC group did not show significant changes at 8 weeks after treatment(all P>0.05),while the PASP,MPAP,PVR were increased and the CO were decreased in the experimental dogs of 2.0 mg/kg DHMC group and 3.0 mg/kg DHMC group (all P0.05).与同组基础值比较,处理8周后2.0 mg/kg DHMC组、3.0 mg/kg DHMC组存活实验犬肺动脉收缩压、肺动脉平均压及肺血管阻力均升高,心输出量降低(均P<0.05).结论 DHMC诱导肺动脉高压犬模型呈剂量相关性,小剂量(1.5 mg/kg)建模不成功,大剂量(4.0 mg/kg)死亡率高,推荐采用2.0~3.0 mg/kg剂量为宜.

  14. Analysis on self-healing effect of anterior teeth area gingival soft tissue in canine model%前牙区软组织自我修复效果的实验测量观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟; 张志宏; 刘红红; 鲍军燕; 张敏; 韩倩; 何华

    2014-01-01

    Residual roots model was conducted in the maxillary anterior teeth area of the canine ( right maxillary lateral incisor and left maxillary central incisor) by grinding dental crown to approximate alveolar ridge top level in subgingival margin and avoiding wearing gingival tissue. The growth of gums was observed in the 1, 3, 4, 5 weeks after surgery through measuring the distance between gingival papilla and adjacent regions spire, the vertical dis-tance between gingival papilla and the level of the adjacent regions spire, the distance between the modpoint of gin-gival margin and adjacent tooth spire and the vertical distance between the modpoint of gingival margin and the level of the adjacent regions spire. All the statistical analyses for experimental data were performed by SPSS statistical software. The results showed hyperplasia of the gum tissue in the fourth week after surgery was nearly full of residu-al root fracture, and no color and texture difference was found between the gum tissue in the fifth week after surgery and normal gum. According to data the growth of gum tissue was toward the direction of hyperplasia during the ob-servation period. This study shows that gums have some certain ability of self-healing in the case of no damage, and the residual root tissue can complete self-healing in 4 weeks.%在犬的上颌前牙区(右上颌侧切牙、左上颌中切牙)制造残根模型,将牙冠磨至龈缘下约平齐牙槽嵴顶水平,避免磨损牙龈软组织,术后第1、3、4、5周观察其牙龈生长情况,测量龈乳头至邻牙牙尖顶的距离、龈乳头至邻牙牙尖顶的水平面的垂直距离、龈缘中点至邻牙牙尖顶的距离、龈缘中点至邻牙牙尖顶的水平面的垂直距离。利用SPSS软件对测量的实验数据进行线图分析。结果显示术后第4周增生的软组织基本长满残根断面,术后第5周新生的软组织与正常牙龈在颜色、质地上基本一致,测量数据显示在观察周期

  15. Microbial profile of canine persistent wound infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Padhy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyse the microbial profile of canine persistent wound infections. Materials and Methods: The total wound samples (n=172 taken from both traumatic (140 and post-surgical (32 persistent wounds in canines were processed for routine microbial isolation and identification during a period of 15 months. Results: Staphylococcus intermedius was found to be the predominant isolate from all types of wounds under study. It was followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Pasteurella spp., Corynaebacterium spp. and Bacillus spp. From different traumatic wounds of dogs, S. intermedius (92/140=65.7% and from surgical wounds, P. aeruginosa (24/32=75% were found to be the predominant isolates recovered whereas the most commonly isolated bacterial genus in both traumatic and surgical wounds of dogs was Staphylococcus spp. Conclusion: Canine wounds are polymicrobial in nature. Hence proper microbial laboratory diagnosis and presence of multiple organisms in a wound are to be taken into consideration for effective treatment of persistent wound infections in dogs.

  16. Canine kobuviruses in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Barbara; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Ceci, Chiara; Di Profio, Federica; Marsilio, Fulvio

    2013-09-27

    Canine kobuviruses (CaKVs) are newly recognized picornaviruses recently detected in dogs in the US. By molecular analysis of the whole genome, CaKV that appeared genetically closest to the murine kobuvirus (MuKV) and to the human Aichi virus (AiV), may be classified in the Kobuvirus genus as new genotype (CaKV type 1) within the species Aichivirus A. To date, there are no information on the epidemiology of these novel viruses in other continents. In this study, by screening a collection of 256 dog fecal samples either from diarrhoeic or asymptomatic animals, CaKV was identified in six specimens with an overall prevalence of 2.34% (6/256). All the positive dogs presented diarrhea and were found to be infected by CaKV alone or in mixed infections with canine coronavirus (CCoV) and/or canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). By molecular analysis of the partial 3D gene, all the strains detected displayed a close relatedness with the CaKVs recently identified in the US. This study provides evidence that CaKVs circulate in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy and are not geographically restricted to the North American continent, where they were first signaled. PMID:23806200

  17. Cytodiagnostics of canine lymphomas - possibilities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapierzyński, R; Kliczkowska-Klarowicz, K; Jankowska, U; Jagielski, D

    2016-01-01

    Malignant lymphomas are one of the most common malignant tumours occurring in dogs. The basic method of lymphoma diagnosis in human, as well as in canine oncology is histopathology supported by immunohistochemistry. It was suggested that in veterinary medicine excisional biopsy of lymph node and histopathology should be considered only where the cytologic diagnosis is equivocal or needs to be confirmed. There are at least three basic reasons for which cytological examination ought to be accepted as a sufficient and reliable diagnostic method for lymphoma in dogs. Firstly, most dog owners consider the fine-needle biopsy as an acceptable non-harmful method of sample collection. Secondly, an increasing number of studies recommend cytology as an accurate test for diagnosing and subtyping canine lymphoma. Finally, the vast majority of canine lymphoma subtypes belong to 4-5 categories characterized by a typical cytological picture. Immunocytochemical staining of cytological smears gives new diagnostic possibilities, such as detection of markers better characterizing given growth or a potential goal for target therapy in individual cases (for example inhibitors of platelet-derived growth factor). PMID:27487521

  18. Novel frameshift mutation in the p16/INK4A tumor suppressor gene in canine breast cancer alters expression from the p16/INK4A/p14ARF locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutful Kabir, Farruk M; Agarwal, Payal; Deinnocentes, Patricia; Zaman, Jishan; Bird, Allison Church; Bird, R Curtis

    2013-01-01

    The INK4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKI) encode important cell cycle regulators that tightly control cell cycle during G1 to S phase. These related genes are considered tumor suppressors as loss of function contributes to the malignant phenotype. Expression of CKIs p16, p14ARF, or p15 were defective in six different canine mammary tumor (CMT) cell lines compared to normal thoracic canine fibroblasts. This suggests CKI defects are frequently responsible for neoplastic transformation in canine mammary carcinomas. p16 and p14ARF are two alternatively spliced products derived from the canine p16/INK4A/p14ARF gene locus. Despite omissions in the published p16 transcript and canine genome and the presence of GC-rich repeats, we determined the complete coding sequence of canine p16 revealing a deletion and frameshift mutation in p16 exon 1α in CMT28 cells. In addition, we determined canine p14ARF mRNA and protein sequences. Mapping of these mutations uncovered important aspects of p16 and p14ARF expression and defects in CMT28 cells shifting the p16 reading frame into p14ARF making a fusion protein that was predicted to be truncated, unstable and devoid of structural and functional integrity. This data describes an important neoplastic mechanism in the p16/INK4A/p14ARF locus in a spontaneous canine model of breast cancer.

  19. A canine juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm model applying to endovascular stent-graft's and hemodynamic study%适用于腔内隔绝移植物及血流动力学研究的犬肾周型腹主动脉瘤模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志军; 陆清声; 景在平; 林晨; 廖明芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立一种适用于研究腔内隔绝移植物及血流动力学的犬肾周型腹主动脉瘤模型.方法 通过在犬近肾腹主动脉段移植经0.6%戊二醛浸泡30 min去抗原处理后的牛颈外静脉,制作15例犬肾周型腹主动脉瘤模型.将此动脉瘤模型与患者的肾周型腹主动脉瘤进行形态学的对比,并且检测血流动力学参数外与15例腹主动脉瘤患者对比.结果 15只动物手术过程顺利,术中死亡0只,术后1天腹腔出血死亡1只,术后2天急性肾衰死亡 3只.动物模型与肾周型腹主动脉瘤患者动脉瘤形态相似.直径、壁厚的比例相似.瘤体内收缩压、舒张压、平均动脉压均高于肾上腹主动脉、髂总功脉和动脉瘤入、出口.动脉壁弹性相似.动脉瘤中都出现了涡流或湍流.结论 此模型是适合肾周型腹主动脉瘤腔内隔绝移植物及血流动力学研究的有较大实用价值的动物模型.%Objective To construct an animal juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm model applying to endovascular stent-graft' s and hemodynamic study. Methods The bovine jugular vein segments which had been treated with 0. 6% glutaral were removed to fifteen hybrid canines at juxtarenal abdominal aortic to construct aneurysms. The aneurysm models' hemodynamic data were selected and were contrasted with fifteen patients' juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. Results The operations of all fifteen canines were-successful. No canine died in the operation but 1 canine died 1 day after operation because of abdominal bleeding and three died in two days because of acute renal failure. The models were similar to the patients in such area as the configuration of aneurysm, the proportion of aneurysm's diameter to wall's thickness, the elasticity of aneurysm's wall and the blood flow in aneurysm. Like the patients, the systolic, diastolic and mean pressures in the aneurysm of the model were higher than the pressures in the suprarenal aorta, the common

  20. Social inequality and incidence of and survival from cancers of the mouth, pharynx and larynx in a population-based study in Denmark, 1994-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Lassen, Christina Funch; Clemmensen, Inge Haunstrup

    2008-01-01

    , social class, housing tenure, cohabiting status and type of district. Similar differences in survival persisted for all 5 years observed. Immigrants had better survival from larynx cancer than native Danes. We could not determine the effects of differences in tobacco and alcohol consumption......We investigated the effects of socioeconomic, demographic and health-related indicators on the incidence of and survival from mouth, pharynx and larynx cancers diagnosed in 1994-2003 with follow-up through 2006 in Denmark using information from nationwide registers. The analyses were based on data...... on 3058 patients with mouth and pharynx cancer and 1799 with larynx cancer in a cohort of 3.22 million persons born between 1925 and 1973 and aged >or=30 years. The incidences of all the three cancers increased with decreasing socioeconomic position, measured as disposable income, work market affiliation...

  1. Comparative expression pathway analysis of human and canine mammary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconato Laura

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous tumors in dog have been demonstrated to share many features with their human counterparts, including relevant molecular targets, histological appearance, genetics, biological behavior and response to conventional treatments. Mammary tumors in dog therefore provide an attractive alternative to more classical mouse models, such as transgenics or xenografts, where the tumour is artificially induced. To assess the extent to which dog tumors represent clinically significant human phenotypes, we performed the first genome-wide comparative analysis of transcriptional changes occurring in mammary tumors of the two species, with particular focus on the molecular pathways involved. Results We analyzed human and dog gene expression data derived from both tumor and normal mammary samples. By analyzing the expression levels of about ten thousand dog/human orthologous genes we observed a significant overlap of genes deregulated in the mammary tumor samples, as compared to their normal counterparts. Pathway analysis of gene expression data revealed a great degree of similarity in the perturbation of many cancer-related pathways, including the 'PI3K/AKT', 'KRAS', 'PTEN', 'WNT-beta catenin' and 'MAPK cascade'. Moreover, we show that the transcriptional relationships between different gene signatures observed in human breast cancer are largely maintained in the canine model, suggesting a close interspecies similarity in the network of cancer signalling circuitries. Conclusion Our data confirm and further strengthen the value of the canine mammary cancer model and open up new perspectives for the evaluation of novel cancer therapeutics and the development of prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers to be used in clinical studies.

  2. Canine stifle stability following cranial cruciate ligament transection and medial meniscal release - an ex vivo biomechanical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tanja Vedel; Kristiansen, Signe Søndergaard; Jensen, Bente Rona;

    Introduction The patellar tendon angle (PTA), describing the relationship of the patellar tendon to the tibial plateau, is biomechanically significant for canine stifle stability. The crossover point, at which the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) becomes the primary stifle stabilizer, has been...... point and cranial tibial subluxation (CTS) in the CrCL deficient canine stifle has not been described previously. The present study evaluated CTS, PTA and joint angle fluoroscopically during stifle movement from flexion to full extension in a cadaveric biomechanical model. Materials and methods Sagittal...... stifle stability was evaluated in right pelvic limbs from canine cadavers under three different test situations (intact, CrCL deficient and medial meniscal release (MMR)). Dogs were euthanized for reasons unrelated to the study, owner approval given for research use and institutional ethical approval...

  3. 门静脉和下腔静脉阻断与开放后门静脉高压犬肺动脉和肺组织超微结构改变%Ultrastructural pathology observation of pulmonary artery and lung in a portal hypertension canine model after portal and inferior vena cave clamped and opened

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池信锦; 黑子清; 金亦; 杨扬; 陈规划

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the ultrastructural pathological characteristics of pulmonary artery and lung in a portal hypertension canine model after portal and inferior vena cave clamped and opened and to preliminarily explore the mechanism of perioperative acute pulmonary hypertension and injury in liver transplantation for end-stage liver cirrhosis.Methods Eighteen canines were randomly divided into groups Ⅰ (negative control group),Ⅱ (control group) and Ⅲ (model group). Canines in the negative control group were only for collecting lung and pulmonary artery, and a partial ligation of portal vein were performed in the model group. Portal-cavity was clamped and opened after 12 weeks in groups Ⅱ and Ⅲ. Samples of lung and pulmonary artery were collected postoperatively for transmission electron microscope observation.Results Endothelial cell, alveolar epithelial cell type Ⅰ and alveolar epithelium type Ⅱ showed obvious pathology changes;alveolar septum developed fibrosis and collagen fiber proliferation;pulmonary capillary formed thrombosis, basal membrane thickened markedly. Pulmonary vascular endothelial cells were dramatically damaged and were shed in part;the gap between pulmonary artery endothelial cell and tunica media was widened and subendothelial edema and more collagen fiber were developed.Conclusions The ultrastructure of pulmonary artery and lung was obviously changed in a portal hypertension canine model. This may be the ultrastructural pathology basis for acute pulmonary hypertension and acute lung injury during the perioperation in liver transplantation.%目的 观察门静脉和下腔静脉阻断与开放后门静脉高压模型犬肺组织与肺动脉的超微结构改变. 方法 正常家犬18只,随机均分为阴性对照组(仅用于取肺组织和肺动脉标本)、对照组和门静脉高压模型组(采用部分结扎门静脉的方法 建立门静脉高压症犬的模型并饲养12周),进行门静脉、肝上和肝下下腔静脉

  4. Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) rs22114085 Associated with Canine Atopic Dermatitis by PCR-RFLP Method

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Miluchová; Michal Gábor; Anna Trakovická; Jana Hanusová

    2012-01-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (cAD) is a common inflammatory skin disease that is considered to be a naturally occurring, spontaneous model of human atopic dermatitis (eczema). The aim of the paper was to identify of the SNP rs22114085 in different dog breeds. The material involved 52 dogs from 5 different breeds. Canine genomic DNA was isolated from saliva by modified method with using DNAzol® and linear polyacrylamide (LPA) carrier and from blood by using commercial kit NucleospinBlood and used ...

  5. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) RS23472497 associated with canine atopic dermatitis by ACRS-PCR method

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Miluchová; Michal Gábor; Anna Trakovická; Jana Hanusova; Radovan Kasarda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to identify of the SNP rs23472497 associated with canine atopic dermatitis (cAD). cAD is a common inflammatory skin disease that is considered to be a naturally occurring, spontaneous model of human atopic dermatitis (eczema). The material involved 60 dogs from 6 different breeds. Canine genomic DNA was isolated from saliva by modified method with using DNAzol® and linear polyacrylamide (LPA) carrier and from blood by using commercial kit NucleospinBlood and used in...

  6. Low-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Canine Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Adamiak* and M. Jaskólska and A. Pomianowski1

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of presented study was to evaluate selected surface spine coil, and low-field magnetic resonance (MR selected sequences in diagnosing hydrocephalus in dogs. This paper discusses 19 dogs (14 canine patients with hydrocephalus and 5 healthy dogs, of five breeds, subjected to low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of hydrocephalus. Area of the lateral ventricles and brain were examined in dogs with hydrocephalus using low-field MRI (at 0.25 Tesla. The MRI of FSE REL, SE, FLAIR, STIR, 3D HYCE, T3DT1, GE STIR 3D and 3D SHARC sequences with an indication of the most effective sequences are described. Additionally, coils for MR were compared, and models for infusion anesthesia were described. As a result of performed study all estimated sequences were diagnostically useful. However, spinal coil No. 2 (ESAOTE was the most optimal for examining and positioning the cranium.

  7. 9 CFR 113.317 - Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). 113.317... Virus Vaccines § 113.317 Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine recommended for use in dogs... parvovirus susceptible dogs (20 vaccinates and 5 controls) shall be used as test animals. Blood samples...

  8. Stroma and extracellular matrix proteins in canine tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, studies on temporal and spatial changes in stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules in canine gastrointestinal (GIT) tumours and canine transmissible venereal (CTVT) tumours are described. The mechanisms involved in the phenotypic transformation of fibroblasts to myofib

  9. Canine evolution in sabretoothed carnivores: natural selection or sexual selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randau, Marcela; Carbone, Chris; Turvey, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae), representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition. PMID:23951334

  10. Canine evolution in sabretoothed carnivores: natural selection or sexual selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Randau

    Full Text Available The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae, representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition.

  11. Dysphonia in geriatric cases always needs fiberoptic laryngoscopy/bronchoscopy: Spindle cell carcinoma of larynx, a rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spindle cell (sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. It compromises of 2–3% of laryngeal cancers. Tumor arises from the oral cavity, tonsil larynx, and pharynx. Tumor is majority times misdiagnosed as reactive lesions or mesenchymal malignancies. It is considered to be a biphasic tumor that is composed of an SCC (in situ or invasive and spindle cell carcinoma (SpCC with sarcomatous appearance. In this case report, 61-year-male with minimal throat pain and acute onset dysphonia misdiagnosed and treated as a case of bronchial asthma with gastroesophageal reflux confirmed to have exophytic laryngeal growth is the cause for clinical presentation. We performed fiberoptic laryngoscopy and diagnosed to have SpCC of larynx. High index of suspicion is a must in geriatric cases with documented history of smoking and fiberoptic laryngoscopy/bronchoscopy found to be crucial in the evaluation. Histopathology expertise in surgical oncology is essential while planning treatment.

  12. Calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactive sensory neurons in the vagal and glossopharyngeal ganglia innervating the larynx of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Tetsu; Kuwahara-Otani, Sachi; Maeda, Seishi; Tanaka, Koichi; Seki, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    We have examined whether calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive (CGRP-ir) neurons in the vagal and glossopharyngeal ganglia innervate the larynx. Many CGRP-ir neurons were located mostly in the superior glossopharyngeal-jugular ganglion complex that was fused the superior glossopharyngeal ganglion and the jugular ganglion in the cranial cavity. When Fluorogold was applied to the cut end of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) or the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), many Fluorogold-labeled neurons were found in the superior glossopharyngeal-jugular ganglion complex and the nodose ganglion. Double-labeling for CGRP and Fluorogold showed that about 80% of Fluorogold-labeled neurons in the superior glossopharyngeal-jugular ganglion complex expressed CGRP-like immunoreactivity in the case of application to the SLN, and about 50% of Fluorogold-labeled neurons expressed CGRP-like immunoreactivity in the case of the RLN. Only a few double-labeled neurons were found in the nodose ganglion. The number of the Fluorogold-labeled neurons and double-labeled neurons in the superior glossopharyngeal-jugular ganglion complex in the case of the SLN was larger than that in the case of the RLN. These results indicate that sensory information from the larynx might be conveyed by many CGRP-ir neurons located in the superior glossopharyngeal-jugular ganglion complex by way of the SLN and the RLN. PMID:24269509

  13. Apicotomy: surgical management of maxillary dilacerated or ankylosed canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Eustáquio A; Araújo, Cristiana V; Tanaka, Orlando M

    2013-12-01

    This clinical article reports a technique, apicotomy, for managing dilacerated or ankylosed canines. The records of 3 patients successfully treated with apicotomy are presented. Orthodontists observe clinically significant incidences of impacted maxillary canines in their daily practices. Several procedures have been described to bring an ankylosed, impacted tooth into occlusion. Luxation is the most widely used solution, but there are risks involved with that approach, and the success rate is low. Surgical repositioning has also been used, but morbidity is high, and the aggressiveness of the procedure might also contraindicate it. Ankylosis might be related to the anatomic position of the canine's root apex and its adjacent anatomic structures. Apicotomy is a guided fracture of a canine root apex, followed by its orthodontic traction. It is a conservative surgical alternative for treating impacted canines with dilacerations or apical root ankylosis. PMID:24286914

  14. Morphology and immunoreactivity of canine and feline extramedullary plasmacytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikiewicz, M; Otrocka-Domagała, I; Paździor-Czapula, K; Gesek, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of morphology and immunophenotype of canine (19 cases) and feline (7 cases) extramedullary plasmacytomas. Tumours, located in skin, oral cavity and spleen were surgically excised, fixed and processed for histopathology and immunohistochemistry (CD79α, CD18, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, metallothionein). Histologically, tumours were classified into mature, cleaved, asynchronous, polymorphous blastic, hyalin, or monomorphous blastic type. All evaluated tumours showed cytoplasmic expression of CD79α antigen. The expression of CD18 was observed in canine cutaneous and splenic tumours. In canine tumours expression of metallothionein was low to moderate, while in feline plasmacytomas - absent or low. In canine tumours, the mitotic index and proliferating cell nuclear antigen index were positively correlated with the expression of metallothionein. In feline tumours no correlation between mitotic index, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and metallothionein was found. This is the first study describing expression of metallothionein in canine and feline extramedullary plasmacytoma. PMID:27487508

  15. A clinical and radiographic study to evaluate the rate of retraction of maxillary canine using nickel-titanium closed coil spring with two different bracket systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Adarsh Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study compares the efficiency of self-ligating brackets with the conventional preadjusted edgewise (PEA brackets during maxillary canine retraction using nickel-titanium closed coil springs. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised of 20 healthy patients (10 males and 10 females, within age groups 16-26 years (mean, 20 years having Class I malocclusion with bimaxillary protrusion. All patients underwent bilateral extraction of the maxillary first bicuspids and retraction of the maxillary canines with fixed self-ligating brackets (3M Smart clip and PEA appliance (3M Gemini. The initial records included standard intra- and extra-oral photographs, study models, lateral cephalograms, and panoramic radiographs. Results: The mean distal movement of canines in self-ligating brackets was 0.89 mm/mo with standard deviation of 0.255 and in preadjusted edgewise brackets, the mean distal movement of canines was 0.87 mm/mo with standard deviation of 0.214. The mean tipping of canine in self-ligating brackets was 7.45 ± 1.050(0 and in PEA brackets it was 7.70° ± 1.21°. The mean rotation of canine in self-ligating brackets was 7.65° ± 3.47° and in preadjusted edgewise appliance it was 12.30° ± 3.08°. Conclusion: The rates of distal movement of the maxillary canines were similar with both conventional and self-ligating brackets. Rotation of the maxillary canines during retraction was minimized with self-ligating brackets in comparison to conventional bracket systems.

  16. Genetic Control of Canine Leishmaniasis: Genome-Wide Association Study and Genomic Selection Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Quilez, Javier; Martínez, Verónica; Woolliams, John A.; Sanchez, Armand; Pong-Wong, Ricardo; Kennedy, Lorna J.; Quinnell, Rupert J.; William E. R. Ollier; Roura, Xavier; Ferrer, Lluís; Altet, Laura; Francino, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Background: the current disease model for leishmaniasis suggests that only a proportion of infected individuals develop clinical disease, while others are asymptomatically infected due to immune control of infection. The factors that determine whether individuals progress to clinical disease following Leishmania infection are unclear, although previous studies suggest a role for host genetics. Our hypothesis was that canine leishmaniasis is a complex disease with multiple loci responsible for...

  17. The canine hookworm genome: analysis and classification of Ancylostoma caninum survey sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Abubucker, Sahar; Martin, John; Yin, Yong; Fulton, Lucinda; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Johnston, J. Spencer; Hawdon, John; McCarter, James P.; Wilson, Richard K.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2007-01-01

    Hookworms infect nearly a billion people. The Ancylostoma caninum hookworm of canids is a model for studying human infections and information from its genome coupled with functional genomics and proteomics can accelerate progress towards hookworm control. As a step towards a full-scale A. caninum genome project, we generated 104,000 genome survey sequences (GSSs) and determined the genome size of the canine hookworm. GSSs assembled into 57.6 Mb of unique sequence from a ge...

  18. Heterogeneity in the spread and control of infectious disease: consequences for the elimination of canine rabies

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Elaine A.; Katie Hampson; Sarah Cleaveland; Ramona Consunji; Raffy Deray; John Friar; Haydon, Daniel T.; Joji Jimenez; Marlon Pancipane; Sunny E. Townsend

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors influencing vaccination campaign effectiveness is vital in designing efficient disease elimination programmes. We investigated the importance of spatial heterogeneity in vaccination coverage and human-mediated dog movements for the elimination of endemic canine rabies by mass dog vaccination in Region VI of the Philippines (Western Visayas). Household survey data was used to parameterise a spatially-explicit rabies transmission model with realistic dog movement and v...

  19. Genetic control of canine leishmaniasis: genome-wide association study and genomic selection analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Quilez; Verónica Martínez; Woolliams, John A.; Armand Sanchez; Ricardo Pong-Wong; Kennedy, Lorna J; Rupert J Quinnell; William E. R. Ollier; Xavier Roura; Lluís Ferrer; Laura Altet; Olga Francino

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current disease model for leishmaniasis suggests that only a proportion of infected individuals develop clinical disease, while others are asymptomatically infected due to immune control of infection. The factors that determine whether individuals progress to clinical disease following Leishmania infection are unclear, although previous studies suggest a role for host genetics. Our hypothesis was that canine leishmaniasis is a complex disease with multiple loci responsible for...

  20. The effect of canine disimpaction performed with temporary anchorage devices (TADs before comprehensive orthodontic treatment to avoid root resorption of adjacent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Heravi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the movement of impacted canines away from the roots of neighboring teeth before full-mouth bracket placement, performed by means of TADs to decrease undesired side effects on adjacent teeth. Methods: The study sample consisted of 34 palatally impacted canines, being 19 in the experimental group and 15 in the control group. In the experimental group, before placement of brackets, the impacted canine was erupted by means of miniscrews. In the control group, after initiation of comprehensive orthodontics, canine disimpaction was performed by means of a cantilever spring soldered to a palatal bar. At the end of treatment, volume of lateral incisors and canine root resorption were measured and compared by means of a CBCT-derived tridimensional model. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS score, bleeding on probing (BOP and gingival index (GI were recorded. Clinical success rate was also calculated. Results: The volume of root resorption of lateral teeth in the control group was significantly greater than in the experimental group (p < 0.001. At the end of treatment, VAS score, GI and BOP were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: Based on our results, it seems that disimpaction of canines and moving them to the arch can be done successfully carried out with minimal side effects by means of skeletal anchorage.

  1. Interleukin-8 promotes canine hemangiosarcoma growth by regulating the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Hyuk, E-mail: jhkim@umn.edu [Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Frantz, Aric M.; Anderson, Katie L.; Graef, Ashley J.; Scott, Milcah C. [Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Robinson, Sally [Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Sharkey, Leslie C. [Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); O' Brien, Timothy D. [Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Dickerson, Erin B. [Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Modiano, Jaime F., E-mail: modiano@umn.edu [Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression is highly up-regulated in canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA); however, its role in the pathogenesis of this disease is unknown. We investigated the expression of IL-8 in canine HSA tissues and cell lines, as well and the effects of IL-8 on canine HSA in vitro, and in vivo using a mouse xenograft model for the latter. Constitutive expression of IL-8 mRNA, IL-8 protein, and IL-8 receptor were variable among different tumor samples and cell lines, but they showed stable steady states in each cell line. Upon the addition of IL-8, HSA cells showed transient intracellular calcium fluxes, suggesting that their IL-8 receptors are functional and that IL-8 binding activates relevant signaling pathways. Yet, neither addition of exogenous IL-8 nor blockade of endogenous IL-8 by neutralizing anti-IL-8 antibody (α-IL-8 Ab) affected HSA cell proliferation or survival in vitro. To assess potential effects of IL-8 in other tumor constituents, we stratified HSA cell lines and whole tumor samples into “IL-8 high” and “IL-8 low” groups. Genome-wide gene expression profiling showed that samples in the “IL-8 high” tumor group were enriched for genes associated with a “reactive microenvironment,” including activation of coagulation, inflammation, and fibrosis networks. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the effects of IL-8 on these tumors were mostly indirect, regulating interactions with the microenvironment. This hypothesis was supported by in vivo xenograft experiments where survival and engraftment of tumor cells was inhibited by administration of neutralizing α-IL-8 Ab. Together, our results suggest that IL-8 contributes to establishing a permissive microenvironment during the early stages of tumorigenesis in HSA. - Highlights: • IL-8 is expressed in canine hemangiosarcoma tumor samples and cell lines. • IL-8 transduces a relevant biological signal in canine hemangiosarcoma cells. • IL-8 gene signature is associated

  2. Interleukin-8 promotes canine hemangiosarcoma growth by regulating the tumor microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression is highly up-regulated in canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA); however, its role in the pathogenesis of this disease is unknown. We investigated the expression of IL-8 in canine HSA tissues and cell lines, as well and the effects of IL-8 on canine HSA in vitro, and in vivo using a mouse xenograft model for the latter. Constitutive expression of IL-8 mRNA, IL-8 protein, and IL-8 receptor were variable among different tumor samples and cell lines, but they showed stable steady states in each cell line. Upon the addition of IL-8, HSA cells showed transient intracellular calcium fluxes, suggesting that their IL-8 receptors are functional and that IL-8 binding activates relevant signaling pathways. Yet, neither addition of exogenous IL-8 nor blockade of endogenous IL-8 by neutralizing anti-IL-8 antibody (α-IL-8 Ab) affected HSA cell proliferation or survival in vitro. To assess potential effects of IL-8 in other tumor constituents, we stratified HSA cell lines and whole tumor samples into “IL-8 high” and “IL-8 low” groups. Genome-wide gene expression profiling showed that samples in the “IL-8 high” tumor group were enriched for genes associated with a “reactive microenvironment,” including activation of coagulation, inflammation, and fibrosis networks. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the effects of IL-8 on these tumors were mostly indirect, regulating interactions with the microenvironment. This hypothesis was supported by in vivo xenograft experiments where survival and engraftment of tumor cells was inhibited by administration of neutralizing α-IL-8 Ab. Together, our results suggest that IL-8 contributes to establishing a permissive microenvironment during the early stages of tumorigenesis in HSA. - Highlights: • IL-8 is expressed in canine hemangiosarcoma tumor samples and cell lines. • IL-8 transduces a relevant biological signal in canine hemangiosarcoma cells. • IL-8 gene signature is associated

  3. Presence of neural progenitors in spontaneous canine gliomas: A histopathological and immunohistochemical study of 20 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Francisco; Deviers, Alexandra; Dally, Claire; Mogicato, Giovanni; Delverdier, Maxence; Cauzinille, Laurent; Gnirs, Kirsten; Añor, Sònia; de la Fuente, Cristian; Fondevila, Dolors; Pumarola, Martí

    2016-03-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumours in humans and are associated with a poor prognosis. An accurate animal model of human glioma tumorigenesis is needed to test new treatment strategies. Dogs represent a promising model because they develop spontaneous diffusely-infiltrating gliomas. This study investigated whether spontaneous canine gliomas contain cancer stem cells previously identified in all grades of human gliomas. Twenty spontaneous cases of canine gliomas were graded according to the human WHO classification. The expression of different markers of lineage differentiation was evaluated with immunohistochemistry as follows: nestin and CD133 for neural stem cells, doublecortin for neuronal progenitor cells, Olig2 for glial progenitor cells, glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin and S-100 for mature glial cells, and NeuN and βIII-tubulin for mature neurons. Gliomas were characterised as follows: five grade II (oligodendrogliomas); nine grade III (seven anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, one anaplastic astrocytoma, one anaplastic oligoastrocytoma); six grade IV (glioblastomas). Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed that (1) nestin and CD133 were expressed in all grades of gliomas with a higher proportion of positive cells in high-grade gliomas; (2) the expression of S-100 protein and Olig2 did not differ substantially between astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumours, and (3) all gliomas were negative for mature neuron markers. The results demonstrated the presence of undifferentiated neural progenitors in all grades of spontaneous canine gliomas, confirming the relevance of this animal model for further studies on cancer stem cells. PMID:26831167

  4. Extraglandular and intraglandular vascularization of canine prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, Miroslav

    2004-03-01

    The literature on the vascularization of the canine prostate is reviewed and the clinical significance of prostate morphology is described. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), combined with improved corrosion casting methods, reveal new morphological details that promise better diagnostics and treatment but also require expansion of clinical nomenclature. A proposal is made for including two previously unnamed veins in Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV). The canine prostate has two lobes with independent vascularization. Each lobe is supplied through the left and right a. prostatica, respectively. The a. prostatica sprouts three small vessels (cranial, middle, and caudal) towards the prostate gland. A. prostatica is a small-size artery whose wall structure is similar to the arteries of the muscular type. V. prostatica is a small-size valved vein. The canine prostate has capsular, parenchymal, and urethral vascular zones. The surface vessels of the capsule are predominantly veins and the diameter of arterial vessels is larger than that of the veins. The trabecular vessels are of two types: direct and branched. The prostate parenchyma is supplied by branches of the trabecular vessels. The periacinary capillaries are fenestrated and form a net in a circular pattern. The processes of the myoepithelial cells embrace both the acins and the periacinar capillaries. In the prostate ductal system. there are spermatozoa. The prostatic part of the urethra is supplied by an independent branch of a. prostatica. The prostatic urethral part is drained by v. prostatica, the vein of the urethral bulb and the ventral prostate veins. M. urethralis begins as early as the urethral prostatic part. The greater part of the white muscle fibers in m. urethralis suggest an enhanced anaerobic metabolism.

  5. Crowdsourcing reproducible seizure forecasting in human and canine epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Joost; Abbot, Drew; Adkins, Phillip; Bosshard, Simone C.; Chen, Min; Tieng, Quang M.; He, Jialune; Muñoz-Almaraz, F. J.; Botella-Rocamora, Paloma; Pardo, Juan; Zamora-Martinez, Francisco; Hills, Michael; Wu, Wei; Korshunova, Iryna; Cukierski, Will; Vite, Charles; Patterson, Edward E.; Litt, Brian; Worrell, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    See Mormann and Andrzejak (doi:10.1093/brain/aww091) for a scientific commentary on this article.   Accurate forecasting of epileptic seizures has the potential to transform clinical epilepsy care. However, progress toward reliable seizure forecasting has been hampered by lack of open access to long duration recordings with an adequate number of seizures for investigators to rigorously compare algorithms and results. A seizure forecasting competition was conducted on kaggle.com using open access chronic ambulatory intracranial electroencephalography from five canines with naturally occurring epilepsy and two humans undergoing prolonged wide bandwidth intracranial electroencephalographic monitoring. Data were provided to participants as 10-min interictal and preictal clips, with approximately half of the 60 GB data bundle labelled (interictal/preictal) for algorithm training and half unlabelled for evaluation. The contestants developed custom algorithms and uploaded their classifications (interictal/preictal) for the unknown testing data, and a randomly selected 40% of data segments were scored and results broadcasted on a public leader board. The contest ran from August to November 2014, and 654 participants submitted 17 856 classifications of the unlabelled test data. The top performing entry scored 0.84 area under the classification curve. Following the contest, additional held-out unlabelled data clips were provided to the top 10 participants and they submitted classifications for the new unseen data. The resulting area under the classification curves were well above chance forecasting, but did show a mean 6.54 ± 2.45% (min, max: 0.30, 20.2) decline in performance. The kaggle.com model using open access data and algorithms generated reproducible research that advanced seizure forecasting. The overall performance from multiple contestants on unseen data was better than a random predictor, and demonstrates the feasibility of seizure forecasting in canine and

  6. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay for detecting of antibody to canine distemper virus

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarisman

    2006-01-01

    Serum neutralisation test (SNT) has been established for evaluating canine distemper vaccination, but until now SNT was rarely used due to the need for continuous tissue culture facilities and requires 3 days to perform. For detecting antibody to canine distemper virus, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is relatively simple and rapid seroassay. ELISA for canine immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies to canine distemper virus (CDV) was developed by using Onderstepoort strain of canine dis...

  7. Lactoferrin in canine sera: a pyometra study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoskova, A; Adlerova, L; Kudlackova, H; Leva, L; Vitasek, R; Faldyna, M

    2009-07-01

    The concentration of lactoferrin was measured in canine sera from groups of healthy male dogs as well as pregnant and non-pregnant female dogs and was compared with that of bitches with pyometra. Lactoferrin concentrations were higher in bitches with pyometra. The role of elevated lactoferrin concentrations in the suppression of lymphocyte activity was examined in sera from bitches with pyometra in a series of investigations. Although the sera from bitches with pyometra were capable of suppressing lymphocyte activity, lactoferrin was not found to be involved in this action. PMID:19754566

  8. Definition, Classification, and Pathophysiology of Canine Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzirani, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Glaucoma is a common ocular condition in humans and dogs leading to optic nerve degeneration and irreversible blindness. Primary glaucoma is a group of spontaneous heterogeneous diseases. Multiple factors are involved in its pathogenesis and these factors vary across human ethnic groups and canine breeds, so the clinical phenotypes are numerous and their classification can be challenging and remain superficial. Aging and oxidative stress are major triggers for the manifestation of disease. Multiple, intertwined inflammatory and biochemical cascades eventually alter cellular and extracellular physiology in the optic nerve and trabecular meshwork and lead to vision loss. PMID:26456751

  9. Canine and human gastrointestinal stromal tumors display similar mutations in c-KIT exon 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    demonstrates that spontaneously occurring canine GISTs share molecular features with human GISTs and are an appropriate model for human GISTs

  10. The effect of mucolytic agents on the rheologic and transport properties of canine tracheal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R; Litt, M; Marriott, C

    1980-03-01

    The effect of several sulfhydryl and other agents on the rheologic and mucociliary transport properties of a model secretion, reconstituted canine tracheal mucus, was investigated. The mucus was obtained via the canine tracheal pouch. Rheologic properties were determined by mirorheometry, and the ciliary transport rate was determined using the frog palate technique. It was found that N-acetyl cysteine decreased the elastic modulus, leading to improved mucociliary transport at concentrations such that the mucin did not precipitate. S-carboxymethyl cysteine had no effect on either mucus properties or mucociliary transport rate, and its reported effectiveness in vivo must be due to some mechanism other than solubilization of mucin. Similar results were found with other blocked sulfhydryl compounds. Urea and potassium iodide to decrease mucus elasticity, but are harmful to cilia at the concentrations needed.

  11. Collision tumours, squamous cell carcinoma of larynx, papillary thyroid carcinoma, metastatic lymphatic node. Clinical Presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male patient with 35 years old, merchant from Capiata, no history of smoking or alcoholism, with 2 months history of bilateral neck nodes, sore throat, weight loss of 8 kg., dysphonia, progressive dyspne a on medium efforts dyspne a at rest so you see the urgency of the Hospital de Clinicas. On examination: lucid, collaborator, normosomico, with dysphonia, stri dor and dyspne a. P S: 2. No hemodynamic or fever. Neck: tumor mass of 6 cm in diameter, infrahiodea right, accompanying the movement of swallowing, bilateral jugular carotid lymphadenopathy high of 2 cm in diameter, solid-elastic smooth, mobile; lymphadenopathy average lower right carotid and jugular similar characteristics. Laryngoscopy smooth, submucosal, nodular lesion on right vocal cord, paralytic in middle position; aritenoides edematous law, glottal gap of 10%. Mobile left vocal cord. Remainder of the examination: Normal. Emergency tracheotomy performed. Biopsy of the lesion: invasive carcinoma, without other specifications. Laboratory tests: Hb: 11gr% eosinophilia. ECG, Rx. Chest and abdominal ultrasound: within normal limits. CT: tumor mass of 4.5 cm in diameter in right vocal cord, which is in middle position, and infiltrates the thyroid cartilage soft tissue. In thyroid lobe right: node 5 cm diameter. Cervical lymphadenopathy 2 cm in diameter in bilateral high carotid jugular region, medium and low carotid jugular right. 2/9/09 Surgery: Tumor infiltrating infrahiodea right muscles, jugular Total laryngectomy with bilateral carotid dissection, level 2,3 and 4. Right Thyroid lobectomy. Infrahiodea muscle resection. Pathology: 1-larynx neoplasms consist collision, poorly differentiated right infraglotis (3.2 cm.) Keratinizing squamous carcinoma infiltrating focally in depth the laryngeal cartilage through it, and a papillary carcinoma right thyroid lobe (3.4 cm.) massively infiltrating peritiroideo fibroadipose and skeletal muscle tissue infiltrating through the laryngeal cartilage and extending to

  12. Automatic segmentation of canine retinal OCT using adaptive gradient enhancement and region growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yufan; Sun, Yankui; Chen, Min; Zheng, Yuanjie; Liu, Hui; Leon, Cecilia; Beltran, William; Gee, James C.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several studies have shown that the canine retina model offers important insight for our understanding of human retinal diseases. Several therapies developed to treat blindness in such models have already moved onto human clinical trials, with more currently under development [1]. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) offers a high resolution imaging modality for performing in-vivo analysis of the retinal layers. However, existing algorithms for automatically segmenting and analyzing such data have been mostly focused on the human retina. As a result, canine retinal images are often still being analyzed using manual segmentations, which is a slow and laborious task. In this work, we propose a method for automatically segmenting 5 boundaries in canine retinal OCT. The algorithm employs the position relationships between different boundaries to adaptively enhance the gradient map. A region growing algorithm is then used on the enhanced gradient maps to find the five boundaries separately. The automatic segmentation was compared against manual segmentations showing an average absolute error of 5.82 +/- 4.02 microns.

  13. Sialyl Lewis x expression in canine malignant mammary tumours: correlation with clinicopathological features and E-Cadherin expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalheira Júlio

    2007-07-01

    results support the use of sLex as a prognostic tumour marker in canine mammary carcinomas. Furthermore, we showed that sLex and E-Cadherin expression were inversely correlated. Future studies are warranted to clarify the molecular mechanism underlying the relation between sLex and E-Cadherin in canine mammary carcinoma cells which represents an important comparative model to woman breast cancer.

  14. Sialyl Lewis x expression in canine malignant mammary tumours: correlation with clinicopathological features and E-Cadherin expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    canine mammary carcinomas. Furthermore, we showed that sLex and E-Cadherin expression were inversely correlated. Future studies are warranted to clarify the molecular mechanism underlying the relation between sLex and E-Cadherin in canine mammary carcinoma cells which represents an important comparative model to woman breast cancer

  15. Cone beam computed tomography findings of impacted upper canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva Santos, Ludmilla Mota [Dept. of Endodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Paulista State University, Aracatuba(Brazil); Bastos, Luana Costa; Da Silva, Silvio Jose Albergaria; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores [School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil); Oliveira Santos, Christiano [Dept. of Stomatology, Oral Public Health, and Forensic Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Neves, Frederico Sampaio [Dept. of Oral Diagnosis, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    To describe the features of impacted upper canines and their relationship with adjacent structures through three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Using the CBCT scans of 79 upper impacted canines, we evaluated the following parameters: gender, unilateral/bilateral occurrence, location, presence and degree of root resorption of adjacent teeth (mild, moderate, or severe), root dilaceration, dental follicle width, and presence of other associated local conditions. Most of the impacted canines were observed in females (56 cases), unilaterally (51 cases), and at a palatine location (53 cases). Root resorption in adjacent teeth and root dilaceration were observed in 55 and 47 impacted canines, respectively. In most of the cases, the width of the dental follicle of the canine was normal; it was abnormally wide in 20 cases. A statistically significant association was observed for all variables, except for root dilaceration (p=0.115) and the side of impaction (p=0.260). Root resorption of adjacent teeth was present in most cases of canine impaction, mostly affecting adjacent lateral incisors to a mild degree. A wide dental follicle of impacted canines was not associated with a higher incidence of external root resorption of adjacent teeth.

  16. Cone beam computed tomography findings of impacted upper canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the features of impacted upper canines and their relationship with adjacent structures through three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Using the CBCT scans of 79 upper impacted canines, we evaluated the following parameters: gender, unilateral/bilateral occurrence, location, presence and degree of root resorption of adjacent teeth (mild, moderate, or severe), root dilaceration, dental follicle width, and presence of other associated local conditions. Most of the impacted canines were observed in females (56 cases), unilaterally (51 cases), and at a palatine location (53 cases). Root resorption in adjacent teeth and root dilaceration were observed in 55 and 47 impacted canines, respectively. In most of the cases, the width of the dental follicle of the canine was normal; it was abnormally wide in 20 cases. A statistically significant association was observed for all variables, except for root dilaceration (p=0.115) and the side of impaction (p=0.260). Root resorption of adjacent teeth was present in most cases of canine impaction, mostly affecting adjacent lateral incisors to a mild degree. A wide dental follicle of impacted canines was not associated with a higher incidence of external root resorption of adjacent teeth.

  17. Detection of canine echinococcosis by coproantigen ELISA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DeS; PanD; BeraAK; SreevatsavaV; DasSK; DasS; RanaT; BandyopadhyayS; BhattacharyaD

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To study the canine echinococcosis by coproantigen ELISA method. Methods:During the present investigation experimental infection was established using evaginated worms of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus). To check cross reactivity two pups were infected with Taenia hydatigena(T. hydatigena). In order to detect the presence of antigen, hyperimmune sera were raised against excretory-secretory products of adult worms E. chinococcus granulosus. Faecal sample collected either from experimentally infected pups or from other sources were heated at 70℃to detect heat stable soluble antigen. Results:Pups harbouring less than 104 worms showed negative results. Samples collected from 14 days onwards from experimentally infected animals harbouring more than 104 worms showed positive value. The maximum positive samples were detected in samples collected from in and around slaughter house and the least number of samples were detected positive maintained by dog squad. Conclusions:The affinity purified IgG exhibited promising results for detection of canine echinococcosis by indirect ELISA.

  18. Seroepidemiology of Canine parvovirus infection in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus is an acute and fatal viral disease in dogs. A total of 209 local, cross breed and breed dogs sera from Kodya Bogor, Kabupaten Bogor, Sukabumi, and Jakarta, had been tested using Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (HI with pig red blood cells. A total of 64 breed and cross breed dogs from Sukabumi and Kodya Bogor, were used as a sentinel dogs to study the epidemiology of Canine parvovirus (CPV infection and its immunological responses caused by vaccination. The results indicated that 78% (95 breed and cross bred dogs and 59% (51 local dogs had antibody to CPV. Sentinel dogs results indicated that dogs had been vaccinated showed antibody response with the varied titre dependant upon prevaccination titre. Low prevaccinated titre gave better response than protective level titre. From 19 puppies observed, Maternal antibodi were still detected until 5 weeks old puppies. First vaccination given at less than 3 months old, should be boosted after 3 months old puppied. Antibodi titre produced by natural infection will keep untill 2 years. These data concluded that the dog condition and time of vaccination will affect the optimum antibody response.

  19. A custom made jig for individual canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Kumar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We face difficulty in individual canine retraction in the bracket system lacking power arms on the canines. When orthodontic force is applied through the center of resistance (CR, then, tooth translation ensues. Forces applied at a distance from the CR create a moment that tends to rotate and tip the tooth. The tendency of tipping is increased in the bracket system lacking power arm, since, force is applied more occlusally. Hence, we have designed a chair side custom made jig to retract the canines individually.

  20. 门静脉高压症动物模型血流动力学的CT灌注成像研究%Hemodynamics assessment by perfusion computed tomography in a canine model of portal hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林元为; 熊兵; 陈伟建; 黄求理; 杨运俊; 梁盼; 杨博洋; 王宏清; 林德新; 张启瑜

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨CT灌注成像监测肝硬化门静脉高压症(PHT)门静脉压力变化的应用价值.方法 采用门静脉主干缩窄联合硫代乙酰胺溶液喂养诱导建立比格犬肝硬化门静脉高压症模型,分别对PHT组和对照组比格犬行螺旋CT肝脏灌注成像扫描,用去卷积法计算肝脏各血流灌注参数,开腹后采用玻璃水柱法测定两组比格犬的门静脉压力,并将相应指标进行统计学分析.结果 ①对照组门静脉压力为(14.5±2.2) cm H2O,PHT组门静脉压力为(23.1±2.8)cm H2O,两组之间相比差异具有统计学意义(t=-8.979,P<0.05).②对照组与PHT组肝血流量分别为(112±14)ml·100 g-1·min-1和(96±11)ml·100 g-1·min-1;肝血容量分别为(10±3)ml·100 g-1和(11±5)ml·100 g-1;平均通过时间分别为(7.1±2.0)s和(10.4±3.5) s;肝动脉分数分别为(24%±5%)和(37%±6%);肝动脉灌注量分别为(27±6)ml·100 g-1·min-1和(35±5)ml·100 g-1·min-1;门静脉灌注量分别为(85±13)ml·100 g-1·min-1和(61±11)ml·100 g-1·min-1,统计结果显示两组除肝血容量外其余各参数之间相比差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).③PHT组门静脉压力与门静脉灌注量、肝血流量之间呈负相关,与平均通过时间、肝动脉分数之间呈正相关,其中与门静脉灌注量相关性最显著(r=-0.842),两者关系的直线回归方程为Y=36.624-0.219X.利用门静脉压力与门静脉灌注量的直线回归方程计算PHT组比格犬门静脉压力为(23.2±2.4)am H2O,与手术实测的门静脉压力(23.1±2.8)cm H2O具有良好的相关性(r=0.843,P<0.05).结论 肝脏CT灌注成像为无创、有效监测门静脉压力提供了一种新途径.%Objective To evaluate perfusion computed tomography in the assessment of portal vein pressure changes in an experimental dog model of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension.Methods The canine model of cirrhosis and portal hypertension was induced by portal vein stenosis with combination of

  1. Hypopharynx and larynx cancers: propositions for the selection and the delineation of peritumoral microscopic disease volumes (lymph nodes excluded); Cancer de l'hypopharynx et du larynx: proposition de selection et delimitation des volumes cibles microscopiques peri-tumoraux (aires ganglionnaires exclues)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapeyre, M.; Toledano, I. [Departement de radiotherapie, centre Jean-Perrin, 63 - Clermont Ferrand (France); Bailly, C. [Departement de radiodiagnostic, centre Jean-Perrin, 63 - Clermont Ferrand (France); Montalban, A.; Russier, M. [Departement de chirurgie ORL, centre Hospitalier universitaire, hopital Gabriel-Montpied, 63 - Clermont Ferrand (France)

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews the concept of selectivity in peritumoral microscopic disease to be included in the Clinical Target Volume (CTV) for elective treatment for larynx and hypopharynx squamous cell carcinoma (50 Gy or 54-60 Gy for SIB-IMRT), using the local tumoral spread. The objective of the present article is to present the different delineations of the target volumes, required for an appropriate application of 3-DCRT and IMRT (supraglottic larynx, vocal cord, sub-glottic larynx, pyriform sinus, lateral and posterior pharyngeal wall and post-cricoid pharynx). These propositions are for the delineation of microscopic peritumoral target volumes when external beam irradiation is required. CTVs are illustrated on CT sections. (authors)

  2. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Van Heerden

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Wild dogs Lycaon pictus (n = 8 were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8 (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8 over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use in domestic dogs, were used. None of the vaccinated dogs showed any untoward clinical signs. The inactivated canine distemper vaccine did not result in seroconversion whereas the attenuated live vaccine resulted in seroconversion in all wild dogs. Presumably protective concentrations of antibodies to canine distemper virus were present in all wild dogs for at least 451 days. Canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres were present in all wild dogs prior to the administration of vaccine and protective concentrations persisted for at least 451 days. Vaccination against parvovirus infection resulted in a temporary increase in canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres in most dogs. Administration of both inactivated parenteral and live oral rabies vaccine initially resulted in seroconversion in 7 of 8 dogs. These titres, however, dropped to very low concentrations within 100 days. Booster administrations resulted in increased antibody concentrations in all dogs. It was concluded that the vaccines were safe to use in healthy subadult wild dogs and that a vaccination protocol in free-ranging wild dogs should at least incorporate booster vaccinations against rabies 3-6 months after the first inoculation.

  3. p16 (INK4a) has clinicopathological and prognostic impact on oropharynx and larynx squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, S.D. [Departamento de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço e Otorrinolaringologia, Hospital A.C. Camargo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Department of Oncology, Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research and Segal Cancer Centre, Sir Mortimer B. Davis-Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Nonogaki, S. [Departamento de Anatomia Patológica, Hospital A.C. Camargo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Soares, F.A. [Departamento de Anatomia Patológica, Hospital A.C. Camargo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Estomatologia, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kowalski, L.P. [Departamento de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço e Otorrinolaringologia, Hospital A.C. Camargo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-07

    CDKN2A encodes proteins such as p16 (INK4a), which negatively regulate the cell-cycle. Molecular genetic studies have revealed that deletions in CDKN2A occur frequently in cancer. Although p16 (INK4a) may be involved in tumor progression, the clinical impact and prognostic implications in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of the immunohistochemical expression of p16 (INK4a) in 40 oropharynx and 35 larynx from HNSCC patients treated in a single institution and followed-up at least for 10 years in order to explore potential associations with clinicopathological outcomes and prognostic implications. Forty cases (53.3%) were positive for p16 (INK4a) and this expression was more intense in non-smoking patients (P = 0.050), whose tumors showed negative vascular embolization (P = 0.018), negative lymphatic permeation (P = 0.002), and clear surgical margins (P = 0.050). Importantly, on the basis of negative p16 (INK4a) expression, it was possible to predict a probability of lower survival (P = 0.055) as well as tumors presenting lymph node metastasis (P = 0.050) and capsular rupture (P = 0.0010). Furthermore, increased risk of recurrence was observed in tumors presenting capsular rupture (P = 0.0083). Taken together, the alteration in p16 (INK4a) appears to be a common event in patients with oropharynx and larynx squamous cell carcinoma and the negative expression of this protein correlated with poor prognosis.

  4. Pyriform sinus squamous cell carcinoma: oncological outcomes in good responders of induction chemotherapy-based larynx preservation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourexakis, Zacharias; Le Ridant, Anne-Marie; Dulguerov, Pavel; Janot, François

    2015-07-01

    Induction chemotherapy-based larynx preservation protocols use chemotherapy to select exclusively patients with 'chemosensitive' tumors for a nonsurgical treatment with radiation therapy. This study on pyriform sinus squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is interested in the oncological outcome of treatment based on radiation therapy when offered to patients with tumors responding to induction chemotherapy. This was a retrospective cohort study. The cohort included good responders to induction chemotherapy, subsequently treated with definite radiation therapy (with or without concomitant chemotherapy) for pyriform sinus SCC, in a tertiary referral cancer center. The primary endpoints were overall, laryngectomy-free and disease-free survival and the secondary endpoints were analysis of treatment failures and possibilities of salvage treatment. Forty-two patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were retained for analysis; 7% were stage II (3/42), 48% stage III (20/42) and 45% stage IV (19/42). At 1, 3 and 5 years, the overall survival was 95% (40/42), 74% (31/42), and 60% (SE ≈ 0.08), respectively. For the same intervals, the laryngectomy-free survival was 90% (38/42), 69% (29/42) and 50% (SE ≈ 0.08), respectively. The estimated 5-year disease-free survival was also 50%. Disease-free survival was significantly better for N0 patients. There was a 28% recurrence rate, mainly in the primary tumor site (9/11), with or without simultaneous nodal recurrence. Interestingly, more than one-third of all oncologic failures occurred beyond the first 3 years of follow-up. Salvage treatment was not possible or definitely inefficient in at least 2/3 of all recurrences. In candidates for larynx preservation for a pyriform sinus SCC, good response to induction chemotherapy followed by definite radiation therapy seems to be associated with a more favorable prognosis. Nevertheless, in case of locoregional recurrence the possibilities for efficient salvage treatment are limited.

  5. 氧化锆桩核修复无肩领上颌尖牙三维有限元模型的建立%Establishment of three-dimensional finite element model of severely damaged maxillary canine with zirconium post and core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雅; 陈栋; 邵龙泉; 邓邦莲

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立氧化锆桩核修复的、无肩领上颌尖牙的三维有限元模型,为进一步生物力学分析提供模型基础.方法:采用Micro CT扫描获得上颌尖牙图片395张,将扫描图片输入Mimics建立上颌尖牙实体模型,并用Freeform软件进行表面光滑处理后,输入ANSYS软件中建立一段式切削氧化锆桩核修复后上颌尖牙的三维有限模型,采用收敛试验验证模型的有效性.结果:网格划分后氧化锆桩核修复的上颌尖牙有限元模型共生成35463个单元,49049个节点,在力学和几何学方面与实体组织具有高度的相似性.应力云图可见Von-Mises应力主要集中于舌面受力区、桩/牙本质界面和舌:侧牙根部,应力峰值发生在舌面受力区.结论:所建三维有限元模型比较真实的模拟了氧化锆桩核修复的上颌尖牙,可为进一步的生物力学研究提供有效的平台.%Objective: To establish the three-dimensional (3D) finite element model (FEM) of severely damaged maxillary canine restored with one-milled zirconium post and core system. Methods: Micro-CT scanning technology and software such as Mimics, Freeform, and ANSYS were applied to establish the 3D FEM restored with one-milled zirconia post and to preliminarily validate the validity of the model. Results: The established model generated 35463 elements and 49049 nodes. Von-Mises stress mainly distributed on occlusal section, post/dentin interface, and lingual region of the root. Conclusions: The combination of Micro-CT scanning technology, Mimics, Freeform, and ANSYS software can be used to establish 3D FEM of maxillary canine. The model features vivid shape and perfect mechanical and geometric similarities.

  6. Case Report: Canine Fossa Abscess; A Rare Etiological Factor: The Lower Canine Tooth

    OpenAIRE

    Agacayak, K. Serkan; Atılgan, S. Serhat; GORGUN, Belgin; Yaman, Ferhan; Ucan, M. Can; Atalay, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Odontogenic infection may be dangerous; especially when life-threatening complications occur. Infection spreads through the bone and periosteum toward nearby or more distant structures and spaces. Canine fossa abscess is an odontogenic infection that can lead to life-threatening complications. Successful treatment requires early recognition, determination of etiological factors, and proper medical and surgical management. The aim of this paper is to emphasize different and rare etiological fa...

  7. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis

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    Cassali Geovanni D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. Methods A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PgR, high molecular weight cytokeratin (34βE-12, E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53 was perfomed. Results Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1% of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2% were without and 26 (38.8% with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%. Sixty (89.5% of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors. The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34βE-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Conclusions Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions.

  8. Prediction of the size of unerupted canines and premolars in an Iranian population

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    Mashaallah Khanehmasjedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: One of the important aspects of diagnosis and treatment planning in the mixed dentition is estimation of the size of unerupted permanent canines and premolars. One of the most commonly used the prediction methods are Tanaka and Johnston, which are based on data from a sample of Northern European descent children. The accuracy of this method when applied to a different ethnic population is questionable. The aim of this study was to determine the modified equations from Tanaka and Johnston for Iranian population. Materials and Methods: This study was an analytic and cross-sectional investigation with the randomized cluster sampling in Ahwaz. Fifty four students of 14-18 years age (32 girls, 22 boys were selected between 320 students and plaster models of their maxillary and mandibular arches were prepared. Subjects had fully erupted teeth, class I canine and molar relationship and presented no proximal caries or fillings, morphological anomalies, missing teeth or occlusal abrasion, and bruxism. The mesiodistal crown diameters of the permanent teeth were measured with using the sharpened boley gauge (accuracy 0.01 mm. The data were analyzed by using the regression correlation analyses and t-test. Results: The size of permanent canines and premolars were larger in maxilla than mandible and males than females. These values in Iran were different from other countries. Conclusion: In this study to predict the space (in mm required for alignment of unerupted canine and premolars in Iranian children, halve the sum of mesiodistal dimension of the four mandibular incisors and add the respective constants 10.5 for upper jaw and 10 for lower jaw.

  9. Canine Mammary Carcinomas: A Comparative Analysis of Altered Gene Expression

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    Farruk M. Lutful Kabir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer represents the second most frequent neoplasm in humans and sexually intact female dogs after lung and skin cancers, respectively. Many similar features in human and dog cancers including, spontaneous development, clinical presentation, tumor heterogeneity, disease progression and response to conventional therapies have supported development of this comparative model as an alternative to mice. The highly conserved similarities between canine and human genomes are also key to this comparative analysis, especially when compared to the murine genome. Studies with canine mammary tumor (CMT models have shown a strong genetic correlation with their human counterparts, particularly in terms of altered expression profiles of cell cycle regulatory genes, tumor suppressor and oncogenes and also a large group of non-coding RNAs or microRNAs (miRNAs. Because CMTs are considered predictive intermediate models for human breast cancer, similarities in genetic alterations and cancer predisposition between humans and dogs have raised further interest. Many cancer-associated genetic defects critical to mammary tumor development and oncogenic determinants of metastasis have been reported and appear to be similar in both species. Comparative analysis of deregulated gene sets or cancer signaling pathways has shown that a significant proportion of orthologous genes are comparably up- or down-regulated in both human and dog breast tumors. Particularly, a group of cell cycle regulators called cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs acting as potent tumor suppressors are frequently defective in CMTs. Interestingly, comparative analysis of coding sequences has also shown that these genes are highly conserved in mammals in terms of their evolutionary divergence from a common ancestor. Moreover, co-deletion and/or homozygous loss of the INK4A/ARF/INK4B (CDKN2A/B locus, encoding three members of the CKI tumor suppressor gene families (p16/INK4A, p14ARF and p15

  10. Death of a wild wolf from canine parvovirus enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Kurtz, H.J.; Goyal, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 9-mo-old female wolf (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota (USA) died from a canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. This is the first direct evidence that this infection effects free-ranging wild wolves.

  11. Canine index – A tool for sex determination

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    Shankar M. Bakkannavar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Teeth are most useful tools in victim identification in the living as well as the dead in the field of forensic investigations. Their ability to survive in situations like mass disasters makes them constructive devices. Many authors have measured crowns of teeth in both males and females and found certain variations. Canines, reported to survive in air crash and hurricane disasters, are perhaps the most stable teeth in the oral cavity because of the labiolingual thickness of the crown and the root anchorage in the alveolar process of jaws. Measurement of mesiodistal width of the mandibular canines and inter-canine distance of the mandible provides good evidence of sex identification due to dimorphism. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of canine index (CI in the determination of sex.

  12. Periodontal ligament distraction: A simplified approach for rapid canine retraction

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    K C Prabhat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis is a method of inducing new bone formation by applying mechanical strains on preexisting bone. The process of osteogenesis in the periodontal ligament during orthodontic tooth movement is similar to the osteogenesis in the midpalatal suture during rapid palatal expansion. A new concept of "distracting the periodontal ligament" is proposed to elicit rapid canine retraction in two weeks. At the time of first premolar extraction, the interseptal bone distal to the canine was undermined with a bone bur, grooving vertically inside the extraction socket along the buccal and lingual sides and extending obliquely toward the socket base. Then, a tooth-borne, custom-made, intraoral distraction device was placed to distract the canine distally into the extraction space. It was activated 0.5 mm/day, immediately after the extraction. Canine was distracted 6.5 mm into the extraction space within two weeks.

  13. Severe canine distemper outbreak in unvaccinated dogs in Mozambique

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    Julieta Zacarias

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although significant animal suffering caused by preventable diseases is frequently seen in developing countries, reports of this are scarce. This report describes avoidable animal suffering owing to a suspected canine distemper (CD outbreak in unvaccinated dogs owned by low-income families in Mozambique that killed approximately 200 animals. Affected dogs exhibited clinical signs, and gross and microscopic lesions compatible with CD. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of canine distemper virus (CDV in the kidney of one dog from the cohort. This brief communication again illustrates that large outbreaks of CDV in unvaccinated dogs occur and that large-scale avoidable suffering and threats to the health of dogs and wild canines continue. Mass vaccination supported by government and non-government organisations is recommended.Keywords: Canine distemper; dogs; outbreak; animal welfare; Mozambique

  14. Canine distemper virus in Lake Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica).

    OpenAIRE

    Mamaev, L.V.; Visser, Ilona; Belikov, S.I.; Denikina, N.N.; Harder, Timm; Goatley, L.; Rima, B.; Edginton, B.; Osterhaus, Albert; Barrett, Thomas,

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe virus epizootic which resulted in significant mortality in Siberian seals (Phoca sibirica) in Lake Baikal during 1987/88 was caused by canine distemper virus. Sequence analysis of the virus glycoprotein genes revealed that it was most closely related to recent European field isolates of canine distemper virus. This paper presents evidence that the same virus continued to circulate in seals in Lake Baikal after the initial epizootic. Three out of 45 brain tissue samples collect...

  15. Immunopathogenic and Neurological Mechanisms of Canine Distemper Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Otávio Valério Carvalho; Clarisse Vieira Botelho; Caroline Gracielle Torres Ferreira; Paulo Oldemar Scherer; Jamária Adriana Pinheiro Soares-Martins; Márcia Rogéria de Almeida; Abelardo Silva Júnior

    2012-01-01

    Canine distemper is a highly contagious viral disease caused by the canine distemper virus (CDV), which is a member of the Morbillivirus genus, Paramyxoviridae family. Animals that most commonly suffer from this disease belong to the Canidae family; however, the spectrum of natural hosts for CDV also includes several other families of the order Carnivora. The infectious disease presents worldwide distribution and maintains a high incidence and high levels of lethality, despite the availabilit...

  16. Characterization of a Canine Homolog of Human Aichivirus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kapoor, A; Simmonds, P.; Dubovi, E J; Qaisar, N.; Henriquez, J. A.; J. Medina; S Shields; Lipkin, W. I.

    2011-01-01

    Many of our fatal "civilization" infectious diseases have arisen from domesticated animals. Although picornaviruses infect most mammals, infection of a companion animal is not known. Here we describe the identification and genomic characterization of the first canine picornavirus. Canine kobuvirus (CKoV), identified in stool samples from dogs with diarrhea, has a genomic organization typical of a picornavirus and encodes a 2,469-amino-acid polyprotein flanked by 5' and 3' untranslated regions...

  17. Permanent Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Halaswamy V Kambalimath; Jain, Somya; Patil, Raju Umaji; Asokan, Alexander; Kambalimath, Deepashri

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Congenitally missing teeth (CMT) are among one of the commonly known dental anomalies. The most frequently missing teeth in the permanent dentition, excluding the third molars, are mandibular second premolars and maxillary lateral incisors. Exclusive agenesis of both maxillary canines is an extremely rare occurrence and only a few cases have been reported. Previous studies showed that the prevalence of maxillary canine agenesis varies between 0.07 and 0.13%. In recent studies on Indi...

  18. Genomic instability and telomere fusion of canine osteosarcoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Maeda

    Full Text Available Canine osteosarcoma (OSA is known to present with highly variable and chaotic karyotypes, including hypodiploidy, hyperdiploidy, and increased numbers of metacentric chromosomes. The spectrum of genomic instabilities in canine OSA has significantly augmented the difficulty in clearly defining the biological and clinical significance of the observed cytogenetic abnormalities. In this study, eight canine OSA cell lines were used to investigate telomere fusions by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using a peptide nucleotide acid probe. We characterized each cell line by classical cytogenetic studies and cellular phenotypes including telomere associated factors and then evaluated correlations from this data. All eight canine OSA cell lines displayed increased abnormal metacentric chromosomes and exhibited numerous telomere fusions and interstitial telomeric signals. Also, as evidence of unstable telomeres, colocalization of γ-H2AX and telomere signals in interphase cells was observed. Each cell line was characterized by a combination of data representing cellular doubling time, DNA content, chromosome number, metacentric chromosome frequency, telomere signal level, cellular radiosensitivity, and DNA-PKcs protein expression level. We have also studied primary cultures from 10 spontaneous canine OSAs. Based on the observation of telomere aberrations in those primary cell cultures, we are reasonably certain that our observations in cell lines are not an artifact of prolonged culture. A correlation between telomere fusions and the other characteristics analyzed in our study could not be identified. However, it is important to note that all of the canine OSA samples exhibiting telomere fusion utilized in our study were telomerase positive. Pending further research regarding telomerase negative canine OSA cell lines, our findings may suggest telomere fusions can potentially serve as a novel marker for canine OSA.

  19. Canine Evolution in Sabretoothed Carnivores: Natural Selection or Sexual Selection?

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Randau; Chris Carbone; Turvey, Samuel T.

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae), representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids...

  20. Recent epidemiological status of canine viral enteric infections and Giardia infection in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, M; Hashimoto, M; Ishida, T

    2001-05-01

    Epidemiology of canine enteric infections was studied. Rectal swabs collected from 95 dogs presented at animal hospitals during a period from January to June of 2000 were examined for enteric pathogens, including viruses and Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia). Most frequently detected in both diarrheal and normal feces were canine coronavirus (55.4%) and G. lamblia (48.2%). Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) was specifically associated with diarrheal cases and CPV-2b was the predominant antigenic type. Although canine rotavirus, canine adenovirus, and canine distemper virus were also detected in a small number of diarrheal cases, no evidence for calicivirus infection was obtained. PMID:11411507