WorldWideScience

Sample records for canine cranial cruciate

  1. The Use of Canine Stifle Orthotics for Cranial Cruciate Ligament Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Jean Carr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess weight bearing of dogs treated for unilateral cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency with a custom stifle orthotic.Background: Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL insufficiency is the most common cause of hind limb lameness in dogs. While there are numerous options for surgical management, surgery is not always an option. Recently, the use of canine stifle orthotics has also emerged as a means to non-surgically manage patients with cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency.  Evidentiary value:  This is a retrospective study of ten dogs treated for unilateral cranial cruciate ligament rupture with a stifle orthotic.Methods: Medical records (January 2005- December 2012 of ten dogs treated for unilateral cranial cruciate ligament rupture with a stifle orthotic were reviewed.  Temporospatial gait analysis was performed using a pressure sensing walkway at baseline and 90 days or greater post orthotic placement to identify weight bearing with total pressure index % (TPI%.Results: TPI% improved significantly by 5.1% in the affected limb when compared to baseline (p = 0.0020. At final gait analysis, TPI% significantly improved by 3% in the affected limb with the orthotic off when compared to the unaffected limb (p = 0.0020.Conclusion: Custom canine stifle orthotics allow for improved weight bearing in the affected limb.Application: Custom canine stifle orthotics should be considered for cases with concurrent medical conditions or financial constraints that do not allow for surgical intervention.

  2. Clinical and radiographic aspects of the bovine pericardium as a substitute of the canine cranial cruciate ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendolan, A.P.; Rezende, C.M.F.; Melo, E.G.; Malm, C.; Gheller, V.A.; Oliveira, H.P.; Torres, R.C.S.; Araujo, F.A.

    2007-01-01

    The clinical and radiographic aspects of the bovine pericardium preserved in glicerin, were evaluated as a substitute for canine cranial cruciate ligament. Fifteen male mongrel dogs weighing between 17.4 and 31.6kg had the ligament experimentally ruptured and the stifle joint stabilized by an arthroscopical technique with bovine pericardium as a graft. The dogs were divided into three groups of five animals each. They were evaluated at 30, 90 and 120 days. The operated limb was imobillized for two weeks and clinical examination was performed weekly. Radiographs were taken monthly and the sinovial fluid was collect at 30, 90 and 120 days. Clinically, dogs presented high to moderate lameness, muscle hipotrophy in the operated limb and accentuated cranial drawer movement. Degenerative disease was detected in radiography. All dogs showed total rupture of the graft. Sinovial fluid analysis showed characteristics of inflammation. It can be concluded that pericardium graft failed prematurely, incited persistent inflammatory reaction and rejection phenomena. Thus, it cannot be recommended as a xenograft for cranial cruciate ligament replacement [pt

  3. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement on the radiographical diagnosis of canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Evelien; Van der Vekens, Elke; Verhoeven, Geert; de Rooster, Hilde; Van Ryssen, Bernadette; Samoy, Yves; Putcuyps, Ingrid; Van Tilburg, Johan; Devriendt, Nausikaa; Weekers, Frederik; Bertal, Mileva; Houdellier, Blandine; Scheemaeker, Stephanie; Versteken, Jeroen; Lamerand, Maryline; Feenstra, Laurien; Peelman, Luc; Nieuwerburgh, Filip Van; Saunders, Jimmy H; Broeckx, Bart J G

    2018-04-28

    Even though radiography is one of the most frequently used imaging techniques for orthopaedic disorders, it has been demonstrated that the interpretation can vary between assessors. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the intraobserver and interobserver agreement and the influence of level of expertise on the interpretation of radiographs of the stifle in dogs with and without cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR). Sixteen observers, divided in four groups according to their level of experience, evaluated 30 radiographs (15 cases with CCLR and 15 control stifles) twice. Each observer was asked to evaluate joint effusion, presence and location of degenerative joint disease, joint instability and whether CCLR was present or absent. Overall, intraobserver and interobserver agreement ranged from fair to almost perfect with a trend towards increased agreement for more experienced observers. Additionally, it was found that stifles that were classified with high agreement have either overt disease characteristics or no disease characteristics at all, in comparison to the ones that are classified with a low agreement. Overall, the agreement on radiographic interpretation of CCLR was high, which is important, as it is the basis of a correct diagnosis and treatment. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Effect of triple tibial osteotomy on femorotibial stability in canine cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, S.; Vedel, T.; Jensen, Bente Rona

    leveling osteotomy (TPLO), have been biomechanically evaluated (Kipfer et al. (2008), Apelt et al. (2007), Butler et al. (2011), Pozzi et al. (2006) and Rey et al. (2014)), experimental studies on TTO are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of TTO on cadaveric stifle stability....... Limbs were mounted on a custom-made frame, which permitted controlled movement of the tibia relative to the femur, and extended from full flexion whilst recording the stifle region fluoroscopically. Metal markers placed at the CrCL attachment sites were used to monitor cranial tibial subluxation (CTS...... stability was not statistically different to the intact joint. However, the stifle was significantly over-corrected through joint angles 65° to 100° (negative CTS), and under-corrected at joint angles >145°. The maximum CTS due to under-correction in the TTO stabilized stifle was 16.4% of the intact marker...

  5. Canine stifle stability following cranial cruciate ligament transection and medial meniscal release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, T.; Kristiansen, S.; Jensen, Bente Rona

    stifle stability was evaluated in right pelvic limbs from canine cadavers under three different test situations (intact, CrCL deficient and medial meniscal release (MMR)). Dogs were euthanized for reasons unrelated to the study, owner approval given for research use and institutional ethical approval...... to an intact stifle PTA between 95.5° and 97°. The mean maximal CTS in CrCL deficient stifles was 52.8% of intact marker separation distance, occurring at an average joint angle of 130°, equivalent to an intact PTA of 109°.After MMR, CTS initiated significantly earlier in extension, at a joint angle of 65...... meniscus, but did not cause a significant change in the maximal amount of CTS....

  6. 3D FSE Cube and VIPR-aTR 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging predicts canine cranial cruciate ligament structural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Molly; Al saleh, Habib; Waller, Kenneth R; Bleedorn, Jason A; McCabe, Ronald P; Vanderby, Ray; Markel, Mark D; Brounts, Sabrina H; Block, Walter F; Muir, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Estimation of cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) structural properties in client-owned dogs with incipient cruciate rupture would be advantageous. The objective of this study was to determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurement of normal CrCL volume in an ex-vivo canine model predicts structural properties. Stifles from eight dogs underwent 3.0 Tesla 3D MRI. CrCL volume and normalized median grayscale values were determined using 3D Fast Spin Echo (FSE) Cube and Vastly under-sampled Isotropic PRojection (VIPR)-alternative repetition time (aTR) sequences. Stifles were then mechanically tested. After joint laxity testing, CrCL structural properties were determined, including displacement at yield, yield load, load to failure, and stiffness. Yield load and load to failure (R(2)=0.56, P 0.57, P <0.005). In conclusion, 3D MRI offers a predictive method for estimating canine CrCL structural properties. 3D MRI may be useful for monitoring CrCL properties in clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biomechanics of an orthosis-managed cranial cruciate ligament-deficient canine stifle joint predicted by use of a computer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertocci, Gina E; Brown, Nathan P; Mich, Patrice M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of an orthosis on biomechanics of a cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient canine stifle joint by use of a 3-D quasistatic rigid-body pelvic limb computer model simulating the stance phase of gait and to investigate influences of orthosis hinge stiffness (durometer). SAMPLE A previously developed computer simulation model for a healthy 33-kg 5-year-old neutered Golden Retriever. PROCEDURES A custom stifle joint orthosis was implemented in the CrCL-deficient pelvic limb computer simulation model. Ligament loads, relative tibial translation, and relative tibial rotation in the orthosis-stabilized stifle joint (baseline scenario; high-durometer hinge]) were determined and compared with values for CrCL-intact and CrCL-deficient stifle joints. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the influence of orthosis hinge stiffness on model outcome measures. RESULTS The orthosis decreased loads placed on the caudal cruciate and lateral collateral ligaments and increased load placed on the medial collateral ligament, compared with loads for the CrCL-intact stifle joint. Ligament loads were decreased in the orthosis-managed CrCL-deficient stifle joint, compared with loads for the CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Relative tibial translation and rotation decreased but were not eliminated after orthosis management. Increased orthosis hinge stiffness reduced tibial translation and rotation, whereas decreased hinge stiffness increased internal tibial rotation, compared with values for the baseline scenario. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Stifle joint biomechanics were improved following orthosis implementation, compared with biomechanics of the CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Orthosis hinge stiffness influenced stifle joint biomechanics. An orthosis may be a viable option to stabilize a CrCL-deficient canine stifle joint.

  8. Propriedades biomecânicas da fáscia lata e do ligamento cruzado cranial de cães Biomechanical properties of canine fascia lata and cranial cruciate ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Brendolan

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Preparações bilaterais do ligamento cruzado cranial e da fáscia lata de 15 cães foram testadas na máquina Instron, modelo 4482. Os animais, de ambos os sexos, idade entre um e quatro anos, pesavam em média 11,80 ± 1,99kg. Os retalhos de fáscia lata foram testados retilíneos e torcidos e o ligamento cruzado cranial foi testado mantendo um ângulo de 135° entre a tíbia e o fêmur e 0°, 15° de rotação externa e 15° de rotação interna da tíbia em relação ao fêmur. A velocidade dos testes de tração foi de 8,47mm por segundo. A força máxima dos retalhos de fáscia lata foi aproximadamente de 290 Newtons, e a tensão máxima, 28 Megapascal. A torção não influenciou na resistência dos retalhos de fáscia lata. A rotação externa e interna da tíbia de 15º também não influenciou na força máxima do ligamento cruzado cranial, que foi aproximadamente de 660 Newtons, nem na tensão máxima, que foi cerca de 75 Megapascal. Os retalhos de fáscia lata apresentaram 44% da força máxima e 37% da tensão máxima do ligamento, no entanto, os retalhos torcidos mostraram maior deformação do que os retalhos retilíneos, alcançando cerca de 70% da deformação do ligamento, sendo essa forma a mais indicada na substituição do ligamento cruzado cranial.Bilateral preparations of fascia lata and cranial cruciate ligament from 15 dogs were tested in Instron machine, model 4482. Dogs were from both sexes, between one and four years of age and weighing in average about 11.80 ± 1.99kg. Fascia lata strips were tested straight and twisted and the cranial cruciate ligaments were tested with an angle of 135° between the femur and tibia and 0°, 15° of external tibial rotation and 15° of internal tibial rotation in relation to femur. The traction test velocity was 8.47mm per second. The maximum force of fascia lata strips was of approximately 290 Newtons and the maximum stress, 28 Megapascal. Similar results of strength and stress

  9. Modification of the cranial closing wedge ostectomy technique for the treatment of canine cruciate disease. Description and comparison with standard technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, A M; Addison, E S; Smith, B A; Radke, H; Hobbs, S J

    2011-01-01

    To describe a modification of the cranial closing wedge ostectomy (CCWO) technique and to compare its efficacy to the standard technique on cadaveric specimens. The standard and modified CCWO technique were applied to eight pairs of cadaveric tibiae. The following parameters were compared following the ostectomy: degrees of plateau levelling achieved (degrees), tibial long axis shift (degrees), reduction in tibial length (mm), area of bone wedge removed (cm²), and the area of proximal fragment (cm²). The size of the removed wedge of bone and the reduction in tibial length were significantly less with the modified CCWO technique. The modified CCWO has two main advantages. Firstly a smaller wedge is removed, allowing a greater preservation of bone stock in the proximal tibia, which is advantageous for implant placement. Secondly, the tibia is shortened to a lesser degree, which might reduce the risk of recurvatum, fibular fracture and patella desmitis. These factors are particularly propitious for the application of this technique to Terrier breeds with excessive tibial plateau angle, where large angular corrections are required. The modified CCWO is equally effective for plateau levelling and results in an equivalent tibial long-axis shift. A disadvantage with the modified technique is that not all of the cross sectional area of the distal fragment contributes to load sharing at the osteotomy.

  10. Movimento de gaveta em joelhos de cães submetidos à estabilização extracapsular após secção do ligamento cruzado cranial in vitro Drawer movement in canine knees undergoing extracapsular stabilization after cranial cruciate ligament rupture in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Kemper

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A técnica TightRope, que procura aperfeiçoar a estabilização extra-capsular com sutura lateral, por meio da realização de mínimas incisões e criação de túneis ósseos em pontos isométricos, que permitem a inserção de mecanismo que anula o movimento de gaveta, além de reduzir a ocorrência de complicações graves. Dessa forma, objetivou-se avaliar a modificação da técnica TightRope em joelhos de cadáveres caninos com a finalidade de disponibilizar um procedimento simples e de custo reduzido para tratamento da Ruptura do ligamento cruzado cranial (RLCCr. Experimentalmente, foram utilizados 20 membros pélvicos de dez cadáveres caninos, provenientes do setor de patologia da Universidade Norte do Paraná, os quais pesavam entre 6,3 e 24kg. Para estabilização do LCCr, rompido intencionalmente, foi adotada a técnica de TightRope modificada utilizando fio de poliamida, cavilha e emprego de um parafuso ortopédico para proporcionar a fixação óssea. Comparando os valores de deslocamento obtidos durante a realização do movimento de gaveta previamente à ruptura do LCCr e após a realização do procedimento cirúrgico, observou-se que a modificação da técnica TightRope promoveu estabilidade significativa para a maioria (12 de 20 dos joelhos testados (P=0,0033. Contudo, essa estabilidade foi inferior, quando comparada à estabilidade do ligamento intacto.The TightRope technique, that has been developed, aims to improve the extra-capsular stabilization with lateral suture through smaller incisions and creating isometric bone tunnels at points that allow the inclusion of a mechanism that overrides the movement of drawer and reduce the occurrence of serious complications. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the TightRope modified technique in canine cadaver knees in order to provide a simple and cost effective treatment for cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCrLR. Experimentally; we used 20 pelvic limbs of ten canine

  11. Aetiology and pathogenesis of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in cats by histological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessely, Marlis; Reese, Sven; Schnabl-Feichter, Eva

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine histologically intact and ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments in cats, in order to evaluate whether degeneration is a prerequisite for rupture. Methods We performed a histological examination of 50 intact and 19 ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments in cadaver or client-owned cats, respectively, using light microscopy. Cats with stifle pathology were further divided into five age groups in order to investigate the relationship of changes in the ligament with lifespan. Cats with ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments were divided into two groups according to medical history (with presumed history of trauma or without any known history of trauma) in order to investigate the relationship of ligament rupture with a traumatic event. Data from 200 healthy cats were selected randomly and reviewed to make a statistical comparison of cats with and without cranial cruciate ligament rupture (reference group). Results On histological examination, the intact cranial cruciate ligaments showed basic parallel arrangement of the collagen fibres, with no relation to age. While cats of a more advanced age showed fibrocartilage in the middle of the cranial cruciate ligament - a likely physiological reaction to compression forces over the lifespan - degenerative changes within the fibrocartilage were absent in all cases, regardless of age or rupture status. Cats suffering from cranial cruciate ligament rupture without history of trauma were significantly older than cats in the reference group. Conclusions and relevance This study showed that differentiation of fibrocartilage in the middle of the cranial cruciate ligament is likely a physiological reaction to compressive forces and not a degenerative change associated with greater risk of rupture in advanced age. This finding in cats is distinct from the known decrease in differentiation of fibrocartilage in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Furthermore, the histological examination

  12. A report of the Maquet procedure for the management of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in a dog - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Roberto Custódio Marques

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cranial cruciate ligament rupture is the major cause of lameness and degenerative joint disease in the canine stifle. The cause of this disease is multifactorial, especially involving degenerative and inflammatory changes. Many techniques have been described for the management of this condition, and current recommendations include the use of corrective osteotomies, most recently using the Maquet (or modified Maquet procedure. This technique is fundamentally similar to the classical tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA, but without the use of the bone plate. The main advantages of using this technique are a shorter operative time and less use of implants. The main complication of this technique is an increased risk of tibial crest fracture. This report describes the Maquet technique for the treatment of a three-year-old male West White Terrier dog with rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament. Cruciate ligament rupture was diagnosed by a positive cranial tibial drawer test. Mediolateral stifle radiography performed under anesthesia with the stifle in 135° of extension demonstrated a tibial plateau angle of 22°. A cage of six millimeters was necessary to allow advancement. The Maquet technique produced excellent post-operative results, including early weight-bearing and neutralization of the cranial tibial drawer. The consolidation time of the osteotomy was 63 days.

  13. Comparison of lateral fabellar suture and tibial plateau leveling osteotomy techniques for treatment of dogs with cranial cruciate ligament disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Evans, Wanda J; Griffon, Dominique J; Bubb, Carrie; Knap, Kim M; Sullivan, Meghan; Evans, Richard B

    2013-09-01

    To compare 1-year outcomes after lateral fabellar suture stabilization (LFS) and tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) for the treatment of dogs with cranial cruciate ligament disease. Randomized blinded controlled clinical trial. 80 dogs with naturally occurring unilateral cranial cruciate ligament disease. All dogs were randomly assigned to undergo LFS (n = 40) or TPLO (40). Clinical data collected included age, weight, body condition score, history information, stifle joint instability, radiographic findings, surgical findings, and complications. Outcome measures were determined prior to surgery and at 6 and 12 weeks and 6 and 12 months after surgery, including values of pressure platform gait analysis variables, Canine Brief Pain Inventory scores, owner satisfaction ratings, thigh circumference, and stifle joint goniometry values. Signalment and data for possible confounding variables were similar between groups. Peak vertical force of affected hind limbs at a walk and trot was 5% to 11% higher for dogs in the TPLO group versus those in the LFS group during the 12 months after surgery. Canine Brief Pain Inventory, goniometry, and thigh circumference results indicated dogs in both groups improved after surgery, but significant differences between groups were not detected. Owner satisfaction ratings at 12 months after surgery were significantly different between groups; 93% and 75% of owners of dogs in the TPLO and LFS groups indicated a satisfaction score ≥ 9 (scale, 1 to 10), respectively. Kinematic and owner satisfaction results indicated dogs that underwent TPLO had better outcomes than those that underwent LFS.

  14. The effectiveness of 3D animations to enhance understanding of cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Dylan N; Broadhurst, Henry; Clarke, Stephen P; Farrell, Michael; Bennett, David; Mosley, John R; Mellanby, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture is one of the most important orthopedic diseases taught to veterinary undergraduates. The complexity of the anatomy of the canine stifle joint combined with the plethora of different surgical interventions available for the treatment of the disease means that undergraduate veterinary students often have a poor understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of CCL rupture. We designed, developed, and tested a three dimensional (3D) animation to illustrate the pertinent clinical anatomy of the stifle joint, the effects of CCL rupture, and the mechanisms by which different surgical techniques can stabilize the joint with CCL rupture. When compared with a non-animated 3D presentation, students' short-term retention of functional anatomy improved although they could not impart a better explanation of how different surgical techniques worked. More students found the animation useful than those who viewed a comparable non-animated 3D presentation. Multiple peer-review testing is required to maximize the usefulness of 3D animations during development. Free and open access to such tools should improve student learning and client understanding through wide-spread uptake and use.

  15. Variations in cell morphology in the canine cruciate ligament complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K D; Vaughan-Thomas, A; Spiller, D G; Clegg, P D; Innes, J F; Comerford, E J

    2012-08-01

    Cell morphology may reflect the mechanical environment of tissues and influence tissue physiology and response to injury. Normal cruciate ligaments (CLs) from disease-free stifle joints were harvested from dog breeds with a high (Labrador retriever) and low (Greyhound) risk of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture. Antibodies against the cytoskeletal components vimentin and alpha tubulin were used to analyse cell morphology; nuclei were stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and images were collected using conventional and confocal microscopy. Both cranial and caudal CLs contained cells of heterogenous morphologies. Cells were arranged between collagen bundles and frequently had cytoplasmic processes. Some of these processes were long (type A cells), others were shorter, thicker and more branched (type B cells), and some had no processes (type C cells). Processes were frequently shown to contact other cells, extending longitudinally and transversely through the CLs. Cells with longer processes had fusiform nuclei, and those with no processes had rounded nuclei and were more frequent in the mid-substance of both CLs. Cells with long processes were more commonly noted in the CLs of the Greyhound. As contact between cells may facilitate direct communication, variances in cell morphology between breeds at a differing risk of CCL rupture may reflect differences in CL physiology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Collagenolytic protease expression in cranial cruciate ligament and stifle synovial fluid in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Peter; Danova, Nichole A; Argyle, David J; Manley, Paul A; Hao, Zhengling

    2005-01-01

    To determine expression of collagenolytic genes and collagen degradation in stifle tissues of dogs with ruptured cranial cruciate ligament (CCL). Six dogs with CCL rupture and 11 dogs with intact CCL. Gene expression in CCL tissue and synovial fluid cells was studied using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Collagen degradation was studied using CCL explant cultures and a synovial fluid bioassay. Expression of matrix metalloproteases (MMP) was not found in young Beagles with intact CCL; however, increased expression of MMP-3 was found in CCL tissue from older hounds with intact CCL, when compared with young Beagles. In dogs with ruptured CCL, expression of MMP-2 and -9 was increased in stifle tissues, when compared with dogs with intact CCL. Similar to MMP-9, expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin S was only found in stifle tissues from dogs with ruptured CCL; in contrast, expression of cathepsin K was found in all ruptured and intact CCL. Collagen degradation was increased in ruptured CCL, when compared with intact CCL. Rupture of the CCL is associated with up-regulation of expression of MMP-2 and -9 (gelatinase A and B), TRAP, and cathepsin S, and increased degradation of collagen. These findings suggest that MMP-2, -9, cathepsin S, and TRAP may be important mediators of progressive joint destruction in dogs with CCL rupture. These genes are markers for macrophages and dendritic cells. MMP and cathepsin S pathways may offer novel targets for anti-inflammatory medical therapy aimed at ameliorating joint degradation associated with inflammatory arthritis.

  17. Radiographic assessment of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in the dairy cow: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhn, J.C.; Kneller, S.K.; Nelson, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Case records and radiographs of 37 dairy cows presented to the University of Illinois Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital with a diagnosis of cranial cruciate ligament rupture were reviewed. Signalment, history, duration of lameness prior to clinical presentation, and physical examination findings were evaluated. Survey radiographs were examined and radiographic lesions were documented. Individual cows were classified into groups (A, B, C) based on the severity of radiographic lesions, with Group A cows having minimal radiographic lesions. Cows in Groups A and B had radiographic lesions similar to Class I in beef bulls reported in another study.3,4 An attempt was made to relate the severity of radiographic lesions with age and duration of lameness. Group A animals tended to be younger cows (x@@= 4.58 years) with a short duration of lameness. Group B cows were older (x@@= 7.87 years) with a somewhat longer duration of lameness. Group C cows were slightly younger (x@@= 7.30 years) than Group B cows; however, their duration of lameness was much longer (x@@= 57.2 weeks vs 6.35 weeks for Group B and 2.54 weeks for Group A). The pathogenesis of cranial cruciate ligament rupture and its associated lameness appeared to differ in dairy cows from beef bulls. The majority of animals in this study had radiographic lesions of mild to moderate severity (Groups A and B). In contrast, based on previous work, beef bulls had a greater tendency to be similar to our Group C designation. Beef bulls became lame with cranial cruciate ligament rupture only after severe lesions of degenerative joint disease had already occurred. It has been stated that lameness associated with cranial cruciate ligament rupture in the beef bull is, therefore, secondary to degenerative joint disease. In contrast, the syndrome in dairy cows, as evidenced here, differs, since they often presented with cranial cruciate ligament rupture with little or no radiographic evidence of degenerative joint disease

  18. Evaluation of the drawer test and the tibial compression test for differentiating between cranial and caudal stifle subluxation associated with cruciate ligament instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Might, Kelly R; Bachelez, Andréas; Martinez, Steven A; Gay, John M

    2013-05-01

    To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the drawer test (DT) alone and in combination with the tibial compression test (TCT) to detect stifle subluxation after transection of the cranial cruciate (CrCL), caudal cruciate (CdCL) or both cruciate ligaments (total cruciate ligament or TCL). Experimental study. Cadaveric, skeletally mature canine pelvic limb pairs (n = 8). Pelvic limbs disarticulated at the coxofemoral joint were randomly assigned to the following 1 of 4 groups: (1) limbs had complete transection of the CrCL; (2) limbs had complete transection of the CdCL; (3) limbs had complete transection of both ligaments; and (4) both ligaments were left intact. Participants performed the DT and the TCT and a diagnosis was given based on the DT and on the combination of these tests. DT had a poor sensitivity for correctly identifying CrCL (69%), CdCL (45%), and TCL (26%) rupture, but had a high sensitivity when identifying intact limbs (97%). Specificity for DT was greatest when identifying limbs with CdCL (97%) and TCL (92%) rupture, and the lowest when palpating limbs with CrCL rupture (75%). Combining DT and TCT did not increase sensitivity or specificity values, nor did an increased level of evaluator training. Independent of evaluator training, the DT alone or combined with the TCT poorly differentiates the cause of stifle instability associated with CrCL, CdCL, and TCL rupture. © Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  19. Injuries to the cranial cruciate ligament and associated structures: summary of clinical, radiographic, arthroscopic and pathological findings from 10 horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades, M.; Grant, B.D.; Turner, T.A.; Nixon, A.J.; Brown, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The clinical, radiographic, arthroscopic and pathological findings of 10 horses with injury to the cranial cruciate ligament are presented. The most consistent clinical signs included moderate to severe distension of the femoropatellar joint and a Grade III to a Grade V out of V lameness. Craniocaudal instability could be elicited in five horses under general anaesthesia and in one conscious horse. Radiographic evaluation of the stifles revealed that avulsion fracture of the medial intercondylar eminence was the most common finding in six out of 10 horses. Arthroscopic examination of the affected femorotibial joints were performed in five horses. This confirmed the presumptive diagnosis of cranial cruciate ligament injury or rupture. Post mortem examinations were performed on two horses which documented partial tears of the cranial cruciate ligament

  20. Long-term functional outcome after surgical repair of cranial cruciate ligament disease in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Mölsä, Sari H; Hyytiäinen, Heli K; Hielm-Björkman, Anna K; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi M

    2014-01-01

    Background Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture is a very common cause of pelvic limb lameness in dogs. Few studies, using objective and validated outcome evaluation methods, have been published to evaluate long-term (>1 year) outcome after CCL repair. A group of 47 dogs with CCL rupture treated with intracapsular, extracapsular, and osteotomy techniques, and 21 healthy control dogs were enrolled in this study. To evaluate long-term surgical outcome, at a minimum of 1.5 years after unilate...

  1. Progression of stifle osteoarthrosis following reconstruction of the cranial cruciate ligament in 21 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, P.B.; Berry, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-one dogs that had intraarticular reconstruction of the cranial cruciate ligament were examined clinically and radiographically to assess limb function and determine if there had been progression of osteoarthrosis in the affected stifle joints. The interval between surgery and follow-up examination varied from 1 to 47 months, mean = 14.9 +/-12.9 months standard deviation. Clinical variables that were assessed included lameness, palpable joint instability, articular crepitus, and joint swelling. Radiographic features that were evaluated included soft-tissue swelling/joint effusion, subchondral sclerosis, periarticular osteophyte and enthesiophyte formation, remodeling of femoral and tibial condyles, and resorptive changes in the intercondyloid fossa. The owners of all 21 dogs believed that the operation had improved their dog's condition because the frequency of lameness had decreased. However, palpable instability, crepitus, and joint swelling were detected frequently during physical examinations. Radiographs documented progression of osteoarthrosis in the operated upon stifle joints of all 21 dogs

  2. Radiographic risk factors for contralateral rupture in dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Chuang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complete cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CR is a common cause of pelvic limb lameness in dogs. Dogs with unilateral CR often develop contralateral CR over time. Although radiographic signs of contralateral stifle joint osteoarthritis (OA influence risk of subsequent contralateral CR, this risk has not been studied in detail. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective longitudinal cohort study of client-owned dogs with unilateral CR to determine how severity of radiographic stifle synovial effusion and osteophytosis influence risk of contralateral CR over time. Detailed survival analysis was performed for a cohort of 85 dogs after case filtering of an initial sample population of 513 dogs. This population was stratified based on radiographic severity of synovial effusion (graded on a scale of 0, 1, and 2 and severity of osteophytosis (graded on a scale of 0, 1, 2, and 3 of both index and contralateral stifle joints using a reproducible scoring method. Severity of osteophytosis in the index and contralateral stifles was significantly correlated. Rupture of the contralateral cranial cruciate ligament was significantly influenced by radiographic OA in both the index and contralateral stifles at diagnosis. Odds ratio for development of contralateral CR in dogs with severe contralateral radiographic stifle effusion was 13.4 at one year after diagnosis and 11.4 at two years. Odds ratio for development of contralateral CR in dogs with severe contralateral osteophytosis was 9.9 at one year after diagnosis. These odds ratios were associated with decreased time to contralateral CR. Breed, age, body weight, gender, and tibial plateau angle did not significantly influence time to contralateral CR. CONCLUSION: Subsequent contralateral CR is significantly influenced by severity of radiographic stifle effusion and osteophytosis in the contralateral stifle, suggesting that synovitis and arthritic joint degeneration are

  3. Abnormal reflex activation of hamstring muscles in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Graham M; Granger, Nicolas; Langley-Hobbs, Sorrel J; Jeffery, Nick D

    2013-06-01

    The mechanisms underlying cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) in dogs are poorly understood. In this study hamstring muscle reflexes in response to cranial tibial translation were analysed to determine whether these active stabilisers of the stifle joint are differently activated in dogs with CCLR compared to control dogs. In a prospective clinical study reflex muscle activity from the lateral and medial hamstring muscles (biceps femoris and semimembranosus) was recorded using surface electrodes in control dogs (n=21) and dogs with CCLR (n=22). These electromyographic recordings were analysed using an algorithm previously validated in humans. The hamstring reflex was reliably and reproducibly recorded in normal dogs. Both a short latency response (SLR, 17.6±2.1ms) and a medium latency response (MLR, 37.7±2.7ms) could be identified. In dogs with unilateral CCLR, the SLR and MLR were not significantly different between the affected and the unaffected limbs, but the MLR latency of both affected and unaffected limbs in CCLR dogs were significantly prolonged compared to controls. In conclusion, the hamstring reflex can be recorded in dogs and the MLR is prolonged in dogs with CCLR. Since both affected and unaffected limbs exhibit prolonged MLR, it is possible that abnormal hamstring reflex activation is a mechanism by which progressive CCL damage may occur. The methodology allows for further investigation of the relationship between neuromuscular imbalance and CCLR or limitations in functional recovery following surgical intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of stifle angle on the magnitude of the tibial plateau angle measurement in dogs with intact and transected cranial cruciate ligament. A cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulakh, K S; Harper, T A M; Lanz, O I; Daniel, G B; Werre, S R

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effect of stifle angle on the magnitude of the radiographic tibial plateau angle (TPA) in normal and cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) -deficient stifles. Three pairs of canine cadaver hindlimbs from three skeletally mature dogs were positioned in a custom-made positioning device. A lateral radiograph of each specimen was obtained before and after transection of the CCL at four stifle angles (90°, 110°, 135° and 140-150° [i.e. maximum extension]), based on goniometric measurements. Four observers determined the radiographic TPA twice for each radiograph with a minimum of two days between each measurement. The radiographic TPA measurements in all specimens at different stifle angles with intact CCL and transected CCL were compared with mixed-model ANOVA. The effect of stifle angle, CCL transection, and interaction between the two on observer TPA measurement variability was also determined using the coefficient of variation. Tibial plateau angle was not statistically different in the stifle angles for either the intact or transected CCL. There was also no statistical difference for TPA between intact and transected CCL groups at each of the stifle angles. Stifle angle, CCL transection and interaction between the two did not have any significant effect for intra-observer and inter-observer variation. The angle of the stifle during radiography does not influence the magnitude of the TPA measurement as determined on true lateral radiographs of the stifle and tibia in cadaveric canine limbs.

  5. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of canine stifle joint after surgical stabilization for the treatment of cranial cruciate ligament rupture: retrospective study of three yearsAvaliação clínica e radiográfica do joelho de cães submetidos à cirurgia para correção da ruptura do ligamento cruzado cranial: estudo retrospectivo de três anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando De Biasi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed a clinical and radiographic evaluation of stifle joint of dogs with up to two and a half years of postoperative correction of cranial cruciate ligament rupture. A retrospective study of three years has been done, based on the animals files treated at the Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, underwent this surgery during the period from February 2008 to February 2011. Totalizing 28 cases and 33 stifle joints, which were performed different surgical techniques for joint stabilization. The prevalence was female, middle aged over seven years and dogs weighing over 25 kg. Eighty-two percent of the animals showed satisfactory clinical improvement, independent of surgical technique. Despite the progression of arthrosis and the persistence of discrete drawer movement in the postoperative period, no evident clinical differences were noted in relation to lameness. Lighter animals showed better prognosis. There was no evident difference between the surgical techniques in relation to the parameters evaluated in the postoperative period. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar clínica e radiograficamente o joelho de cães com até dois anos e meio de pós-operatório da correção da ruptura de ligamento cruzado cranial. Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo de três anos dos prontuários dos animais atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, submetidos a esta cirurgia no período compreendido entre fevereiro de 2008 a fevereiro de 2011. Totalizando 28 casos e 33 joelhos, nos quais foram realizadas diferentes técnicas cirúrgicas para a estabilização articular. A prevalência foi de fêmeas, média de idade superior a sete anos e cães com peso acima de 25 kg. Oitenta e dois por cento dos animais apresentaram melhora clínica satisfatória, independente da técnica cirúrgica utilizada. Apesar da progressão da artrose e da persistência de discreto movimento de gaveta no p

  6. Aquatic treadmill water level influence on pelvic limb kinematics in cranial cruciate ligament-deficient dogs with surgically stabilised stifles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertocci, G; Smalley, C; Brown, N; Bialczak, K; Carroll, D

    2018-02-01

    To compare pelvic limb joint kinematics and temporal gait characteristics during land-based and aquatic-based treadmill walking in dogs that have undergone surgical stabilisation for cranial cruciate ligament deficiency. Client-owned dogs with surgically stabilised stifles following cranial cruciate ligament deficiency performed three walking trials consisting of three consecutive gait cycles on an aquatic treadmill under four water levels. Hip, stifle and hock range of motion; peak extension; and peak flexion were assessed for the affected limb at each water level. Gait cycle time and stance phase percentage were also determined. Ten client-owned dogs of varying breeds were evaluated at a mean of 55·2 days postoperatively. Aquatic treadmill water level influenced pelvic limb kinematics and temporal gait outcomes. Increased stifle joint flexion was observed as treadmill water level increased, peaking when the water level was at the hip. Similarly, hip flexion increased at the hip water level. Stifle range of motion was greatest at stifle and hip water levels. Stance phase percentage was significantly decreased when water level was at the hip. Aquatic treadmill walking has become a common rehabilitation modality following surgical stabilisation of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency. However, evidence-based best practice guidelines to enhance stifle kinematics do not exist. Our findings suggest that rehabilitation utilising a water level at or above the stifle will achieve the best stifle kinematics following surgical stifle stabilisation. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  7. Long-term functional outcome after surgical repair of cranial cruciate ligament disease in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölsä, Sari H; Hyytiäinen, Heli K; Hielm-Björkman, Anna K; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi M

    2014-11-19

    Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture is a very common cause of pelvic limb lameness in dogs. Few studies, using objective and validated outcome evaluation methods, have been published to evaluate long-term (>1 year) outcome after CCL repair. A group of 47 dogs with CCL rupture treated with intracapsular, extracapsular, and osteotomy techniques, and 21 healthy control dogs were enrolled in this study. To evaluate long-term surgical outcome, at a minimum of 1.5 years after unilateral CCL surgery, force plate, orthopedic, radiographic, and physiotherapeutic examinations, including evaluation of active range of motion (AROM), symmetry of thrust from the ground, symmetry of muscle mass, and static weight bearing (SWB) of pelvic limbs, and goniometry of the stifle and tarsal joints, were done. At a mean of 2.8 ± 0.9 years after surgery, no significant differences were found in average ground reaction forces or SWB between the surgically treated and control dog limbs, when dogs with no other orthopedic findings were included (n = 21). However, in surgically treated limbs, approximately 30% of the dogs had decreased static or dynamic weight bearing when symmetry of weight bearing was evaluated, 40-50% of dogs showed limitations of AROM in sitting position, and two-thirds of dogs had weakness in thrust from the ground. The stifle joint extension angles were lower (P <0.001) and flexion angles higher (P <0.001) in surgically treated than in contralateral joints, when dogs with no contralateral stifle problems were included (n = 33). In dogs treated using the intracapsular technique, the distribution percentage per limb of peak vertical force (DPVF) in surgically treated limbs was significantly lower than in dogs treated with osteotomy techniques (P =0.044). The average long-term dynamic and static weight bearing of the surgically treated limbs returned to the level of healthy limbs. However, extension and flexion angles of the surgically treated stifles

  8. Arthroscopic assessment of stifle synovitis in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P Little

    Full Text Available Cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CR is a degenerative condition in dogs that typically has a non-contact mechanism. Subsequent contralateral rupture often develops in dogs with unilateral CR. Synovitis severity is an important factor that promotes ligament degradation. Consequently, we wished to evaluate the utility of arthroscopy for assessment of stifle synovitis in dogs with CR. Herein, we report results of a prospective study of 27 dogs with unilateral CR and bilateral radiographic osteoarthritis. Arthroscopic images and synovial biopsies from the lateral and medial joint pouches were obtained bilaterally and graded for synovial hypertrophy, vascularity, and synovitis. Synovial tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+ macrophages, CD3(+ T lymphocytes, Factor VIII+ blood vessels, and synovial intima thickness were quantified histologically and related to arthroscopic observations. Risk of subsequent contralateral CR was examined using survival analysis. We found that arthroscopic scores were increased in the index stifle, compared with the contralateral stifle (p0.34, p0.31, p<0.05. Strong intra-observer and moderate inter-observer agreement for arthroscopic scoring was found. Dog age and arthroscopic vascularity significantly influenced risk of contralateral CR over time. We conclude that arthroscopic grading of synovitis is a precise tool that correlates with histologic synovitis. Arthroscopy is useful for assessment of stifle synovitis in client-owned dogs, and could be used in longitudinal clinical trials to monitor synovial responses to disease-modifying therapy.

  9. Arthroscopic assessment of stifle synovitis in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jeffrey P; Bleedorn, Jason A; Sutherland, Brian J; Sullivan, Ruth; Kalscheur, Vicki L; Ramaker, Megan A; Schaefer, Susan L; Hao, Zhengling; Muir, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CR) is a degenerative condition in dogs that typically has a non-contact mechanism. Subsequent contralateral rupture often develops in dogs with unilateral CR. Synovitis severity is an important factor that promotes ligament degradation. Consequently, we wished to evaluate the utility of arthroscopy for assessment of stifle synovitis in dogs with CR. Herein, we report results of a prospective study of 27 dogs with unilateral CR and bilateral radiographic osteoarthritis. Arthroscopic images and synovial biopsies from the lateral and medial joint pouches were obtained bilaterally and graded for synovial hypertrophy, vascularity, and synovitis. Synovial tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) macrophages, CD3(+) T lymphocytes, Factor VIII+ blood vessels, and synovial intima thickness were quantified histologically and related to arthroscopic observations. Risk of subsequent contralateral CR was examined using survival analysis. We found that arthroscopic scores were increased in the index stifle, compared with the contralateral stifle (ppairs. Arthroscopic grading of vascularity and synovitis was correlated with number density of Factor VIII+ vessels (SR>0.34, p0.31, p<0.05). Strong intra-observer and moderate inter-observer agreement for arthroscopic scoring was found. Dog age and arthroscopic vascularity significantly influenced risk of contralateral CR over time. We conclude that arthroscopic grading of synovitis is a precise tool that correlates with histologic synovitis. Arthroscopy is useful for assessment of stifle synovitis in client-owned dogs, and could be used in longitudinal clinical trials to monitor synovial responses to disease-modifying therapy.

  10. In vitro cytoprotective effects of acetylsalicylic acid, carprofen, meloxicam, or robenacoxib against apoptosis induced by sodium nitroprusside in canine cruciate ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldherr, Katrin; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Spreng, David E; Forterre, Simone

    2012-11-01

    To determine whether incubation of cruciate ligament cells with acetylsalicylic acid, carprofen, meloxicam, or robenacoxib provides protection against apoptosis induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Explants of cranial (CCL) and caudal (CaCL) cruciate ligaments from eight 1-day-old Beagles. Primary cultures of CCL and CaCL cells were created via enzymatic dissociation of cruciate explants. Purified cell cultures were incubated for 2 hours without (controls) or with 1 of 3 concentrations of 1 of 4 NSAIDs (10, 100, or 200 μg of acetylsalicylic acid/mL; 0.1, 1, or 10 μg of carprofen/mL; 0.1, 1, or 10 μg of meloxicam/mL; or 0.1, 1, or 10 μg of robenacoxib/mL) and subsequently incubated for 18 hours with 1 of 3 concentrations of SNP in an attempt to induce mild, moderate, or severe cytotoxic effects. Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed via a cell proliferation assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Prostaglandin E(2) concentrations were measured via an ELISA. Cytoprotective effects of NSAIDs were dependent on the extent of SNP-induced apoptosis and were greatest in CCL and CaCL cell cultures with moderate SNP-induced cytotoxic effects. Preincubation with an NSAID improved cell viability by 15% to 45% when CCL and CaCL cells were subsequently incubated with SNP. Carprofen (10 μg/mL) had the greatest cytoprotective effects for CCL and CaCL cells. Incubation with NSAIDs resulted in a nonsignificant decrease in PGE(2) production from SNP-damaged cells. Results indicated that carprofen, meloxicam, and robenacoxib may reduce apoptosis in cells originating from canine cruciate ligaments.

  11. Combining a joint health supplement with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. An exploratory controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo M. Martini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CrCLR is a very common pathology. Surgical stabilization is the first choice treatment, although it does not fully eliminate the increased risk of osteoarthritis. This preliminary study was carried out to explore whether a newly formulated joint health supplement would benefit metabolic, clinical and radiographic changes in dogs with CrCLR surgically treated with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO. Besides chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride, the studied supplement contained anti-inflammatory and antioxidant ingredients, the main ones being N-palmitoyl-D-glucosamine (Glupamid® and quercetin. It was thus intended to target not only chondrodegenerative components of osteoarthritis, but also post-injury inflammatory response and oxidative stress of joint tissues. Thirteen dogs underwent TPLO and were randomly allocated to treatment (n = 6 and control groups (n = 7, the former receiving the joint supplement for 90 days. Lameness and radiographic osteoarthritis changes were scored before (i.e., baseline and at 30 and 90 days post-surgery. Synovial fluid samples were collected from injured stifles at the same time points. Levels of representative metabolites were measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a blinded fashion. In the metabolomic analysis, special attention was paid to lactate, due to its emerging recognition as a key marker of inflammation. In the last time period (from the 30th to the 90th day, lameness improved by a factor of 2.3 compared to control dogs. No significant difference was observed in the radiographic osteoarthritis score between groups. In the first postoperative month, lactate and creatine levels significantly dropped in treated compared to control dogs. Compared to surgery alone, combining the joint supplement with TPLO resulted in a trend to a better clinical outcome in the later time interval but did not influence

  12. Synovitis in dogs with stable stifle joints and incipient cranial cruciate ligament rupture: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleedorn, Jason A; Greuel, Erin N; Manley, Paul A; Schaefer, Susan L; Markel, Mark D; Holzman, Gerianne; Muir, Peter

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate stifle joints of dogs for synovitis, before development of joint instability and cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CrCLR). Cross-sectional study. Dogs (n = 16) with CrCLR and stable contralateral stifles; 10 control dogs with intact CrCL. Arthritis and tibial translation were graded radiographically. Synovitis severity and cruciate pathology were assessed arthroscopically. Presence of inflammatory cells in synovial membrane biopsies was scored histologically. CrCLR stifle pairs and control stifles were compared. Radiographic evidence of arthritis, cranial tibial translation, and arthroscopic synovitis were increased in unstable stifles, when compared with stable contralateral stifles in CrCLR dogs (P < .05). Arthroscopic synovitis in both joints of CrCLR dogs was increased compared with controls, was correlated with radiographic arthritis (S(R) = 0.71, P < .05), and was present in all stable contralateral stifles. Arthroscopically, 75% of stable stifle joints had CrCL fiber disruption, which correlated with severity of synovitis (S(R) = 0.56, P < .05). Histologic evidence of synovitis was identified in all CrCLR dogs, but was only significantly correlated with arthroscopic observations in stable stifles (r(2) = 0.57, P < .005). Synovitis is an early feature of the CrCLR arthropathy in dogs before development of joint instability clinically. Severity of synovitis is correlated with radiographic arthritis in joints with minimal to no clinically detectable CrCL damage. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  13. A Canine Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Model for Study of Synthetic Augmentation of Tendon Allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, James L; Smith, Pat; Stannard, James P; Pfeiffer, Ferris; Kuroki, Keiichi; Bozynski, Chantelle C; Cook, Cristi

    2017-09-01

    Novel graft types, fixation methods, and means for augmenting anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions require preclinical validation prior to safe and effective clinical application. The objective of this study was to describe and validate a translational canine model for all-inside arthroscopic complete ACL reconstruction using a quadriceps tendon allograft with internal brace (QTIB). With institutional approval, adult research hounds underwent complete transection of the native ACL followed by all-inside ACL reconstruction using the novel QTIB construct with suspensory fixation ( n  = 10). Contralateral knees were used as nonoperated controls ( n  = 10). Dogs were assessed over a 6-month period using functional, diagnostic imaging, gross, biomechanical, and histologic outcome measures required for preclinical animal models. Study results suggest that the novel QTIB construct used for complete ACL reconstruction can provide sustained knee stability and function without the development of premature osteoarthritis in a rigorous and valid preclinical model. The unique configuration of the QTIB construct-the combination of a tendon allograft with a synthetic suture tape internal brace-allowed for an effective biologic-synthetic load-sharing ACL construct. It prevented early failure, allowed for direct, four-zone graft-to-bone healing, and functional graft remodeling while avoiding problems noted with use of all-synthetic grafts. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. The possible role of the tibial plateau angle for the severity of osteoarthritis in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Y.; Hara, Y.; Ochi, H.; Nezu, Y.; Harada, Y.; Yogo, T.; Orima, H.; Tagawa, M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine factors correlated with the severity of radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) scoring in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CrCLR). Three radiographs of stifle joints (craniocaudal, mediolateral, and mediolateral radiograph with 90 degree flexion of the stifle and tarsal joints) were obtained from 36 dogs with CrCLR (Clinical group) and from 22 dogs without stifle joint disease (Control group). Information about these dogs was collected from the owners and from medical records. Radiographic OA scores in each dog in the clinical group were determined from radiographs using a numeric grading system previously reported. The tibial plateau angle (TPA) in each dog in both groups was measured on mediolateral radiographs with 90 degree flexion of the stifle and tarsal joints. The Mann-Whitney's U test was used for comparing variables between the clinical group and the control group, and Spearman's rank correlation test was used for evaluating correlations between radiographic OA scores and variables in the clinical group. No significant differences were detected between the clinical group and the control group for any of the variables. There were two positive correlations; one between the radiographic OA score and TPA (r=0.395, p=0.014); and the other between body weight and OA score (r=0.399, p=0.013) in the clinical group. Our results indicate that body weight and TPA could affect the severity of the radiographic OA score in dogs with CrCLR

  15. Immediate physical therapy in dogs with rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament submitted to extracapsular surgical stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Berté

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the influence of immediate physical therapy on the functional recovery of hind limbs of dogs with experimental cranial cruciate ligament rupture which underwent surgical extracapsular stabilization as well as to verify its interference in joint stability. Eight dogs were randomly divided into two groups: GI (control (n=4 and GII (physical therapy (n=4. The dogs in GII underwent the following therapeutic treatments in the postoperative period: cryotherapy, passive joint movement, massage, passive straightening, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, hydrotherapy (bath and aquatic mat and therapeutic exercises. We performed evaluations of the thigh circumference, goniometry, X-ray, and knee stability (drawer test. Results did not demonstrate a significant difference between the groups nor between different post-operative times. Regarding gait analysis, we found that the 4 dogs in GI remained in degree 3 of lameness 45 and 90 days postoperatively. However, in GII, one dog remained in degree 3 45 and 90 days after surgery; one dog changed from degree 3 to 4 90 days after surgery and the other 2 dogs changed from degree 3 to 5 90 days after surgery. It is possible to conclude that dogs with CCL rupture that undergo immediate physical therapy demonstrate better results in regards to functional gait recovery. The therapeutic modalities used in the immediate post-operative period did not cause instability of the operated knee. Further studies are needed with a larger number of dogs to indicate the immediate physical therapy in dogs with CCL ligament rupture which underwent extracapsular stabilization.

  16. Reconstrução do ligamento cruzado cranial em cães, associado ou não ao sulfato de condroitina Cranial cruciate ligament reconstruction in dogs associated or not to chondroitin sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Biasi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da reconstrução do ligamento cruzado cranial, associado ou não ao sulfato de condroitina, na evolução da osteoartrite induzida experimentalmente em cães. Vinte cães hígidos, sem raça definida, machos e fêmeas, com peso corpóreo entre 19 e 25kg, foram submetidos à desmotomia do ligamento cruzado cranial. Trinta dias após, foram separados em dois grupos de 10 animais. Um grupo foi submetido à reconstrução do ligamento cruzado com uso de aloenxerto de ligamento patelar congelado, o outro não. Trinta e um dias após a desmotomia, cada grupo foi dividido em dois subgrupos de cinco animais. Um recebeu sulfato de condroitina, o outro não. Os cães foram avaliados clínica e radiograficamente antes da desmotomia e aos 30, 60 e 90 dias após a desmotomia. No último momento foram realizados exames macro e microscópico. Nos cães submetidos somente à desmotomia e tratados com sulfato de condroitina houve redução na progressão das alterações ósseas, ao exame radiográfico. A reconstrução do ligamento cruzado cranial melhorou a função do membro e, quando associada ao sulfato de condroitina, houve melhor resposta. Não houve diferença entre os subgrupos quanto aos exames macro e microscópico.The effect of cranial cruciate ligament reconstruction, associated or not to chondroitin sulfate, on the evolution of experimentally induced osteoarthritis in dogs was studied. Twenty healthy mixed dogs, weighing between 19 and 25kg were submitted to cranial cruciate desmotomy. Thirty days later, the animals were divided into two groups with ten dogs each. One was submitted to cranial cruciate ligament reconstruction using frozen patellar tendon allograft and the other received no surgical treatment. Thirty one days after desmotomy, each group was divided into two subgroups with five animals each. One subgroup for each group received chondroitin sulfate and the other received no medical treatment. The dogs were

  17. Ruptura do ligamento cruzado cranial em um gato: reconstituição com fáscia lata Cranial cruciate ligament rupture in a cat: reconstitution with fascia lata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Fernanda Villamayor Garcia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Em gatos, a ruptura do ligamento cruzado cranial (RLCC trata-se de diagnóstico raro e a correção cirúrgica propicia o retorno mais rápido à função do membro. Foi atendida, no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM, uma gata apresentando claudicação aguda e dor à palpação do joelho direito. O diagnóstico de RLCC foi realizado através dos testes de compressão tibial e gaveta cranial positivos e confirmado na cirurgia. Optou-se por realizar a reconstituição do ligamento com fáscia lata e, após achados clínicos pós-operatórios e em longo prazo concluiu-se que a técnica apresentou resultados satisfatórios neste caso.The cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR is rare diagnosis in cats and the surgical correction provides a faster return to limb function. A cat with acute lameness and pain on palpation of the right stifle was attended at the Veterinary Hospital of UFSM. The diagnosis of CCLR was performed by positive tibial compression test and positive cranial drawer sign and confirmed by surgery. We chose to perform the reconstruction of the ligament with fascia lata and after of the observe clinical postoperative and in the long-term it was concluded that the technique showed satisfactory results in this case.

  18. Effect of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency, tibial plateau leveling osteotomy, and tibial tuberosity advancement on contact mechanics and alignment of the stifle in flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stanley E; Pozzi, Antonio; Banks, Scott A; Conrad, Bryan P; Lewis, Daniel D

    2010-04-01

    To assess contact mechanics and 3-dimensional (3-D) joint alignment in cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)-deficient stifles before and after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) and tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) with the stifle in 90 degrees of flexion. In vitro biomechanical study. Cadaveric pelvic limb pairs (n=8) from dogs weighing 28-35 kg. Contralateral limbs were assigned to receive TPLO or TTA. Digital pressure sensors were used to measure femorotibial contact area, peak and mean contact pressure, and peak pressure location with the limb under a load of 30% body weight and stifle flexion angle of 90 degrees . 3-D poses were obtained using a Microscribe digitizer. Specimens were tested under normal, CCL deficient, and treatment conditions. Significant disturbances in alignment were not observed after CCL transection, although medial contact area was 10% smaller than normal (P=.003). There were no significant differences in contact mechanics or alignment between normal and TTA conditions; TPLO induced 6 degrees varus angulation (PCranial tibial subluxation is nominal in CCL-deficient stifles loaded in flexion. Stifle alignment and contact mechanics are not altered by TTA, whereas TPLO causes mild varus and a subsequent increase in medial compartment loading. Cranial tibial subluxation of CCL-deficient stifles may not occur during postures that load the stifle in flexion. The significance of minor changes in loading patterns after TPLO is unknown.

  19. Instantaneous center of motion and velocity vector in stifle of dogs undergoing intercondylar notchplasty and articular repair following transection of the cranial cruciate ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selmi, A.L.; Padilha Filho, J.G.; Lins, B.T.; Mendes, G.M.; Eimantas, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    The instantaneous center of motion (ICM) and velocity vector (Vv), after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) followed by a fascial strip reconstruction in association with intercondylar notchplasty (IN), were studied in nine adult dogs. The right stifle was submitted to IN followed by fascial strip reconstruction of the CCL (GI) while in the left stifle IN was not performed (GC). Dogs were evaluated the day prior to surgery, immediately after surgery and at 30, 90 and 180 days postoperatively (po), time at which a subgroup of three dogs were euthanatized. The ICM and resulting Vv were determined by radiographic examination of the stifle. All the stifles presented normally positioned ICM and Vv before surgery. No changes were observed in ICM or Vv in all stifles following intra-articular repair, in association or not with IN, throughout the evaluation period, despite the fact that three dogs in GC and two in GI presented a positive cranial drawer sign immediately following surgery, two dogs in GC and GI at 30 days po, and one single dog in each group thereafter until 180 days po. It is concluded that articular repair, in association with IN or not, did not alter stifle biomechanics, in respect to ICM and Vv [pt

  20. Application of a 3D printed customized implant for canine cruciate ligament treatment by tibial tuberosity advancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castilho, Miguel; Dias, Marta; Fernandes, Paulo; Pires, Inês; Gouveia, Barbara; Rodrigues, Jorge; Vorndran, Elke; Gbureck, Uwe; Armés, Henrique; Pires, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Fabrication of customized implants based on patient bone defect characteristics is required for successful clinical application of bone tissue engineering. Recently a new surgical procedure, tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA), has been used to treat cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) deficient stifle joints in dogs, which involves an osteotomy and the use of substitutes to restore the bone. However, limitations in the use of non-biodegradable implants have been reported. To overcome these limitations, this study presents the development of a bioceramic customized cage to treat a large domestic dog assigned for TTA treatment. A cage was designed using a suitable topology optimization methodology in order to maximize its permeability whilst maintaining the structural integrity, and was manufactured using low temperature 3D printing and implanted in a dog. The cage material and structure was adequately characterized prior to implantation and the in vivo response was carefully monitored regarding the biological response and patient limb function. The manufacturing process resulted in a cage composed of brushite, monetite and tricalcium phosphate, and a highly permeable porous morphology. An overall porosity of 59.2% was achieved by the combination of a microporosity of approximately 40% and a designed interconnected macropore network with pore sizes of 845 μm. The mechanical properties were in the range of the trabecular bone although limitations in the cage's reliability and capacity to absorb energy were identified. The dog's limb function was completely restored without patient lameness or any adverse complications and also the local biocompatibility and osteoconductivity were improved. Based on these observations it was possible to conclude that the successful design, fabrication and application of a customized cage for a dog CrCL treatment using a modified TTA technique is a promising method for the future fabrication of patient-specific bone implants

  1. Acute Management of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries Using Novel Canine Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozynski, Chantelle C; Stannard, James P; Smith, Pat; Hanypsiak, Bryan T; Kuroki, Keiichi; Stoker, Aaron; Cook, Cristi; Cook, James L

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare treatment options for acute management of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries using preclinical models. Twenty-seven adult purpose-bred research hounds underwent knee surgery (sham control, exposed ACL, or partial-tear ACL) and were assessed over the following 8 weeks. Dogs were randomized into three treatment groups: standard of care (i.e., rest and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]), washout, or leukoreduced platelet-rich plasma (PRP) so that a total of nine dogs received each treatment. Data from the two ACL-injury groups were pooled for each treatment ( n  = 6 per treatment group) and analyzed for treatment effects. The washout and PRP groups experienced less lameness, pain, and effusion, and greater function and comfortable range of motion compared with the NSAID group, with the PRP group showing most benefits. PRP was associated with the lowest severity of ACL pathology based on arthroscopic assessment. Measurable levels of inflammatory and degradative biomarkers were present in synovial fluid with significant differences noted over time. Based on these findings, washout had positive clinical effects compared with the standard-of-care group especially within the first week of treatment, but became less beneficial over time. A single injection of leukoreduced PRP was associated with favorable clinical results. However, no treatment was significantly "protective" against progression toward osteoarthritis after ACL injury. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Mechanical testing of newly developed biomaterial designed for intra-articular reinforcement of partially ruptured cranial cruciate ligament: ex vivo pig model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Fedorová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with mechanical testing of newly developed material polyethylene terephtalate coated with polycaprolactone nanofibers in combination with biodagradable Hexalon ACL/PCL screws as a new possibility of intra-articular reinforcement of partially ruptured cranial cruciate ligament. Four groups of ex vivo models of pig stifle joints were prepared and tested: a model with intact CCL (group 1, a model with partial CCL rupture (group 2, a model with CCL rupture stabilized with 7 mm Mersilene® strip (group 3, and a model with CCL rupture stabilized with 5 mm PET/PCL biomaterial strip (group 4. The models were loaded in the standing angle of 100° and the maximum load (N and the shift (mm were monitored. The mean maximum peak power and the shift were 1266.0 ± 146.9 N and 13.7 ± 2.5 mm for group 1, and 1164.7 ± 228.2 N and 1 6.8 ± 3.3 mm for group 2, respectively. In all cases after reaching the maximum load, a tibial fracture occurred but never a CCL rupture. In groups 3 and 4, the initial fixation failure occurred in the mean values of 375.7 ± 81.5 and 360.4 ± 52.0 N, respectively, and with a bigger shift of 52.3 ± 11.9 mm and 39.4 ± 14.6 mm, respectively, compared to group 1. A critical point of failure was the anchoring in the bone. It can be concluded that the PET/PCL substitute in the ex vivo model has mechanically comparable properties with the clinically used Mersilene®, and based on its proven ability to carry stem cells it could be appropriate for partially ruptured CCL protection.

  3. Evaluation of changes in vertical ground reaction forces as indicators of meniscal damage after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumble, Troy N; Billinghurst, R Clark; Bendele, Alison M; McIlwraith, C Wayne

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether decreases in peak vertical force of the hind limb after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) would be indicative of medial meniscal damage in dogs. 39 purpose-bred adult male Walker Hounds. The right CrCL was transected arthroscopically. Force plate measurements of the right hind limb were made prior to and 2, 4, 10, and 18 weeks after transection of the CrCL. Only dogs with > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force after week 2 were considered to have potential meniscal damage. Dogs that did not have > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force at any time point after week 2 were assigned to group 1. Group 2 dogs had > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force from weeks 2 to 4 only. Group 3 and 4 dogs had > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force from weeks 4 to 10 only or from weeks 10 to 18 only, respectively. Damage to menisci and articular cartilage was graded at week 18, and grades for groups 2 to 4 were compared with those of group 1. The percentage change in peak vertical force and impulse area was significantly different in groups 2 (n = 4), 3 (4), and 4 (4) at the end of each measurement period (weeks 4, 10, and 18, respectively) than in group 1 (27). The meniscal grade for groups 2 to 4 was significantly higher than for group 1. A > or =10% decrease in peak vertical force had sensitivity of 52% and accuracy of 72% for identifying dogs with moderate to severe medial meniscal damage. In dogs with transected or ruptured CrCLs, force plate analysis can detect acute exacerbation of lameness, which may be the result of secondary meniscal damage, and provide an objective noninvasive technique that delineates the temporal pattern of medial meniscal injury.

  4. Chondroprotectant therapy in rats with degenerative joint disease experimentally transected cranial cruciateReprodução experimental da doença articular degenerativa, pelo método cirúrgico associado à terapia condroprotetora, em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Marini Melo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common joint disease in both humans and animals, and it results in movement restriction and pain at the affected area. This disorder affects more than 25% of people over 60 years of age, and it is considered universal for 70-year-old people. OA is estimated to affect over 20% of the canine population from the United States of America. The present study aimed to evaluate the treatment of rats that were surgically induced to OA using two different drug therapies, one with pentosan polysulfate, one with betamethasone, and one with chondroitin sulfate/ glucosamine. In order to produce joint disease, the cranial cruciate ligament was surgically transected. Animals were kept and treated for eight days after surgery and were assessed via both radiographies and tomographies taken before surgery and eight weeks later. All animals were euthanized having both macroscopic and microscopic analysis performed to evaluate the disorder progression and therapeutic action. Macroscopic analysis showed lesion in the knees subjected to OA induction. The untreated animals presented major lesions whereas the treated ones presented mild to moderate lesions. In conclusion, pentosan polysulfate is recommendable for the treatment of iatrogenic joint lesions in rats since the other treatments showed no significant difference. A osteoartrite (OA é a doença articular mais comum em humanos e animais, o que ocasiona restrição de movimentos e dor, na região acometida. Tal enfermidade afeta mais de 25% dos humanos acima de 60 anos e, aos 70 anos, ela é considerada universal. Estima-se que nos Estados Unidos da América, 20% ou mais da população canina é acometida pela OA. O presente estudo tem como finalidade avaliar a terapia medicamentosa (polisulfato de pentosano, betametasona e sulfato de condroitina/glucosamina, em um modelo experimental de OA cirurgicamente induzido, em ratos. A doença articular foi promovida pela transecção cir

  5. Quasi-static tensile properties of the Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CrCL) in adult cattle: towards the design of a prosthetic CrCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diotalevi, Lucien; Petit, Yvan; Brailovski, Vladimir; Nichols, Sylvain; Marchionatti, Emma; Wagnac, Éric

    2018-03-01

    Mechanical properties of the Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CrCL) in adult cattle are not well documented and protocols used in the literature focus on testing a full femur-CrCL-tibia complex rather than an isolated CrCL. The aim of this study was to assess a wider range of tensile properties of the CrCL along its anatomic axis with experimental measurements of the global elongation, displacement and strain fields, in order to provide guidelines for the design of CrCL prosthetic surrogates. Fourteen bovine CrCL were harvested from seven mature cows (5.1 ± 1.3 years) weighing 631 ± 90kg. The mean CrCL length was 41.4 ± 1.5mm and its mean cross-section was 103.9 ± 23.8mm 2 . Pre-conditioning was achieved with 30 cycles of loading from 30 to 200N at a strain rate of 0.02s -1 . Specimens were then loaded to failure at the same strain rate. The following results were obtained: the mean ultimate tensile load (UTL) 4372 ± 1485N and the median [quartiles] maximal global elongation 19.3 [17.8; 21.4] %. At first physical signs of tearing, the mean load was 3315 ± 1336N and mean elongation 13.5 ± 4.9%. The mean absorbed energy at failure was 5.23 ± 2.08 MJ.mm -3 and the mean stiffness at various levels of elongation was: 220 ± 195N.% -1 (5%), 285 ± 162N.% -1 (10%), 239 ± 200N.% -1 (15%), 146 ± 59N.% -1 (20%), 153 ± 136N.% -1 (25%). None of these properties were related to the bovine weight, age and side of the body (p > 0.05). An ideal prosthetic surrogate should then follow these sets of properties and the experimental data suggest that the in-vivo maximal elongation is below 13.5%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy position on cranial tibial subluxation: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowaleski, Michael P; Apelt, Detlef; Mattoon, John S; Litsky, Alan S

    2005-01-01

    To compare centered versus distal tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) position on cranial tibial subluxation, postoperative tibial plateau angle (TPA), and tibial long axis shift (TLAS). In vitro biomechanical evaluation. Six pairs of canine cadaveric hind limbs. One limb of each pair was randomly assigned to the distal (TPLO-D) or centered (TPLO-C) osteotomy group. Cranial tibial subluxation (CTS) under load was quantified sequentially under 3 conditions: intact, after cranial cruciate ligament transection, and after TPLO; a corrected CTS value was also calculated. Postoperative TPA and TLAS were measured. Comparisons were made using 1-way repeated measures ANOVA with a Tukey's multiple comparison post hoc test for CTS, and a Wilcoxon's sign rank test for TPA and TLAS. Significance was set at Pcranial tibial thrust. The centered osteotomy position is geometrically more precise, and biomechanically more effective than the distal position.

  7. Incidence of motion loss of the stifle joint in dogs with naturally occurring cranial cruciate ligament rupture surgically treated with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy: longitudinal clinical study of 412 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandi, Avtar S; Schulman, Alan J

    2007-02-01

    To report the incidence of loss of stifle extension or flexion and its relationship with clinical lameness after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture. Longitudinal study. Dogs (n=280) with CCL rupture (n=412). TPLO was performed without meniscal release or arthrotomy. Angles of extension and flexion of the stifle were measured by goniometry to determine range of motion. Based upon motion loss, stifles were divided in 3 groups: no loss of extension or flexion (n=322), or =10 degrees loss of extension or flexion (n=12). Loss of extension or flexion > or =10 degrees was associated with significantly (P=.001) higher clinical lameness scores in comparison with no loss, or loss of extension or flexion or =10 degrees was less tolerable and less amenable to physical rehabilitation than flexion loss. Loss of extension or flexion > or =10 degrees was responsible for higher clinical lameness scores. Osteoarthrosis in the cranial femorotibial joint led to extension loss. Loss of extension or flexion should be assessed in dogs with persistent clinical lameness after TPLO so that early intervention can occur. Our study provides guidelines to define clinically relevant loss of extension or flexion of stifle joint after TPLO.

  8. Centro instantâneo de movimento, na avaliação ex-vivo da reconstrução extra-articular fabelo-tibial, após transecção do ligamento cruzado cranial em cães Instantaneous center of motion following ex-vivo extra-articular stabilization for the cranial cruciate ligament-deficient stifle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Selmi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo comparou o efeito na biomecânica articular de dois fios de sutura, aço e polipropileno, na estabilização do joelho após transecção do ligamento cruzado cranial de cães, utilizando-se a técnica extra-articular de sutura fabelo-tibial. O centro instantâneo de movimento e o vetor velocidade resultante, foram calculados por meio de análise radiográfica das articulações fêmur-tíbio-patelares de doze cães, antes e após a desestabilização e estabilização articular. Todas as articulações apresentavam centro instantâneo e vetor velocidade normais antes da transecção do ligamento. Após a mesma, observou-se o posicionamento anormal do vetor velocidade em onze articulações. Na análise radiográfica posterior à estabilização articular, quatro articulações do grupo nos quais foi empregado o fio de aço continuaram apresentando posicionamento anormal do vetor velocidade, enquanto todas as articulações do grupo em que foi utilizado o fio de polipropileno apresentaram vetor velocidade em posição tangente às superfícies ósseas. Conclui-se que o fio de polipropileno é mais indicado na estabilização extra-articular por manter a biomecânica articular inalterada.This study evaluated the effect of two suture materials, stainless steel wire and polypropylene, on the stifle joint biomechanics by means of analysis of the instantaneous center of motion after stabilization of cranial cruciate ligament-deficient stifle with the fabelo-tibial suture technique. The instantaneous center of motion and resulting velocity vectors were determined by radiographic examination of the stifle joint in twelve dogs before and after cranial cruciate ligament transection, and after joint stabilization. All the stifles showed normally positioned instantaneous centers of motion and velocity vectors before cranial cruciate ligament transection. Eleven joints had abnormally positioned velocity vectors after transection of the cranial

  9. Lesions in canine stifle joints due to trochleoplasties as treatment for medial patellar luxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Hans van der Zee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lesions in canine stifle joints after previous trochleoplasty surgery were documented. Infour clinical cases arthrotomies were performed due to stifle pain after previous trochleardeepening procedures. A small area of hyaline cartilage remained in the groove of the stiflesin cases where previous wedge trochleoplasties had been performed. All of the stifles hadsignificant areas of eburnation on the axial aspect of the medial trochlear ridge. The stifle jointsof a dog that was euthanased due to severe irreversible osteo-arthritis were photographed.The dog had undergone previous surgery for patellar luxation and cranial cruciate ligamentruptures. The trochlear grooves in this dog had almost no visible articular cartilage left.

  10. Correlation of prostaglandin E2 concentrations in synovial fluid with ground reaction forces and clinical variables for pain or inflammation in dogs with osteoarthritis induced by transection of the cranial cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumble, Troy N; Billinghurst, R Clark; McIlwraith, C Wayne

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate the temporal pattern of prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentrations in synovial fluid after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) in dogs and to correlate PGE2 concentrations with ground reaction forces and subjective clinical variables for lameness or pain. 19 purpose-bred adult male Walker Hounds. Force plate measurements, subjective clinical analysis of pain or lameness, and samples of synovial fluid were obtained before (baseline) and at various time points after arthroscopic transection of the right CCL. Concentrations of PGE2 were measured in synovial fluid samples, and the PGE2 concentrations were correlated with ground reaction forces and clinical variables. The PGE2 concentration increased significantly above the baseline value throughout the entire study, peaking 14 days after transection. Peak vertical force and vertical impulse significantly decreased by day 14 after transection, followed by an increase over time without returning to baseline values. All clinical variables (eg, lameness, degree of weight bearing, joint extension, cumulative pain score, effusion score, and total protein content of synovial fluid, except for WBC count in synovial fluid) increased significantly above baseline values. Significant negative correlations were detected between PGE2 concentrations and peak vertical force (r, -0.5720) and vertical impulse (r, -0.4618), and significant positive correlations were detected between PGE2 concentrations and the subjective lameness score (r, 0.5016) and effusion score (r, 0.6817). Assessment of the acute inflammatory process by measurement of PGE2 concentrations in synovial fluid may be correlated with the amount of pain or lameness in dogs.

  11. Fratura proximal de tíbia após cirurgia extracapsular para correção de ruptura de ligamento cruzado cranial em cão Tibial fracture caused by complications after an extracapsular suture for the repair of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline França dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ruptura de ligamento cruzado cranial (RLCCr é a afecção ortopédica mais frequente no joelho de cães e a sutura fabelo-tibial é frequentemente utilizada na sua correção. Essa técnica pode estar associada com complicações incisionais, lesão tardia de menisco, edema associado ao material de sutura e infecção. O objetivo desta nota foi relatar a ocorrência de fratura proximal de tíbia em um cão, causada por complicação em sutura fabelo-tibial para correção de RLCCr. Um canino atendido em outro serviço foi submetido à osteossíntese com placa 2,0mm para correção de complicação em técnica extra-capsular, na qual houve fratura da tíbia na região do orifício criado para confecção da sutura fabelo-tibial. Houve falha dos implantes e a placa foi removida. A fratura foi estabilizada com fixador esquelético externo circular, sendo constatada, após 120 dias, consolidação.Cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR is one of the most common orthopedic diseases in dogs and extracapsular suture with nylon is often used for its correction. This technique may be associated with incisional complications, post-surgical meniscus injury, swelling associated with suture material and infection. The objective of this study is to report a tibial fracture in a dog, caused by complications after an extracapsular suture for the repair of CCLR. An adult dog, which suffered a tibial fracture after an extracapsular fixation for a CCLR, underwent surgery for the fixation of the fracture with a 2.0mm plate, by a referring veterinarian, but the implant failed. The plate was removed and the fracture was stabilized with a circular fixator. Bone consolidation was observed after 120 days.

  12. Evaluation of the status of canine hydrotherapy in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waining, M; Young, I S; Williams, S B

    2011-04-16

    To establish the current status of canine hydrotherapy in the UK and to ascertain information regarding the current use of hydrotherapy, a questionnaire was sent to 152 hydrotherapy centres throughout the UK, from which 89 responded. Hydrotherapy was found to be a rapidly growing business. Stand-alone centres were in existence; however, many centres were connected to other businesses, including boarding kennels and general practice veterinary surgeries. The dogs using the facility were mainly pedigree breeds, particularly labrador retrievers (30 per cent), and the most commonly encountered conditions were rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (25 per cent), hip dysplasia (24 per cent) and osteoarthritis (18 per cent). The proportion of qualified versus unqualified staff varied between centres, highlighting a need for improved regulation of this aspect of the industry. However, all the dogs treated by the hydrotherapy centres surveyed were direct veterinary referrals, suggesting a good degree of professionalism in the field and a high regard for the benefits of hydrotherapy.

  13. Incisuroplastia troclear e estabilização articular após transecção do ligamento cruzado cranial: Estudo clínico e radiográfico em cães Intercondylar notchplasty and fascial strip repair following transection of the cranial cruciate ligament: Clinical and radiographic aspects in the dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Selmi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as alterações clínicas e radiográficas em nove cães adultos, após a transecção do ligamento cruzado cranial (LCCr seguida da substituição ligamentar por retalho de fáscia lata, associada ou não à incisuroplastia troclear (ITR. O joelho direito (GI foi submetido à ITR e posterior estabilização articular, e o esquerdo somente à substituição ligamentar (GC. Os animais foram avaliados nos períodos pré-operatório, pós-operatório (po imediato e aos 30, 90 e 180 dias de po, período coincidente com o momento de eutanásia de subgrupos de três cães. A instabilidade articular e o grau de claudicação diminuíram significativamente durante o período de avaliação, apesar da instabilidade persistir durante a flexão articular. Observou-se decréscimo significativo do perímetro muscular da coxa aos 30 e 90 dias p.o. em ambos os grupos. Não foram evidenciadas alterações nos graus de extensão e flexão articulares, na rotação interna da tíbia, na amplitude de movimento articular ou de doença articular degenerativa (DAD durante o período de avaliação em ambos os grupos. Conclui-se que a ITR, associada à técnica de estabilização articular, não produz alterações em nenhuma das variáveis estudadas em cães, quando comparada à estabilização intra-articular, isoladamente.Clinical and radiographic changes associated with intercondylar notchplasty (IN after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL followed by a fascial strip reconstruction were studied in nine adult dogs. The right stifle was submitted to IN followed by fascial strip reconstruction of the CCL (GI while in the left IN was not performed (GC. Dogs were evaluated the day prior to surgery, on the immediate postoperative day and at 30, 90 and 180 days after surgery, time at which a subgroup of three dogs were euthanatized. Instability and lameness significantly decreased throughout the evaluation period, although instability was

  14. Effects of tibial plateau angle and spacer thickness applied during in vitro canine total knee replacement on three-dimensional kinematics and collateral ligament strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Katherine M; Foutz, Timothy L; Johnsen, Kyle J; Budsberg, Steven C

    2014-09-01

    To quantify the 3-D kinematics and collateral ligament strain of stifle joints in cadaveric canine limbs before and after cranial cruciate ligament transection followed by total knee replacement (TKR) involving various tibial plateau angles and spacer thicknesses. 6 hemi-pelvises collected from clinically normal nonchondrodystrophic dogs (weight range, 25 to 35 kg). Hemi-pelvises were mounted on a modified Oxford knee rig that allowed 6 degrees of freedom of the stifle joint but prevented mechanical movement of the hip and tarsal joints. Kinematics and collateral ligament strain were measured continuously while stifle joints were flexed. Data were again collected after cranial cruciate ligament transection and TKR with combinations of 3 plateau angles (0°, 4°, and 8°) and spacer thicknesses (5, 7, and 9 mm). Presurgical (ie, normal) stifle joint rotations were comparable to those previously documented for live dogs. After TKR, kinematics recorded for the 8°, 5-mm implant most closely resembled those of unaltered stifle joints. Decreasing the plateau angle and increasing spacer thickness altered stifle joint adduction, internal rotation, and medial translation. Medial collateral ligament strain was minimal in unaltered stifle joints and was unaffected by TKR. Lateral collateral ligament strain decreased with steeper plateau angles but returned to a presurgical level at the flattest plateau angle. Among the constructs tested, greatest normalization of canine stifle joint kinematics in vitro was achieved with the steepest plateau angle paired with the thinnest spacer. Furthermore, results indicated that strain to the collateral ligaments was not negatively affected by TKR.

  15. Radiographic imaging of the canine intercondylar fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, R.D.; Fitch, R.B.; Hathcock, J.T.; LaPrade, R.F.; Wilson, M.E.; Garrett, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    The intercondylar fossa is believed to play an important role in the pathology of cranial cruciate ligament rupture and therefore has received considerable attention in the last decade. Accurate radiographic imaging of the intercondylar fossa requires that the central x-ray beam pass through the center of the intercondylar “tunnel”. The anatomy of the canine intercondylar fossa is similar to humans, however, the orientations of the intercondylar fossa's differ. Consequently, the positioning techniques described for humans are not appropriate for the dog. To pass through the center of the dog, intercondylar fossa, the central x-ray beam should be 12° (S.D. 1.7°) caudal from the femoral diaphysis in the sagittal plane and obliqued caudolateral to craniomedial 7° (S.D. 0.60°) (caudo78°proximo7° lateralcraniodistomedial oblique). Cross table positioning was used with the hip flexed and the radiograph cassette placed on the cranial surface of the stifle. However, superimposition of the tuber ischii and soft tissues caudal to the femur made 15° to 20° the best angle obtainable. There was not a significant difference (p = 0.17) in the notch width index between a 12° versus 20° angle of the central x-ray beam caudal to the femoral diaphysis, both with 7° of external rotation of the stifle. The notch width index of 0.252 obtained from radiographic measurements was not significantly different from measurements obtained grossly of 0.254 (n = 26; p = 0.69). Failure to oblique the central x-ray beam caused a significant (p = 0.0008) decrease in the apparent fossa width radiographically

  16. Canine thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsohn, M.

    1985-01-01

    Thymoma is an uncommon canine neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells. It is seen in various breeds but may occur more frequently in German Shepherd Dogs. Middle-aged or older dogs can be affected and no sex predilection exists. A paraneoplastic syndrome of myasthenia gravis, nonthymic malignant tumors, and/or polymyositis occurs in a significant number of dogs with thymoma. Clinical signs are variable and are related to a space-occupying cranial mediastinal mass and/or manifestations of the paraneo-plastic syndrome. Dyspnea is the most common presenting clinical sign. Thoracic radiographs usually show a cranial mediastinal mass. Lymphoma is the main differential diagnosis. A definitive diagnosis may be made by closed biopsy but is more likely to be confirmed by thoracotomy. Thymomas may be completely contained within the thymic capsule or may spread by local invasion or metastasis. A staging system allows for an accurate prognosis and a therapeutic plan. Surgical removal of encapsulated thymomas may result in long-term survival or cure. Invasive or metastatic thymomas carry a guarded prognosis. Manifestations of the paraneoplastic syndrome complicate treatment. Adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy may be of value for advanced cases; however, adequate clinical trials have not been done in the dog

  17. Canine stifle joint biomechanics associated with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy predicted by use of a computer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nathan P; Bertocci, Gina E; Marcellin-Little, Denis J

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate effects of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) on canine stifle joint biomechanics in a cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifle joint by use of a 3-D computer model simulating the stance phase of gait and to compare biomechanics in TPLO-managed, CrCL-intact, and CrCL-deficient stifle joints. Computer simulations of the pelvic limb of a Golden Retriever. A previously developed computer model of the canine pelvic limb was used to simulate TPLO stabilization to achieve a tibial plateau angle (TPA) of 5° (baseline value) in a CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for tibial fragment rotation of 13° to -3°. Ligament loads, relative tibial translation, and relative tibial rotation were determined and compared with values for CrCL-intact and CrCL-deficient stifle joints. TPLO with a 5° TPA converted cranial tibial translation to caudal tibial translation and increased loads placed on the remaining stifle joint ligaments, compared with results for a CrCL-intact stifle joint. Lateral collateral ligament load was similar, medial collateral ligament load increased, and caudal cruciate ligament load decreased after TPLO, compared with loads for a CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Relative tibial rotation after TPLO was similar to that of a CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Stifle joint biomechanics were affected by TPLO fragment rotation. In the model, stifle joint biomechanics were partially improved after TPLO, compared with CrCL-deficient stifle joint biomechanics, but TPLO did not fully restore CrCL-intact stifle joint biomechanics. Overrotation of the tibial fragment negatively influenced stifle joint biomechanics by increasing caudal tibial translation.

  18. Ability of the Tightrope® and percutaneous lateral fabellar suture techniques to control cranial tibial translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biskup, Jeffery J; Griffon, Dominique J; Socie, Mike; Schaeffer, David J; Kurath, Peter

    2014-11-01

    To compare the ability of the Tightrope® (TR) cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) technique, percutaneous lateral fabella suture (pLFS) technique, and normal CCL to control cranial tibial translation (CTT). In vitro biomechanical study. Cadaveric canine pelvic limbs (n = 18 pairs). Six small animal surgical residents (1 pair each) and a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons (10 pairs) performed TR and pLFS techniques on paired limbs. Two intact limb pairs served as controls. Limbs were assessed by palpation, radiographs, and dissection before mechanical testing of resistance to CTT. Forces resisted during displacement were compared between groups with a mixed ANOVA and post hoc tests. With 5 mm of displacement, the pLFS resisted 72 ± 45 N and the TR resisted 66 ± 48 N of load. The intact CCL resisted 400 ± 35 N. The intact CCL resisted displacement significantly more than either surgical technique. TR and pLFS had similar ability to resist CTT but neither restored the biomechanical properties of an intact CCL. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  19. Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modulate Molecular Markers of Inflammation in Dogs with Cruciate Ligament Rupture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Muir

    Full Text Available Mid-substance rupture of the canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CR and associated stifle osteoarthritis (OA is an important veterinary health problem. CR causes stifle joint instability and contralateral CR often develops. The dog is an important model for human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL rupture, where rupture of graft repair or the contralateral ACL is also common. This suggests that both genetic and environmental factors may increase ligament rupture risk. We investigated use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs to reduce systemic and stifle joint inflammatory responses in dogs with CR. Twelve dogs with unilateral CR and contralateral stable partial CR were enrolled prospectively. BM-MSCs were collected during surgical treatment of the unstable CR stifle and culture-expanded. BM-MSCs were subsequently injected at a dose of 2x106 BM-MSCs/kg intravenously and 5x106 BM-MSCs by intra-articular injection of the partial CR stifle. Blood (entry, 4 and 8 weeks and stifle synovial fluid (entry and 8 weeks were obtained after BM-MSC injection. No adverse events after BM-MSC treatment were detected. Circulating CD8+ T lymphocytes were lower after BM-MSC injection. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP was decreased at 4 weeks and serum CXCL8 was increased at 8 weeks. Synovial CRP in the complete CR stifle was decreased at 8 weeks. Synovial IFNγ was also lower in both stifles after BM-MSC injection. Synovial/serum CRP ratio at diagnosis in the partial CR stifle was significantly correlated with development of a second CR. Systemic and intra-articular injection of autologous BM-MSCs in dogs with partial CR suppresses systemic and stifle joint inflammation, including CRP concentrations. Intra-articular injection of autologous BM-MSCs had profound effects on the correlation and conditional dependencies of cytokines using causal networks. Such treatment effects could ameliorate risk of a second CR by modifying the stifle joint

  20. Cranial mononeuropathy VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abducens palsy; Lateral rectus palsy; VIth nerve palsy; Cranial nerve VI palsy; Sixth nerve palsy; Neuropathy - sixth nerve ... Cranial mononeuropathy VI is damage to the sixth cranial nerve. This nerve is also called the abducens nerve. ...

  1. Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy Sections What Is Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy? ... Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy Treatment What Is Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es una parálisis ...

  2. Use of an extracapsular stabilization technique to repair cruciate ligament ruptures in two avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Spodnick, Gary; Degernes, Laurel; DeVoe, Ryan S; Marcellin-Little, Denis J

    2009-12-01

    An extracapsular stabilization technique was used to repair cruciate ligament ruptures in a trumpeter hornbill (Bycanistes bucinator) and an African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus). The hornbill demonstrated cranial drawer motion and severe rotational instability of the stifle from ruptures of the cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments and stifle joint capsule. The luxation was reduced, and the fibula was cranially transposed, in relation to the tibiotarsus, and anchored with 2 positive profile threaded acrylic pins. A lateral extracapsular stabilization was then performed. The African grey parrot had a traumatic stifle luxation, and an open reduction and a lateral extracapsular stabilization were performed. Both birds regained function of the affected leg by 1 month after surgery. Extracapsular stabilization allows motion of the stifle joint to be maintained during the postoperative recovery period, an advantage over rigid stabilization. Maintaining motion in the stifle joint facilitates physical therapy and can aid in full recovery after avian stifle injuries.

  3. Cranial Bosses of Choerosaurus dejageri (Therapsida, Therocephalia): Earliest Evidence of Cranial Display Structures in Eutheriodonts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Julien; Manger, Paul R; Fernandez, Vincent; Rubidge, Bruce S

    2016-01-01

    Choerosaurus dejageri, a non-mammalian eutheriodont therapsid from the South African late Permian (~259 Ma), has conspicuous hemispheric cranial bosses on the maxilla and the mandible. These bosses, the earliest of this nature in a eutheriodont, potentially make C. dejageri a key species for understanding the evolutionary origins of sexually selective behaviours (intraspecific competition, ritualized sexual and intimidation displays) associated with cranial outgrowths at the root of the clade that eventually led to extant mammals. Comparison with the tapinocephalid dinocephalian Moschops capensis, a therapsid in which head butting is strongly supported, shows that the delicate structure of the cranial bosses and the gracile structure of the skull of Choerosaurus would be more suitable for display and low energy combat than vigorous head butting. Thus, despite the fact that Choerosaurus is represented by only one skull (which makes it impossible to address the question of sexual dimorphism), its cranial bosses are better interpreted as structures involved in intraspecific selection, i.e. low-energy fighting or display. Display structures, such as enlarged canines and cranial bosses, are widespread among basal therapsid clades and are also present in the putative basal therapsid Tetraceratops insignis. This suggests that sexual selection may have played a more important role in the distant origin and evolution of mammals earlier than previously thought. Sexual selection may explain the subsequent independent evolution of cranial outgrowths and pachyostosis in different therapsid lineages (Biarmosuchia, Dinocephalia, Gorgonopsia and Dicynodontia).

  4. Cranial Bosses of Choerosaurus dejageri (Therapsida, Therocephalia: Earliest Evidence of Cranial Display Structures in Eutheriodonts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Benoit

    Full Text Available Choerosaurus dejageri, a non-mammalian eutheriodont therapsid from the South African late Permian (~259 Ma, has conspicuous hemispheric cranial bosses on the maxilla and the mandible. These bosses, the earliest of this nature in a eutheriodont, potentially make C. dejageri a key species for understanding the evolutionary origins of sexually selective behaviours (intraspecific competition, ritualized sexual and intimidation displays associated with cranial outgrowths at the root of the clade that eventually led to extant mammals. Comparison with the tapinocephalid dinocephalian Moschops capensis, a therapsid in which head butting is strongly supported, shows that the delicate structure of the cranial bosses and the gracile structure of the skull of Choerosaurus would be more suitable for display and low energy combat than vigorous head butting. Thus, despite the fact that Choerosaurus is represented by only one skull (which makes it impossible to address the question of sexual dimorphism, its cranial bosses are better interpreted as structures involved in intraspecific selection, i.e. low-energy fighting or display. Display structures, such as enlarged canines and cranial bosses, are widespread among basal therapsid clades and are also present in the putative basal therapsid Tetraceratops insignis. This suggests that sexual selection may have played a more important role in the distant origin and evolution of mammals earlier than previously thought. Sexual selection may explain the subsequent independent evolution of cranial outgrowths and pachyostosis in different therapsid lineages (Biarmosuchia, Dinocephalia, Gorgonopsia and Dicynodontia.

  5. The concentration, gene expression, and spatial distribution of aggrecan in canine articular cartilage, meniscus, and anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments: a new molecular distinction between hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage in the knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar; Mort, John S; McDevitt, Cahir A

    2005-01-01

    The concentration, spatial distribution, and gene expression of aggrecan in meniscus, articular cartilage, and the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (ACL and PCL) was determined in the knee joints of five mature dogs. An anti-serum against peptide sequences specific to the G1 domain of aggrecan was employed in competitive-inhibition ELISA of guanidine HCl extracts and immunofluorescence microscopy. Gene expression was determined by Taqman real-time PCR. The concentration of aggrecan in articular cartilage (240.1 +/- 32 nMol/g dry weight) was higher than that in meniscus (medial meniscus: 33.4 +/- 4.3 nMol/g) and ligaments (ACL: 6.8 +/- 0.9 nMol/g). Aggrecan was more concentrated in the inner than the outer zone of the meniscus. Aggrecan in meniscus showed an organized, spatial network, in contrast to its diffuse distribution in articular cartilage. Thus, differences in the concentration, gene expression, and spatial distribution of aggrecan constitute another molecular distinction between hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage of the knee.

  6. Lower cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatos, Theodoros; Batra, Kiran; Blitz, Ari M; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-02-01

    Imaging evaluation of cranial neuropathies requires thorough knowledge of the anatomic, physiologic, and pathologic features of the cranial nerves, as well as detailed clinical information, which is necessary for tailoring the examinations, locating the abnormalities, and interpreting the imaging findings. This article provides clinical, anatomic, and radiological information on lower (7th to 12th) cranial nerves, along with high-resolution magnetic resonance images as a guide for optimal imaging technique, so as to improve the diagnosis of cranial neuropathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Estudo artroscópico da articulação do joelho em cães portadores de lesão do ligamento cruzado cranial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Cecilia Tatarunas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to report intra articular changes observed by means of arthroscopic in dogs bearing cranial cruciate ligament injuries. Sixty-three dogs (sixty-five knee joints with naturally occurring cranial cruciate injury were used. The arthroscopy was carried out before the ligament repair and the observed changes were both recorded and reported. According to the results obtained from this research it is significant to mention the presence of plicae on suprapatelar joint pouch; roughness, neovascularization and osteophytes in patella. The lateral meniscus presented axial fringe tear, fibrillation, neovascularization and complete laceration. The medial meniscus showed bucket handle tear, complete laceration, axial fringe tear, fibrillation, neovascularization and mineralization. The cranial cruciate ligament was completely ruptured, partially ruptured, interstitially ruptured and linked to the structures of the intercondylar notch. The caudal cruciate ligament showed vertical splits, besides fibrillation and partial rupture. Arthroscopy has been used for diagnostic of cranial cruciate ligament injuries in dogs. It permits improved diagnostic capability when evaluating cartilage and sinovial changes, meniscus and ligaments tears.

  8. Normal cranial CT anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gado, M.H.; Rao, K.C.V.G.

    1987-01-01

    The human brain consists of well-known anatomical components. Some parts of these components have been shown to be concerned with certain functions. A complete cranial CT examination consists of a series of several slices obtained in a sequence usually from the base to the vertex of the cranial vault, in the axial mode. The ultimate goal of this chapter is to pinpoint those slices that depict a given anatomical structure or several structures that deal with a given function. To achieve this goal, the discussion of CT cranial anatomy is presented in three sections

  9. Intraoperative cranial nerve monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C Michel

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of intraoperative monitoring is to preserve function and prevent injury to the nervous system at a time when clinical examination is not possible. Cranial nerves are delicate structures and are susceptible to damage by mechanical trauma or ischemia during intracranial and extracranial surgery. A number of reliable electrodiagnostic techniques, including nerve conduction studies, electromyography, and the recording of evoked potentials have been adapted to the study of cranial nerve function during surgery. A growing body of evidence supports the utility of intraoperative monitoring of cranial nerve nerves during selected surgical procedures.

  10. Cranial mononeuropathy III

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the skull. This is one of the cranial nerves that control eye movement. Causes may include: Brain aneurysm Infections Abnormal blood vessels (vascular malformations) Sinus thrombosis Tissue damage from loss of blood flow (infarction) Trauma (from ...

  11. Bioengineered anterior cruciate ligament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ivan (Inventor); Altman, Gregory (Inventor); Kaplan, David (Inventor); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament ex vivo. The method comprises seeding pluripotent stem cells in a three dimensional matrix, anchoring the seeded matrix by attachment to two anchors, and culturing the cells within the matrix under conditions appropriate for cell growth and regeneration, while subjecting the matrix to one or more mechanical forces via movement of one or both of the attached anchors. Bone marrow stromal cells are preferably used as the pluripotent cells in the method. Suitable matrix materials are materials to which cells can adhere, such as a gel made from collagen type I. Suitable anchor materials are materials to which the matrix can attach, such as Goinopra coral and also demineralized bone. Optimally, the mechanical forces to which the matrix is subjected mimic mechanical stimuli experienced by an anterior cruciate ligament in vivo. This is accomplished by delivering the appropriate combination of tension, compression, torsion, and shear, to the matrix. The bioengineered ligament which is produced by this method is characterized by a cellular orientation and/or matrix crimp pattern in the direction of the applied mechanical forces, and also by the production of collagen type I, collagen type III, and fibronectin proteins along the axis of mechanical load produced by the mechanical forces. Optimally, the ligament produced has fiber bundles which are arranged into a helical organization. The method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament can be adapted to produce a wide range of tissue types ex vivo by adapting the anchor size and attachment sites to reflect the size of the specific type of tissue to be produced, and also adapting the specific combination of forces applied, to mimic the mechanical stimuli experienced in vivo by the specific type of tissue to be produced. The methods of the present invention can be further modified to incorporate other stimuli experienced in vivo by the

  12. Canine gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Craig; Twedt, David C

    2003-09-01

    Gastritis--inflammation of the stomach--is a frequently cited differential yet rarely characterized diagnosis in cases of canine anorexia and vomiting. Although the list of rule-outs for acute or chronic gastritis is extensive, a review of the veterinary literature reveals fewer than 15 articles that have focused on clinical cases of canine gastritis over the last 25 years. The dog frequently appears in the human literature as an experimentally manipulated model for the study of endoscopic techniques or the effect of medications on gastric mucosa. In the veterinary patient, cases of acute gastritis are rarely pursued with the complete diagnostic armamentarium, and cases of chronic gastritis are rarely found to occur as an entity isolated from the rest of the gastrointestinal tract. This article focuses on those findings most clinically relevant to cases of canine gastritis in veterinary medicine.

  13. Cranial nerve palsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggieri, P.; Adelizzi, J.; Modic, M.T.; Ross, J.S.; Tkach, J.; Masaryk, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the utility of multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs) of three-dimensional (3D) MR angiography data sets in the examination of patients with cranial nerve palsies. The authors hypothesis was that 3D data could be reformatted to highlight the intricate spatial relationships of vessels to adjacent neural tissues by taking advantage of the high vessel-parenchyma contrast in high-resolution 3D time-of-flight sequences. Twenty patients with cranial nerve palsies and 10 asymptomatic patients were examined with coronal T1-weighted and axial T2-weighted imaging plus a gadolinium-enhanced 3D MRA sequence (40/7/15 degrees, axial 60-mm volume, 0.9-mm isotropic resolution). Cranial nerves II-VIII were subsequently evaluated on axial and reformatted coronal and/or sagittal images

  14. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elster, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    This illustrated work covers the diagnosis of central nervous system diseases by MRI. It focuses on strategies for detecting a wide range of intracranial disorders and includes protocols for cranial MRI. For each disease discussed, characteristic MR findings are described, and contrasted with CT and angiography where appropriate. Offers useful appendices on functional neuroanatomy and a glossary of terminology and abbreviations

  15. Genetic testing of canine degenerative myelopathy in the South African Boxer dog population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth E. Zeiler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM is a progressive disease process that is diagnosed late in life and mainly affects the pelvic limbs. Factors that make an ante-mortem definitive diagnosis of DM include: an insidious onset and clinical manifestation that mimics other disease processes of the pelvic limbs (hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament rupture, etc. or there may even be concurrent disease processes, old-age onset and lack of reliable diagnostic methods. Until recently, South African dog owners had to submit samples to laboratories overseas for genetic testing in order to confirm an affected dog (homozygous A/A and to aid in the ante-mortem diagnosis of DM. Only affected dogs have been confirmed to manifest the clinical signs of DM. This study aimed to verify whether genetic testing by a local genetic laboratory was possible in order to detect a missense mutation of the superoxide dismutase gene (SOD1 that is implicated in causing the clinical signs of DM. The study also aimed to detect and map the inheritance of this disease process in a local Boxer dog population where the pedigree of the sampled population was known. Venous blood collected from Boxer dogs using a simple random sampling technique. The samples were genotyped for the SOD1:c.118G>A polymorphism. Carrier and affected Boxer dogs were detected. A pedigree that demonstrated the significance of inheriting a carrier or affected state in the population was mapped. The present study concludes that genotyping of the missense mutation in Boxer dogs is possible in South Africa. There are carrier and affected Boxer dogs in the local population, making DM a plausible diagnosis in aged dogs presenting with pelvic limb pathology.

  16. A role for subchondral bone changes in the process of osteoarthritis; a micro-CT study of two canine models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.H. Sniekers (Yvonne); F. Intema (Femke); F.P.J.G. Lafeber (Floris); G.J.V.M. van Osch (Gerjo); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans); H.H. Weinans (Harrie); S.C. Mastbergen (Simon)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: This study evaluates changes in peri-articular bone in two canine models for osteoarthritis: the groove model and the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) model. METHODS: Evaluation was performed at 10 and 20 weeks post-surgery and in addition a 3-weeks time point

  17. Neuromuscular ultrasound of cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Eman A; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed.

  18. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elster, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    Cranial Magnetic Resonance Imaging is comprehensive, well structured, and well written. The material is current and well referenced. The illustrations are good and complement the text well. The overall quality of publication is above average. The greatest attribute of the book is its readability. The author demonstrates ample skill in making complex subjects, such as MR physics and imaging of cerebral hemorrhage, easy to understand. The book closes with a detailed atlas on the anatomic appearance of the brain on MR images in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes

  19. Novel anterior cruciate ligament graft fixation device reduces slippage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez MJ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mandi J Lopez,1 Allen Borne,2 W Todd Monroe,3 Prakash Bommala,1 Laura Kelly,1 Nan Zhang11Laboratory for Equine and Comparative Orthopedic Research, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, 2Louisiana State University, New Orleans Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, New Orleans, 3Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USAAbstract: Clinically significant laxity occurs in 10%–30% of knees after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Graft slippage and tension loss at the hamstring graft tibial fixation site during and after reconstruction surgery contribute to postoperative joint laxity and are detrimental to long-term knee stability and graft properties. Limiting graft slippage will reduce associated complications. We sought to compare the in vitro mechanical properties and in vivo joint stabilization, postoperative limb use, and graft incorporation of the novel GraftGrab™ (GG device designed to reduce hamstring graft tibial fixation slippage with the commercially available bioabsorbable Bio-Post™ and spiked washer (BP. Mechanical testing was performed on canine tibia-hamstring graft constructs to quantify initial fixation properties. In vivo joint stabilization, postoperative limb use and graft incorporation of hamstring graft reconstructions were determined in a canine model. Outcomes included tibial translation and ground reaction forces preoperatively and 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, three-dimensional graft and bone tunnel dimensions at the latter two time points, and graft-bone microstructure, as well as mechanical properties 8 weeks after implantation. Immediately after fixation, all grafts slipped from the BP constructs versus about 30% of GG constructs. In vivo limb use remained low, and tibial translation increased with time in the BP cohort. These results together

  20. Computed Tomography Imaging of the Topographical Anatomy of Canine Prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimtrox, R.; Yonkova, P.; Vladova, D.; Kostov, D.

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the topographical anatomy of canine prostate gland by computed tomography (CT) for diagnostic imaging purposes. ÐœATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven clinically healthy mongrel male dogs at the age of 3−4 years and body weight of 10−15 kg were submitted to transverse computerized axial tomography (CAT) with cross section thickness of 5 mm. RESULTS: The CT image of canine prostate is visualized throughout the scans of the pelvis in the planes through the first sacral vertebra (S1) dorsally; the bodies of iliac bones laterally and cranially to the pelvic brim (ventrally). The body of prostate appears as an oval homogenous relatively hypo dense finding with soft tissue density. The gland is well differentiated from the adjacent soft tissues. CONCLUSION: By means of CT, the cranial part of prostate gland in adult dogs aged 3−4 years exhibited an abdominal localization. (author)

  1. Evaluation of Partial Transection versus Synovial Debridement of the ACL as Novel Canine Models for Management of ACL Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozynski, Chantelle C; Kuroki, Keiichi; Stannard, James P; Smith, Patrick A; Stoker, Aaron M; Cook, Cristi R; Cook, James L

    2015-10-01

    A major hurdle in investigating important clinical questions in knee ligament treatment is a lack of valid translational animal models. This study characterizes the effects of partial transection versus synovial debridement of the anterior (cranial) cruciate ligament (ACL) in dogs. A total of 27 adult purpose-bred research hounds underwent surgery and were assessed over the following 8 weeks. Dogs were randomized into the following three ACL status groups: sham control (n = 9), intact ACL with synovial debridement (exposed ACL) (n = 9), and partial transection of the ACL (partial tear ACL) (n = 9). Dogs in the exposed ACL group and partial tear ACL group had significantly (p < 0.05) more severe lameness, pain, effusion, reduced function, and reduced comfortable range of motion compared with controls, with the partial tear ACL group being most severely affected. More severe ACL and whole-joint pathology, and radiographic scores for osteoarthritis were present in the partial tear ACL group compared with exposed and/or sham control group. On the basis of these findings, biologic components of ACL injury (exposed ACL) played a role in whole-joint inflammation, but the clinical and pathological effects were more severe when both biologic and biomechanical components were present (i.e., partial tear ACL). These novel canine models were successfully developed to evaluate partial transection versus synovial debridement of the ACL and these models will be used to evaluate treatment options for acute management of ACL injuries. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.

  3. [Imaging anatomy of cranial nerves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermier, M; Leal, P R L; Salaris, S F; Froment, J-C; Sindou, M

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the cranial nerves is mandatory for optimal radiological exploration and interpretation of the images in normal and pathological conditions. CT is the method of choice for the study of the skull base and its foramina. MRI explores the cranial nerves and their vascular relationships precisely. Because of their small size, it is essential to obtain images with high spatial resolution. The MRI sequences optimize contrast between nerves and surrounding structures (cerebrospinal fluid, fat, bone structures and vessels). This chapter discusses the radiological anatomy of the cranial nerves.

  4. The intercondylar fossa of the normal canine stifle: an anatomic and radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, Randall B.; Montgomery, Ronald D.; Milton, James L.; Garrett, Phillip D.; Kincaid, Steven A.; Wright, James C.; Terry, Glenn C.

    1995-01-01

    The intercondylar fossa (ICF) in dogs consists of a cranial outlet, intercondylar shelf, caudal arch, caudal outlet, a medial wall, and a lateral wall. The normal cranial outlet is bell-shape and, in mixed-breed dogs (mean body weight 19.2 kg, N = 21), measured 5.8 mm cranially, 8.1 mm centrally, and 10.3 mm caudally. The ICF is oriented 12 degree from the dorsal plane of the femoral diaphysis and obliqued 7 degree , proximolateral to distomedial, in the sagittal plane. To adjust for dog size, a fossa width index (FWI) was calculated by dividing the cranial outlet width by the distance between epicondyles. The normal FWI as determined in this study was 0.18 cranially, 0.25 centrally, and 0.32 caudally. The fossa height index was 0.31. Contact between the ICF and the cranial cruciate ligament began at about 115 degree of extension. The contact area moved cranially in the intercondylar fossa as the stifle was extended. Evaluation of the ICF can be performed radiographically but positioning is critical

  5. Terminal nerve: cranial nerve zero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been stated, in different types of texts, that there are only twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Such texts exclude the existence of another cranial pair, the terminal nerve or even cranial zero. This paper considers the mentioned nerve like a cranial pair, specifying both its connections and its functional role in the migration of liberating neurons of the gonadotropic hormone (Gn RH. In this paper is also stated the hypothesis of the phylogenetic existence of a cerebral sector and a common nerve that integrates the terminal nerve with the olfactory nerves and the vomeronasals nerves which seem to carry out the odors detection function as well as in the food search, pheromone detection and nasal vascular regulation.

  6. Strengthening exercises for old cruciate ligament tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegner, Y; Lysholm, J; Lysholm, M; Gillquist, J

    1986-04-01

    Fifty-three consecutive patients with troublesome old cruciate ligament lesions underwent a 3-month thigh and calf muscle training program. Before training, the diagnosis was established by arthroscopy and clinical examination under anesthesia. Significant improvement in strength, performance, knee score, and activity level took place; the majority were improved and declined surgery. A period of strength training is recommended before the decision to undertake surgery for cruciate ligament injury.

  7. Chronic injuries of the cruciate ligaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pricca, P.; Cecchini, A.; Vecchioni, G.; Mariani, P.M.; Tansini, A.; Ferrario, A.

    1988-01-01

    The high incidence of cruciate ligament injuries as a result of acute knee trauma with hemartrosis and abuse of diagnostic arthroscopies call for a suitable radiological imaging of the central pivot. Computed Arthrotomography (CAT) was used to examine the knee joint in 20 cases of clinically suspected chronic cruciate ligament injury. The images were correlated with arthroscopic and/or arthrotomic findings. Thirteen lesions of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) (65%) were found, plus 1 lesion of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) (5%), 2 associated lesions of ACL + PCL (10%), and 4 normal cases. Confirmation of pathology was available in all cases but one by arthroscopy and/or surgery. The central pivot diseases were classified as follows: absence, detachement, partial or complete tear. CAT findings of cruciate ligament injuries are emphasized and the role of the technique as compared to arthroscopy is discussed. CAT is useful in 3-D evaluation of central pivot and detection of different cruciate ligament injuries, with high sensitivity-specifity for ACL and high specifity-moderate sensitivity for PCL. In the evaluation of the chronic unstable knee, CAT is highly accurate and gives the surgeon useful information towards the planning of therapeutic procedures. CAT is almost non-invasive, well tolerated and easy to perform in out-patients, which make it a first-choice procedure in the screening of chronic ligament injuries

  8. Radiographic quantitative assessment of cranial tibial subluxation before and after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stanley E; Lewis, Daniel D; Pozzi, Antonio; Seibert, Rachel L; Winter, Matthew D

    2011-03-01

    To determine the influence of stifle joint flexion angle, cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) integrity, tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO), and cranial tibial subluxation on the distance between the location of the origin and insertion of the CrCL (CrCL(d)) in dogs. 4 pairs of pelvic limbs from adult dog cadavers weighing 23 to 34 kg. Procedures-Mediolateral projection radiographs of each stifle joint were obtained with the joint flexed at 90°, 105°, 120°, 135°, and 150°. Radiopaque markers were then placed at the sites of origin and insertion of the CrCL. Afterward, radiography was repeated in the same manner, before and after CrCL transection, with and without TPLO. Following CrCL transection, radiographs were obtained before and after inducing overt cranial tibial subluxation. Interobserver variation in measuring the CrCL(d) without fiduciary markers was assessed. The effect of CrCL integrity, cranial tibial subluxation, flexion angle, and TPLO on CrCL(d) was also determined. Interobserver agreement was strong, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.859. The CrCL(d) was significantly shorter (Cranial tibial subluxation caused a 25% to 40% increase in CrCL(d). No effect of TPLO on CrCL(d) was found, regardless of CrCL integrity, forced stifle joint subluxation, or flexion angle. Overt cranial tibial subluxation in CrCL-deficient stifle joints can be detected on mediolateral projection radiographs by comparing CrCL(d) on neutral and stressed joint radiographs at joint angles between 105° and 150°, regardless of whether a TPLO has been performed.

  9. Cranial Neuropathy in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Hayriye Sorgun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that cranial neuropathy findings could be seen in the neurologic examination of multiple sclerosis (MS patients, although brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI may not reveal any lesion responsible for the cranial nerve involvement. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of brainstem and cranial nerve involvement, except for olfactory and optic nerves, during MS attacks, and to investigate the rate of an available explanation for the cranial neuropathy findings by lesion localization on brain MRI. METHODS: Ninety-five attacks of 86 MS patients were included in the study. The patients underwent a complete neurological examination, and cranial nerve palsies (CNP were determined during MS attacks. RESULTS: CNP were found as follows: 3rd CNP in 7 (7.4%, 4th CNP in 1 (1.1%, 5th CNP in 6 (6.3%, 6th CNP in 12 (12.6%, 7th CNP in 5 (5.3%, 8th CNP in 4 (4.2%, and 9th and 10th CNP in 2 (2.1% out of 95 attacks. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO was detected in 5 (5.4%, nystagmus in 37 (38.9%, vertigo in 9 (6.3%, and diplopia in 14 (14.7% out of 95 attacks. Pons, mesencephalon and bulbus lesions were detected in 58.7%, 41.5% and 21.1% of the patients, respectively, on the brain MRI. Cranial nerve palsy findings could not be explained by the localization of the lesions on brainstem MRI in 5 attacks; 2 of them were 3rd CNP (1 with INO, 2 were 6th CNP and 1 was a combination of 6th, 7th and 8th CNP. CONCLUSION: The most frequently affected cranial nerve and brainstem region in MS patients is the 6th cranial nerve and pons, respectively. A few of the MS patients have normal brainstem MRI, although they have cranial neuropathy findings in the neurologic examination.

  10. Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing: Cranial Nerves IX and X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alberto R M; Martins, Melina P; Moreira, Ana Lucila; Martins, Carlos R; Kimaid, Paulo A T; França, Marcondes C

    2018-01-01

    The cranial nerves IX and X emerge from medulla oblongata and have motor, sensory, and parasympathetic functions. Some of these are amenable to neurophysiological assessment. It is often hard to separate the individual contribution of each nerve; in fact, some of the techniques are indeed a composite functional measure of both nerves. The main methods are the evaluation of the swallowing function (combined IX and X), laryngeal electromyogram (predominant motor vagal function), and heart rate variability (predominant parasympathetic vagal function). This review describes, therefore, the techniques that best evaluate the major symptoms presented in IX and X cranial nerve disturbance: dysphagia, dysphonia, and autonomic parasympathetic dysfunction.

  11. The Cruciate Ligaments in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcells, Bertrand W; Tria, Alfred J

    2016-01-01

    The early knee replacements were hinge designs that ignored the ligaments of the knee and resurfaced the joint, allowing freedom of motion in a single plane. Advances in implant fixation paved the way for modern designs, including the posterior-stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) that sacrifices both cruciate ligaments while substituting for the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), and the cruciate-retaining (CR) TKA designs that sacrifice the anterior cruciate ligament but retain the PCL. The early bicruciate retaining (BCR) TKA designs suffered from loosening and early failures. Townley and Cartier designed BCR knees that had better clinical results but the surgical techniques were challenging.Kinematic studies suggest that normal motion relies on preservation of both cruciate ligaments. Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty retains all knee ligaments and closely matches normal motion, while PS and CR TKA deviate further from normal. The 15% to 20% dissatisfaction rate with current TKA has renewed interest in the BCR design. Replication of normal knee kinematics and proprioception may address some of the dissatisfaction.

  12. Multiple Cranial Nerve Involvement In Cryptococcal Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadevan A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningitis is an uncommon cause of multiple cranial nerve palsies. This case report illustrates one such case of cryptococcal meningitis clinically manifesting with extensive cranial nerve involvement in an HIV seronegative individual. Histology revealed infiltration of the cranial nerves by cryptococci causing axonal disruption with secondary demyelination in the absence of any evidence of inflammation or vasculitis. We believe that axonal damage underlies the pathogenesis of cranial nerve involvement in cryptococcal meningitis.

  13. CT measurements of cranial growth: microcephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Torkelson, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) head scans were measured to determine the cranial dimensions of four children with microcephaly. These measurements were compared with cranial dimensions of normal children. CT proved to be useful in determining the developmental status of children with neurologic problems relative to their normal counterparts on the basis on cranial dimensions

  14. MRI findings in cranial eumycetoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Munawwar; Sureka, Jyoti; Chacko, Geeta; Eapen, Anu

    2011-01-01

    Cranial eumycetoma (CE) due to direct inoculation of Madurella grisea into the scalp is extremely rare. We describe a case of CE caused by direct inoculation of M. grisea with the characteristic MRI findings of the “dot-in-circle” sign and a conglomeration of multiple, extremely hypointense “dots.”

  15. Invasive cranial mycosis our experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Kumbhkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi can cause serious cranial infections in immunocompromised and diabetic patients. Common pathogens mainly include Aspergillus and Mucor. These organisms cause tissue invasion and destruction of adjacent structures (e.g. orbit, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary & cavernous sinuses. Mortality and morbidity rate is high despite combined surgical, antifungal and antidiabetic treatment. We present our experience of six cases with such infection.

  16. Anterior cruciate ligament tears: MRI versus arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosch, U.; Felix, R.; Schauwecker, W.; Dreithaler, B.

    1992-01-01

    Because of suspected rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament sixteen acute traumatised patients were investigated by MR and arthroscopy. The MR diagnosis of a lesion of the anterior cruciate ligament proved to be correct by arthroscopy in fifteen of sixteen cases. Diagnostic criteria for lesions of the anterior cruciate ligament were: increased signal intensity in T 1 - and T 2 weighted images, increased volume and discontinuity of ligamentous structures. Additional MR findings of meniscal tears were correct in three of four cases laterally and in four of four cases medially. Femoral cartilage lesions were correctly identified by MR in three cases. MR normal findings proved to be correct by arthroscopy in another five cases. (orig.) [de

  17. Unilateral aplasia of both cruciate ligaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Dennis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aplasia of both cruciate ligaments is a rare congenital disorder. A 28-year-old male presented with pain and the feeling of instability of his right knee after trauma. The provided MRI and previous arthroscopy reports did not indicate any abnormalities except cruciate ligament tears. He was referred to us for reconstruction of both cruciate ligaments. The patient again underwent arthroscopy which revealed a hypoplasia of the medial trochlea and an extremely narrow intercondylar notch. The tibia revealed a missing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL footprint and a single bump with a complete coverage with articular cartilage. There was no room for an ACL graft. A posterior cruciate ligament could not be identified. The procedure was ended since a ligament reconstruction did not appear reasonable. A significant notch plasty if not a partial resection of the condyles would have been necessary to implant a ligament graft. It is most likely that this would not lead to good knee stability. If the surgeon would have retrieved the contralateral hamstrings at the beginning of the planned ligament reconstruction a significant damage would have occurred to the patient. Even in seemingly clear diagnostic findings the arthroscopic surgeon should take this rare abdnormality into consideration and be familiar with the respective radiological findings. We refer the abnormal finding of only one tibial spine to as the "dromedar-sign" as opposed to the two (medial and a lateral tibial spines in a normal knee. This may be used as a hint for aplasia of the cruciate ligaments.

  18. Ardipithecus ramidus and the evolution of the human cranial base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbel, William H; Suwa, Gen; Asfaw, Berhane; Rak, Yoel; White, Tim D

    2014-01-21

    The early Pliocene African hominoid Ardipithecus ramidus was diagnosed as a having a unique phylogenetic relationship with the Australopithecus + Homo clade based on nonhoning canine teeth, a foreshortened cranial base, and postcranial characters related to facultative bipedality. However, pedal and pelvic traits indicating substantial arboreality have raised arguments that this taxon may instead be an example of parallel evolution of human-like traits among apes around the time of the chimpanzee-human split. Here we investigated the basicranial morphology of Ar. ramidus for additional clues to its phylogenetic position with reference to African apes, humans, and Australopithecus. Besides a relatively anterior foramen magnum, humans differ from apes in the lateral shift of the carotid foramina, mediolateral abbreviation of the lateral tympanic, and a shortened, trapezoidal basioccipital element. These traits reflect a relative broadening of the central basicranium, a derived condition associated with changes in tympanic shape and the extent of its contact with the petrous. Ar. ramidus shares with Australopithecus each of these human-like modifications. We used the preserved morphology of ARA-VP 1/500 to estimate the missing basicranial length, drawing on consistent proportional relationships in apes and humans. Ar. ramidus is confirmed to have a relatively short basicranium, as in Australopithecus and Homo. Reorganization of the central cranial base is among the earliest morphological markers of the Ardipithecus + Australopithecus + Homo clade.

  19. Epidemiological approach to emergent cranial surgery of cranial traumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülagü Kaptan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Objective: In this study, we aim to define the emergent cranial surgery of cranial trauma cases in terms of the reason of occurance, diagnosis, prognostic factors and results. Methods: 153 cases hospitalized in our clinic during a four year period were statistically analysed in accordance with trauma etiology, age, gender, application GCS (Glascow Coma Score mortality rate, location and established patology.

    Results: 76% (116 of the 153 cases were male. The most frequent etiological reasons were, in descending order, traffic accident 52% (n = 80, fall 34% (n = 53, direct trauma to the head 14(n =20. 45% (n = 69 were diagnosed epidural haematomas, 26% (n = 40 were diagnosed depression fractures and 3% (n = 5 were diagnosed intracerebral haematomas. A meaningful statistical difference was found in the comparison of the diagnosis regarding gender (p=0,012 age group (p=0,0282 and GCS (p=0,0001.

    Conclusions: In order to prevent cranial traumas, studies aimed at minimizing traffic accidents should be undertaken. The most essential action after the accident has occured is triage, and this is of great importance in order to establish communication among the health institutions.

  20. Novel Insights into Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Meuffels (Duncan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAnterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is one of the most common sports injuries of the knee. ACL reconstruction has become, standard orthopaedic practice worldwide with an estimated 175,000 reconstructions per year in the United States.6 The ACL remains the most frequently studied

  1. Treatment for acute anterior cruciate ligament tear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, Richard B; Roos, Harald P; Roos, Ewa M

    2013-01-01

    To compare, in young active adults with an acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear, the mid-term (five year) patient reported and radiographic outcomes between those treated with rehabilitation plus early ACL reconstruction and those treated with rehabilitation and optional delayed ACL...

  2. Tunnel widening in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clatworthy, M G; Annear, P; Bulow, J U

    1999-01-01

    We report a prospective series evaluating the incidence and degree of tunnel widening in a well-matched series of patients receiving a hamstring or patella tendon graft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency. We correlated tunnel widening with clinical factors, knee scores, KT-1000 and i...

  3. Cranial neuronavigation with functional monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, V.; Oberle, J.; Kretschmer, T.; Richter, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Minimise the risks is an essential objective of neurosurgery. The technological progress achieved in the last few years, especially regarding imaging methods and image processing capabilities, offers the tools to manage the risks. The authors explain initial experience obtained with microscope-based cranial neuronavigation systems combined with direct cortical monitoring methods and give an outlook on expected devlopments in the future. (orig./CB) [de

  4. Cranial imaging in child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Wilms, G. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Casteels, I. [Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    2002-04-01

    Serious head injury in children less than 2 years old is often the result of child abuse. The role of the different neuroimaging modalities in child abuse is reviewed. Skull X-ray and cranial CT are mandatory. Repeat or serial imaging may be necessary and brain MR imaging may contribute to the diagnostic work-up, particularly in the absence of characteristic CT findings. The radiologist plays an important role in accurately identifying non-accidental cranial trauma. The clinical presentation can be non-specific or misleading. The possibility should be considered of a combined mechanism, i.e., an underlying condition with superimposed trauma. In this context, the radiologist is in the front line to suggest the possibility of child abuse. It is therefore important to know the spectrum of, sometimes subtle, imaging findings one may encounter. Opthalmological examination is of the greatest importance and is discussed here, because the combination of retinal hemorrhages and subdural hematoma is very suggestive of non-accidental cranial trauma. (orig.)

  5. Cranial imaging in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaerel, P.; Wilms, G.; Casteels, I.

    2002-01-01

    Serious head injury in children less than 2 years old is often the result of child abuse. The role of the different neuroimaging modalities in child abuse is reviewed. Skull X-ray and cranial CT are mandatory. Repeat or serial imaging may be necessary and brain MR imaging may contribute to the diagnostic work-up, particularly in the absence of characteristic CT findings. The radiologist plays an important role in accurately identifying non-accidental cranial trauma. The clinical presentation can be non-specific or misleading. The possibility should be considered of a combined mechanism, i.e., an underlying condition with superimposed trauma. In this context, the radiologist is in the front line to suggest the possibility of child abuse. It is therefore important to know the spectrum of, sometimes subtle, imaging findings one may encounter. Opthalmological examination is of the greatest importance and is discussed here, because the combination of retinal hemorrhages and subdural hematoma is very suggestive of non-accidental cranial trauma. (orig.)

  6. In vivo facet joint loading of the canine lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttermann, G R; Schendel, M J; Kahmann, R D; Lewis, J L; Bradford, D S

    1992-01-01

    This study describes a technique to measure in vivo loads and the resultant load-contact locations in the facet joint of the canine lumbar spine. The technique is a modification of a previously described in vitro method that used calibrated surface strains of the lateral aspect of the right L3 cranial articular process. In the present study, strains were measured during various in vivo static and dynamic activities 3 days after strain gage implantation. The in vivo recording technique and its errors, which depend on the location of the applied facet loads, is described. The results of applying the technique to five dogs gave the following results. Relative resultant contact load locations on the facet tended to be in the central and caudal portion of the facet in extension activities, central and cranial in standing, and cranial and ventral in flexion or right-turning activities. Right-turning contact locations were ventral and cranial to left-turning locations. Resultant load locations at peak loading during walking were in the central region of the facet, whereas resultant load locations at minimum loading during walking were relatively craniad. This resultant load-contact location during a walk gait cycle typically migrated in an arc with a displacement of 4 mm from minimum to maximum loading. Static tests resulted in a range of facet loads of 0 N in flexion and lying to 185 N for two-legged standing erect, and stand resulted in facet loads of 26 +/- 15 N (mean +/- standard deviation [SD]). Dynamic tests resulted in peak facet loads ranging from 55 N while walking erect to 170 N for climbing up stairs. Maximum walk facet loads were 107 +/- 27 N. The technique is applicable to in vivo studies of a canine facet joint osteoarthritis model and may be useful for establishing an understanding of the biomechanics of low-back pain.

  7. Postural stability in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kolář, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    6 Abstract Title: Postural stability in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament injury. Objectives: The aim of this thesis was to find out if the postural stability is differed in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament injury and in the control group after the "4 steps - one leg stance" test had been performed. Methods: This study compared a group with anterior cruciate ligament injury and a control group on the basis of the "4 steps - one leg stance" test. Methods of comparison and analys...

  8. Multiple Cranial Nerve Involvement In Cryptococcal Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadevan A; Kumar A; Santosh V; Satishchandra P; Shankar S.K

    2000-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is an uncommon cause of multiple cranial nerve palsies. This case report illustrates one such case of cryptococcal meningitis clinically manifesting with extensive cranial nerve involvement in an HIV seronegative individual. Histology revealed infiltration of the cranial nerves by cryptococci causing axonal disruption with secondary demyelination in the absence of any evidence of inflammation or vasculitis. We believe that axonal damage underlies the pathogenesis of...

  9. Extraglandular and intraglandular vascularization of canine prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, Miroslav

    2004-03-01

    The literature on the vascularization of the canine prostate is reviewed and the clinical significance of prostate morphology is described. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), combined with improved corrosion casting methods, reveal new morphological details that promise better diagnostics and treatment but also require expansion of clinical nomenclature. A proposal is made for including two previously unnamed veins in Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV). The canine prostate has two lobes with independent vascularization. Each lobe is supplied through the left and right a. prostatica, respectively. The a. prostatica sprouts three small vessels (cranial, middle, and caudal) towards the prostate gland. A. prostatica is a small-size artery whose wall structure is similar to the arteries of the muscular type. V. prostatica is a small-size valved vein. The canine prostate has capsular, parenchymal, and urethral vascular zones. The surface vessels of the capsule are predominantly veins and the diameter of arterial vessels is larger than that of the veins. The trabecular vessels are of two types: direct and branched. The prostate parenchyma is supplied by branches of the trabecular vessels. The periacinary capillaries are fenestrated and form a net in a circular pattern. The processes of the myoepithelial cells embrace both the acins and the periacinar capillaries. In the prostate ductal system. there are spermatozoa. The prostatic part of the urethra is supplied by an independent branch of a. prostatica. The prostatic urethral part is drained by v. prostatica, the vein of the urethral bulb and the ventral prostate veins. M. urethralis begins as early as the urethral prostatic part. The greater part of the white muscle fibers in m. urethralis suggest an enhanced anaerobic metabolism. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. The Cranial Nerve Skywalk: A 3D Tutorial of Cranial Nerves in a Virtual Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson-Hatcher, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Ramirez-Yanez, German

    2014-01-01

    Visualization of the complex courses of the cranial nerves by students in the health-related professions is challenging through either diagrams in books or plastic models in the gross laboratory. Furthermore, dissection of the cranial nerves in the gross laboratory is an extremely meticulous task. Teaching and learning the cranial nerve pathways…

  11. MR imaging of posterior cruciate ligament injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Hospital; Niitsu, Mamoru; Itai, Yuji; Sato, Motohiro; Kujiraoka, Yuka; Ikeda, Kotaro; Kanamori, Akihiro

    2001-07-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries are less frequent than anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, but are presumably more common than once thought. Thirty-nine patients with PCL injuries identified on MR images were studied. The criteria for PCL injury were complete tear, partial tear, and avulsion fracture. The approximate site of a partial tear was categorized as proximal, midsubstance, distal, or combination. Fourteen patients (35.9%) had complete tears of the PCL, 21 patients (53.8%) had partial tears, and four patients (10.3%) had avulsion fractures. A total of 12 patients (30.7%) had isolated PCL injuries, while the remaining 27 patients demonstrated evidence of other coexistent knee injuries, such as meniscal tears and ligamentous injuries. Of coexistent knee injuries, meniscal tears (18 patients, 46.2%) were most often seen. (author)

  12. MR imaging of posterior cruciate ligament injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Niitsu, Mamoru; Itai, Yuji; Sato, Motohiro; Kujiraoka, Yuka; Ikeda, Kotaro; Kanamori, Akihiro

    2001-01-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries are less frequent than anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, but are presumably more common than once thought. Thirty-nine patients with PCL injuries identified on MR images were studied. The criteria for PCL injury were complete tear, partial tear, and avulsion fracture. The approximate site of a partial tear was categorized as proximal, midsubstance, distal, or combination. Fourteen patients (35.9%) had complete tears of the PCL, 21 patients (53.8%) had partial tears, and four patients (10.3%) had avulsion fractures. A total of 12 patients (30.7%) had isolated PCL injuries, while the remaining 27 patients demonstrated evidence of other coexistent knee injuries, such as meniscal tears and ligamentous injuries. Of coexistent knee injuries, meniscal tears (18 patients, 46.2%) were most often seen. (author)

  13. Epiphyseal osteochondroma of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekofsky, K M; Scott, W N; Fielding, J W

    1979-01-01

    An 8-year-old Black boy complained of pain, swelling, and a decreased range of motion in the knee. One arthrotomy operation was reported to show a normal knee joint. Six months later, a second arthrotomy demonstrated an osteochondroma growing from the epiphysis into the anterior cruciate ligament. Epiphyseal osteochondroma should be added to the working differential diagnosis on children with effusion and decrease of knee motion.

  14. Anterior cruciate ligament ganglion: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pedrinelli

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: A ganglion is a cystic formation close to joints or tendinous sheaths, frequently found in the wrist, foot or knee. Intra-articular ganglia of the knee are rare, and most of them are located in the anterior cruciate ligament. The clinical picture for these ganglia comprises pain and movement restrictions in the knee, causing significant impairment to the patient. Symptoms are non-specific, and anterior cruciate ligament ganglia are usually diagnosed through magnetic resonance imaging or arthroscopy. Not all ganglia diagnosed through magnetic resonance imaging need to undergo surgical treatment: only those that cause clinical signs and symptoms do. Surgical results are considered good or excellent in the vast majority of cases. CASE REPORT: A 29-year-old male presented with pain in the left knee during a marathon race. Physical examination revealed limitation in the maximum range of knee extension and pain in the posterior aspect of the left knee. Radiographs of the left knee were normal, but magnetic resonance imaging revealed a multi-lobed cystic structure adjacent to the anterior cruciate ligament, which resembled a ganglion cyst. The mass was removed through arthroscopy, and pathological examination revealed a synovial cyst. Patient recovery was excellent, and he resumed his usual training routine five months later.

  15. [Cranial trepanation in primitive cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Darder, José Manuel

    A review is presented on cranial trepanations performed by primitive cultures. The scientific interest in this topic began after the discovery in 1965 by Ephraim G. Squier of a pre-Columbian trepanated skull, and studied by Paul Broca in Paris. Pseudotrepanation and other types of cranial manipulation are reviewed. The techniques, technology, and instruments for every type of trepanation are well known. There are a surprisingly high percentage of cases showing signs of post-trepanation survival. Indications for trepanation are speculative, perhaps magic. Although trepanation in primitive cultures is widespread around the world, and throughout time, the main fields of interest are the Neolithic Period in Europe, the pre-Columbian Period in Andean South America, and some contemporaneous Pacific and African tribes. This particular trepanation procedure has no relationship with modern Neurosurgery, or with trepanations with therapeutic purposes performed since the Greco-Roman period in Europe, and afterwards around the world. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Kinematic analysis of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in total knee arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hua-Wei; Ni, Ming; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Chai, Wei; Zhou, Yong-Gang; Chen, Ji-Ying; Liu, Yu-Liang; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aims to retain normal knee kinematics after knee replacement surgeries by reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament during total knee arthroplasty. Method: We use computational simulation tools to establish four dynamic knee models, including normal knee model, posterior cruciate ligament retaining knee model, posterior cruciate ligament substituting knee model, and anterior cruciate ligament reconstructing knee model. Our proposed method utilizes magnetic resonance ima...

  17. Multiple cranial nerve palsies complicating tympanomastoiditis: case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Otitis media either acute or chronic, is not uncommon in childhood. Multiple cranial nerve palsies occuring as a complication of either form of otitis media is unusual. A case of a nine year old boy with chronic suppurative otitis media with associated mastoiditis complicated with ipsilateral multiple cranial nerve palsies is ...

  18. Cranial nerves III, IV and VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, I.J.; Smoker, W.R.; Kuta, A.J.; Felton, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    Because of advances in CT and MR imaging, accurate identification and evaluation of cranial nerve lesions is now possible. Cranial nerves III, IV, and VI, providing motor and sensory control of the eye, can be evaluated as a unit. In this paper, the authors present an overview of the anatomy and pathology of these cranial nerves. We first illustrate their normal anatomic pathways from the brain stem to the orbit. This is followed by clinical examples of patients with a variety of isolated and complex palsies of these three cranial nerves. This is accomplished by inclusion of ocular photographs, correlative imaging studies, and the use of diagrams. Knowledge of the gross and imaging anatomy and the ophthalmologic manifestations of pathology affecting these three cranial nerves permits a tailored approach to their evaluation

  19. Anterior Cruciate Ligament OsteoArthritis Score (ACLOAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roemer, Frank W; Frobell, Richard; Lohmander, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a whole joint scoring system, the Anterior Cruciate Ligament OsteoArthritis Score (ACLOAS), for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based assessment of acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and follow-up of structural sequelae, and to assess its reliability. DESIGN...

  20. Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament : Alternative Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    van Eijk, F.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the long-term results of reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with an allograft. Due to the poor results found, further studies were performed to investigate alternative strategies for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament in the field of tissue engineering.

  1. Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament : Alternative Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, F.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the long-term results of reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with an allograft. Due to the poor results found, further studies were performed to investigate alternative strategies for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament in the field of tissue

  2. Bilateral agenesis of the anterior cruciate ligament: MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedoya, Maria A.; Jaramillo, Diego [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Radiology Department, Philadelphia, PA (United States); McGraw, Michael H. [Hospitalof theUniversityof Pennsylvania, Divisionof Orthopaedics, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wells, Lawrence [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Orthopaedics, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Bilateral agenesis of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is extremely rare. We describe a 13-year-old girl who presented with bilateral knee pain without history of trauma; she has two family members with knee instability. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral absence of the ACL, and medial posterior horn meniscal tears. Bilateral arthroscopic partial meniscectomy and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was performed. (orig.)

  3. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  4. Canine Parvovirus: Current Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nandi, S.; Kumar, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has been considered to be an important pathogen of domestic and wild canids and has spread worldwide since its emergence in 1978. It has been reported from Asia, Australia, New Zealand, the Americas and Europe. Two distinct parvoviruses are now known to infect dogs—the pathogenic CPV-2 and CPV-1 or the minute virus of canine (MVC). CPV-2, the causative agent of acute hemorrhagic enteritis and myocarditis in dogs, is one of the most important pathogenic viruses with...

  5. Endocrinologic complications of cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauner, R.; Rappaport, R.

    1990-01-01

    Cranial irradiation has become one of the leading causes of growth hormone (GH) deficiency. The risk and time of onset of GH deficiency depend mainly on the dose delivered to the hypothalamo-pituitary region: GH deficiency is infrequent after doses under 20 grays and nearly constant after doses above 45 grays. For a given dose, a younger age at the time of irradiation and administration of the dose over a shorter time period increase the risk of GH deficiency. GH secretion can be adequately evaluated using rapid stimulation tests and is usually well correlated with growth, except in patients with radiation-induced precocious puberty or growth delay due to radiation-induced cartilage lesions [fr

  6. Endocrinologic complications of cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauner, R.; Rappaport, R.

    1989-01-01

    Cranial irradiation has become one of the leading causes of growth hormone (GH) deficiency. The risk and time of onset of GH deficiency depend mainly on the dose delivered to the hypothalamo-pituitary region: GH deficiency is infrequent after doses under 20 grays and nearly constant after doses above 45 grays. For a given dose, a younger age at the time of irradiation and administration of the dose over a shorter time period increase the risk of GH deficiency. GH secretion can be adequately evaluated using rapid stimulation tests and is usually well correlated with growth, except in patients with radiation-induced precocious puberty or growth delay due to radiation-induced cartilage lesions [fr

  7. A Posteriori Comparison of Natural and Surgical Destabilization Models of Canine Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Moreau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years Canis familiaris, the domestic dog, has drawn particular interest as a model of osteoarthritis (OA. Here, we optimized the dog model of experimental OA induced by cranial cruciate ligament sectioning. The usefulness of noninvasive complementary outcome measures, such as gait analysis for the limb function and magnetic resonance imaging for structural changes, was demonstrated in this model. Relationships were established between the functional impairment and the severity of structural changes including the measurement of cartilage thinning. In the dog model of naturally occurring OA, excellent test-retest reliability was denoted for the measurement of the limb function. A criterion to identify clinically meaningful responders to therapy was determined for privately owned dogs undergoing clinical trials. In addition, the recording of accelerometer-based duration of locomotor activity showed strong and complementary agreement with the biomechanical limb function. The translation potential of these models to the human OA condition is underlined. A preclinical testing protocol which combines the dog model of experimental OA induced by cranial cruciate ligament transection and the Dog model of naturally occurring OA offers the opportunity to further investigate the structural and functional benefits of disease-modifying strategies. Ultimately, a better prediction of outcomes for human clinical trials would be brought.

  8. A Posteriori Comparison of Natural and Surgical Destabilization Models of Canine Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; d'Anjou, Marc-André; Blond, Laurent; Pelletier, Johanne-Martel; del Castillo, Jérôme R. E.

    2013-01-01

    For many years Canis familiaris, the domestic dog, has drawn particular interest as a model of osteoarthritis (OA). Here, we optimized the dog model of experimental OA induced by cranial cruciate ligament sectioning. The usefulness of noninvasive complementary outcome measures, such as gait analysis for the limb function and magnetic resonance imaging for structural changes, was demonstrated in this model. Relationships were established between the functional impairment and the severity of structural changes including the measurement of cartilage thinning. In the dog model of naturally occurring OA, excellent test-retest reliability was denoted for the measurement of the limb function. A criterion to identify clinically meaningful responders to therapy was determined for privately owned dogs undergoing clinical trials. In addition, the recording of accelerometer-based duration of locomotor activity showed strong and complementary agreement with the biomechanical limb function. The translation potential of these models to the human OA condition is underlined. A preclinical testing protocol which combines the dog model of experimental OA induced by cranial cruciate ligament transection and the Dog model of naturally occurring OA offers the opportunity to further investigate the structural and functional benefits of disease-modifying strategies. Ultimately, a better prediction of outcomes for human clinical trials would be brought. PMID:24288664

  9. Aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, U D; Adhikari, S

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve is most commonly due to its damage by trauma. A ten-month old child presented with the history of a fall from a four-storey building. She developed traumatic third nerve palsy and eventually the clinical features of aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve. The adduction of the eye improved over time. She was advised for patching for the strabismic amblyopia as well. Traumatic third nerve palsy may result in aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve. In younger patients, motility of the eye in different gazes may improve over time. © NEPjOPH.

  10. Treatment for acute anterior cruciate ligament tear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, Richard B; Roos, Harald P; Roos, Ewa M

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: In young active adults with an acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, do patient reported or radiographic outcomes after five years differ between those treated with rehabilitation plus early ACL reconstruction and those treated with rehabilitation and optional delayed AC...... AND WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: The relative efficacy of surgical reconstruction and rehabilitation for short and long term outcomes of ACL rupture is debated. Clinicians and young active adult patients should consider rehabilitation as a primary treatment option following an acute ACL tear....

  11. Outcomes in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Mihai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Improving the outcomes in reconstructive surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL requires a rigorous and permanent assessment of specific parameters. Therefore, we can increase the degree of reproducibility of the procedure and identify particular aspects in order to achieve an adequate and individualized therapeutic approach for each case. In order to accomplish this goal, the use of complex means (scores of quantifying results is required. That includes objective means of verifying the parameters in knee surgery, and a subjective evaluation of the patient in order to compare the results.

  12. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  13. Mechanical properties of canine osteosarcoma-affected antebrachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffey, Michele A; Garcia, Tanya C; Daniel, Leticia; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Stover, Susan M

    2017-05-01

    To determine the influence of neoplasia on the biomechanical properties of canine antebrachia. Ex vivo biomechanical study. Osteosarcoma (OSA)-affected canine antebrachia (n = 12) and unaffected canine antebrachia (n = 9). Antebrachia were compressed in axial loading until failure. A load-deformation curve was used to acquire the structural mechanical properties of neoplastic and unaffected specimens. Structural properties and properties normalized by body weight (BW) and radius length were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Modes of failure were compared descriptively. Neoplastic antebrachia fractured at, or adjacent to, the OSA in the distal radial diaphysis. Unaffected antebrachia failed via mid-diaphyseal radial fractures with a transverse cranial component and an oblique caudal component. Structural mechanical properties were more variable in neoplastic antebrachia than unaffected antebrachia, which was partially attributable to differences in bone geometry related to dog size. When normalized by dog BW and radial length, strength, stiffness, and energy to yield and failure, were lower in neoplastic antebrachia than in unaffected antebrachia. OSA of the distal radial metaphysis in dogs presented for limb amputation markedly compromises the structural integrity of affected antebrachia. However, biomechanical properties of affected bones was sufficient for weight-bearing, as none of the neoplastic antebrachia fractured before amputation. The behavior of tumor invaded bone under cyclic loading warrants further investigations to evaluate the viability of in situ therapies for bone tumors in dogs. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  14. Imaging of Cranial Nerves III, IV, VI in Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Hwang, Jeong Min

    2017-06-01

    Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders are a group of diseases caused by abnormal development of cranial nerve nuclei or their axonal connections, resulting in aberrant innervation of the ocular and facial musculature. Its diagnosis could be facilitated by the development of high resolution thin-section magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of this review is to describe the method to visualize cranial nerves III, IV, and VI and to present the imaging findings of congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders including congenital oculomotor nerve palsy, congenital trochlear nerve palsy, Duane retraction syndrome, Möbius syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, synergistic divergence, and synergistic convergence. © 2017 The Korean Ophthalmological Society.

  15. Cranial nerve palsies in Nigerian children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... Introduction. Cranial nerve palsy is a common clinical problem ... Methodology ... The two cases with three-nerve involvement were re- lated to viral encephalitis and cerebral contusion from ... RTA = road traffic accident.

  16. Cranial MR finding of reversible eclampsia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Seok Ho; Hwang, Mi Young; Kim, Kyu Hwa; Kim, Seon Goo; Lee, Sung Moon; Kim, Hong; Joo, Yang Goo; Suh, Soo Ji [College of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    To evaluate clinical usefulness of cranial magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) in diagnosis and for follow-up of reversible eclampsia. Cranial MRI was performed on four consecutive pregnant patients(ante-partum 3 cases, postpartum 1 cases), who had generalized tonic-clonic seizure caused by eclampsia. One of the four patients underwent follow-up MRI. Cranial MRI typically demonstrated bilateral hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted images and iso-to hypointense lesions on T1-weighted images. MRI abnormalities were most commonly located in the distribution of the posterior cerebral artery circulation and were associated with symptoms of visual disturbance. Most cranial lesions of eclampsia demonstrated in MRI were reversible. MRI with its capability to detect even subtle abnormalities in the brain that are not visible on CT, and may be the technique of choice for evaluating the cerebral the pathology of pregnant women with eclampsia.

  17. Cranial nerve involvement in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezyar, E.; Atahan, I.L.; Akyol, F.H.; Guerkaynak, M.; Zorlu, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1989, 23 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients presenting with cranial nerve involvement (CNI) of one or more nerves at the time of diagnosis were treated and followed-up in our department. All patients were irradiated with curative intent, and total doses of 50 to 70 Gy (median 65 Gy) were delivered to the nasopharynx. Cranial nerves VI, III, V, IV, IX, and XII were the most commonly involved nerves. The total response rate of cranial nerves was 74% in a median follow-up time of 2 years, with the highest rate observed in the third and sixth cranial nerves. All complete responses except two were observed in the first month after radiotherapy. (author)

  18. CT measurments of cranial growth: normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Cheung, J.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Growth patterns of the cranium measured directly as head circumference have been well documented. With the availability of computed tomography (CT) , cranial dimensions can be obtained easily. The objective of this project was to establish the mean values and their normal variance of CT cranial area of subjects at different ages. Cranial area and its long and short axes were measured on CT scans for 215 neurologic patients of a wide age range who presented no evidence of abnormal growth of head size. Growth patterns of the cranial area as well as the numeric product of it linear dimensions were determined via a curve fitting process. The patterns resemble that of the head circumference growth chart, with the most rapid growth observed in the first 12 months of age and reaching full size during adolescence

  19. Ophthalmople gic cranial neuropathy: clinical case

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. Dozorova; A. S. Kotov; E. V. Mukhina

    2018-01-01

    Ophthalmoplegic cranial neuropathy (OCN) is a disease with unknown etiology, which manifests itself by episodes of intense headache, accompanied by completely or partially reversible dysfunction of the oculomotor nerve: ptosis, mydriasis and ophthalmoplegia. It is assumed that the pathology is demyelinating in nature, therefore in the International classification of headaches OCN excluded from rubric migraine and related to the painful cranial neuropathies. The question of the prevention and ...

  20. Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, B.B.; Elsas, L.J.; Wyly, J.B.; Pasquali, M.

    1994-01-01

    Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OS-CS) is a specific bone dysplasia manifested by hypertelorism, flat nasal bridge, frontal bossing, large head, hypoplastic maxilla, palate anomalies, chronic otitis media, hearing deficits, nasal obstruction, and neurological changes of deafness, facial palsy, ophthalmoplegia, and mental retardation. We will review the clinical and radiologic findings in a new patient from birth to 20 years; this is believed to be the thirty-fifth patient reported. OS-CS is 2.5 times more common in females and occurs as an autosomal dominant condition or a sporadic dominant mutation with patients presenting for evaluation from the newborn period to the fifth decade. Skeletal abnormalities are distinctive including sclerosis of the skull base and calvarium, linear striated densities in the long bones and pelvis, and poor development of the mastoid and sinus air cells. Radionuclide bone scans with SPECT indicated in our patient increased bone turnover which was supported by biochemical findings of increased pyridinoline excretion. The major complications are due to constriction of essential foramina at the skull base. The condition is not life-threatening but can produce disability. (orig.)

  1. Cranial trepanation in The Egyptian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, S; Carrillo, J M

    2014-09-01

    Medicine and literature have been linked from ancient times; proof of this shown by the many doctors who have made contributions to literature and the many writers who have described medical activities and illnesses in their works. An example is The Egyptian, the book by Mika Waltari that provides a masterly narration of the protagonist's medical activity and describes the trepanation technique. The present work begins with the analysis of trepanations since prehistory and illustrates the practice of the trepanation in The Egyptian. The book mentions trepanation frequently and illustrates how to practice it and which instruments are required to perform it. Trepanation is one of the oldest surgical interventions carried out as treatment for cranial trauma and neurological diseases, but it also had the magical and religious purpose of expelling the evil spirits which caused the mental illness, epilepsy, or migraine symptoms. Trepanation is a surgical practice that has been carried out since prehistory to treat post-traumatic epilepsy, migraine, and psychiatric illness. The Egyptian is a book that illustrates the trepan, the trepanation technique, and the required set of instruments in full detail. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Graft fixation in cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, J; Weiler, A; Caborn, D N; Brown, C H; Johnson, D L

    2000-01-01

    Cruciate ligament reconstruction has progressed dramatically in the last 20 years. Anatomic placement of ligament substitutes has fostered rehabilitation efforts that stress immediate and full range of motion, immediate weightbearing, neuromuscular strength and coordination, and early return to athletic competition (3 months). This has placed extreme importance on secure graft fixation at the time of ligament reconstruction. Current ligament substitutes require a bony or soft tissue component to be fixed within a bone tunnel or on the periosteum at a distance from the normal ligament attachment site. Fixation devices have progressed from metal to biodegradable and from far to near-normal native ligament attachment sites. Ideally, the biomechanical properties of the entire graft construct would approach those of the native ligament and facilitate biologic incorporation of the graft. Fixation should be done at the normal anatomic attachment site of the native ligament (aperture fixation) and, over time, allow the biologic return of the histologic transition zone from ligament to fibrocartilage, to calcified fibrocartilage, to bone. The purpose of this article is to review current fixation devices and techniques in cruciate ligament surgery.

  3. MRI of anterior cruciate ligament autografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogi, Shigeyuki; Ariizumi, Mitsuko; Yamagishi, Tsuneo; Agata, Toshihiko; Tada, Shinpei; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of MRI in the evaluation of autografts after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The subjects were 110 patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using patellar tendon autografts who underwent clinical examination, MRI, and arthroscopy of the knee. T1- and T2-weighted MR images were obtained in sagittal plane. Clinical findings were categorized into three groups: normal, borderline, and abnormal. The MRI appearances of the autografts were categorized into three types: straight continuous band (type I), interrupted band (type II) and generalized increased intensity band (type III). The clinical findings and MRI findings were compared with arthroscopic findings. Ninety-six percent of the type I showed no autograft tear on arthroscopy. In comparison with the clinical findings, MRI was found to be well correlated with arthroscopic findings. In conclusion, if the clinical findings are normal, patients are to be followed-up without MRI and arthroscopy. However, if clinical findings are either borderline or abnormal, MRI should be performed prior to arthroscopy. (author)

  4. work in miners following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Return to work in miners following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. ... Patients were evaluated in terms of range of motion (ROM) values; Lysholm, Cincinati and ... pain inside the knee were the most significant reason which affected ...

  5. Canine parvovirus: current perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Kumar, Manoj

    2010-06-01

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has been considered to be an important pathogen of domestic and wild canids and has spread worldwide since its emergence in 1978. It has been reported from Asia, Australia, New Zealand, the Americas and Europe. Two distinct parvoviruses are now known to infect dogs-the pathogenic CPV-2 and CPV-1 or the minute virus of canine (MVC). CPV-2, the causative agent of acute hemorrhagic enteritis and myocarditis in dogs, is one of the most important pathogenic viruses with high morbidity (100%) and frequent mortality up to 10% in adult dogs and 91% in pups. The disease condition has been complicated further due to emergence of a number of variants namely CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c over the years and involvement of domestic and wild canines. There are a number of different serological and molecular tests available for prompt, specific and accurate diagnosis of the disease. Further, both live attenuated and inactivated vaccines are available to control the disease in animals. Besides, new generation vaccines namely recombinant vaccine, peptide vaccine and DNA vaccine are in different stages of development and offer hope for better management of the disease in canines. However, new generation vaccines have not been issued license to be used in the field condition. Again, the presence of maternal antibodies often interferes with the active immunization with live attenuated vaccine and there always exists a window of susceptibility in spite of following proper immunization regimen. Lastly, judicious use of the vaccines in pet dogs, stray dogs and wild canids keeping in mind the new variants of the CPV-2 along with the proper sanitation and disinfection practices must be implemented for the successful control the disease.

  6. American Canine Hepatozoonosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, S. A.; Panciera, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    American canine hepatozoonosis (ACH) is a tick-borne disease that is spreading in the southeastern and south-central United States. Characterized by marked leukocytosis and periosteal bone proliferation, ACH is very debilitating and often fatal. Dogs acquire infection by ingesting nymphal or adult Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) that, in a previous life stage, ingested the parasite in a blood meal taken from some vertebrate intermediate host. ACH is caused by the apicomplexan Hepatozoon americanum and has been differentiated from Old World canine hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis. Unlike H. canis, which is transmitted by the ubiquitous brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), H. americanum is essentially an accidental parasite of dogs, for which Gulf Coast ticks are not favored hosts. The geographic portrait of the disease parallels the known distribution of the Gulf Coast tick, which has expanded in recent years. Thus, the endemic cycle of H. americanum involves A. maculatum as definitive host and some vertebrate intermediate host(s) yet to be identified. Although coyotes (Canis latrans) are known to be infected, it is not known how important this host is in maintaining the endemic cycle. This review covers the biology of the parasite and of the tick that transmits it and contrasts ACH with classical canine hepatozoonosis. Clinical aspects of the disease are discussed, including diagnosis and treatment, and puzzling epidemiologic issues are examined. Brief consideration is given to the potential for ACH to be used as a model for study of angiogenesis and of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. PMID:14557294

  7. [Cruciate ligament injuries under gender aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabau, D E; Vitzthum, K; Mache, S; Groneberg, D A; Quarcoo, D

    2011-12-01

    An injury of cruciate ligament is one the most common knee injuries. This accident happens mostly without external impact and towards the end of training and competition sessions. Women, especially athletes playing team sports ball games such as soccer or disciplines such as tennis, are affected 2 to 8 times more often than men. Anatomic, biomechanical and endocrinological differences are currently discussed as potential risk factors. In terms of prevention, biomechanical impact is of greatest importance given its influenceability through various training opportunities. Training programs including endurance aspects, strengthening knee musculature, balance as well as plyometric trainings were most effective. Further studies should focus more on concomitants of course of injuries. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Bilateral supernumerary primary maxillary canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Mukhopadhyay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth are more common in the permanent than in primary dentition. In the primary dentition, the anomaly is most frequently observed in the maxillary lateral incisor region, followed by the maxillary midline where they are termed as mesiodens. Supernumerary teeth in the primary canine region are rare. This paper describes a rare case of nonsyndromic supernumerary primary maxillary canine distributed bilaterally in a 4-year-old boy. Both the supernumeraries resembled size and shape of normal primary canine. The right supplemental canine is high labially placed, whereas the left one is seen normally aligned in the dental arch distal to lateral incisor. One of the most significant sequelae of primary supernumerary teeth is their duplication in the permanent series. Radiographic examination of supernumerary primary canine did not indicate any such anomaly in the permanent dentition. The patient was kept under observation.

  9. Cranial osteopathy: its fate seems clear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartman Steve E

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the original model of cranial osteopathy, intrinsic rhythmic movements of the human brain cause rhythmic fluctuations of cerebrospinal fluid and specific relational changes among dural membranes, cranial bones, and the sacrum. Practitioners believe they can palpably modify parameters of this mechanism to a patient's health advantage. Discussion This treatment regime lacks a biologically plausible mechanism, shows no diagnostic reliability, and offers little hope that any direct clinical effect will ever be shown. In spite of almost uniformly negative research findings, "cranial" methods remain popular with many practitioners and patients. Summary Until outcome studies show that these techniques produce a direct and positive clinical effect, they should be dropped from all academic curricula; insurance companies should stop paying for them; and patients should invest their time, money, and health elsewhere.

  10. Isovaleric acidaemia: cranial CT and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogut, Ayhan; Acun, Ceyda; Tomsac, Nazan; Demirel, Fatma; Aydin, Kubilay; Aktuglu, Cigdem

    2004-01-01

    Isovaleric acidaemia is an inborn error of leucine metabolism due to deficiency of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which results in accumulation of isovaleric acid in body fluids. There are acute and chronic-intermittent forms of the disease. We present the cranial CT and MRI findings of a 19-month-old girl with the chronic-intermittent form of isovaleric acidaemia. She presented with severe metabolic acidosis, hyperglycaemia, glycosuria, ketonuria and acute encephalopathy. Cranial CT revealed bilateral hypodensity of the globi pallidi. MRI showed signal changes in the globi pallidi and corticospinal tracts of the mesencephalon, which were hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. (orig.)

  11. Isovaleric acidaemia: cranial CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogut, Ayhan; Acun, Ceyda; Tomsac, Nazan; Demirel, Fatma [Department of Paediatrics, Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey); Aydin, Kubilay [Department of Radiology, Istanbul Medical School, Istanbul University, Camlikyolu, B. mehmetpasa sokak yavuz apt. No:10/10, Etiler, Istanbul (Turkey); Aktuglu, Cigdem [Department of Paediatrics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2004-02-01

    Isovaleric acidaemia is an inborn error of leucine metabolism due to deficiency of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which results in accumulation of isovaleric acid in body fluids. There are acute and chronic-intermittent forms of the disease. We present the cranial CT and MRI findings of a 19-month-old girl with the chronic-intermittent form of isovaleric acidaemia. She presented with severe metabolic acidosis, hyperglycaemia, glycosuria, ketonuria and acute encephalopathy. Cranial CT revealed bilateral hypodensity of the globi pallidi. MRI showed signal changes in the globi pallidi and corticospinal tracts of the mesencephalon, which were hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. (orig.)

  12. Neurosyphilis Involving Cranial Nerves in Brain Stem: 2 Case Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ji Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Eui Jong [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sung Sang; Heo, Sung Hyuk [Dept. of Neurology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Neurosyphilis uncommonly presents with cranial neuropathies in acute syphilitic meningitis and meningovascular neurosyphilis. We now report two cases in which the meningeal form of neurosyphilis involved cranial nerves in the brain stem: the oculomotor and trigeminal nerve.

  13. Neurosyphilis Involving Cranial Nerves in Brain Stem: 2 Case Reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Ji Hye; Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Eui Jong; Yoon, Sung Sang; Heo, Sung Hyuk

    2012-01-01

    Neurosyphilis uncommonly presents with cranial neuropathies in acute syphilitic meningitis and meningovascular neurosyphilis. We now report two cases in which the meningeal form of neurosyphilis involved cranial nerves in the brain stem: the oculomotor and trigeminal nerve.

  14. [From anatomy to image: the cranial nerves at MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Renata; Marrone, Valeria; Sardaro, Angela; Faella, Pierluigi; Grassi, Roberta; Cappabianca, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we review the expected course of each of the 12 cranial nerves. Traditional magnetic resonance imaging depicts only the larger cranial nerves but SSFP sequences of magnetic resonance imaging are capable of depicting the cisternal segments of 12 cranial nerves and also provide submillimetric spatial resolution.

  15. 21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric cranial drill motor. 882.4360 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4360 Electric cranial drill motor. (a) Identification. An electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source used...

  16. Canine obesity: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossellin, J; Wren, J A; Sunderland, S J

    2007-08-01

    Canine patients are generally regarded as being clinically obese when their body weight is at least 15% above ideal. The incidence of obesity in dogs is thought to be in the range of 20-40% of the general population and, since obesity is known to predispose or exacerbate a range of serious medical conditions, its importance cannot be overstated. Management of obesity through dietary restriction and increased exercise is often difficult to achieve and dependent upon owner compliance. Until recently there has been no authorized therapeutic medication available for weight reduction in dogs, and drugs used in people have proved unsuitable. However, with the development of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitors for canine use, such as dirlotapide, the veterinarian has a novel method with which to augment traditional weight control programmes. This approach has the additional advantage that weight loss is achieved without dietary restriction or change in exercise regimen, providing encouragement for the owner to comply with subsequent dietary and exercise recommendations, thereby increasing the likelihood for long-term success.

  17. Peracute Infectious Canine Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Cheema*, I. Ahmed, G. Mustafa and A. Aslam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Peracute infectious canine hepatitis (ICH was diagnosed in two young male dogs out of 56 dead canines presented for necropsy examination during the period of April 2009 to June 2010. These dogs were purebred, one- month old Alsatian and 5-month old Labrador. None of the dogs had received any vaccination or deworming treatment; both had died after illness lasting for six hours and twenty four hours respectively. The dogs had shown signs of depression, anorexia and fever. At necropsy, lymph nodes were swollen, edematous and congested; livers were enlarged, bright red and mottled with numerous small white foci. Petechial hemorrhages were seen in the mucosa. Excessive serosanguinous fluid was present in the abdominal cavities. Histologically, the most significant lesion was necrohemorrhagic hepatitis with single cell necrosis of hepatocytes, lacunose dilation of sinusoids filled with blood and numerous large, solid intranuclear inclusion bodies (IIBs in the hepatocytes and macrophages. Both eosinophilic and basophilic (amphophilic inclusions were seen. It has been observed that ICH is re-emerging in some endemic countries. Pet dogs should be regularly protected by effective vaccination.

  18. Radioresistant canine hematopoietic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, T.G.; Shimizu, J.; Rosenblatt, L.S.; Goldman, M.

    1987-01-01

    Survival of dogs that are continuously exposed to a moderate dose-rate of gamma radiation (10 cGy/day) is dependent on the age of the dog at the time of exposure. Most dogs exposed postpartum to gamma radiation suffered from suppressed hematopoiesis and died of aplasia. On the other hand, none of the in utero-exposed dogs suffered from suppressed hematopoiesis and most became long-term survivors, tolerating 10-fold greater total dose, but dying of myeloproliferative disease (MPD). Using acute gamma irradiation of hematopoietic cells and colony forming unit cell assay (CFU), they observed that a canine hematopoietic cell line established from a myeloid leukemic dog that was a long-term survivor of continuous irradiation was approximately 4-fold more radioresistant than a hematopoietic cell line established from a dog with nonradiation-induced myeloid leukemia or hematopoietic cells from normal canine bone marrow. In utero dogs that are long-term survivors of continuous irradiation have radioresistant hematopoietic cells, and radioresistance that is a constitutive property of the cells

  19. Multiple cranial nerve dysfunction caused by neurosarcoidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loor, Rivkah G. J.; van Tongeren, Joost; Derks, Wynia

    2012-01-01

    Neurosarcoidosis is a rare identity and occurs in only 5% to 15% of patients with sarcoidosis. It can manifest in many different ways, and therefore, diagnosis may be complicated. We report a case presented in a very unusual manner with involvement of 3 cranial nerves; anosmia (NI), facial palsy

  20. Psychological Aspects of Recovery Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christino, Melissa A; Fantry, Amanda J; Vopat, Bryan G

    2015-08-01

    Recovery following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is an arduous process that requires a significant mental and physical commitment to rehabilitation. Orthopaedic research in recent years has focused on optimizing anterior cruciate ligament surgical techniques; however, despite stable anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions, many athletes still never achieve their preinjury ability or even return to sport. Psychological factors associated with patient perceptions and functional outcomes following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction are important to acknowledge and understand. Issues related to emotional disturbance, motivation, self-esteem, locus of control, and self-efficacy can have profound effects on patients' compliance, athletic identity, and readiness to return to sport. The psychological aspects of recovery play a critical role in functional outcomes, and a better understanding of these concepts is essential to optimize the treatment of patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, particularly those who plan to return to sport. Identifying at-risk patients, encouraging a multidisciplinary approach to patient care, and providing early referral to a sports psychologist may improve patient outcomes and increase return-to-play rates among athletes. Copyright 2015 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

  1. Kinematic analysis of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in total knee arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Wei; Ni, Ming; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Chai, Wei; Zhou, Yong-Gang; Chen, Ji-Ying; Liu, Yu-Liang; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aims to retain normal knee kinematics after knee replacement surgeries by reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament during total knee arthroplasty. Method: We use computational simulation tools to establish four dynamic knee models, including normal knee model, posterior cruciate ligament retaining knee model, posterior cruciate ligament substituting knee model, and anterior cruciate ligament reconstructing knee model. Our proposed method utilizes magnetic resonance images to reconstruct solid bones and attachments of ligaments, and assemble femoral and tibial components according representative literatures and operational specifications. Dynamic data of axial tibial rotation and femoral translation from full-extension to 135 were measured for analyzing the motion of knee models. Findings: The computational simulation results show that comparing with the posterior cruciate ligament retained knee model and the posterior cruciate ligament substituted knee model, reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament improves the posterior movement of the lateral condyle, medial condyle and tibial internal rotation through a full range of flexion. The maximum posterior translations of the lateral condyle, medial condyle and tibial internal rotation of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knee are 15.3 mm, 4.6 mm and 20.6 at 135 of flexion. Interpretation: Reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament in total knee arthroplasty has been approved to be an more efficient way of maintaining normal knee kinematics comparing to posterior cruciate ligament retained and posterior cruciate ligament substituted total knee arthroplasty. PMID:27347334

  2. Absence of sensory function in the reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, Michael R; Fischer-Rasmussen, Torsten; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2011-01-01

    -constructions were stimulated. The sensory threshold was 3.4 times higher in the ACL than in the PCL. Stimulus amplitudes were increased to 1.5-2.0 times the sensory threshold, and a typical inhibitory reflex could be elicited in 9 patients. The latency was the same as for the reflex from the PCL. The stimulus......Cruciate ligaments provide sensory information that cause excitatory as well as inhibitory effects to the activity of the muscles around the knee. The aim of the study was to determine whether these muscular reflexes are reestablished after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) re-construction. Wire...... electrodes were inserted during arthroscopy into the normal posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and the reconstructed ACL in 11 patients who had a successful ACL re-construction 8 months to 12 years earlier. After the anesthesia had subsided, the PCL was stimulated electrically through the electrodes...

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of cruciate ligaments after arthroscopic reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kharat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to increase in road traffic and sports injuries, tears of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL of the knee are common. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is emerging as an important tool of diagnosis and evaluation of these injuries. Methods: We carried out a prospective study on role of MRI on ten patients who had undergone ACL or PCL repair over a period of six months. In this report we present three illustrative cases to capture the spectrum of findings in our series to underline the role of MRI in management of such injuries and discuss the modalities of the procedure. Results: In our series, as demonstrated by the cases, MRI had an important role in diagnosis and evaluation of injuries to the cruciate ligaments. Conclusion: MRI can play an important role, particularly in tertiary centres, in diagnosis and evaluation of reconstructed ACL and PCL ligaments of the knee joint.

  4. Root Length and Anatomy of Impacted Maxillary Canines in Patients with Unilateral Maxillary Canine Impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostfa Shahabi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Canine impaction is a common occurrence. In this study, we sought to investigate the root anatomy and length of impacted canines and lateral incisor adjacent to impacted maxillary canine. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, three-dimensional tomographic imaging was performed on 26 patients with unilateral maxillary canine impaction. In this study, we evaluated root length and anatomy of impacted canines, in terms of resorption intensity and curvature, with Planmeca Romexis Viewer 4.0. Furthermore, crown shape as well as root length and anatomy of the lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines were investigated and compared with the other side on the dental arch, where canine eruption was normal. Results: Root length of impacted canines was significantly lower than that of normal canines (P=0.011. There were no significant differences between root length of lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines and root length of lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.221. Moreover, the resorption intensity of the adjacent lateral incisors was higher than that of the impacted canines. No significant differences were noted in root resorption intensity between the lateral incisors adjacent to the imacted canines and the lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.36. In addition, resorption intensity was significantly higher in impacted canines than in normal canines (P=0.024. Root anatomy of impacted canines was not significantly different from that of normal canines (P=0.055. The crown shape of the lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines was not significantly different from that of the lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.052. Conclusion: Impaction can probably affect root length and canine resorption severity. However, root and crown shape of lateral incisors cannot always be associated with canine impaction.

  5. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K.; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-01-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistr...

  6. Exercise Rehabilitation after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun Ok An

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Exercise rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction has changed dramatically in recent years. In this review, we discuss recent changes in exercise programs related to ACL rehabilitation. METHODS We conducted a literature review of recently published articles related exercise programs after ACL reconstruction. RESULTS The accelerated rehabilitation program, which allows patients to achieve full extension ofthe knee early in the postoperative period, is now a widely practiced rehabilitation program. A prospective study of rehabilitation programs after ACL reconstruction showed that early joint exercises do not interfere with the healing of grafts. Instead, they alleviate pain, thereby reducing the negative impact. Moreover, according to several biomechanical studies, open kinetic chain exercises are potentially disadvantageous to knee stability. There is no evidence that early weight bearing results in weakening of graft distraction or internal fixation compared with delayed weight bearing. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, prevention of ACL injuries and rehabilitative exercise training can help to achieve optimal exercise performance while avoiding the risk of sports-related injury.

  7. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, Anne-Marie; Renkema, Alianne; Bronkhorst, Ewald; Katsaros, Christos

    Introduction: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the

  8. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, A.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the

  9. On the roentgenomorphological correlations of cranial sutures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkhoglyadova, T.P.; Koval', G.Yu.; Shuaa, T.I.

    1986-01-01

    The authors explain the essence of the zone of excessive transparence along the cranial sutures visualized on the X-ray pictures during the first year of life by presence of large number of rough-fiber bone in the marginal regions. The zone of ''physiological sclerosis'' is postulated as a result of summation of the bone margin shadows consisting of compact substance (osteones). Microscopic examination of skull in brain tumors revealed a delay in the formation of bone margins in the suture region with an excessive amount of connective and osteoid tissue while in craniostenosis closure of cranial sutures being with intensive bone formation as well as by closure of the bone margins by newly formed bone tissue around the vessels of the connective layer of the suture

  10. Imaging characteristics of primary cranial Ewing sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wai-Yung; Saunders, Dawn E.; Brock, Penelope

    2005-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma accounts for 10-15% of all childhood malignant bone tumours and is second in prevalence to osteosarcoma. The skull bones are an unusual site of origin of primary Ewing sarcoma in children. Previous reports concentrate on the neurosurgical aspects and relatively good outcome compared to other bone tumours of the calvarium. Reported cases mainly describe the imaging characteristics on CT. To describe the MRI and CT features of primary cranial Ewing sarcoma. The neuroimaging of three cases of primary cranial Ewing sarcoma are reviewed. Our three cases show an extra-axial mass that is high attenuation on CT and low signal on T2-weighted MRI. Haemorrhagic components, dural extension and contrast enhancement are also characteristic features. CT attenuation and magnetic resonance signal characteristics reflect sheets of densely packed cells seen in Ewing sarcoma. (orig.)

  11. [Acute palsy of twelfth cranial nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz del Castillo, F; Molina Nieto, T; De la Riva Aguilar, A; Triviño Tarradas, F; Bravo-Rodríguez, F; Ramos Jurado, A

    2005-01-01

    The hypoglossal nerve or Twelfth-nerve palsy is a rare damage with different causes: tumors or metastases in skull base, cervicals tumors, schwannoma, dissection or aneurysm carotid arteries, stroke, trauma, idiopathic cause, radiation, infections (mononucleosis) or multiple cranial neuropathy. Tumors were responsible for nearly half of the cases in different studies. We studied a female with hypoglossal nerve acute palsy. We made a differential diagnostic with others causes and a review of the literature.

  12. Cranial computed tomography of xeroderma pigmentosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Koshi; Imakita, Satoru; Kawai, Ryuji; Mitomo, Masanori; Miura, Takashi; Mimaki, Takashi; Satoh, Kenji

    1986-01-01

    Brain CTs of 15 patients with complementation group A xeroderma pigmentosum were reviewed. The CT findings were cerebral atrophy and brain stem atrophy, and were more prominent in the older patients. Cranial bone change (microcephaly, calvarial thickening and so on) secondary to brain atrophy becomes overt in the patients older than 8 years. Cerebellar atrophy was not detected with CT in any case. There were neither intracranial calcification nor space occupying lesion. (author)

  13. Role of cranial imaging in epileptic status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Pradeep P.; Kalita, Jayantee; Misra, Usha K.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: There is paucity of studies evaluating the role of cranial imaging in the management of status epilepticus (SE); therefore this study evaluates the role of imaging in predicting the outcome of SE. Methods: Consecutive patients with SE were prospectively evaluated. Clinical evaluation, blood counts, serum chemistry and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were carried out. Cranial CT scan was performed on a spiral CT and MRI on a 1.5 T scanner. Patients were treated with IV sodium valproate, phenytoin and benzodiazepines as per fixed protocol. Outcome was defined as seizure control at 1 h and mortality. Various clinical and radiological parameters were correlated. Results: There were 99 patients with SE whose mean age was 35 (1-78) years, 40 females and 17 were below 12 years of age. Fifty six patients had central nervous system (CNS) infections, 15 strokes, 13 metabolic encephalopathy, 5 drug default and in the remaining 10 patients various acute symptomatic causes were present. Cranial imaging was abnormal in 59% patients. CT was abnormal in 21 (47.7%) out of 44 patients whereas MRI was abnormal in 26 (63.4%) out of 41 patients. Both MRI and CT were carried out in 14 patients and 12 revealed abnormalities; 2 had abnormality only on MRI. Imaging revealed cortical lesions in 10, subcortical in 19 and both cortical as well as subcortical in 30 patients. One hour seizure control was achieved in 60, seizures recurred within 24 h in 38 and 27 patients died during hospital stay. Seizure type, duration of SE, seizure control at 1 h and mortality did not correlate with radiological abnormalities. Conclusion: Cranial imaging reveals structural abnormality in 59% patients with SE and was not related to SE control and mortality.

  14. Role of cranial imaging in epileptic status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Pradeep P; Kalita, Jayantee [Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India); Misra, Usha K. [Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India)], E-mail: drukmisra@rediffmail.com

    2009-06-15

    Introduction: There is paucity of studies evaluating the role of cranial imaging in the management of status epilepticus (SE); therefore this study evaluates the role of imaging in predicting the outcome of SE. Methods: Consecutive patients with SE were prospectively evaluated. Clinical evaluation, blood counts, serum chemistry and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were carried out. Cranial CT scan was performed on a spiral CT and MRI on a 1.5 T scanner. Patients were treated with IV sodium valproate, phenytoin and benzodiazepines as per fixed protocol. Outcome was defined as seizure control at 1 h and mortality. Various clinical and radiological parameters were correlated. Results: There were 99 patients with SE whose mean age was 35 (1-78) years, 40 females and 17 were below 12 years of age. Fifty six patients had central nervous system (CNS) infections, 15 strokes, 13 metabolic encephalopathy, 5 drug default and in the remaining 10 patients various acute symptomatic causes were present. Cranial imaging was abnormal in 59% patients. CT was abnormal in 21 (47.7%) out of 44 patients whereas MRI was abnormal in 26 (63.4%) out of 41 patients. Both MRI and CT were carried out in 14 patients and 12 revealed abnormalities; 2 had abnormality only on MRI. Imaging revealed cortical lesions in 10, subcortical in 19 and both cortical as well as subcortical in 30 patients. One hour seizure control was achieved in 60, seizures recurred within 24 h in 38 and 27 patients died during hospital stay. Seizure type, duration of SE, seizure control at 1 h and mortality did not correlate with radiological abnormalities. Conclusion: Cranial imaging reveals structural abnormality in 59% patients with SE and was not related to SE control and mortality.

  15. Importance of meniscal injury diagnosis and surgical management in dogs during reconstruction of cranial cruciate ligament rupture: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Beom Seo

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Finally based on the clinical superiority, it is recommended that meniscal injury should be checked and corrected during RCCL reconstruction for getting better clinical outcomes. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(3.000: 311-318

  16. CRANIAL OSTEOLOGY OF CYCLARHIS GUJANENSIS (AVES: VIREONIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO MATIUSSI PREVIATTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The small passerine Cyclaris gujanensis can tear into small pieces large or heavy-bodied preys that could not be swallowed whole such as frogs, snakes, bats and birds. However there are few studies on the cranial anatomy of this species. Thus, we focused on the description of the cranial osteology to contribute to the anatomical knowledge of this species and to make some assumptions about functional anatomy. The fossa temporalis is shallow but broad and the fossa of os palatinum is deepened. The os quadratum processes are long and thick. The os pterygoideum is enlarged and the upper jaw is strongly inclined ventrally (140° with reference to the skull. The rostral extremity of rhamphotheca is hooked with ventral concavity to fit the mandible (pincer form. The mandible fossae are deepened and broad and its bulky medial process probably provides mandible stability and strong support to the muscles attached on it. All these peculiar characteristics probably indicate a considerable force in the C. gujanensis jaws and partially explain its distinctive feeding habit compared with the other Vireonidae. Nevertheless, new studies with functional approaches to analysis the forces of the muscle fibers and the cranial kinesis are needed to prove the hypotheses mentioned above.

  17. MR imaging of cranial nerve schwannomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, M.; Peyster, R.; Cross, R.R.; Charles, J.; Murtagh, R.; Shapiro, R.; Chyatte, D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the major advantages of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging over other imaging modalities is direct visualization of the cranial nerves. This is best accomplished with thin-section, contiguous T1-weighted images. They report a series of 75 cranial nerve neuromas, including 47 of the eighth nerve and a mixture of schwannomas involving all other cranial nerves (excluding the fourth). All tumors demonstrated at least some area of increased signal (equal to or greater than that of cerebrospinal fluid) on T2-weighted images. This fact enabled them to differentiate schwannomas from neoplasms (lymphoma, meningioma, sarcoma) that may be isointense on T2-weighted pulse sequences. Many of the lesions had areas of low signal intermixed with predominantly high signal (on T2-weighted images). The pathologic evaluation of these areas of decreased signal revealed predominant fibrosis. In addition, some of the neuromas had a cystic component. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging may permit detection when the nerve is still normal in size

  18. Cranial involvement in sickle cell disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, Ozlem, E-mail: yalinozlem@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Kizilkilic, Ebru, E-mail: ebru90@yahoo.com [Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Kizilkilic, Osman, E-mail: ebos90@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Yildirim, Tulin, E-mail: ytulin@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Karaca, Sibel, E-mail: sibelkaraca@hotmail.com [Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Yeral, Mahmut, E-mail: mahmutyeral@hotmail.com [Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Kasar, Mutlu, E-mail: mutlukasar@hotmail.com [Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Ozdogu, Hakan, E-mail: hakanozdogu@hotmail.com [Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate cranial findings in patients with neurologically symptomatic sickle cell disease (SCD). Materials and methods: We studied 50 consecutive patients with SCD and neurologic symptoms. All patients underwent brain MR examinations: all 50 underwent classic MR imaging; 42, diffusion-weighted MR imaging; 10, MR angiography; four, MR venography; and three patients, digital subtraction angiography. Results: Of the 50 SCD patients, 19 (38%) had normal MR findings, and 31 (62%) showed abnormalities on brain MR images. Of the 50 patients, 16 (32%) had ischemic lesions; two (4%), subarachnoid hemorrhage; one (2%), moya-moya pattern; one (2%), posterior reversible encephalopathy; one (2%), dural venous sinus thrombosis; 12 (24%), low marrow signal intensity and thickness of the diploic space; 12 (24%), cerebral atrophy; and two (4%), osteomyelitis. Twenty-seven patients (54%) presented with headache, which was the most common clinical finding. Conclusions: The cranial involvement is one of the most devastating complications of SCD. Early and accurate diagnosis is important in the management of cranial complications of SCD.

  19. Root Length and Anatomy of Impacted Maxillary Canines in Patients with Unilateral Maxillary Canine Impaction

    OpenAIRE

    Mostfa Shahabi; Maryam Omidkhoda; Seyedeh Haniyeh Omidi; Seyed Hosein Hoseini Zarch

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Canine impaction is a common occurrence. In this study, we sought to investigate the root anatomy and length of impacted canines and lateral incisor adjacent to impacted maxillary canine. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, three-dimensional tomographic imaging was performed on 26 patients with unilateral maxillary canine impaction. In this study, we evaluated root length and anatomy of impacted canines, in terms of resorption intensity and curvature, with Planme...

  20. STUDY OF ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT INJURY AND ITS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tummala Venkata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The anterior cruciate ligament is the weaker of the two cruciate ligaments stabilizing the knee joint, and therefore gets torn easier than the posterior cruciate ligament. OBJECTIVE To determine pattern of anterior cruciate ligament injury and its management in a tertiary care center. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study was carried out for two years, 28 patients with ACL injury were included. A detailed history regarding the pattern of injury was noted and ACL reconstruction was done using BT Bautograft with mini-arthrotomy and arthroscopic assisted ACL reconstruction. RESULTS The mean age of the study subjects was 30.6±7.3 years & majority were males. Majority of the ACL injury was sports related & was on the right knee. 64% underwent arthroscopic assisted ACL reconstruction & majority of them had normal range of motion of the knee. CONCLUSION Our present study concludes that most common age group involved was 20-30 years & ACL injury was more common among males. Patients with an early ACL reconstruction were more satisfied with the end result. Also, ACL reconstruction techniques using BTB auto graft leads to good ligamentous stability and function of the knee.

  1. Revisiting cruciate paralysis: A case report and systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Hopkins

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Numerous cases of trauma associated cruciate paralysis have been reported in the literature; however, there remains a strong need for further study of the condition. While certain risk factors can be elicited from currently reported studies, insignificant data exist to make any sound conclusion concerning whether surgical intervention is always the best method of treatment.

  2. The concept of individualized anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofbauer, M.; Muller, B. [=Bart; Murawski, C. D.; van Eck, C. F.; Fu, F. H.

    2014-01-01

    To describe the concept of individualized anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The PubMed/Medline database was searched using keywords pertaining to ACL reconstruction. Relevant articles were reviewed in order to summarize important concepts of individualized surgery in ACL

  3. The fibre bundle anatomy of human cruciate ligaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommersteeg, T. J.; Kooloos, J. G.; Blankevoort, L.; Kauer, J. M.; Huiskes, R.; Roeling, F. Q.

    1995-01-01

    The cruciate ligaments of the knee consist of numerous fascicles, groups of which comprise fibre bundles. The stabilising function of these ligaments is established by changes in the lengths and orientations of the fascicles. Understanding the function of knee ligaments thus requires an

  4. Use of Multidirectional Cranial Distraction Osteogenesis for Cranial Expansion in Syndromic Craniosynostosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataru Sunaga, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Patients with syndromic craniosynostosis often require a large amount of cranial expansion to avoid intracranial hypertension, but the surgical procedure remains controversial. A patient of severe syndromic craniosynostosis with multiple bony defects and anomalous venous drainage at the occipital region was treated by multidirectional cranial distraction osteogenesis (MCDO at the age of 8 months. Distraction started 5 days after surgery and ceased on postoperative day 16. The distraction devices were removed 27 days after completing distraction. After device removal, the increase of intracranial volume was 155 ml and the cephalic index was improved from 115.5 to 100.5. The resultant cranial shape was well maintained with minimal relapse at postoperative 9 months. In cases of syndromic craniosynostosis with multiple bony defects and/or anomalous venous drainage at the occipital region, expansion of the anterior cranium by MCDO is a viable alternative to conventional methods.

  5. The naming of the cranial nerves: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew C; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Bosmia, Anand N; Tubbs, R Shane; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2014-01-01

    The giants of medicine and anatomy have each left their mark on the history of the cranial nerves, and much of the history of anatomic study can be viewed through the lens of how the cranial nerves were identified and named. A comprehensive literature review on the classification of the cranial names was performed. The identification of the cranial nerves began with Galen in the 2nd century AD and evolved up through the mid-20th century. In 1778, Samuel Sömmerring, a German anatomist, classified the 12 cranial nerves as we recognize them today. This review expands on the excellent investigations of Flamm, Shaw, and Simon et al., with discussion of the historical identification as well as the process of naming the human cranial nerves. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Familial Idiopathic Cranial Neuropathy in a Chinese Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Liang, Jianfeng; Yu, Yanbing

    Cranial neuropathy is usually idiopathic and familial cases are uncommon. We describe a family with 5 members with cranial neuropathy over 3 generations. All affected patients were women, indicating an X-linked dominant or an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Our cases and a review of the literature suggest that familial idiopathic cranial neuropathy is a rare condition which may be related to autosomal dominant vascular disorders (e.g. vascular tortuosity, sclerosis, elongation or extension), small posterior cranial fossas, anatomical variations of the posterior circulation, hypersensitivity of cranial nerves and other abnormalities. Moreover, microvascular decompression is the treatment of choice because vascular compression is the main factor in the pathogenesis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of familial cranial neuropathy in China.

  7. Canine oral melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Philip J

    2007-05-01

    Melanoma is the most common oral malignancy in the dog. Oral and/or mucosal melanoma has been routinely considered an extremely malignant tumor with a high degree of local invasiveness and high metastatic propensity. Primary tumor size has been found to be extremely prognostic. The World Health Organization staging scheme for dogs with oral melanoma is based on size, with stage I = or = 4cm tumor and/or lymph node metastasis, and stage IV = distant metastasis. Median survival times for dogs with oral melanoma treated with surgery are approximately 17 to 18, 5 to 6, and 3 months with stage I, II, and III disease, respectively. Significant negative prognostic factors include stage, size, evidence of metastasis, and a variety of histologic criteria. Standardized treatments such as surgery, coarse-fractionation radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have afforded minimal to modest stage-dependent clinical benefits and death is usually due to systemic metastasis. Numerous immunotherapeutic strategies have been employed to date with limited clinical efficacy; however, the use of xenogeneic DNA vaccines may represent a leap forward in clinical efficacy. Oral melanoma is a spontaneous syngeneic cancer occurring in outbred, immunocompetent dogs and appears to be a more clinically faithful therapeutic model for human melanoma; further use of canine melanoma as a therapeutic model for human melanoma is strongly encouraged. In addition, the development of an expanded but clinically relevant staging system incorporating the aforementioned prognostic factors is also strongly encouraged.

  8. The evolution and development of cranial form in Homo sapiens

    OpenAIRE

    Lieberman, Daniel E.; McBratney, Brandeis M.; Krovitz, Gail

    2002-01-01

    Despite much data, there is no unanimity over how to define Homo sapiens in the fossil record. Here, we examine cranial variation among Pleistocene and recent human fossils by using a model of cranial growth to identify unique derived features (autapomorphies) that reliably distinguish fossils attributed to “anatomically modern” H. sapiens (AMHS) from those attributed to various taxa of “archaic” Homo spp. (AH) and to test hypotheses about the changes in cranial development that underlie the ...

  9. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-12-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues. PMab-38 could be useful for uncovering the function of PDPN in canine melanomas.

  10. Twelfth cranial nerve involvement in Guillian Barre syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Subrat Kumar; Jayalakshmi, Sita; Ruikar, Devashish; Surath, Mohandas

    2013-07-01

    Guillian Barre Syndrome (GBS) is associated with cranial nerve involvement. Commonest cranial nerves involved were the facial and bulbar (IXth and Xth). Involvement of twelfth cranial nerve is rare in GBS. We present a case of GBS in a thirteen years old boy who developed severe tongue weakness and wasting at two weeks after the onset of GBS. The wasting and weakness of tongue improved at three months of follow up. Brief review of the literature about XIIth cranial nerve involvement in GBS is discussed.

  11. Twelfth cranial nerve involvement in Guillian Barre syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Subrat Kumar Nanda; Sita Jayalakshmi; Devashish Ruikar; Mohandas Surath

    2013-01-01

    Guillian Barre Syndrome (GBS) is associated with cranial nerve involvement. Commonest cranial nerves involved were the facial and bulbar (IXth and Xth). Involvement of twelfth cranial nerve is rare in GBS. We present a case of GBS in a thirteen years old boy who developed severe tongue weakness and wasting at two weeks after the onset of GBS. The wasting and weakness of tongue improved at three months of follow up. Brief review of the literature about XIIth cranial nerve involvement in GBS is...

  12. Twelfth cranial nerve involvement in Guillian Barre syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrat Kumar Nanda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Guillian Barre Syndrome (GBS is associated with cranial nerve involvement. Commonest cranial nerves involved were the facial and bulbar (IXth and Xth. Involvement of twelfth cranial nerve is rare in GBS. We present a case of GBS in a thirteen years old boy who developed severe tongue weakness and wasting at two weeks after the onset of GBS. The wasting and weakness of tongue improved at three months of follow up. Brief review of the literature about XIIth cranial nerve involvement in GBS is discussed.

  13. Arterial supply of the lower cranial nerves: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Philipp; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Foreman, Paul; Loukas, Marios; Fisher, Winfield S; Rizk, Elias; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-01-01

    The lower cranial nerves receive their arterial supply from an intricate network of tributaries derived from the external carotid, internal carotid, and vertebrobasilar territories. A contemporary, comprehensive literature review of the vascular supply of the lower cranial nerves was performed. The vascular supply to the trigeminal, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, spinal accessory, and hypoglossal nerves are illustrated with a special emphasis on clinical issues. Frequently the external carotid, internal carotid, and vertebrobasilar territories all contribute to the vascular supply of an individual cranial nerve along its course. Understanding of the vasculature of the lower cranial nerves is of great relevance for skull base surgery. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Arterial supply of the upper cranial nerves: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Philipp; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Foreman, Paul; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-11-01

    The arterial supply to the upper cranial nerves is derived from a complex network of branches derived from the anterior and posterior cerebral circulations. We performed a comprehensive literature review of the arterial supply of the upper cranial nerves with an emphasis on clinical considerations. Arteries coursing in close proximity to the cranial nerves regularly give rise to small vessels that supply the nerve. Knowledge of the arteries supplying the cranial nerves is of particular importance during surgical approaches to the skull base. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Cranial nerves - spectrum of inflammatory and tumorous changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, S.F.; Kasprian, G.; Nemec, U.; Czerny, C.

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory processes as well as primary and secondary tumorous changes may involve cranial nerves causing neurological deficits. In addition to neurologists, ENT physicians, ophthalmologists and maxillofacial surgeons, radiologists play an important role in the investigation of patients with cranial nerve symptoms. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow the depiction of the cranial nerve anatomy and pathological neural changes. This article briefly describes the imaging techniques in MDCT and MRI and is dedicated to the radiological presentation of inflammatory and tumorous cranial nerve pathologies. (orig.) [de

  16. Imaging of muscular denervation secondary to motor cranial nerve dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, S.E.J.; Chaudhary, N.; Fareedi, S.; Woo, E.K.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of motor cranial nerve dysfunction on the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of head and neck muscles are reviewed. Patterns of denervation changes are described and illustrated for V, VII, X, XI and XII cranial nerves. Recognition of the range of imaging manifestations, including the temporal changes in muscular appearances and associated muscular grafting or compensatory hypertrophy, will avoid misinterpretation as local disease. It will also prompt the radiologist to search for underlying cranial nerve pathology, which may be clinically occult. The relevant cranial nerve motor division anatomy will be described to enable a focussed search for such a structural abnormality

  17. Imaging of muscular denervation secondary to motor cranial nerve dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, S.E.J. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: sejconnor@tiscali.co.uk; Chaudhary, N. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Fareedi, S. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Woo, E.K. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    The effects of motor cranial nerve dysfunction on the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of head and neck muscles are reviewed. Patterns of denervation changes are described and illustrated for V, VII, X, XI and XII cranial nerves. Recognition of the range of imaging manifestations, including the temporal changes in muscular appearances and associated muscular grafting or compensatory hypertrophy, will avoid misinterpretation as local disease. It will also prompt the radiologist to search for underlying cranial nerve pathology, which may be clinically occult. The relevant cranial nerve motor division anatomy will be described to enable a focussed search for such a structural abnormality.

  18. Secular trends in Cherokee cranial morphology: Eastern vs Western bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, Rebecca; Ross, Ann H; Jantz, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    The research objective was to examine if secular trends can be identified for cranial data commissioned by Boas in 1892, specifically for cranial breadth and cranial length of the Eastern and Western band Cherokee who experienced environmental hardships. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the degree of relationship between each of the cranial measures: cranial length, cranial breadth and cephalic index, along with predictor variables (year-of-birth, location, sex, admixture); the model revealed a significant difference for all craniometric variables. Additional regression analysis was performed with smoothing Loess plots to observe cranial length and cranial breadth change over time (year-of-birth) separately for Eastern and Western Cherokee band females and males born between 1783-1874. This revealed the Western and Eastern bands show a decrease in cranial length over time. Eastern band individuals maintain a relatively constant head breadth, while Western Band individuals show a sharp decline beginning around 1860. These findings support negative secular trend occurring for both Cherokee bands where the environment made a detrimental impact; this is especially marked with the Western Cherokee band.

  19. Approaches to canine health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Dan G; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; Brodbelt, Dave C

    2014-01-01

    Effective canine health surveillance systems can be used to monitor disease in the general population, prioritise disorders for strategic control and focus clinical research, and to evaluate the success of these measures. The key attributes for optimal data collection systems that support canine disease surveillance are representativeness of the general population, validity of disorder data and sustainability. Limitations in these areas present as selection bias, misclassification bias and discontinuation of the system respectively. Canine health data sources are reviewed to identify their strengths and weaknesses for supporting effective canine health surveillance. Insurance data benefit from large and well-defined denominator populations but are limited by selection bias relating to the clinical events claimed and animals covered. Veterinary referral clinical data offer good reliability for diagnoses but are limited by referral bias for the disorders and animals included. Primary-care practice data have the advantage of excellent representation of the general dog population and recording at the point of care by veterinary professionals but may encounter misclassification problems and technical difficulties related to management and analysis of large datasets. Questionnaire surveys offer speed and low cost but may suffer from low response rates, poor data validation, recall bias and ill-defined denominator population information. Canine health scheme data benefit from well-characterised disorder and animal data but reflect selection bias during the voluntary submissions process. Formal UK passive surveillance systems are limited by chronic under-reporting and selection bias. It is concluded that active collection systems using secondary health data provide the optimal resource for canine health surveillance.

  20. Late rupture of the posterior cruciate ligament after total knee replacement.

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, R. L.; Goodman, S. B.; Csongradi, J.

    1993-01-01

    To our knowledge there have been no reports of late rupture of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) as a cause of instability in PCL-retaining total knee prostheses. In our experience of 150 total knee replacements using PCL-retaining prosthesis, three cases (2.0%) of late rupture of the posterior cruciate ligament have occurred, each leading to chronic instability, disabling pain, and revision arthroplasty. In each case rupture of the posterior cruciate ligament was confirmed at the time of...

  1. Intermittent cranial lung herniation in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmini, Carlo; De Simone, Antonio; Valbonetti, Luca; Diana, Alessia

    2007-01-01

    Two aged dogs with chronic obstructive airway disease were evaluated because of intermittent swelling of the ventral cervical region. Radiographs made at expiration and caudal positioning of the forelimbs allowed identification of intermittent cervical lung herniation of the left and right cranial lung lobe in both dogs. Pulmonary hyperinflation, increased expiratory effort, and chronic coughing were considered responsible for the lung herniation. Cervical lung hernia should be included in the differential diagnoses of intermittent cervical swelling in dogs with chronic respiratory disorders associated with increased expiratory effort and chronic coughing.

  2. Lateral angle and cranial base sexual dimorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duquesnel Mana, Mathilde; Adalian, Pascal; Lynnerup, Niels

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY: Previous studies have yielded very different results in sex estimation based on measurements of the lateral angle (LA) of the temporal bone. The purpose of this study was to, first, investigate if the bad results obtained by the LA method could be due to the methodology and then, second......, and by use of a new method, using a "virtual cast". The cranial base was quantified by placing 12 landmarks in the posterior fossa. Procrustes analysis, principal component analysis, discriminant analysis and cross-validation test were performed. The "cast method" was found to be less accurate than...

  3. Canine and feline colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastant-Maillard, S; Aggouni, C; Albaret, A; Fournier, A; Mila, H

    2017-04-01

    Puppy and kitten survival over the first weeks is particularly dependent on colostrum, a specific secretion of the mammary gland produced during the first 2 days post-partum. Colostrum is a source of nutrients and immunoglobulins. It also contributes to the digestive tract maturation. Colostrum differentiates from milk mainly based on its concentration in immunoglobulins G: 20-30 g/L in dog colostrum, 40-50 g/L in cats' vs <1 g/L in milk. IgG concentration rapidly drops after parturition (-50% in 24 hr). Immune quality of colostrum is highly variable between bitches, with no relationship with maternal blood IgG level, dam's age, breed size or litter size. In addition to systemic immune protection, colostrum also plays a major role for local digestive protection, due to IgA, lysozyme, lactoferrin, white blood cells and various cytokines. Energetic concentration of canine and feline colostrum is not superior to that of mature milk. It depends on colostrum fat concentration and is affected by breed size (higher in breeds <10 kg adult body weight). As puppies and kittens are almost agammaglobulinemic at birth, transfer of IgG from their digestive tract into their bloodstream is crucial for their survival, IgG absorption ending at 12-16 hr after birth. Energetic supply over the two first days of life, as evidenced by growth rate over the two first days of life, also affects risk of neonatal mortality. Early and sufficient suckling of colostrum is thus the very first care to be provided to newborns for their later health and survival. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated

  5. Immunohistochemical Characterization of Canine Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana CORA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lymphomas occur by clonal expansion of lymphoid cells and have distinctive morphological and immunophenotypic features. Determination of canine lymphoma immunophenotype is useful for accurate prognosis and further therapy. In the suggested study, we performed an immunohistochemical evaluation of some cases with canine lymphoma diagnosed in the Department of Pathology (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, in order to characterize them. The investigation included 39 dogs diagnosed with different anatomical forms of lymphoma, following necropsy analysis or assessment of biopsies. The diagnosis of lymphoma was confirmed by necropsy and histopathology (Hematoxylin-eosin stain examinations. The collected specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemistry technique (automatic method using the following antibodies: CD3, CD20, CD21 and CD79a. The analyzed neoplasms were characterized as follows: about 64.10% of cases were diagnosed as B-cell lymphomas, 33.34% of cases as T-cell lymphomas, whereas 2.56% of cases were null cell type lymphomas (neither B nor T. Most of multicentric (80%, mediastinal (60% and primary central nervous system lymphomas (100% had B immunophenotype, while the majority of cutaneous (80% and digestive (100% lymphomas had T immunophenotype. Immunohistochemical description of canine lymphomas can deliver some major details concerning their behavior and malignancy. Additionally, vital prognosis and efficacy of some therapeutic protocols are relying on the immunohistochemical features of canine lymphoma.

  6. Problems of cranial computer-tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, D [Allgemeines Krankenhaus St. Georg, Hamburg (Germany, F.R.). Neurologische Abt.

    1979-07-01

    The author discusses the problems that have cropped up since the introduction of computerized tomography 5 years ago. To begin with, problems of contrast and object resolution are discussed with a special view to the importance of amipague imaging of cisterns, in particular in the detection of basal growing and displacing, intracranial processes. After this, the tasks of computerized tomography in neurological and neurosurgical emergencies, cerebrocranial injuries, cerebral circulation disturbances, inflammatory diseases of the central nervous systems, epileptic seizures, and chronical headaches are reviewed. Special regard is given to the problem of recurrent examinations and course control, especially in cerebral tumours and aresorptive hydrocephalus. Another paragraph deals with the correlation between CT findings, clinical symptoms, and clinical findings. The importance of cranial CT for neurological diagnoses is illustrated by the change of indications for conventional methods of examination. The limits of the method are shown and it is pointed out that cranial CT is not a search technique but that it requires previous examinations by a neurologist, neurosurgeon, or neuropaediatrician.

  7. Roentgen stereophotogrammetry for analysis of cranial growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvik, G.; Alberius, P.; Fahlman, M.

    1986-01-01

    A system of roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) has been developed and its value in studies of cranial growth in both man and the experimental animal (rabbit) has been delineated. This method is based on measurements from metal bone marker images on roentgenograms. Two roentgen tubes simultaneously expose the object, which is placed in one of two types of calibration cages. The object position does not need to be identical from one examination to the next. The cage, holding indicators of predetermined internal positions (in two or four planes), defines a laboratory coordinate system. Two-dimensional image coordinates are obtained by means of a highly accurate cartographic instrument. By computer reconstruction of the x-ray beams through the markers, 3-D object coordinates are calculated. For subsequent analysis of growth processes, extensive software is necessary. To control intrasegmental stability (routinely performed at each examination), a minimum of two markers is required, whereas three markers are needed in each skeletal segment for kinematic analysis using the rigid-body concept. Careful planning of marker placement before implantation minimizes implant loss and instability that otherwise might be a problem. Complications other than bone marker loosening have been nonexistent. The technical accuracy is high. Consequently, roentgen stereophotogrammetry, with the aid of metallic implants, is a superior means to obtain biometric information on cranial growth with relative ease

  8. Problems of cranial computer-tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, D.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses the problems that have cropped up since the introduction of computerized tomography 5 years ago. To begin with, problems of contrast and object resolution are discussed with a special view to the importance of amipague imaging of cisterns, in particular in the detection of basal growing and displacing, intracranial processes. After this, the tasks of computerized tomography in neurological and neurosurgical emergencies, cerebrocranial injuries, cerebral circulation disturbances, inflammatory diseases of the central nervous systems, epileptic seizures, and chronical headaches are reviewed. Special regard is given to the problem of recurrent examinations and course control, especially in cerebral tumours and aresorptive hydrocephalus. Another paragraph deals with the correlation between CT findings, clinical symptoms, and clinical findings. The importance of cranial CT for neurological diagnoses is illustrated by the change of indications for conventional methods of examination. The limits of the method are shown and it is pointed out that cranial CT is not a search technique but that it requires previous examinations by a neurologist, neurosurgeon, or neuropaediatrician. (orig.) [de

  9. Ophthalmople gic cranial neuropathy: clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Dozorova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ophthalmoplegic cranial neuropathy (OCN is a disease with unknown etiology, which manifests itself by episodes of intense headache, accompanied by completely or partially reversible dysfunction of the oculomotor nerve: ptosis, mydriasis and ophthalmoplegia. It is assumed that the pathology is demyelinating in nature, therefore in the International classification of headaches OCN excluded from rubric migraine and related to the painful cranial neuropathies. The question of the prevention and treatment of this disease is still controversial, the issue of the appointment of corticosteroids, calcium channel blockers and β-blockers, methods of surgical correction of strabismus and botulin therapy.The article describes OCN in an 11-year-old boy. In the clinical picture headache attacks were observed. These attacks were with signs of selective lesions of the oculomotor nerve on one side. These functional changes are recurrent, and fully regress between attacks. Laboratory and instrumental examinations revealed no pathology that could cause this symptom, including myasthenia. The described case demonstrates the classical picture of OCN with a favorable course and the partial damage of the oculomotor nerve on one side.

  10. Disorders of the lower cranial nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Grisold, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of the lower cranial nerves (LCN) are due to numerous causes, which need to be differentiated to optimize management and outcome. This review aims at summarizing and discussing diseases affecting LCN. Review of publications dealing with disorders of the LCN in humans. Affection of multiple LCN is much more frequent than the affection of a single LCN. LCN may be affected solely or together with more proximal cranial nerves, with central nervous system disease, or with nonneurological disorders. LCN lesions have to be suspected if there are typical symptoms or signs attributable to a LCN. Causes of LCN lesions can be classified as genetic, vascular, traumatic, iatrogenic, infectious, immunologic, metabolic, nutritional, degenerative, or neoplastic. Treatment of LCN lesions depends on the underlying cause. An effective treatment is available in the majority of the cases, but a prerequisite for complete recovery is the prompt and correct diagnosis. LCN lesions need to be considered in case of disturbed speech, swallowing, coughing, deglutition, sensory functions, taste, or autonomic functions, neuralgic pain, dysphagia, head, pharyngeal, or neck pain, cardiac or gastrointestinal compromise, or weakness of the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, or the tongue muscles. To correctly assess manifestations of LCN lesions, precise knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the area is required. PMID:26167022

  11. [Rapidly progressive compromise of cranial pairs as neurosyphilis manifestation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccaro, Fernando; Moldes, Sofía; Novelli Poisson, Paola; Arduin, Julieta; Valerga, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Syphilis remains a common disease throughout the world, being neurosyphilis a relatively common manifestation. A case of a 34 years old male with HIV and neurosyphilis is presented, characterized by a clinical course evidenced by progressive palsy of cranial nerves. This case is unusual and a rare presentation of progressive cranial involvement with swallowing deficit, have found no similar data in the literature.

  12. Vasculopathic Cranial Ocular Motor Neuropathy Following Sudden Emotional Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Purvin, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    We describe three patients who experienced onset of a microvascular ocular motor nerve palsy in the setting of sudden emotional stress. Such emotional states are accompanied by a marked increase in sympathetic tone in some individuals. Mechanisms by which these autonomic changes might produce an ischemic cranial nerve palsy include intra-cranial vasoconstriction and transient systemic hypotension due to alterations in cardiac function.

  13. Mapping genetic variants for cranial vault shape in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roosenboom, Jasmien; Lee, Myoung Keun; Hecht, Jacqueline T

    2018-01-01

    The shape of the cranial vault, a region comprising interlocking flat bones surrounding the cerebral cortex, varies considerably in humans. Strongly influenced by brain size and shape, cranial vault morphology has both clinical and evolutionary relevance. However, little is known about the geneti...

  14. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section 882.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated power...

  15. Idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis associated with Sweet's Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, Antonio; Ribes, Ramon; Riva, Andres de la; Rubio, Fernando Lopez; Sanchez, Carmen; Sancho, Jose L.

    2002-01-01

    A case of hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis associated with Sweet's Syndrome is presented. Both entities have been described in association with several other chronic systemic inflammatory diseases and autoimmune conditions. To our knowledge the coexistence between Sweet's Syndrome and hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis has not been reported up to date. We suggest a possible autoimmune or dysimmune mechanism in the pathogenesis of these two entities

  16. Ontogeny of canine dimorphism in extant hominoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, G T; Dean, C

    2001-07-01

    Many behavioral and ecological factors influence the degree of expression of canine dimorphism for different reasons. Regardless of its socioecological importance, we know virtually nothing about the processes responsible for the development of canine dimorphism. Our aim here is to describe the developmental process(es) regulating canine dimorphism in extant hominoids, using histological markers of tooth growth. Teeth preserve a permanent record of their ontogeny in the form of short- and long-period incremental markings in both enamel and dentine. We selected 52 histological sections of sexed hominoid canine teeth from a total sample of 115, from which we calculated the time and rate of cuspal enamel formation and the rate at which ameloblasts differentiate along the future enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) to the end of crown formation. Thus, we were able to reconstruct longitudinal growth curves for height attainment in male and female hominoid canines. Male hominoids consistently take longer to form canine crowns than do females (although not significantly so for our sample of Homo). Male orangutans and gorillas occasionally take up to twice as long as females to complete enamel formation. The mean ranges of female canine crown formation times are similar in Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo. Interspecific differences between female Pan canine crown heights and those of Gorilla and Pongo, which are taller, result from differences in rates of growth. Differences in canine crown heights between male Pan and the taller, more dimorphic male Gorilla and Pongo canines result both from differences in total time taken to form enamel and from faster rates of growth in Gorilla and Pongo. Although modern human canines do not emerge as significantly dimorphic in this study, it is well-known that sexual dimorphism in canine crown height exists. Larger samples of sexed modern human canines are therefore needed to identify clearly what underlies this. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. MR imaging features of chronically torn anterior cruciate ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niitsu, Mamoru; Kuramochi, Masashi; Ikeda, Kotaroh; Fukubayashi, Tohru; Anno, Izumi; Itai, Yuji

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 40 knee joints with arthroscopically proved chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears were retrospectively evaluated. MRI demonstrated various features of chronic ACL tears: 19 knees revealed with no identifiable ligamentous structure, and 21 had residual ligamentous structures. These pseudoligaments, 14 discontinuous bands and seven continuous bands with elongation, were residual torn ligamentous fibers and/or synovial tissues. All the discontinuous bands were disrupted from the femoral attachment and were likely to traverse the lower intercondylar space. Six disrupted ligaments were attached to the lateral aspect of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). Coronal T2 * -weighted gradient echo images showed better delineation of the disrupted femoral attachment and adhesion to the PCL. A chronic ACL tear with minimal elongation or with PCL attachment at a higher position may occasionally be difficult to distinguish from an intact ligament. (author)

  18. Absence of sensory function in the reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, Michael R; Fischer-Rasmussen, Torsten; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2011-01-01

    Cruciate ligaments provide sensory information that cause excitatory as well as inhibitory effects to the activity of the muscles around the knee. The aim of the study was to determine whether these muscular reflexes are reestablished after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) re-construction. Wire...... and the sensory threshold was determined. Stimulus amplitudes were increased to 1.5-2.0 times the sensory threshold, and inhibitory reflexes could be elicited from PCL in the quadriceps during active extension and in the hamstrings muscles during active flexion in all patients. Subsequently the ACL re...... amplitudes necessary to elicit reflexes from the ACL re-constructions were 2, 9 times higher than amplitudes that elicited reflexes from the PCL. Sensation and afferent reflex activity required a much stronger stimulus in the ACL graft compared to normal PCL. We suggest that the reason...

  19. Biomechanical Measures During Landing and Postural Stability Predict Second Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Return to Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Mark V.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Ford, Kevin R.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Myer, Gregory D.; Huang, Bin; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Athletes who return to sport participation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) have a higher risk of a second anterior cruciate ligament injury (either reinjury or contralateral injury) compared with non–anterior cruciate ligament–injured athletes. Hypotheses Prospective measures of neuromuscular control and postural stability after ACLR will predict relative increased risk for a second anterior cruciate ligament injury. Study Design Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods Fifty-six athletes underwent a prospective biomechanical screening after ACLR using 3-dimensional motion analysis during a drop vertical jump maneuver and postural stability assessment before return to pivoting and cutting sports. After the initial test session, each subject was followed for 12 months for occurrence of a second anterior cruciate ligament injury. Lower extremity joint kinematics, kinetics, and postural stability were assessed and analyzed. Analysis of variance and logistic regression were used to identify predictors of a second anterior cruciate ligament injury. Results Thirteen athletes suffered a subsequent second anterior cruciate ligament injury. Transverse plane hip kinetics and frontal plane knee kinematics during landing, sagittal plane knee moments at landing, and deficits in postural stability predicted a second injury in this population (C statistic = 0.94) with excellent sensitivity (0.92) and specificity (0.88). Specific predictive parameters included an increase in total frontal plane (valgus) movement, greater asymmetry in internal knee extensor moment at initial contact, and a deficit in single-leg postural stability of the involved limb, as measured by the Biodex stability system. Hip rotation moment independently predicted second anterior cruciate ligament injury (C = 0.81) with high sensitivity (0.77) and specificity (0.81). Conclusion Altered neuromuscular control of the hip and knee during a dynamic landing task

  20. Canine histiocytic sarcoma presenting as a target lesion on brain magnetic resonance imaging and as a solitary pulmonary mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Jill; Barber, Renee; Childs, Bronwen; Kirejczyk, Shannon Gm; Uhl, Elizabeth W

    2017-04-17

    A 6-year-old spayed female miniature schnauzer presented with generalized seizures and progressive multifocal intracranial neurologic disease. Thoracic radiographs and computed tomography (CT) revealed a large solitary pulmonary mass within the right cranial lung lobe. On brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a solitary intraparenchymal mass within the left piriform lobe had a "target" appearance on both pre- and postcontrast sequences. Cerebrospinal fluid was unremarkable and histopathology indicated both masses represented histiocytic sarcoma. This case represents an uncommonly reported MRI appearance of histiocytic sarcoma in the canine brain and a large, solitary-appearing pulmonary histiocytic sarcoma in the same dog. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  1. Early Results of Anatomic Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Demet Pepele

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The goal in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is to restore the normal anatomic structure and function of the knee. In the significant proportion of patients after the traditional single-bundle ACLR, complaints of instability still continue. Anatomic double bundle ACLR may provide normal kinematics in knees, much closer to the natural anatomy. The aim of this study is to clinically assess the early outcomes of our anatomical double bundle ACLR. Material and Method: In our ...

  2. Popliteal artery injury during posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Henrique Frauendorf Cenni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reports a case of popliteal artery injury during arthroscopic reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament. The evolution of the injury is described and comments are made regarding the anatomy of this artery and potential risks of this surgical technique. This study had the aims of alerting the medical community, especially knee surgeons, regarding a severe surgical complication and discussing the ways of preventing it.

  3. Cranial joint histology in the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos): new insights on avian cranial kinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Alida M; Witmer, Lawrence M; Holliday, Casey M

    2017-03-01

    The evolution of avian cranial kinesis is a phenomenon in part responsible for the remarkable diversity of avian feeding adaptations observable today. Although osteological, developmental and behavioral features of the feeding system are frequently studied, comparatively little is known about cranial joint skeletal tissue composition and morphology from a microscopic perspective. These data are key to understanding the developmental, biomechanical and evolutionary underpinnings of kinesis. Therefore, here we investigated joint microstructure in juvenile and adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos; Anseriformes). Ducks belong to a diverse clade of galloanseriform birds, have derived adaptations for herbivory and kinesis, and are model organisms in developmental biology. Thus, new insights into their cranial functional morphology will refine our understanding of avian cranial evolution. A total of five specimens (two ducklings and three adults) were histologically sampled, and two additional specimens (a duckling and an adult) were subjected to micro-computed tomographic scanning. Five intracranial joints were sampled: the jaw joint (quadrate-articular); otic joint (quadrate-squamosal); palatobasal joint (parasphenoid-pterygoid); the mandibular symphysis (dentary-dentary); and the craniofacial hinge (a complex flexion zone involving four different pairs of skeletal elements). In both the ducklings and adults, the jaw, otic and palatobasal joints are all synovial, with a synovial cavity and articular cartilage on each surface (i.e. bichondral joints) ensheathed in a fibrous capsule. The craniofacial hinge begins as an ensemble of patent sutures in the duckling, but in the adult it becomes more complex: laterally it is synovial; whereas medially, it is synostosed by a bridge of chondroid bone. We hypothesize that it is chondroid bone that provides some of the flexible properties of this joint. The heavily innervated mandibular symphysis is already fused in the

  4. One-step triplex PCR/RT-PCR to detect canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, and canine kobuvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dafei; Liu, Fei; Guo, Dongchun; Hu, Xiaoliang; Li, Zhijie; Li, Zhigang; Ma, Jianzhang; Liu, Chunguo

    2018-01-23

    To rapidly distinguish Canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) in practice, a one-step multiplex PCR/RT-PCR assay was developed, with detection limits of 10 2.1 TCID 50 for CDV, 10 1.9 TCID 50 for CPV and 10 3 copies for CaKoV. This method did not amplify nonspecific DNA or RNA from other canine viruses. Therefore, the assay provides a sensitive tool for the rapid clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance of CDV, CPV and CaKoV in dogs.

  5. Genetics of Human and Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Simpson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in both humans and dogs. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM accounts for a large number of these cases, reported to be the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans and the second most common in dogs. In human studies of DCM there are more than 50 genetic loci associated with the disease. Despite canine DCM having similar disease progression to human DCM studies into the genetic basis of canine DCM lag far behind those of human DCM. In this review the aetiology, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of canine DCM are examined, along with highlighting possible different subtypes of canine DCM and their potential relevance to human DCM. Finally the current position of genetic research into canine and human DCM, including the genetic loci, is identified and the reasons many studies may have failed to find a genetic association with canine DCM are reviewed.

  6. Genetics of Human and Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Siobhan; Edwards, Jennifer; Ferguson-Mignan, Thomas F N; Cobb, Malcolm; Mongan, Nigel P; Rutland, Catrin S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in both humans and dogs. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) accounts for a large number of these cases, reported to be the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans and the second most common in dogs. In human studies of DCM there are more than 50 genetic loci associated with the disease. Despite canine DCM having similar disease progression to human DCM studies into the genetic basis of canine DCM lag far behind those of human DCM. In this review the aetiology, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of canine DCM are examined, along with highlighting possible different subtypes of canine DCM and their potential relevance to human DCM. Finally the current position of genetic research into canine and human DCM, including the genetic loci, is identified and the reasons many studies may have failed to find a genetic association with canine DCM are reviewed.

  7. Clinical diagnosis of an anterior cruciate ligament rupture : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjammse, A; Gokeler, A; van der Schans, CP

    Study Design: Meta-analysis. Objectives: To define the accuracy of clinical tests for assessing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures. Background: The cruciate ligaments, and especially the ACL, are among the most commonly injured structures of the knee. Given the increasing injury prevalence,

  8. Comparison of effects of uncomplicated canine babesiosis and canine normovolaemic anaemia on abdominal splanchnic Doppler characteristics - a preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Koma

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to compare uncomplicated canine babesiosis (CB and experimentally induced normovolaemic anaemia (EA using Doppler ultrasonography of abdominal splanchnic vessels. Fourteen dogs with uncomplicated CB were investigated together with 11 healthy Beagles during severe EA, moderate EA and the physiological state as a control group. Canine babesiosis was compared with severe EA, moderate EA and the physiological state using Doppler variables of the abdominal aorta, cranial mesenteric artery (CMA, coeliac, left renal and interlobar, and hilar splenic arteries, and the main portal vein. Patterns of haemodynamic changes during CB and EA were broadly similar and were characterised by elevations in velocities and reductions in resistance indices in all vessels except the renal arteries when compared with the physiological state. Aortic and CMA peak systolic velocities and CMA end diastolic and time-averaged mean velocities in CB were significantly lower (P < 0.023 than those in severe EA. Patterns of renal haemodynamic changes during CB and EA were similar. However, the renal patterns differed from those of aortic and gastrointestinal arteries, having elevations in vascular resistance indices, a reduction in end diastolic velocity and unchanged time-averaged mean velocity. The left renal artery resistive index in CB was significantly higher (P < 0.025 than those in EA and the physiological state. Renal interlobar artery resistive and pulsatility indices in CB were significantly higher (P < 0.016 than those of moderate EA and the physiological state. The similar haemodynamic patterns in CB and EA are attributable to anaemia, while significant differencesmayadditionally be attributed to pathophysiological factors peculiar to CB.

  9. Dose estimation for paediatric cranial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curci Daros, K.A.; Bitelli Medeiros, R.; Curci Daros, K.A.; Oliveira Echeimberg, J. de

    2006-01-01

    In the last ten years, the number of paediatric computed tomography (CT) scans have increased worldwide, contributing to higher population radiation dose. Technique diversification in paediatrics and different CT equipment technologies have led to various exposure levels complicating precise evaluation of doses and operational conditions necessary for good quality images. The objective of this study was to establish a quantitative relationship between absorbed dose and cranial region in children up to 6 years old undergoing CT exams. Methods: X-ray was measured on the cranial surface of 64 patients undergoing CT using thermoluminescent (T.L.) dosimeters. Forty T.L.D.100 thermoluminescent dosimeters (T.L.D.) were evenly distributed on each patients skin surface along the sagittal axis. Measurements were performed in facial regions exposed to scatter radiation and in the supratentorial and posterior fossa regions, submitted to primary radiation. T.L.D. were calibrated for 120 kV X-ray over the acrylic phantom. T.L. measurements were made with a Harshaw 4000 system. Patient mean T.L. readings were determined for position, pi, of T.L.D. and normalized to the maximum supratentorial reading. From integrating the linear T.L. density function (?) resulting from radiation distribution in each of the three exposed regions, dose fraction was determined in the region of interest, along with total dose under the technical conditions used in that specific exam protocol. For each T.L.D. position along the patient cranium, there were n T.L. measurements with 2% uncertainty due to T.L. reader, and 5% due to thermal treatment of dosimeters. Also, mean T.L. readings and their uncertainties were calculated for each patient at each position, p. Results: Mean linear T.L. density for the region exposed to secondary radiation defined by position, 0.3≤p≤6 cm, was ρ((p)=7.9(4)x10 -2 +7(5)x10 -5 p 4.5(4) cm -1 ; exposed to primary X-ray for the posterior fossa region defined by position

  10. Dose estimation for paediatric cranial computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curci Daros, K.A.; Bitelli Medeiros, R. [Sao Paulo Univ. Federal (Brazil); Curci Daros, K.A.; Oliveira Echeimberg, J. de [Centro Univ. Sao Camilo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    In the last ten years, the number of paediatric computed tomography (CT) scans have increased worldwide, contributing to higher population radiation dose. Technique diversification in paediatrics and different CT equipment technologies have led to various exposure levels complicating precise evaluation of doses and operational conditions necessary for good quality images. The objective of this study was to establish a quantitative relationship between absorbed dose and cranial region in children up to 6 years old undergoing CT exams. Methods: X-ray was measured on the cranial surface of 64 patients undergoing CT using thermoluminescent (T.L.) dosimeters. Forty T.L.D.100 thermoluminescent dosimeters (T.L.D.) were evenly distributed on each patients skin surface along the sagittal axis. Measurements were performed in facial regions exposed to scatter radiation and in the supratentorial and posterior fossa regions, submitted to primary radiation. T.L.D. were calibrated for 120 kV X-ray over the acrylic phantom. T.L. measurements were made with a Harshaw 4000 system. Patient mean T.L. readings were determined for position, pi, of T.L.D. and normalized to the maximum supratentorial reading. From integrating the linear T.L. density function (?) resulting from radiation distribution in each of the three exposed regions, dose fraction was determined in the region of interest, along with total dose under the technical conditions used in that specific exam protocol. For each T.L.D. position along the patient cranium, there were n T.L. measurements with 2% uncertainty due to T.L. reader, and 5% due to thermal treatment of dosimeters. Also, mean T.L. readings and their uncertainties were calculated for each patient at each position, p. Results: Mean linear T.L. density for the region exposed to secondary radiation defined by position, 0.3{<=}p{<=}6 cm, was {rho}((p)=7.9(4)x10{sup -2}+7(5)x10{sup -5}p{sup 4.5(4)} cm{sup -1}; exposed to primary X-ray for the posterior fossa

  11. Teleradiology for emergency cranial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranzinger, E.; Treumann, T.C.; Dreier, D.; Allgayer, B.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: We report our experience with the teleradiologic service provided by a center hospital (CH) for emergency cranial computed tomography (CCT) in two regional hospitals (RH) during a 12-month period. The clinical and economic impact of teleradiology will be discussed as well as the acceptance by the clinicians of the regional hospitals. Material and Methods: In 2001, 213 CT-scans in 202 patients were performed and reported using teleradiology. Teleradiologic and final medical diagnosis were analysed by the medical reports. The transferral of the patients to a CH and their further treatment were checked. The referring physicians in the RH were questionnaired about the teleradiological support. Results: 18 (9%) patients had to be urgently transferred to a CH based on the CT findings in the teleradiological reports. 24 patients (11%) were transferred to a center hospital during further treatment. 80% of patients were treated in the RH. (orig.) [de

  12. An unusual orbito-cranial foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra Madhumati

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The rarity of orbito-cranial gun shot injury in both war and civilian practice has been reported. In a large series of 351 missile head injuries in the Vietnam war, orbital penetration was noted in 0.6% cases only. Review of literature shows that orbital injury was ipsilateral to the cerebral injury in most reported cases. We have previously reported a rare case of left parieto-occipital lobe injury due to gun shot wound of the contralateral (right orbit. The case reported here sustained a bullet injury to the left frontal bone but the missile was located below the contralateral (right optic canal. The rarity of the case prompted this report.

  13. Cranial nerve palsies in childhood parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Alexandra P; Grant, Ronald; Gupta, Abha A; Hodgson, David C; Nathan, Paul C

    2012-12-15

    Children with parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma (PM RMS) and cranial nerve palsy (CNP) are at risk for permanent neurologic dysfunction. Clinicians often consider the use of emergent therapies such as expedited radiation and/or corticosteroids; however, there is a paucity of information describing the natural history of CNP in PM RMS. We sought to describe the clinical features of patients with PM RMS plus associated CNP and to evaluate the patient, disease, and treatment-related factors that impacted neurologic recovery. We conducted a retrospective review of PM RMS cases treated at the Hospital for Sick Children between 1985 and 2010. Thirty-five children were treated for PM RMS, 19 (54%) of whom presented with CNP. Children with CNP were nine times more likely to have other high-risk features (cranial base bony erosion and/or intracranial extension) at the time of presentation than children without CNP (OR 9.6, 95% CI 1.69, 54.79, P = 0.013). In addition to commencing chemotherapy, 13 patients (68%) received expedited RT and corticosteroids, four (21%) corticosteroids alone, and two (11%) received only standard chemotherapy and RT. At last follow up of the 11 survivors, neurologic recovery was complete in five (45%), partial in five (45%), and absent in one (9%). In our cohort, recovery of PM RMS associated CNP was often incomplete despite multi-modal therapy. A larger cohort of patients is required to determine the utility of emergent initiation of radiation or corticosteroids. This study will facilitate the counseling of future families on the long-term neurologic recovery CNP in PM RMS. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cranial modularity and sequence heterochrony in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Anjali

    2007-01-01

    Heterochrony, the temporal shifting of developmental events relative to each other, requires a degree of autonomy among those processes or structures. Modularity, the division of larger structures or processes into autonomous sets of internally integrated units, is often discussed in relation to the concept of heterochrony. However, the relationship between the developmental modules derived from studies of heterochrony and evolutionary modules, which should be of adaptive importance and relate to the genotype-phenotype map, has not been explicitly studied. I analyzed a series of sectioned and whole cleared-and-stained embryological and neonatal specimens, supplemented with published ontogenetic data, to test the hypothesis that bones within the same phenotypic modules, as determined by morphometric analysis, are developmentally integrated and will display coordinated heterochronic shifts across taxa. Modularity was analyzed in cranial bone ossification sequences of 12 therian mammals. A dataset of 12-18 developmental events was used to assess if modularity in developmental sequences corresponds to six phenotypic modules, derived from a recent morphometric analysis of cranial modularity in mammals. Kendall's tau was used to measure rank correlations, with randomization tests for significance. If modularity in developmental sequences corresponds to observed phenotypic modules, bones within a single phenotypic module should show integration of developmental timing, maintaining the same timing of ossification relative to each other, despite differences in overall ossification sequences across taxa. Analyses did not find any significant conservation of developmental timing within the six phenotypic modules, meaning that bones that are highly integrated in adult morphology are not significantly integrated in developmental timing.

  15. Literature review of cranial nerve injuries during carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, M S; Vijaynagar, B; Singh, P; Hamilton, G

    2007-01-01

    In the recent prospective randomised trials on carotid endarterectomy (CEA), the incidence of cranial nerve injuries (CNI) are reported to be higher than in previously published studies. The objective of this study is to review the incidence of post CEA cranial nerve injury and to discover whether it has changed in the last 25 years after many innovations in vascular surgery. Generic terms including carotid endarterectomy, cranial nerve injuries, post CEA complications and cranial nerve deficit after neck surgery were used to search a variety of electronic databases. Based on selection criteria, decisions regarding inclusion and exclusion of primary studies were made. The incidence of CNI before and after 1995 was compared. We found 31 eligible studies from the literature. Patients who underwent CEA through any approach were included in the study. All patients had cranial nerves examined both before and after surgery. The total number of patients who had CEA before 1995 was 3521 with 10.6% CNI (352 patients) and after 1995, 7324 patients underwent CEA with 8.3% CNI (614 patients). Cranial nerves XII, X and VII were most commonly involved (rarely IX and XI). Statistical analysis showed that the incidence of CNI has decreased (X(2) = 5.89 + 0.74 = 6.63 => p-value = 0.0100). CNI is still a significant postoperative complication of carotid endarterectomy. Despite increasing use of CEA, the incidence of CNI has decreased probably because of increased awareness of the possibility of cranial nerve damage.

  16. Robo signaling regulates the production of cranial neural crest cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Tan; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Guang; Chuai, Manli; Münsterberg, Andrea; Yang, Xuesong

    2017-12-01

    Slit/Robo signaling plays an important role in the guidance of developing neurons in developing embryos. However, it remains obscure whether and how Slit/Robo signaling is involved in the production of cranial neural crest cells. In this study, we examined Robo1 deficient mice to reveal developmental defects of mouse cranial frontal and parietal bones, which are derivatives of cranial neural crest cells. Therefore, we determined the production of HNK1 + cranial neural crest cells in early chick embryo development after knock-down (KD) of Robo1 expression. Detection of markers for pre-migratory and migratory neural crest cells, PAX7 and AP-2α, showed that production of both was affected by Robo1 KD. In addition, we found that the transcription factor slug is responsible for the aberrant delamination/EMT of cranial neural crest cells induced by Robo1 KD, which also led to elevated expression of E- and N-Cadherin. N-Cadherin expression was enhanced when blocking FGF signaling with dominant-negative FGFR1 in half of the neural tube. Taken together, we show that Slit/Robo signaling influences the delamination/EMT of cranial neural crest cells, which is required for cranial bone development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Effect of Osteopathic Cranial Manipulative Medicine on Visual Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhouse, Mark E; Shechtman, Diana; Fecho, Gregory; Timoshkin, Elena M

    2016-11-01

    The effects of osteopathic cranial manipulative medicine (OCMM) on visual function have been poorly characterized in the literature. Based on a pilot study conducted by their research group, the authors conducted a study that examined whether OCMM produced a measurable change in visual function in adults with cranial asymmetry. Randomized, controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. The intervention and control (sham therapy) were applied during 8 weekly visits, and participants in both groups received 8 weekly follow-up visits. Adult volunteers aged between 18 and 35 years with unremarkable systemic or ocular history were recruited. Inclusion criteria were refractive error between 6 diopters of myopia and 5 diopters of hyperopia, regular astigmatism of any amount, and cranial somatic dysfunction. All participants were evaluated for cranial asymmetry and randomly assigned to the treatment or sham therapy group. The treatment group received OCMM to correct cranial dysfunctions, and the sham therapy group received light pressure applied to the cranium. Preintervention and postintervention ophthalmic examinations consisted of distance visual acuity testing, accommodative system testing, local stereoacuity testing, pupillary size measurements, and vergence system testing. A χ2 analysis was performed to determine participant masking. Analysis of variance was performed for all ophthalmic measures. Eighty-nine participants completed the trial, with 47 in the treatment group and 42 in the sham therapy group. A hierarchical analysis of variance revealed statistically significant within-groups effects (Psize under bright light in the left eye and in near point of convergence break. Osteopathic cranial manipulative medicine may affect visual function in adults with cranial asymmetry. Active motion testing of the cranium for somatic dysfunction may affect the cranial system to a measurable level and explain interrater reliability issues in cranial studies. (Clinical

  18. Cryopreservation of microencapsulated canine sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shambhu; Otsuki, Tsubasa; Fujimura, Chika; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamashita, Yasuhisa; Higaki, Shogo; Hishinuma, Mitsugu

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to develop a method for cryopreserving microencapsulated canine sperm. Pooled ejaculates from three beagle dogs were extended in egg yolk tris extender and encapsulated using alginate and poly-L-lysine at room temperature. The microcapsules were cooled at 4 °C, immersed in pre-cooled extender (equivalent in volume to the microcapsules) to reach final concentration of 7% (v/v) glycerol and 0.75% (v/v) Equex STM paste, and equilibrated for 5, 30 and 60 min at 4 °C. Thereafter, microcapsules were loaded into 0.5 mL plastic straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. In Experiment 1, characteristics of microencapsulated canine sperm were evaluated after glycerol addition at 4 °C. Glycerol exposure for 5, 30 and 60 min did not significantly affect progressive motility, viability, or acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm compared with pre-cooled unencapsulated sperm (control). In Experiment 2, characteristics of frozen-thawed canine microencapsulated sperm were evaluated at 0, 3, 6, and 9 h of culture at 38.5 °C. Pre-freeze glycerol exposure for 5, 30, and 60 min at 4 °C did not influence post-thaw quality in unencapsulated sperm. Post-thaw motility and acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm decreased more than those of unencapsulated sperm (P < 0.05) following glycerol exposure for 5 min. However, motility, viability and acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm after 30 and 60 min glycerol exposure were higher than unencapsulated sperm cultured for 6 or 9 h (P < 0.05). In conclusion, since microencapsulated canine sperm were successfully cryopreserved, this could be a viable alternative to convention sperm cryopreservation in this species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated negative consequences (lengthy placement, impaired wound healing around bulky knots, and the effect of unsightly knots on cosmetics). A study in 9 dogs found that celiotomy closure was easily achiev...

  20. Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsy Due to Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Eruyar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT is a rare clinical condition between cerebrovasculer diases. The most common findings are headache, seizure and focal neurological deficit. Multiple cranial nerve palsy due to CVT is rarely seen and it is not clear pathology. A pathology that could explain the lack of cranial nerve imaging is carrying suspected diagnosis but the disease is known to provide early diagnosis and treatment. We want to emphasize with this case multipl cranial nerve palsy due to CVT is seen rarely and good response to treatment.

  1. Androgen action during male sex differentiation includes suppression of cranial suspensory ligament development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. Emmen (Judith); A. McLuskey; J.A. Grootegoed (Anton); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe cranial suspensory ligament is located on the border of the cranial (mesonephric) mesentery in adult female mammals, which runs between the cranial pole of the internal genitalia and the dorsal abdominal wall. Absence of the cranial suspensory ligament

  2. Cranial computerized tomography in children suffering from acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, O.

    1981-01-01

    Cranial computerized (axial) tomography permits a more complete neurologic supervision of children with acute leukemia and a better knowledge of the frequency and varieties of cerebral complications in leukemia. Endocranial complications in acute leukemia are essentially infiltrative, hemorrhagic, infectious or iatrogenic. Cranial computerized tomography can demonstrate cerebral changes in meningeal leukemia, hemorrhages, calcifications, brain atrophy or leukencephalopathy. The preliminary results of cranial computerized tomography in childhood leukemia suggest that the iatrogenic main lesion of the brain due to combined radiation-chemotherapy is atrophy whereas that of the intrathecal cytostatic therapy is demyelination. Accurate diagnostics and control of possible cerebral complications in therapy of leukemia is essentially for appropriate therapeutic management. For that cranial computerized tomography is the best method to a effective supervision of the brain. (author)

  3. Accounting for cranial vault growth in experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Stephanie M; Matic, Damir B; Holdsworth, David W

    2014-05-01

    Earlier studies have not accounted for continued growth when using the rat calvarial defect model to evaluate bone healing in vivo. The purpose of this study was: 1) to calculate rat cranial vault growth over time; and 2) to determine the effects of accounting for growth on defect healing. Bilateral parietal defects were created in 10 adult Wistar rats. Serial microscopic computerized tomography scans were performed. Bone mineral content (BMC) measured according to standard technique and repeated accounting for cranial growth over time was compared with the use of parametric and nonparametric tests. Cranial vault growth continued through 22 weeks of age, increasing 7.5% in width and 9.1% in length, and calvarial defects expanded proportionately. BMC was greater within defects accounting for growth 2-12 weeks postoperatively (P accounting for cranial growth given advances in serial imaging techniques. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrophysiology of Extraocular Cranial Nerves: Oculomotor, Trochlear, and Abducens Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Praveen; Balzer, Jeffery R; Anetakis, Katherine; Crammond, Donald J; Thirumala, Parthasarathy D

    2018-01-01

    The utility of extraocular cranial nerve electrophysiologic recordings lies primarily in the operating room during skull base surgeries. Surgical manipulation during skull base surgeries poses a risk of injury to multiple cranial nerves, including those innervating extraocular muscles. Because tumors distort normal anatomic relationships, it becomes particularly challenging to identify cranial nerve structures. Studies have reported the benefits of using intraoperative spontaneous electromyographic recordings and compound muscle action potentials evoked by electrical stimulation in preventing postoperative neurologic deficits. Apart from surgical applications, electromyography of extraocular muscles has also been used to guide botulinum toxin injections in patients with strabismus and as an adjuvant diagnostic test in myasthenia gravis. In this article, we briefly review the rationale, current available techniques to monitor extraocular cranial nerves, technical difficulties, clinical and surgical applications, as well as future directions for research.

  5. Prevalence of and risk factors for cranial ultrasound abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weight (LBW), gestational age (GA), prematurity, lack of antenatal ... To assess how many very low birth weight (VLBW) infants had cranial ultrasound screening at .... large number of infants who were ≤750 g and who had not undergone.

  6. Positive pressure ventilation and cranial volume in newborn infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Milligan, D W

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between changes in airways pressure, pleural pressure, and cranial volume was studied in a group of sick newborn infants requiring ventilatory assistance. Cranial volume increased appreciably only when lung compliance was such that more than 20% of the applied airways pressure was transmitted to the pleural space, or if the absolute pleural pressure was greater than 4 cmH2O above atmospheric pressure. The findings stress the need for more-critical monitoring during periods of...

  7. Imaging assessment of isolated lesions affecting cranial nerve III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos; Martins, Jose Carlos Tadeu

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review the anatomy and main pathologic conditions affecting cranial nerve III using imaging studies, particularly magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging methods are essential in the evaluation of patients with suspected lesions of the oculomotor nerve once signs and symptoms are unspecific and a large number of diseases can affect cranial nerve III. A brief review of the literature is also presented. (author)

  8. Development of a Human Cranial Bone Surrogate for Impact Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Jack C.; Merkle, Andrew C.; Carneal, Catherine M.; Voo, Liming M.; Johannes, Matthew S.; Paulson, Jeff M.; Tankard, Sara; Uy, O. Manny

    2013-01-01

    In order to replicate the fracture behavior of the intact human skull under impact it becomes necessary to develop a material having the mechanical properties of cranial bone. The most important properties to replicate in a surrogate human skull were found to be the fracture toughness and tensile strength of the cranial tables as well as the bending strength of the three-layer (inner table-diplöe-outer table) architecture of the human skull. The materials selected to represent the surrogate cranial tables consisted of two different epoxy resins systems with random milled glass fiber to enhance the strength and stiffness and the materials to represent the surrogate diplöe consisted of three low density foams. Forty-one three-point bending fracture toughness tests were performed on nine material combinations. The materials that best represented the fracture toughness of cranial tables were then selected and formed into tensile samples and tested. These materials were then used with the two surrogate diplöe foam materials to create the three-layer surrogate cranial bone samples for three-point bending tests. Drop tower tests were performed on flat samples created from these materials and the fracture patterns were very similar to the linear fractures in pendulum impacts of intact human skulls, previously reported in the literature. The surrogate cranial tables had the quasi-static fracture toughness and tensile strength of 2.5 MPa√ m and 53 ± 4.9 MPa, respectively, while the same properties of human compact bone were 3.1 ± 1.8 MPa√ m and 68 ± 18 MPa, respectively. The cranial surrogate had a quasi-static bending strength of 68 ± 5.7 MPa, while that of cranial bone was 82 ± 26 MPa. This material/design is currently being used to construct spherical shell samples for drop tower and ballistic tests.

  9. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine. 113.306... Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... distemper virus, each of five canine distemper susceptible ferrets shall be injected with a sample of the...

  10. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine... canine distemper susceptible dogs (20 vaccinates and 5 controls) shall be used as test animals. Blood...

  11. Canine scent detection of canine cancer: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorman DC

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available David C Dorman,1 Melanie L Foster,2 Katherine E Fernhoff,1 Paul R Hess2 1Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA Abstract: The scent detection prowess of dogs has prompted interest in their ability to detect cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dogs could use olfactory cues to discriminate urine samples collected from dogs that did or did not have urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC, at a rate greater than chance. Dogs with previous scent training (n=4 were initially trained to distinguish between a single control and a single TCC-positive urine sample. All dogs acquired this task (mean =15±7.9 sessions; 20 trials/session. The next training phase used four additional control urine samples (n=5 while maintaining the one original TCC-positive urine sample. All dogs quickly acquired this task (mean =5.3±1.5 sessions. The last training phase used multiple control (n=4 and TCC-positive (n=6 urine samples to promote categorical training by the dogs. Only one dog was able to correctly distinguish multiple combinations of TCC-positive and control urine samples suggesting that it mastered categorical learning. The final study phase evaluated whether this dog would generalize this behavior to novel urine samples. However, during double-blind tests using two novel TCC-positive and six novel TCC-negative urine samples, this dog did not indicate canine TCC-positive cancer samples more frequently than expected by chance. Our study illustrates the need to consider canine olfactory memory and the use of double-blind methods to avoid erroneous conclusions regarding the ability of dogs to alert on specimens from canine cancer patients. Our results also suggest that sample storage, confounding odors, and other factors need to be considered in the design of future studies that evaluate the detection of

  12. Radiographic and computed tomographic evaluation of the canine intercondylar fossa in normal stifles and after notchplasty in stable and unstable stifles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, R.B.; Hathcock, J.T.; Montgomery, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    The role of the intercondylar fossa in cranial cruciate ligament injury has gained notable attention in humans and it's role is now being questioned in animals. Controversy exists regarding the accuracy of radiographs and computed tomography (CT) in evaluating the intercondylar fossa. This study compared radiographic and CT evaluation with gross evaluation of the intercondylar fossa. Six greyhounds were evaluated before notchplasty, immediately after notchplasty and 6 months after notchplasty in stable and unstable stifles. A fossa width index was used for comparison because it negates the effects of patient size and radiographic magnification. The fossa width index is calculated by dividing the width of the intercondylar fossa by the total condylar width. The fossa width indices of dogs determined from radiographs and CT were not significantly different before notchplasty except for the cranial fossa width indices which were more inconsistent and tended to underestimate the size when compared to gross measurements. At six months, both stable and unstable stifles had refilling of the notchplasty, but the unstable stifles had significantly greater refilling resulting in no significant enlargement in intercondylar fossa size as compared to the prenotchplasty size. Osteophytes that occurred within the intercondylar fossa were less radiopaque and more easily visualized by computed tomography. Computed tomography provided several advantages, including clearer visualization of the intercondylar fossa, avoiding superimposition of the intercondylar fossa by caudal thigh muscles or tuber ischii and the ability to analyze the cranial and caudal components of the intercondylar fossa separately

  13. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Williams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report details the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament in an 18-year-old man with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS. The reduced mechanical properties of the tissue in EDS can pose a challenge to the orthopaedic surgeon. In this case, we describe the use of a hamstring autograft combined with a Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS. There was a good radiographical, clinical, and functional outcome after two years. This technique gave a successful outcome in the reconstruction of the ACL in a patient with EDS and therefore may help surgeons faced with the same clinical scenario.

  14. Dataset of TWIST1-regulated genes in the cranial mesoderm and a transcriptome comparison of cranial mesoderm and cranial neural crest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Bildsoe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains data related to the research article entitled “Transcriptional targets of TWIST1 in the cranial mesoderm regulate cell-matrix interactions and mesenchyme maintenance” by Bildsoe et al. (2016 [1]. The data presented here are derived from: (1 a microarray-based comparison of sorted cranial mesoderm (CM and cranial neural crest (CNC cells from E9.5 mouse embryos; (2 comparisons of transcription profiles of head tissues from mouse embryos with a CM-specific loss-of-function of Twist1 and control mouse embryos collected at E8.5 and E9.5; (3 ChIP-seq using a TWIST1-specific monoclonal antibody with chromatin extracts from TWIST1-expressing MDCK cells, a model for a TWIST1-dependent mesenchymal state.

  15. New and emerging pathogens in canine infectious respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestnall, S L; Mitchell, J A; Walker, C A; Erles, K; Brownlie, J

    2014-03-01

    Canine infectious respiratory disease is a common, worldwide disease syndrome of multifactorial etiology. This review presents a summary of 6 viruses (canine respiratory coronavirus, canine pneumovirus, canine influenza virus, pantropic canine coronavirus, canine bocavirus, and canine hepacivirus) and 2 bacteria (Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Mycoplasma cynos) that have been associated with respiratory disease in dogs. For some pathogens a causal role is clear, whereas for others, ongoing research aims to uncover their pathogenesis and contribution to this complex syndrome. Etiology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, and epidemiology are described for each pathogen, with an emphasis on recent discoveries or novel findings.

  16. Estimating cranial musculoskeletal constraints in theropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Many inferences on the biology, behaviour and ecology of extinct vertebrates are based on the reconstruction of the musculature and rely considerably on its accuracy. Although the advent of digital reconstruction techniques has facilitated the creation and testing of musculoskeletal hypotheses in recent years, muscle strain capabilities have rarely been considered. Here, a digital modelling approach using the freely available visualization and animation software Blender is applied to estimate cranial muscle length changes and optimal and maximal possible gape in different theropod dinosaurs. Models of living archosaur taxa (Alligator mississippiensis, Buteo buteo) were used in an extant phylogenetically bracketed framework to validate the method. Results of this study demonstrate that Tyrannosaurus rex, Allosaurus fragilis and Erlikosaurus andrewsi show distinct differences in the recruitment of the jaw adductor musculature and resulting gape, confirming previous dietary and ecological assumptions. While the carnivorous taxa T. rex and Allo. fragilis were capable of a wide gape and sustained muscle force, the herbivorous therizinosaurian E. andrewsi was constrained to small gape angles.

  17. Anatomic variation of cranial parasympathetic ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Siéssere

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Having broad knowledge of anatomy is essential for practicing dentistry. Certain anatomical structures call for detailed studies due to their anatomical and functional importance. Nevertheless, some structures are difficult to visualize and identify due to their small volume and complicated access. Such is the case of the parasympathetic ganglia located in the cranial part of the autonomic nervous system, which include: the ciliary ganglion (located deeply in the orbit, laterally to the optic nerve, the pterygopalatine ganglion (located in the pterygopalatine fossa, the submandibular ganglion (located laterally to the hyoglossus muscle, below the lingual nerve, and the otic ganglion (located medially to the mandibular nerve, right beneath the oval foramen. The aim of this study was to present these structures in dissected anatomic specimens and perform a comparative analysis regarding location and morphology. The proximity of the ganglia and associated nerves were also analyzed, as well as the number and volume of fibers connected to them. Human heads were dissected by planes, partially removing the adjacent structures to the point we could reach the parasympathetic ganglia. With this study, we concluded that there was no significant variation regarding the location of the studied ganglia. Morphologically, our observations concur with previous classical descriptions of the parasympathetic ganglia, but we observed variations regarding the proximity of the otic ganglion to the mandibular nerve. We also observed that there were variations regarding the number and volume of fiber bundles connected to the submandibular, otic, and pterygopalatine ganglia.

  18. Cranial thickness changes in early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajawelli, Niharika; Deoni, Sean; Shi, Jie; Dirks, Holly; Linguraru, Marius George; Nelson, Marvin D.; Wang, Yalin; Lepore, Natasha

    2017-11-01

    The neurocranium changes rapidly in early childhood to accommodate the developing brain. However, developmental disorders may cause abnormal growth of the neurocranium, the most common one being craniosynostosis, affecting about 1 in 2000 children. It is important to understand how the brain and neurocranium develop together to understand the role of the neurocranium in neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the neurocranium is not as well studied as the human brain in early childhood, due to a lack of imaging data. CT is typically employed to investigate the cranium, but, due to ionizing radiation, may only be used for clinical cases. However, the neurocranium is also visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we used a large dataset of MRI images from healthy children in the age range of 1 to 2 years old and extracted the neurocranium. A conformal geometry based analysis pipeline is implemented to determine a set of statistical atlases of the neurocranium. A growth model of the neurocranium will help us understand cranial bone and suture development with respect to the brain, which will in turn inform better treatment strategies for neurocranial disorders.

  19. Cranial computed tomography in infantile spasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howitz, P.; Neergaard, K.; Pedersen, H.

    1990-01-01

    Out of 109 children with infantile spasms (IS), prospectively tested during the years 1976 to 1979 in Denmark, 52 children were examined by cranial computed tomography (CT). The classification of IS into cryptogenic (CR), symptomatic (SY) and doubtful (DO) was done clinically without considering the CT-finding. Sixty per cent of the scannings were abnormal. Only 6/30 (20%) of the children in ACTH treatment were found to develop cerebral atrophy which means that this finding is not an obligatory side-effect of ACTH treatment of children with IS. Normal CT-findings were found in 50% of the CR and 50% of the SY + DO-groups, and could not be used as a prognostic tool for estimating the mental development. This was also the case for children with cerebral atrophy. Abnormal CT-findings (minus atrophy) were highly correlated to the group with clinical symptoms and indicate an extremely unsatisfying long-term mental prognosis. CT-scanning is a valuable tool for the examination of clearing children with infantile spasms. (authors)

  20. Radiation-induced cranial nerve palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, P.S.; Bataini, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with 35 cranial nerve palsies were seen at the Fondation Curie during follow-up after radical radiotherapy for head and neck tumors. The twelfth nerve was involved in 19 cases, the tenth in nine, and the eleventh in five; the fifth and second nerves were involved once each and in the same patient. The twelfth nerve was involved alone in 16 patients and the tenth nerve alone in three, with multiple nerves involved in the remaining six patients. The palsy was noted from 12 to 145 months after diagnosis of the tumor. The latency period could be correlated with dose so that the least square fit equation representing NSD vs delay is NSD = 2598--Delay (in months) x 4.6, with a correlation coefficient of -0.58. The distinction between tumor recurrence and radiation-induced nerve palsy is critical. It can often be inferred from the latency period but must be confirmed by observation over a period of time

  1. Concomitant canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, canine parvoviral enteritis, canine infectious tracheobronchitis, and toxoplasmosis in a puppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Fritzen, Juliana Torres Tomazi; Garcia, João Luis; Weissenböck, Herbert; da Silva, Ana Paula; Bodnar, Livia; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The concomitant infections of Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine adenovirus A types 1 (CAdV-1) and 2 (CAdV-2), Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), and Toxoplasma gondii are described in a 43-day-old mixed-breed puppy. Clinically, there were convulsions and blindness with spontaneous death; 14 siblings of this puppy, born to a 10-month-old dam, which was seropositive (titer: 1,024) for T. gondii, also died. Necropsy revealed unilateral corneal edema (blue eye), depletion of intestinal lymphoid tissue, non-collapsible lungs, congestion of meningeal vessels, and a pale area in the myocardium. Histopathology demonstrated necrotizing myocarditis associated with intralesional apicomplexan protozoa; necrotizing and chronic hepatitis associated with rare intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes; necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis; interstitial pneumonia associated with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies within epithelial cells; atrophy and fusion of intestinal villi with cryptal necrosis; and white matter demyelination of the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with intranuclear inclusion bodies within astrocytes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified the partial fragments (bp) of the CDV N gene (290 bp), CPV-2c VP2 capsid protein gene (583 bp), and CAdV-1 (508 bp) and CAdV-2 (1,030 bp) E gene from urine and tissue samples. The PCR assays demonstrated that the apicomplexan protozoa observed within several organs contained DNA specific for T. gondii; genotyping revealed T. gondii type III. The findings support the characterization of concomitant infections of CDV, CAdV-1, CAdV-2, CPV-2, and T. gondii in this puppy. Further, seroreactivity to T. gondii of the dam in association with the systemic disease observed in the puppy described herein is suggestive of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  2. 99mTc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (sestamibi) imaging of malignant canine lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyn, P.F.; Ogilvie, G.

    1995-01-01

    Technetium-99m methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (sestamibi) imaging of malignant canine lymphoma was performed in thirteen dogs 1 hour after intravenous injection of 99mTc-sestamibi at 13 MBq (0.35 mCi) per kilogram body weight. Abnormal tracer uptake was visualized in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and mesenteric, inguinal, popliteal, sternal, cranial cervical and mandibular lymph nodes. Radiopharmaceutical uptake was also noted in a nasal mass. One large neoplastic renal mass did not have demonstrable sestamibi uptake. Other regions had no significant difference in the target:background ratios when compared with values from normal dogs (P > 0.05). 99mTc-sestamibi can be used to image malignant lymphoma, and has potential applications in the management of patients to document response to treatment and to stage of extent of disease

  3. Alpha-1-antitrypsin studies: canine serum and canine surfactant protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, W.C.; Slauson, D.O.; Dahlstrom, M.; Gorman, C.

    1974-01-01

    Canine serum alpha-1-antitrypsin was isolated by gel filtration and affinity chromatography and characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis. Measurement of the trypsin inhibitory capacity of the separated protein indicated a ninefold concentration of functional trypsin inhibitor during the isolation procedure. Electrophoresis demonstrated the presence of a single protein with alpha-globulin mobility and a molecular weight near that of human alpha-1-antitrypsin. The trypsin inhibitory capacity of pulmonary surfactant protein from five Beagle dogs was measured, related to total surfactant protein concentration, and compared with similar measurements on whole serum from the same animals. Results indicated a variable concentration of trypsin inhibitor in the canine pulmonary surfactant protein. However, the concentration in the surfactant protein was always significantly higher than that in the corresponding serum sample. Preliminary experiments designed to separate the trypsin inhibitory fraction(s) from the other surfactant proteins by gel filtration chromatography indicated that the trypsin inhibitor was probably a single protein with a molecular weight near that of alpha-1-antitrypsin. (U.S.)

  4. Non-traumatic Thickening of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Hyun Jun; Park, Jin Gyoon; Song, Sang Gook [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    To describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of non-traumatic thickening of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and to evaluate the associated lesions. Between January 2003 and August 2005, 44 knees of 44 patients who had thickened ACLs on MR images and had no history of knee trauma were analyzed retrospectively. The normal thickness of the ACL was measured on axial T2-weighted images of 40 healthy adult knees. The MR imaging findings of the thickened ACLs and associated lesions were analyzed. In 40 cases of healthy knees, the thickness of the proximal ACL was 3-6 mm. In 44 cases of non-traumatic thickening of the ACL, the thickness of the proximal ACL was 8-14 mm. There was an increased signal intensity and ill-defined border in all cases of thickened ACLs, linear low-signal intensity fibers parallel to the long axis of the thickened ACL (celery stalk appearance) in 24 cases, and entrapment in 10 cases. With respect to associated lesions, there was osteoarthritis in 40 cases, meniscal tears in 42 cases, and degeneration of the posterior cruciate ligament in 7 cases. Non-traumatic thickening of the ACL was associated with osteoarthritis and meniscal tears in almost all cases and showed increased signal intensity and ill-defined borders simulating acute ligamentous tears

  5. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies

    OpenAIRE

    J. Van Heerden; J. Bingham; M. Van Vuuren; R.E.J. Burroughs; E. Stylianides

    2002-01-01

    Wild dogs Lycaon pictus (n = 8) were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8) (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper) and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8) over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use ...

  6. A review of hedgehog signaling in cranial bone development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel ePan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available During craniofacial development, the Hedgehog (HH signaling pathway is essential for mesodermal tissue patterning and differentiation. The Hedgehog family consists of three protein ligands: Sonic Hedgehog (SHH, Indian Hedgehog (IHH, and Desert Hedgehog (DHH, of which two are expressed in the craniofacial complex (IHH and SHH. Dysregulations in HH signaling are well documented to result in a wide range of craniofacial abnormalities, including holoprosencephaly, hypotelorism, and cleft lip/palate. Furthermore, mutations in HH effectors, co-receptors, and ciliary proteins result in skeletal and craniofacial deformities. Cranial suture morphogenesis is a delicate developmental process that requires control of cell commitment, proliferation and differentiation. This review focuses on both what is known and what remains unknown regarding HH signaling in cranial suture morphogenesis and intramembranous ossification. As demonstrated from murine studies, expression of both SHH and IHH is critical to the formation and fusion of the cranial sutures and calvarial ossification. SHH expression has been observed in the cranial suture mesenchyme and its precise function is not fully defined, although some postulate SHH to delay cranial suture fusion. IHH expression is mainly found on the osteogenic fronts of the calvarial bones, and functions to induce cell proliferation and differentiation. Unfortunately, neonatal lethality of deficient mice precludes a detailed examination of their postnatal calvarial phenotype. In summary, a number of basic questions are yet to be answered regarding domains of expression, developmental role, and functional overlap of HH morphogens in the calvaria. Nevertheless, SHH and IHH ligands are integral to cranial suture development and regulation of calvarial ossification. When HH signaling goes awry, the resultant suite of morphologic abnormalities highlights the important roles of HH signaling in cranial development.

  7. Preclinical Multimodal Molecular Imaging Using 18F-FDG PET/CT and MRI in a Phase I Study of a Knee Osteoarthritis in In Vivo Canine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. Menendez DVM, PhD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use a multimodal molecular imaging approach to serially assess regional metabolic changes in the knee in an in vivo anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT canine model of osteoarthritis (OA. Five canine underwent ACLT in one knee and the contralateral knee served as uninjured control. Prior, 3, 6, and 12 weeks post-ACLT, the dogs underwent 18F-fluoro-d-glucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET/computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The MRI was coregistered with the PET/CT, and 3-dimensional regions of interest (ROIs were traced manually and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax were evaluated. 18F-fluoro-d-glucose SUVmax in the ACLT knee ROIs was significantly higher compared to the uninjured contralateral knees at 3, 6, and 12 weeks. Higher 18F-FDG uptake observed in ACLT knees compared to the uninjured knees reflects greater metabolic changes in the injured knees over time. Knee 18F-FDG uptake in an in vivo ACLT canine model using combined PET/CT and MRI demonstrated to be highly sensitive in the detection of metabolic alterations in osseous and nonosteochondral structures comprising the knee joint. 18F-fluoro-d-glucose appeared to be a capable potential imaging biomarker for early human knee OA diagnosis, prognosis, and management.

  8. Cranial MR findings in Wilson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saatci, I.; Topcu, M.; Baltaoglu, F.F.; Koese, G.; Yalaz, K.; Renda, Y.; Besim, A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To define various cranial MR appearances in Wilson's disease (WD). Material and Methods: MR examinations of 30 patients (9-44 years old) with WD were retrospectively reviewed. Six patients were asymptomatic siblings. Three other patients had isolated hepatic involvement, one with no symptoms. The remaining 21 patients had neurological involvement, 7 of whom had the mixed form of the disease. Nine patients had hepatic dysfunction, the 3 with isolated hepatic involvement and 6 of the 7 with the mixed form. Results: All symptomatic patients (n=23) had abnormal MR examinations. Atrophy was present in the majority of them. The most frequently involved sites were putamen (18/21) and pons (18/21) in patients with neurological abnormality. The putaminal lesions showed a consistent pattern of symmetric, bilateral, concentric-laminar T2 hyperintensity. Putaminal lesions were lacking in only 3 patients with neurological involvement, all of whom were relatively old and had had the disease for a longer duration. Most of the patients with hepatic dysfunction (8/9) had increased T1 signal intensity in the basal ganglia, particularly in the globus pallidus. Pontine involvement always included the dorsal aspect of the pons, however, in some cases the central portion of pons was also affected but ventrolateral longitudinal fibers were spared. Midbrain (16/21), thalamic (10/21) and caudate nucleus lesions (9/21) were also encountered. In a few patients cortical and subcortical white matter lesions were present with a predilection to the frontal lobe, particularly the precentral region. In one patient, a hemorrhagic focus was identified within the white matter lesion. (orig./VHE)

  9. The cranial MRI in severe cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kazutaka; Itoh, Masahiro; Fueki, Noboru; Hirasawa, Kyoko; Suzuki, Noriko; Kurata, Kiyoko; Sato, Junichi; Morimatsu, Yoshio; Yagishita, Akira.

    1993-01-01

    The magnetic resonance examination was performed in 38 patients with severe cerebral palsy (CP; 15 males and 23 females) who had both motor delay (unable to move anywhere) and mental retardation (I.Q. or D.Q. below 30). Neuroimaging findings were compared with the CP type, etiology, and grade of understanding of language. Cranial magnetic resonance imagings (MRI) in CP were divided into five types. In type 1, nine predominantly showed cyst-liked ventricles and periventricular hyperintensity on T 2 -weighted imaging (PVH) and only scarred basal ganglia and thalamus were visible. All suffered from neonatal asphyxia and the clinical type was rigospastic tetraplegia (RST). In type 2, eleven predominantly showed PVH and hyperintensity on T 2 -weighted (HT2) in basal ganglia and thalamus. All suffered from neonatal asphyxia and the clinical type was RST or rigospastic diplegia. In type 3, five showed PVH and three had cortical atrophy. All suffered from neonatal asphyxia and the clinical type was spastic diplegia. In type 4, four predominantly showed HT2 in putamen and thalamus. Three had cortical atrophy. All suffered from neonatal asphyxia. The clinical type was athetotic CP (ATH). In type 5, nine predominantly showed HT2 in globus pallidus. Four had cortical atrophy and two had hippocampal atrophy. All suffered from neonatal jaundice and the clinical type was ATH. All patients who suffered from neonatal asphyxia and spastic CP had MRI in PVH. All patients who suffered from neonatal asphyxia and ATH showed HT2 in putamen and thalamus. Almost patients who suffered from neonatal jaundice and ATH showed HT2 in globus pallidus. With athetotic CP, cases with atrophy of the cerebral cortex and/or hippocampus were lower grade of understanding of language than no atrophy of both. The results of studies of MRI are in agreement with neuropathological findings. (author)

  10. Characterization of the canine urinary proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Laura E; Ehrhart, E J; Scherman, Hataichanok; Olver, Christine S; Bohn, Andrea A; Prenni, Jessica E

    2014-06-01

    Urine is an attractive biofluid for biomarker discovery as it is easy and minimally invasive to obtain. While numerous studies have focused on the characterization of human urine, much less research has focused on canine urine. The objectives of this study were to characterize the universal canine urinary proteome (both soluble and exosomal), to determine the overlap between the canine proteome and a representative human urinary proteome study, to generate a resource for future canine studies, and to determine the suitability of the dog as a large animal model for human diseases. The soluble and exosomal fractions of normal canine urine were characterized using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Biological Networks Gene Ontology (BiNGO) software was utilized to assign the canine urinary proteome to respective Gene Ontology categories, such as Cellular Component, Molecular Function, and Biological Process. Over 500 proteins were confidently identified in normal canine urine. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that exosomal proteins were largely derived from an intracellular location, while soluble proteins included both extracellular and membrane proteins. Exosome proteins were assigned to metabolic processes and localization, while soluble proteins were primarily annotated to specific localization processes. Several proteins identified in normal canine urine have previously been identified in human urine where these proteins are related to various extrarenal and renal diseases. The results of this study illustrate the potential of the dog as an animal model for human disease states and provide the framework for future studies of canine renal diseases. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  11. Radioimmunoassay of canine growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eigenmann, J.E.; Eigenmann, R.Y.

    1981-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) for canine growth hormone (GH) was developed. Antibodies were elicited in rhesus monkeys. One antiserum exhibited a working titer at a dilution of 1:500 000. Radioiodination was performed enzymatically employing lactoperoxidase. Logit-log transformation and least squares fitting resulted in straight line fitting of the standard curve between 0.39 and 50 ng/ml. Formation of large-molecular [ 125 I]GH during storage caused diminished assay sensitivity. Therefore [ 125 I]GH was re-purified by gel chromatography. Using this procedure, high and reproducible assay sensitivity was obtained. Tracer preparations were used for as long as 3 months after iodination. Diluted plasma from normal and acromegalic dogs resulted in a dose-response curve parallel to the standard curve. Canine prolactin exhibited a cross-reactivity of 2%. The within-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was 3.8 and the between-assay CV was 7.2%. Mean plasma GH concentration in normal dogs was 1.92 +- 0.14 ng/ml (mean +- SEM.) GH levels in acromegalic dogs were appreciably higher. Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, arginine and ornithine administration resulted in inconsistent and sluggish GH increment. A better response was obtained by injecting a low dose of clonidine. Clonidine administration to hypopituitary dogs resulted in absent or poor GH increment. (author)

  12. Mucoid degeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament with erosion of the lateral femoral condyle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melloni, Pietro; Valls, Rafael; Yuguero, Mariano; Saez, Amparo

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of a mucoid degeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) that produced osseous erosion of the medial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle. The MRI findings and differential diagnosis are discussed. (orig.)

  13. FGF9 can induce endochondral ossification in cranial mesenchyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overbeek Paul A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flat bones of the skull (i.e., the frontal and parietal bones normally form through intramembranous ossification. At these sites cranial mesenchymal cells directly differentiate into osteoblasts without the formation of a cartilage intermediate. This type of ossification is distinct from endochondral ossification, a process that involves initial formation of cartilage and later replacement by bone. Results We have analyzed a line of transgenic mice that expresses FGF9, a member of the fibroblast growth factor family (FGF, in cranial mesenchymal cells. The parietal bones in these mice show a switch from intramembranous to endochondral ossification. Cranial cartilage precursors are induced to proliferate, then hypertrophy and are later replaced by bone. These changes are accompanied by upregulation of Sox9, Ihh, Col2a1, Col10a1 and downregulation of CbfaI and Osteocalcin. Fate mapping studies show that the cranial mesenchymal cells in the parietal region that show a switch in cell fate are likely to be derived from the mesoderm. Conclusion These results demonstrate that FGF9 expression is sufficient to convert the differentiation program of (at least a subset of mesoderm-derived cranial mesenchyme cells from intramembranous to endochondral ossification.

  14. Infant Positioning, Baby Gear Use, and Cranial Asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachry, Anne H; Nolan, Vikki G; Hand, Sarah B; Klemm, Susan A

    2017-12-01

    Objectives This study aimed to identify predictors of cranial asymmetry. We hypothesize that among infants diagnosed with cranial asymmetry in the sampled region, there is an association between exposure to more time in baby gear and less awake time in prone and side-lying than in infants who do not present with this condition. Methods The study employed a cross sectional survey of caregivers of typically developing infants and infants diagnosed with cranial asymmetry. Results A mutivariable model reveals that caregivers of children who are diagnosed with cranial asymmetry report their children spending significantly less time in prone play than those children without a diagnosis of cranial asymmetry. Side-lying and time spent in baby gear did not attain statistical significance. Conclusions for Practice Occupational therapists, physical therapists, pediatricians, nurses and other health care professionals must provide parents with early education about the importance of varying positions and prone play in infancy and address fears and concerns that may serve as barriers to providing prone playtime.

  15. Neurovascular compression syndrome of the eighth cranial nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Akinori

    2010-01-01

    Neurovascular compression syndrome (NVCS) involves neuropathy due to intracranial blood vessels compressing the cranial nerves. NVCS of the eighth cranial nerve is less reportedly established as a clinical entity than that of the fifth and seventh cranial nerves. We report 17 cases of NVCS of the eighth cranial nerve and their clinical features. Clinical symptoms and test findings among our subjects indicated that most were aged more than 65 years, were unilateral, had intermittent tinnitus, suffered attacks lasting a few seconds dozens of times a day, experienced dizziness concomitantly with tinnitus, aggravated tinnitus and dizziness when tilting the head toward the affected side and looking downward (positional tinnitus, positional dizziness), heard specific tinnitus sounds such as crackling differing from those in cochlear tinnitus, had mild or no hearing loss, were diagnosed with retrocochlear hearing disturbance due to an interpeak latency delay between waves I and III of the auditory brainstem response (ABR), often had no nystagmus or canal paresis (CP), were found in constructive interference steady state magnetic resonance imaging (CISS MRI) to have compression of the eighth cranial nerve by the vertebral artery (VA) or the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), rarely had concomitant facial spasms, and had tinnitus and dizziness markedly suppressed by carbamazepine. With the number of elderly individuals continuing to increase, cases of NVCS due to arteriosclerotic changes in cerebral blood vessels are expected to increase, making it necessary to consider NVCS in elderly subjects with dizziness, tinnitus, and hearing loss. (author)

  16. Neurovascular compression syndrome of the eighth cranial nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Akinori [Saitama Medical Univ., Faculty of Medicine, Moroyama, Saitama (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Neurovascular compression syndrome (NVCS) involves neuropathy due to intracranial blood vessels compressing the cranial nerves. NVCS of the eighth cranial nerve is less reportedly established as a clinical entity than that of the fifth and seventh cranial nerves. We report 17 cases of NVCS of the eighth cranial nerve and their clinical features. Clinical symptoms and test findings among our subjects indicated that most were aged more than 65 years, were unilateral, had intermittent tinnitus, suffered attacks lasting a few seconds dozens of times a day, experienced dizziness concomitantly with tinnitus, aggravated tinnitus and dizziness when tilting the head toward the affected side and looking downward (positional tinnitus, positional dizziness), heard specific tinnitus sounds such as crackling differing from those in cochlear tinnitus, had mild or no hearing loss, were diagnosed with retrocochlear hearing disturbance due to an interpeak latency delay between waves I and III of the auditory brainstem response (ABR), often had no nystagmus or canal paresis (CP), were found in constructive interference steady state magnetic resonance imaging (CISS MRI) to have compression of the eighth cranial nerve by the vertebral artery (VA) or the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), rarely had concomitant facial spasms, and had tinnitus and dizziness markedly suppressed by carbamazepine. With the number of elderly individuals continuing to increase, cases of NVCS due to arteriosclerotic changes in cerebral blood vessels are expected to increase, making it necessary to consider NVCS in elderly subjects with dizziness, tinnitus, and hearing loss. (author)

  17. Meniscal and cruciate ligaments tears diagnosed with MR imaging versus arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziemianski, A.; Kruczynski, J.; Bruszewski, J.

    1993-01-01

    MR studies of knee joints in 37 patients were performed. The clinical diagnostics was traumatic lesions of menisci or cruciate ligaments. Arthroscopy of the knee joint was performed in 21 patients. MR showed meniscal lesion in 25 patients and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) lesions in 18 patients. Arthroscopy showed meniscal lesions in 16 of 21 patients and ACL lesions in 11 of 21 patients. MR correlated with arthroscopy in 16 of examined menisci and 15 of 21 examined ACL. (author)

  18. Long-term interventions effects of robotic training on patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Yu, Lili; Zhou, Yue; Gu, Rui; Ye, Miao; Ge, Meng; Xu, Yanfeng; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the long-term interventions effects of robot-assisted therapy rehabilitation on functional activity levels after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 8 patients (6 males and 2 females) who received anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The subjects participated in robot-assisted therapy lasting for one month. The Timed Up-and-Go test, 10-Meter Walk test, Functional Reach Test, surface electromyo...

  19. The immediate intervention effects of robotic training in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Yu, Lili; Ye, Miao

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate effects of robot-assisted therapy on functional activity level after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] Participants included 10 patients (8 males and 2 females) following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The subjects participated in robot-assisted therapy and treadmill exercise on different days. The Timed Up-and-Go test, Functional Reach Test, surface electromyography of the vastus late...

  20. Forces necessary for the disruption of the cisternal segments of cranial nerves II through XII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Wellons, John C; Blount, Jeffrey P; Salter, E George; Oakes, W Jerry

    2007-04-01

    Manipulation of the cisternal segment of cranial nerves is often performed by the neurosurgeon. To date, attempts at quantifying the forces necessary to disrupt these nerves in situ, to our knowledge, has not been performed. The present study seeks to further elucidate the forces necessary to disrupt the cranial nerves while within the subarachnoid space. The cisternal segments of cranial nerves II through XII were exposed in six unfixed cadavers, all less than 6 hr postmortem. Forces to failure were then measured. Mean forces necessary to disrupt nerves for left sides in increasing order were found for cranial nerves IX, VII, IV, X, XII, III, VIII, XI, VI, V, and II, respectively. Mean forces for right-sided cranial nerves in increasing order were found for cranial nerves IX, VII, IV, X, XII, VIII, V, VI, XI, III, and II, respectively. Overall, cranial nerves requiring the least amount of force prior to failure included cranial nerves IV, VII, and IX. Those requiring the highest amount of force included cranial nerves II, V, VI, and XI. There was an approximately ten-fold difference between the least and greatest forces required to failure. Cranial nerve III was found to require significantly (P cranial nerves II through XII. We found that cranial nerve IX consistently took the least amount of force until its failure and cranial nerve II took the greatest. Other cranial nerves that took relatively small amount of force prior to failure included cranial nerves IV and VII. Although in vivo damage can occur prior to failure of a cranial nerve, our data may serve to provide a rough estimation for the maximal amount of tension that can be applied to a cranial nerve that is manipulated while within its cistern.

  1. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying.

    Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the

  2. Cyclooxygenase expression in canine platelets and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay-Mugford, P A; Benn, S J; LaMarre, J; Conlon, P D

    2000-12-01

    To examine cyclooxygenase (COX) expression in canine platelets and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in culture. Canine platelets and MDCK cells. Total RNA was recovered from isolated canine platelets and MDCK cells. Northern blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), using complementary DNA probes and primers designed from the human COX sequences, were used to determine COX-1 and -2 (cyclooxygenase isoforms 1 and 2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. Following northern blot analysis, canine platelets were found to express only the 2.8-kb COX-1 transcript; COX-2 was not detected. Canine MDCK cells expressed the 4.5-kb COX-2 transcript, in addition to the 2.8-kb COX-1 transcript. A single DNA band of 270 base pairs was identified following gel electrophoresis of the product obtained from RT-PCR of mRNA from canine platelets. Sequencing revealed that this PCR product was 90% homologous to a portion of the human COX-1 gene (Genbank M59979). Detection of COX-1 by RT-PCR of RNA obtained from canine platelets is a novel finding. The 90% homology of the PCR product with the human sequence suggests strong conservation between the canine and human COX-1 gene. Cloning and sequencing of the canine gene will be required to fully characterize homologous regions. Because of the importance of COX in the inflammatory process and as a potential target of currently available nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), a better understanding of canine COX may improve our ability to use NSAID appropriately, achieve efficacy, and avoid potential adverse drug effects in dogs.

  3. Tourniquet-induced cardiovascular responses in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery under general anesthesia: Effect of preoperative oral amantadine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Abd Elmawgood

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Preoperative oral amantadine reduced tourniquet induced hypertension and postoperative analgesic requirements in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery under general anesthesia.

  4. 3D Printed, Customized Cranial Implant for Surgical Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogu, Venkata Phanindra; Ravi Kumar, Yennam; Asit Kumar, Khanra

    2018-06-01

    The main objective of the present work is to model cranial implant and printed in FDM machine (printer model used: mojo). Actually this is peculiar case and the skull has been damaged in frontal, parietal and temporal regions and a small portion of frontal region damaged away from saggital plane, complexity is to fill this frontal region with proper curvature. The Patient CT-data (Number of slices was 381 and thickness of each slice is 0.488 mm) was processed in mimics14.1 software, mimics file was sent to 3-matic software and calculated thickness of skull at different sections where cranial implant is needed then corrected the edges of cranial implant to overcome CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) leakage and proper fitting. Finally the implant average thickness is decided as 2.5 mm and printed in FDM machine with ABS plastic.

  5. X-ray appearance of cranial lesions in hyperparathyroid osteodystuophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spuzyak, M.M.; Tsarikovskaya, K.G.; Tkach, F.S.; David'yants, L.S.

    1983-01-01

    Craniographic data on 58 patients with hyperparathyroid osteodystrophy weere analyzed. Cranial changes revealed in 52 patients. Some data on the nature apd frequency of X-ray signs of cranial lesion in hyperparathyroid osteodystrophy are presented. The most frequent and typical X-ray signs of cranial lesions in hyperparathyroid osteodystrophy, are granular osteoporosis of the facial tectum and bones, the blurred contour of the internal tectum plate, foci of osteoclasia, osteoporosis of the elements of the Turkish saddle, resorption of the closing plates of the dental cavities, alterration of the thickness of the vault bones, symmetrical thinning, irregularity and obscurity of the external tectum plate, subperiosteal resorption of the cortical layer of the mandible (34.5%), partial resorption of the alveolar process of the jaw and epulis of the mandible

  6. The Biomechanics of Cranial Forces During Figure Skating Spinning Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David H; Kostyun, Regina O; Solomito, Matthew J

    2015-03-01

    Several facets of figure skating, such as the forces associated with jumping and landing, have been evaluated, but a comprehensive biomechanical understanding of the cranial forces associated with spinning has yet to be explored. The purpose of this case study was to quantify the cranial rotational acceleration forces generated during spinning elements. This case report was an observational, biomechanical analysis of a healthy, senior-level, female figure skating athlete who is part of an on-going study. A triaxial accelerometer recorded the gravitational forces (G) during seven different spinning elements. Our results found that the layback spin generated significant cranial force and these forces were greater than any of the other spin elements recorded. These forces led to physical findings of ruptured capillaries, dizziness, and headaches in our participant.

  7. Preoperative anemia increases postoperative morbidity in elective cranial neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydon, Mohamad; Abt, Nicholas B.; Macki, Mohamed; Brem, Henry; Huang, Judy; Bydon, Ali; Tamargo, Rafael J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preoperative anemia may affect postoperative mortality and morbidity following elective cranial operations. Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was used to identify elective cranial neurosurgical cases (2006-2012). Morbidity was defined as wound infection, systemic infection, cardiac, respiratory, renal, neurologic, and thromboembolic events, and unplanned returns to the operating room. For 30-day postoperative mortality and morbidity, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with multivariable logistic regression. Results: Of 8015 patients who underwent elective cranial neurosurgery, 1710 patients (21.4%) were anemic. Anemic patients had an increased 30-day mortality of 4.1% versus 1.3% in non-anemic patients (P neurosurgery was independently associated with an increased risk of 30-day postoperative mortality and morbidity when compared to non-anemic patients. A hematocrit level below 33% (Hgb 11 g/dl) was associated with a significant increase in postoperative morbidity. PMID:25422784

  8. Cranial nerve injury after Le Fort I osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J-W; Chin, B-R; Park, H-S; Lee, S-H; Kwon, T-G

    2011-03-01

    A Le Fort I osteotomy is widely used to correct dentofacial deformity because it is a safe and reliable surgical method. Although rare, various complications have been reported in relation to pterygomaxillary separation. Cranial nerve damage is one of the serious complications that can occur after Le Fort I osteotomy. In this report, a 19-year-old man with unilateral cleft lip and palate underwent surgery to correct maxillary hypoplasia, asymmetry and mandibular prognathism. After the Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy, the patient showed multiple cranial nerve damage; an impairment of outward movement of the eye (abducens nerve), decreased vision (optic nerve), and paraesthesia of the frontal and upper cheek area (ophthalmic and maxillary nerve). The damage to the cranial nerve was related to an unexpected sphenoid bone fracture and subsequent trauma in the cavernous sinus during the pterygomaxillary osteotomy. Copyright © 2010 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing: Spinal Accessory and Hypoglossal Nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stino, Amro M; Smith, Benn E

    2018-01-01

    Multiple techniques have been developed for the electrodiagnostic evaluation of cranial nerves XI and XII. Each of these carries both benefits and limitations, with more techniques and data being available in the literature for spinal accessory than hypoglossal nerve evaluation. Spinal accessory and hypoglossal neuropathy are relatively uncommon cranial mononeuropathies that may be evaluated in the outpatient electrodiagnostic laboratory setting. A review of available literature using PubMed was conducted regarding electrodiagnostic technique in the evaluation of spinal accessory and hypoglossal nerves searching for both routine nerve conduction studies and repetitive nerve conduction studies. The review provided herein provides a resource by which clinical neurophysiologists may develop and implement clinical and research protocols for the evaluation of both of these lower cranial nerves in the outpatient setting.

  10. Varied clinico-radiological presentations of transmigrated canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine is one of the most commonly impacted teeth in the dental arch. An unerupted permanent canine crossing the midline is called transmigration and is an unusual event. We report nine cases of impacted canine transmigration. Maxillary canine transmigration, bilateral transmigration, and transmigration associated with odontoma are rare presentations. This article discusses the varied clinico-radiologic presentations, etiology, and treatment options of transmigration. It also emphasizes the importance of panoramic radiographs for evaluation of over-retained deciduous canines or missing permanent canines.

  11. Canine adenovirus type 1 in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Oem, Jae-Ku

    2014-12-01

    A 10-mo-old female fennec fox (Vulpes zerda) with drooling suddenly died and was examined postmortem. Histologic examination of different tissue samples was performed. Vacuolar degeneration and diffuse fatty change were observed in the liver. Several diagnostic methods were used to screen for canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and canine adenovirus (CAdV). Only CAdV type 1 (CAdV-1) was detected in several organs (liver, lung, brain, kidney, spleen, and heart), and other viruses were not found. CAdV-1 was confirmed by virus isolation and nucleotide sequencing.

  12. Canine babesiosis: from molecular taxonomy to control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Peter J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused by protozoan haemoparasites. This review article considers recent literature pertaining to the taxonomic classification of Babesia and Theileria species affecting dogs and the geographical distribution of these parasites. The diagnosis of canine babesiosis by traditional, molecular and serological methods is reviewed, together with recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of piroplasmosis, and of the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  13. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment.

  14. Treatment modalities of palatal impacted canines

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Cena; Papakoca, Kiro; Ristoska, Sonja; Kovacevska, Ivona

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The orthodontic treatment of impacted maxillary canine remains a challenge to today’s clinicians. The treatment of this clinical entity usually involves surgical exposure of the impacted tooth, followed by orthodontic traction to guide and align it into the dental arch. The impacted palatal canine requires a combination of both treatment modalities: orthodontic management and oral surgical treatment. Two types of approach are commonly used: simple exposure, or exposure with brac...

  15. Orthodontic Traction of Impacted Canine Using Cantilever

    OpenAIRE

    Nakandakari, Cláudia; Gonçalves, João Roberto; Cassano, Daniel Serra; Raveli, Taísa Boamorte; Bianchi, Jonas; Raveli, Dirceu Barnabé

    2016-01-01

    The impaction of the maxillary canines causes relevant aesthetic and functional problems. The multidisciplinary approach to the proper planning and execution of orthodontic traction of the element in question is essential. Many strategies are cited in the literature; among them is the good biomechanical control in order to avoid possible side effects. The aim of this paper is to present a case report in which a superior canine impacted by palatine was pulled out with the aid of the cantilever...

  16. Cranial shape variation in adult howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorenza, Luca; Bruner, Emiliano

    2018-01-01

    Howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) display a distinctive cranial architecture characterized by airorhynchy (or retroflexion of the facial skeleton on the cranial base), a small braincase, and a posteriorly oriented foramen magnum. This configuration has been associated with distinct factors including a high folivory diet, locomotion, and the presence of a specialized vocal tract characterized by large hyoid bone. However, the morphological relationships between the facial and neurocranial blocks in Alouatta have been scarcely investigated. In this study we quantitatively analyzed the cranial shape variation in Alouatta seniculus, to evaluate possible influences and constraints in face and braincase associated with airorhynchy. We also considered the structural role of the pteric area within the cranial functional matrix. We applied landmark-based analysis and multivariate statistics to 31 adult crania, computing shape analyses based on 3D coordinates registration as well as the analysis of the Euclidean distance matrix to investigate patterns of intraspecific morphological variability. Our results suggest that allometry is the main source of variation involved in shaping cranial morphology in howlers, influencing the degree of facial proportions and braincase flattening, and generating the main sexual differences. Larger individuals are characterized by a higher degree of airorhynchy, neurocranial flattening, and expansion of the zygomatic arch. Allometric variations influence the skull as a whole, without distinct patterns for face and braincase, which behave as an integrated morphological unit. A preliminary survey on the pteric pattern suggests that the morphology of this area may be the result of variations in the vertical growth rates between face and braincase. Future studies should be dedicated to the ontogenetic series and focus on airorhynchy in terms of differential growth among distinct cranial districts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  18. Platelets Inhibit Migration of Canine Osteosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, S C; Badial, P R; Silva, R C; Lunsford, K; Bulla, C

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between platelets and tumour cells is important for tumour growth and metastasis. Thrombocytopenia or antiplatelet treatment negatively impact on cancer metastasis, demonstrating potentially important roles for platelets in tumour progression. To our knowledge, there is no information regarding the role of platelets in cancer progression in dogs. This study was designed to test whether canine platelets affected the migratory behaviour of three canine osteosarcoma cell lines and to give insights of molecular mechanisms. Intact platelets, platelet lysate and platelet releasate inhibited the migration of canine osteosarcoma cell lines. Addition of blood leucocytes to the platelet samples did not alter the inhibitory effect on migration. Platelet treatment also significantly downregulated the transcriptional levels of SNAI2 and TWIST1 genes. The interaction between canine platelets or molecules released during platelet activation and these tumour cell lines inhibits their migration, which suggests that canine platelets might antagonize metastasis of canine osteosarcoma. This effect is probably due to, at least in part, downregulation of genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Clinical and Statistical Study on Canine Impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-Simona Coșarcă

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to perform a clinical and statistical research on permanent impacted canine patients among those with dental impaction referred to and treated at the Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgery Clinic of Tîrgu Mureș, over a four years period (2009-2012. Materials and methods: The study included 858 patients having dental impaction, and upon clinical records, different parameters, like frequency, gender, age, quadrant involvement, patient residence, associated complications, referring specialist and type of treatment, related to canine impaction, were assessed. Results: The study revealed: about 10% frequency of canine impaction among dental impactions; more frequent in women, in the first quadrant (tooth 13; most cases diagnosed between the age of 10-19 years; patients under 20 were referred by an orthodontist, those over 20 by a dentist; surgical exposure was more often performed than odontectomy. Conclusions: Canine impaction is the second-most frequent dental impaction in dental arch after third molars; it occurs especially in women. Due to its important role, canine recovery within dental arch is a goal to be achieved, whenever possible. Therefore, diagnose and treatment of canine impaction requires an interdisciplinary approach (surgical and orthodontic

  20. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  1. Ultrasonography of the canine pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Avante

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the ultrasonographic techniques currently used in the evaluation of the canine pancreas. Ultrasonography was the first method to enable direct visualization of the pancreas in humans and it has been subsequently applied to animals. Currently, it is the method of choice for pancreatic evaluation and is essential as a diagnostic tool in the detection of abnormalities, especially tumors. Innovative equipment technology has led to the emergence of techniques complementary to B-mode ultrasound; such as Doppler, elastography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, which have enabled more accurate diagnosis. Doppler provides information on vascular architecture and the hemodynamic aspect of blood vessels in multiple organs. ARFI elastography provides detailed images of the alterations detected by conventional examination (qualitative method and assists in differentiating between benign and malignant processes (quantitative method. Microbubble contrast agents determine parameters related to homogeneous and heterogeneous filling of organs with microbubbles, mainly nodular areas, thus defining high and low intensity patterns.

  2. [Involvement of cranial pairs as manifestation of prostatic cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripa Saldias, L M; Ayuso Blanco, T; Delpon Pérez, E; Sarria Octavio de Toledo, L

    1994-10-01

    Two cases of prostate cancer (PC) which presented clinically with affectation of the cranial pairs due to skull base metastasis. In both cases, existence of intraparenchimatous brain metastasis was excluded. Initial improvement with hormonal therapy was followed by clinical, analytical and radiological relapse due to spread of process until death, at 11 and 36 months from diagnosis. Although PC's bone metastasis are frequent, their location at the skull base is uncommon. Even more rare are the cases which present with changes in the cranial pairs in the absence of signs and symptoms of prostatism.

  3. Cranial computed tomography in patients with Bourneville-Pringle phacomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Minoru; Kurata, Yukio; Hirone, Takae

    1987-01-01

    Cranial computed tomography (CT) was undertaken in 17 patients (0 - 38 years) with Bourneville-Pringle phacomatosis, some of whom presented with epilepsy episodes and mental retardation. Intracranial calcification was seen on CT in 10 patients (59 %), including a 2-month-old baby. This suggests the potential of CT in the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis for infants, which has been considered difficult by conventional roentgenography. The most frequent site of calcilfication was ventricular wall. High incidences of eye lesions (67 %), psycho-neurologic symptoms (80 %), and abnormal EEG (50 %) were found in patients with cranial calficication on CT, in contrast to patients without it (0 %, 0 %, and 40 %, respectively). (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Triptans and CGRP blockade - impact on the cranial vasculature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benemei, Silvia; Cortese, Francesca; Labastida-Ramírez, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    and vascular tone. Thirty years after discovery of agonists for serotonin 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors (triptans) and less than fifteen after the proof of concept of the gepant class of CGRP receptor antagonists, we are still a long way from understanding their precise site and mode of action in migraine....... The effect on cranial vasculature is relevant, because all specific anti-migraine drugs and migraine pharmacological triggers may act in perivascular space. This review reports the effects of triptans and CGRP blocking molecules on cranial vasculature in humans, focusing on their specific relevance...

  5. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for treatment of anxiety, depression, and insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Daniel L; Nichols, Francine

    2013-03-01

    Cranial electrotherapy stimulation is a prescriptive medical device that delivers a mild form of electrical stimulation to the brain for the treatment of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. It is supported by more than 40 years of research demonstrating its effectiveness in several mechanistic studies and greater than 100 clinical studies. Adverse effects are rare (<1%), mild, and self-limiting, consisting mainly of skin irritation under the electrodes and headaches. Often used as a stand-alone therapy, because results are usually seen from the first treatment, cranial electrotherapy stimulation may also be used as an adjunctive therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Cranial nerve damage after neuroaxial methods of anesthesia in puerperas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floka, S E; Shifman, E M

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes cranial nerve damage, a rare complication of neuroaxial anesthesia in obstetric care. In the literature, there are summarized data on 17 cases of neurological deficit developing after subarachnoidal or epidural anesthesia in puerperas. The etiological and pathogenetic factors of the above complications may be suggested to be the high disposition of a local anesthetic, arterial hypotension due to neuroaxial anesthetics, the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid after pachymeningeal puncture (including after unintended puncture during epidural anesthesia), and ischemic injury after the blood packing performed to relieve postpuncture headache. Closer consideration of these risk factors seems to reduce the incidence of cranial nerve damage in puerperas.

  7. ARTHROSCOPIC RECONSTRUCTION OF THE KNEE POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kuznetsov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article there were published diagnostic and surgery principles and the clinical results of arthroscopic single bundle posterior cruciate ligament (PCL reconstruction in patients with chronic PCL instability not responding to conservative treatment. There were treated 27 patients with PCL instability since 2006 till 2010. 10 of 27 patients were available for followup with an average elapsed time of 6,1 years between onset of injury and surgery and an average duration of 1,8 years between reconstruction and evaluation. Although there still is some controversy on the indication for treatment of PCL injury, we conclude on the basis of our findings that arthroscopic reconstruction of symptomatic chronic PCL instability can be greatly beneficial.

  8. Transient superficial peroneal nerve palsy after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed Alrowaili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 19-year-old male subject was diagnosed with medial meniscal, lateral meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tear. The symptoms did not subside after 4 months of physical therapy, and he underwent arthroscopic partial medial and lateral meniscectomy and ACL reconstruction. Immediately after the patient woke up from general anesthesia, he started experience loss of sensation in the area of superficial peroneal nerve with inverted dorsiflexion of foot and ankle. Instantly, the bandage and knee brace was removed and a diagnosis of compartment syndrome was ruled out. After eight hours, post-operatively, the patient started receiving physiotherapy. He complained of numbness and tingling in the same area. After 24 h, post-operatively, the patient started to regain dorsiflexion and eversion gradually. Two days after the surgery, the patient exhibited complete recovery of neurological status.

  9. Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. How Do We Do It?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Adrian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tears are frequently seen in current practice mostly affecting the young, active subjects, and usually require ligament reconstruction in order to restore normal knee kinematics. As worldwide interest in anatomic reconstruction grew over the last decade, we have also refined our technique in order to restore the anatomical function as near to the normal as possible. This anatomical restoration concept is believed to prevent the onset of osteoarthritis, which the non-anatomic reconstructions fail to attain. The knowledge gained from the ACL anatomy, function and kinematics has helped in developing the current anatomic methods of reconstruction, which take into account patient anatomy, the rupture pattern, as well as the comorbidities. We present our approach to anatomical single- and double-bundle ACL reconstruction.

  10. MR evaluation of the knee following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rak, K.M.; Gillogly, S.D.; Schaefer, R.A.; Yakes, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper evaluates the role of MR imaging of the knee after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Seventy-five MR examinations were performed in 52 patients following ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon autografts. MR imaging demonstrated a well-defined autograft in 63 of 70 clinically stable autografts. Of 5 clinically lax reconstructions, none appeared will defined on MR images. Compared with the clinical examination, MR imaging was 90.7% accurate. MR imaging demonstrated time-related healing of the patellar tendon donor site, with persistent thickening indicative of tendinitis. Positions of the femoral and tibial bone tunnels could be assessed. Knee joint effusions tended to resolve completely within 7 months after operations, with the presence and degree of effusion in the earlier postoperative interval being unrelated to the clinical outcome. Ancillary disorders in the knee, such as meniscal tears and osteochondral defects, could also be evaluated in this postoperative population

  11. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine...

  12. Role of canine circovirus in dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A; Hartmann, K; Leutenegger, C M; Proksch, A L; Mueller, R S; Unterer, S

    2017-06-03

    Canine circovirus (CanineCV) has been detected in some dogs with severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea, but its pathogenic role is unclear. This study evaluated a suspected association between the presence of CanineCV and acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) in dogs. The prevalence of CanineCV in dogs with AHDS was compared with that in healthy dogs and those infected with canine parvovirus (CPV). Additionally, time to recovery and mortality rate were compared between CanineCV-positive and CanineCV-negative dogs. Faecal samples of dogs with AHDS (n=55), healthy dogs (n=66) and dogs infected with CPV (n=54) were examined by two real-time TaqMan PCR assays targeting the replicase and capsid genes of CanineCV. CanineCV was detected in faecal samples of two dogs with AHDS, three healthy controls and seven dogs infected with CPV. Among the three groups, there was no significant difference in prevalence of CanineCV. CPV-infected animals that were coinfected with CanineCV had a significantly higher mortality rate compared with those negative for CanineCV. CanineCV does not appear to be the primary causative agent of AHDS in dogs, but might play a role as a negative co-factor in disease outcome in dogs with CPV infection. British Veterinary Association.

  13. A Review on Biomechanics of Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Materials for Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marieswaran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the six ligaments in the human knee joint that provides stability during articulations. It is relatively prone to acute and chronic injuries as compared to other ligaments. Repair and self-healing of an injured anterior cruciate ligament are time-consuming processes. For personnel resuming an active sports life, surgical repair or replacement is essential. Untreated anterior cruciate ligament tear results frequently in osteoarthritis. Therefore, understanding of the biomechanics of injury and properties of the native ligament is crucial. An abridged summary of the prominent literature with a focus on key topics on kinematics and kinetics of the knee joint and various loads acting on the anterior cruciate ligament as a function of flexion angle is presented here with an emphasis on the gaps. Briefly, we also review mechanical characterization composition and anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament as well as graft materials used for replacement/reconstruction surgeries. The key conclusions of this review are as follows: (a the highest shear forces on the anterior cruciate ligament occur during hyperextension/low flexion angles of the knee joint; (b the characterization of the anterior cruciate ligament at variable strain rates is critical to model a viscoelastic behavior; however, studies on human anterior cruciate ligament on variable strain rates are yet to be reported; (c a significant disparity on maximum stress/strain pattern of the anterior cruciate ligament was observed in the earlier works; (d nearly all synthetic grafts have been recalled from the market; and (e bridge-enhanced repair developed by Murray is a promising technique for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, currently in clinical trials. It is important to note that full extension of the knee is not feasible in the case of most animals and hence the loading pattern of human ACL is different from animal models. Many of the

  14. A Review on Biomechanics of Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Materials for Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marieswaran, M.; Jain, Ishita; Garg, Bhavuk; Sharma, Vijay

    2018-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the six ligaments in the human knee joint that provides stability during articulations. It is relatively prone to acute and chronic injuries as compared to other ligaments. Repair and self-healing of an injured anterior cruciate ligament are time-consuming processes. For personnel resuming an active sports life, surgical repair or replacement is essential. Untreated anterior cruciate ligament tear results frequently in osteoarthritis. Therefore, understanding of the biomechanics of injury and properties of the native ligament is crucial. An abridged summary of the prominent literature with a focus on key topics on kinematics and kinetics of the knee joint and various loads acting on the anterior cruciate ligament as a function of flexion angle is presented here with an emphasis on the gaps. Briefly, we also review mechanical characterization composition and anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament as well as graft materials used for replacement/reconstruction surgeries. The key conclusions of this review are as follows: (a) the highest shear forces on the anterior cruciate ligament occur during hyperextension/low flexion angles of the knee joint; (b) the characterization of the anterior cruciate ligament at variable strain rates is critical to model a viscoelastic behavior; however, studies on human anterior cruciate ligament on variable strain rates are yet to be reported; (c) a significant disparity on maximum stress/strain pattern of the anterior cruciate ligament was observed in the earlier works; (d) nearly all synthetic grafts have been recalled from the market; and (e) bridge-enhanced repair developed by Murray is a promising technique for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, currently in clinical trials. It is important to note that full extension of the knee is not feasible in the case of most animals and hence the loading pattern of human ACL is different from animal models. Many of the published reviews on

  15. Evaluation of post-vaccination immunity to canine distemper and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... Key words: Immunoblot ELISA, post-vaccination immunity, canine distemper, parvoviruses. INTRODUCTION. Canine ..... NGOs and other government agencies to fund and intensify ... Vaccination Programs for Dogs. In: recent ...

  16. Is the posterior cruciate ligament destabilized after the tibial cut in a cruciate retaining total knee replacement? An anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liabaud, Barthelemy; Patrick, David A; Geller, Jeffrey A

    2013-12-01

    Cruciate retaining total knee replacement has been shown to effectively improve pain and quality of life. Successful outcomes depend on many factors, including the maintenance of a competent posterior cruciate ligament. This study sought to anatomically analyze the percentage of PCL injured during a full transverse, tibial cut, thus altering normal function. One hundred and thirty five consecutive knee MRIs taken from 2006 to 2011 were selected from a single surgeon's database for this study. Only subjects with non-arthritic knees were considered for this study; the lack of degenerative joint disease (DJD) was confirmed via a radiological report. The optimal view of the PCL's tibial attachment was observed using the sagittal view of the knee, with a T1 signal. One hundred and twenty two usable images were viewed electronically, and measurements were made using the standardized transverse cut implant guidelines. The percentage of PCL remaining following the cut was categorized into five different groups: 0% (no PCL undermined), 1-49%, 50-74%, 75-99% and 100% (PCL undermined entirely). Overall only 9.0% (n=11) would have not endured any damage to the PCL with a transverse tibial saw cut, while 79.6% (n=98) would have had 50% or more of the PCL undermined. Of the 98 patients with more than 50% resected, 52.1% (n=51 patients) presented complete destabilization of the PCL. The percentage of PCL destabilized was not significant across age groups (p=0.280), gender (p=0.586), or operative side (p=0.460). Independent of age, gender, and operative side, a majority of PCLs are more than 50% destabilized following the standard transverse tibial cut. II. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Quadriceps Strength and Endurance After Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tears Versus Matched Group With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Han, Seung-Beom; Lee, Jin-Hyuck; Lee, Seok-Joo; Suh, Dong-Won; Jeong, Hye-Jin

    2015-06-01

    This study was designed to compare the preoperative strengths and endurances of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) versus posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tears. Quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength and endurance were compared between 20 prospectively enrolled patients with isolated PCL tears and a retrospective, matched control group of 20 patients with isolated ACL tears. The maximal torque (60°/s) and total work (180°/s) of the quadriceps and hamstring were evaluated with an isokinetic testing device. Total work (1,094.4 ± 505.8 J v 797.5 ± 332.7 J, P = .035) and peak torque (129.9 ± 56.2 N ∙ m v 98.2 ± 37.4 N ∙ m, P = .046) of the quadriceps muscle on the involved side were higher in the PCL tear group than in the ACL tear group. However, there were no significant differences between the PCL tear group and ACL tear group in hamstring muscle strength (45.8 ± 42.3 N ∙ m and 46.0 ± 24.4 N ∙ m, respectively; P = .940) and endurance (429.3 ± 238.9 J and 382.4 ± 256.1 J, respectively; P = .574) on the involved side. The strength and endurance of the quadriceps muscle of the injured limb were greater after PCL tears than after ACL tears. However, there were no significant between-group differences in hamstring muscle strength and endurance on the involved side. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical and cranial computed tomography scan findings in adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Headache was the most common clinical variable followed by dizziness and aphasia. The most common CT characteristic was extra cerebral haemorrhage followed by brain oedema and raised Intra-cranial pressure (ICP). Intra-cerebral haemorrhage was commonest in the frontal lobe followed by parietal lobe. Conclusion: ...

  19. Cranial nerve functional neurosurgery : Evaluation of surgical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Guerinel, C.; Sindou, M.; Auque, J.; Blondet, E.; Brassier, G.; Chazal, J.; Cuny, E.; Devaux, B.; Fontaine, D.; Finiels, P. -J.; Fuentes, J. -M.; D'Haens, J.; Massager, N.; Mercier, Ph.; Mooij, J.; Nuti, C.; Rousseaux, P.; Serrie, A.; Stecken, J.; de Waele, L.; Keravel, Y.

    We report the results of an investigation carried out on the activity of functional neurosurgery of the cranial nerves in the French-speaking countries, based on the analysis of a questionnaire addressed to all the members of the SNCLF Eighteen centers responded to this questionnaire., which showed

  20. Retinoic acid modulates chondrogenesis in the developing mouse cranial base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Jae; Shin, Jeong-Oh; Lee, Jong-Min; Cho, Kyoung-Won; Lee, Min-Jung; Cho, Sung-Won; Jung, Han-Sung

    2011-12-15

    The retinoic acid (RA) signaling pathway is known to play important roles during craniofacial development and skeletogenesis. However, the specific mechanism involving RA in cranial base development has not yet been clearly described. This study investigated how RA modulates endochondral bone development of the cranial base by monitoring the RA receptor RARγ, BMP4, and markers of proliferation, programmed cell death, chondrogenesis, and osteogenesis. We first examined the dynamic morphological and molecular changes in the sphenooccipital synchondrosis-forming region in the mouse embryo cranial bases at E12-E16. In vitro organ cultures employing beads soaked in RA and retinoid-signaling inhibitor citral were compared. In the RA study, the sphenooccipital synchondrosis showed reduced cartilage matrix and lower BMP4 expression while hypertrophic chondrocytes were replaced with proliferating chondrocytes. Retardation of chondrocyte hypertrophy was exhibited in citral-treated specimens, while BMP4 expression was slightly increased and programmed cell death was induced within the sphenooccipital synchondrosis. Our results demonstrate that RA modulates chondrocytes to proliferate, differentiate, or undergo programmed cell death during endochondral bone formation in the developing cranial base. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  1. Clinical and cranial computed tomography scan findings in adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Seventy seven percent of the respondents were between 18- 39 years. ... cerebral haemorrhage followed by brain oedema and raised Intra-cranial pressure (ICP). ... like advocacy and education of the population on safe and responsible road usage ... studies were done over ten years ago, could the pattern of head ...

  2. Development of Cranial Bone Surrogate Structures Using Stereolithographic Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    Additive Manufacturing by Jared M Gardner and Thomas A Plaisted Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...Laboratory Development of Cranial Bone Surrogate Structures Using Stereolithographic Additive Manufacturing by Thomas A Plaisted Weapons...Structures Using Stereolithographic Additive Manufacturing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jared

  3. Zuigelingen met een scheef hoofd [Babies with cranial deformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, M.M.; Claessens, E.A.; Dovens, A.J.; Vles, J.S.; van der Hulst, R.R.

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet

  4. Gliosarcoma of the posterior cranial fossa: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, H.; Hayase, H.; Moriyama, Y.; Yamashima, T.; Yamashita, J.

    1993-01-01

    We report the MR findings of a biopsy-proven gliosarcoma of the posterior cranial fossa. Multiple homogeneously enhancing lesions had shaggy margins and broad-based dural attachments, which may reflect the gliomatous and sarcomatous element of this tumour. (orig.)

  5. Is phenytoin contraindicated in patients receiving cranial irradiation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, M.F. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia); Probert, J.C. [Auckland Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Zwi, L.J. [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand). Dept. of Medicine and Surgery

    1995-02-01

    Three recent publications have reported the development of erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome in patients receiving cranial irradiation and sodium phenytoin. Some authors have recommended that patients receiving whole brain radiation therapy and who have had seizures should not be prescribed phenytoin but an alternative anticonvulsant. This article reviews the current literature pertaining to the development of this potentially lethal complication in patients receiving whole brain radiation and phenytoin, with reference to the single recorded case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome in a patient receiving cranial irradiation and phenytoin in Auckland, New Zealand. While the clinical picture in the 16 patients reported in the literature and the current case report differed from the classical form of erythema multiforme, a similar pattern of presentation and outcome appeared in all patients reviewed, suggesting that the combination of phenytoin, cranial irradiation and the gradual reduction of concomitant steroids seem to lead to the development of erythema multiforme and/or Stevens-Johnson syndrome. The data presented, although sparse, suggest that phenytoin should not be prescribed in patients receiving cranial irradiation. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  6. Association of fetal cranial shape with shoulder dystocia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfort, M. A.; White, G. L.; Vermeulen, F. M.

    Objective To evaluate whether fetal cranial shape is related to shoulder dystocia. Methods We compared shoulder dystocia cases (n = 18) with controls (normal vaginal deliveries, n = 18) in a retrospective matched- pairs observational study. Subjects were matched for known maternal and fetal risk

  7. Routine Cranial Computed Tomography before Lumbar Puncture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Current international guidelines recommend that a cranial computed tomography (CT) be performed on all HIV-positive patients presenting with new onset seizures, before a lumbar puncture (LP) is performed. In the South African setting, however this delay could be life threatening. The present study sought to ...

  8. Is phenytoin contraindicated in patients receiving cranial irradiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, M.F.; Probert, J.C.; Zwi, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    Three recent publications have reported the development of erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome in patients receiving cranial irradiation and sodium phenytoin. Some authors have recommended that patients receiving whole brain radiation therapy and who have had seizures should not be prescribed phenytoin but an alternative anticonvulsant. This article reviews the current literature pertaining to the development of this potentially lethal complication in patients receiving whole brain radiation and phenytoin, with reference to the single recorded case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome in a patient receiving cranial irradiation and phenytoin in Auckland, New Zealand. While the clinical picture in the 16 patients reported in the literature and the current case report differed from the classical form of erythema multiforme, a similar pattern of presentation and outcome appeared in all patients reviewed, suggesting that the combination of phenytoin, cranial irradiation and the gradual reduction of concomitant steroids seem to lead to the development of erythema multiforme and/or Stevens-Johnson syndrome. The data presented, although sparse, suggest that phenytoin should not be prescribed in patients receiving cranial irradiation. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  9. Bony exostosis of the atlas with resultant cranial nerve palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavotinek, J.P.; Sage, M.R.; Brophy, B.P.

    1991-01-01

    A case of tenth and twelfth nerve compression secondary to a bony exostosis of the first cervical vertebra is described. This uncommon phenomenon serves to outline the importance of imaging the course of a cranial nerve when no intracranial abnormality is demonstrable on CT or MRI. The radiologic features of spinal osteochondromas are reviewed. (orig.)

  10. Development and Functional Organization of the Cranial Nerves in Lampreys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombal, Manuel A; Megías, Manuel

    2018-04-16

    Lampreys, together with hagfishes, are the only extant representatives of the oldest branch of vertebrates, the agnathans, which are the sister group of gnathostomes; therefore, studies on these animals are of great evolutionary significance. Lampreys exhibit a particular life cycle with remarkable changes in their behavior, concomitant, in part, with important modifications in the head and its musculature, which might influence the development of the cranial nerves. In this context, some cranial nerves such as the optic nerve and the ocular motor nerves, which develop slowly during an extremely long larval period lasting more than five years, have been more thoroughly investigated; however, much less experimental information is available about others, such as the facial or the hypoglossal nerves. In addition, the possible existence of a "true" accessory nerve in these animals is still a matter of conjecture. Although growing in last decades, investigations on the physiology of the lamprey cranial nerves is scanty. This review focuses on past and recent findings that have contributed to characterize the anatomical organization of the cranial nerves in lampreys, including their components and nuclei, and their relations in the brain; in addition, comments on their development and functional role are also included. Anat Rec, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Schwannoma originating from lower cranial nerves: report of 4 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Kito, Akira; Maki, Hideki; Hattori, Kenichi; Noda, Tomoyuki; Wada, Kentaro

    2012-02-01

    Four cases of schwannoma originating from the lower cranial nerves are presented. Case 1 is a schwannoma of the vagus nerve in the parapharyngeal space. The operation was performed by the transcervical approach. Although the tumor capsule was not dissected from the vagus nerve, hoarseness and dysphagia happened transiently after the operation. Case 2 is a schwannoma in the jugular foramen. The operation was performed by the infralabyrinthine approach. Although only the intracapsular tumor was enucleated, facial palsy, hoarseness, dysphagia and paresis of the deltoid muscle occurred transiently after the operation. The patient's hearing had also slightly deteriorated. Case 3 is a dumbbell-typed schwannoma originating from the hypoglossal nerve. The hypoglossal canal was markedly enlarged by the tumor. As the hypoglossal nerves were embedded in the tumor, the tumor around the hypoglossal nerves was not resected. The tumor was significantly enlarged for a while after stereotactic irradiation. Case 4 is an intracranial cystic schwannoma originating from the IXth or Xth cranial nerves. The tumor was resected through the cerebello-medullary fissure. The tumor capsule attached to the brain stem was not removed. Hoarseness and dysphagia happened transiently after the operation. Cranial nerve palsy readily occurs after the removal of the schwannoma originating from the lower cranial nerves. Mechanical injury caused by retraction, extension and compression of the nerve and heat injury during the drilling of the petrous bone should be cautiously avoided.

  12. Postnatal cranial ultrasonographic findings in feto-fetal transfusion syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breysem, L.; Naulaers, G.; Deprest, J.; Schoubroeck, D.V.; Daniels, H.; Lammens, M.M.Y.; Smet, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Our objective was a retrospective evaluation of cranial US in survivors of twin pregnancy with feto-fetal transfusion syndrome (FFTS), with knowledge of prenatal treatment and neonatal/postnatal clinical data. In 18 pregnancies with FFTS (January 1996 to May 2000), pregnancy management and outcome,

  13. Ocular cranial nerve palsies secondary to sphenoid sinusitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiman El Mograbi; Ethan Soudry

    2017-01-01

    Objective:The clinical presentation of sphenoid sinusitis can be highly variable.Rarely,sphenoid sinusitis may present with cranial nerve complications due to the proximity of these structures to the sphenoid sinus.Method:A case series from Rabin Medical Center and all cases of cranial nerves palsies secondary to sphenoid sinusitis that have been reported in the literature were reviewed.Results:Seventeen patients were identified.The abducent nerve was the most common cranial nerve affected (76%),followed by the oculomotor nerve (18%).One patient had combined oculomotor,trochlear and abducent palsies.The most common pathology was isolated purulent sphenoid sinusitis in 64% followed by allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) in 18%,and fungal infection in 18%.94% had an acute presentation.The majority (85%) received a combined intravenous antibiotics and surgical treatment.The remainder received conservative treatment alone.Complete recovery of cranial nerve palsy was noted in 82% during follow up.Conclusion:Sphenoid sinusitis presenting as diplopia and headaches is rare.A neoplastic process must be ruled out and early surgical intervention with intravenous antimicrobial therapy carry an excellent outcome with complete resolution of symptoms.

  14. Testing the cranial evolutionary allometric 'rule' in Galliformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde-Medina, M

    2016-09-01

    Recent comparative studies have indicated the existence of a common cranial evolutionary allometric (CREA) pattern in mammals and birds, in which smaller species have relatively smaller faces and bigger braincases than larger species. In these studies, cranial allometry was tested using a multivariate regression between shape (described using landmarks coordinates) and size (i.e. centroid size), after accounting for phylogenetic relatedness. Alternatively, cranial allometry can be determined by comparing the sizes of two anatomical parts using a bivariate regression analysis. In this analysis, a slope higher or lower than one indicates the existence of positive or negative allometry, respectively. Thus, in those species that support the CREA 'rule', positive allometry is expected for the association between face size and braincase size, which would indicate that larger species have disproportionally larger faces. In this study, I applied these two approaches to explore cranial allometry in 83 Galliformes (Aves, Galloanserae), ranging in mean body weight from 30 g to 2.5 kg. The multivariate regression between shape and centroid size revealed the existence of a significant allometric pattern resembling CREA, whereas the second analysis revealed a negative allometry for beak size and braincase size (i.e. contrary to the CREA 'rule', larger galliform species have disproportionally shorter beaks than smaller galliform species). This study suggests that the presence of CREA may be overestimated when using cranium size as the standard measurement. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-09-05

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  16. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna McRee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV and canine distemper virus (CDV, which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV. These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34% had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84% had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13% dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  17. The cranial anatomy of the neornithischian dinosaur Thescelosaurus neglectus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint A. Boyd

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Though the dinosaur Thescelosaurus neglectus was first described in 1913 and is known from the relatively fossiliferous Lance and Hell Creek formations in the Western Interior Basin of North America, the cranial anatomy of this species remains poorly understood. The only cranial material confidently referred to this species are three fragmentary bones preserved with the paratype, hindering attempts to understand the systematic relationships of this taxon within Neornithischia. Here the cranial anatomy of T. neglectus is fully described for the first time based on two specimens that include well-preserved cranial material (NCSM 15728 and TLAM.BA.2014.027.0001. Visual inspection of exposed cranial elements of these specimens is supplemented by detailed CT data from NCSM 15728 that enabled the examination of otherwise unexposed surfaces, facilitating a complete description of the cranial anatomy of this species. The skull of T. neglectus displays a unique combination of plesiomorphic and apomorphic traits. The premaxillary and ‘cheek’ tooth morphologies are relatively derived, though less so than the condition seen in basal iguanodontians, suggesting that the high tooth count present in the premaxillae, maxillae, and dentaries may be related to the extreme elongation of the skull of this species rather than a retention of the plesiomorphic condition. The morphology of the braincase most closely resembles the iguanodontians Dryosaurus and Dysalotosaurus, especially with regard to the morphology of the prootic. One autapomorphic feature is recognized for the first time, along with several additional cranial features that differentiate this species from the closely related and contemporaneous Thescelosaurus assiniboiensis. Published phylogenetic hypotheses of neornithischian dinosaur relationships often differ in the placement of the North American taxon Parksosaurus, with some recovering a close relationship with Thescelosaurus and others with

  18. Dexamethasone minimizes the risk of cranial nerve injury during CEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regina, Guido; Angiletta, Domenico; Impedovo, Giovanni; De Robertis, Giovanni; Fiorella, Marialuisa; Carratu', Maria Rosaria

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cranial and cervical nerve injury during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) ranges from less than 7.6% to more than 50%. Lesions are mainly due to surgical maneuvers such as traction, compression, tissue electrocoagulation, clamping, and extensive dissections. The use of dexamethasone (DEX) and its beneficial effects in spinal cord injuries have already been described. We investigated whether DEX could also be beneficial to minimize the incidence of cranial and cervical nerve injury during CEA. To evaluate whether dexamethasone is able to reduce the incidence of cranial nerve injuries. From March 1999 through April 2006, 1126 patients undergoing CEA because of high-grade carotid stenosis were enrolled and randomized by predetermined randomization tables into two groups. The first group, "A", included 586 patients that all received an intravenous administration of dexamethasone following a therapeutic scheme. The second group, "B", included 540 control subjects that received the standard pre- and postoperative therapy. All patients were submitted to a deep cervical plexus block, eversion carotid endarterectomy, and selective shunting. Three days after the operation, an independent neurologist and otorhinolaryngologist evaluated the presence of cranial nerve deficits. All patients (group A and group B) showing nerve injuries continued the treatment (8 mg of dexamethasone once in the morning) for 7 days and were re-evaluated after 2 weeks, 30 days, and every 3 months for 1 year. Recovery time took from 2 weeks to 12 months, with a mean time of 3.6 months. The chi(2) test was used to compare the two groups and to check for statistical significance. The incidence of cranial nerve dysfunction was higher in group B and the statistical analysis showed a significant effect of dexamethasone in preventing the neurological damage (P = .0081). The incidence of temporary lesions was lower in group A and the chi(2) test yielded a P value of .006. No statistically

  19. Cranial pole nephrectomy in the pig model: anatomic analysis of arterial injuries in tridimensional endocasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Sampaio, Marco A; Henry, Robert W; Favorito, Luciano A; Sampaio, Francisco J B

    2012-06-01

    To assess the intrarenal arteries injuries after cranial pole nephrectomy in a pig model to compare these findings with those in humans. Polyester resin was injected through the ureter and the renal artery to make three-dimensional casts of 61 pig kidneys. The cranial pole of the kidneys was sectioned at four different sites before the solidification of the resin, and the casts were examined for arterial damage. Section performed through the hilus (15 kidneys): The cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in two (13.33%) cases, the ventral branch of the cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in 13 (86.7%) cases, and the dorsal branch of the cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in 11 (73.34%) cases. Section at 0.5 cm cranial to the hilus (16 kidneys): The cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in 1 (6.25%) case, the ventral branch of the cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in 14 (87.5%) cases, and the dorsal branch of the cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in 13 (81.25%) cases. Section at 1.0 cm cranial to the hilus (15 kidneys): The ventral branch of the cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in five (33.33%) cases, and the dorsal branch of the cranial division of the renal artery was injured in five (33.33%) cases. Section at 1.5 cm cranial to the hilus (15 kidneys): No lesions were found in the main arteries, only in the interlobular branches. As previously demonstrated in humans, sections at 1.0 cm or more cranially to the hilus in pigs also showed a significant decrease in damage to the major intrarenal arteries. Therefore, as regards arterial damage, the pig kidney is a useful model for partial nephrectomy in the cranial (upper) pole.

  20. Tolerance of cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus to radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tishler, R.B.; Loeffler, J.S.; Alexander, E. III; Kooy, H.M.; Lunsford, L.D.; Duma, C.; Flickinger, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is becoming a more accepted treatment option for benign, deep seated intracranial lesions. However, little is known about the effects of large single fractions of radiation on cranial nerves. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of radiosurgery on the cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus. The authors examined the tolerance of cranial nerves (II-VI) following radiosurgery for 62 patients (42/62 with meningiomas) treated for lesions within or near the cavernous sinus. Twenty-nine patients were treated with a modified 6 MV linear accelerator (Joint Center for Radiation Therapy) and 33 were treated with the Gamma Knife (University of Pittsburgh). Three-dimensional treatment plans were retrospectively reviewed and maximum doses were calculated for the cavernous sinus and the optic nerve and chiasm. Median follow-up was 19 months (range 3-49). New cranial neuropathies developed in 12 patients from 3-41 months following radiosurgery. Four of these complications involved injury to the optic system and 8 (3/8 transient) were the result of injury to the sensory or motor nerves of the cavernous sinus. There was no clear relationship between the maximum dose to the cavernous sinus and the development of complications for cranial nerves III-VI over the dose range used (1000-4000 cGy). For the optic apparatus, there was a significantly increased incidence of complications with dose. Four of 17 patients (24%) receiving greater than 800 cGy to any part of the optic apparatus developed visual complications compared with 0/35 who received less than 800 cGy (p = 0.009). Radiosurgery using tumor-controlling doses of up to 4000 cGy appears to be a relatively safe technique in treating lesions within or near the sensory and motor nerves (III-VI) of the cavernous sinus. The dose to the optic apparatus should be limited to under 800 cGy. 21 refs., 4 tabs

  1. Cranial suture biology of the Aleutian Island inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, James; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I

    2011-04-01

    Research on cranial suture biology suggests there is biological and taxonomic information to be garnered from the heritable pattern of suture synostosis. Suture synostosis along with brain growth patterns, diet, and biomechanical forces influence phenotypic variability in cranial vault morphology. This study was designed to determine the pattern of ectocranial suture synostosis in skeletal populations from the Aleutian Islands. We address the hypothesis that ectocranial suture synostosis pattern will differ according to cranial vault shape. Ales Hrdlicka identified two phenotypes in remains excavated from the Aleutian Island. The Paleo-Aleutians, exhibiting a dolichocranic phenotype with little prognathism linked to artifacts distinguished from later inhabitants, Aleutians, who exhibited a brachycranic phenotype with a greater amount of prognathism. A total of 212 crania representing Paleo-Aleuts and Aleutian as defined by Hrdlicka were investigated for suture synostosis pattern following standard methodologies. Comparisons were performed using Guttmann analyses. Results revealed similar suture fusion patterns for the Paleo-Aleut and Aleutian, a strong anterior to posterior pattern of suture fusion for the lateral-anterior suture sites, and a pattern of early termination at the sagittal suture sites for the vault. These patterns were found to differ from that reported in the literature. Because these two populations with distinct cranial shapes exhibit similar patterns of suture synostosis it appears pattern is independent of cranial shape in these populations of Homo sapiens. These findings suggest that suture fusion patterns may be population dependent and that a standardized methodology, using suture fusion to determine age-at-death, may not be applicable to all populations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Myological variability in a decoupled skeletal system: batoid cranial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmann, Matthew A; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N; Grubbs, R Dean

    2014-08-01

    Chondrichthyans (sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) have simple feeding mechanisms owing to their relatively few cranial skeletal elements. However, the indirect association of the jaws to the cranium (euhyostylic jaw suspension) has resulted in myriad cranial muscle rearrangements of both the hyoid and mandibular elements. We examined the cranial musculature of an abbreviated phylogenetic representation of batoid fishes, including skates, guitarfishes and with a particular focus on stingrays. We identified homologous muscle groups across these taxa and describe changes in gross morphology across developmental and functional muscle groups, with the goal of exploring how decoupling of the jaws from the skull has effected muscular arrangement. In particular, we focus on the cranial anatomy of durophagous and nondurophagous batoids, as the former display marked differences in morphology compared to the latter. Durophagous stingrays are characterized by hypertrophied jaw adductors, reliance on pennate versus fusiform muscle fiber architecture, tendinous rather than aponeurotic muscle insertions, and an overall reduction in mandibular kinesis. Nondurophagous stingrays have muscles that rely on aponeurotic insertions onto the skeletal structure, and display musculoskeletal specialization for jaw protrusion and independent lower jaw kinesis, relative to durophagous stingrays. We find that among extant chondrichthyans, considerable variation exists in the hyoid and mandibular muscles, slightly less so in hypaxial muscles, whereas branchial muscles are overwhelmingly conserved. As chondrichthyans occupy a position sister to all other living gnathostomes, our understanding of the structure and function of early vertebrate feeding systems rests heavily on understanding chondrichthyan cranial anatomy. Our findings highlight the incredible variation in muscular complexity across chondrichthyans in general and batoids in particular. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. 9 CFR 113.317 - Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). 113.317... Virus Vaccines § 113.317 Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine recommended for use in dogs... from each dog shall be individually tested for neutralizing antibody against canine parvovirus to...

  4. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine... antibody against canine parvovirus to determine susceptibility. A constant virus-varying serum... vaccinates and the controls shall be challenged with virulent canine parvovirus furnished or approved by...

  5. Development of the canine tooth in the beagle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amimoto, A.; Iwamoto, S.; Hachimura, H.; Miyamoto, T.; Murata, T.; Taura, Y.; Nakama, S.; Hayashi, K.

    1993-01-01

    The growth of the crown and root in the canine tooth of beagle dogs were observed macroscopically and radiographically, and changes of occlusion with age were investigated. Completion of growth in the crown of the canine tooth was observed in both mandible and maxilla, and its eruption was accompanied by development of the dental root. The permanent canine erupted on the lingual side of deciduous canine in the mandible, and on the mesial side of the deciduous canine in the maxilla. Movement of the permanent canine to normal occlusal position(buccal direction in mandibular canine, and distal direction in maxillary canine)was followed by the loss of the deciduous canine. Coexistence of the permanent and deciduous canines occurred for about 2.4 weeks in the maxilla and about 1.4 weeks in the mandible, on average. Macroscopically, the growth of the permanent canine was completed by 33 weeks of age in the mandible and about 34 weeks of age in the maxilla. The mature root of the permanent canine was recognized radiographically at about 43 weeks of age in the mandible and 47 weeks of age in the maxilla

  6. Canine hypothyroidism. A diagnostic challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boretti, Felicitos; Reusch, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrinopathies in dogs. Clinical symptoms and hematological and biochemical parameters lead to a first suspicion. To confirm diagnosis can be challenging, however. Determination of total serum T4 concentration is accepted as the primary screening test for the disease, and low serum T4 concentrations are intuitively suggestive of hypothyroidism. However it is well known that low T4 concentrations are frequently encountered in euthyroid dogs with various nonthyroidal diseases and in dogs receiving certain pharmacologic agents. Since assessment of endogenous TSH (canine TSH) using current canine TSH assays shows normal values in a high percentage of hypothyroid dogs (up to 40%), its diagnostic value is only limited. The TSH-stimulation test can still be recognized as the gold standard for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in dogs. Determination of circulating T4 concentration before and 6 hours after the administration of exogenous TSH (recombinant human TSH, Thyrogen registered ) provides an assessment of the functional reserve capacity of the thyroid gland with minimal change in post-TSH T4 concentration, compared with the basal concentration, expected in dogs with hypothyroidism. Also this test can be influenced by nonthyroidal illness and by medications known to affect thyroid function. This suppressing influence seems to be less pronounced using a higher dose of TSH. Therefore, to improve the discriminatory power of the TSH stimulation test to differentiate between euthyroid-sick and primary hypothyroidism, the higher dose should be used in cases in which testing cannot be delayed. More recently, ultrasonography and scintigraphy have been used for the diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. Using ultrasonography, a sensitivity of 98% was reported if size and echogenicity of the gland were combined. However, specificity was as low as 77%. and care must be taken when measuring the gland because of a relatively high

  7. The use of hamstring tendon graft for the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (benefi ts, problems and their solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Slastinin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for optimal graft for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is going on. The donor site morbidity remains one of the major problems when using autografts. The article provides an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of using the hamstring tendon autografts for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and the ways of solving the problems associated with using such types of grafts.

  8. An investigation into the regulation of intra-cranial pressure and its influence upon the surrounding cranial bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Graham

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study is to present a rational coherent hypothesis to explain the palpable involuntary movements of the cranium. The arterial and venous anatomy inside and around the skull and spinal column presents a complete vascular system with the capacity to regulate intra-cranial pressure to a level of equilibrium slightly higher than atmospheric pressure. Variations in cerebrospinal fluid (csf) pressure control the volume of blood draining through the cavernous sinus and hence into the inter-vertebral venous plexus in relation to the jugular vein. Stable intra-cranial pressure is maintained by a controlled release of venous blood through the inter-vertebral venous plexus (slow) and the jugular vein (fast) in the cavernous sinus. Any distortion of the skull from its healthy state will lead to reduced intra-cranial volume. The process of release from the state of compression has been interpreted as "cranial rhythm" but may be a mechanical adjustment increasing the internal volume of the skull, aided by the continual maintenance of stable intracranial pressure. This involuntary movement is capable of being assisted manually.

  9. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-09-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age.

  10. Booster effect of canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and infectious canine hepatitis combination vaccine in domesticated adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-08-01

    Domesticated adult dogs with antibody titer classified as below 'high' to one or more of canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAdV-1) were then given an additional inoculation, and the effectiveness of this booster evaluated 2 months later. Consequently, CDV and CAdV-1 antibody titer experienced a significant increase, but the same effect was not observed in the antibody titer of CPV-2. These findings suggest that with additional inoculation, a booster effect may be expected in increasing antibody titers for CDV and CAdV-1, but it is unlikely to give an increase in CPV-2 antibody titer. © 2012 The Societies and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Orthodontic Traction of Impacted Canine Using Cantilever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Nakandakari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impaction of the maxillary canines causes relevant aesthetic and functional problems. The multidisciplinary approach to the proper planning and execution of orthodontic traction of the element in question is essential. Many strategies are cited in the literature; among them is the good biomechanical control in order to avoid possible side effects. The aim of this paper is to present a case report in which a superior canine impacted by palatine was pulled out with the aid of the cantilever on the Segmented Arch Technique (SAT concept. A 14.7-year-old female patient appeared at clinic complaining about the absence of the upper right permanent canine. The proposed treatment prioritized the traction of the upper right canine without changing the occlusion and aesthetics. For this, it only installed the upper fixed appliance (Roth with slot 0.018, opting for SAT in order to minimize unwanted side effects. The use of cantilever to the traction of the upper right canine has enabled an efficient and predictable outcome, because it is of statically determined mechanics.

  12. Transmigration of mandibular canine – case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruszka, Katarzyna; Różyło, T. Katarzyna; Różyło-Kalinowska, Ingrid; Denkiewicz, Katarzyna; Masłowska, Klaudia

    2014-01-01

    Transmigration is a phenomenon of movement of an unerupted tooth in the bone across the midline. This anomaly is not often found. Transmigration is more prevalent in females than in males, and more often encountered in the mandible than maxilla, it affects mostly canines. The aim of this study was to present a case report of a mandibular canine transmigration in a patient aged 12. Intraoral examination determined hypodontia of right second premolar and delayed eruption of left second premolar in maxilla, as well as persistent deciduous teeth: right second molar, left canine and second molar. The patient was referred for a Cone-Beam CT examination, which allowed precise visualization of the transmigrating canine as well as ruled out resorption of roots of mandibular incisors. The treatment with a maxillary fixed orthodontic appliance was finished after obtaining a satisfactory result. Proper alignment of the incisors in the anterior-posterior plane and correct midline position were accepted by the patient. Transmigrating canine after consultation with the surgeon was designed to further radiological observation

  13. A morphometric investigation on breed-specific features affecting sagittal rotational and lateral bending mobility in the canine cervical spine (c3-c7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, S; Künzel, W

    2004-08-01

    Vertebral and inter-vertebral parameters obtained in large breeds (n = 74), small breeds (n = 35), and Dachshunds (n = 30) were compared to reveal potential differences in the range of motion of the cervical spine between these three groups of breeds. Body size normalized dimensions of vertebral and inter-vertebral parameters and correlations between these indicate large canine breeds to have a tendency towards higher range of motion in sagittal rotation and lateral bending compared with Dachshunds and small breeds. Higher mobility in large breeds is based on significantly (P inter-vertebral discs, wider but shorter cranial and caudal articular surfaces, larger differences in width between caudal and cranial joining facets (compared with Dachshunds from C3/4 to C6/7, compared with small breeds from C4/5 to C5/6), and larger differences in length between caudal and cranial joining facets. Large differences in width between caudal and cranial joining facets were associated with small distances between the most medial (C3/4 to C6/7) and lateral (C3/4 to C5/6) aspects of the articular surfaces as well as with small differences in length between caudal and cranial joining facets (C3/4 to C5/6). This suggests that from C3/4 to C5/6 a higher range of motion in lateral bending is coupled to a lower range of motion in sagittal rotation. The present findings contribute also to explain the higher incidence of degenerative lesions of the cervical spine in large dogs.

  14. CT of the canine lumbosacral spine in extension - flexion rotation; part I: bony window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henninger, W.; Werner, G.

    2002-01-01

    The canine lumbosacral spine is examined radiographically in extended and flexed lateral position as well as ventrodorsally. Superimposition of bones hinders exact evaluation of the lumbosacral intervertebral foramen in case of cauda equina syndrome, especially when degenerative changes overlap. CT or MRI are more and more indicated to get reliable findings because myelography is not always of diagnostic value. For this study twelve dogs (7 German Shepherd dogs, 4 Cross-breds, and 1 Rottweiler) of different age and sex were taken which had been referred for CT examination of the lumbosacral area. Plain radiographs did not show abnormalities. The anaesthetized dogs were positioned in dorsal recumbency with the legs firstly extended and secondly flexed according to flexion-extension radiography. Slice thickness was 2 mm, the CT images were evaluated in both bony and soft tissue windows. Bony window easily showed vertebral bodies, vertebral canal, pedicles, vertebral laminae, and articular processes of L7 and S1. Median height of the vertebral canal did not change during extension or flexion at the level of L7 and the sacrum. Height and width of the intervertebral foramen and width of the interarcual foramen changed markedly from extension to flexion. Lateral recessus of the vertebral canal always could be observed as ventrolateral widening. In sagittal CT scans of the lumbosacral specimen of a normal German Shepherd dog cranial articular processes of the sacrum were detected to be responsible for maximum height or width of the intervertebral foramen. Evolving from the lateral recessus the intervertebral foramen was initially oval-shaped and got rounded and narrowed by the cranial articular process of the sacrum. Position and shape of the cranial articular processes of the sacrum were evaluated. Surface of the cranial articular processes of S1 were found even with articular spaces congruent, but some also appeared slightly concave or convex where incongruity of the

  15. MR imaging diagnosis of posterior cruciate ligament injury: importance of ancillary findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Kang Ik; Lee, Jong Hwa; Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Jung Hwoi; Ki, Tae Sung; Park, Jong Oag

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of two ancillary findings of anterior tibial plateau bruise/fracture and popliteus muscle strain on MR diagnosis of posterior cruicate ligament injury. We retrospectively evaluated 48 patients with confirmed posterior cruciate ligament tear. We studied the incidence of anterior tibial plateau injury and popliteus muscle strain, and the specificity of popliteus muscle strain with or without bony injury. A complete tear of the posterior cruciate ligament was noted in 37 cases, a partial tear in 11. Anterior tibial plateau lesion was found in 21 of 48 cases (44%); This total was made up of 17/37 PCL complete tears (46%) and 4/11 partial tears (36%). The difference in the incidence of complete and partial tears is not statistically significant. Popliteus muscle injury was found in 20 of 48 cases (42%), the total consisted of 19/37 PCL complete tears (51%) and 1/11 partial tears (10%). The incidence of 42% is relatively high, approximating that of bony injury. The difference in the incidence of complete and partial tears is statistically significant (p < 0.006). Specificity for posterior cruciate ligament tear is 69%(20/29), and when concomitant with anterior tibial plateau injury is 94%(16/17). As in the case of anterior cruciate ligament injury, these documented ancillary findings of anterior tibial plateau and popliteus muscle injuries are very helpful when MR diagnosis of posterior cruciate ligament injury itself and differentiation of partial and complete rupture are doubtful

  16. Ultrasonographic description of canine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasch, Katja; Wehrend, Axel; Bostedt, Hartwig

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasonographic images were acquired of the mammary glands of 40 bitches with physiologically lactating (n = 20) or inflamed glands (n = 20). Echogenicity, structure, homogeneity, thickness, and distinguishability of each tissue layer were assessed. Additionally, overall echogenicity was noted. In the normal lactating gland, different tissues could be differentiated easily. The parenchyma was, without exception, separated from adjacent tissues and was visible as medium echogenic tissue with a coarse-grained structure. The tissue always had some echogenic lines and anechoic areas and was slightly heterogeneous. The loss of distinct layering of the tissue was characteristic of an inflamed mammary gland and inflamed regions had reduced echogenicity. Additionally in five bitches with mastitis, the ultrasound examination was repeated five times for documentation of the progress of the illness and associated changes, supplemented with a color Doppler sonogram to assess changes in blood vessel density. Information from the examinations carried out via B-mode did not allow treatment success to be predicted. Two bitches with reduced blood vessel density centrally had a poor outcome whereas three bitches with increased blood vessel density had a good outcome. Thus, Doppler sonography might be a useful tool to obtain information of the prognosis in acute canine mastitis.

  17. Canine Intracranial Meningioma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Gomes de Carvalho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Carvalho J.R.G., Vasconcellos C.H.C., Bastos I. P.B., Trajano F.L.C., Costa T.S. & Fernandes J.I [Canine Intracranial Meningioma: Case report.] Meningioma intracraniano canino: Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(supl. 3:1- 7, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23.897-000, Brasil, E-mail: vetjulio@yahoo.com.br Intracranial neoplasms usually show their signals in a moderate way, revealing a long background of nonspecific signs, making the diagnosis more difficult. The meningioma is the most common intracranial neoplasm in dogs and cats. Along the years, the Veterinary Medicine has experienced important technological improvements, making it possible the diagnosis of a lot of diseases. Therefore, diseases considered not common in the past, started being diagnosed more frequently, for instance, brain lesions. The objective of this research is to report a case of intracranial meningioma in a Boxer dog that arrived at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, highlighting its clinical improvement, diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Anterior cruciate ligament repair - past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Piyush; Horriat, Saman; Anand, Bobby S

    2018-06-15

    This article provides a detailed narrative review on the history and current concepts surrounding ligamentous repair techniques in athletic patients. In particular, we will focus on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) as a case study in ligament injury and ligamentous repair techniques. PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases for papers relating to primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were searched by all participating authors. All relevant historical papers were included for analysis. Additional searches of the same databases were made for papers relating to biological enhancement of ligament healing. The poor capacity of the ACL to heal is one of the main reasons why the current gold standard surgical treatment for an ACL injury in an athletic patient is ACL reconstruction with autograft from either the hamstrings or patella tendon. It is hypothesised that by preserving and repairing native tissues and negating the need for autograft that primary ACL repair may represent a key step change in the treatment of ACL injuries. The history of primary ACL repair will be discussed and the circumstances that led to the near-abandonment of primary ACL repair techniques will be reviewed. There has been a recent resurgence in interest with regards to primary ACL repair. Improvements in imaging now allow for identification of tear location, with femoral-sided injuries, being more suitable for repair. We will discuss in details strategies for improving the mechanical and biological environment in order to allow primary healing to occur. In particular, we will explain mechanical supplementation such as Internal Brace Ligament Augmentation and Dynamic Intraligamentary Stabilisation techniques. These are novel techniques that aim to protect the primary repair by providing a stabilising construct that connects the femur and the tibia, thus bridging the repair. In addition, biological supplementation is being investigated as an adjunct and we will

  19. The fifty highest cited papers in anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielgut, Ines; Dauwe, Jan; Leithner, Andreas; Holzer, Lukas A

    2017-07-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common injured knee ligaments and at the same time, one of the most frequent injuries seen in the sport orthopaedic practice. Due to the clinical relevance of ACL injuries, numerous papers focussing on this topic including biomechanical-, basic science-, clinical- or animal studies, were published. The purpose of this study was to determine the most frequently cited scientific articles which address this subject, establish a ranking of the 50 highest cited papers and analyse them according to their characteristics. The 50 highest cited articles related to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury were searched in Thomson ISI Web of Science® by the use of defined search terms. All types of scientific papers with reference to our topic were ranked according to the absolute number of citations and analyzed for the following characteristics: journal title, year of publication, number of citations, citation density, geographic origin, article type and level of evidence. The 50 highest cited articles had up to 1624 citations. The top ten papers on this topic were cited 600 times at least. Most papers were published in the American Journal of Sports Medicine. The publication years spanned from 1941 to 2007, with the 1990s and 2000s accounting for half of the articles (n = 25). Seven countries contributed to the top 50 list, with the USA having by far the most contribution (n = 40). The majority of articles could be attributed to the category "Clinical Science & Outcome". Most of them represent a high level of evidence. Scientific articles in the field of ACL injury are highly cited. The majority of these articles are clinical studies that have a high level of evidence. Although most of the articles were published between 1990 and 2007, the highest cited articles in absolute and relative numbers were published in the early 1980s. These articles contain well established scoring- or classification systems. The

  20. Synthesis and characterization of polycaprolactone for anterior cruciate ligament regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurlek, Ayse Cansu; Sevinc, Burcu; Bayrak, Ece; Erisken, Cevat

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most frequently torn ligament in the knee, and complete healing is unlikely due to lack of vascularization. Current approaches for the treatment of ACL injuries include surgical interventions and grafting, however recent reports show that surgeries have 94% recurrency, and that repaired tissues are biomechanically inferior to the native tissue. These necessitate the need for new strategies for scar-free repair/regeneration of ACL injuries. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a biodegradable and biocompatible synthetic polymer, which has been widely used in the connective tissue repair/regeneration attempts. Here, we report on the synthesis of PCL via ring opening polymerization using ε-caprolactone as the monomer, and ammonium heptamolybdate as a catalyst. The synthesized PCL was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. It was then processed using electrospinning to form nanofiber-based scaffolds. These scaffolds were characterized in terms of surface as well as mechanical properties, and compared to the properties of commercially available PCL, and of native ACL tissue harvested from sheep. In addition, scaffolds fabricated with synthesized PCL were evaluated regarding their cell attachment capacity using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). Our findings demonstrated that the synthesized PCL is similar to its commercially available counterpart in terms of surface morphology and mechanical properties. In addition, fibrous scaffolds generated with electrospinning showed weaker mechanical properties visa vis native ACL tissue in terms of ultimate stress, and elastic modulus. Also, the synthesized PCL can accommodate cell attachment when tested with hBMSCs. Putting together, these observations reveal that the PCL synthesized in this study could be a good candidate as a biomaterial for ligament repair or regeneration. - Highlights: • Synthesis of

  1. Synthesis and characterization of polycaprolactone for anterior cruciate ligament regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurlek, Ayse Cansu; Sevinc, Burcu; Bayrak, Ece; Erisken, Cevat, E-mail: cerisken@etu.edu.tr

    2017-02-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most frequently torn ligament in the knee, and complete healing is unlikely due to lack of vascularization. Current approaches for the treatment of ACL injuries include surgical interventions and grafting, however recent reports show that surgeries have 94% recurrency, and that repaired tissues are biomechanically inferior to the native tissue. These necessitate the need for new strategies for scar-free repair/regeneration of ACL injuries. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a biodegradable and biocompatible synthetic polymer, which has been widely used in the connective tissue repair/regeneration attempts. Here, we report on the synthesis of PCL via ring opening polymerization using ε-caprolactone as the monomer, and ammonium heptamolybdate as a catalyst. The synthesized PCL was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. It was then processed using electrospinning to form nanofiber-based scaffolds. These scaffolds were characterized in terms of surface as well as mechanical properties, and compared to the properties of commercially available PCL, and of native ACL tissue harvested from sheep. In addition, scaffolds fabricated with synthesized PCL were evaluated regarding their cell attachment capacity using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). Our findings demonstrated that the synthesized PCL is similar to its commercially available counterpart in terms of surface morphology and mechanical properties. In addition, fibrous scaffolds generated with electrospinning showed weaker mechanical properties visa vis native ACL tissue in terms of ultimate stress, and elastic modulus. Also, the synthesized PCL can accommodate cell attachment when tested with hBMSCs. Putting together, these observations reveal that the PCL synthesized in this study could be a good candidate as a biomaterial for ligament repair or regeneration. - Highlights: • Synthesis of

  2. Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dragan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Numerous papers on reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee (ACL contribute to the significance of this method. The aim of this study was to analyze the outcome of the use of this surgical treatment method regardless the type of surgical intervention, graft, and the choice of the material for fixing. Methods. The study included 324 patients treated within the period from April 1997 to April 2004. Arthroscopically assisted ACL reconstruction was typically performed using the central one-third of the patellar ligament, as a graft, with bone blocks. Fixing was performed using screws (spongy or interferential, Mitek type. In the cases who required revision of the surgery, we used a graft m. semitendinosus and m. gracilise (STG or a graft of the patellar ligament (B-Pt-B. Fixation in these cases was performed using absorptive wedges according to the Rigidfix technique or metallic implants. Results. The analysis included the results of the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee (B-Pt-B or STG graft in 139 of the knees. Chronic injuries were revealed in 132 (94.9% of the knees. According to the anamnesis and clinical findings, the feeling of instability prevailed in 132 (94.9% of the knees, pain in 72 (51.7%, effluents in 24 (17.2%, and blockages in 13 (9.3%. Early and late postoperative complications were noticeable in 3.5% each. Hypotrophy of the upper knee musculature up to 2 cm was present in 53.9% of the operated knees, while minor contractions in 13.6% of them. The final result of the reconstruction graded begusing the Lysholm Scale was 85.2, simultaneous reconstructions of other ligaments 75.3, and revision surgery 68.0. First-grade degenerative postoperative changes according to the K/L Scale were found in 55.0% of the surgically treated knees, while the worst, four-grade one in 2.5%. Conclusion. On the basis of these findings, we can conclude that this method is the method of choice in

  3. Simulation of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in a Dry Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Tim; Slade Shantz, Jesse; Chahal, Jaskarndip; Wasserstein, David; Schachar, Rachel; Kulasegaram, K Mahan; Theodoropoulos, John; Greben, Rachel; Ogilvie-Harris, Darrell

    2015-12-01

    As the demand increases for demonstration of competence in surgical skill, the need for validated assessment tools also increases. The purpose of this study was to validate a dry knee model for the assessment of performance of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). The hypothesis was that the combination of a checklist and a previously validated global rating scale would be a valid and reliable means of assessing ACLR when performed by residents in a dry model. Controlled laboratory study. All residents, sports medicine staff, and fellows were invited to perform a hamstring ACLR using anteromedial drilling and Endobutton fixation on a dry model of an anterior cruciate ligament. Previous exposure to knee arthroscopy and ACLR was recorded. A detailed surgical manuscript and technique video were sent to all participants before the study. Residents were evaluated by staff surgeons with task-specific checklists created by use of a modified Delphi procedure and the Arthroscopic Surgical Skill Evaluation Tool (ASSET). Each procedure (hand movements and arthroscopic video) was recorded and scored by a fellow blinded to the year of training of each participant. A total of 29 residents, 5 fellows, and 6 staff surgeons (40 participants total) performed an ACLR on the dry model. The internal reliability (Cronbach alpha) of the test when using the total ASSET score was very high (>0.9). One-way analysis of variance for the total ASSET score and the total checklist score demonstrated a difference between participants based on year of training (P .05). A good correlation was seen between the total ASSET score and prior exposure to knee arthroscopy (0.73) and ACLR (0.65). The interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) between the examiner ratings and the blinded assessor ratings for the total ASSET score was very high (>0.8). The results of this study provide evidence that the performance of an ACLR in a dry model is a reliable method of assessing a

  4. Overexpression of vimentin in canine prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, M M P; Rema, A; Gärtner, F

    2011-01-01

    Canine prostatic tumours exhibit similarities to those of man and may represent a useful model system to explore the mechanisms of cancer progression. Tumour progression to malignancy requires a change from an epithelial phenotype to a fibroblastic or mesenchymal phenotype. Vimentin expression...... is associated with the invasive phenotype of human prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to characterize immunohistochemically the expression of vimentin by canine prostatic carcinomas. Primary carcinomas and metastatic tumour foci both showed vimentin expression. This finding suggests...... that the acquisition of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype in canine prostatic carcinoma may be characterized by the presence of mesenchymal intermediate filament (vimentin) that could lead to a higher likelihood of metastasis....

  5. Genetics of Human and Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Siobhan Simpson; Jennifer Edwards; Thomas F. N. Ferguson-Mignan; Malcolm Cobb; Nigel P. Mongan; Catrin S. Rutland

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in both humans and dogs. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) accounts for a large number of these cases, reported to be the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans and the second most common in dogs. In human studies of DCM there are more than 50 genetic loci associated with the disease. Despite canine DCM having similar disease progression to human DCM studies into the genetic basis of canine DCM lag far behind those of human DCM. In th...

  6. Tooth fractures in canine clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capik, I.; Ledecky, V.; Sevcik, A.

    2001-01-01

    Tooth fractures constitute a considerable fraction of all tooth diseases. Out of the 5,370 dogs treated during four years, 492 were presented with dental problems and 28.3 % of the latter were treated for tooth fractures. Canines were the most frequently affected teeth (38.8 %), followed by premolars (33.1 %), incisors (25.9 %), and molars (2.2 %), 55.4 % of the patients with canine and incisor fractures being large breed dogs. Fractures of premolars (mostly of 108, 208) were divided evenly irrespective of breed or body size. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment yielded good therapeutic results in most cases, but repeated treatment was necessary in some patients

  7. BONE TUNNEL WIDENING AFTER ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT AUTOPLASTY WITH HAMSTRINGS (LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Slastinin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Such a phenomenon as bone tunnel widening after anterior cruciate ligament autoplasty with hamstrings has been known for 30 years. Despite the long history of this issue, the etiology is still not fully understood. The process of expansion of the bone tunnels is influenced by many factors such as graft fixation technique, surgical technique and rehabilitation protocol, as well as various biological factors. It is believed that this phenomenon has no influence on a functional result, but may create serious problems in revision anterior cruciate ligament surgery. Given the growing interest in the use of hamstring tendon grafts for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, increasing number of these operations and as a result, of revision procedures, the search for methods of bone tunnel widening prevention is becoming more urgent.

  8. Reliability of mandibular canines as indicators for sexual dichotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosmani, Jagadish V; Nayak, Ramakant S; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S; S, Pradeep; Babji, Deepa

    2013-02-01

    Amongst the various calcified structures in the human body, teeth have gained lot of popularity in estimating the sex of an individual as they are highly resistant to destruction and decomposition. Using permanent mandibular canines many researchers have predicted a high level of accuracy in identifying the sex correctly. The purpose of our study was to gauge the effectiveness of mandibular canines in discerning sex. Fifty dental casts each of males and females were utilized for the study. Mesio-distal dimension and inter-canine distance of mandibular right and left canine was recorded using digital vernier caliper and mandibular canine index was calculated. The mean value of mesio-distal dimensions of right and left mandibular canine was slightly greater in males compared to females. The mandibular canine index was equal in both sexes. Inter-canine distance was marginally higher in males compared to females. Despite of higher values in males none of the parameters were statistically significant. The results herein bolster contemporary studies that mesio-distal dimensions of mandibular canines and mandibular canine index do not reflect sexual dimorphism and that its application should be discontinued in sex prediction among Indian populations. How to cite this article: Hosmani J V, Nayak R S, Kotrashetti V S, Pradeep S, Babji D. Reliability of Mandibular Canines as Indicators for Sexual Dichotomy. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):1-7.

  9. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction failure after tibial shaft malunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFrance, Russell M; Gorczyca, John T; Maloney, Michael D

    2012-02-17

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is common, with >100,000 procedures performed each year in the United States. Several factors are associated with failure, including poor surgical technique, graft incorporation failure, overly aggressive rehabilitation, and trauma. Tibial shaft fracture is also common and frequently requires operative intervention. Failure to reestablish the anatomic alignment of the tibia may cause abnormal forces across adjacent joints, which can cause degenerative joint disease or attritional failure of the surrounding soft tissues. This article describes a case of ACL reconstruction failure after a tibial fracture that resulted in malunion. Excessive force across the graft from lower-extremity malalignment and improper tunnel placement likely contributed to the attritional failure of the graft. This patient required a staged procedure for corrective tibial osteotomy followed by revision ACL reconstruction. This article describes ACL reconstruction failure, tibial shaft malunions, their respective treatments, the technical details of each procedure, and the technical aspects that must be considered when these procedures are done in a staged manner by 2 surgeons. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Basic principles of aggressive rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubljanin-Raspopović Emilija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation after ACL (anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has drastically changed over the last decade, with the adoption of a more aggressive approach, right from the first day after surgery. Progress in the effectiveness of rehabilitation is based on improvements in operative techniques, as well as on the encouraging results of histological studies regarding graft healing. Despite a huge amount of research papers on this topic, a rehabilitation golden standard still has not been established, due to the complexity of this problem. In this review, we point out the basic principles of rehabilitation after arthroscopically assisted ACL reconstruction based on actual practices, as well as the importance of specific procedures for the prevention of complications during the postoperative period. The importance of range-of-motion exercises, early weight bearing, an appropriate gait scheme, patella mobilisation, pain and oedema control, as well as stretching and balance exercises is explained. The functional advantages of closed kinetic chain exercises, as well as their influence on the graft are also described, in comparison to open kinetic chain exercises. The fundamentals of returning to sports are revealed and the specific aspects of rehabilitation regarding graft choice are pointed out. While waiting for new clinical investigations, which are expected to enable the establishment of a rehabilitation golden standard, the outlined principles should be followed. The complexity of this injury requires treatment in highly specialised institutions.

  11. Anterior cruciate ligament-derived cells have high chondrogenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumatsu, Takayuki; Hachioji, Motomi; Saiga, Kenta; Takata, Naoki; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2010-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-derived cells have a character different from medial collateral ligament (MCL)-derived cells. However, the critical difference between ACL and MCL is still unclear in their healing potential and cellular response. The objective of this study was to investigate the mesenchymal differentiation property of each ligament-derived cell. Both ligament-derived cells differentiated into adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. In chondrogenesis, ACL-derived cells had the higher chondrogenic property than MCL-derived cells. The chondrogenic marker genes, Sox9 and alpha1(II) collagen (Col2a1), were induced faster in ACL-derived pellets than in MCL-derived pellets. Sox9 expression preceded the increase of Col2a1 in both pellet-cultured cells. However, the expression level of Sox9 and a ligament/tendon transcription factor Scleraxis did not parallel the increase of Col2a1 expression along with chondrogenic induction. The present study demonstrates that the balance between Sox9 and Scleraxis have an important role in the chondrogenic differentiation of ligament-derived cells. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mucoid degeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament: Management and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mucoid degeneration (MD is a rare pathological affection of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL. Mucinous material within the substance of ACL produces pain and limited motion in the knee. This series describes the clinicoradiological presentation of patients with mucoid ACL, partial arthroscopic debridement of ACL and outcomes. Materials and Methods: During a period of 3 years, 11 patients were included based upon the clinical suspicion, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings, arthroscopic features and histopathologic confirmation of MD of ACL. Result: Six patients were male and five were female with median age of 40 years (range 21-59 years. All patients complained of knee pain with median duration of 5 months (range 1-24 months. All patients had painful deep flexion with 63.6% (N = 7 reporting trivial trauma before the onset of symptoms. MRI revealed MD of ACL in all with associated cyst in three patients. Partial debridement of ACL was done in ten and complete in one patient. None of them required notchplasty. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis in all of them. At the mean followup of 13.81 months (range 6-28 months, all patients regained complete flexion and none complained of instability. Conclusion: Prior knowledge of condition with high index of suspicion and careful interpretation of MRI can establish the diagnosis preoperatively. It responds well to partial debridement of ACL and mucinous material without development of instability.

  13. Partial tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament: diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Frois Temponi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Partial tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL are common and represent 10-27% of the total. The main reasons for attending to cases of non-torn bundles are biomechanical, vascular and proprioceptive. Continued presence of the bundle also serves as protection during the healing process. There is controversy regarding the definition of these injuries, which is based on anatomy, clinical examination, translation measurements, imaging examinations and arthroscopy. The way in which it is treated will depend on the existing laxity and instability. Conservative treatment is optional for cases without instability, with a focus on motor rehabilitation. Surgical treatment is a challenge, since it requires correct positioning of the bone tunnels and conservation of the remnants of the torn bundle. The pivot shift test under anesthesia, the magnetic resonance findings, the previous level and type of sports activity and the arthroscopic appearance and mechanical properties of the remnants will aid the orthopedist in the decision-making process between conservative treatment, surgical treatment with strengthening of the native ACL (selective reconstruction and classical (anatomical reconstruction.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of the posterior cruciate ligament in flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, William; Smithers, Troy; Harris, Craig; du Moulin, William; Molnar, Robert

    2018-06-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries of the knee are common and sometimes difficult to diagnose. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), performed using standard orthogonal plane views, is the investigation of choice. It can be particularly difficult to differentiate acute partial and complete tears and identify elongation of chronic healed tears. The aim of the paper is to describe a new method of positioning the patient with the knee flexed at 90°, allowing the PCL to be visualised in a position of greatest length and tension which may assist in differentiating and identifying these injuries. Four symptomatic patients with suspected PCL injuries, two acute and two chronic, were MRI scanned using a routine protocol with the knee in extension before performing oblique sagittal fast spin-echo (FSE) proton-density (PD) sequences with the knee positioned in 90° of flexion. The appearance of the PCLs were then qualitatively assessed. MRI scanning with the knee in flexion identified more extensive PCL injury than standard imaging. In the two patients with acute injuries, partial tears on the standard orthogonal plane views were found to be complete ruptures. In the two patients with chronic injuries, elongation of the PCL not identifiable on the standard orthogonal plane views was apparent. MRI scanning of the PCL with the knee flexed at 90° may help in differentiating partial and complete ruptures of the PCL and identifying elongation of the PCL in chronic injuries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The ESSKA paediatric anterior cruciate ligament monitoring initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moksnes, Håvard; Engebretsen, Lars; Seil, Romain

    2016-03-01

    To survey and describe the treatment of paediatric anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries performed by orthopaedic surgeons affiliated with the European Society for Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery and Arthroscopy (ESSKA). A closed e-survey was submitted to all registered members and affiliates of ESSKA in July 2013. All recipients were invited to participate in the survey by answering 34 questions online. The list of potential respondents was extracted from the ESSKA office database. Invitation was sent to 2236 ESSKA members and affiliates, and received 491 (22%) unique responses. Among the respondents, 445 (91%) were orthopaedic surgeons, with 354 (72%) stating that they were involved in treatment of paediatric ACL injuries. The main findings were that there are substantial differences with regard to preferred treatment algorithms, surgical techniques and long-term follow-up procedures. The summed estimate of skeletally immature children with ACL injury seen by the responders in 2012 was minimum 1923 individuals, and a minimum of 102 clinically relevant post-operative growth disturbances were registered. The present survey documents that the incidences of paediatric ACL injuries and idiopathic growth disturbances may be higher than previously estimated. Treatment algorithms and surgical techniques are highly diverse, and consensus could not be identified. It is worrying that only half the surgeons reported to follow-up children until skeletal maturity after surgical treatment. The results of this survey highlight the importance of international multicentre studies on paediatric ACL treatment and the development of an outcome registry to enable prospective data collections. IV.

  16. Complications of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papakonstantinou, Olympia; Chung, Christine B.; Chanchairujira, Kullanuch; Resnick, Donald L. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States)

    2003-05-01

    Arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using autografts or allografts is being performed with increasing frequency, particularly in young athletes. Although the procedure is generally well tolerated, with good success rates, early and late complications have been documented. As clinical manifestations of graft complications are often non-specific and plain radiographs cannot directly visualize the graft and the adjacent soft tissues, MR imaging has a definite role in the diagnosis of complications after ACL reconstruction and may direct subsequent therapeutic management. Our purpose is to review the normal MR imaging of the ACL graft and present the MR imaging findings of a wide spectrum of complications after ACL reconstruction, such as graft impingement, graft rupture, cystic degeneration of the graft, postoperative infection of the knee, diffuse and localized (i.e., cyclops lesion) arthrofibrosis, and associated donor site abnormalities. Awareness of the MR imaging findings of complications as well as the normal appearances of the normal ACL graft is essential for correct interpretation. (orig.)

  17. Complications of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papakonstantinou, Olympia; Chung, Christine B.; Chanchairujira, Kullanuch; Resnick, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    Arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using autografts or allografts is being performed with increasing frequency, particularly in young athletes. Although the procedure is generally well tolerated, with good success rates, early and late complications have been documented. As clinical manifestations of graft complications are often non-specific and plain radiographs cannot directly visualize the graft and the adjacent soft tissues, MR imaging has a definite role in the diagnosis of complications after ACL reconstruction and may direct subsequent therapeutic management. Our purpose is to review the normal MR imaging of the ACL graft and present the MR imaging findings of a wide spectrum of complications after ACL reconstruction, such as graft impingement, graft rupture, cystic degeneration of the graft, postoperative infection of the knee, diffuse and localized (i.e., cyclops lesion) arthrofibrosis, and associated donor site abnormalities. Awareness of the MR imaging findings of complications as well as the normal appearances of the normal ACL graft is essential for correct interpretation. (orig.)

  18. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries among wakeboarders: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Tetsuya; Mori, Atsushi; Hashiguchi, Hiroshi; Iizawa, Norishige; Takeda, Tomomichi; Hattori, Mikihiko; Ito, Hiromoto

    2004-02-01

    No previous cases of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries sustained during wake-boarding have been reported. We report on a case involving an ACL injury sustained during wakeboarding. A 27-year-old man sustained an injury while attempting a wakeboarding maneuver(a heel-side back roll, consisting of a jump and simultaneous roll toward the heel side). He failed to complete his roll before landing, striking the water with his right shoulder foremost, then plunging underwater. When his wakeboard struck the water, his left knee was sprained by the rotational force exerted by the board. The patient was diagnosed with an isolated ACL injury and underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstructive surgery. The board used in wakeboarding is wider and subject to greater water resistance than that used in water skiing. The feet of the wakeboarder are firmly attached by binding boots to a board, laterally with respect to the direction of motion, impeding easy separation of the board from the feet in the event of a fall. Thus, wakeboarding conditions would appear to put wakeboarders at particular risk for ACL injuries. These conditions need be assessed from a medical perspective in order to devise ways to minimize the risk of such injuries.

  19. Mechanisms for anterior cruciate ligament injuries in badminton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuka; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki; Tsuda, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Yuji; Tsukada, Harehiko; Toh, Satoshi

    2010-12-01

    A high incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries related to sports activities has been reported; however, the injury situation of ACL injury in badminton has not been elucidated. This study investigated the mechanism of ACL injury in badminton using a questionnaire. Information on injury mechanism was gathered from interviews with six male and 15 female badminton players who received a non-contact ACL injury playing badminton and underwent ACL reconstruction. The most common injury mechanism (10 of 21 injuries) was single-leg landing after overhead stroke. Nine of 10 players had injured the knee opposite to the racket-hand side. The second most frequent injury mechanism (eight of 21 injuries) was plant-and-cut while side-stepping or backward stepping. All eight players injured the knee of the racket-hand side. Eleven injuries occurred in the rear court, and six of the 11 injuries occurred during single-leg landing after an overhead stroke. The knee opposite to the racket-hand side tended to sustain the ACL injuries during single-leg landing after a backhand overhead stroke, whereas the knee of the racket-hand side tended to be injured by plant-and-cut during side or backward stepping. These injury patterns appear to be due to specific movements during badminton.

  20. Congenital multiple cranial neuropathies: Relevance of orofacial electromyography in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Francis; Flores-Guevara, Roberto; Baudon, Jean-Jacques; Vazquez, Marie-Paule

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess diagnoses and outcomes of infants with 2 or more cranial neuropathies identified using orofacial electromyography (EMG). This retrospective study involved 90 patients. Diagnoses took into account clinical, radiological, and genetic data. EMG examined the orbicularis oculi, genioglossus, and levator veli palatini muscles, and blink responses. To evaluate outcome, neurological disability, respiratory complications, and feeding difficulties were recorded. The patients had malformation syndromes (59), encephalopathies (29), or no underlying disorders (2). Neurogenic EMG signs were detected in a mean of 4 muscles, reflecting a mean of 3 affected nerves. EMG identified a higher number of neuropathies than clinical examination alone (82 vs. 31, facial; 56 vs. 2, pharyngeal; 25 vs. 3, hypoglossal). Poor outcome and death were more frequent when EMG identified ≥4 affected nerves (P = 0.02). EMG highlights multiple cranial neuropathies that can be clinically silent in infants with malformation syndromes or encephalopathies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Ioversol 350: clinical experience in cranial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theron, J.; Paugam, J.P.; Courtheoux, P.

    1991-01-01

    A single, open trial was conducted in 40 patients to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy and safety, in cranial computed tomography, of ioversol (350 mgl/ml), a new nonionic, monomeric, low-osmolality contrast medium. Ioversol is characterized by a hydrophilicity which is not only the highest of all nonionic agents available to date, but also evenly distributed among the various sides of the benzene ring. Diagnosis was possible in 100 % of cases with a mean degree of certainty of 90.8 %. Six minor adverse reactions requiring no treatment we recorded, of which two were observed by the investigator and four reported by the patients. No pain sensation was found and heat sensations were of minor intensity. Ioversol 350, which showed good diagnostic efficacy and proved to be well tolerated, is therefore suitable for cranial computed tomography at a mean dose of 1 ml/kg

  2. MR of acoustic neuromas; Relationship to cranial nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Takashima, Tsutomu; Kadoya, Masumi; Takahashi, Shiroh; Miyayama, Shiroh; Taira, Sakae; Kashihara, Kengo; Yamashima, Tetsumori; Itoh, Haruhide [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1989-08-01

    In this report, the relationship of acoustic neuromas to the adjacent cranial nerves is discussed. On T{sub 1}-weighted images, the trigeminal nerve was detected in all 13 cases. Mild to marked compression of these nerves by the tumors was observed in eight cases. The extent of compression did not always correspond to the clinical symptoms. In four cases with a maximum tumor diameter of 2 cm or less, the 7th and 8th cranial nerves were identified. There was no facial palsy in these patients. Two patients with a tumor diameter of more than 2 cm also had no facial palsy. All patients, including those with small tumors, complained of hearing loss and/or tinnitus. While MR imaging has some limitations, it is an effective imaging modality for showing the relationship between tumors and nerves. (author).

  3. Cranial radiation in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Neuropsychologic sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitt, J.K.; Wells, R.J.; Lauria, M.M.; Wilhelm, C.L.; McMillan, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    A battery of neuropsychologic tests was administered ''blindly'' to 18 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had been randomly assigned to treatment regimens with or without cranial radiation. These children were all in complete continuous remission for more than 3 1/2 years and were no longer receiving therapy. The results indicated no substantial differences between groups as a function of radiation therapy. However, decreased neuropsychologic performance was found when the entire sample was compared with population norms. These data do not support the hypothesis that cranial radiation therapy is responsible for the neuropsychologic sequelae seen in these survivors of ALL. Post hoc multiple regression analysis indicated that parental education levels accounted for more of the neuropsychologic variability seen in these children than other factors such as age at diagnosis, type of therapy, or sex of child

  4. [Adenovirus-mediated canine interferon-gamma expression and its antiviral activity against canine parvovirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kao; Jin, Huijun; Zhong, Fei; Li, Xiujin; Neng, Changai; Chen, Huihui; Li, Wenyan; Wen, Jiexia

    2012-11-04

    To construct recombinant adenovirus containing canine interferon-gamma (cIFN-gamma) gene and to investigate its antiviral activity against canine parvovirus in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK). [Methods] The cIFN-gamma gene was inserted into adenovirus shuttle plasmid to construct pShuttle3-cIFN-gamma expression vector, from which the cIFN-gamma expression cassette was transferred into the adenovirus genomic plasmid pAdeno-X by specific restriction sites to generate recombinant adenovirus genomic plasmid pAd-cIFN-gamma. The pAd-cIFN-gamma plasmid was linearized by digestion and transfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells to generate the replication-defective cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus (Ad-cIFN-gamma). To analyze its anti-canine parvovirus activity, the MDCK cells were pre-infected by Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus, and then infected by canine parvovirus. The antiviral activity of the Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus against parvovirus was analyzed. The recombinant adenovirus containing cIFN-gamma gene was constructed by the ligation method. The recombinant adenovirus could mediates recombinant cIFN-gamma secretory expression in MDCK cells. The Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus could significantly inhibit canine parvovirus replication in MDCK cells pre-infected with the recombinant adenovirus. These results indicate that the Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus has the potent antiviral activity against canine parvovirus. The Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus was successfully constructed by the ligation method and possessed a powerful antiviral activity against canine parvovirus.

  5. Military Working Dogs and Canine Ehrlichiosis (Tropical Canine Pancytopenia) in the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-05

    anemia, dermatitis, edema of the limbs and scrotum, and petechial hemorrhages on the penis (116). Hematologic findings included a leucopenia with...idiopathic hemorrhagic disease, and canine hemorrhagic fever (116). Attempts to identity the cause of tropical canine pancytopenia continued in 1969...Following inoculation with infective blood, signs of acute disease appear within 7-10 days and consfst of fever , serous nasal and ocular discharges

  6. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Screw Fixation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizari, Mahmoud; Wang, Bin; Snow, Martyn; Barrett, Mel

    2008-09-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental and finite element analysis of tibial screw fixation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The mechanical properties of the bone and tendon graft are obtained from experiments using porcine bone and bovine tendon. The results of the numerical study are compared with those from mechanical testing. Analysis shows that the model may be used to establish the optimum placement of the tunnel in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by predicting mechanical parameters such as stress, strain and displacement at regions in the tunnel wall.

  7. Normal computed tomographic anatomy of the cisterns and cranial nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manelfe, C.; Bonafe, A.

    1980-01-01

    This study, based on the normal CT anatomy of the cisterns investigated with Metrizamide, aims at attempting to find out with accuracy which plane of section is the most suitable for the investigation of each group of cisterns (posterior fossa, mesencephalon, suprasellar). Moreover we felt it necessary to include our study the normal appearance of the cranial nerves as their normal CT anatymy - optic nerves expected - is not well known yet. (orig./AJ) [de

  8. Pictorial essay: Vascular interventions in extra cranial head and neck

    OpenAIRE

    Suyash S Kulkarni; Nitin S Shetty; Tejas P Dharia; Ashwin M Polnaya

    2012-01-01

    Medicine is an ever changing field and interventional radiology (IR) procedures are becoming increasingly popular because of high efficacy and its minimally invasive nature of the procedure. Management of disease processes in the extra cranial head and neck (ECHN) has always been a challenge due to the complex anatomy of the region. Cross sectional imaging of the ECHN has grown and evolved tremendously and occupies a pivotal and integral position in the clinical management of variety of head ...

  9. The lower cranial nerves: IX, X, XI, XII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, J-L; Toulgoat, F; Benoudiba, F

    2013-10-01

    The lower cranial nerves innervate the pharynx and larynx by the glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and vagus (CN X) (mixed) nerves, and provide motor innervation of the muscles of the neck by the accessory nerve (CN XI) and the tongue by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII). The symptomatology provoked by an anomaly is often discrete and rarely in the forefront. As with all cranial nerves, the context and clinical examinations, in case of suspicion of impairment of the lower cranial nerves, are determinant in guiding the imaging. In fact, the impairment may be located in the brain stem, in the peribulbar cisterns, in the foramens or even in the deep spaces of the face. The clinical localization of the probable seat of the lesion helps in choosing the adapted protocol in MRI and eventually completes it with a CT-scan. In the bulb, the intra-axial pathology is dominated by brain ischemia (in particular, with Wallenberg syndrome) and multiple sclerosis. Cisternal pathology is tumoral with two tumors, schwannoma and meningioma. The occurrence is much lower than in the cochleovestibular nerves as well as the leptomeningeal nerves (infectious, inflammatory or tumoral). Finally, foramen pathology is tumoral with, outside of the usual schwannomas and meningiomas, paragangliomas. For radiologists, fairly hesitant to explore these lower cranial pairs, it is necessary to be familiar with (or relearn) the anatomy, master the exploratory technique and be aware of the diagnostic possibilities. Copyright © 2013 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. The cranial-spinal junction in medulloblastoma: does it matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Ashwatha; Jeswani, Sam; Paulino, Arnold C.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Late effects of treatment in children and young adults with medulloblastoma can be influenced by the technique employed in radiating the craniospinal axis. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the placement of the cranial-spinal junction has an impact on dose to the cervical spinal cord and surrounding organs. Methods and Materials: Five patients underwent computed tomography (CT) simulation in the prone position for craniospinal irradiation. A dose of 36 Gy was prescribed to the entire neuraxis. The doses to the cervical spinal cord and surrounding organs were calculated using a cranial-spinal junction at the C1-C2 vertebral interspace (high junction) or at the lowest point in the neck, with exclusion of the shoulders in the lateral cranial fields (low junction).The volume of critical organs at risk, as well as dose to these structures using the cranial and spinal field(s) were outlined and calculated using the CMS FOCUS 3-dimensional treatment planning system. Results: The average dose to the cervical spinal cord was 11.9% higher than the prescribed dose with the low junction, and 6.7% higher with the high junction. However, doses to the thyroid gland, mandible, pharynx, and larynx were increased by an average of 29.6%, 75.8%, 70.6%, and 227.7%, respectively, by the use of the high junction compared to the low junction. Conclusion: A higher dose to the cervical spinal cord can be minimized by using a high junction. However, this would be at the cost of substantially increased doses to surrounding organs such as the thyroid gland, mandible, pharynx, and larynx. This can be critical in children and young adults, where hypothyroidism, mandibular hypoplasia, and development of second malignancies may be a late sequela of radiation therapy

  11. Development and Tissue Origins of the Mammalian Cranial Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, S.; Bamforth, S. D.; Olsen, B. R.; Morriss-Kay, G. M.

    2008-01-01

    The vertebrate cranial base is a complex structure composed of bone, cartilage and other connective tissues underlying the brain; it is intimately connected with development of the face and cranial vault. Despite its central importance in craniofacial development, morphogenesis and tissue origins of the cranial base have not been studied in detail in the mouse, an important model organism. We describe here the location and time of appearance of the cartilages of the chondrocranium. We also examine the tissue origins of the mouse cranial base using a neural crest cell lineage cell marker, Wnt1-Cre/R26R, and a mesoderm lineage cell marker, Mesp1-Cre/R26R. The chondrocranium develops between E11 and E16 in the mouse, beginning with development of the caudal (occipital) chondrocranium, followed by chondrogenesis rostrally to form the nasal capsule, and finally fusion of these two parts via the midline central stem and the lateral struts of the vault cartilages. X-Gal staining of transgenic mice from E8.0 to 10 days post-natal showed that neural crest cells contribute to all of the cartilages that form the ethmoid, presphenoid, and basisphenoid bones with the exception of the hypochiasmatic cartilages. The basioccipital bone and non-squamous parts of the temporal bones are mesoderm derived. Therefore the prechordal head is mostly composed of neural crest-derived tissues, as predicted by the New Head Hypothesis. However, the anterior location of the mesoderm-derived hypochiasmatic cartilages, which are closely linked with the extra-ocular muscles, suggests that some tissues associated with the visual apparatus may have evolved independently of the rest of the “New Head”. PMID:18680740

  12. Surgical pitfalls with custom-made porous hydroxyapatite cranial implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Zanotti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cranioplasty implants are used primarily in cases of surgical cranial decompression following pathological elevations of intracranial pressure. Available bone substitutes include porous hydroxyapatite (HA and polymethylmethacrylate. Whichever material is used, however, prosthetic cranial implants are susceptible to intra- and postsurgical complications and even failure. The aim of this study was to investigate such occurrences in HA cranioplasty implants, seeking not only to determine the likely causes (whether correlated or not with the device itself but also, where possible, to suggest countermeasures. Methods: We analyzed information regarding failures or complications reported in postmarketing surveillance and clinical studies of patients treated worldwide with custom-made HA cranial implants (Custom Bone Service Fin-Ceramica Faenza, Italy in the period 1997-2013. Results: The two most common complications were implant fractures (84 cases, 2.9% of the total fitted and infections (51 cases, 1.77%. Conclusion: Although cranioplasties are superficial and not difficult types of surgery, and use of custom-made implants are often considered the "easy" option from a surgical perspective, these procedures are nonetheless plagued by potential pitfalls. If performed well they yield more than satisfactory results from the points of view of both the patient and surgeon, but lack of appropriate care can open the door to numerous potential sources of failure, which can compromise-even irreparably-the ability to heal.

  13. Robotic Stereotaxy in Cranial Neurosurgery: A Qualitative Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomenko, Anton; Serletis, Demitre

    2017-12-14

    Modern-day stereotactic techniques have evolved to tackle the neurosurgical challenge of accurately and reproducibly accessing specific brain targets. Neurosurgical advances have been made in synergy with sophisticated technological developments and engineering innovations such as automated robotic platforms. Robotic systems offer a unique combination of dexterity, durability, indefatigability, and precision. To perform a systematic review of robotic integration for cranial stereotactic guidance in neurosurgery. Specifically, we comprehensively analyze the strengths and weaknesses of a spectrum of robotic technologies, past and present, including details pertaining to each system's kinematic specifications and targeting accuracy profiles. Eligible articles on human clinical applications of cranial robotic-guided stereotactic systems between 1985 and 2017 were extracted from several electronic databases, with a focus on stereotactic biopsy procedures, stereoelectroencephalography, and deep brain stimulation electrode insertion. Cranial robotic stereotactic systems feature serial or parallel architectures with 4 to 7 degrees of freedom, and frame-based or frameless registration. Indications for robotic assistance are diversifying, and include stereotactic biopsy, deep brain stimulation and stereoelectroencephalography electrode placement, ventriculostomy, and ablation procedures. Complication rates are low, and mainly consist of hemorrhage. Newer systems benefit from increasing targeting accuracy, intraoperative imaging ability, improved safety profiles, and reduced operating times. We highlight emerging future directions pertaining to the integration of robotic technologies into future neurosurgical procedures. Notably, a trend toward miniaturization, cost-effectiveness, frameless registration, and increasing safety and accuracy characterize successful stereotactic robotic technologies. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  14. Phylogeny, diet, and cranial integration in australodelphian marsupials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Goswami

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of morphological integration provide valuable information on the correlated evolution of traits and its relationship to long-term patterns of morphological evolution. Thus far, studies of morphological integration in mammals have focused on placentals and have demonstrated that similarity in integration is broadly correlated with phylogenetic distance and dietary similarity. Detailed studies have also demonstrated a significant correlation between developmental relationships among structures and adult morphological integration. However, these studies have not yet been applied to marsupial taxa, which differ greatly from placentals in reproductive strategy and cranial development and could provide the diversity necessary to assess the relationships among phylogeny, ecology, development, and cranial integration. This study presents analyses of morphological integration in 20 species of australodelphian marsupials, and shows that phylogeny is significantly correlated with similarity of morphological integration in most clades. Size-related correlations have a significant affect on results, particularly in Peramelia, which shows a striking decrease in similarity of integration among species when size is removed. Diet is not significantly correlated with similarity of integration in any marsupial clade. These results show that marsupials differ markedly from placental mammals in the relationships of cranial integration, phylogeny, and diet, which may be related to the accelerated development of the masticatory apparatus in marsupials.

  15. Tay-Sachs disease with conspicuous cranial computerized tomographic appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kishichiro; Mukawa, Akio; Muto, Kazuhiko; Nishikawa, Jiro; Takahashi, Shigeko.

    1985-01-01

    An autopsy case of a 3-year-old female infant with Tay-Sachs disease was presented. A cherry red spot in the fundus and a deficiency of N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase A in the white blood cells were revealed soon after admission at the age of one year. Her parents and sister were found to be healthy carriers. The patient showed a typical clinical course with marked cranial swelling. In addition to the marked ballooning of neurons on light microscope, membranous cytoplasmic body (MCB) on electron microscope and abnormal accumulation of GM 2 ganglioside in the cerebral cortex by thin layer chromatography were confirmed in the autopsy specimens. In the late stage of her clinical course, the cranial computerized tomography (CT) demonstrated symmetric and deep-wavy hyperdense cerebral cortical zones, diffuse hypodensity and diminished volume of cerebral white matter, mild to moderate ventricular dilatation, and a small cerebellum and brainstem. These conspicuous appearances of the cranial CT seem to be characteristic of Tay-Sachs disease in the late stage, and they are derived from abnormal accumulation of GM 2 ganglioside in the cerebral cortex, and diffuse intense demyelination (dysmyelinating demyelination) of the cerebral white matter. (author)

  16. Preoperative percutaneous cranial nerve mapping in head and neck surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung I

    2003-01-01

    To identify and map the course of the peripheral branches of the cranial nerve preoperatively and percutaneously. Prospective study. Preoperative percutaneous nerve mapping performed prior to the operation under deep sedation or general anesthesia without muscle paralysis. Private office surgery suite, freestanding surgery center, and regional medical centers. A total of 142 patients undergoing head and neck surgery and facial plastic surgery between August 1994 and July 1999. Monopolar probe was used for nerve stimulation. Electromyographic reading was done through intramuscular bipolar recording electrodes. The equipment used was a nerve monitor. The mandibular divisions were tested in 142 cases, the frontal division in 60 cases, the accessory nerve in 12 cases, and the hypoglossal nerve in 3 cases. Satisfactory mappings were obtained in 115 cases of the mandibular division, 49 cases of the frontal division, 8 cases of the accessory division, and 1 case of the hypoglossal nerve. Preoperative percutaneous nerve mapping is a new method of identifying the location of the peripheral branches of the cranial nerves. Identifying and mapping the course of peripheral branches of the cranial nerves safely assists the head and neck surgeon in the placement of incisions in a favorable location and in the dissection of the area involving the nerves. Mapping alerts the surgeon to an area containing a nerve and allows the surgeon to avoid just the specific area where a nerve is present, preventing large-scale abandonment of unmapped areas for fear of potential nerve damage.

  17. Latitudinal variation in cranial dimorphism in Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael A

    2010-02-01

    This study examines latitudinal and insular variation in the expression of sexual dimorphism in cranial length in three geographical groupings of Macaca fascicularis. In addition, the relationship between cranial length dimorphism (CLD) and sex-specific size is examined. The results of the study identified a significant relationship between CLD and latitude for only one of the three geographic groupings. Sex-specific relationships between cranial length and CLD were detected. The pattern of these relationships varied by geographic grouping. This study is important because it demonstrates that despite very similar levels of CLD in a single primate species, there exists important geographic variability in the correlates of that dimorphism. I suggest that geographically varying ecological factors may influence sex-specific natural selection and the intensity of CLD in M. fascicularis. Gaining a better understanding of this geographical variability will require that future research examines morphological variation, including CLD, within its corresponding ecological and social contexts. Such research should be comparative, and incorporate multiple geographically separated populations with disparate environmental settings.

  18. Traumatic superior orbital fissure syndrome: assessment of cranial nerve recovery in 33 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Tzung; Wang, Theresa Y; Tsay, Pei-Kwei; Huang, Faye; Lai, Jui-Pin; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2010-07-01

    Superior orbital fissure syndrome is a rare complication that occurs in association with craniofacial trauma. The characteristics of superior orbital fissure syndrome are attributable to a constellation of cranial nerve III, IV, and VI palsies. This is the largest series describing traumatic superior orbital fissure syndrome that assesses the recovery of individual cranial nerve function after treatment. In a review from 1988 to 2002, 33 patients with superior orbital fissure syndrome were identified from 11,284 patients (0.3 percent) with skull and facial fractures. Severity of cranial nerve injury and functional recovery were evaluated by extraocular muscle movement. Patients were evaluated on average 6 days after initial injury, and average follow-up was 11.8 months. There were 23 male patients. The average age was 31 years. The major mechanism of injury was motorcycle accident (67 percent). Twenty-two received conservative treatment, five were treated with steroids, and six patients underwent surgical decompression of the superior orbital fissure. After initial injury, cranial nerve VI suffered the most damage, whereas cranial nerve IV sustained the least. In the first 3 months, recovery was greatest in cranial nerve VI. At 9 months, function was lowest in cranial nerve VI and highest in cranial nerve IV. Eight patients (24 percent) had complete recovery of all cranial nerves. Functional recovery of all cranial nerves reached a plateau at 6 months after trauma. Cranial nerve IV suffered the least injury, whereas cranial nerve VI experienced the most neurologic deficits. Cranial nerve palsies improved to their final recovery endpoints by 6 months. Surgical decompression is considered when there is evidence of bony compression of the superior orbital fissure.

  19. Differential radiodiagnosis of cranial lesions in hyperparathyroid and deforming asteodystrophy, fibrous osteoplasia, multiple myeloma and tumor metastases to the cranial bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spuzyak, M.I.

    1986-01-01

    The results of an analysis of craniographic findings were provided for 58 patients with primary hyperparathyrosis, 12 with fibrous osteodysplasia, 6 with deforming osteodystrophy, 14 with multiple myeloma and 16 with tumor metastases to the cranial bones. A study was made of some features of roentgenological semiotics (changes in the structure thickness and shapes of the cranial bones) of cranial bone lesions in the above diseases. Differential radiodiagnosis of cranial lesions in hypeparathyroid and deforming osteodystrophy, fibrous osteodysplasia, multiple myeloma and metastatic lesions of the cranial bones should be based not on single signs but on the symptom-complex (x-ray syndrome). For each of the analysed diseases x-ray syndromes were described

  20. Cardiac involvement in canine babesiosis : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Lobetti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac dysfunction in canine babesiosis has traditionally been regarded as a rare complication, with the majority of lesions reported as incidental findings at post-mortem examination. Recent studies have, however, demonstrated cardiac lesions in canine babesiosis. Cardiac troponins, especially troponin I, are sensitive markers of myocardial injury in canine babesiosis, and the magnitude of elevation of plasma troponin I concentrations appears to be proportional to the severity of the disease. ECG changes in babesiosis are similar to the pattern described for myocarditis and myocardial ischaemia and together with histopathological findings indicate that the heart suffers from the same pathological processes described in other organs in canine babesiosis, namely inflammation and hypoxia. The clinical application of the ECG appears to be limited and thus cardiovascular assessment should be based on functional monitoring rather than an ECG tracing. On cardiac histopathology from dogs that succumbed to babesiosis, haemorrhage, necrosis, inflammation and fibrin microthrombi in the myocardium were documented, all of which would have resulted in ECG changes and elevations in cardiac troponin. Myocardial damage causes left ventricular failure, which will result in hypotension and an expansion of the plasma volume due to homeostatic mechanisms.

  1. Canine distemper outbreak in rhesus monkeys, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-08-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People's Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%-60% disease incidence); 5%-30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  2. Canine trypanosomosis: Clinical observations and morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical and pathological aspects of canine trypanosomosis were determined in naturally infected dogs presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, at different times between 2012 and 2013. The breeds, sexes, ages and body weights of the dogs were recorded. Clinical signs ...

  3. Molecular Epidemiology of Canine Parvovirus, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desario, Costantina; Addie, Diane D.; Martella, Vito; Vieira, Maria João; Elia, Gabriella; Zicola, Angelique; Davis, Christopher; Thompson, Gertrude; Thiry, Ethienne; Truyen, Uwe; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2007-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV), which causes hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs, has 3 antigenic variants: types 2a, 2b, and 2c. Molecular method assessment of the distribution of the CPV variants in Europe showed that the new variant CPV-2c is widespread in Europe and that the viruses are distributed in different countries. PMID:17953097

  4. Prostate histotripsy for BPH: initial canine results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William W.; Hall, Timothy L.; Hempel, Christopher R.; Cain, Charles A.

    2009-02-01

    Histotripsy is an extracorporeal ablative technology that utilizes microsecond pulses of intense ultrasound (< 1% duty cycle) to produce nonthermal, mechanical fractionation of targeted tissue. We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of histotripsy prostate ablation. In this study we sought to assess the chronic tissue response, tolerability and safety of histotripsy in a chronic in vivo canine model. Five acute and thirteen chronic canine subjects were anesthetized and treated with histotripsy targeting the prostate. Pulses consisted of 3 cycle bursts of 750 kHz ultrasound at a repetition rate of 300 Hz delivered transabdominally from a highly focused 15 cm aperture array. Transrectal ultrasound imaging provided accurate targeting and real-time monitoring of histotripsy treatment. Prostates were harvested at 0, 7, 28, or 56 days after treatment. Consistent mechanical tissue fractionation and debulking of prostate tissue was seen acutely and at delayed time points without collateral injury. Urothelialization of the treatment cavity was apparent 28 days after treatment. Canine subjects tolerated histotripsy with minimal hematuria or discomfort. Only mild transient lab abnormalities were noted. Histotripsy is a promising non-invasive therapy for prostate tissue fractionation and debulking that appears safe and well tolerated without systemic side effects in the canine model.

  5. Canine specific ELISA for coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tom; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Tranholm, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    available to date. In this study, a canine specific ELISA for measurement of FVII:Ag in plasma was developed and validated. The FVII:Ag ELISA correctly diagnosed homozygous and heterozygous hereditary FVII deficiency. Together with activity based assays, such as FVII:C, the FVII:Ag ELISA should be valuable...

  6. Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain. PMID:21801646

  7. A novel bocavirus in canine liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Linlin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bocaviruses are classified as a genus within the Parvoviridae family of single-stranded DNA viruses and are pathogenic in some mammalian species. Two species have been previously reported in dogs, minute virus of canines (MVC, associated with neonatal diseases and fertility disorders; and Canine bocavirus (CBoV, associated with respiratory disease. Findings In this study using deep sequencing of enriched viral particles from the liver of a dog with severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, necrotizing vasculitis, granulomatous lymphadenitis and anuric renal failure, we identified and characterized a novel bocavirus we named Canine bocavirus 3 (CnBoV3. The three major ORFs of CnBoV3 (NS1, NP1 and VP1 shared less than 60% aa identity with those of other bocaviruses qualifying it as a novel species based on ICTV criteria. Inverse PCR showed the presence of concatemerized or circular forms of the genome in liver. Conclusions We genetically characterized a bocavirus in a dog liver that is highly distinct from prior canine bocaviruses found in respiratory and fecal samples. Its role in this animal’s complex disease remains to be determined.

  8. Partial cranial cruciate ligament tears treated with stem cell and platelet rich plasma combination therapy in 36 dogs: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman Canapp

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate outcomes in 36 dogs with a partial CCL tear treated with autologous bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC or adipose derived progenitor cells (ADPC with platelet rich plasma (PRP combination.Materials and Methods: Medical records of client-owned dogs diagnosed with an early partial (≤50% tear of the craniomedial band of the CCL that were treated with BMAC-PRP or ADPC-PRP were reviewed from 2010-2015. Signalment, medical history, physical and orthopedic examination, objective temporospatial gait analyses, radiographs, day 0 and day 90 diagnostic arthroscopy findings, treatment, and outcome were among the data collected. A functional owner questionnaire, including the validated Helsinki chronic pain index (HCPI, was sent to owners whose dog was known to not have had a TPLO. Statistical analysis was performed on data, where significance was established at p50% CCL tear and a TPLO was performed. Four additional dogs were known to have had a TPLO performed elsewhere. Baseline and day 90 post treatment objective gait analyses were available on 11 of the 36 dogs. A significant difference was found between the treated limb TPI% at day 0 and day 90 (p=0.0124, and between the treated limb and contralateral limb TPI% at day 0 (p=0.0003. No significant difference was found between the treated limb and contralateral limb TPI% at day 90 (p=0.7466. Twelve questionnaires were returned, of which 8 were performance/sporting dogs. Seven of the 8 had returned to sport; the remaining dog had just begun a return to sport conditioning program 6 months post treatment. All 12 respondents believed their dog had an excellent or very good quality of life, and rated their dog’s procedural outcome as excellent or good.Conclusion: The use of BMAC-PRP and ADPC-PRP shows promise for the treatment of early partial CCL tears in dogs.

  9. Mechanical testing of newly developed biomaterial designed for intra-articular reinforcement of partially ruptured cranial cruciate ligament: ex vivo pig model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fedorová, P.; Srnec, R.; Pěnčík, J.; Schmid, P.; Amler, Evžen; Urbanová, L.; Nečas, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 1 (2014), s. 55-60 ISSN 0001-7213 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) CEITEC CZ1.05/1.1.00/02.0068; GA MŠk(CZ) 39/2012/FVL Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : knee stabilization * stifle surgery * polycaprolactone nanofibre Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics Impact factor: 0.469, year: 2014

  10. Duration of serological response to canine parvovirus-type 2, canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 1 and canine parainfluenza virus in client-owned dogs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S A; Zwijnenberg, R J; Huang, J; Hodge, A; Day, M J

    2012-12-01

    To determine whether client-owned dogs in Australia, last vaccinated with Canvac(®) vaccines containing canine parvovirus-type 2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) ± canine parainfluenza virus (CPiV) at least 18 months ago, were seropositive or responded serologically to revaccination. A total of 235 dogs were recruited from 23 veterinary clinics, representing a variety of breeds, ages and time since last vaccination (TSLV: range 1.5-9 years, mean 2.8 years). Dogs had a blood sample taken and were revaccinated on day 0. A second blood sample was taken 7-14 days later. Blood samples were assessed for antibody titres to CPV-2 (by haemagglutination inhibition) and CDV, CAV type 1 (CAV-1) and CPiV (by virus neutralisation). Dogs with a day 0 titre >10 or a four-fold increase in titre following revaccination were considered to be serological responders. The overall percentage of dogs classified as serological responders was 98.7% for CPV-2, 96.6% for CDV, 99.6% for CAV-1 and 90.3% for CPiV. These results suggest that the duration of serological response induced by modified-live vaccines against CPV-2, CDV, CAV-1 and CPiV, including Canvac(®) vaccines, is beyond 18 months and may extend up to 9 years. Accordingly, these vaccines may be considered for use in extended revaccination interval protocols as recommended by current canine vaccine guidelines. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  11. [Magnetic resonance imaging features of a caudal cruciate ligament rupture associated with a suspected bone bruise lesion in a dog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmohl, M; Konar, M; Tassani-Prell, M; Rupp, S

    2014-04-16

    In this case study we describe a surgically confirmed caudal cruciate ligament rupture in a 10-year-old Border Collie. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a complete rupture of the caudal cruciate ligament, a suspected bone bruise lesion on the proximolateral tibia and a muscle strain injury of the M. flexor digitorum lateralis. In human medicine, bone bruise lesions in MRI have been described as "footprint injuries" and can thereby explain the mechanism of trauma in ligament injuries. The combination of the MRI findings in this case can help to understand how the rarely diagnosed isolated rupture of the caudal cruciate ligament occurred in this dog.

  12. Radiographer led supplementary anterior cruciate ligament MRI sequences: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Paula J.; McCall, Iain; Kraus, Alexandra; Jones, Mary; Walley, Gayle; Gibson, Kathryn; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To compare different supplementary MRI sequences of the ACL to arthroscopy and determine the diagnostic performance of each sequence. To ascertain whether radiographers could identify patients requiring supplementary MRI sequences of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, without a supervising radiologist. Methods: The study had ethical approval and two hundred and thirty one consecutive prospective MRI patients with mechanical knee symptoms (77 females, 154 males, of mean age 43.5, range 18–82 years) gave written informed consent. They then had a knee arthroscopy within seven days of the MRI. This was a pragmatic study to see if the six general MRI radiographers, each with over four years experience, could evaluate the ACL on routine orthogonal sequences (sagittal T1, Gradient Echo T2, Coronal STIR and axial fat suppressed dual echo). If they identified no ACL, then two 3D volume sequences (Dual Echo Steady State and Fast Low Angle Shot) and 2D limited sagittal oblique T1 sequences were also performed. Patients requiring extra sequences, missed by the radiographers, were recalled. The MRI sequences were independently evaluated in a blinded fashion by two consultant radiologists and a specialist radiology registrar and compared to the subsequent knee arthroscopy, as the gold standard, to determine the diagnostic performance statistics. Results: The cohort was on the knee arthroscopy weighting list and comprised 205 patients with chronic, 20 acute and 6 acute on chronic mechanical knee symptoms. There were no posterior cruciate, medial, or lateral collateral ligament tears at arthroscopy, used as the gold standard. The arthroscopy was normal and the radiographers correctly did not scan the extra sequence in 140 patients (72%) who then had normal arthroscopies. The radiographers did perform additional ACL sequences in 63 patients (27%). Of these, 10 patients had a partial and 12 complete ACL tears. Only two patients (0.9%) were recalled for additional

  13. Imaging features of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction graft insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Yao; Zhang Yue; Tian Chunyan; Zheng Zhuozhao

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the imaging features of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft insufficiency. Methods: X-Ray and MR imaging examinations in 24 consecutive patients who had ACL reconstructive graft insufficiency were retrospectively evaluated for tunnel position, osteoarthrosis and its related complications. Follow-up arthroscopy showed 16 graft tears and 8 graft laxities. Fisher exact test was used to compare tunnel malpositions, the proportion of graft tear on MRI and osteoarthrosis between graft tear group and graft laxity group. Results: Two malpositions of tibial tunnel and 3 malpositions of femoral tunnel were seen in graft tear group. Three-malpositions of tibial tunnel and 4 malpositions of femoral tunnel were seen in graft laxity group. The proportion of tibial or femoral malposition showed no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.289, P=0.167). In graft tear group, 15 complete graft tears were diagnosed correctly, 1 partial tear was misdiagnosed as normal on MRI. In graft laxity group, 4 grafts were diagnosed as normal and 4 were considered as graft tear on MRI. A significant difference was seen between the two groups (P=0.028) in the proportion of graft tear diagnosed on MRI. Fourteen osteoarthrosis were seen in graft tear group and 5 in graft laxity group. No significant difference was seen between the two groups (P= 0.289) in the proportion of osteoarthrosis. Conclusion: The proportions of tunnel malposition and osteoarthrosis showed no significant difference between the graft tear group and graft Laxity group. Most graft tears can be diagnosed accurately on MRI, but some cases of graft laxity may be misdiagnosed for graft tear. (authors)

  14. Early Results of Anatomic Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Pepele

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The goal in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR is to restore the normal anatomic structure and function of the knee. In the significant proportion of patients after the traditional single-bundle ACLR, complaints of instability still continue. Anatomic double bundle ACLR may provide normal kinematics in knees, much closer to the natural anatomy. The aim of this study is to clinically assess the early outcomes of our anatomical double bundle ACLR. Material and Method: In our clinic between June 2009 and March 2010, performed the anatomic double bundle ACLR with autogenous hamstring grafts 20 patients were evaluated prospectively with Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm scores and in clinically for muscle strength and with Cybex II dynamometer. Results: The mean follow-up is 17.8 months (13-21 months. Patients%u2019 scores of Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm were respectively, preoperative 18.1, 39.3 and 39.8, while the post-op increased to 27.2, 76.3 and 86.3. In their last check, 17 percent of the patients according to IKDC scores (85% A (excellent and B (good group and 3 patients took place as C (adequate group. The power measurements of quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups of patients who underwent surgery showed no significant difference compared with the intact knees. Discussion: Double-bundle ACL reconstruction is a satisfactory method. There is a need comparative, long-term studies in large numbers in order to determine improving clinical outcome, preventing degeneration and restoring the knee biomechanics better.

  15. The effectiveness of Pilates for partial anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Derya; Turkel, Nilgun

    2017-08-01

    This study explored the effects of Pilates on the muscle strength, function, and instability of patients with partial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in situations in which a non-surgical treatment option is preferred. Fifty participants 20-45 years of age who were diagnosed with isolated ACL injuries were included in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to either the Pilates exercise group (n = 24) or the control group (n = 26). The subjects in the Pilates exercise group performed basic mat exercises that focused on the muscle strength and flexibility of the lower limbs and core muscles during each class session, which met three times per week for 12 weeks. The control group did not receive any treatment or home exercise programme. All patients were evaluated using the Lysholm Knee Scale, the Cincinnati Knee Rating System, and isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring strength. Patient satisfaction regarding improvement in knee stability was assessed using the Global Rating of Change scale. The Pilates group experienced significant improvement over the control group as measured by the difference in quadriceps strength at 12 weeks (p = 0.03). Both groups showed some clinical change over time, but the Pilates group improved for all outcome measurements at the 12-week follow-up, and the control group only improved for functional outcomes. Patient satisfaction with the level of knee stability based on the Global Rating of Change scale was higher in the Pilates group than in the control group. Although both groups exhibited improvements in knee strength and functional outcomes, the results suggest that Pilates is a superior management approach over a control treatment for increasing quadriceps strength in participants with partial ACL injury. Pilates may provide clinicians a novel option when choosing a treatment for a partial ACL injury. Further study is needed to determine whether certain subgroups of individuals might achieve an added

  16. Preoperative cryotherapy use in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyonos, Loukas; Owsley, Kevin; Vollmer, Emily; Limpisvasti, Orr; Gambardella, Ralph

    2014-12-01

    Unrelieved postoperative pain may impair rehabilitation, compromise functional outcomes, and lead to patient dissatisfaction. Preemptive multimodal analgesic techniques may improve outcomes after surgery. We hypothesized that patients using preoperative cryotherapy plus a standardized postoperative treatment plan will have lower pain scores and require less pain medication compared with patients receiving a standardized postoperative treatment plan alone after arthroscopically assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). A total of 53 consecutive patients undergoing arthroscopically assisted ACLR performed by one of seven surgeons were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Group 1 received no preoperative cryotherapy and group 2 received 30 to 90 minutes of preoperative cryotherapy to the operative leg using a commercial noncompressive cryotherapy unit. Visual analog scale pain scores and narcotic use were recorded for the first 4 days postoperatively. Total hours of cold therapy and continuous passive motion (CPM) use and highest degree of flexion achieved were recorded as well. Group 1 consisted of 26 patients (15 allograft Achilles tendon and 11 autograft bone patellar tendon bone [BPTB]), and group 2 consisted of 27 patients (16 allograft Achilles tendon and 11 autograft BPTB). Group 2 patients reported less pain (average 1.3 units, p cryotherapy, hours of CPM use, or maximum knee flexion achieved. Complications did not occur in either group. This is the first report we are aware of showing the postoperative effects of preoperative cryotherapy. Our results support the safety and efficacy of preoperative cryotherapy in a multimodal pain regimen for patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Femoral Condyle Fracture during Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Ozyurek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor,We have greatly enjoyed reading the case report entitled “‘Femoral Condyle Fracture during Revision of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Case Report and a Review of Literature in the issue of Arch Bone Jt Surg. 2015;3(2 with great interest. We would like to commend the authors for their detailed and valuable work. Although various case reports have described postoperative distal femur fracture at a range of time intervals (1,2 intraoperative intra-articular distal femur fracture is a unique entity.However, we believe that some important additional observations seem necessary to be contributed through this study. In this article, the authors stated that, to the best of their knowledge, there is no other case report in the literature introducing a femoral condyle fracture during arthroscopic ACL reconstruction or revision reconstruction. Nevertheless, we would like to call the attention of the readers to the fact that that the literature contains one additional case report re‌porting on intraoperative distal femoral coronal plane (Hoffa fracture during primary ACL reconstruction (2. Werner BC and Miller MD presented of case report of an intraoperative distal femoral coronal plane (Hoffa fracture that occurred during independent femoral tunnel drilling and dilation in a primary ACL reconstruction. As in the their case, this type of fracture can occur with appropriately placed femoral tunnels, but the risk can increase with larger graft diameters in patients with smaller lateral femoral condyles The patient was treated with open reduction and internal fixation, without compromise of graft stability and with good recovery of function. We believe that tailoring graft size to the size of the patient is important to prevent similar adverse events.

  18. A novel MIS technique for posterior cruciate ligament avulsion fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaskar, Ashok S; Karthik, Bhupesh; Gopalan, Hitesh; Srinivasan, Parthasarathy; Tummala, Naveen C

    2017-08-01

    Open surgical approaches to treat tibial avulsion fractures of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) often use large incisions involving extensive muscle dissection and retraction. The objective of this study was to describe a new mini-invasive approach targeting the fractured zone, to minimize surgical dissection and improve recovery and rehabilitation. The new approach was used in 15 males and seven females with isolated PCL avulsions. The length of the surgical incision, surgical time, need for conversion to open technique, visual analog scores (VAS) and duration of hospital stay were studied to assess the efficacy, learning curve and advantages of the new technique. Neurovascular complications were recorded. At the two-year follow-up, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores were recorded to assess function. Patients were followed up for a mean of 29months (range: 34-41). The mean length of the incision was 4.1cm (range: 3.4 to five) measured at the end of the procedure. None of the patients required conversion to an open technique and no neurovascular complications were recorded. The mean surgical time was 40min (range: 25-50). The mean VAS on discharge was 2.2 (range: one to four) and patients stayed at the hospital for a mean of 2.2days (range: one to three). The mean IKDC score at one-year post surgery was 86.4 (range: 83.9-90.8). The new mini-invasive targeted approach provides adequate exposure for performing internal fixation of PCL avulsion fractures without the surgical morbidity associated with conventional open surgical approaches. The procedure is safe, fast and does not require a long learning curve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An unusual case of isolated sixth cranial nerve palsy in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishampayan, Sanjeev; Borde, Priyanka

    2012-08-15

    Cranial nerve involvement is not common in leprosy. The fifth and seventh cranial nerves are the most commonly affected in leprosy. Herein we present a patient with Hansen disease (BL) with type I reaction who developed isolated involvement of the sixth cranial nerve leading to lateral rectus muscle palsy. He responded to timely anti-reactional therapy and it produced a good response. Careful observation of patients with lepra reaction is needed to avoid damage to important organs.

  20. Structural and mechanical characterization of custom design cranial implant created using additive manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Khaja Moiduddin; Saied Darwish; Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari; Sherif ElWatidy; Ashfaq Mohammad; Wadea Ameen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Reconstruction of customized cranial implants with a mesh structure using computer-assisted design and additive manufacturing improves the implant design, surgical planning, defect evaluation, implant-tissue interaction and surgeon's accuracy. The objective of this study is to design, develop and fabricate cranial implant with mechanical properties closer to that of bone and drastically decreases the implant failure and to improve the esthetic outcome in cranial surgery with preci...

  1. Low-field-strength magnetic resonance imaging in the canine brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteve Ratsch, B.

    2000-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; 0,23 T) of the canine brain was performed. Each scan plane was compared with corresponding anatomic sections. The best imaging planes to visualize various anatomic structures were determined. Low-field-strength MRI allowed the good definition of all relevant anatomic structures of the brain of 55 dogs with the exception of most cranial nerves. White matter could be best differentiated using proton-weighted images. On T1-weighted images the contrast of white matter was markedly limited in the living dogs in contrast to the examined canine specimens. The relative size of the lateral ventricle was defined as the ratio of the size of the lateral ventricle and the size of the half brain. The relative size of the lateral ventricle of Yorkshire Terrier dogs (5,35 %) was significantly (p 0,05) in the relative size of the lateral ventricles of healthy Yorkshire Terrier dogs (5,35 %) and Yorkshire Terrier dogs with neurological symptoms (7,06 %). Asymmetric lateral ventricles were very common in the examined dogs independently from body size, skull shape and neurological status. Occasionally the septum telencephali was not developed completely. 11 of 12 intracranial neoplasm could be delineated using low-field-strength MRI. Anatomic site, number of intracerebral lesions, limitation, shape and growth pattern, secondary brain lesions and development of peritumoral edema were described for each intracranial neoplasm as well as its signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and contrast enhancement pattern. MRI did not allow an accurate diagnosis of tumor type, nevertheless skull shape (brachycephalic/dolichocephalic), anatomic site and number of intracerebral lesions facilitated a presumable diagnosis of the tumor type. (author)

  2. Reduced Operating Time but Not Blood Loss With Cruciate Retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermesan, Dinu; Trocan, Ilie; Prejbeanu, Radu; Poenaru, Dan V; Haragus, Horia; Gratian, Damian; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Francesco; Caprio, Monica; Cagiano, Raffaele; Tatullo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no consensus regarding the use of retaining or replacing cruciate implants for patients with limited deformity who undergo a total knee replacement. Scope of this paper is to evaluate whether a cruciate sparing total knee replacement could have a reduced operating time compared to a posterior stabilized implant. Methods For this purpose, we performed a randomized study on 50 subjects. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon in the same conditions to minimize bias and only knees with a less than 20 varus deviation and/or maximum 15° fixed flexion contracture were included. Results Surgery time was significantly shorter with the cruciate retaining implant (P = 0.0037). The mean duration for the Vanguard implant was 68.9 (14.7) and for the NexGen II Legacy was 80.2 (11.3). A higher range of motion, but no significant Knee Society Scores at 6 months follow-up, was used as controls. Conclusions In conclusion, both implants had the potential to assure great outcomes. However, if a decision has to be made, choosing a cruciate retaining procedure could significantly reduce the surgical time. When performed under tourniquet, this gain does not lead to reduced blood loss. PMID:25584102

  3. Biomechanical analysis of posterior cruciate ligament retaining high-flexion total knee arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, J.; van der Zanden, A.C.; De Waal Malefijt, M.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Background High-flexion knee replacements have been developed to accommodate a large range of flexion (>120°) after total knee arthroplasty. Both posterior cruciate ligament retaining and sacrificing high-flexion knee designs have been marketed. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the

  4. Trunk position modulates anterior cruciate ligament forces and strains during a single-leg squat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulas, Anthony S.; Hortobagyi, Tibor; DeVita, Paul

    Background: Although the squat exercise and its variations are commonly prescribed for anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation, whether trunk position affects these ligament forces and strains during the squat is unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of trunk position on anterior

  5. Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: dynamic strain evaluation of the graft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Handl, Milan; Držík, M.; Cerulli, G.; Povýšil, C.; Chlpík, J.; Varga, F.; Amler, Evžen; Trč, T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2007), s. 233-241 ISSN 0942-2056 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET400110403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Anterior cruciate ligament * Tendon * Material properties Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.626, year: 2007

  6. Atypical hamstrings electromyographic activity as a compensatory mechanism in anterior cruciate ligament deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerboom, AL; Hof, AL; Halbertsma, JPK; van Raaij, JJAM; Schenk, W; Diercks, RL; van Horn, [No Value; van Horn, J.R.

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency may cause functional instability of the knee (noncopers), while other patients compensate and perform at the same level as before injury (copers). This pilot study investigated whether there is a compensatory electromyographic (EMG) activity of the

  7. Quadriceps rate of torque development and disability in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Hope C; Troy Blackburn, J; Ryan, Eric D; Luc-Harkey, Brittney A; Harkey, Matthew S; Padua, Darin A; Pietrosimone, Brian

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine associations between self-reported function (International Knee Documentation Committee Index), isometric quadriceps strength and rate of torque development in individuals with a unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Forty-one individuals [31% male, BMI mean 25 (SD 4) kg/m 2 , months post anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction mean 49 (SD 40)] completed the self-reported function and isometric quadriceps function testing. Rate of torque development was assessed at 0-100ms (early), 100-200ms (late) ms, and peak following the onset of contraction. Associations were examined between rate of torque development, strength, and self-reported function. Linear regression was used to determine the unique amount of variance explained by the combination of rate of torque development and strength. Higher rate of torque development 100-200ms is weakly associated with higher self-reported function in individuals with a unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (r=0.274, p=0.091); however, rate of torque development 100-200ms does not predict a significant amount of variance in self-reported function after accounting for strength (ΔR 2 =0.003, P=0.721). Quadriceps strength has a greater influence on self-reported function compared to rate of torque development in individuals with an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with time from surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Strategies for revision surgery after primary double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofbauer, Marcus; Muller, Bart; Murawski, Christopher D.; Baraga, Michael; van Eck, Carola Franziska; Fu, Freddie H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to discuss pre- and intra-operative considerations as well as surgical strategies for different femoral and tibial tunnel scenarios in revision surgery following primary double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Based on the current literature of

  9. Retention versus sacrifice of the posterior cruciate ligament in total knee arthroplasty for treating osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verra, Wiebe C.; van den Boom, Lennard G. H.; Jacobs, Wilco; Clement, Darren J.; Wymenga, Ate A. B.; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background The functional and clinical basis on which to choose whether or not to retain the posterior cruciate ligament during total knee arthroplasty surgery remained unclear after a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis in 2005, which contained eight clinical trials. Several new trials

  10. Biomechanical comparison of the four-strand cruciate and Strickland techniques in animal tendons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Bernardelli Iamaguchi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare two four-strand techniques: the traditional Strickland and cruciate techniques. METHODS: Thirty-eight Achilles tendons were removed from 19 rabbits and were assigned to two groups based on suture technique (Group 1, Strickland suture; Group 2, cruciate repair. The sutured tendons were subjected to constant progressive distraction using a universal testing machine (Kratos®. Based on data from the instrument, which were synchronized with the visualized gap at the suture site and at the time of suture rupture, the following data were obtained: maximum load to rupture, maximum deformation or gap, time elapsed until failure, and stiffness. RESULTS: In the statistical analysis, the data were parametric and unpaired, and by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the sample distribution was normal. By Student's t-test, there was no significant difference in any of the data: the cruciate repair sutures had slightly better mean stiffness, and the Strickland sutures had longer time-elapsed suture ruptures and higher average maximum deformation. CONCLUSIONS: The cruciate and Strickland techniques for flexor tendon sutures have similar mechanical characteristics in vitro.

  11. Training for Women's Basketball: A Biomechanical Emphasis for Preventing Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, Robert W.; Bryson, Erin R.

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes proposed variables linked with higher incidences of anterior cruciate ligament tears in females and the biomechanical aspects of the lower extremity during the performance of common basketball skills, focusing on gender differences in knee joint stability and neuromuscular control, biomechanical aspects of lower extremity skills in…

  12. A rare case of stifle lameness: Rupture of the posterior cruciate ligamentum in a horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeren, P.R. van; Dik, K.J.; Barneveld, A.

    1985-01-01

    A 10-year-old Dutch Warmblood mare with a severe hind leg lameness was presented. Clinical examination seemed to point to a fracture in the region of the stifle joint. Radiological examination, however, showed a rupture of the posterior cruciate ligament. Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis. Injuries of this kind are rarely seen in the horse [de

  13. "Anatomic" anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a systematic review of surgical techniques and reporting of surgical data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, Carola F.; Schreiber, Verena M.; Mejia, Hector A.; Samuelsson, Kristian; van Dijk, C. Niek; Karlsson, Jon; Fu, Freddie H.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate studies published on anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. METHODS: A systematic electronic search was performed by use of the Medline and Embase databases. Studies that were published from January 1995 to

  14. Does flexible tunnel drilling affect the femoral tunnel angle measurement after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Bart; Hofbauer, Marcus; Atte, Akere; van Dijk, C. Niek; Fu, Freddie H.

    2015-01-01

    To quantify the mean difference in femoral tunnel angle (FTA) as measured on knee radiographs between rigid and flexible tunnel drilling after anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Fifty consecutive patients that underwent primary anatomic ACL reconstruction with a single femoral

  15. Accuracy of clinical tests in the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament injury: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S. Swain (Michael S.); N. Henschke (Nicholas); S.J. Kamper (Steven); A.S. Downie (Aron S.); B.W. Koes (Bart); C. Maher (Chris)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Numerous clinical tests are used in the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury but their accuracy is unclear. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of clinical tests for the diagnosis of ACL injury.Methods: Study Design: Systematic

  16. The impact of cranial irradiation on the growth of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, R.J.; Foster, M.B.; D'Ercole, A.J.; McMillan, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Heights, height velocities, weights, and weight velocities were measured serially in 21 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had survived three to five years in continuous complete remission. These patients were assigned randomly to treatment regimens that varied according to whether cranial irradiation was used. Patients receiving cranial irradiation had lower height velocities during therapy than normal subjects and patients not receiving cranial irradiation. Twenty-two other children with ALL, who were irradiated but not randomized, exhibited similar alterations in growth. These results indicate that cranial irradiation, and not leukemia or antileukemia chemotherapy, causes reduced growth

  17. Morphometric characteristics of caudal cranial nerves at petroclival region in fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdogmus, Omer; Saban, Enis; Ozkan, Mazhar; Yildiz, Sercan Dogukan; Verimli, Ural; Cakmak, Ozgur; Arifoglu, Yasin; Sehirli, Umit

    2016-06-01

    Morphometric measurements of cranial nerves in posterior cranial fossa of fetus cadavers were carried out in an attempt to identify any asymmetry in their openings into the cranium. Twenty-two fetus cadavers (8 females, 14 males) with gestational age ranging between 22 and 38 weeks (mean 30 weeks) were included in this study. The calvaria were removed, the brains were lifted, and the cranial nerves were identified. The distance of each cranial nerve opening to midline and the distances between different cranial nerve openings were measured on the left and right side and compared. The mean clivus length and width were 21.2 ± 4.4 and 13.2 ± 1.5 mm, respectively. The distance of the twelfth cranial nerve opening from midline was shorter on the right side when compared with the left side (6.6 ± 1.1 versus 7.1 ± 0.8 mm, p = 0.038). Openings of other cranial nerves did not show such asymmetry with regard to their distance from midline, and the distances between different cranial nerves were similar on the left and right side. Cranial nerves at petroclival region seem to show minimal asymmetry in fetuses.

  18. Novel canine circovirus strains from Thailand: Evidence for genetic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piewbang, Chutchai; Jo, Wendy K; Puff, Christina; van der Vries, Erhard; Kesdangsakonwut, Sawang; Rungsipipat, Anudep; Kruppa, Jochen; Jung, Klaus; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Techangamsuwan, Somporn; Ludlow, Martin; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2018-05-14

    Canine circoviruses (CanineCV's), belonging to the genus Circovirus of the Circoviridae family, were detected by next generation sequencing in samples from Thai dogs with respiratory symptoms. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of nearly complete CanineCV genomes suggested that natural recombination had occurred among different lineages of CanineCV's. Similarity plot and bootscaning analyses indicated that American and Chinese viruses had served as major and minor parental viruses, respectively. Positions of recombination breakpoints were estimated using maximum-likelihood frameworks with statistical significant testing. The putative recombination event was located in the Replicase gene, intersecting with open reading frame-3. Analysis of nucleotide changes confirmed the origin of the recombination event. This is the first description of naturally occurring recombinant CanineCV's that have resulted in the circulation of newly emerging CanineCV lineages.

  19. Survivin inhibition via EZN-3042 in canine lymphoma and osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeneman, J K; Ehrhart, E J; Charles, J B; Thamm, D H

    2016-06-01

    Canine lymphoma (LSA) and osteosarcoma (OS) have high mortality rates and remain in need of more effective therapeutic approaches. Survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family member protein that inhibits apoptosis and drives cell proliferation, is commonly elevated in human and canine cancer. Survivin expression is a negative prognostic factor in dogs with LSA and OS, and canine LSA and OS cell lines express high levels of survivin. In this study, we demonstrate that survivin downregulation in canine LSA and OS cells using a clinically applicable locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotide (EZN-3042, Enzon Pharmaceuticals, Piscataway Township, NJ, USA) inhibits growth, induces apoptosis and enhances chemosensitivity in vitro, and inhibits survivin transcription and protein production in orthotopic canine OS xenografts. Our findings strongly suggest that survivin-directed therapies might be effective in treatment of canine LSA and OS and support evaluation of EZN-3042 in dogs with cancer. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Load response and gap formation in a single-row cruciate suture rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Lachlan; Richardson, Martin; Sobol, Tony; Caldow, Jonathon; Ackland, David C

    2017-06-01

    Double-row rotator cuff tendon repair techniques may provide superior contact area and strength compared with single-row repairs, but are associated with higher material expenses and prolonged operating time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate gap formation, ultimate tensile strength and stiffness of a single-row cruciate suture rotator cuff repair construct, and to compare these results with those of the Mason-Allen and SutureBridge repair constructs. Infraspinatus tendons from 24 spring lamb shoulders were harvested and allocated to cruciate suture, Mason-Allen and SutureBridge repair groups. Specimens were loaded cyclically between 10 and 62 N for 200 cycles, and gap formation simultaneously measured using a high-speed digital camera. Specimens were then loaded in uniaxial tension to failure, and construct stiffness and repair strength were evaluated. Gap formation in the cruciate suture repair was significantly lower than that of the Mason-Allen repair (mean difference = 0.6 mm, P = 0.009) and no different from that of the SutureBridge repair (P > 0.05). Both the cruciate suture repair (mean difference = 15.7 N/mm, P = 0.002) and SutureBridge repair (mean difference = 15.8 N/mm, P = 0.034) were significantly stiffer than that of the Mason-Allen repair; however, no significant differences in ultimate tensile strength between repair groups were discerned (P > 0.05). The cruciate suture repair construct, which may represent a simple and cost-effective alternative to double-row and double-row equivalent rotator cuff repairs, has comparable biomechanical strength and integrity with that of the SutureBridge repair, and may result in improved construct longevity and tendon healing compared with the Mason-Allen repair. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  1. European canine lymphoma network consensus recommendations for reporting flow cytometry in canine hematopoietic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comazzi, S; Avery, P R; Garden, O A; Riondato, F; Rütgen, B; Vernau, W

    2017-09-01

    Flow cytometry (FC) is assuming increasing importance in diagnosis in veterinary oncology. The European Canine Lymphoma Network (ECLN) is an international cooperation of different institutions working on canine lymphoma diagnosis and therapy. The ECLN panel of experts on FC has defined the issue of reporting FC on canine lymphoma and leukemia as their first hot topic, since a standardized report that includes all the important information is still lacking in veterinary medicine. The flow cytometry panel of the ECLN started a consensus initiative using the Delphi approach. Clinicians were considered the main target of FC reports. A panel of experts in FC was interrogated about the important information needed from a report. Using the feedback from clinicians and subsequent discussion, a list of information to be included in the report was made, with four different levels of recommendation. The final report should include both a quantitative part and a qualitative or descriptive part with interpretation of the salient results. Other items discussed included the necessity of reporting data regarding the quality of samples, use of absolute numbers of positive cells, cutoff values, the intensity of fluorescence, and possible aberrant patterns of antigen expression useful from a clinical point of view. The consensus initiative is a first step toward standardization of diagnostic approach to canine hematopoietic neoplasms among different institutions and countries. This harmonization will improve communication and patient care and also facilitate the multicenter studies necessary to further our knowledge of canine hematopoietic neoplasms. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  2. Lack of efficacy of levetiracetam in oromandibular and cranial dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J E; Srivanitchapoom, P; Maurer, C W; Mathew, P; Sackett, J; Paine, R; Ramos, V L; Hallett, M

    2017-08-01

    To determine the efficacy of levetiracetam in oromandibular or cranial dystonia. We recruited seven subjects with oromandibular or cranial dystonia. Five completed the study, median age was 71 years (range 42-79 years), median disease duration was 12 years (range 2-30 years). Participants were randomized to receive levetiracetam or placebo and were then crossed over. They titrated up to a total daily dose of 4000 mg or the maximum tolerated dose over 3 weeks and maintained that dose for another 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was the percent change of the eyes, mouth, speech, and swallowing Burke-Fahn-Marsden (BFM) subscores from baseline to weeks 6 and 14. Additional endpoints included the BFM subscore at weeks 3 and 11, and the global dystonia severity (GDS) subscore at weeks 3, 6, 11, and 14, as well as all adverse side effects. The mean percent increase in the BFM subscore (placebo: 31.25%, levetiracetam: 12.16%) was not significantly different between the two arms according to the Friedman analysis. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that these percent changes were not significant, indicating that there was no statistical clinical worsening in either arm. The mean percent change of the BFM subscore at weeks 3 and 11 and the mean percent change of the GDS subscore at weeks 3, 6, 11, and 14 were not significantly different between the two arms, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test did not show statistical significance. Levetiracetam does not appear to be efficacious in patients with oromandibular or cranial dystonia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Trigeminal complications arising after surgery of cranial base meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Ulf; Linderoth, Bengt; Mathiesen, Tiit

    2012-04-01

    Chronic severe facial pain is a feared sequel of cranial base surgery. This study explores the symptomatology, incidence and impact on the individual of postoperative de novo trigeminal nerve affection as well as the recovery potential. Out of 231 patients operated for cranial base meningiomas at the Karolinska University Hospital during 7 years, 25 complained of de novo trigeminal symptoms at clinical follow-up 3 months after surgery. Six were later lost to follow-up leaving 19 participants in the study, which was conducted using a questionnaire and a structured telephone interview. All patients complained of facial numbness, affecting the V1 branch in 10/19 patients (53%), the V2 branch in 18/19 (95%) and the V3 branch in 9/19 (47%). Surprisingly, only three (16%) suffered from trigeminal pain, which could be adequately managed by pharmacotherapy. However, five patients (26%) demonstrated ocular dysaesthetic problems. Twelve (63%) described their handicap to be mild, while seven (37%) had daily or severe symptoms. Five patients (26%) reported no improvement over time, while nine (47%) showed improvement and four (21%) stated good recovery. Only one patient (5%) claimed complete symptom remission. In the present study, 11% of the patients presented with a de novo postoperative affection of the trigeminal nerve after removal of a cranial base meningioma; 37% of these reported daily/severe symptoms. Only 26% showed good recovery, observed in patients without tumour infiltration of the nerve or intraoperative nerve damage. In spite of frequent complaints of numbness, pain was uncommon (16%) and often manageable by pharmacotherapy, while ocular symptoms turned out to be more frequent and more disabling than expected.

  4. Comparison of probabilistic and deterministic fiber tracking of cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolal, Amir; Sobottka, Stephan B; Podlesek, Dino; Linn, Jennifer; Rieger, Bernhard; Juratli, Tareq A; Schackert, Gabriele; Kitzler, Hagen H

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE The depiction of cranial nerves (CNs) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is of great interest in skull base tumor surgery and DTI used with deterministic tracking methods has been reported previously. However, there are still no good methods usable for the elimination of noise from the resulting depictions. The authors have hypothesized that probabilistic tracking could lead to more accurate results, because it more efficiently extracts information from the underlying data. Moreover, the authors have adapted a previously described technique for noise elimination using gradual threshold increases to probabilistic tracking. To evaluate the utility of this new approach, a comparison is provided with this work between the gradual threshold increase method in probabilistic and deterministic tracking of CNs. METHODS Both tracking methods were used to depict CNs II, III, V, and the VII+VIII bundle. Depiction of 240 CNs was attempted with each of the above methods in 30 healthy subjects, which were obtained from 2 public databases: the Kirby repository (KR) and Human Connectome Project (HCP). Elimination of erroneous fibers was attempted by gradually increasing the respective thresholds (fractional anisotropy [FA] and probabilistic index of connectivity [PICo]). The results were compared with predefined ground truth images based on corresponding anatomical scans. Two label overlap measures (false-positive error and Dice similarity coefficient) were used to evaluate the success of both methods in depicting the CN. Moreover, the differences between these parameters obtained from the KR and HCP (with higher angular resolution) databases were evaluated. Additionally, visualization of 10 CNs in 5 clinical cases was attempted with both methods and evaluated by comparing the depictions with intraoperative findings. RESULTS Maximum Dice similarity coefficients were significantly higher with probabilistic tracking (p cranial nerves. Probabilistic tracking with a gradual

  5. Development and Characterization of Canine Distemper Virus Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxiu; Hao, Liying; Li, Xiangdong; Wang, Linxiao; Zhang, Jianpo; Deng, Junhua; Tian, Kegong

    2017-06-01

    Five canine distemper virus monoclonal antibodies were developed by immunizing BALB/c mice with a traditional vaccine strain Snyder Hill. Among these monoclonal antibodies, four antibodies recognized both field and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus without neutralizing ability. One monoclonal antibody, 1A4, against hemagglutinin protein of canine distemper virus was found to react only with vaccine strain virus but not field isolates, and showed neutralizing activity to vaccine strain virus. These monoclonal antibodies could be very useful tools in the study of the pathogenesis of canine distemper virus and the development of diagnostic reagents.

  6. Canine Detection of Illict Drugs: Sensory Apparatus Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Edward

    2000-01-01

    This report describes basic anatomical and physiological observations of the peripheral canine olfactory system, provided by means of investigations into its structural and molecular characteristics...

  7. Accuracy of a computer-assisted planning and placement system for anatomical femoral tunnel positioning in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luites, J.W.H.; Wymenga, A.B.; Blankevoort, L.; Eygendaal, D.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background Femoral tunnel positioning is a difficult, but important factor in successful anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Computer navigation can improve the anatomical planning procedure besides the tunnel placement procedure. Methods The accuracy of the computer-assisted femoral

  8. Cranial nerves neuropraxia after shoulder arthroscopy in beach chair position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, A; Boyer, P; Soubeyrand, M; Hamida, F Ben; Vannier, J-L; Massin, P

    2011-05-01

    We report a case of neuropraxia of the 9th, 10th and 12th cranial nerve pairs after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in the beach chair position. The elements in the medical file seem to exclude an intracranial cause of the lesions and support a mechanical, extracranial cause due to intubation and/or the beach chair position. This clinical case report shows the neurological risks of the beach chair position during arthroscopic shoulder surgery and presents the essential safety measures to prevent these risks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Surgery in temporal lobe epilepsy patients without cranial MRI lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomceli, Y B; Erdem, A; Bilir, E; Kutlu, G; Kurt, S; Erden, E; Karatas, A; Erbas, C; Serdaroglu, A

    2006-03-01

    High resolution MRI is very important in the evaluations of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy in preoperative investigations. Morphologic abnormalities on cranial MRI usually indicate the epileptogenic focus. Intractable TLE patients who have normal cranial MRI or bilateral hippocampal atrophy may have a chance for surgery if a certain epileptogenic focus is determined. We evaluated the patients who were monitorized in Gazi University Medical Faculty Epilepsy Center from October 1997 to April 2004. Seventy three patients, who had a temporal epileptogenic focus, underwent anterior temporal lobectomy at Ankara University Medical Faculty Department of Neurosurgery. Twelve of them (16, 4%), did not have any localizing structural lesion on cranial MRI. Of the 12 patients examined 6 had normal findings and 6 had bilateral hippocampal atrophy. Of these 12 patients, 6 (50%) were women and 6 (50%) were men. The ages of patients ranged from 7 to 37 (mean: 24.5). Preoperatively long-term scalp video-EEG monitoring, cranial MRI, neuropsychological tests, and Wada test were applied in all patients. Five patients, whose investigations resulted in conflicting data, underwent invasive monitoring by the use of subdural strips. The seizure outcome of patients were classified according to Engel with postsurgical follow-up ranging from 11 to 52 (median: 35.7) months. Nine patients (75%) were classified into Engel's Class I and the other 3 patients (25%) were placed into Engel's Class II. One patient who was classified into Engel's Class II had additional psychiatric problems. The other patient had two different epileptogenic foci independent from each other in her ictal EEG. One of them localized in the right anterior temporal area, the other was in the right frontal lobe. She was classified in Engel's Class II and had no seizure originating from temporal epileptic focus, but few seizures originating from the frontal region continued after the surgery. In conclusion

  10. Potential Therapeutic Use of Relaxin in Healing Cranial Bone Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    to measure circulating concentrations of relaxin during the infusion by ELISA ; 3. sacrifice the mice at 10-12 days after cranial defect; 4. fix the...osmotic pump for 10-12 days, and to measure circulating concentrations of relaxin during the infusion by ELISA . Values of 0.35, 0.69, 1.61, 0.66, 1.99...vehicle-infused mice, because in our previous work, none was detected. This makes sense, because the ELISA we use does not detect mouse relaxin

  11. Automatic Detection of Wild-type Mouse Cranial Sutures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darvann, Tron Andre; Hermann, Nuno V.

    , automatic detection of the cranial sutures becomes important. We have previously built a craniofacial, wild-type mouse atlas from a set of 10 Micro CT scans using a B-spline-based nonrigid registration method by Rueckert et al. Subsequently, all volumes were registered nonrigidly to the atlas. Using......, the observer traced the sutures on each of the mouse volumes as well. The observer outperforms the automatic approach by approximately 0.1 mm. All mice have similar errors while the suture error plots reveal that suture 1 and 2 are cumbersome, both for the observer and the automatic approach. These sutures can...

  12. Calculation of cranial nerve complication probability for acoustic neuroma radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeks, Sanford L.; Buatti, John M.; Foote, Kelly D.; Friedman, William A.; Bova, Francis J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Estimations of complications from stereotactic radiosurgery usually rely simply on dose-volume or dose-diameter isoeffect curves. Due to the sparse clinical data available, these curves have typically not considered the target location in the brain, target histology, or treatment plan conformality as parameters in the calculation. In this study, a predictive model was generated to estimate the probability of cranial neuropathies as a result of acoustic schwannoma radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: The dose-volume histogram reduction scheme was used to calculate the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) from brainstem dose-volume histograms. The model's fitting parameters were optimized to provide the best fit to the observed complication data for acoustic neuroma patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery at the University of Florida. The calculation was then applied to the remainder of the patients in the database. Results: The best fit to our clinical data was obtained using n = 0.04, m = 0.15, and no. alphano. /no. betano. = 2.1 Gy -1 . Although the fitting parameter m is relatively consistent with ranges found in the literature, both the volume parameter, n, and no. alphano. /no. betano. are much smaller than the values quoted in the literature. The fit to our clinical data indicates that brainstem, or possibly a specific portion of the brainstem, is more radiosensitive than the parameters in the literature indicate, and that there is very little volume effect; in other words, irradiation of a small fraction of the brainstem yields NTCPs that are nearly as high as those calculated for entire volume irradiation. These new fitting parameters are specific to acoustic neuroma radiosurgery, and the small volume effect that we observe may be an artifact of the fixed relationship of acoustic tumors to specific regions of the brainstem. Applying the model to our patient database, we calculate an average NTCP of 7.2% for patients who had no

  13. Posterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula with presenting as caroticocavernous fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H M; Shih, H C; Huang, Y C; Wang, Y H [Dept. of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2001-05-01

    We report cases of posterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with presenting with exophthalmos, chemosis and tinnitus in 26- and 66-year-old men. The final diagnoses was vertebral artery AVF and AVF of the marginal sinus, respectively. The dominant venous drainage was the cause of the unusual presentation: both drained from the jugular bulb or marginal sinus, via the inferior petrosal and cavernous sinuses and superior ophthalmic vein. We used endovascular techniques, with coils and liquid adhesives to occlude the fistulae, with resolution of the symptoms and signs. (orig.)

  14. Posterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula with presenting as caroticocavernous fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.M.; Shih, H.C.; Huang, Y.C.; Wang, Y.H.

    2001-01-01

    We report cases of posterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with presenting with exophthalmos, chemosis and tinnitus in 26- and 66-year-old men. The final diagnoses was vertebral artery AVF and AVF of the marginal sinus, respectively. The dominant venous drainage was the cause of the unusual presentation: both drained from the jugular bulb or marginal sinus, via the inferior petrosal and cavernous sinuses and superior ophthalmic vein. We used endovascular techniques, with coils and liquid adhesives to occlude the fistulae, with resolution of the symptoms and signs. (orig.)

  15. Primary extra-cranial meningioma following total hip replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, T.J.; Beggs, I. [Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Patton, J.T.; Porter, D. [Royal Infirmary, Department of Orthopaedics, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Salter, D.M.; Al-Nafussi, A. [Royal Infirmary, Department of Pathology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    A 61-year-old man presented with pain at the left hip and decreased mobility 10 years after total hip replacement. Imaging demonstrated a large destructive expansile mass adjacent to the prosthesis. Histological analysis confirmed the presence of an extra-cranial meningioma. Primary tumours after total hip replacement are rare and include soft tissue sarcomas, bone sarcomas and lymphomas. To our knowledge, no previous cases of primary extracranial meningioma have been identified. The imaging features, histology, pathogenesis and differential diagnosis are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Cranial irradiation of young rats impairs later learning and growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overmier, J.B.; Carroll, M.E.; Patten, R.; Krivit, W.; Kim, T.H.

    1979-01-01

    Young rats (26 days) were exposed to ionizing radiation of the head of 0, 1200, 2400 or 3000 rads total in 200 rads/day doses. The subsequent growth of irradiated rats was permanently impaired: such impairment was positively related to amount of irradiation. Beginning in adolescence, rats were trained on a horizontal/vertical visual discrimination in a runway task and although all four groups mastered the discrimination, they differed in their patterns of acquisition. These results indicated long term effects and are associated with a cranial irradiation regimen similar to that given to children suffering acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). (author)

  17. Evaluation of paracavernous cranial nerves (3rd to 6th) with CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuha, Mitsuru; Okamura, Tomomi; Abiko, Seisho; Aoki, Hideo

    1984-01-01

    We have now used CT to evaluate the cavernous sinuses, especially the 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th cranial nerves. adjacent to them. Twenty cases, presumably all having sellar or parasellar lesions, were examined by means of thin-slice (2-4 mm) axial and coronal (including both direct and reconstructed methods) CT studies. Moreover, three blocks of the sellar region obtained from adult cadavers were examined beforehand by CT scan, and the courses of the respective paracavernous cranial nerves were confirmed by microsurgical dissection. As a result, the following conclusions were obtained. 1. It was valuable to perform a post-enhanced direct coronal study for the definite identification of the paracavernous cranial nerves (3rd to 6th cranial nerves). 2. Also valuable was a magnified CT film of the parasellar regions, which made the identification of the parasellar cranial nerves clearer. 3. In the clinical cases showing a normal shape of the cavernous sinuses on CT, each cranial nerve was evaluated. In the axial studies (almost 10 to 15 degrees anterior to Reid's basal line), the frequencies of the identification of the 3rd, 5th, and 6th cranial nerves were 76%, 97% (as to the Gasserian ganglion), and 21% respectively. None of the 4th cranial nerve was visualized in the cases examined. On the other hand, the frequencies of the identification of the 3rd, 5th, and 6th cranial nerves were 83%, 86%, and 21% respectively in the direct coronal studies and 62%, 57%, and 4% in those of the reconstructed films. The visualization of each cranial nerve in the direct coronal study was better than when the reconstructed method was used. Finally, a schematic presentation of the cranial nerves adjacent to the cavernous sinuses was made in the axial and coronal projections. (J.P.N.)

  18. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  19. Coryneform bacteria associated with canine otitis externa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Bemis, David A.; Schjærff, Mette

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the occurrence of coryneform bacteria in canine otitis externa. A combined case series and case-control study was carried out to improve the current knowledge on frequency and clinical significance of coryneform bacteria in samples from canine otitis externa. A total...... of 16 cases of otitis externa with involvement of coryneform bacteria were recorded at two referral veterinary hospitals in Denmark and the US, respectively. Coryneform bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Corynebacterium auriscanis was the most common coryneform species (10...... cases). Small colony variants of this species were also observed. Other coryneform isolates were identified as Corynebacterium amycolatum (3 cases), Corynebacterium freneyi (2 cases) and an Arcanobacterium-like species (1 case). The coryneform bacteria were in all cases isolated together with other...

  20. Nonsurgical, nonextraction management of impacted maxillary canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasneet Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available NS, a 12 year 2 months old female patient, presented with the chief complaint of irregular teeth. Diagnosis revealed skeletal Class II jaw base relation, with average (toward vertical growth pattern, dentoalveolar angles Class I molar relationship with severe crowding in upper and moderate crowding in the lower arch, normally positioned maxillary incisors but proclined lower incisors, “V” shape constricted maxillary arch with first premolar in crossbite, overretained deciduous molar and a high placed buccoversion canine in the first quadrant and an impacted canine in the second quadrant, constricted mandibular arch with first premolar blocked out in the third quadrant. Treatment with a nonsurgical, nonextraction treatment plan by expansion of the upper arch and taking advantage of natural eruptive forces of the tooth was planned. The final outcome solved the patient's complaints and achieved an esthetically pleasing and functionally adequate occlusal result.

  1. Impacted canines: Etiology, diagnosis, and orthodontic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit Manne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaction of maxillary and mandibular canines is a frequently encountered clinical problem, the treatment of which usually requires an interdisciplinary approach. Surgical exposure of the impacted tooth and the complex orthodontic mechanisms that are applied to align the tooth into the arch may lead to varying amounts of damage to the supporting structures of the tooth, not to mention the long treatment duration and the financial burden to the patient. Hence, it seems worthwhile to focus on the means of early diagnosis and interception of this clinical situation. In the present article, an overview of the incidence and sequelae, as well as the surgical, periodontal, and orthodontic considerations in the management of impacted canines is presented.

  2. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizak, B.; Plucienniczak, A.

    1995-01-01

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs

  3. Expression of nociceptive ligands in canine osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, S; Fadl-Alla, B A; Pondenis, H C; Zhang, X; Wycislo, K L; Lezmi, S; Fan, T M

    2015-01-01

    Canine osteosarcoma (OS) is associated with localized pain as a result of tissue injury from tumor infiltration and peritumoral inflammation. Malignant bone pain is caused by stimulation of peripheral pain receptors, termed nociceptors, which reside in the localized tumor microenvironment, including the periosteal and intramedullary bone cavities. Several nociceptive ligands have been determined to participate directly or indirectly in generating bone pain associated with diverse skeletal abnormalities. Canine OS cells actively produce nociceptive ligands with the capacity to directly or indirectly activate peripheral pain receptors residing in the bone tumor microenvironment. Ten dogs with appendicular OS. Expression of nerve growth factor, endothelin-1, and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 was characterized in OS cell lines and naturally occurring OS samples. In 10 dogs with OS, circulating concentrations of nociceptive ligands were quantified and correlated with subjective pain scores and tumor volume in patients treated with standardized palliative therapies. Canine OS cells express and secrete nerve growth factor, endothelin-1, and prostaglandin E2. Naturally occurring OS samples uniformly express nociceptive ligands. In a subset of OS-bearing dogs, circulating nociceptive ligand concentrations were detectable but failed to correlate with pain status. Localized foci of nerve terminal proliferation were identified in a minority of primary bone tumor samples. Canine OS cells express nociceptive ligands, potentially permitting active participation of OS cells in the generation of malignant bone pain. Specific inhibitors of nociceptive ligand signaling pathways might improve pain control in dogs with OS. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Radiation, chemotherapy and surgery for canine osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, B.E.; Withrow, S.J.; La Rue, S.M.; Straw, R.C.; Gillette, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    Spontaneous canine osteosarcomas is an excellent model for of human osterosarcoma. Twenty dogs with obsteorsarcoma were treated with intravenous or intraarterial cisplatin with or without radiation therapy. This treatment was given 3 weeks prior to limb sparing surgery involving excision of the tumor and allograft replacement. The excised tumor specimen was examined for complete removal and percentage of necrotic tumor measured by planimetry. Intraveneous and intraarterial cisplatin and radiation methods were compared. Data discussing rate of disease development and recurrences is given

  5. Leishmania (infantum) chagasi in canine urinary sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, Ivete Lopes de; Batista, Joilson Ferreira; Alves, Leucio Camara

    2015-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is difficult to diagnosis, mainly due to the presence of asymptomatic animals, the diversity of clinical symptoms and the difficulty in obtaining diagnostic evidence of high sensitivity and specificity. The purpose of this study was to diagnose CVL in urinary sediment of 70 dogs of different breeds, sexes and ages from the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Piauí and Zoonosis Control Center of Teresina, Brazil. The serological tests were TR DP...

  6. Remote detection of explosives using trained canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.C.

    1983-03-01

    Use of dogs is a search method which combines high probability of detection, speed of search, and low cost. It was concluded that the canine could be used for explosive screening of personnel, but that it was imperative that the dog be in a position remote from employees and employee traffic. A study was made of the design of booths and air flow for this purpose. Results of tests and conclusions are given and discussed

  7. Subfailure injury of the rabbit anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjabi, M M; Yoldas, E; Oxland, T R; Crisco, J J

    1996-03-01

    Ligamentous injuries range in severity from a simple sprain to a complete rupture. Although sprains occur more frequently than complete failures, only a few studies have investigated the phenomena of these subfailure injuries. The purpose of our study was to document the changes in the load-deformation curve until the failure point, after the ligament has been subjected to an 80% subfailure stretch. Thirteen paired fresh rabbit bone-anterior cruciate ligament-bone preparations were used. One of the pairs (control) was stretched until failure; the other (experimental) was first stretched to 80% of the failure deformation of the control and then stretched to failure. Comparisons were made between the load-deformation curves of the experimental and control specimens. The nonlinear load-deformation curves were characterized by eight parameters: failure load (Ffail), failure deformation (Dfail), energy until failure (Efail), deformations measured at 5, 10, 25, and 50% of the failure load (D5, D10, D25, and D50, respectively), and stiffness measured at 50% of the failure force (K50). There were no significant differences in the values for Ffail, Dfail, and Efail between the experimental and control ligaments (p > 0.33). In contrast, the deformation values were all larger for the experimental than the control ligaments (p > 0.01). The deformations D5, D10, D25, and D50 (mean +/- SD) for the control were 0.36 +/- 0.13, 0.49 +/- 0.23, 0.81 +/- 0.35, and 1.23 +/- 0.41 mm. The corresponding deformations for the experimental ligaments were, respectively, 209, 186, 153, and 130% of the control values. K50 was also greater for the experimental ligament (125.0 +/- 41.7 N/mm compared with 108.7 +/- 31.4 N/mm, p < 0.03). These findings indicate that even though the strength of the ligament did not change due to a subfailure injury, the shape of the load-displacement curve, especially at low loads, was significantly altered. Under the dynamic in vivo loading conditions of daily

  8. Psychological Factors Associated With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christino, Melissa A; Fleming, Braden C; Machan, Jason T; Shalvoy, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    Psychological factors may have underappreciated effects on surgical outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between specific psychological factors, objective clinical data, and patient-oriented outcomes. Psychological factors are significantly associated with patient perceptions and functional outcomes after ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate relationships between self-esteem, health locus of control, and psychological distress with objective clinical outcomes, patient-oriented outcomes, and return to sport. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty-seven patients who were 6 to 24 months post-computer-assisted ACL reconstruction by a single surgeon consented to participate in the study (52% response rate). Participants had a 1-time visit with a physician consisting of: a physical examination, a single-leg hop test, KT-1000 arthrometer measurements, and survey completion. Psychological measures included the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Brief Profile of Mood States. Outcome measures included the Tegner activity scale, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Quality of Life subscale (KOOS-QOL), and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Patient charts were also reviewed for pertinent operative details. The mean age of patients (±SD) was 25.7 ± 8.4 years, and the mean duration of time since surgery was 16.5 ± 5.9 months. The majority (89%) of the patients identified themselves as athletes, and of these, 65% reported returning to sports at a competitive level. Sport returners were found to have higher levels of self-esteem (P = .002) and higher reported KOOS-QOL scores (P = .02). Self-esteem was significantly associated with IKDC scores (r = 0.46, P Self-esteem levels and locus of control had significant relationships with functional

  9. Biomechanical Comparison of Five Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuelle, Clayton W; Milles, Jeffrey L; Pfeiffer, Ferris M; Stannard, James P; Smith, Patrick A; Kfuri, Mauricio; Cook, James L

    2017-07-01

    No surgical technique recreates native posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) biomechanics. We compared the biomechanics of five different PCL reconstruction techniques versus the native PCL. Cadaveric knees ( n  = 20) were randomly assigned to one of five reconstruction techniques: Single bundle all-inside arthroscopic inlay, single bundle all-inside suspensory fixation, single bundle arthroscopic-assisted open onlay (SB-ONL), double bundle arthroscopic-assisted open inlay (DB-INL), and double bundle all-inside suspensory fixation (DB-SUSP). Each specimen was potted and connected to a servo-hydraulic load frame for testing in three conditions: PCL intact, PCL deficient, and PCL reconstructed. Testing consisted of a posterior force up to 100 N at a rate of 1 N/s at four knee flexion angles: 10, 30, 60, and 90 degrees. Three material properties were measured under each condition: load to 5 mm displacement, maximal displacement, and stiffness. Data were normalized to the native PCL, compared across techniques, compared with all PCL-intact knees and to all PCL-deficient knees using one-way analysis of variance. For load to 5 mm displacement, intact knees required significantly ( p  < 0.03) more load at 30 degrees of flexion than all reconstructions except the DB-SUSP. At 60 degrees of flexion, intact required significantly ( p  < 0.01) more load than all others except the SB-ONL. At 90 degrees, intact, SB-ONL, DB-INL, and DB-SUSP required significantly more load ( p  < 0.05). Maximal displacement testing showed the intact to have significantly ( p  < 0.02) less laxity than all others except the DB-INL and DB-SUSP at 60 degrees. At 90 degrees the intact showed significantly ( p  < 0.01) less laxity than all others except the DB-SUSP. The intact was significantly stiffer than all others at 30 degrees ( p  < 0.03) and 60 degrees ( p  < 0.01). Finally, the intact was significantly ( p  < 0.05) stiffer than all others except the DB

  10. Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries Associated With Military Survival Swim Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Michael S; Mason, John S; Posner, Matthew A; Haley, Chad A

    2017-07-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries are relatively common injuries associated with athletic activities and high-energy trauma. Posterolateral corner (PLC) injuries frequently accompany injury to the PCL. Diagnosis can be challenging and requires a comprehensive history and physical examination. Patients frequently report vague, nonspecific symptoms and the mechanism of injury is often useful in localizing injured structures. Two of the more common mechanisms for PCL injury include a direct blow to the proximal anterior tibia with the knee flexed, as well as a significant knee hyperextension injury. With a PCL tear, patients rarely describe an audible "pop" that is commonly reported in ACL injuries. On physical exam, a frequent finding in PCL tears is a loss of 10 to 20° of knee flexion. Although the most common clinical tests for PCL tears include the posterior drawer test, the posterior sag sign, and the quadriceps active test, there is a lack of high-quality diagnostic accuracy studies. Two cases of U.S. Military Academy Cadets who sustained PCL injuries while removing combat boots during military survival swim training are presented. The results of the clinical examination are accompanied by magnetic resonance imaging results and intraoperative arthroscopic images to highlight key findings. Both patients were evaluated and diagnosed with PCL injures within 10 days of their injuries. Each reported feeling/hearing a "pop," which is atypical in PCL tears. Both patients demonstrated a lack of active and passive knee flexion, which is a commonly reported impairment. One patient was managed nonsurgically with physical therapy and eventually returned to full duty without limitations 9 months after his injury. The other patient, who sustained a combined PCL-PLC injury, underwent a PCL reconstruction and PLC repair and reconstruction 8 weeks after his injury. He returned all training, with the exception of contact/collision sports, 9 months after surgery. Both

  11. Diffusion tensor imaging of the anterior cruciate ligament graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Pieter; Froeling, Martijn; De Smet, Eline; Pullens, Pim; Torfs, Michaël; Verdonk, Peter; Sijbers, Jan; Parizel, Paul M; Jeurissen, Ben

    2017-11-01

    A great need exists for objective biomarkers to assess graft healing following ACL reconstruction to guide the time of return to sports. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to delineate the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft and to investigate its diffusion properties using a clinical 3T scanner. DTI of the knee (b = 0, 400, and 800 s/mm 2 , 10 diffusion directions, repeated 16 times for a total of 336 diffusion-weighted volumes) was performed at 3T in 17 patients between 3 and 7 months (mean, 4 months) following ACL reconstruction. Tractography was performed by two independent observers to delineate the ACL graft. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) were calculated within the graft. Interrater reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the scan-rescan reproducibility was evaluated based on the percentage coefficient of variance (%CV) across 20 repetition bootknife samples. In all subjects, tractography of the ACL graft was feasible. Quantitative evaluation of the diffusion properties of the ACL graft yielded the following mean ± SD values: FA = 0.23 ± 0.04; MD = 1.30 ± 0.11 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s; AD = 1.61 ± 0.12 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, and RD = 1.15 ± 0.11 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s. Interrater reliability for the DTI parameters was excellent (ICC = 0.91-0.98). Mean %CVs for FA, MD, AD, and RD were 4.6%, 3.5%, 3.7%, and 4.4%, respectively. We demonstrated the feasibility and reliability of DTI for the visualization and quantitative evaluation of the ACL graft at 3T. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1423-1432. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the canine shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, C D; Nyland, T G

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the normal ultrasonographic anatomy of the canine shoulder. Fourteen shoulders from 7 clinically normal mid-sized dogs were radiographed and imaged using high frequency ultrasound. Each shoulder was isolated postmortem, and the ultrasonographic and gross anatomy was studied during dissection. The ultrasonographic appearance of the shoulder specimens was similar to that found in the live dogs. Twenty-four shoulders isolated postmortem from 12 variably sized dogs were also used to characterize the normal ultrasound anatomy over a range of sizes. Important anatomic structures that could be consistently evaluated were the biceps tendon and bursa, the bicipital groove surface, the supraspinatous tendon, the infraspinatous tendon, the teres minor tendon, and the caudal aspect of the humeral head. Results of ultrasonographic examination of 4 dogs with shoulder lameness are described to illustrate some applications of canine shoulder ultrasonography in the evaluation of the canine shoulder. In these dogs, ultrasound was a valuable tool to evaluate effusion and synovial proliferation within the bicipital bursa, supraspinatous and biceps tendinitis, biceps tendon strain, and dystrophic calcification.

  13. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Major

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73 and rainfall (r2 0.39, >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25 or rainy days (r2 0.38. Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%, pulmonary (76.7%, hepatic (26.0%, and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%, leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%. Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3. Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species.

  14. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in the canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D T; Chari, R S; Neighbors, J D; Eubanks, S; Schuessler, W W; Preminger, G M

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of performing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in a canine model. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy was performed on six adult male canines. A new endoscopic needle driver was used to construct a secure vesicourethral anastomosis. Average operative time required to complete the procedure was 304 min (range 270-345 min). Dissection of the prostate gland took an average of 67 min (range 35-90 min), and construction of the vesicourethral anastomosis took 154 min (rage 80-240 min). There were no intraoperative complications and only one postoperative complication (anastomotic leak). Five of the six animals recovered uneventfully from the procedure, and their foley catheters were removed 10-14 days postoperatively after a retrograde cystourethrogram demonstrated an intact vesicourethral anastomosis. Four (80%) of the surviving animals were clinically continent within 10 days after catheter removal. Post mortem examination confirmed that the vesicourethral anastomosis was intact with no evidence of urine extravasation. These data demonstrate the feasibility of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in a canine model, and suggest that additional work with this technique should be continued to develop its potential clinical application.

  15. Molecular characterization of the canine HMGB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murua Escobar, H; Meyer, B; Richter, A; Becker, K; Flohr, A M; Bullerdiek, J; Nolte, I

    2003-01-01

    Due to the close similarities of numerous canine diseases to their human counterparts, the dog could join the mouse as the species of choice to unravel the genetic background of complex diseases as e.g. cancer and metabolic diseases. Accordingly, the role of the dog as a model for therapeutic approaches is strongly increasing. However, prerequisite for such studies is the characterization of the corresponding canine genes. Recently, the human high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) has attracted considerable interest of oncologists because of what is called its "double life". Besides its function as an architectural transcription factor HMGB1 can also be secreted by certain cells and then acts as a ligand for the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). The binding of HMGB1 to RAGE can activate key cell signaling pathways, such as p38(MAPK), JNK, and p42/p44(MAPK) emphasizing the important role of HMGB1 in inflammation and tumor metastasis. These results make HMGB1 a very interesting target for therapeutic studies done in model organisms like the dog. In this study we characterized the molecular structure of the canine HMGB1 gene on genomic and cDNA levels, its predicted protein, the gene locus and a basic expression pattern. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Cranial implant design using augmented reality immersive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Zhuming; Evenhouse, Ray; Leigh, Jason; Charbel, Fady; Rasmussen, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Software tools that utilize haptics for sculpting precise fitting cranial implants are utilized in an augmented reality immersive system to create a virtual working environment for the modelers. The virtual environment is designed to mimic the traditional working environment as closely as possible, providing more functionality for the users. The implant design process uses patient CT data of a defective area. This volumetric data is displayed in an implant modeling tele-immersive augmented reality system where the modeler can build a patient specific implant that precisely fits the defect. To mimic the traditional sculpting workspace, the implant modeling augmented reality system includes stereo vision, viewer centered perspective, sense of touch, and collaboration. To achieve optimized performance, this system includes a dual-processor PC, fast volume rendering with three-dimensional texture mapping, the fast haptic rendering algorithm, and a multi-threading architecture. The system replaces the expensive and time consuming traditional sculpting steps such as physical sculpting, mold making, and defect stereolithography. This augmented reality system is part of a comprehensive tele-immersive system that includes a conference-room-sized system for tele-immersive small group consultation and an inexpensive, easily deployable networked desktop virtual reality system for surgical consultation, evaluation and collaboration. This system has been used to design patient-specific cranial implants with precise fit.

  17. Conjoined twin piglets with duplicated cranial and caudal axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, C A; Partlow, G D; Fisher, K R

    1994-06-01

    Twins with doubling of the cranial and caudal poles, yet having a single thorax, are rare. One set of diprosopus, dipygus porcine conjoined twins was studied. In addition to the conjoining anomaly, these twins also exhibited ambiguous internal reproductive features. The twins had two snouts, three eyes, a single thorax, and were duplicated from the umbilicus caudally. Radiography indicated a single vertebral column in the cervical region. The vertebral columns were separate caudally from this point. There was a total of six limbs--one pair of forelimbs and two pairs of hindlimbs. Many medial structures failed to develop in these twins. Medial cranial nerves V-XII were absent or displaced although apparently normal laterally. The medial palates were present but shortened, whereas the medial mandibular rami had folded back on themselves rostrally to form a midline mass between the two chins. Each twin had only one lateral kidney and one lateral testis. Medial scrotal sacs were present but devoid of a testis. There was a midline, "uterine"-like structure which crossed between the twins. However, histological analysis of this structure revealed it to be dysplastic testicular tissue. The relationship between the abnormal reproductive features in these twins and the conjoining is unclear. The anatomy of these twins, in addition to the literature reviewed, illustrates the internal anatomical heterogeneity of grossly similar conjoined twins. A review of the literature also suggests that conjoined twinning may be more common in swine than was previously suspected.

  18. The role of the mesenchyme in cranial neural fold elevation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris-Wiman, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    It has been previously postulated that the expansion of an hyaluronate-rich extracellular matrix in the fold mesenchyme is responsible for neural fold elevation. In this study we provide evidence that such expansions may play an important role in cranial neural fold elevation by pushing the folds towards the dorsal midline to assist in their elevation. For mesenchymal expansion to result in fold elevation, hyaluronate (HA) and mesenchymal cells must be non-randomly distributed within the mesenchyme. Patterns of mesenchymal cell distribution and cell proliferation were analyzed using the computer-assisted method of smoothed spatial averaging. The distribution of Alcian blue-stained and 3 H-glucosamine-labelled HA was also analyzed during cranial neural fold elevation using established image processing techniques. Analysis of the distribution of 3 H-thymidine-labelled mesenchymal cells indicated that differential mitotic activity was not responsible for decreased mesenchymal cell density. Likewise, analysis of distribution patterns of 3 H-glucosamine-labelled HA indicated that decreased HA concentration was not produced by regional differences in HA synthesis. These results suggest that decreases in mesenchymal cell density and HA concentration that occur during neural fold elevation are produced by mesenchymal expansion

  19. Early effects of cranial irradiation on hypothalamic-pituitary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, K.S.; Tse, V.K.; Wang, C.; Yeung, R.T.; Ma, J.T.; Ho, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary function was studied in 31 patients before and after cranial irradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The estimated radiotherapy (RT) doses to the hypothalamus and pituitary were 3979 +/- 78 (+/- SD) and 6167 +/- 122 centiGrays, respectively. All patients had normal pituitary function before RT. One year after RT, there was a significant decrease in the integrated serum GH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. In the male patients, basal serum FSH significantly increased, while basal serum LH and testosterone did not change. Moreover, in response to LHRH, the integrated FSH response was increased while that of LH was decreased. Such discordant changes in FSH and LH may be explained by a defect in LHRH pulsatile release involving predominantly a decrease in pulse frequency. The peak serum TSH response to TRH became delayed in 28 patients, suggesting a defect in TRH release. Twenty-one patients were reassessed 2 yr after RT. Their mean basal serum T4 and plasma cortisol levels had significantly decreased. Hyperprolactinemia associated with oligomenorrhoea was found in 3 women. Further impairment in the secretion of GH, FSH, LH, TSH, and ACTH had occurred, and 4 patients had hypopituitarism. Thus, progressive impairment in hypothalamic-pituitary function occurs after cranial irradiation and can be demonstrated as early as 1 yr after RT

  20. Recurring fibrous dysplasia of anthro maxillary with cranial base invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa, Kátia Maria Marabuco de

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fibrous dysplasia is an osseous lesion with an unknown etiology. It is characterized by the osseous maturation insufficiency. It may affect any bone, but the affection of craniofacial bones is the most critical for otorhinolaryngology. Maxilla is the most affected facial bone and the orbitary invasion is an uncommon event. The symptoms are unspecific and for its low suspicion and uncommonness, the diagnosis is generally late. The monostotic form presents a slow growth and asymptomatic course and needs to be followed up. The polyostotic type has a progressive behavior and is associated to recurrence and complications. Objective: To present two cases of patients with fibrous dysplasia diagnosis and describe the clinical presentation, radiological findings and the treatment of this pathology. Cases Report: Two cases of fibrous dysplasia are reported, which initially presented unspecific symptomatology, but with characteristic radiologic signs. They were submitted to surgical treatment for resection of the lesions and evolved with frequent recurrences with extensive affection of the facial sinuses, one patient had cranial base invasion and frontal craniotomy was needed for tumoral excision. Final Comments: Fibrous dysplasia is an uncommon osteopathy. The tomography is the choice method for characterization of the tumoral expansion, and helps in the surgical planning. The surgical strategy is indicated for symptomatic lesions, functions alterations or anatomic disorders. This article describes two uncommon manifestations of recurrent fibrous dysplasia with an extensive affection of anthro maxillary, ethmoidal and sphenoid sinuses, in addition to orbitary and cranial base invasion.

  1. An expert system for the interpretation of cranial CTSCAN images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Srihari, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental system for Interpretation of Cranial CT SCAN Images has been developed. Given a Cranial CT SCAN slice of a patient the system (which is an artificial intelligence (AI) based computer program) finds and labels neuroanatomical landmarks e.g. skull bone, CSF cavities, tissue and distinct abnormalities, present within the CT slice. If abnormalities are found, the system determines the kind of abnormality present e.g. hematoma, tumor, edema, etc., and where the abnormality was detected. The system described is a rule-based one. The rules are knowledge engineered from the radiologist. The system can be viewed as a series of mappings beginning from the matrix of ct numbers, representing a ct slice of a patient, to a symbolic description of the image in terms of black and white regions and their properties. The rules operate on this symbolic description and diagnose each region to be normal or abnormal, and if abnormal then the kind of abnormality present. The system developed so far is an experimental one and far from routine clinical applications. Essentially, the report presents a frame-work for labeling regions in each ct slice

  2. Posterior cranial base natural growth and development: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Kris; Sawchuk, Dena; Saltaji, Humam; Oh, Heesoo; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Lagravere, Manuel

    2017-11-01

    To provide a synthesis of the published studies evaluating the natural growth and development of the human posterior cranial base (S-Ba). The search was performed on MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and all EBM Reviews electronic databases. In addition, reference lists of the included studies were hand-searched. Articles were included if they analyzed posterior cranial-base growth in humans specifically. Study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were completed in duplicate. A meta-analysis was not justified. Finally, 23 published studies were selected: 5 cross-sectional and 18 cohort studies. Articles were published between 1955 and 2015, and all were published in English. The sample sizes varied between 20 and 397 individuals and consisted of craniofacial measurements from either living or deceased human skulls. Validity of the measurements was not determined in any of the studies, while six papers reported some form of reliability assessment. All the articles included multiple time points within the same population or data from multiple age groups. Growth of S-Ba was generally agreed to be from spheno-occipital synchondrosis growth. Basion displaced downward and backward and sella turcica moved downward and backward during craniofacial growth. Timing of cessation of S-Ba growth was not conclusive due to limited identified evidence. Current evidence suggests that S-Ba is not totally stable, as its dimensions change throughout craniofacial growth and a minor dimensional change is observed even in late adulthood.

  3. Cranial CT revisited: do we really need contrast enhancement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaerel, P.; Buelens, C.; Wilms, G.; Baert, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define guidelines for intravenous contrast administration in cranial CT, as currently there are no recent guidelines based on a large series of patients. In 1900 consecutive patients (1480 adults and 420 children) pre- and post-contrast scan was analysed in order to assess the contribution of contrast enhancement to the diagnosis. The findings were grouped according to whether abnormalities were seen on the pre- and/or post-contrast scan, or whether no abnormalities were seen at all. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accurracy of a pre-contrast scan were used to determine validity. Intravenous contrast enhancement only contributes to the diagnosis if a suspicious abnormality is seen on the unenhanced scan or in the appropriate clinical setting (33.6 %). In the remaining patients (65.6 %) there is no diagnostic contribution, except for a small number of abnormalities (0.8 %). These are often anatomical variants and have no therapeutic impact. The number of contrast-enhanced cranial CT examinations can significantly be reduced by using four general guidelines for contrast administration resulting in considerable cost savings without affecting the quality of service to the patient. These guidelines are defined by the clinical findings/presentation or by the findings on the unenhanced scan. The number of contrast-related complications will be reduced, which may have medicolegal implications. These guidelines can be applied in any radiology department. (orig.) (orig.)

  4. Unsteady 3D flow simulations in cranial arterial tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, Leopold; Anor, Tomer; Madsen, Joseph; Karniadakis, George

    2008-11-01

    High resolution unsteady 3D flow simulations in major cranial arteries have been performed. Two cases were considered: 1) a healthy volunteer with a complete Circle of Willis (CoW); and 2) a patient with hydrocephalus and an incomplete CoW. Computation was performed on 3344 processors of the new half petaflop supercomputer in TACC. Two new numerical approaches were developed and implemented: 1) a new two-level domain decomposition method, which couples continuous and discontinuous Galerkin discretization of the computational domain; and 2) a new type of outflow boundary conditions, which imposes, in an accurate and computationally efficient manner, clinically measured flow rates. In the first simulation, a geometric model of 65 cranial arteries was reconstructed. Our simulation reveals a high degree of asymmetry in the flow at the left and right parts of the CoW and the presence of swirling flow in most of the CoW arteries. In the second simulation, one of the main findings was a high pressure drop at the right anterior communicating artery (PCA). Due to the incompleteness of the CoW and the pressure drop at the PCA, the right internal carotid artery supplies blood to most regions of the brain.

  5. Piezosurgery for the repair of middle cranial fossa meningoencephaloceles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Aanand N; Rajan, Gunesh P

    2015-03-01

    To describe the use of a piezosurgery medical device to perform a craniotomy and produce a split calvarial graft for the repair of middle cranial fossa meningoencephaloceles. Retrospective case review. Tertiary referral hospital. Ten consecutive patients undergoing middle cranial fossa approach for the repair of meningoencephaloceles. Therapeutic. Intraoperative and postoperative complications, success rate as defined by the ability to fashion a split calvarial graft that achieves complete closure of the tegmen defect. As a secondary outcome measure, evidence of integration of the split calvarial bone graft with the adjacent skull base was assessed. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. An appropriately sized calvarial bone graft was produced, and complete closure of the tegmen defect was achieved in all 10 cases. Computed tomography demonstrated evidence of integration of the bone graft in eight cases between 4 and 9 months after surgery. The piezosurgery medical device provides a safe and effective means by which the middle fossa craniotomy and split calvarial bone graft can be produced to repair defects of the middle fossa tegmen, with integration of the bone graft in the majority of cases.

  6. Ependymomas of the posterior cranial fossa: CT and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortori-Donati, P.; Fondelli, M.P.; Cama, A.; Garre, M.L.; Rossi, A.; Andreussi, L.

    1995-01-01

    We studied nine children with posterior cranial fossa ependymomas to identify specific neuroradiological features. Patients were studied preoperatively with CT and MRI; T1-, T2- and proton-density (PD)-weighted images were obtained. All children underwent surgery and a definite histopathological diagnosis was made. All the tumours grew into the fourth ventricle and caused dilatation of its upper part, which resembled a cap. All but one were separated from the vermis by a cleavage plane. In eight cases there was desmoplastic development through the foramina of the fourth ventricle, and five were heterogeneous due to necrosis and cystic change; one had a haemorrhagic area. In most cases the solid portion was isointense with grey matter on T1-weighted images, hyperintense on PD weighting, and isointense on T2-weighted images. On CT the tumour was isodense in six cases and calcification was detected in four. The presence of both desmoplastic development and a tumour/vermis cleavage plane in a posterior cranial fossa tumour isodense on CT is highly suggestive of ependymoma. (orig.)

  7. Exploring vocal recovery after cranial nerve injury in Bengalese finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Catherine M; Peterson, Jennifer R; Cooper, Brenton G

    2013-02-08

    Songbirds and humans use auditory feedback to acquire and maintain their vocalizations. The Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata domestica) is a songbird species that rapidly modifies its vocal output to adhere to an internal song memory. In this species, the left side of the bipartite vocal organ is specialized for producing louder, higher frequencies (≥2.2kHz) and denervation of the left vocal muscles eliminates these notes. Thus, the return of higher frequency notes after cranial nerve injury can be used as a measure of vocal recovery. Either the left or right side of the syrinx was denervated by resection of the tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve. Histologic analyses of syringeal muscle tissue showed significant muscle atrophy in the denervated side. After left nerve resection, songs were mainly composed of lower frequency syllables, but three out of five birds recovered higher frequency syllables. Right nerve resection minimally affected phonology, but it did change song syntax; syllable sequence became abnormally stereotyped after right nerve resection. Therefore, damage to the neuromuscular control of sound production resulted in reduced motor variability, and Bengalese finches are a potential model for functional vocal recovery following cranial nerve injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Complete Cranial Iliac Osteotomy to Approach the Lumbosacral Foramen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dyall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An approach using a complete cranial iliac osteotomy (CCIO to access the lumbosacral (LS foramen in dogs from lateral was developed using cadavers and applied in a clinical patient with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS. The foraminal enlargement in the cadavers and the patient was documented on postoperative CT scans. The preoperative CT scan of the patient showed moderate cranial telescoping of the sacral roof and a moderate central disk protrusion, leading to moderate to severe compression of the cauda equina. In addition, there was lateral spondylosis with consequential stenosis of the right LS foramen. The right L7 nerve had lost its fat attenuation and appeared thickened. After a routine L7S1 dorsal laminectomy with a partial discectomy, a CCIO was performed, providing good access to the LS foramen and the adhesions around the proximal L7 nerve caudoventral to the foramen. The osteotomy was stabilized with a locking plate and a cerclage wire. The dog recovered well from the procedures and after 36 h, the dog walked normally and was discharged from the hospital. Eight and 16 weeks later, the signs of the DLSS had markedly improved. From these data, it can be concluded that the CCIO is a useful approach to the LS foramen and intervertebral disk in selected patients with DLSS, giving good access to the structures around the LS foramen.

  9. A Rare Case of Cranial Osteomyelitis Caused by Proteus Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Uslu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis of the calvarial bones can cause serious complications such as brain abscess, due to the close proximity to adjacent brain structures. Development of the purulent secretion in surgery and traumatic scalp injuries must be considered as a possibility of osteomyelitis possibility. Generally gram positive, rarely gram negative bacteria and mix agents, can be isolated in infection. Especially chronic pyogenic osteomyelitis agents can be isolated from chronic infections such as tuberculosis. In cranial osteomyelitis diagnosis, radiological diagnosis has a very important place together with the clinical diagnosis. However, infection can usually show late findings radiologically. In treatment, antibiotic treatment is absolutely essential as well as removal of the infected part of the bone. Due to antibiotic treatment lasting between 6-12 weeks, organizing the antibiotic protocols according to the results of culture-antibiograms, which were provided from purulent secretions, has the most important role in the success of surgical treatment. In Proteus sp. infections, for choice of suitable treatment, determination of the type of bacteria is important. For exact diagnosis, histopathological examination of the bone tissue must be carried out. In this report, a case with cranial osteomyelitis caused by Proteus vulgaris which is a gram negative bacteria causing anaerobic infections and classified in the Enterobacteriaceae family is presented. The patient was treated with surgery and appropriate antibiotics. Early recognition of this condition, planning the best treatment strategy and taking precautions to prevent complications, is mandatory for a better outcome.

  10. Lymphopenia caused by cranial irradiation in children receiving craniospinal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harisiadis, L.; Kopelson, G.; Chang, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    The peripheral blood changes were studied in 67 children who received craniospinal irradiation for posterior fossa tumors. At the completion of a cranial dose of about 3500 rad to the whole brain port, the lymphocytes were reduced to 858/mm 3 from 3084/mm 3 preoperatively. The counts of the remaining leukocytes stayed at a level somewhat higher than preoperatively; the eosinophils rose to 288/mm 3 from 125/mm 3 . With the initiation of the spinal field irradiation, which included a large proportion of the total bone marrow, the numbers of all the leukocytes decreased rapidly; the observed leukopenia was mainly secondary to neutropenia. A mechanism that was operating to restore the number of leukocytes became manifest immediately after the completion of radiotherapy, though the number of lymphocytes had not been totally restored to the preoperative level 6 years later. Irradiation of the lymphocytes that circulate through the vascular bed can explain the lymphopenia observed during cranial radiotherapy. Mild leukopenia observed in patients receiving radiotherapy through a relatively small port may be secondary to lymphopenia, and this does not necessarily indicate impaired bone marrow reserves

  11. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Cranial Capacity in Black and White Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Osborne, R. Travis

    1995-01-01

    Data from 236 pairs of black twins and white twins aged 13-17 years were used to examine genetic and environmental factors influencing cranial size, an indirect estimate of brain volume. Genetic factors are required to account for the phenotypic variance in cranial capacity. (SLD)

  12. [Cranial nerve palsy caused by tumours of the head and neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsing, C.P.; Verbist, B.M.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den

    2013-01-01

    Cranial nerve palsy is a diagnostic guiding symptom, but often goes unrecognized. The differential diagnosis includes a variety of diseases, including malignant tumours of the head and neck. Here we describe three cases of cranial nerve palsy. In two of the cases the palsy was recognized following

  13. The effect of the cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Shotai; Koide, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Okada, Kazunori; Shimote, Koichi; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro (Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan))

    1989-06-01

    The effects of the cranial size and the computed tomography (CT) numbers of the cranial bone on that of the brain were studied in 70 subjects, aged from 30 to 94 years. The subjects had no histories of cerebrovascular accidents and showed no abnormalities in the central nervous system upon physical examinations and a CT scan. We measured the average attenuation values (CT numbers) of each elliptical region (165 pixels, 0.39 cm{sup 2}) at the bilateral thalamus and at twelve areas of the deep white matter. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effects of age, cranial size, and cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers. The effect of the cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers was statistically significant. The brain CT numbers increased with the increase in the cranial bone CT numbers. There was, however, no significant correlation between brain CT numbers and cranial size. In measuring the brain CT numbers, it is desirable that consideration be given to the cranial bone CT numbers. (author).

  14. Effect of Unshaven Hair with Absorbable Sutures and Early Postoperative Shampoo on Cranial Surgery Site Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Won-Oak; Yeom, Insun; Kim, Dong-Seok; Park, Eun-Kyung; Shim, Kyu-Won

    2018-01-01

    Cranial surgical site infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitals. Preoperative hair shaving for cranial neurosurgical procedures is performed traditionally in an attempt to protect patients against complications from infections at cranial surgical sites. However, preoperative shaving of surgical incision sites using traditional surgical blades without properly washing the head after surgery can cause infections at surgical sites. Therefore, a rapid protocol in which the scalp remains unshaven and absorbable sutures are used for scalp closure with early postoperative shampooing is examined in this study. A retrospective comparative study was conducted from January 2008 to December 2012. A total of 2,641 patients who underwent unshaven cranial surgery with absorbable sutures for scalp closure were enrolled in this study. Data of 1,882 patients who underwent surgery with the traditional protocol from January 2005 to December 2007 were also analyzed for comparison. Of 2,641 patients who underwent cranial surgery with the rapid protocol, all but 2 (0.07%) patients experienced satisfactory wound healing. Of 1,882 patients who underwent cranial surgery with the traditional protocol, 3 patients (0.15%) had infections. Each infection occurred at the superficial incisional surgical site. Unshaven cranial surgery using absorbable sutures for scalp closure with early postoperative shampooing is safe and effective in the cranial neurosurgery setting. This protocol has a positive psychological effect. It can help patients accept neurosurgical procedures and improve their self-image after the operation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Cervical vertebrae, cranial base, and mandibular retrognathia in human triploid fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Nolting, Dorrit; Engel, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    and the uppermost vertebra in the body axis. As the notochord connects the cervical column and the cranial base in early prenatal life, molecular signaling from the notochord may in future studies support the notochord as the developmental link between abnormal development in the spine and the cranial base....

  16. Multi cranial nerve palsies as the presenting features of prostate carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.M.; Wynne, C.J.; Cowan, I.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Cranial nerve palsies have previously been reported in metastatic prostate carcinoma, usually occurring late in the course of the disease. We describe the case of a 55-year-old man whose diagnosis of prostate cancer was made following investigation of multiple cranial nerve palsies.

  17. Stereotactic radiotherapy using Novalis for skull base metastases developing with cranial nerve symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshimasa; Hashizume, Chisa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Shibamoto, Yuta; Kosaki, Katsura; Nagai, Aiko

    2010-06-01

    Skull base metastases are challenging situations because they often involve critical structures such as cranial nerves. We evaluated the role of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) which can give high doses to the tumors sparing normal structures. We treated 11 cases of skull base metastases from other visceral carcinomas. They had neurological symptoms due to cranial nerve involvement including optic nerve (3 patients), oculomotor (3), trigeminal (6), abducens (1), facial (4), acoustic (1), and lower cranial nerves (1). The interval between the onset of cranial nerve symptoms and Novalis SRT was 1 week to 7 months. Eleven tumors of 8-112 ml in volume were treated by Novalis SRT with 30-50 Gy in 10-14 fractions. The tumors were covered by 90-95% isodose. Imaging and clinical follow-up has been obtained in all 11 patients for 5-36 months after SRT. Seven patients among 11 died from primary carcinoma or other visceral metastases 9-36 months after Novalis SRT. All 11 metastatic tumors were locally controlled until the end of the follow-up time or patient death, though retreatment for re-growth was done in 1 patient. In 10 of 11 patients, cranial nerve deficits were improved completely or partially. In some patients, the cranial nerve symptoms were relieved even during the period of fractionated SRT. Novalis SRT is thought to be safe and effective treatment for skull base metastases with involvement of cranial nerves and it may improve cranial nerve symptoms quickly.

  18. Diagnosis and interventional neuroradiology in cranial emergencies. Neuroradiologische Notfalldiagnostik und -therapie kranieller Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakhloo, A.K.; Schumacher, M. (Freiburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Sektion Neuroradiologie)

    1991-01-01

    The most efficient diagnostic procedures are described for cases of intracranial mass, cerebral sinus and venous thrombosis, thrombosis of vertebral and basilar arteries, subarachnoid hemorrhage, carotid-cavernous fistulas, intractable epistaxis, Wernicke's encephalopathy and inflammatory cranial diseases. The importance of CT, MRI and angiography is discussed for these cranial emergencies. The different forms of interventional therapy possible are specified. (orig.).

  19. Cranial radiotherapy predisposes to abdominal adiposity in survivors of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siviero-Miachon, Adriana Aparecida; Spinola-Castro, Angela Maria; Lee, Maria Lúcia de Martino; Andreoni, Solange; Geloneze, Bruno; Lederman, Henrique; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2013-01-01

    Advances in treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia increased the likelihood of developing late treatment-associated effects, such as abdominal adiposity, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in this population. Cranial radiotherapy is one of the factors that might be involved in this process. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cranial radiotherapy on adiposity indexes in survivors of acute lymphocytic leukemia. A comparative cross-sectional study of 56 acute lymphocytic leukemia survivors, chronological age between 15 and 24 years, assigned into two groups according to the exposure to cranial radiotherapy (25 irradiated and 31 non-irradiated), assessed according to body fat (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), computed tomography scan-derived abdominal adipose tissue, lipid profile, and insulin resistance. Cranial radiotherapy increased body fat and abdominal adipose tissue and altered lipid panel. Yet, lipids showed no clinical relevance so far. There were significantly more obese patients among those who received cranial radiotherapy (52% irradiated versus 22.6% non-irradiated), based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry body fat measurements. Nonetheless, no association was observed between cranial radiotherapy and body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio or insulin resistance. Adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia showed an increase in body fat and an alteration of fat distribution, which were related to cranial radiotherapy. Fat compartment modifications possibly indicate a disease of adipose tissue, and cranial radiotherapy imports in this process

  20. Schwannoma of the facial nerve involving the middle cranial fossa:case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SAI Ke; CHEN Zhong-ping

    2007-01-01

    @@ Facial nerve schwannoma involving the middle cranial fossa is quite rare,and its accurate diagnosis is very difficult before SUrgery.Here we present a case of schwannoma of the facial nerve at the middle cranial fossa that was misdiagnosed previously at a local hospital and then cured in our hospital.