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Sample records for cane toads bufo

  1. Conservation genetics of an island toad: Bufo bufo in Jersey

    OpenAIRE

    John W. Wilkinson; Trevor J C Beebee; Griffiths, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    On Jersey (British Channel Islands), common toads often reproduce in small, urban ponds. This atypical breeding strategy has implications for their persistence and they have declined on the island in recent times. We used polymorphic microsatellite markers to compare genetic diversity in Bufo bufo from five different ponds in Jersey with two populations from north-west France. Genetic diversity of Jersey toads was comparable with that of populations elsewhere in Europe. Numbers of breeding fe...

  2. Visual optics in toads (Bufo americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, U; Schaeffel, F; Howland, H C

    1988-06-01

    Aspects of visual optics were investigated in the American toad (Bufo americanus). The development of the refractive state of the eye during metamorphosis was followed with IR photoretinoscopy. Frozen sections documented the changes in optical parameters before and after metamorphosis. There is a difference in light sensitivity between juvenile and adult toads. Binocular accommodation in adult toads was observed. 1. IR photoretinoscopic measurements showed that the refractive state of the eye changed very rapidly during metamorphosis, about 10 D/h while the animal entered the terrestrial habitat. 2. Frozen sections showed that the almost spherical lens in a tadpole eye had flattened in a just metamorphosed toad's eye while at the same time the distance of the lens to the retina had decreased. However, the morphological measurements were not sufficiently sensitive to record the relatively small changes in ocular dimensions that were responsible for the rapid changes in refractive state during metamorphosis. 3. Schematic eyes, with homogeneous and non homogeneous lenses, were constructed for tadpoles, juvenile toads, and adult toads. 4. Nonparaxial raytracing studies in schematic eyes suggested that the lenses of animals of the three developmental stages tadpole, juvenile toad, and adult are not homogeneous but have a refractive index gradient. The raytracing studies indicated that the refractive index gradient is different for the different developmental stages, being highest in the tadpole lens. 5. The observations of toads during feeding behavior at different light levels showed an increased light sensitivity in the adult nocturnal toads in contrast to the juvenile animals, which are diurnal. The increased light sensitivity could partly be explained with an increase in aperture and an increase in red rod outer segments. To fully explain the higher light sensitivity in adult toads, changes in neuronal parameters had to be assumed. 6. Retinoscopic measurements of

  3. Diet composition of the invasive cane toad (Chaunus marinus) on Rota, Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R.N.; Bakkegard, K.A.; Desy, G.E.; Plentovich, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    The cane or marine toad (Chaunus marinus, formerly Bufo marinus) was introduced to the Northern Mariana Islands starting in the 1930s. The effects of this exotic predator on native vertebrates (especially lizards) are largely unknown. We analysed the stomach contents of 336 cane toads collected from the island of Rota, with the goal of estimating the level of toad predation on native vertebrates. Beetles, ants, millipedes, and grasshoppers/crickets comprised the majority of prey classes consumed by toads. The introduced Brahminy blindsnake (Ramphotyphlops braminus; N = 6) and conspecific cane toads (N = 4) were the vertebrates most commonly found in toad stomachs. Skinks (Emoia; N = 2) were the only native vertebrates represented in our sample. The small numbers of nocturnal terrestrial vertebrates native to Rota likely translates to relatively low rates of predation by cane toads on native vertebrates.

  4. Thyroid anatomy and topography of toad (Bufo marinus ictericus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The autoradiographic method is used for the study of the toad's thyroid of Bufo marinus ictericus by 131I. Histolological proceedings are done. Comparative evaluations with bibliographic informations are presented. (M.A.C.)

  5. Final Critical Habitat for the Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis) based on the description provided in the Federal...

  6. Biological activities of skin and parotoid gland secretions of bufonid toads (Bufo bufo, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufotes variabilis) from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Karış, Mert; Yalcin, Husniye Tansel; Göçmen, Bayram

    2016-05-01

    Toad glandular secretions and skin extractions contain numerous natural agents which may provide unique resources for novel drug development. Especially the skin-parotoid gland secretions of toads from genus Bufo contain as many as 86 different types of active compounds, each with the potential of becoming a potent drug. In the present study, crude skin-parotoid gland secretions from Bufo bufo, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufotes variabilis from Turkey were screened against various cancer cells together with normal cells using MTT assay. Furthermore, the antimicrobial properties of skin secretions were tested on selected bacterial and fungal species for assessing the possible medical applications. Antimicrobial activity of skin secretions was studied by determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity of each skin-secretion was also estimated for evaluating pharmaceutical potential. Both skin-parotoid gland secretions showed high cytotoxic effect on all cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines with IC50 values varying between cancer and antimicrobial agents without hemolytic activities. PMID:27133069

  7. Intoxicación aguda en perro por toxinas de sapo (Bufo bufo - Acute intoxication in a dog by toxins of a toad (Bufo bufo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Palacios, O´Connor, Rocío

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLas intoxicaciones por toxinas de sapo no son frecuentes en España y su incidencia es mayor en primavera y verano. En este trabajo describimos un caso de intoxicación aguda de una perra de 4 años de edad tras la aprehensión de un sapo (Bufo bufo en la zona de Huelva. Los signos de una intoxicación comenzaron a los 15 minutos de entrar en contacto con el sapo muriendo a las 3 horas sin responder al tratamiento suministrado (corticoides, atropina, fluidoterapia y acepromazina. Aunque el diagnóstico fue precoz, a pesar del tratamiento se produjo la muerte en 3 horas.SummaryIntoxications by toad toxins are not frequent in Spain, and its incidence is greater in spring and summer. In this work it is described a case of an acute intoxication of a dog of 4 years old by toad toxins (Bufo bufo in the area of Huelva. The animal began to show signs of intoxication 15 minutes after the contact with the toad, dying 3 hours later without any response to the provided treatment (corticoids, atropine, fluidotherapy and acepromazine. Although the diagnosis was precocious and the treatment was administrated, after 3 hours the animal died.

  8. Diazinon mediated biochemical changes in the African toad (Bufo regularis

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    Isioma Tongo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal toxicity of diazinon to the adult African toad, Bufo regularis was assessed using an integration of biomarkers. Changes in acetylcholinesterase (AChE, corticosterone and total protein levels were assessed in the serum, brain, liver, lungs and gastrointestinal tract (GIT and the results supported by bioaccumulation data. The biomarkers were chosen as indicators of key physiological functions: AChE for neurotoxicity, corticosterone and total protein levels as indicators of oxidative stress. Toads were exposed to 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04 g/L for 28 days. Brain AChE activity reduced by 96% in the highest concentration (0.04 g/L compared to the control brain. Similarly, AChE activities in serum, liver, lungs and GIT tissues (88%, 88%, 87, 87% umg-1 protein respectively were also inhibited in the toads. Corticosterone and total protein levels in the tissues decreased compared to the control. The accumulation results obtained showed accumulation in the tissues (liver>serum>brain> lung>GIT, with a direct relationship between tissue concentration and changes in the biochemical indices. The alterations in all the indices were significantly concentration dependent. The biomarkers described in this study could be useful complementary indices in the risk assessment of diazinon pesticide.

  9. Shifts in life history as a response to predation in western toads (Bufo boreas)

    OpenAIRE

    Chivers, Douglas P.; Marco, Adolfo; Kiesecker, Joseph M.; Wildy, Erica L.; Andrew R. Blaustein

    1999-01-01

    Larval western toads (Bufo boreas) are known to exhibit antipreda­ tor behavior in response to both chemical alarm cues released from injured conspecifics and chemical cues of predatory invertebrates. In this study, we tested whether long-term exposure to predator and alarm cues resulted in an adaptive shift in life history characteristics of the toads. We raised groups of tadpoles in the presence of: (1) predatory backswimmers (Notonecta spp.) that were fed toad tadpoles, (2) nonpredatory w...

  10. Immunolocation of mitochondria-rich cells in epidermis of the common toad, Bufo bufo L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spies, Ingrid B.M.

    Adult toads, skin, flask-shaped cells, cytoskeleton, keratin expression, immunohistochemistry, differentiation.......Adult toads, skin, flask-shaped cells, cytoskeleton, keratin expression, immunohistochemistry, differentiation....

  11. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD (BUFO TERRESTRIS) FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of sto...

  12. Serum and hepatic vitamin A levels in captive and wild marine toads (Bufo marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkvens, Charlene N; Lentini, Andrew; Dutton, Christopher J; Pearl, David L; Barker, Ian K; Crawshaw, Graham J

    2014-01-01

    The captive breeding program for the endangered Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne [Bufo] lemur) has been hampered by an undiagnosed condition called "Brown Skin Disease" (BSD). Toads develop widespread skin darkening, skin thickening and abnormal shedding and eventually succumb to a chronic loss of viability. This project evaluated the marine toad (Bufo marinus) as a model for the PRCT, examining vitamin A deficiency as a potential cause of BSD. Wild caught marine toads had significantly higher liver vitamin A concentrations (61.89 ± 63.49 µg/g) than captive born marine toads (0.58 ± 0.59 µg/g); P<0.001). A significant difference in serum vitamin A concentration was found between the captive and wild caught toads (P=0.013) and between the low vitamin A-fed and wild caught toads (P=0.004), when controlling for liver vitamin A concentrations. After captive toads were treated with topical and/or oral vitamin A, their hepatic vitamin A concentrations were similar to those of the wild toads, averaging 48.41 ± 37.03 µg/g. However, plasma vitamin A concentrations pre- and post-vitamin A supplementation did not differ statistically. We concluded that plasma vitamin A concentrations do not provide a linear indication of liver/body vitamin A status, and that both topical and oral supplementation with an oil-based vitamin A formulation can increase liver stores in amphibians. No evidence of BSD or other signs of deficiency were noted in the marine toads, although this feeding trial was relatively short (127 days). To date, clinical, pathological and research findings do not support vitamin A deficiency as a primary factor underlying BSD. PMID:25230391

  13. Determination of impacts on the endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) at Mortenson National Wildlife Refuge from ammonium nitrate concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) is found only as a reintroduced population at Mortenson NWR in the Laramie Plains of southeast Wyoming. Reasons for the...

  14. Museum material reveals a frog parasite emergence after the invasion of the cane toad in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phalen David N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A parasite morphologically indistinguishable from Myxidium immersum (Myxozoa: Myxosporea found in gallbladders of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus was identified in Australian frogs. Because no written record exists for such a parasite in Australian endemic frogs in 19th and early 20th century, it was assumed that the cane toad introduced this parasite. While we cannot go back in time ourselves, we investigated whether material at the museum of natural history could be used to retrieve parasites, and whether they were infected at the time of their collection (specifically prior to and after the cane toad translocation to Australia in 1935. Results Using the herpetological collection at the Australian Museum we showed that no myxospores were found in any animals (n = 115 prior to the cane toad invasion (1879-1935. The green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea, the Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii, the green tree frog (Litoria caerulea and the striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii were all negative for the presence of the parasite using microscopy of the gallbladder content and its histology. These results were sufficient to conclude that the population was free from this disease (at the expected minimum prevalence of 5% at 99.7% confidence level using the 115 voucher specimens in the Australian Museum. Similarly, museum specimens (n = 29 of the green and golden bell frog from New Caledonia, where it was introduced in 19th century, did not show the presence of myxospores. The earliest specimen positive for myxospores in a gallbladder was a green tree frog from 1966. Myxospores were found in eight (7.1%, n = 112 frogs in the post cane toad introduction period. Conclusion Australian wildlife is increasingly under threat, and amphibian decline is one of the most dramatic examples. The museum material proved essential to directly support the evidence of parasite emergence in Australian native frogs. This parasite can be

  15. SEXUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE ECOLOGY AND HABITAT SELECTION OF WESTERN TOADS (BUFO BOREAS IN NORTHEASTERN OREGON

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    EVELYN L. BULL

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Several species of toads (family Bufonidae, including the Western Toad (Bufo boreas have declined in thewestern United States. Information on toad ecology and habitat use is essential to determine potential causes for populationdeclines, as is the potential relationship between this information and disturbance events. Aspects of western toad survival,mortality, movements, habitat selection, and diet were investigated at five study areas in northeastern Oregon duringsummers of 2002-2005. Of 100 radio-tagged toads monitored for one summer during these years, 32% survived untilSeptember, 29% were killed by predators, 10% died of other causes, and 29% were missing or had lost transmitters. Atfour study areas sampled in 2005, 24% of 37 males and 44% of 32 females sampled during the breeding season, and threedead male toads found after the breeding season tested positive for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Females traveledsignificantly farther than males, and the maximum distances traveled by female and male toads were 6230 m and 3870 m,respectively. Toads with transmitters selected habitats: (1 with little or no canopy; (2 on south-facing slopes; (3 nearwater; and (4 with high densities of potential refugia (e.g., burrows, rocks, logs. Males were more closely associated withwater than females. Twenty-six toads overwintered in rodent burrows (38%, under large rocks (27%, under logs or rootwads (19%, and under banks adjacent to streams or a lake (15%. Diet consisted of 82% ants (Formicidae, 13% beetles(Coleoptera, and <1% in 8 additional orders of insects with no differences detected between male and female toads.Disturbance events, such as wildfire, can influence refugia and prey of toads, and climatic conditions may influence a toad’ssusceptibility to B. dendrobatidis.

  16. Assessment of virally vectored autoimmunity as a biocontrol strategy for cane toads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie A Pallister

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so that it no longer caused disease, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The adult beta globin gene was selected as the model gene for proof of concept of autoimmunity as a biocontrol method for cane toads. A previous report showed injection of bullfrog tadpoles with adult beta globin resulted in an alteration in the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs as well as reduced survival. In B. marinus we established for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin exists. The effect of injecting B. marinus tadpoles with purified recombinant adult globin protein was then assessed using behavioural (swim speed in tadpoles and jump length in metamorphs, developmental (time to metamorphosis, weight and length at various developmental stages, protein profile of adult globin and genetic (adult globin mRNA levels measures. However, we were unable to detect any differences between treated and control animals. Further, globin delivery using Bohle iridovirus, an Australian ranavirus isolate belonging to the Iridovirus family, did not reduce the survival of metamorphs or alter the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While we were able to show for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin does occur in B. marinus, we were not able to induce autoimmunity and disrupt metamorphosis. The short development time of B. marinus tadpoles may preclude this approach.

  17. The influence of ambient salinity and temperature on lipid metabolism in toad (Bufo bufo) skin. Is phosphatidylethanolamine an endogenous regulator of ion channels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.J.M.; Olsen, Allan Gylling; Willumsen, Niels J.

    1994-01-01

    transepithelial electrical potential in vitro. While all the incorporations in vitro showed (32P) and (14C) frog and toad skin phospholipid patterns dominated by phosphatidylcholine-independent of adaptational temperature and salinity--corresponding phospholipid patterns dominated by phosphatidylethanolamine (PE......Incorporation of (32P) phosphate and (14C) acetate into frog (Rana temporaria) skin phospholipids in vitro was positively correlated to skin MR cell density. Transport across toad (Bufo bufo) skin and incorporation into skin phospholipids of the radioactive tracers were independent of...

  18. Localization of water channels in the skin of two species of desert toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) punctatus and Incilius (Bufo) alvarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yuki; Takeuchi, Hiro-Aki; Hasegawa, Takahiro; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tanaka, Shigeyasu; Hillyard, Stanley D; Nagai, Takatoshi

    2011-09-01

    Anuran amphibians obtain water by osmosis across their ventral skin. A specialized region in the pelvic skin of semiterrestrial species, termed the seat patch, contains aquaporins (AQPs) that become inserted into the apical plasma membrane of the epidermis following stimulation by arginine vasotocin (AVT) to facilitate rehydration. Two AVT-stimulated AQPs, AQP-h2 and AQP-h3, have been identified in the epidermis of seat patch skin of the Japanese tree frog, Hyla japonica, and show a high degree of homology with those of bufonid species. We used antibodies raised against AQP-h2 and AQP-h3 to characterize the expression of homologous AQPs in the skin of two species of toads that inhabit arid desert regions of southwestern North America. Western blot analysis of proteins gave positive results for AQP-h2-like proteins in the pelvic skin and also the urinary bladder of Anaxyrus (Bufo) punctatus while AQP-h3-like proteins were found in extracts from the pelvic skin and the more anterior ventral skin, but not the urinary bladder. Immunohistochemical observations showed both AQP-h2- and AQP-h3-like proteins were present in the apical membrane of skin from the pelvic skin of hydrated and dehydrated A. punctatus. Further stimulation by AVT or isoproterenol treatment of living toads was not evident. In contrast, skin from hydrated Incilius (Bufo) alvarius showed very weak labeling of AQP-h2- and AQP-h3-like proteins and labeling turned intense following stimulation by AVT. These results are similar to those of tree frogs and toads that occupy mesic habitats and suggest this pattern of AQP expression is the result of phylogenetic factors shared by hylid and bufonid anurans. PMID:21882955

  19. Effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia) at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides based on the active ingredient glyphosate are frequently applied in agriculture, horticulture and private gardens all over the world. Recently, leaching of glyphosate or its metabolite (AMPA) into water bodies inhabited by amphibians has been reported. However, very little is known about non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians and even less is known to what extent different temperatures might alter these effects. Using climate chambers, we investigated the effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup PowerFlex® (480 g L-1 glyphosate, formulated as 588 g L-1 potassium salt) on the larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia: Anura) under different temperature regimes (15°C vs. 20°C). We established five herbicide concentrations: 0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent L-1 and a 4 mg a.e. L-1 pulse treatment (totally three applications of 1.5, 1.5 and another 1 mg a.e. L-1) at each temperature in a full-factorial design. Each treatment combination was replicated five times, the experiment ran for 24 days. Results showed a highly significant effect of temperature on body length and body width but no effect of herbicide concentration on these growth parameters. Moreover, highly significant interactions between herbicide and temperature on body length and body width were observed suggesting that herbicides had different effects on different temperatures. In conclusion, although Roundup PowerFlex® at the tested concentrations appeared to have no acute toxicity to larvae of Common toads, the observed effects on tadpole morphology will potentially affect competitive interactions in spawning ponds of amphibia. Our findings of herbicide x temperature interactions might become more prevalent when human-induced climate change will lead to more extreme temperatures.

  20. Variation in Chemical Defense Among Natural Populations of Common Toad, Bufo bufo, Tadpoles: the Role of Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bókony, Veronika; Móricz, Ágnes M; Tóth, Zsófia; Gál, Zoltán; Kurali, Anikó; Mikó, Zsanett; Pásztor, Katalin; Szederkényi, Márk; Tóth, Zoltán; Ujszegi, János; Üveges, Bálint; Krüzselyi, Dániel; Capon, Robert J; Hoi, Herbert; Hettyey, Attila

    2016-04-01

    Defensive toxins are widespread in nature, yet we know little about how various environmental factors shape the evolution of chemical defense, especially in vertebrates. In this study we investigated the natural variation in the amount and composition of bufadienolide toxins, and the relative importance of ecological factors in predicting that variation, in larvae of the common toad, Bufo bufo, an amphibian that produces toxins de novo. We found that tadpoles' toxin content varied markedly among populations, and the number of compounds per tadpole also differed between two geographical regions. The most consistent predictor of toxicity was the strength of competition, indicating that tadpoles produced more compounds and larger amounts of toxins when coexisting with more competitors. Additionally, tadpoles tended to contain larger concentrations of bufadienolides in ponds that were less prone to desiccation, suggesting that the costs of toxin production can only be afforded by tadpoles that do not need to drastically speed up their development. Interestingly, this trade-off was not alleviated by higher food abundance, as periphyton biomass had negligible effect on chemical defense. Even more surprisingly, we found no evidence that higher predation risk enhances chemical defenses, suggesting that low predictability of predation risk and high mortality cost of low toxicity might select for constitutive expression of chemical defense irrespective of the actual level of predation risk. Our findings highlight that the variation in chemical defense may be influenced by environmental heterogeneity in both the need for, and constraints on, toxicity as predicted by optimal defense theory. PMID:27059330

  1. Behavioural thermoregulation of the Andean toad (Bufo spinulosus) at high altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsch, U

    1989-03-01

    The body temperature of free-ranging Andean toadsBufo spinulosus was measured either directly or radiotelemetrically during two 15-day periods at 3200 m elevation in the Mantaro Valley, Central Perú. All toads attempted to maintain their diurnal sum of body temperature within a narrow range. Consequently thermoregulatory behaviour differed according to cloud cover and precipitation. If the sky was clear, toads emerged from their hiding place and exposed themselves to solar radiation during 3-5 h in the morning. Core temperature increased up to 15° C above the air temperature in shade and reached maximum values of about 32° C. At air temperatures (in sun) exceeding 29° C, toads maintained body temperatures below 32° C by evaporative cooling. Following heliothermic heating during the moring toads retreated to the shade, thereby decreasing body temperature below air temperature. Under overcast sky toads remained exposed during the whole day displaying body temperatures at or slightly above ambient levels. Quantitative models to predict the core temperature of toads under the different weather conditions demonstrated that the substrate temperature was the main energy source accounting for 64.6-77.9% of total variance whereas air temperature was of minor importance (1.5-4.4%). The unexplained variance was probably due to evaporative cooling. The volume of urine stored into the urinary bladder of toads varied diurnally; during basking in the morning hours most bladders contained large volumes of urine, whereas during the afternoon the bladders were mostly empty. The bladder contents probably serve as water reserves during basking when evaporative water loss was high. Toads preferred sites that provided shady hiding places as well as sun-exposed bare soil within a radius of 5 m. However, they frequently changed their centers of activity and moved to other sites in 20-70 m distance after periods of 2-5 days. The helio-and thigmothermic behaviour of the Andean toad

  2. Diagnostic histological findings in Yosemite toads (Bufo canorus) from die-off in the 1970s

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    Green, D.E.; Sherman, C.K.

    2001-01-01

    Twelve adult and 25 larval Yosemite toad (Bufo canorus) specimens from the eastern Sierra Nevada of California were examined histologically for evidence of infectious, toxicological, and degenerative diseases. The preserved toads were selected from 21 that had been salvaged or collected during a die-off in 1976-1979 that immediately preceded a population decline. Causes of death of four toads were determined histologically; clinical signs and field observations suggested causes of death of three more. Four toads died of infectious diseases, including chytridiomycosis of the skin (N = 1), bacillary septicemia (N = 2), and combined chytridiomycosis and bacterial septicemia (N = 1). Infections by a funguslike organism (Dermosporidium penneri), renal myxozoa (Leptotheca ohlmacheri), larval Rhabdias, various gastrointestinal nematodes, urinary bladder flukes, and lung flukes were detected in five specimens. No evidence of degenerative diseases, virus infections, or intoxications was found. The variety of lethal diseases and our inability to determine the causes of death of five specimens suggests that one or more histologically undetectable diseases or intoxications may have also contributed to the deaths and population decline.

  3. Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we study propagation in a non-local reaction–diffusion–mutation model describing the invasion of cane toads in Australia (Phillips et al 2006 Nature 439 803). The population of toads is structured by a space variable and a phenotypical trait and the space diffusivity depends on the trait. We use a Schauder topological degree argument for the construction of some travelling wave solutions of the model. The speed c* of the wave is obtained after solving a suitable spectral problem in the trait variable. An eigenvector arising from this eigenvalue problem gives the flavour of the profile at the edge of the front. The major difficulty is to obtain uniform L∞ bounds despite the combination of non-local terms and a heterogeneous diffusivity. (paper)

  4. Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouin, Emeric; Calvez, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we study propagation in a non-local reaction-diffusion-mutation model describing the invasion of cane toads in Australia (Phillips et al 2006 Nature 439 803). The population of toads is structured by a space variable and a phenotypical trait and the space diffusivity depends on the trait. We use a Schauder topological degree argument for the construction of some travelling wave solutions of the model. The speed c* of the wave is obtained after solving a suitable spectral problem in the trait variable. An eigenvector arising from this eigenvalue problem gives the flavour of the profile at the edge of the front. The major difficulty is to obtain uniform L∞ bounds despite the combination of non-local terms and a heterogeneous diffusivity.

  5. Adrenocortical function in cane toads from different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sandra E; Sernia, Conrad; Bradley, Adrian J

    2016-05-01

    The adrenocortical function of cane toads (Rhinella marina) exposed to different experimental procedures, as well as captured from different environments, was assessed by challenging the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It was found that restriction stress as well as cannulation increased plasma corticosterone (B) levels for up to 12h. A single dose of dexamethasone (DEX 2mg/kg) significantly reduced B levels demonstrating its potential for use in the evaluation of the HPA axis in amphibia. We also demonstrate that 0.05 IU/g BW (im) of synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) significantly increased plasma B levels in cane toads. Changes in size area of the cortical cells were positively associated with total levels of B after ACTH administration. We also found differences in adrenal activity between populations. This was assessed by a DEX-ACTH test. The animals captured from the field and maintained in captivity for one year at the animal house (AH) present the highest levels of total and free B after ACTH administration. We also found that animals from the front line of dispersion in Western Australia (WA) present the weakest adrenal response to a DEX-ACTH test. The animals categorized as long established in Queensland Australia (QL), and native in Mexico (MX), do not shown a marked difference in the HPA activity. Finally we found that in response to ACTH administration, females reach significantly higher levels of plasma B than males. For the first time the adrenocortical response in cane toads exposed to different experimental procedures, as well as from different populations was assessed systematically. PMID:26877241

  6. Screening breeding sites of the common toad (Bufo bufo) in England and Wales for evidence of endocrine disrupting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickford, Daniel B; Jones, Alexandra; Velez-Pelez, Alejandra; Orton, Frances; Iguchi, Taisen; Mitsui, Naoko; Tooi, Osamu

    2015-07-01

    Anuran amphibians are often present in agricultural landscapes and may therefore be exposed to chemicals in surface waters used for breeding. We used passive accumulation devices (SPMD and POCIS) to sample contaminants from nine breeding sites of the Common toad (Bufo bufo) across England and Wales, measuring endocrine activity of the extracts in a recombinant yeast androgen screen (YAS) and yeast estrogen screen (YES) and an in vitro vitellogenin induction screen in primary culture of Xenopus laevis hepatocytes. We also assessed hatching, growth, survival, and development in caged larvae in situ, and sampled metamorphs for gonadal histopathology. None of the SPMD extracts exhibited estrogen receptor or androgen receptor agonist activity, while POCIS extracts from two sites in west-central England exhibited concentration-dependent androgenic activity in the YAS. Three sites exhibited significant estrogenic activity in both the YES and the Xenopus hepatocyte. Hatching rates varied widely among sites, but there was no consistent correlation between hatching rate and intensity of agricultural activity, predicted concentrations of agrochemicals, or endocrine activity measured in YES/YAS assays. While a small number of intersex individuals were observed, their incidence could not be associated with predicted pesticide exposure or endocrine activitity measured in the in vitro screens. There were no significant differences in sex ratio, as determined by gonadal histomorphology among the study sites, and no significant correlation was observed between proportion of males and predicted exposure to agrochemicals. However, a negative correlation did become apparent in later sampling periods between proportion of males and estrogenic activity of the POCIS sample, as measured in the YES. Our results suggest that larval and adult amphibians may be exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals in breeding ponds, albeit at low concentrations, and that chemical contaminants other than

  7. Toads on Lava: Spatial Ecology and Habitat Use of Invasive Cane Toads (Rhinella marina) in Hawai’i

    OpenAIRE

    Georgia Ward-Fear; Greenlees, Matthew J.; Richard Shine

    2016-01-01

    Most ecological research on cane toads (Rhinella marina) has focused on invasive populations in Australia, ignoring other areas where toads have been introduced. We radio-tracked and spool-tracked 40 toads, from four populations on the island of Hawai'i. Toads moved extensively at night (mean 116 m, from spool-tracking) but returned to the same or a nearby retreat-site each day (from radio-tracking, mean distance between successive retreat sites 11 m; 0 m for 70% of records). Males followed s...

  8. An introduced pentastomid parasite (Raillietiella frenata) infects native cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelehear, Crystal; Saltonstall, Kristin; Torchin, Mark E

    2015-04-01

    The pentastomid parasite, Raillietiella frenata, is native to Asia where it infects the Asian House gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus. This gecko has been widely introduced and recently R. frenata was found in introduced populations of cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia, indicating a host-switch from introduced geckos to toads. Here we report non-native adult R. frenata infecting the lungs of native cane toads in Panama. Eight of 64 toads were infected (median = 2.5, range = 1-80 pentastomids/toad) and pentastomid prevalence was positively associated with the number of buildings at a site, though further sampling is needed to confirm this pattern. We postulate that this pattern is likely due to a host shift of this parasite from an urban-associated introduced gecko. This is the first record of this parasite infecting cane toads in their native range, and the first instance of this parasite occurring in Central America. PMID:25394910

  9. Ion transport mechanisms in the mesonephric collecting duct system of the toad Bufo bufo: microelectrode recordings from isolated and perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana

    2004-01-01

    It is not clear how and whether terrestrial amphibians handle NaCl transport in the distal nephron. Therefore, we studied ion transport in isolated perfused collecting tubules and ducts from toad, Bufo bufo, by means of microelectrodes. No qualitative difference in basolateral cell membrane...... amiloride application showed a small apical Na+ conductance. Arginine vasotocin depolarized Vbl. The small apical Na+ conductance indicates that the collecting duct system contributes little to NaCl reabsorption when compared to aquatic amphibians. In contrast, Vbl rapidly depolarized upon lowering of [Na......+] in the bath, demonstrating the presence of a Na+-coupled anion transporter. [HCO3-] steps revealed that this transporter is not a Na+-HCO3- cotransporter. Together, our results indicate that a major task of the collecting duct system in B. bufo is not conductive NaCl transport but rather K+ secretion...

  10. The osmotic behaviour of toad skin epithelium (Bufo viridis). an electron microprobe analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, R; Dörge, A; Katz, U; Bauer, R; Thurau, K

    1980-05-01

    The effect of saline adaptation on the intracellular Na, K, Cl, P concentrations and dry weight content of the toad skin epithelium (Bufo viridis) was studied using the technique of electron microprobe analysis. The measurements were performed on isolated abdominal skins either directly after dissection or after additional incubation in Ussing-type chambers. Adaptations of the toads to increasing NaCl concentrations for 7 days resulted in increased blood plasma osmolarity and a parallel increase in the cellular electrolyte, P and dry weight concentrations of the epithelium, the K increase representing the most significant fraction of the intracellular osmolarity increase. No evidence was obtained to show that the nucleus and cytoplasm reacted differently from each other and all living epithelial cell types basically showed the same response. Incubation of the isolated skins under control conditions showed a drastic inhibition of the transepithelial Na transport after adaptation to high salinities. In spite of the large variations in the transport rate almost identical intracellular electrolyte concentrations were observed. In tap water adapted toads the average cellular concentrations were 8.8 mmole/kg wet weight for Na, 109.6 for K, 41.5 for Cl, and 135.3 for P, respectively. Incubation of the skin with Ringer's solution of different osmolarities demonstrated that the epithelial cells are in osmotic equilibrium with the inner bathing solution. The results are consistent with the view that the osmotic adaptation is mainly accomplished by the movement of water. PMID:7191092

  11. Toads on Lava: Spatial Ecology and Habitat Use of Invasive Cane Toads (Rhinella marina in Hawai'i.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Ward-Fear

    Full Text Available Most ecological research on cane toads (Rhinella marina has focused on invasive populations in Australia, ignoring other areas where toads have been introduced. We radio-tracked and spool-tracked 40 toads, from four populations on the island of Hawai'i. Toads moved extensively at night (mean 116 m, from spool-tracking but returned to the same or a nearby retreat-site each day (from radio-tracking, mean distance between successive retreat sites 11 m; 0 m for 70% of records. Males followed straighter paths during nocturnal movements than did females. Because moist sites are scarce on the highly porous lava substrate, Hawai'ian toads depend on anthropogenic disturbance for shelter (e.g. beneath buildings, foraging (e.g. suburban lawns, golf courses and breeding (artificial ponds. Foraging sites are further concentrated by a scarcity of flying insects (negating artificial lights as prey-attractors. Habitat use of toads shifted with time (at night, toads selected areas with less bare ground, canopy, understory and leaf-litter, and differed between sexes (females foraged in areas of bare ground with dense understory vegetation. Cane toads in Hawai'i thrive in scattered moist patches within a severely arid matrix, despite a scarcity of flying insects, testifying to the species' ability to exploit anthropogenic disturbance.

  12. Toads on Lava: Spatial Ecology and Habitat Use of Invasive Cane Toads (Rhinella marina) in Hawai’i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Fear, Georgia; Greenlees, Matthew J.; Shine, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Most ecological research on cane toads (Rhinella marina) has focused on invasive populations in Australia, ignoring other areas where toads have been introduced. We radio-tracked and spool-tracked 40 toads, from four populations on the island of Hawai’i. Toads moved extensively at night (mean 116 m, from spool-tracking) but returned to the same or a nearby retreat-site each day (from radio-tracking, mean distance between successive retreat sites 11 m; 0 m for 70% of records). Males followed straighter paths during nocturnal movements than did females. Because moist sites are scarce on the highly porous lava substrate, Hawai’ian toads depend on anthropogenic disturbance for shelter (e.g. beneath buildings), foraging (e.g. suburban lawns, golf courses) and breeding (artificial ponds). Foraging sites are further concentrated by a scarcity of flying insects (negating artificial lights as prey-attractors). Habitat use of toads shifted with time (at night, toads selected areas with less bare ground, canopy, understory and leaf-litter), and differed between sexes (females foraged in areas of bare ground with dense understory vegetation). Cane toads in Hawai’i thrive in scattered moist patches within a severely arid matrix, despite a scarcity of flying insects, testifying to the species’ ability to exploit anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:27027738

  13. Molecular characterization of MHC class II in the Australian invasive cane toad reveals multiple splice variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Mette; Cui, Jian; Shine, Richard; Belov, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    The cane toad has gained notoriety for its invasion across the Australian landscape, with significant impacts on the native Australian fauna. The invasion has accelerated over time, with invading cane toads adapted for highly dispersive traits. This, however, has come at the cost of the immune system, with lower investment in some immune functions. To investigate the cane toad's immunogenetics, we characterized four major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIA and three MHC class IIB loci. Preliminary observations suggest very low allelic diversity at all loci. We also observed various splice isoforms. One isoform seen at one class IIA and two class IIB loci was missing exon 2, which is essential to peptide binding and presentation. The other isoform, observed at a class IIA locus, is likely to be a soluble MHC product. These results may suggest a significant role of alternative splicing of MHC loci in the Australian cane toad. PMID:27233954

  14. Possible differences in pathogenicity between cane toad-, frog- and platypus-derived isolates of Mucor amphibiorum, and a platypus-derived isolate of Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, N J; Munday, B L

    2005-03-01

    Platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in the north of the island state of Tasmania, Australia, suffer from a serious disease called ulcerative mycosis, which is responsible for high morbidity and, presumably, mortality rates in areas where it occurs. The disease is caused by the dimorphic fungus Mucor amphibiorum, which is also found in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. However, it does not cause disease in platypuses in those states. It has been previously reported that a closely related fungus, Mucor circinelloides, may also be capable of causing this disease. This paper describes pathogenicity trials involving cane toads (Bufo marinus) as the experimental model. The toads were infected with either Tasmanian, platypus-derived M. amphibiorum, West Australian, frog-derived M. amphibiorum, Queensland cane-toad-derived M. amphibiorum or Tasmanian platypus-derived M. circinelloides. The Tasmanian isolates of M. amphibiorum were more likely to cause a serious, long-term infection than were Queensland or West Australian isolates, and (+) mating types caused a more serious infection than the (-) mating type. The isolate of M. circinelloides was incapable of infecting the toads, lending further weight to the theory that it represents an environmental contaminant. The results suggest that an endemic strain of M. amphibiorum has mutated and become pathogenic to platypuses. Alternatively, a pathogenic strain of M. amphibiorum may have been introduced into Tasmania, where it is infecting a naïve population. PMID:15832556

  15. Association preference and mechanism of kin recognition in tadpoles of the toad Bufo melanostictus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lilly Margaret Eluvathingal; Bhagyashri A Shanbhag; Srinivas K Saidapur

    2009-09-01

    In experiments with specially designed choice tanks, tadpoles of Bufo melanostictus spend significantly greater amounts of time near kin than near non-kin. However, in the absence of kin members, they prefer to spend more time near non-kin rather than stay away in isolation in the opposite blank zone with no company. This implies that association of toad tadpoles with their kin is due to attraction rather than repulsion from non-kin. Experiments designed to elucidate the sensory basis of kin recognition showed that toad tadpoles recognize their kin based on chemical cues rather than visual cues. They can also discriminate between homospecific non-kin and heterospecific (Sphaerotheca breviceps) tadpoles since the tadpoles spent significantly greater amounts of time near the former than near the latter. These findings suggest that where kin members are unavailable, selection may have favoured living with non-kin so as to derive benefits from group living and that a phenotype-matching mechanism may operate for both kin and species discrimination in B. melanostictus.

  16. The dynamics of venous return and response to hypervolemia in the toad, Bufo marinus (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toews Daniel P

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous return from the posterior region of amphibians travels by either two renal portal veins to the kidney or a central abdominal vein that drains into the hepatic portal system. The relative proportions of blood flow in these vessels has never been measured nor has a modification of flow been determined when venous return increases by changes in blood volume during hypervolemia or during increased volume input from the posterior lymph hearts. Results Venous return from the posterior region of Bufo marinus was measured under resting conditions and in response to a systemic hypervolemia. Doppler flow probes were positioned on the renal portal and ventral abdominal veins, and flow was recorded as injections of artificial plasma equaling 100% of the animal's plasma volume were administered through the sciatic artery. Resting flow was found to be 5.54 ± 2.03 ml min-1 kg-1 in the paired renal portal veins, and 7.31 ± 0.89 ml min-1 kg-1 in the ventral abdominal vein. While renal portal flow was found to increase by a factor of 2.4 times during the first 10 min of hypervolemia, ventral abdominal flow only increased by a factor of 1.3. Conclusions Our results quantify the contribution to circulation from posterior venous return in the toad Bufo marinus. A preferential movement of excess fluid through the renal portal pathway was also demonstrated, supporting the possibility of water elimination via the renal portal circulation, especially during periods of high water influx into the animals.

  17. Biotic Resistance to an Alien Amphibian: Larval Competition between Japanese Frogs and Invasive Cane Toads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Understanding negative effects of native species on introduced taxa may suggest novel ways to control the invasive species by enhancing such effects. Previous studies have reported that the larvae of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) are suppressed by competition with the larvae of native anurans in Australia, but not in North America. We conducted laboratory trials to measure the effect of exposure to the larvae of Japanese frogs (Microhyla ornata, Fejervarya sakishimensis, Rhacophorus owstoni) on rates of survival, growth and development of cane toad tadpoles in Ishigaki Island, in southern Japan. Survival rates were not affected by native species, but competition with Dicroglossids and Rhacophorids (but not Microhylids) strongly reduced rates of growth and development in the tadpoles of cane toads. Dicroglossid tadpoles also reduced the body condition to toad tadpoles in addition to effects on SVL and mass. Encouraging populations of native frogs in toad-invaded areas of Japan thus may help to reduce the numbers of invasive cane toads. PMID:27253973

  18. Multi-level effects of low dose rate ionizing radiation on southern toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development -embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae

  19. Multi-Level Effects of Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation on Southern Toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Stark

    Full Text Available Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris during its pre-terrestrial stages of development -embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later, to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21 mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.

  20. Genomewide scan for adaptive differentiation along altitudinal gradient in the Andrew's toad Bufo andrewsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baocheng; Lu, Di; Liao, Wen Bo; Merilä, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies of humans, dogs and rodents have started to discover the genetic underpinnings of high altitude adaptations, yet amphibians have received little attention in this respect. To identify possible signatures of adaptation to altitude, we performed a genome scan of 15 557 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained with restriction site-associated DNA sequencing of pooled samples from 11 populations of Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi) from the edge of the Tibetan Plateau, spanning an altitudinal gradient from 1690 to 2768 m.a.s.l. We discovered significant geographic differentiation among all sites, with an average FST   = 0.023 across all SNPs. Apart from clear patterns of isolation by distance, we discovered numerous outlier SNPs showing strong associations with variation in altitude (1394 SNPs), average annual temperature (1859 SNPs) or both (1051 SNPs). Levels and patterns of genetic differentiation in these SNPs were consistent with the hypothesis that they have been subject to directional selection and reflect adaptation to altitudinal variation among the study sites. Genes with footprints of selection were significantly enriched in binding and metabolic processes. Several genes potentially related to high altitude adaptation were identified, although the identity and functional significance of most genomic targets of selection remain unknown. In general, the results provide genomic support for results of earlier common garden and low coverage genetic studies that have uncovered substantial adaptive differentiation along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients in amphibians. PMID:27289071

  1. Ultrastructural and Molecular Changes in the Developing Small Intestine of the Toad Bufo regularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sakr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ontogenetic development of the small intestine of the toad Bufo regularis was investigated using twofold approaches, namely, ultrastructural and molecular. The former has been done using transmission electron microscope and utilizing the developmental stages 42, 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66. The most prominent ultrastructural changes were recorded at stage 60 and were more evident at stage 63. These included the appearance of apoptotic bodies/nuclei within the larval epithelium, the presence of macrophages, swollen mitochondria, distorted rough endoplasmic reticulum, chromatin condensation, and irregular nuclear envelop, and the presence of large vacuoles and lysosomes. The molecular investigation involved examining DNA content and fragmentation. The results showed that the DNA content decreased significantly during the metamorphic stages 60 and 63 compared with both larval (50 and 55 and postmetamorphic (66 stages. The metamorphic stages (60 and 63 displayed extensive DNA laddering compared with stages 50, 55, and 66. The percentage of DNA damage was 0.00%, 12.91%, 57.26%, 45.48%, and 4.43% for the developmental stages 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66, respectively. In conclusion, the recorded remodeling of the small intestine represents a model for clarifying the mechanism whereby cell death and proliferation are controlled.

  2. Modeling amphibian energetics, habitat suitability, and movements of western toads, Anaxyrus (=Bufo) boreas, across present and future landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Paul E.; Klaver, Robert W.; Porter, Warren P.

    2010-01-01

    Effective conservation of amphibian populations requires the prediction of how amphibians use and move through a landscape. Amphibians are closely coupled to their physical environment. Thus an approach that uses the physiological attributes of amphibians, together with knowledge of their natural history, should be helpful. We used Niche Mapper™ to model the known movements and habitat use patterns of a population of Western toads (Anaxyrus (=Bufo) boreas) occupying forested habitats in southeastern Idaho. Niche Mapper uses first principles of environmental biophysics to combine features of topography, climate, land cover, and animal features to model microclimates and animal physiology and behavior across landscapes. Niche Mapper reproduced core body temperatures (Tc) and evaporation rates of live toads with average errors of 1.6 ± 0.4 °C and 0.8 ± 0.2 g/h, respectively. For four different habitat types, it reproduced similar mid-summer daily temperature patterns as those measured in the field and calculated evaporation rates (g/h) with an average error rate of 7.2 ± 5.5%. Sensitivity analyses indicate these errors do not significantly affect estimates of food consumption or activity. Using Niche Mapper we predicted the daily habitats used by free-ranging toads; our accuracy for female toads was greater than for male toads (74.2 ± 6.8% and 53.6 ± 15.8%, respectively), reflecting the stronger patterns of habitat selection among females. Using these changing to construct a cost surface, we also reconstructed movement paths that were consistent with field observations. The effect of climate warming on toads depends on the interaction of temperature and atmospheric moisture. If climate change occurs as predicted, results from Niche Mapper suggests that climate warming will increase the physiological cost of landscapes thereby limiting the activity for toads in different habitats.

  3. Inhibition of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Caused by Bacteria Isolated from the Skin of Boreal Toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas, from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Shawna T; Collingwood, Amanda M; Sophie St-Hilaire; Sheridan, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a significant cause of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations; however, various amphibian species are capable of coexisting with B. dendrobatidis. Among them are boreal toads (Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas) located in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) in Wyoming, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiota of boreal toads from GTNP and determine if they were capable of inhibit...

  4. Interactive effects of maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes decrease survival of larval southern toads (Bufo terrestris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted a mesocosm study to assess the individual and interactive effects of previous maternal exposure and larval exposure to trace element-laden sediments on southern toads (Bufo terrestris). Previous maternal exposure to coal combustion wastes (CCW) reduced larval survival to metamorphosis up to 57% compared to larvae of unexposed females. Larvae reared on CCW accumulated significant concentrations of trace elements resulting in extended larval periods, reduced growth rates, and reduced mass at metamorphosis. However, the effects were dependent on age of sediments, suggesting the effects of contaminants from CCW may be partially ameliorated over time through the reduced bioavailability of trace elements in aged CCW. Most importantly, maternal exposure to contaminants coupled with larval exposure to fresh CCW interacted to reduce survival to metamorphosis by 85% compared to reference conditions. Our study yields further evidence that disposal of CCW in aquatic basins potentially creates ecological traps for some amphibian populations. - Highlights: ► The interaction of maternal exposure and larval exposure to CCW reduced survival. ► Previous maternal exposure to CCW had a latent effect on survival to metamorphosis. ► Larval southern toads exposed to CCW experienced prolonged larval periods. ► Larval southern toads exposed to CCW had reduced growth rates. ► Larval southern toads exposed to CCW had reduced mass at metamorphosis. - Maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes interact to decrease survival in larval amphibians.

  5. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, Kurtis R.; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; Mark Ford.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Twelve 9.3-ha plots were assigned one of the following treatments: removal- all CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed; downed- five-fold increase in volume of down CWD; and unmanipulated control stands. We collected southern toads _4 cm snout-vent length (SVL) during 14 d sampling periods in June and October 2002, June 2003 and during a 28 d sampling period in April 2003. We collected 80, 36 and 35 southern toads in control, downed and removal treatments, respectively. We found no difference in relative abundance or frequency of invertebrate groups consumed among treatments (P.0.05). Average body weight (g), SVL (cm) and stomach content weight (g wet) of individuals also were similar among treatments (P . 0.05). The role of CWD as a foraging substrate for southern toads in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern Coastal Plain may be negligible, at least in the early stages of decay.

  6. Cane toads lack physiological enhancements for dispersal at the invasive front in Northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Tracy

    2011-11-01

    Many invasive species have evolved behavioural and morphological characteristics that facilitate their dispersal into new areas, but it is unclear how selection on this level of the phenotype filters through to the underlying physiology. Cane toads have been dispersing westward across northern tropical Australia for more than 70 years. Previous studies of cane toads at the invasive front have identified several behavioural, morphological and locomotory characteristics that have evolved to facilitate dispersal of toads. We assessed a range of physiological characteristics associated with locomotory abilities in toads from the long-established, east coast of Australia, from the invasive front, and from a site in between these locations. We measured time to exhaustion and respiratory gases of toads exercising on a treadmill, time to recovery from exhaustion, blood properties (lactate, haematocrit, haemoglobin, red blood cell count, blood cell volume, and muscle properties associated with locomotion (activities of the enzymes citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase, and pH buffering capacity. None of the measured physiological parameters supported the hypothesis that toads from the invasive front possess physiological adaptations that facilitate dispersal compared to toads from areas colonised in the past. The strongest difference among the three groups of toads, time to exhaustion, showed exactly the opposite trend; toads from the long-established populations in the east coast had the longest time to exhaustion. Successful colonisers can employ many characteristics to facilitate their dispersal, so the extent to which behaviour, morphology and physiology co-evolve remains an interesting question. However, in the present case at least, behavioural adaptations do not appear to have altered the organism's underlying physiology.

  7. Microsatellite analysis of the natterjack toad ( Bufo calamita ) in Denmark: populations are islands in a fragmented landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allentoft, Morten E.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Briggs, Lars; Andersen, Liselotte Wesley

    2009-01-01

    The European natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) has declined rapidly in recent years, primarily due to loss of habitat, and in Denmark it is estimated that 50% of the isolated populations are lost each decade. To efficiently manage and conserve this species and its genetic diversity, knowledge of the...

  8. Can we control the invasive cane toad using chemicals that have evolved under intraspecific competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Gregory S; Crossland, Michael R; Shine, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Many invasive species experience intense intraspecific competition, because they are abundant in anthropogenically disturbed habitats where few native species persist. Species-specific competitive mechanisms that evolve in this context may offer novel, highly targeted means to control invasive taxa. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate the feasibility of this method of control, based on waterborne cues that are produced by tadpoles of the cane toad (Rhinella marina) to suppress the development of conspecific embryos. Our trials examined the nature and species-specificity of the effect, the robustness of the cue to freezing and storage, and the amounts required to suppress toad embryos. Our results were encouraging. The cue appears to be chemical rather than a biological organism, and may well be species-specific; the four species of native anurans that we tested were not influenced by toad larval cues. The cue retains its effectiveness after being frozen, but not after being dried, or after 7 d in water. It is effective at very low concentrations (the amount produced by three tadpoles within 750 L of water). Overall, the cane toad's suppressor pheromone may offer an effective new way to control invasive toads. PMID:27209788

  9. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series of...... systems could be explained as secondary effects due to a primary interaction with the sodium transport mechanisms. A correlation was found between the clamping current recorded during hyperpolarization and the efflux of chloride under short circuit conditions with chloride Ringer's on both sides. On the...

  10. Corticosterone-immune interactions during captive stress in invading Australian cane toads (Rhinella marina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sean P; Kelehear, Crystal; Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

    2012-07-01

    Vertebrates cope with physiological challenges using two major mechanisms: the immune system and the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., the glucocorticoid stress response). Because the two systems are tightly integrated, we need simultaneous studies of both systems, in a range of species, to understand how vertebrates respond to novel challenges. To clarify how glucocorticoids modulate the amphibian immune system, we measured three immune parameters and plasma corticosterone (CORT), before and after inflicting a stressor (capture and captive confinement) on introduced cane toads (Rhinella marina) near their invasion front in Australia. Stress increased CORT levels, decreased complement lysis capacity, increased leukocyte oxidative burst, and did not change heterologous erythrocyte agglutination. The strength of the CORT response was positively correlated with leukocyte oxidative burst, and morphological features associated with invasiveness in cane toads (relative leg length) were correlated with stress responsiveness. No immune parameter that we measured was affected by a toad's infection by a parasitic nematode (Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala), but the CORT response was muted in infected versus uninfected toads. These results illustrate the complex immune-stress interactions in wild populations of a non-traditional model vertebrate species, and describe immune adaptations of an important invasive species. PMID:22713726

  11. The effects of drought on population structure, activity, and orientation of toads Bufo quercicus and B. terrestris at a temporary pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C.K., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    From 1985 through 1990, I monitored the populations of two species of toads, Bufo quercicus and B. terrestris, at a temporary pond in the xeric uplands of north-central Florida. A drift fence with pitfall traps completely encircled the pond basin; the fence was monitored 5 days per week throughout the year. The 5-year study coincided with a severe regional drought that resulted in generally short hydroperiods at unpredictable times of the year. More than 800 toads were captured. Successful metamorphosis never occurred at the pond although toads continued to visit it throughout the study. The sex ratio was male biased in B. quercicus but not in B. terrestris, although significant variation was observed from one year to the next. Likewise, the size-class structure and length-weight patterns varied among species, sexes, and years. Although fewer toads entered the pond basin as the study progressed, toads may have gone elsewhere to breed or they may have remained in refugia. Thus, decreased capture does not necessarily indicate that a drought-related population decline occurred. Drought may have disrupted normal arrival patterns and length of stay within the pond basin. Drought also could be responsible for variation in annual size-class structure of captured toads. The uncertainty of the hydroperiod both spatially and temporally in adjacent breeding sites, the ability of toads to move long distances with the potential for migration between breeding sites, and the lack of specificity in the choice of breeding sites (i.e. permanent versus different types of temporary wetlands) may lead to the formation of metapopulations in the xeric upland habitats of north-central Florida. Long-term monitoring under a variety of climatic conditions is needed to assess the effects of drought and other types of environmental stresses on toad populations.

  12. New Karyological and Morphometric Data on Poorly Known Bufo surdus and Bufo luristanicus in Comparison with Data of Diploid Green Toads of the Bufo viridis Complex from South of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatemeh FAKHARZAEH; Jamshid DARVISH; Haji Gholi KAMI; Fereshteh GHASEMZADEH; Eskandar RASTEGAR-POUYANI

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the Bufo viridis complex, which is distributed broadly across Iran, are incomplete and restricted to a few regions or a few samples. In this paper a new detailed study on the B. viridis complex in southern of Iran (from West to East) is presented. The analysis of 18 morphometric characters with univariate and multivariate methods reveals significant differences between three members of the B. viridis complex namely B. variabilis, B. luristanicus, and B. surdus distributed in southern part of Iran. Our result help to resolve an old taxonomic problem about B. surdus subgroup (taxa closely related to B. surdus) conifrming that B. luristanicus and B. surdus are distinct species. Moreover, for the ifrst time we report and describe karyotype details of B. luristanicus and B. surdus which conifrmed that they are diploid. Karyological studies demonstrate that all toads from three mentioned species have 2n=22 chromosomes. These chromosomes are arranged into two groups. First group has six large chromosomes and the second group is composed of five small chromosomes. These chromosomes are metacentric or submetacentric. The number of submetacentric chromosomes is different in three mentioned species of B. viridis complex. Neither sexual heteromorphism, nor secondary constriction was observed in any pairs of chromosomes.

  13. Spatial and temporal ecology of oak toads (Bufo quercicus) on a Florida landscape.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathryn, H.; Tanner, George, W.

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT: We used data from 10 years of continuous, concurrent monitoring of oak toads at eight isolated, ephemeral ponds in Florida longleaf pine-wiregrass uplands to address: (1) did weather variables affect movement patterns of oak toads?; (2) did pond hydrology and the condition of surrounding uplands affect pond selection by adults or juvenile recruitment?; (3) were population trends evident?; and (4) did a classical metapopulation model best represent their population ecology? Of 4076 oak toads captured, 92.2% were adults. Substantial (n _ 30 exiting juveniles) recruitment occurred only three times (once each at three ponds during two years). Males outnumbered females (average for all years 2.3:1). Most captures occurred during May–September. Adult captures during June–August increased with heavier rainfall but were not influenced by the durations of preceding dry periods. Movement patterns of metamorphs suggested that oak toads emigrated when moisture conditions become favorable. Pond use by adults was correlated with maximum change in pond depth (May–September). Juvenile recruitment was negatively correlated with minimum pond depth and the number of weeks since a pond was last dry, and positively correlated with the maximum number of weeks a pond held water continuously. The number of breeding adults and juvenile recruitment were highest at ponds within the hardwood-invaded upland matrix. The direction of most immigrations and emigrations was nonrandom, but movement occurred from all directions, and the mean direction of pond entry and exit did not always correspond. A total of 21.1% of individuals was recaptured; 13.3% of first captures were recaptured during the same year, and 7.7% during a subsequent year. Only 1.9% of captured oak toads moved among ponds, mostly within a distance of 132 m. We did not detect adult population trends over the 10- yr studied. Presence or absence at ponds in any given year was a poor indicator of overall use. We saw

  14. Antibacterial activity of the parotid glands secretions of sudanese indigenous african toad (Bufo spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study revealed a well-built first line innate immunity system in Bufo Spp., the skin extracts illustrated a very active antibiotic attitude which inhibited the growth of human pathogenic bacteria species, Escherichia coli (ATCC 19615), staphylococcus aureus(ATCC29213) and streptococcus pyogenes (ATCC25922). Heat treatment of secretion supported the fact that the antibacterial components possess an enzymatic attitude. Gel filtration chromatography accompanied with sensitivity tests against S.aureus showed the existence of four groups responsible for antibacterial activity in the parotoid glands secretions.(Author)

  15. Larger body size at metamorphosis enhances survival, growth and performance of young cane toads (Rhinella marina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cabrera-Guzmán

    Full Text Available Body size at metamorphosis is a key trait in species (such as many anurans with biphasic life-histories. Experimental studies have shown that metamorph size is highly plastic, depending upon larval density and environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food supply, water quality, chemical cues from conspecifics, predators and competitors. To test the hypothesis that this developmental plasticity is adaptive, or to determine if inducing plasticity can be used to control an invasive species, we need to know whether or not a metamorphosing anuran's body size influences its subsequent viability. For logistical reasons, there are few data on this topic under field conditions. We studied cane toads (Rhinella marina within their invasive Australian range. Metamorph body size is highly plastic in this species, and our laboratory studies showed that larger metamorphs had better locomotor performance (both on land and in the water, and were more adept at catching and consuming prey. In mark-recapture trials in outdoor enclosures, larger body size enhanced metamorph survival and growth rate under some seasonal conditions. Larger metamorphs maintained their size advantage over smaller siblings for at least a month. Our data support the critical but rarely-tested assumption that all else being equal, larger body size at metamorphosis is likely to enhance an individual's long term viability. Thus, manipulations to reduce body size at metamorphosis in cane toads may help to reduce the ecological impact of this invasive species.

  16. Use of lidocaine, propranolol, amiodarone, and verapamil in toad envenoming (genus bufo in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SAKATE

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Toad envenoming in dogs can cause death by cardiac fibrilation (CVF. Traditional therapy consists mainly of atropine and propranolol, the last one used to prevent the CVF, that is preceded by negative ventricular deflections (NVDs in the QRS complex of the electrocardiogram. This study intended to verify, comparatively, the lidocaine, propranolol, amiodarone, and verapamil abilities to prevent CVF in experimentally envenomed dogs. Thirty-six dogs were divided into 6 groups (GL, GP, GA, GV, GST, and GSV with n=6; the dogs were submitted to volatile anaesthesia. The animals of the groups GL, GP, GA, and GV received 0.38g of toad venom through oro-gastric catheter and were treated with the following drugs respectively: lidocaine (4mg/Kg, propranolol (0.1mg/Kg, amiodarone (8mg/Kg, and verapamil (2mg/Kg. These drugs were repeated if NVDs reappeared with cardiac frequency >150, GST was not treated and GSV was just anaesthetized. The following results were obtained: GL, NVDs present in 4 animals, 100% recuperation with 3.66 doses/animal; GP, NVDs present in 2 animals, 100% recuperation with 1.66 dose/animal, with bradycardia at the anaesthetic return; GA, NVDs present in 3 animals, 33.33% recuperation with 1.5 dose/animal; GV, NVDs present in 4 animals, 100% recuperation with 2.16 doses/animal; GST, NVD present in 6 animals, 100% death and GSV, NVDs absent, 100% recuperation. As a conclusion, the anaesthetic proceedings used, did not cause NVDs, the envenoming that was not treated was lethal, and among the antiarrhythmics drugs used, verapamil was the most efficient, as it did not cause any serious bradycardia at the anaesthetic return and did not require repeated administrations. For lidocaine, it was efficient but required various administrations; amiodarone could not prevent the death of 4 animals; propranolol was efficient in relation to NVDs control, but caused serious bradycardia at the anaesthetic return.

  17. Chloride transport in toad skin (Bufo viridis). The effect of salt adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, U; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1984-01-01

    The steady-state Cl- current across the skin of Bufo viridis adapted to tap water was found to be rectified. In skins bathed with NaCl Ringer on both sides, a large outward current, carried by influx of Cl-, was observed at a clamping voltage (V) of less than -50 mV (outside of the skin negative......). for V = -50 mV the transepithelial Cl- conductance calculated from isotope flux measurements was 2.5 +/- 0.3 mS cm-2, N = 10. When the skin was clamped at + 50 mV the net flux of Cl- was reversed, but Cl- conductance was only 0.3 +/- 0.1 mScm-2. Flux ratio analysis indicated that the potential......-activated Cl- conductance carries Cl- ions by way of passive transport. With NaCl Ringer bathing the outer surface of the skin the spontaneous potential was about -30 mV. At this potential the Cl- conductance of the skin was about half of its maximum value. The time course of Cl- current activation following a...

  18. Exposure of toad embryos and larvae to pesticides. Use of nuclear technique to determine their effect on the reproduction, survival and potential risk to Bufo arenarum populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of pesticides is currently the most common method used to control agricultural pests. However, undesired effects on non-target organisms and pollution of the soil, air and water are frequent consequences. Amphibians are good bioindicators of the presence of contaminants in the environment, because they are semi-aquatic animals located at the top of the food chain. In many parts of the world, amphibian populations are declining, and many reasons have been suggested for these losses. Although a link between widespread decline and pesticide residues has yet to be established, it is suspected that contamination of their breeding sites with pesticide residues has had a deleterious effect on the reproduction and development of amphibians. Recent experiments with a widely distributed toad, Bufo arenarum Hensel, in South America, particularly in Argentina, indicate that a variety of insecticides affects the fertilization process through the activation of an enzyme that degrades the source of second messengers and is involved in transducing the sperm signal to the oocyte. This harmful effect is not restricted to the fertilization process, since embryonic and larval development are also affected, producing severe morphological and behavioural abnormalities in embryos. Embryonic and larval development influence the timing of metamorphosis, the susceptibility to predation, survival in the terrestrial environment, and even the success of future reproduction, these being the most sensitive period of a toad's life. Evaluation of the pesticides in our region showed their presence in many of the potential breeding sites, confirming that they may influence the survival of toad populations. (author). 18 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Patterns of Genetic Variability in Island Populations of the Cane Toad (Rhinella marina) from the Mouth of the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa-Silva, Adam Rick; Vallinoto, Marcelo; Sodré, Davidson; da Cunha, Divino Bruno; Hadad, Dante; Asp, Nils Edvin; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Sequeira, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Amazonian coast has several unique geological characteristics resulting from the interaction between drainage pattern of the Amazon River and the Atlantic Ocean. It is one of the most extensive and sedimentologically dynamic regions of the world, with a large number of continental islands mostly formed less than 10,000 years ago. The natural distribution of the cane toad (Rhinella marina), one of the world’s most successful invasive species, in this complex Amazonian system provides an intriguing model for the investigation of the effects of isolation or the combined effects of isolation and habitat dynamic changes on patterns of genetic variability and population differentiation. We used nine fast-evolving microsatellite loci to contrast patterns of genetic variability in six coastal (three mainlands and three islands) populations of the cane toad near the mouth of the Amazon River. Results from Bayesian multilocus clustering approach and Discriminant Analyses of Principal Component were congruent in showing that each island population was genetically differentiated from the mainland populations. All FST values obtained from all pairwise comparisons were significant, ranging from 0.048 to 0.186. Estimates of both recent and historical gene flow were not significantly different from zero across all population pairs, except the two mainland populations inhabiting continuous habitats. Patterns of population differentiation, with a high level of population substructure and absence/restricted gene flow, suggested that island populations of R. marina are likely isolated since the Holocene sea-level rise. However, considering the similar levels of genetic variability found in both island and mainland populations, it is reliable to assume that they were also isolated for longer periods. Given the genetic uniqueness of each cane toad population, together with the high natural vulnerability of the coastal regions and intense human pressures, we suggest that these

  20. Effects of temperature on embryonic and larval development and growth in the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita in a semi-arid zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanuy, D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature affects the duration of embryonic and larval periods in amphibians. Plasticity in time to metamorphosis is especially important in amphibian populations of Mediterranean semi-arid zones where temperatures are high and precipitation is low, increasing the rate of pond desiccation. In order to test the influence of water temperature on the larval development and growth of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita, we collected two spawns in a semi¿arid zone at Balaguer (Lleida, NE Iberian peninsula. Approximately 50 (+/-10 eggs (stage 14-16 were raised in the lab at different temperature conditions: 10, 15, 20, 22.5 and 25ºC with 12:12 photoperiod. The results show a lengthening of development time with decreasing temperatures and a better survival performance of B. calamita to high temperatures. However, mean size at metamorphosis was not different across treatments, thus, suggesting that this population of B. calamita requires a minimum size to complete the metamorphosis. This study is the first approach to examine the effects that climatic factors have on the growth and development of B. calamita in semi-arid zones.

  1. How complex is the Bufo bufo species group?

    OpenAIRE

    Arntzen, J. W.; Recuero, E.; Canestrelli, D.; Martínez-Solano, I.

    2013-01-01

    Species delineation remains one of the most challenging tasks in the study of biodiversity, mostly owing to the application of different species concepts, which results in contrasting taxonomic arrangements. This has important practical consequences, since species are basic units in fields like ecology and conservation biology. We here review molecular genetic evidence relevant to the systematics of toads in the Bufo bufo species group (Anura, Bufonidae). Two studies recently published in thi...

  2. Determination of pesticide aerial drift and associated effects to the endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) at Mortenson and Hutton National Wildlife Refuges and potential reintroduction sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The endangered Wyoming toad is confined to Mortenson National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in southeast Wyoming. Reasons for the decline of the toad are unknown, but it is...

  3. Agregace jako antipredační strategie u pulců ropuchy obecné (\\kur{Bufo bufo}).

    OpenAIRE

    BODNÁR, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Tadpoles of many anuran species use a huge number of behavioral modifications to avoid predators. Reduced activity in presence of predators is favorite strategy for common toad tadpoles (Bufo bufo). Responses against predator cues by tadpoles of Bufo bufo in the presence of another cue of larger tadpole aggregation were tested in this study. We observed that these tadpoles responded differently to predator chemical cues than tadpoles in a small group.

  4. The genetics of amphibian declines: Population substructure and molecular differentiation in the Yosemite Toad, Bufo canorus (Anura, Bufonidae) based on single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Shaffer H.; Fellers, G.M.; Magee, A.; Randal, Voss S.

    2000-01-01

    We present a comprehensive survey of genetic variation across the range of the narrowly distributed endemic Yosemite toad Bufo canorus, a declining amphibian restricted to the Sierra Nevada of California. Based on 322 bp of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data, we found limited support for the monophyly of B. canorus and its closely related congener B. exsul to the exclusion of the widespread western toad B. boreas. However, B. exsul was always phylogenetically nested within B. canorus, suggesting that the latter may not be monophyletic. SSCP (single-strand conformation polymorphism) analysis of 372 individual B. canorus from 28 localities in Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks revealed no shared haplotypes among these two regions and lead us to interpret these two parks as distinct management units for B. canorus. Within Yosemite, we found significant genetic substructure both at the level of major drainages and among breeding ponds. Kings Canyon samples show a different pattern, with substantial variation among breeding sites, but no substructure among drainages. Across the range of B. canorus as well as among Yosemite ponds, we found an isolation-by-distance pattern suggestive of a stepping stone model of migration. However, in Kings Canyon we found no hint of such a pattern, suggesting that movement patterns of toads may be quite different in these nearby parklands. Our data imply that management for B. canorus should focus at the individual pond level, and effective management may necessitate reintroductions if local extirpations occur. A brief review of other pond-breeding anurans suggests that highly structured populations are often the case, and thus that our results for B. canorus may be general for other species of frogs and toads.

  5. Nomenclatural availability of the names applied to “varieties” of the green toad (Bufo viridis subgroup in the Italian territory, with emphasis on the variety lineata of Ninni (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Novarini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent molecular investigations on Eurasian green toads led to the recognition of distinct lineages and to the establishment of new taxa within the former Bufo viridis; as a consequence, significant range-wide nomenclatural changes have been proposed, although some uncertainties remained on the available names applicable within the Italian territory. In order to contribute to clarify the matter, we evaluated, under the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the nomenclatural availability of all the names that have been applied to infrasubspecific entities of the Bufo viridis subgroup within the Italian territory. We also provided a historical overview of the usage of all these names, as well as detailed information on the original material upon which the variety lineata of A.P. Ninni was established. Our analysis supports the view that only the names crucigera Eichwald, 1831 and balearica Boettger, 1880 are available, the former being however junior synonym of B. viridis Laurenti, 1768, whereas the names acutirostris and obtusirostris of Lessona, lineata of Ninni, concolor and maculata of Camerano, and nardoi of Paolucci, Fuhn and Bruno are all not available.

  6. NHE-1 sequence and expression in toad, snake and fish red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steffen Nyegaard; Wang, Tobias; Kristensen, Torsten

    Red blood cells (RBC) from reptiles appear not to express regulatory volume increase (RVI) upon shrinkage (Kristensen et al., 2008). In other vertebrates, the RVI response is primarily mediated by activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE-1) and we, therefore decided to investigate whether red cells...... of reptiles express a different NHE-1 that responds less to volume activation compared to other vertebrates or simply lack the Na+/H+ exchanger. Using various tissues from the ball python (Python regius), Cane toad (Bufo marinus) and European perch (Perca fluviatilis), cDNA libraries were created and...

  7. Microstructure of toad (Bufo raddei) andits antioxidant and immune function%花背蟾蜍皮肤结构及其抗氧化和免疫功能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凤娟; 李丕鹏; 陆宇燕

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the skin structure and function of the toad (Bufo raddei),the conventional paraffin section technique and ELISA were adopted to observe the microstructural characteristics of its dorsal skin,ventral skin and skin glands;and determine the contents of SOD,CAT,MDA,TLR4 andβD-1 of the dorsal skin and ventral skin, respectively.The results show that the toad skin structures are similar to other amphibians.That is the ventral cuticle thicker than the dorsal,the dorsal epidermis and dermis thicker than the ventral,granular glands mainly in the dorsal skin,and mucous glands in the ventral skin.SOD and TLR4 examined in the ventral skin are higher than in the dorsal skin,CAT containing in the dorsal skin is higher than in the ventral skin,but MDA andβD-1 are similar in these two areas.In conclusion,the structures and related protein levels of the toad skin closely adapt to the living environment,and have the antioxidant capacities and natural immune functions.%为了深入了解花背蟾蜍(Bufo raddei Strauch)皮肤显微结构及其相关功能,利用石蜡切片及酶联免疫吸附反应技术,观察了花背蟾蜍背腹侧皮肤及其皮肤腺的显微结构特点,分别测定了背、腹侧皮肤中 SOD、CAT、MDA、TLR4和βD-1含量。结果:花背蟾蜍皮肤结构与其他两栖类皮肤结构基本相同,其角质层腹侧较背侧厚,表皮和真皮背侧较腹侧厚;颗粒腺主要存在于背侧,而黏液腺主要存在于腹侧。SOD和TLR4含量腹侧皮肤高于背侧皮肤;CAT含量背侧皮肤较腹侧高;MDA和βD-1含量在背腹皮肤中相近。结论:花背蟾蜍皮肤结构和相关蛋白水平能够较好的适应其生境,并具有一定的抗氧化能力和天然免疫功能。

  8. 花背蟾蜍皮肤结构及其抗氧化和免疫功能的研究%Microstructure of toad (Bufo raddei) andits antioxidant and immune function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凤娟; 李丕鹏; 陆宇燕

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the skin structure and function of the toad (Bufo raddei),the conventional paraffin section technique and ELISA were adopted to observe the microstructural characteristics of its dorsal skin,ventral skin and skin glands;and determine the contents of SOD,CAT,MDA,TLR4 andβD-1 of the dorsal skin and ventral skin, respectively.The results show that the toad skin structures are similar to other amphibians.That is the ventral cuticle thicker than the dorsal,the dorsal epidermis and dermis thicker than the ventral,granular glands mainly in the dorsal skin,and mucous glands in the ventral skin.SOD and TLR4 examined in the ventral skin are higher than in the dorsal skin,CAT containing in the dorsal skin is higher than in the ventral skin,but MDA andβD-1 are similar in these two areas.In conclusion,the structures and related protein levels of the toad skin closely adapt to the living environment,and have the antioxidant capacities and natural immune functions.%为了深入了解花背蟾蜍(Bufo raddei Strauch)皮肤显微结构及其相关功能,利用石蜡切片及酶联免疫吸附反应技术,观察了花背蟾蜍背腹侧皮肤及其皮肤腺的显微结构特点,分别测定了背、腹侧皮肤中 SOD、CAT、MDA、TLR4和βD-1含量。结果:花背蟾蜍皮肤结构与其他两栖类皮肤结构基本相同,其角质层腹侧较背侧厚,表皮和真皮背侧较腹侧厚;颗粒腺主要存在于背侧,而黏液腺主要存在于腹侧。SOD和TLR4含量腹侧皮肤高于背侧皮肤;CAT含量背侧皮肤较腹侧高;MDA和βD-1含量在背腹皮肤中相近。结论:花背蟾蜍皮肤结构和相关蛋白水平能够较好的适应其生境,并具有一定的抗氧化能力和天然免疫功能。

  9. Mixed population genomics support for the central marginal hypothesis across the invasive range of the cane toad (Rhinella marina) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Daryl R; Epstein, Brendan; Hohenlohe, Paul A; Alford, Ross A; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Storfer, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Understanding factors that cause species' geographic range limits is a major focus in ecology and evolution. The central marginal hypothesis (CMH) predicts that species cannot adapt to conditions beyond current geographic range edges because genetic diversity decreases from core to edge due to smaller, more isolated edge populations. We employed a population genomics framework using 24 235-33 112 SNP loci to test major predictions of the CMH in the ongoing invasion of the cane toad (Rhinella marina) in Australia. Cane toad tissue samples were collected along broad-scale, core-to-edge transects across their invasive range. Geographic and ecological core areas were identified using GIS and habitat suitability indices from ecological niche modelling. Bayesian clustering analyses revealed three genetic clusters, in the northwest invasion-front region, northeast precipitation-limited region and southeast cold temperature-limited region. Core-to-edge patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation were consistent with the CMH in the southeast, but were not supported in the northeast and showed mixed support in the northwest. Results suggest cold temperatures are a likely contributor to southeastern range limits, consistent with CMH predictions. In the northeast and northwest, ecological processes consisting of a steep physiological barrier and ongoing invasion dynamics, respectively, are more likely explanations for population genomic patterns than the CMH. PMID:27393238

  10. Chloride channels in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Rasmussen, B E

    1982-01-01

    A study of the voltage and time dependence of a transepithelial Cl- current in toad skin (Bufo bufo) by the voltage-clamp method leads to the conclusion that potential has a dual role for Cl- transport. One is to control the permeability of an apical membrane Cl-pathway, the other is to drive Cl-...... that Cl- transport through open channels does not obey the constant-field equation....

  11. Mixed Sex Effects on the Second-to-Fourth Digit Ratio of Túngara Frogs (Engystomops pustulosus) and Cane Toads (Rhinella marina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Lynne E; Emmering, Quinn C; Bernal, Ximena E

    2016-04-01

    Sexual dimorphism in the ratio of digit lengths has been correlated to behavioral, physiological, and morphological traits in a variety of taxa. While sexual dimorphism in the second-to-fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D) is a well-established indicator of prenatal androgen exposure in mammals, investigations into the patterns of 2D:4D and the drivers of such variation in other taxa are lacking. We used linear mixed effects models to gain a mechanistic understanding of the factors that drive variation in the scaling relationship between the lengths of the second and fourth digits in two species of anurans: túngara frogs (Engystomops pustulosus) and cane toads (Rhinella marina). We found evidence for sexual dimorphism of the 2D:4D scaling relationship on the front feet of túngara frogs, with female frogs having a larger ratio than males resulting from a relatively longer second digit on females. To our knowledge, this mammal-like pattern of sex differences in digit ratio has not yet been reported for anurans. However, given the reduced number of digits on the front feet of anurans, and uncertainty about which digit was lost during evolutionary history, this apparent sexual dimorphism in the front feet of túngara frogs should be treated with caution. In contrast, we found no evidence of sexual dimorphism in 2D:4D on either the front or rear feet of cane toads. This study highlights ambiguities in 2D:4D across taxa and suggests that further research is needed to evaluate the effect of androgens on 2D:4D in animals other than placental mammals. Anat Rec, 299:421-427, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26815928

  12. Survey of helminths, ectoparasites, and chytrid fungus of an introduced population of cane toads, Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae), from Grenada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Michael C.; Zieger, Ulrike; Groszkowski, Andrew; Gallardo, Bruce; Sages, Patti; Reavis, Roslyn; Faircloth, Leslie; Jacobson, Krystin; Lonce, Nicholas; Pinckney, Rhonda D.; Cole, Rebecca Ann

    2014-01-01

    One hundred specimens of Rhinella marina, (Anura: Bufonidae) collected in St. George's parish, Grenada, from September 2010 to August 2011, were examined for the presence of ectoparasites and helminths. Ninety-five (95%) toads were parasitized by one or more parasite species. Nine species of parasites were found: 1 digenean, 2 acanthocephalans, 4 nematodes, 1 arthropod and 1 pentastome. The endoparasites represented 98.9% of the total number of parasite specimens collected. Grenada represents a new locality record for Mesocoelium monas, Raillietiella frenatus, Pseudoacanthacephalus sp., Aplectana sp., Physocephalus sp., Acanthacephala cystacanth and Physalopteridae larvae. The digenean M. monas occurred with the highest prevalence of 82%, contrasting many studies of R. marina where nematodes dominate the parasite infracommunity. Female toads were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of Amblyomma dissimile than male toads. Only two parasites exhibited a significant difference between wet and dry season with Parapharyngodon grenadensis prevalence highest in the wet season and A. dissimile prevalence highest during the dry season. Additionally, A. dissimile was significantly more abundant during the dry season.

  13. Embryotoxicity of lead on Bufo arenarum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Coll, C.S.; Herkovits, J.; Salibian, A.

    1988-08-01

    Lead, one of the oldest and more widely distributed pollutants, produces serious toxicological effects. From an ecotoxicological point of view, amphibians are useful as indicators of environmental contamination because they are sensitive to a great variety of toxic agents. Considering that Bufo arenarum is one of the most widely distributed toads in South America, in the present work the authors study the LC50 and teratogenical effects of lead on Bufo arenarum embryos obtained from different couples of parents exposing them from the 2-cell stage onwards. A differential susceptibility to this heavy metal in embryos obtained from five different couples of parents is described.

  14. The Effect of the Ecology of Toads on the Distribution of Helminths

    OpenAIRE

    VASHETKO, Emilia V.; SIDDIKOV, Bakhodir H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of studies on the helminth fauna of the green toad, Bufo viridis, in Uzbekistan. Twently helminth species were identified. The highest diversity of helminths was recorded in toads in the newly-built districts of Tashkent (1966-76). The helminth fauna of the toads inhabiting foothills was less common.

  15. Toad envenoming in dogs: effects and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    M. SAKATE; P. C. Lucas de Oliveira

    2000-01-01

    Toads (order: Anura; family: Bufonidae; genus: Bufo) are distributed throughout the world, but more species are found in areas of tropical and humid temperate climates. Although toads do not have a venom inoculation system, they are venomous animals because the glands covering the whole surface of their bodies secrete a milk-like venom of which composition is not yet completely known. Some of these glands are the bilateral glands located in post-orbital position. These glands, which are somew...

  16. A Suspected Parasite Spill-Back of Two Novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea) Causing Disease in Australian Endemic Frogs Found in the Invasive Cane Toad

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartigan, A.; Fiala, Ivan; Dyková, Iva; Jirků, Miloslav; Okimoto, B.; Rose, K.; Phalen, D. N.; Šlapeta, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2011), e18871. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600960701 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GP204/09/P519 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : EW-SOUTH-WALES * BUFO-MARINUS * BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS * INFECTIOUS-DISEASES * NORTH-AMERICA * TREE FROG * MYXOZOA * SEQUENCES * PHYLOGENY * ECOLOGY Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011

  17. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na+/K+-ATPase localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na+/K+-ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was greater and we

  18. Radiosensitivity of the Philippine giant toad (Bufu marinus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Philippine giant toad (Bufu marinus L.) were studied to establish their radiosensitivities and their possible use as a good biological indicator organism of radiation effects. Live male and female toads were exposed to ionizing doses of gamma irradiation. Chromosome analysis was done under the Carl Zeiss III photo microscope. Somatic and meiotic chromosome aberrations were induced in giant toad upon in vivo whole gamma irradiations. By cytogenetic analysis the aberrant chromosomes were observed and evaluated. In these studies, it was concluded that Bufo marinus L. is significantly radiosensitive and a good biological indicator organisms of radiation effects. (ISD). 2 figs.; 8 tabs

  19. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo Terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of s...

  20. Trophic ecology and microhabitat utilization by the Bufo gargarizans, Rana guentheri, and Rana limnocharis in southwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Tonglei Yu; Yanshu Guo

    2012-01-01

    We studied the trophic ecology and microhabitat use of the Asiatic toad, Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842; Guentheri frog, Rana guentheri (Boulenger, 1882); and the Ricefield frog, Rana limnocharis (Boie, 1834). These three species are common around Nanchong City, in southwestern China, where they live in the same habitat before hibernation. The main objective of this study was to analyze the diets and patterns of coexistence relative to the microhabitat of each species. In the Asiatic toad, bas...

  1. Active urea transport by the skin of Bufo viridis: Amiloride- and phloretin-sensitive transport sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urea is actively transported inwardly (Ji) across the skin of the green toad Bufo viridis. Ji is markedly enhanced in toads adapted to hypertonic saline. The authors studied urea transport across the skin of Bufo viridis under a variety of experimental conditions, including treatment with amiloride and phloretin, agents that inhibit urea permeability in the bladder of Bufo marinus. Amiloride (10-4 M) significantly inhibited Ji in both adapted and unadapted animals and was unaffected by removal of sodium from the external medium. Phloretin (10-4 M) significantly inhibited Ji in adapted animals by 23-46%; there was also a reduction in Ji in unadapted toads at 10-4 and 5 x 10-4 M phloretin. A dose-response study revealed that the concentration of phloretin causing half-maximal inhibition (K1/2) was 5 x 10-4 M for adapted animals. Ji was unaffected by the substitution of sucrose for Ringer solution or by ouabain. They conclude (1) the process of adaptation appears to involve an increase in the number of amiloride- and phloretin-inhibitable urea transport sites in the skin, with a possible increase in the affinity of the sites for phloretin; (2) the adapted skin resembles the Bufo marinus urinary bladder with respect to amiloride and phloretin-inhibitable sites; (3) they confirm earlier observations that Ji is independent of sodium transport

  2. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Bonacci, Antonella; Coscarelli, Francesca [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy); Tripepi, Manuela [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, 201 Leidy Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Brunelli, Elvira, E-mail: brunelli@unical.it [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was

  3. Differences and Similarities among Parotoid Macrogland Secretions in South American Toads: A Preliminary Biochemical Delineation

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Mozer Sciani; Cláudia Blanes Angeli; Antoniazzi, Marta M.; Carlos Jared; Daniel Carvalho Pimenta

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians are known by cutaneous glands, spread over the skin, containing toxins (proteins, peptides, biogenic amines, steroidal bufadienolides, and alkaloids) used as chemical defense against predators and microbial infection. Toads are characterized by the presence of parotoid macroglands. The common toads have lately been divided into two genera: Bufo (Europe, Asia, and Africa) and Rhinella (South America). Basal Rhaebo genus is exclusively of Central America and Amazon region. Although R...

  4. Spontaneous firing in olfactory bulb neurons of Bufo bufo gargarizans in and after hibernation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuancheng Liang; Shaokang Bian; Xia Peng; Liwen Wang

    2011-01-01

    Microelectrode technique was used to record the spontaneous electrical activities of the neurons in olfactory bulb of the Bufo bufo gargarizans, both in hibernation and after hibernation. This study investigated the electrophysiological characteristics of amphibian olfactory bulb in the period of hibernation and after hibernation and its effects on the start of hibernation and spontaneous awakening. The research showed four forms of spontaneous firings: single spontaneous firing, burst spontaneous firing, irregular spontaneous firing and consecutive single spontaneous firing. The single spontaneous firing includes slow depolarized spontaneous firing and fast depolarized spontaneous firing, and the slow depolarized spontaneous firing occurs only during the hibernation period. In hibernation, the low amplitude and low frequency firing with a longer duration may be relevant to maintaining the tonicity of the central nervous system in toads that are in hibernation, and this kind of firing may also provide an excited basis for their arousal from hibernation. After hibernation, the amplitude and frequency of firing increase, but the firing duration gets shorter. This form of short-term firing, which may be a phenomenon of sensory neurons fast adapting, is one of the neuronal mechanisms for the arousal of hibernating animals.

  5. Endosulfan acute toxicity in Bufo bufo gills: Ultrastructural changes and nitric oxide synthase localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide used in agriculture for a wide range of crops. Endosulfan concentrations of up to 0.7 mg/L can be found in ponds and streams near sprayed agricultural fields. We investigated the short-term toxicity of endosulfan in common toad (Bufo bufo) tadpoles after 24, 48, and 96 h of exposure. Acute toxicity was evaluated at nominal concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.6 mg/L: concentrations that could be found after the application of pesticide. Our results show that 0.43 mg/L of endosulfan caused 50% mortality (LC50). The effects of a sublethal endosulfan concentration (0.2 mg/L) on gill apparatus morphology were evaluated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical methods were also applied to detect the expression pattern of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the gills using the confocal laser scanner microscope. Exposure to 0.2 mg/L of endosulfan caused an apparent increase in mucus production, the occurrence of secretory vesicles and lamellar bodies, a widening of intercellular spaces and additionally there was evidence of an inflammatory response in the gill apparatus. The morphological alterations occurred after 24 h and were more pronounced after 48 and 96 h of exposure. Altered morphology and increased mucus secretion indicate impaired gas exchange and osmoregulation in the gills. In addition, there was an increase of iNOS expression after 24 and 48 h which may reflect hypoxia and inflammation in the gill epithelium. Our results clearly indicate that short-term exposure to a sublethal concentration of endosulfan, near the high end of the environmental range, disrupts gill morphology and function in B. bufo tadpoles

  6. Mapping the Relative Probability of Common Toad Occurrence in Terrestrial Lowland Farm Habitat in the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosie D Salazar

    Full Text Available The common toad (Bufo bufo is of increasing conservation concern in the United Kingdom (UK due to dramatic population declines occurring in the past century. Many of these population declines coincided with reductions in both terrestrial and aquatic habitat availability and quality and have been primarily attributed to the effect of agricultural land conversion (of natural and semi-natural habitats to arable and pasture fields and pond drainage. However, there is little evidence available to link habitat availability with common toad population declines, especially when examined at a broad landscape scale. Assessing such patterns of population declines at the landscape scale, for instance, require an understanding of how this species uses terrestrial habitat.We intensively studied the terrestrial resource selection of a large population of common toads in Oxfordshire, England, UK. Adult common toads were fitted with passive integrated transponder (PIT tags to allow detection in the terrestrial environment using a portable PIT antenna once toads left the pond and before going into hibernation (April/May-October 2012 and 2013. We developed a population-level resource selection function (RSF to assess the relative probability of toad occurrence in the terrestrial environment by collecting location data for 90 recaptured toads.The predicted relative probability of toad occurrence for this population was greatest in wooded habitat near to water bodies; relative probability of occurrence declined dramatically > 50 m from these habitats. Toads also tended to select habitat near to their breeding pond and toad occurrence was negatively related to urban environments.

  7. Properties of a conductive cellular chloride pathway in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Kristensen, P

    1978-01-01

    -compartment model indicate that the strong steady-state chloride current rectification cannot be obtained if only the intracellular chloride concentration and the membrane potentials are allowed to vary ("Goldman-rectification"). It is suggested, therefore, that the premeability of the chloride pathway varies...... steady-state conductance and the steady-state chloride current reveal that the chloride pathway has maximum conductance for V approximately -80 mV (outside of the skin being negative) and approaches a non-conducting safe for V greater than 0 mV. This strong outward going rectification is a steady......-state phenomenon: In skins hyperpolarized for a few minutes, the "instantaneous" I-V curves show that the chloride pathway in the conducting state allows a large inward chloride current (outward chloride flux) to pass in the voltage range 40 mV greater than V greater than 0 mV. Calculations based on a three...

  8. Magnetic orientation of the Common Toad: establishing an arena approach for adult anurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gollmann Günter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnetic orientation is a taxonomically widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, but has been little studied in anuran amphibians. We collected Common Toads (Bufo bufo during their migration towards their spawning pond and tested them shortly after displacement for possible magnetic orientation in arena experiments. Animals were tested in two different set-ups, in the geomagnetic field and in a reversed magnetic field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study testing orientation of adult anurans with a controlled magnetic field of a known strength and alignment. Results After displacement, toads oriented themselves unimodally under the geomagnetic field, following their former migration direction (d-axis. When the magnetic field was reversed, the distribution of bearings changed from a unimodal to a bimodal pattern, but still along the d-axis. The clustering of bearings was only significant after the toads reached the outer circle, 60.5 cm from their starting point. At a virtual inner circle (diameter 39 cm and at the start of the experiment, orientation of toads did not show any significant pattern. Conclusions The experimental set-up used in our study is suitable to test orientation behaviour of the Common Toad. We speculate that toads had not enough time to relocate their position on an internal map. Hence, they followed their former migration direction. Bimodality in orientation when exposed to the reversed magnetic field could be the result of a cue conflict, between magnetic and possibly celestial cues. For maintaining their migration direction toads use, at least partly, the geomagnetic field as a reference system.

  9. Effects of amphibian chytrid fungus on individual survival probability in wild boreal toads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, D.S.; Muths, E.; Scherer, R. D.; Bartelt, P.E.; Corn, P.S.; Hossack, B.R.; Lambert, B.A.; Mccaffery, R.; Gaughan, C.

    2010-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis is linked to the worldwide decline of amphibians, yet little is known about the demographic effects of the disease. We collected capture-recapture data on three populations of boreal toads (Bufo boreas [Bufo = Anaxyrus]) in the Rocky Mountains (U.S.A.). Two of the populations were infected with chytridiomycosis and one was not. We examined the effect of the presence of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis [Bd]; the agent of chytridiomycosis) on survival probability and population growth rate. Toads that were infected with Bd had lower average annual survival probability than uninfected individuals at sites where Bd was detected, which suggests chytridiomycosis may reduce survival by 31-42% in wild boreal toads. Toads that were negative for Bd at infected sites had survival probabilities comparable to toads at the uninfected site. Evidence that environmental covariates (particularly cold temperatures during the breeding season) influenced toad survival was weak. The number of individuals in diseased populations declined by 5-7%/year over the 6 years of the study, whereas the uninfected population had comparatively stable population growth. Our data suggest that the presence of Bd in these toad populations is not causing rapid population declines. Rather, chytridiomycosis appears to be functioning as a low-level, chronic disease whereby some infected individuals survive but the overall population effects are still negative. Our results show that some amphibian populations may be coexisting with Bd and highlight the importance of quantitative assessments of survival in diseased animal populations. Journal compilation. ?? 2010 Society for Conservation Biology. No claim to original US government works.

  10. Karyological and flow cytometric evidence of triploid specimens in Bufo viridis (Amphibia Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cavallo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyological and flow cytometric (FCM analyses were performed on a group of 14 green toads of the Bufo viridis species from seven Eurasian populations. Both approaches gave concordant results concerning the DNA ploidy level. All the populations examined were represented exclusively by diploid or tetraploid specimens, except one, where triploids were found. Results evidenced an interpopulation variability in DNA content against the same ploidy level, as well as an unusually high number of triploids in a particular reproductive place. The origin of polyploidy and the presence and persistence of a high number of triploids in a particular population are discussed.

  11. Male size does not correlate with fertilization success in two bufonid toads that show size-assortative mating

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Li FAN, Zhi-Hua LIN, Xiang JI

    2013-01-01

    We examined sexual size dimorphism (SSD), mating pattern, fertilization efficiency and female reproductive traits in two bufonid toads (Bufo gargarizans and Duttaphrynus melanostictus) to test the idea that importance of male body size for egg fertilization success depends on the mating pattern. Female-biased SSD was evident only in D. melanostictus. Female B. gargarizans laid fewer larger eggs nearly three months earlier than did female D. melanostictus. Fertilization efficiencies on average...

  12. Phospholipid transfer activities in toad oocytes and developing embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of lipid transfer proteins during plasma membrane biogenesis was explored. Developing amphibia embryos were used because during their growth an active plasma membrane biosynthesis occurs together with negligible mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum proliferation. Sonicated vesicles, containing 14C-labeled phospholipids and 3H-labeled triolein, as donor particles and cross-linked erythrocyte ghosts as acceptor particles were used to measure phospholipid transfer activities in unfertilized oocytes and in developing embryos of the toad Bufo arenarum. Phosphatidylcholine transfer activity in pH 5.1 supernatant of unfertilized oocytes was 8-fold higher than the activity found in female toad liver supernatant, but dropped steadily after fertilization. After 20 hr of development, at the stage of late blastula, the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity had dropped 4-fold. Unfertilized oocyte supernatant exhibited phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activity also, but at the late blastula stage the former had dropped 18-fold and the latter was no longer detectable under our assay conditions. Our results show that fertilization does not trigger a phospholipid transport process catalyzed by lipid transfer proteins. Moreover, they imply that 75% of the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity and more than 95% of the phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activities present in pH 5.1 supernatants of unfertilized oocytes may not be essential for toad embryo development. Our findings do not rule out, however, that a phosphatidylcholine-specific lipid transfer protein could be required for embryo early growth

  13. A contribution to the intraspecific systematics of Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Amphibia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de L.

    1973-01-01

    A biometrical analysis of preserved specimens of Bufo bufo, supplemented by a detailed examination of the shape of the skin warts, was performed in order to ascertain the taxonomic status of the form described as B.b.spinosus. Indications of a N.-S. clinal variation in the formation of wart thorns a

  14. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's 'first flush', but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. - Highway runoff has detrimental effects on the development of B. viridis larvae.

  15. Haematological changes in Bufo maculatus treated with sublethal concentrations of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ikechukwu Ezemonye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult Bufo maculatus was exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 mg/L. The toxicant from which the cadmium concentrations were prepared was cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O. There were three replicate tanks per treatment and three individuals per tank including control groups. The hematologic alterations based on the examination of blood indices during the 28 days of exposure showed that total erythrocyte count (TEC, hematocrit (Hct and hemoglobin (Hb concentration decreased (P<0.05 relative to controls. The decline was concentration- dependent as concentration of cadmium increased. The decline in hemoglobin and hematocrit in the experimental organism could be due to a decrease in the synthesis or release of erythrocytes into the circulation or an increase in the rate of erythrocyte destruction inflicted by cadmium toxicity. There was significant (P<0.05 elevation in total leuko- leukocyte count (TLC with increase in the concen- cyte concentration of cadmium. The increase in total leukocyte count observed in this study could be attributed to a stimulation of the immune system in response to tissue damage caused by cadmium toxicity. The study has shown that the exposure of the Bufo maculatus toad to cadmium can inflict alterations in the hematologic indices, which could induce unfavorable physiological changes in the amphibian, which may lead to death. There is, therefore, the need to protect amphibians in order to sustain the biodiversity in the Nigerian Niger Delta ecological zone.

  16. Distribution and pathogenicity of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in boreal toads from the grand teton area of western wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P.J.; St-Hilaire, S.; Bruer, S.; Corn, P.S.; Peterson, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    The pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes the skin disease chytridiomycosis, has been linked to amphibian population declines and extinctions worldwide. Bd has been implicated in recent declines of boreal toads, Bufo boreas boreas, in Colorado but populations of boreal toads in western Wyoming have high prevalence of Bd without suffering catastrophic mortality. In a field and laboratory study, we investigated the prevalence of Bd in boreal toads from the Grand Teton ecosystem (GRTE) in Wyoming and tested the pathogenicity of Bd to these toads in several environments. The pathogen was present in breeding adults at all 10 sites sampled, with a mean prevalence of 67%. In an experiment with juvenile toadlets housed individually in wet environments, 106 zoospores of Bd isolated from GRTE caused lethal disease in all Wyoming and Colorado animals within 35 days. Survival time was longer in toadlets from Wyoming than Colorado and in toadlets spending more time in dry sites. In a second trial involving Colorado toadlets exposed to 35% fewer Bd zoospores, infection peaked and subsided over 68 days with no lethal chytridiomycosis in any treatment. However, compared with drier aquaria with dry refuges, Bd infection intensity was 41% higher in more humid aquaria and 81% higher without dry refuges available. Our findings suggest that although widely infected in nature, Wyoming toads may escape chytridiomycosis due to a slight advantage in innate resistance or because their native habitat hinders Bd growth or provides more opportunities to reduce pathogen loads behaviorally than in Colorado. ?? 2009 International Association for Ecology and Health.

  17. Changes to the generic names of extinct east European species described as Bufo belogoricus Ratnikov, 1993, Bufo planus Ratnikov, 1993 and Bufo albus Ratnikov, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnikov, V. Yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The generic assignment of three fossil forms described as Bufo belogoricus Ratnikov, 1993, Bufo planus Ratnikov, 1993 and Bufo albus Ratnikov, 1993 is discussed. The author justifies why their original generic names should not be changed to Pseudepidalea, as recently proposed, but should be maintained until more convincing evidence is discovered.Se discute la atribución genérica de tres formas fósiles descritas como Bufo belogoricus Ratnikov, 1993, Bufo planus Ratnikov, 1993, y Bufo albus Ratnikov, 1993. El autor justifica las razones por las cuales las adscripciones genéricas originales no deberían cambiarse a Pseudepidalea, como recientemente se ha propuesto, sino mantenerse hasta que se descubra nueva evidencia más convincente.

  18. Rapid differentiation of sexual signals in invasive toads: call variation among populations

    OpenAIRE

    Kiyomi Yasumiba; Duffy, Richard L.; Parsons, Scott A.; Ross A Alford; Lin Schwarzkopf

    2016-01-01

    Advertisement calls tend to differ among populations, based on morphological and environmental factors, or simply geographic distance, in many taxa. Invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) were introduced to Australia in 1935 and their distribution has expanded at increasing rates over time. Rapid evolution occurred in morphological and behavioural characters that accelerate dispersal, but the effects of rapid expansion on sexual signals have not been examined. We collected advertisement calls ...

  19. The importance of glucose for the freezing tolerance/intolerance of the anuran amphibians Rana catesbeiana and Bufo paracnemis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEINER A. A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Several species of terrestrially hibernating frogs, turtles and insects have developed mechanisms, such as increased plasma glucose, anti-freeze proteins and antioxidant enzymes that resist to freezing, for survival at subzero temperatures. In the present study, we assessed the importance of glucose to cryoresistance of two anuran amphibians: the frog Rana catesbeiana and the toad Bufo paracnemis. Both animals were exposed to -2ºC for measurements of plasma glucose levels, liver and muscle glycogen content, haematocrit and red blood cell volume. Frogs survived cold exposure but toads did not. Blood glucose concentration increased from 40.35 ± 7.25 to 131.87 ± 20.72 mg/dl (P < 0.01 when the frogs were transferred from 20 to -2ºC. Glucose accumulation in response to cold exposition in the frogs was accompanied by a decrease (P < 0.05 in liver glycogen content from 3.94 ± 0.42 to 1.33 ± 0.36 mg/100 mg tissue, indicating that liver carbohydrate reserves were probably the primary carbon source of glucose synthesis whereas muscle carbohydrate seems unimportant. In the toads, the cold-induced hyperglycaemia was less (P < 0.05 pronounced (from 27.25 ± 1.14 to 73.72 ± 13.50 mg/dl and no significant change could be measured in liver or muscle glycogen. Cold exposition had no effect on the haematocrit of the frogs but significantly reduced (P < 0.01 the haematocrit of toads from 20.0 ± 2.1% to 5.8 ± 1.7% due to a decreased red blood cell volume (from 1532 ± 63 to 728 ± 87 mm³. When toads were injected with glucose, blood glucose increased to levels similar to those of frogs and haematocrit did not change, but this failed to make them cryoresistent. In conclusion, the lack of cold-induced glucose catabolism may not be the only mechanism responsible for the freeze intolerance of Bufo paracnemis, a freeze-intolerant species.

  20. Living up to its name? The effect of salinity on development, growth, and phenotype of the "marine" toad (Rhinella marina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijethunga, Uditha; Greenlees, Matthew; Shine, Richard

    2016-02-01

    The highly permeable integument of amphibians renders them vulnerable to chemical characteristics of their environment, especially during the aquatic larval stage. As the cane toad (Rhinella marina, Bufonidae) invades southwards along the east coast of Australia, it is encountering waterbodies with highly variable conditions of temperature, pH, and salinity. Understanding the tolerance of toads to these conditions can clarify the likely further spread of the invader, as well as the adaptability of the species to novel environmental challenges. We measured salinity in waterbodies in the field and conducted laboratory trials to investigate the impacts of salinity on toad viability. Eggs and tadpoles from the southern invasion front tolerated the most saline conditions we found in potential spawning ponds during surveys [equivalent to 1200 ppm (3.5 % the salinity of seawater)]. Indeed, high-salinity treatments increased tadpole body sizes, accelerated metamorphosis, and improved locomotor ability of metamorphs (but did not affect metamorph morphology). At very low salinity [40 ppm (0.1 % seawater)], eggs hatched but larvae did not develop past Gosner stage 37. Our study shows that the egg and larval life stages of cane toads can tolerate wide variation in the salinity of natal ponds and that this aspect of waterbody chemistry is likely to facilitate rather than constrain continued southward expansion of the toad invasion front in eastern Australia. PMID:26553545

  1. Ocorrência de Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1899 e Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae em Bufo arenalis no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurence of Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1899 and Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae in Bufo arenalis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Lodovico Sinkoc

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar a ocorrência do parasitismo monoespecífico de A. fuscum NEUMANN, 1899 e A. humerale KOCH, 1844 em sapos (Bufo arenalis no Município de Rosana, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Este relato caracteriza um novo hospedeiro e uma nova localização geográfica para estas duas espécies de carrapatos.The objective of this work is to describe the occurence of the monoespecific parasitism of A. fuscum NEUMANN, 1899 and A. humerale KOCH, 1844 in toads (Bufo arenalis from the County of Rosana, State of São Paulo, Brazil. This is the description of a new host and new geographic site for those two species.

  2. Using a cane

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000343.htm Using a cane To use the sharing features on this page, ... a walker may be better options for you. Cane Basics The most common question about using a ...

  3. Portrait of Mary Cane

    OpenAIRE

    Furse, Charles Wellington (English painter, 1868-1904)

    1993-01-01

    The present portrait depicts Mary Cane, wife of Arthur Beresford Cane of Cahermoyle, County Limerick and the daughter of William Smith O'Brien. The portrait is signed and inscribed on label attached to the stretcher.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo raddei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenya; Zhang, Xingjie; Guo, Rui; Tang, Yue; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo raddei is carried out in the present research using Illumina Hiseq 2500. The mitogenome is 17 602 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a D-loop region. The overall base composition of the H-strand is 29.15% for A, 26.09% for C, 15.16% for G, and 29.60% for T. The G + C content is 41.25%. Phylogenetic analyses of B. raddei and other 12 amphibian were carried out using Bayesian phylogenetic methods. The sequences of B. raddei were clustered in genus Bufo. PMID:26355835

  5. Hydrosmotic effect of angiotensin II in the toad skin: role of cyclic AMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coviello, A; Brauckmann, E S; de Atenor, M S; Apud, J A; Causarano, J

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the hydrosmotic response of the isolated skin of the toad Bufo arenarum Hensel to angiotensin II was studied by means of an indirect pharmacological approach. Angiotensin II (2.10(-10) M), vasopressin (2.10(-13) M) and theophylline (10(-4) and 10(-3) M) in subliminal doses produced a significant increase on water permeability when added in different paired combinations. Angiotensin II (2.10(-7) M) and vasopressin (2.10(-8) M) in doses producing significant effects on water permeability increased the response to submaximal doses of epinephrine (10(-6) M) but not to higher doses (10(-5) M). Acid pH (6.4) and prostaglandin E1 (2.10(-7) M) reduced significantly the hydrosmotic response to angiotensin II, but in contrast with the toad bladder, the effect was not completely abolished. Present results support the view that the hydrosmotic effect of angiotensin II in toad skin is mediated by the adenylate cyclase - cyclic AMP system. PMID:189568

  6. Comparison of isometric contractile properties in hindlimb extensor muscles of the frogs Rana pipiens and Bufo marinus: functional correlations with differences in hopping performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwell, Brad A; Hartwell, Hadley J; Peters, Susan E

    2002-03-01

    The leopard frog (Rana pipiens) is an excellent jumper that can reach high take-off velocities and accelerations. It is diurnal, using long, explosive jumps to capture prey and escape predators. The marine toad (Bufo marinus) is a cryptic, nocturnal toad, typically using short, slow hops, or sometimes walking, to patrol its feeding area. Typical of frogs with these different locomotor styles, Rana has relatively long hindlimbs and large (by mass) hindlimb extensor muscles compared to Bufo. We studied the isometric contractile properties of their extensor muscles and found differences that correlate with their different hopping performances. At the hip (semimembranosus, SM), knee (peroneus, Per) and ankle (plantaris longus, PL), we found that Rana's muscles tended to produce greater maximum isometric force relative to body mass, although the difference was significant only for PL. This suggests that differences in force capability at the ankle may be more important than at other joints to produce divergent hopping performances. Maximum isometric force scaled with body mass so that the smaller Rana has relatively larger muscles and force differences between species may reflect size differences only. In addition, Rana's muscles exhibited greater passive resistance to elongation, implying more elastic tissue is present, which may amplify force at take-off due to elastic recoil. Rana's muscles also achieved a higher percentage of maximum force at lower stimulus inputs (frequencies and durations) than in Bufo, perhaps amplifying the differences in force available for limb extension during natural stimulation. Twitch contraction and relaxation times tended to be faster in Rana, although variation was great, so that differences were significant only for Per. Fatigability also tended to be greater in Rana muscles, although, again, values reached significance in only one muscle (PL). Thus, in addition to biomechanical effects, differences in hopping performance may also be

  7. Low temperature induces oocytes p34cdc2 synthesis and accumulation—the acquisition of competence to resume meiosis in toad oocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUJINING; ZHENGGU; 等

    1996-01-01

    Full grown oocytes derived from Bufo Bufo gargarizans rearing at high temperature environment (24℃), never underwent GVBD after progesterone treatment.No p34cdc2 Hl kinase activity was detected in the oocytes after progesterone stimulation or OA microinjection;Western blotting analysis showed that the level of p34cdc2 and p33 in the oocytes are significantly lower than those in the oocytes derived from the hibernating toads (below 10℃).35S-Met incorporation analysis showed that when the oocytes were incubated at 6℃,synthesis of about thirty defferent polypeptides was promoted or induced,including p34cdc2 and some other p13suc1-binding proteins.All these results indicated that a low temperature environment is essential for the oocytes of Bufo Bufo gargarizans to express and stord some cell cycle drivers and its regulators,and to gain the maturation competence.These results will also provide a nwe clue for explaining the molecular mechanisms why gametogenesis of some organisms depends on a relative low temperature and how to maintain the geographical distribution of some animals.

  8. Effects of weather on survival in populations of boreal toads in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, R. D.; Muths, E.; Lambert, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between animal population demography and the abiotic and biotic elements of the environments in which they live is a central objective in population ecology. For example, correlations between weather variables and the probability of survival in populations of temperate zone amphibians may be broadly applicable to several species if such correlations can be validated for multiple situations. This study focuses on the probability of survival and evaluates hypotheses based on six weather variables in three populations of Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas) from central Colorado over eight years. In addition to suggesting a relationship between some weather variables and survival probability in Boreal Toad populations, this study uses robust methods and highlights the need for demographic estimates that are precise and have minimal bias. Capture-recapture methods were used to collect the data, and the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model in program MARK was used for analysis. The top models included minimum daily winter air temperature, and the sum of the model weights for these models was 0.956. Weaker support was found for the importance of snow depth and the amount of environmental moisture in winter in modeling survival probability. Minimum daily winter air temperature was positively correlated with the probability of survival in Boreal Toads at other sites in Colorado and has been identified as an important covariate in studies in other parts of the world. If air temperatures are an important component of survival for Boreal Toads or other amphibians, changes in climate may have profound impacts on populations. Copyright 2008 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  9. The dynamics of venous return and response to hypervolemia in the toad, Bufo marinus (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Killorn, Erin E; Toews, Daniel P

    2001-01-01

    Background Venous return from the posterior region of amphibians travels by either two renal portal veins to the kidney or a central abdominal vein that drains into the hepatic portal system. The relative proportions of blood flow in these vessels has never been measured nor has a modification of flow been determined when venous return increases by changes in blood volume during hypervolemia or during increased volume input from the posterior lymph hearts. Results Venous return from the poste...

  10. Soil Organic Matter Content Effects on Dermal Pesticide Bioconcentration in American Toads (Bufo Americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural landscapes serve as active amphibian breeding grounds despite their seemingly poor habitat value. Activity of adults and dispersal of metamorphs to and from agricultural ponds occurs in most species from spring through late summer or early fall, a time that coincides...

  11. Sensory feedback and coordinating asymmetrical landing in toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S M; Gillis, Gary B

    2016-06-01

    Coordinated landing requires anticipating the timing and magnitude of impact, which in turn requires sensory input. To better understand how cane toads, well known for coordinated landing, prioritize visual versus vestibular feedback during hopping, we recorded forelimb joint angle patterns and electromyographic data from five animals hopping under two conditions that were designed to force animals to land with one forelimb well before the other. In one condition, landing asymmetry was due to mid-air rolling, created by an unstable takeoff surface. In this condition, visual, vestibular and proprioceptive information could be used to predict asymmetric landing. In the other, animals took off normally, but landed asymmetrically because of a sloped landing surface. In this condition, sensory feedback provided conflicting information, and only visual feedback could appropriately predict the asymmetrical landing. During the roll treatment, when all sensory feedback could be used to predict an asymmetrical landing, pre-landing forelimb muscle activity and movement began earlier in the limb that landed first. However, no such asymmetries in forelimb preparation were apparent during hops onto sloped landings when only visual information could be used to predict landing asymmetry. These data suggest that toads prioritize vestibular or proprioceptive information over visual feedback to coordinate landing. PMID:27247440

  12. Post-Messinian evolutionary relationships across the Sicilian channel: Mitochondrial and nuclear markers link a new green toad from Sicily to African relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Brutto Sabrina

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little attention has been paid to the consequences of the last landbridge between Africa and Sicily on Mediterranean biogeography. Previous paleontological and scarce molecular data suggest possible faunal exchange later than the well-documented landbridge in the Messinian (5.3 My; however, a possible African origin of recent terrestrial Sicilian fauna has not been thoroughly tested with molecular methods. To gain insight into the phylogeography of the region, we examine two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers (one is a newly adapted intron marker in green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup across that sea barrier, the Strait of Sicily. Results Extensive sampling throughout the western Mediterranean and North Africa revealed a deep sister relationship between Sicilian (Bufo siculus n.sp. and African green toads (B. boulengeri on the mitochondrial and nuclear level. Divergence times estimated under a Bayesian-coalescence framework (mtDNA control region and 16S rRNA range from the Middle Pliocene (3.6 My to Pleistocene (0.16 My with an average (1.83 to 2.0 My around the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, suggesting possible land connections younger than the Messinian (5.3 My. We describe green toads from Sicily and some surrounding islands as a new endemic species (Bufo siculus. Bufo balearicus occurs on some western Mediterranean islands (Corsica, Sardinia, Mallorca, and Menorca and the Apennine Peninsula, and is well differentiated on the mitochondrial and nuclear level from B. siculus as well as from B. viridis (Laurenti, whose haplotype group reaches northeastern Italy, north of the Po River. Detection of Calabrian B. balearicus haplotypes in northeastern Sicily suggests recent invasion. Our data agree with paleogeographic and fossil data, which suggest long Plio-Pleistocene isolation of Sicily and episodic Pleistocene faunal exchange across the Strait of Messina. It remains unknown whether both species (B. balearicus, B. siculus

  13. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorchin, A., E-mail: adorchin@campus.haifa.ac.i [Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Shanas, U., E-mail: shanas@research.haifa.ac.i [Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural sciences, University of Haifa - Oranim, Tiv' on 36006 (Israel)

    2010-12-15

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's 'first flush', but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. - Highway runoff has detrimental effects on the development of B. viridis larvae.

  14. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs... PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A cane... walking. Examples of canes include the following: A standard cane, a forearm cane, and a cane with...

  15. Within- and among-population level differences in response to chronic copper exposure in southern toads, Anaxyrus terrestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental contaminants are implicated in the global decline of amphibian populations. Copper (Cu) is a widespread contaminant that can be toxic at concentrations just above the normal physiological range. In the present study we examined the effects of chronic Cu aqueous exposure on embryos and larvae of southern toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) terrestris. Measurable levels of Cu were found in larvae, with tissue concentrations up to 27.5 μg Cu/g dry mass. Aqueous concentrations of Cu as low as 10 μg/L significantly reduced survival to the free-swimming stage and no larvae reached metamorphosis at concentrations above 15 μg/L. Clutches from populations with prior Cu exposure had the lowest survivorship. Among several populations there was significant variation in survivorship at different levels of Cu. More data are needed to understand the underlying causes of within- and among-population resilience to anthropogenic stressors. -- Highlights: ► Southern toad, Anaxyrus terrestris, embryos and larvae are highly sensitive to Cu. ► Significant variation in survivorship exists among clutches and populations. ► Clutches with prior Cu exposure had the lowest survivorship. ► Body burdens in larvae were up to 27.5 μg Cu/g dry mass. -- Capsule: Southern toad aquatic survival is significantly reduced at 15 μg Cu/L with variation in survivorship across clutches and populations

  16. Differences and Similarities among Parotoid Macrogland Secretions in South American Toads: A Preliminary Biochemical Delineation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mozer Sciani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphibians are known by cutaneous glands, spread over the skin, containing toxins (proteins, peptides, biogenic amines, steroidal bufadienolides, and alkaloids used as chemical defense against predators and microbial infection. Toads are characterized by the presence of parotoid macroglands. The common toads have lately been divided into two genera: Bufo (Europe, Asia, and Africa and Rhinella (South America. Basal Rhaebo genus is exclusively of Central America and Amazon region. Although Rhinella and Rhaebo are related, species may share differences due to the diversity of environments that they live in. In this work, we have performed a biochemical characterization of the components of the poison of eight Rhinella species and one Rhaebo by means of RP-HPLC with either UV or MS detection and by SDS-PAGE, in order to verify whether phylogenetic and biological differences, such as habitat, diet, and defensive strategies, between them may also be reflected in poison composition. Although some components were common among the secretions, we were able to identify exclusive molecules to some species. The fact that closely related animals living in different habitats secrete different molecules into the skin is an indication that biological features, and not only evolution, seem to directly influence the skin secretion composition.

  17. Sodium recirculation and isotonic transport in toad small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedergaard, S; Larsen, E H; Ussing, H H

    1999-04-01

    Isolated small intestine of toad (Bufo bufo) was mounted on glass tubes for perfusion studies with oxygenated amphibian Ringer's solution containing glucose and acetate. Under open-circuit conditions (Vt = -3.9 +/- 1.8 mV, N = 14) the preparation generated a net influx of 134Cs+. The time course of unidirectional 134Cs+-fluxes was mono-exponential with similar rate constants for influx and outflux when measured in the same preparation. The flux-ratio was time invariant from the beginning of appearance of the tracers to steady state was achieved. Thus, just a single pathway, the paracellular pathway, is available for transepithelial transport of Cs+. From the ratio of unidirectional Cs+-fluxes the paracellular force was calculated to be, 18.2 +/- 1.5 mV (N = 6), which is directed against the small transepithelial potential difference. The paracellular netflux of cesium ions, therefore, is caused by solvent drag. The flux of 134Cs+ entering and trapped by the cells was of a magnitude similar to that passing the paracellular route. Therefore, independent of the convective flux of 134Cs+, every second 134Cs+ ion flowing into the lateral space was pumped into the cells rather than proceeding, via the low resistance pathway, to the serosal bath. It is thus indicated that the paracellular convective flow of 134Cs+ is driven by lateral Na+/K+-pumps. Transepithelial unidirectional 42K+ fluxes did not reach steady state within an observation period of 70 min, indicating that components of the fluxes in both directions pass the large cellular pool of potassium ions. The ratio of unidirectional 24Na+ fluxes was time-variant and declined from an initial value of 3.66 +/- 0.34 to a significantly smaller steady-state value of 2.57 +/- 0.26 (P water-filled pores. With a new set of equations, the fraction of the sodium flux passing the basement membrane barrier of the lateral space that is recirculated through the cellular compartment is estimated. This fraction was, on average, 0

  18. Isolation of morphine from toad skin.

    OpenAIRE

    Oka, K.; Kantrowitz, J D; Spector, S

    1985-01-01

    A nonpeptide opioid was found in toad skin and purified to homogeneity by using HPLC with electrochemical detection. A nonpeptide opioid also was detected in bovine brain and adrenals as well as rabbit and rat skin, by reversed-phase HPLC following Sephadex G-15 column chromatography. The material in toad skin was identical to morphine by immunological, pharmacological, and physical chemical criteria.

  19. "Cane" as Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Benjamin F.

    1970-01-01

    Cane...represents the apotheosis of one man's attempt to bear witness to the reality and the power of an idea . . . that the Negro is not an apprentice to equality but a journeyman in suffering." (Author)

  20. LOCATING SUGAR CANE LOADING STATIONS UNDER VARIATIONS IN CANE SUPPLY

    OpenAIRE

    SUPACHAI PATHUMNAKUL; CHATKLAO SANMUANG; NAWAPAK EUA-ANANT; KULLAPAPRUK PIEWTHONGNGAM

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the problem of locating sugar cane loading stations and allocating cane fields to those stations. The problem is different from the general location–allocation problem in so far as this framework takes into account the different maturity periods of each cane field. If the loading station is improperly located, it can result in high transportation costs from cane fields to the station and significant fluctuations in the station utilization rate. A modification of the well-...

  1. Celebrating White Cane Awareness Month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Judy; McGraw, Jane M.

    1995-01-01

    White Cane Awareness Month was created to teach the public that the long cane is a tool for maintaining independence and dignity and a symbol of freedom, not of pity or helplessness. Public relations materials were developed, including a demonstration for television stations on use of the long cane and a quiz to distribute at information booths.…

  2. Anomalías oculares en híbridos Bufo paranecmis ♂ x Bufo arenarum ♀ (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rengel, Dora

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Los híbridos entre Bufo paracnemis x Bufo arenarum se encuadran en los llamados "híbridos vitales". Los resultados han evidenciado relevantes anomalías oculares que se manifiestan en un 90% de los casos. En algunas larvas falta el cristalino tanto en uno como en ambos ojos (20%; en otras larvas el cristalino se encuentra ubicado en posición opuesta al normal (25% o bien puede ocurrir que se forme un ojo normal y el otro de forma distinta (20%. El análisis histológico mostró anomalías en la zona retiniana, evidenciándose a partir de los estratos pigmentarios, repliegues y movimientos flexuosos (5%. También existen ojos replegados sobre sí mismos (5%. Las alteraciones más severas llevaron a procesos de anoftalmia (10%. En ocasiones (5% en lugar del ojo se evidencian grumos de pigmento. Se obtuvo un 10% con ojos normales. Los otros órganos presentan analogía con los de las larvas de Bufo paracnemis, inclusive la librea dorsal. The hybrids between Bufo paracnemis x Bufo arenarum are counted among tbe so called "vital hybrids". Our results have revealed relevant ocular anomalies in 90% of cases. In some larvae the lens is lacking in either one or both eyes (20%; in others the lens it is found in an opposite position to normal (25% or else one normal and one different eye is formed (20%. Histological analysis reveals anomalies in the retinal area, observing flexuous movements in the pigmentary strata (5%. Eyes folded over themselves were also observed (5%. The most severe alterations produced cases of anophtalmia (10%. On occasions (5%, groupings of pigments were found instead of the eyes. l0% of the larvae were normal. The other organs show analogies to those of the larvae of Bufo paracnemis, including the dorsal pattem.

  3. Frogs in the spotlight: a 16-year survey of native frogs and invasive toads on a floodplain in tropical Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Although widespread declines in anuran populations have attracted considerable concern, the stochastic demographics of these animals make it difficult to detect consistent trends against a background of spatial and temporal variation. To identify long-term trends, we need datasets gathered over long time periods, especially from tropical areas where anuran biodiversity is highest. We conducted road surveys of four anurans in the Australian wet-dry tropics on 4637 nights over a 16-year period. Our surveys spanned the arrival of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina), allowing us to assess the invader's impact on native anuran populations. Our counts demonstrate abrupt and asynchronous shifts in abundance and species composition from one year to the next, not clearly linked to rainfall patterns. Typically, periods of decline in numbers of a species were limited to 1-2 years and were followed by 1- to 2-year periods of increase. No taxa showed consistent declines over time, although trajectories for some species showed significant perturbations coincident with the arrival of toads. None of the four focal frog species was less common at the end of the study than at the beginning, and three of the species reached peak abundances after toad arrival. Survey counts of cane toads increased rapidly during the initial stage of invasion but have subsequently declined and fluctuated. Distinguishing consistent declines versus stochastic fluctuations in anuran populations requires extensive time-series analysis, coupled with an understanding of the shifts expected under local climatic conditions. This is especially pertinent when assessing impacts of specific perturbations such as invasive species. PMID:27386087

  4. Anomalías oculares en híbridos Bufo paranecmis ♂ x Bufo arenarum ♀ (Anura: bufonidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rengel, Dora; Pisanó, Armando; Alonso, Diana

    1994-01-01

    Los híbridos entre Bufo paracnemis x Bufo arenarum se encuadran en los llamados "híbridos vitales". Los resultados han evidenciado relevantes anomalías oculares que se manifiestan en un 90% de los casos. En algunas larvas falta el cristalino tanto en uno como en ambos ojos (20%); en otras larvas el cristalino se encuentra ubicado en posición opuesta al normal (25%) o bien puede ocurrir que se forme un ojo normal y el otro de forma distinta (20%). El análisis histológico mostró anomalías en la...

  5. Molecular cloning and analysis of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 from Bufo gargarizans (Amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The protein of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 has been reported to repress the transcriptional activity of the proto-oncogene c-Myc in humans. Moreover, it was shown to be the subunit 5 of human prefoldin (PFD. So far, this gene and its homologs have been isolated and sequenced in many organisms, such as mammals and fish, but has not been sequenced for any amphibian or reptile. In order to better understand the function and evolution of Mm-1, we isolated a full-length Mm-1 cDNA (BgMm-1, GenBank accession no. EF211947 from Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842 using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Mm-1 in B. gargarizans is 755 bp long, comprising an open reading frame (ORF of 459 bp encoding 152 amino acids. The amino acid sequence had a prefoldin α-like domain, partially including a typical putative leucine zipper motif. BgMm-1 showed high similarity to its homolog of Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 (82% and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 MM-1 isoform a (81% at the amino acid level. The protein secondary structure modeled with the SWISS MODEL server revealed that there were two α-helices and four b-strands in BgMm-1 as its human orthologue, and both proteins belonged to the a class of PFD family. The phylogenetic relationships of Mm-1s from lower archaea to high mammals was consistent with the evolution of species, meanwhile the cluster result was consistent with the multiple alignment and the sequence identity analysis. RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that BgMm-1 expressed widely in ten tissues of adult toad. These results can be helpful for the further investigation on the evolution of Mm-1.

  6. critical habitat designated for the arroyo toad

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas (in general) of critical habitat designated for the arroyo toad. NOTE: THIS DATA SET INCLUDES APPROXIMATELY 900 ACRES OF LAND...

  7. Male size does not correlate with fertilization success in two bufonid toads that show size-assortative mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li FAN, Zhi-Hua LIN, Xiang JI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined sexual size dimorphism (SSD, mating pattern, fertilization efficiency and female reproductive traits in two bufonid toads (Bufo gargarizans and Duttaphrynus melanostictus to test the idea that importance of male body size for egg fertilization success depends on the mating pattern. Female-biased SSD was evident only in D. melanostictus. Female B. gargarizans laid fewer larger eggs nearly three months earlier than did female D. melanostictus. Fertilization efficiencies on average were higher in B. gargarizans (95% than in D. melanostictus (91%. Though differing in the degree of SSD, body size, breeding season, clutch size, egg size and fertilization efficiency, the two toads were similar in four aspects: (1 both showed size-assortative mating; (2 females did not tradeoff egg size against egg number; (3 male size, clutch size and clutch dry mass were greater in male-larger than in female-larger pairs after accounting for female snout-vent length (SVL; and (4 the ratio of male to female SVL did not affect fertilization efficiency. Our data show that: (1 a female preference for large males is likely not important in terms of egg fertilization success; (2 a male preference for large females is likely important because larger females are more fecund; and (3 size-assortative mating arises from a male preference for large females. Our study demonstrates that male size is not always important for egg fertilization success in anurans that show size-assortative mating [Current Zoology 59 (6: 740–746, 2013].

  8. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    OpenAIRE

    W. J. R. Castro; A. M. Zanine; D.J. Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with f...

  9. Sulfate transport in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K

    1988-01-01

    1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting...... apical Na+ for K+. 3. Following voltage activation of the passive Cl- permeability of the mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells sulfate flux-ratio increased to a value predicted from the Ussing flux-ratio equation for a monovalent anion. 4. In such skins, which were shown to exhibit vanishingly small leakage...... conductances, the variation of the rate coefficient for sulfate influx (y) was positively correlated with the rate coefficient for Cl- influx (x), y = 0.035 x - 0.0077 cm/sec (r = 0.9935, n = 15). 5. Addition of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to the serosal bath of short...

  10. Rapid differentiation of sexual signals in invasive toads: call variation among populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumiba, Kiyomi; Duffy, Richard L; Parsons, Scott A; Alford, Ross A; Schwarzkopf, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Advertisement calls tend to differ among populations, based on morphological and environmental factors, or simply geographic distance, in many taxa. Invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) were introduced to Australia in 1935 and their distribution has expanded at increasing rates over time. Rapid evolution occurred in morphological and behavioural characters that accelerate dispersal, but the effects of rapid expansion on sexual signals have not been examined. We collected advertisement calls from four populations of different ages since invasion, and analysed the geographic differentiation of seven call parameters. Our comparisons indicate that the calls of R. marina differ among Australian populations. The signal variation was not simply clinal with respect to population age, climate, or morphological differentiation. We suggest that selection on signalling among populations has been idiosyncratic and may reflect local female preferences or adaptation to environmental factors that are not clinal such as energy availability. PMID:27328666

  11. Habitat suitability of patch types:A case study of the Yosemite toad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christina T.LIANG; Thomas J.STOHLGREN

    2011-01-01

    Understanding patch variability is crucial in understanding the spatial population structure of wildlife species,especially for rare or threatened species.We used a well-tested maximum entropy species distribution model (Maxent) to map the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus (= Bufo) canorus) in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California.Twenty-six environmental variables were included in the model representing climate,topography,land cover type,and disturbance factors (e.g.,distances to agricultural lands,fire perimeters,and timber harvest areas) throughout the historic range of the toad.We then took a novel approach to the study of spatially structured populations by applying the species-environmental matching model separately for 49 consistently occupied sites of the Yosemite toad compared to 27 intermittently occupied sites.We found that the distribution of the entire population was highly predictable (AUC= 0.95±0.03 SD),and associated with low slopes,specific vegetation types (wet meadow,alpine-dwarf shrub,montane chaparral,red fir,and subalpine conifer),and warm temperatures.The consistently occupied sites were also associated with these same factors,and they were also highly predictable (AUC= 0.95±0.05 SD).However,the intermittently occupied sites were associated with distance to fire perimeter,a slightly different response to vegetation types,distance to timber harvests,and a much broader set of aspect classes (AUC = 0.90±0.11 SD).We conclude that many studies of species distributions may benefit by modeling spatially structured populations separately.Modeling and monitoring consistently-occupied sites may provide a realistic snapshot of current speciesenvironment relationships,important climatic and topographic patterns associated with species persistence patterns,and an understanding of the plasticity of the species to respond to varying climate regimes across its range.Meanwhile,modeling and monitoring of widely dispersing individuals and intermittently occupied

  12. Effects of ADH on the apical and basolateral membranes of toad urinary bladder epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, P J; Leader, J P

    1993-11-01

    Short-circuited urinary bladders from Bufo marinus were supported on their apical surface by an agar mounting method and impaled with microelectrodes via their basolateral membrane. This arrangement provided stable and long-lasting impalements of epithelial cells and yielded reliable membrane potentials and voltage divider ratios (Ra/Rb), where Ra and Rb are apical and basolateral membrane resistances respectively. The membrane potential under short-circuit conditions (Vsc) was -51.4 +/- 2.2 mV (n = 59), while under open-circuit conditions apical membrane potential (Va) and basolateral membrane potential (Vb) were -31.0 +/- 2.4 and 59.5 +/- 2.4 mV, respectively. This yields a "well-shaped" potential profile across the toad urinary bladder, where Va is inversely related to the rate of transport, Isc. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) produced a hyperpolarisation of Vsc and Vb but had no significant effect on Va. In addition, Ra/Rb was significantly increased by ADH (4.6 +/- 0.5 to 10.2 +/- 3.6). Calculation of individual membrane resistances following the addition of amiloride showed that ADH produced a parallel decrease in Ra and Rb membrane resistance, with the observed increase in Ra/Rb being due to a greater percentage decrease in Rb than in Ra. The ability of ADH to effect parallel changes in apical and basolateral membrane conductance helps to maintain a constant cellular volume despite an increase in transepithelial transport. PMID:8309781

  13. The dynamics of venous return and response to hypervolemia in the toad, Bufo marinus (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Toews Daniel P; Killorn Erin E

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background Venous return from the posterior region of amphibians travels by either two renal portal veins to the kidney or a central abdominal vein that drains into the hepatic portal system. The relative proportions of blood flow in these vessels has never been measured nor has a modification of flow been determined when venous return increases by changes in blood volume during hypervolemia or during increased volume input from the posterior lymph hearts. Results Venous return from ...

  14. Wyoming toad, Bufo hemiophrys baxteri, habitat use and hibernaculum research project with the use of telemetry : Annual report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report is on a two year study, started in 1998, to evaluate the daily and seasonal habitat use to determine the location of the hibemaculum of the...

  15. Toad poisoning in three dogs: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toad poisoning is frequent in dogs, but has been infrequently addressed in published case reports and review articles. Dogs can be poisoned when they bite a toad or otherwise ingest the venom. The venom effects manifest soon after the accident, since the toxin is rapidly absorbed by the mucous membrane of the digestive system. Hospital records of three dogs, diagnosed with toad poisoning, were retrospectively reviewed from January 2005 to July 2007. Poisoned dogs may present only local irritation or systemic signs in the gastrointestinal, cardiac and neurological systems. All three cases presented herein had clinical signs of gastrointestinal alterations including vomiting, sialorrhea and diarrhea. Two dogs developed abnormal cardiac rhythm and two exhibited neurological signs. A poisoned animal requires emergency care and symptomatic therapy with intense monitoring of its clinical parameters. Although there have been reports on the low mortality of dogs poisoned by toads, one animal died even after appropriate therapy. The severity of clinical signs and the risk of death must be considered by the veterinarian.

  16. Smart Cane: Assistive Cane for Visually-impaired People

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Helmy Abd Wahab; Talib, Amirul A.; Kadir, Herdawatie A.; Ayob Johari; A. Noraziah; Roslina M. Sidek; Ariffin A. Mutalib

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that helps visually-impaired people to walk more confidently. The study hypothesizes that a smart cane that alerts visually-impaired people over obstacles in front could help them in walking with less accident. The aim of the paper is to address the development work of a cane that could communicate with the users through voice alert and vibration, which is named Smart Cane. The development work involves coding and physical installation. A series of tests have bee...

  17. Sugar Cane Nutrient Distribution Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Molecular Absorption Spectrometry (UV-Vis), and Flame Photometry techniques were applied to measure plant nutrient concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mn, N, Na and P in sugar-cane root, stalk and leaves. These data will be used to explore the behavior of element concentration in different parts of the sugar-cane to better understand the plant nutrient distribution during its development.

  18. Interaction between Pax6 and its novel mutant in Bufo raddei Strauch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Furong; Zhao, Yongqing; Zhao, Yuanlin; Wang, Ying; Wen, Fan; Ye, Lin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Exploration of the relationship between a novel paired box 6 (Pax6) mutant and Pax6 in Bufo raddei Strauch. Methods RT–PCR, yeast 2-hybrid system, and co-immunoprecipitation were used to analyze the Pax6 protein and its mutant during embryonic eye development in Bufo raddei Strauch. Results We have cloned the Pax6 ORF sequence from Bufo raddei Strauch. Here we report the cloning of a novel Pax6 homolog of Bufo raddei Strauch named Pax6 variant. Comparing the 2 genes, the homolog of ORF nucleotide sequence is more than 99% in Bufo raddei Strauch; only the proline-serine-threonine(PST)-rich transaction domain differs. The deduced amino acid sequences of PST region are 53.1% identical. An interaction was found between Pax6 and Pax6 variant via yeast 2-hybrid system; with further study, we found that they interacted in vivo via co-immunopricipitation. Conclusions A Pax6 mutant was first found in Bufo raddei Strauch. Interaction between Pax6 and Pax6 variant may play a critical role during eye development in Bufo raddei Strauch. This suggests that expression of Pax6 variant may play a role and appears to be a necessity in eye development, but that Pax6 itself is still pivotal in eye development. PMID:22065923

  19. Analysis of Bufo arenarum oviductal secretion during the sexual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Claudia A; Ramos, Inés; Medina, Marcela F; Fernández, Silvia N

    2009-11-01

    SummaryBufo arenarum oocytes are oviposited surrounded by jelly coats, one component of the extracellular matrix required for fertilization. The secretion, released to the oviductal lumen, was analysed by SDS-PAGE. The coomassie blue staining evidenced an electrophoretic pattern with molecules ranging between 300 and 19 kDa that showed variations in their secretion profiles during the sexual cycle. In the preovulatory period the densitometric analysis showed the presence of nine peaks with marked predominance of the 74 kDa molecule. Once ovulation has occurred, the jelly coats become arranged around the oocytes during their transit throughout the oviductal pars convoluta (PC), revealing the addition of three proteins only observed during this period, which suggests a differential secretion. Some of these proteins could not diffuse under any extraction treatment, indicating for them a structural or in situ function. Proteins of low molecular mass diffused totally while others showed a partial diffusing capacity. After ovulation a marked decrease in the relative amount of all the proteins released to the lumen, especially the 74 kDa protein, could be detected. During this period, unlike the other stages of the sexual cycle, a differential secretion pattern was observed along the PC. The histochemical analysis performed during the ovulatory period showed the presence of glycoconjugates including both acidic and neutral groups. The present results are in agreement with previous ultrastructural and histochemical studies that describe the role of Bufo arenarum jelly coats in fertilization. PMID:19500442

  20. Giant Cane and Southeastern Indian Baskets

    OpenAIRE

    Julia A. Jordan

    2004-01-01

    Among the wide variety of natural materials suitable for basket making, one of the most attractive is giant cane (Figure 1), an Oklahoma native plant. Taxonomically, giant cane is in the genus Arundinaria, and the family Poaceae (grasses). This genus comprises the only native species of bamboo in the continental United States. Hitchcock (1971) recognized one genus: Arundinaria Michx. (cane) and two species: Arundinaria macrosperma Michx., giant cane, and Arundinaria tecta Walt. Muhl., switch ...

  1. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sirup” or “Sugar cane sirup”. Alternatively, the word “sirup” may be spelled “syrup”. (d) Label... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cane sirup. 168.130 Section 168.130 Food and Drugs... § 168.130 Cane sirup. (a) Cane sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment...

  2. Development of the Specific Adaptation Mobility Cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington, S.

    1995-01-01

    A travel cane was adapted for use by a 10-year-old boy with cortical blindness, severe mental retardation and cerebral palsy affecting his left arm and leg. The Specific Adaptation Mobility Cane utilizes the affected arm to hold the cane while leaving the other hand free for trailing walls, opening doors, carrying objects, and holding handrails.…

  3. Cane Toad or Computer Mouse? Real and Computer-Simulated Laboratory Exercises in Physiology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jan; Veenstra, Anneke

    2012-01-01

    Traditional practical classes in many countries are being rationalised to reduce costs. The challenge for university educators is to provide students with the opportunity to reinforce theoretical concepts by running something other than a traditional practical program. One alternative is to replace wet labs with comparable computer simulations.…

  4. Bufo toxin: A new testing prospect for the screening of anti-convulsant agents. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Arome

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with diverse aetiology, affecting approximately 1 % of the entire population. Epilepsy present wide range of clinical manifestations, that affect the way a person feels and acts for a short time. Previous scientific investigations have indicated bufo toxin as a potential convulsant candidate that produced similar effects as other known convulsant agents. Bufo toxin has been shown to mimic or exhibit similar action as other known convulsant agent. Its biochemical components are formed as a result of the binding of bufo-fagin and a molecule arginina. There exist wide array of convulsant agents used in the screening of anti-convulsant agents. The commonly used one are: bicuculline, picrotoxin, pentylene tetrazole, isonizid etc. However, these agents are expensive, not easily available and affordable. This challenge prompted the search of other alternative convulsant agents that is easily accessible for use in the screening of anti-convulsant agents. The principal objective of this review paper is to suggest the possible use of bufo toxin which mimics the action of existing convulsant agents. This new testing convulsant agent (bufo toxin is inexpensive, affordable and easy to use when compared to other known convulsant agents. The experimental procedure is easy and it gives a broad spectrum in comparing the action of bufo toxin to other chemical convulsant agents. It also offers researchers broader view or options in exploring the anti-convulsant activity of test agents and the understanding of their possible mechanism of action.

  5. Biogeographic patterns of Colombian frogs and toads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the data provided in Ruiz-Carranza et al. (1996) the distributions of the 540 species of frogs and toads are partitioned among ten ecogeographic units of Colombia defined on the basis of precipitation and elevation. Some lowlands areas (pacific lowlands, Amazonian) exhibit high diversity (85-94 species) but lowlands areas in general are impoverished (30-52 species), especially when contrasted with upland areas. The three Andean cordilleras harbor between 87 and 121 species of frogs and toads, demonstrating that the biodiversity of Colombia resides primarily in its montane components, not in its lowland rain forests. When biological endemicity is separated from political endemicity, five areas of high endemicity remain (the three Andean cordilleras, the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, and the pacific lowlands). We endeavor to explain this description by recourse to cladistic analyses of several groups of leptodactylid frogs where we find that the general pattern of diversification is by means of horizontal diversification (allopatric speciation) with a minor contribution from vertical diversification

  6. The Preschool Blind Child Can Be a Cane User.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrund, R. L.; Rosen, S. J.

    1989-01-01

    This article proposes the teaching of long cane mobility skills to blind preschool-age children. Traditional arguments against early cane use are refuted and possible advantages of early use identified. Strategies and techniques for cane introduction are specified. (DB)

  7. Irradiation of cane sugar spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the effect of irradiation on the gas-chromatographic profile of irradiated cane sugar spirit irradiated in glass containers in the presence of oak chops with doses of 0-10 kGy. Volatile constituents were analyzed in a CG gas chromatographer with a flame ionization detector using a Megabore CG-745 column. The results are discussed considering the contribution of irradiation to the quality of the spirit and the contribution of the irradiated oak wood. (author)

  8. Diet of Physalaemus cf. cicada (Leptodactylidae) and Bufo granulosus (Bufonidae) in a semideciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, A S; Juncá, F A

    2007-02-01

    We determined the diet of the two most abundant anuran species which occur in the litter of a semideciduous forest (Lençóis, Bahia, Brazil), Physalaemus cf. cicada and Bufo granulosus in the dry and rainy seasons. Pitfall traps were used to collect anuran and invertebrate fauna, which showed the availability of prey in the environment. Physalaemus cf. cicada was present in both seasons and Bufo granulosus only in the rainy season. Both species fed mainly on Isoptera and Formicidae. However, there is a difference between the rainy and dry seasons concerning the diet of P. cf. cicada. During the rainy season P. cf. cicada consumed less Isoptera and more Formicidae than in the dry season. In the volumetric sense, Orthoptera was the most important alimentary category for P. cf. cicada and B. granulosus. The Jacobs electivity index indicated that Physalaemus cf. cicada and Bufo granulosus were specialists in Isoptera. PMID:17505759

  9. O que será hoje o jantar? Selectividade de presas pelo bufo-real

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Joana; Lourenço, Rui; Santos, Sara; Rabaça, João E.

    2014-01-01

    O objectivo deste estudo foi conhecer os padrões de selectividade de presas no bufo-real numa área geográfica ampla. A dieta do bufo-real foi analisada com base em 8920 presas identificadas em regurgitações e restos alimentares recolhidos entre 1997 e 2012 em 41 territórios no Alentejo e Algarve. A dieta foi constituída sobretudo por lagomorfos: a percentagem de coelho-bravo (Oryctolagus cuniculus) na dieta variou entre 11,0% e 77,6% (média=30,2±14,6%), enquanto a de lebre-ibérica...

  10. The envelopes of amphibian oocytes: physiological modifications in Bufo arenarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Mercedes

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A characterization of the Amphibian Bufo arenarum oocyte envelope is presented. It was made in different functional conditions of the oocyte: 1 when it has been released into the coelomic cavity during ovulation (surrounded by the coelomic envelope, (CE, 2 after it has passed through the oviduct and is deposed (surrounded by the viteline envelope, (VE, and 3 after oocyte activation (surrounded by the fertilization envelope, (FE. The characterization was made by SDS-PAGE followed by staining for protein and glycoproteins. Labeled lectins were used to identify glycosidic residues both in separated components on nitrocellulose membranes or in intact oocytes and embryos. Proteolytic properties of the content of the cortical granules were also analyzed. After SDS-PAGE of CE and VE, a different protein pattern was observed. This is probably due to the activity of a protease present in the pars recta of the oviduct. Comparison of the SDS-PAGE pattern of VE and FE showed a different mobility for one of the glycoproteins, gp75. VE and FE proved to have different sugar residues in their oligosaccharide chains. Mannose residues are only present in gp120 of the three envelopes. N-acetyl-galactosamine residues are present in all of the components, except for gp69 in the FE. Galactose residues are present mainly in gp120 of FE. Lectin-binding assays indicate the presence of glucosamine, galactose and N-acetyl galactosamine residues and the absence (or non-availability of N-acetyl-glucosamine or fucose residues on the envelopes surface. The cortical granule product (CGP shows proteolytic activity on gp75 of the VE.

  11. Effect of Cane Length on Drop-Off Detection Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2012-01-01

    Although individuals who are blind have used a stick or a cane for their independent travel since the early years of human history, designs for modern long canes did not appear until World War II, when the systematic long cane techniques were developed by Hoover (1962). Ergonomic factors, such as the length of the cane, may affect how well a cane…

  12. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a total of 325,000 short tons, raw value, of the cane sugar allotment. (b) A new entrant cane State...

  13. Response of Sugar Cane Varieties to Different Irrigation Intensities

    OpenAIRE

    Khan Bahadar; Muhammad Jamal; Muhammad Safdar Baloch; Khalid Nawab

    2000-01-01

    Cane yield and Recovery Percentage of sugar cane varieties were affected due to various irrigation frequencies. Variety COL-75 showed outstanding performance for cane yield under normal weekly irrigation in plant/ratoon stages, followed by Bannu-1 and Naurang-98 under same irrigation regime. The highest recovery percentage was noted for varieties Naurang-98 and Bannu-1 under weekly irrigation. Hence COL-75 was found with higher cane yield potential followed by Bannu-1 and Naurang-98 for cane ...

  14. A network extension of species occupancy models in a patchy environment applied to the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus canorus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlow, Eric L.; Knapp, Roland A.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Williams, Richard J.; McKenny, Heather; Matchett, John R.; Guo, Qinghau; Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick; Brooks, Matthew L.; Joppa, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    A central challenge of conservation biology is using limited data to predict rare species occurrence and identify conservation areas that play a disproportionate role in regional persistence. Where species occupy discrete patches in a landscape, such predictions require data about environmental quality of individual patches and the connectivity among high quality patches. We present a novel extension to species occupancy modeling that blends traditionalpredictions of individual patch environmental quality with network analysis to estimate connectivity characteristics using limited survey data. We demonstrate this approach using environmental and geospatial attributes to predict observed occupancy patterns of the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus (= Bufo) canorus) across >2,500 meadows in Yosemite National Park (USA). A. canorus, a Federal Proposed Species, breeds in shallow water associated with meadows. Our generalized linear model (GLM) accurately predicted ~84% of true presence-absence data on a subset of data withheld for testing. The predicted environmental quality of each meadow was iteratively ‘boosted’ by the quality of neighbors within dispersal distance. We used this park-wide meadow connectivity network to estimate the relative influence of an individual Meadow’s ‘environmental quality’ versus its ‘network quality’ to predict: a) clusters of high quality breeding meadows potentially linked by dispersal, b) breeding meadows with high environmental quality that are isolated from other such meadows, c) breeding meadows with lower environmental quality where long-term persistence may critically depend on the network neighborhood, and d) breeding meadows with the biggest impact on park-wide breeding patterns. Combined with targeted data on dispersal, genetics, disease, and other potential stressors, these results can guide designation of core conservation areas for A. canorus in Yosemite National Park.

  15. Tissue kinetics, ion transport, and recruitment of mitochondria-rich cells in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo) in response to exposure to distilled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz, Poul Egede; Christoffersen, Betina C.; Johansen, Jesper S.; Spies, Ingrid B.M.; Willumsen, Niels J.

    1995-01-01

    Mitochondria-rich cells (MRC) of the amphibian epidermis are responsible for active chloride uptake at low external salinity, and new MRCs are recruited in response to exposure to distilled (deionized) water. The time-course of this recruitment, the tissue kinetics and ion transport have been...... decreased ICl and H+ flux per MRC, and by the increased proportion of MRCs unstained by Ag or MB. Full Cl- (but not H+) transport capacity, was restored at day-7. We conclude that increased DMRC following exposure to low external Cl-, rather than being due to an increased Kb, is the combined effect of a...

  16. Evaluation of chemical control of marsh cane

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses the feasibility of effective spraying of marsh cane (Phragmites communus) with a plant herbicide Amino Triazole (Weedazol) at Fish Springs...

  17. Development of a Preschool "Kiddy Cane."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrund, R. L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a "kiddy cane" for use with young children with blindness, aged 2-6, is described including development of the prototype, field testing, modifications resulting from feedback from specialists, and ongoing evaluation. (Author/DB)

  18. Growth of sugar cane varieties under salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Welson Lima Simões; Marcelo Calgaro; Daniela Siqueira Coelho; Delfran Batista dos Santos; Moisés Alves de Souza

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Large salty areas in the Brazilian semi-arid region have limited farming in Northeastern Brazil. One example is the sugar cane cultivation, which reinforces the need of selecting varieties that are more tolerant to salinity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of salinity on growth of ten varieties of sugar cane. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, set in the experimental field of Embrapa Semiárido, in Petrolina, Pernambuco State. The experimental design ...

  19. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining... cane sugar into liquid refined sugar....

  20. Activity monitor accuracy in persons using canes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Michael Wendland, PT, DPT, CPed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The StepWatch activity monitor has not been validated on multiple indoor and outdoor surfaces in a population using ambulation aids. The aims of this technical report are to report on strategies to configure the StepWatch activity monitor on subjects using a cane and to report the accuracy of both leg-mounted and cane-mounted StepWatch devices on people ambulating over different surfaces while using a cane. Sixteen subjects aged 67 to 85 yr (mean 75.6 who regularly use a cane for ambulation participated. StepWatch calibration was performed by adjusting sensitivity and cadence. Following calibration optimization, accuracy was tested on both the leg-mounted and cane-mounted devices on different surfaces, including linoleum, sidewalk, grass, ramp, and stairs. The leg-mounted device had an accuracy of 93.4% across all surfaces, while the cane-mounted device had an aggregate accuracy of 84.7% across all surfaces. Accuracy of the StepWatch on the stairs was significantly less accurate (p < 0.001 when comparing surfaces using repeated measures analysis of variance. When monitoring community mobility, placement of a StepWatch on a person and his/her ambulation aid can accurately document both activity and device use.

  1. Drop-Off Detection with the Long Cane: Effects of Different Cane Techniques on Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the drop-off detection performance with the two-point touch and constant contact cane techniques using a repeated-measures design with a convenience sample of 15 cane users with visual impairments. The constant contact technique was superior to the two-point touch technique in the drop-off detection rate and the 50% detection…

  2. Preliminary Biotic Survey of Cane Creek, Calhoun County, AL

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A biotic survey of Cane Creek (Calhoun County, AL) was completed in the Fall (1992) and Winter (1993) at six sites within Cane Creek to determine the effects of...

  3. Cane Technique: Modifying the Touch Technique for Full Path Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslan, Mark M.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of height of cane hand, cane length, step size, and forearm length of 17 cane using blind (14-21 years old) Ss were taken for the purpose of testing the hypothesis that the touch technique does not provide 100 percent path coverage. (Author)

  4. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35 percent of the overall allotment quantity. (b) The allotment for cane sugar will be 45.65 percent of...

  5. Assessment of Cane Yields on Well-drained Ferralsols in the Sugar-cane Estate of Central Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Van RANST, E.; Debaveye, J.; Mahop, F.

    1999-01-01

    The potential yields of irrigated and of rainfed sugar-cane on three ferrallitic soil series, well represented in the Nkoteng sugar-cane estate of Central Cameroon, are estimated following different methods. The potential yield of irrigated sugar-cane is estimated from the total maximum evapotranspiration during the crop cycle. The potential yield of rainfed sugar-cane is estimated following two methods for the establishment of a water balance and for the determination of a yield reduction as...

  6. Habitat use and movement of the endangered Arroyo Toad (Anaxyrus californicus) in coastal southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Elizabeth; Lyren, Lisa M.; Lovich, Robert E.; Mitrovich, Milan J.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    Information on the habitat use and movement patterns of Arroyo Toads (Anaxyrus californicus) is limited. The temporal and spatial characteristics of terrestrial habitat use, especially as it relates to upland use in coastal areas of the species' range, are poorly understood. We present analyses of radiotelemetry data from 40 individual adult toads tracked at a single site in coastal southern California from March through November of 2004. We quantify adult Arroyo Toad habitat use and movements and interpret results in the context of their life history. We show concentrated activity by both male and female toads along stream terraces during and after breeding, and, although our fall sample size is low, the continued presence of adult toads in the floodplain through the late fall. Adult toads used open sandy flats with sparse vegetation. Home-range size and movement frequency varied as a function of body mass. Observed spatial patterns of movement and habitat use both during and outside of the breeding period as well as available climatological data suggest that overwintering of toads in floodplain habitats of near-coastal areas of southern California may be more common than previously considered. If adult toads are not migrating out of the floodplain at the close of the breeding season but instead overwinter on stream terraces in near-coastal areas, then current management practices that assume toad absence from floodplain habitats may be leaving adult toads over-wintering on stream terraces vulnerable to human disturbance during a time of year when Arroyo Toad mortality is potentially highest.

  7. Microelectronic neural bridging of toad nerves to restore leg function☆

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhigong; Lv, Xiaoying; Huang, Zonghao

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a microelectronic neural bridge comprised of electrode arrays for neural signal detection, functional electrical stimulation, and a microelectronic circuit including signal amplifying, processing, and functional electrical stimulation to bridge two separate nerves, and to restore the lost function of one nerve. The left leg of one spinal toad was subjected to external mechanical stimulation and functional electrical stimulation driving. The function of the left leg of o...

  8. Response of Sugar Cane Varieties to Different Irrigation Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Bahadar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cane yield and Recovery Percentage of sugar cane varieties were affected due to various irrigation frequencies. Variety COL-75 showed outstanding performance for cane yield under normal weekly irrigation in plant/ratoon stages, followed by Bannu-1 and Naurang-98 under same irrigation regime. The highest recovery percentage was noted for varieties Naurang-98 and Bannu-1 under weekly irrigation. Hence COL-75 was found with higher cane yield potential followed by Bannu-1 and Naurang-98 for cane yield and recovery percentage under normal weekly irrigation and different irrigation intervals in Bannu Division.

  9. The straight and narrow path: the evolution of straight-line dispersal at a cane toad invasion front

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Gregory P.; Phillips, Benjamin L.; Shine, Richard

    2014-01-01

    At the edge of a biological invasion, evolutionary processes (spatial sorting, natural selection) often drive increases in dispersal. Although numerous traits influence an individual's displacement (e.g. speed, stamina), one of the most important is path straightness. A straight (i.e. highly correlated) path strongly enhances overall dispersal rate relative to time and energetic cost. Thus, we predict that, if path straightness has a genetic basis, organisms in the invasion vanguard will exhi...

  10. Comparative pathology and ecological implications of two myxosporean parasites in native Australian frogs and the invasive cane toad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlie Hartigan

    Full Text Available Myxosporean parasites Cystodiscus axonis and C. australis are pathogens of native and exotic Australian frog species. The pathology and ecological outcomes of infection with these parasites were investigated in this study. Gliosis was correlated to Cystodiscus axonis plasmodia in the brains of (9/60 tadpoles and (3/9 adult endangered Green and golden bell frogs using ordinal regression. Severe host reactions to C. axonis (haemorrhage, necrosis, and vasulitis were observed in the brains of threatened Southern bell frogs (8/8, critically endangered Booroolong frogs (15/44 and Yellow spotted bell frogs (3/3. Severe brain lesions were associated with behavioural changes, neurological dysfunction, and spontaneous death. Both C. axonis and C. australis develop in the bile ducts of tadpoles, the plasmodia were significantly associated with biliary hyperplasia, inflammation and the loss of hepatocytes in (34/72 Green and golden bell frog tadpoles using ordinal regression. These lesions were so severe that in some cases 70% of the total liver was diseased. Normal liver function in tadpoles is necessary for metamorphosis, metabolism, and immune function. We postulate that this extensive liver damage would have significant host health impacts. Severe hepatic myxosporidiosis was more prevalent in tadpoles examined in autumn and winter (overwintered, suggestive of delayed metamorphosis in infected tadpoles, which would have serious flow-on effects in small populations. We compared the sensitivity of histopathology and species-specific PCR in the detection of C. australis and C. axonis. PCR was determined to be the most sensitive method (detection limit 1 myxospore equivalent of ribosomal DNA. Histology, however, had the advantage of assessing the impact of the parasite on the host. It was concluded that these parasites have the potential for significant ecological impacts, because of their high prevalence of infection and their ability to cause disease in some frogs.

  11. Mechanisms of adreno- and cholinoreceptors in isolated pulmonary and systemic vasculature of the cane toad (Rhinella marina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pil Birkefeldt Møller; Wang, Tobias; Brøndum, Emil Toft

    While the overall autonomic regulation of the heart and vasculature of anurans has been studied in some detail, little is known about the role of the adreno- and cholinoreceptors in smooth muscle when looking at resistance in the pulmonary and systemic vessels. Vascular smooth muscle is the primary...... site of regulation of resistance and therefore holds the capacity to control blood flow and pressure. This vascular control allows amphibians to regulate their shunt, i.e. partially bypassing either the pulmonary or systemic circuit. Shunting in amphibians has been studied due to their multiple...... respiratory modalities and their ontogeny including fundamental morphological changes during metamorphosis. Here we use wire myography to evaluate how the vascular tone of isolated blood vessels from the pulmocutaneous, pulmonary, cutaneous and systemic segments respond to sympathetic and parasympathetic...

  12. Drop-off Detection with the Long Cane: Effects of Different Cane Techniques on Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the drop-off detection performance with the two-point touch and constant contact cane techniques using a repeated-measures design with a convenience sample of 15 cane users with visual impairments. The constant contact technique was superior to the two-point touch technique in the drop-off detection rate and the 50% detection threshold. The findings may help an orientation and mobility instructor select an appropriate technique for a particular client or training situation.

  13. Residual effect of sugar cane ratoon of urea nitrogen foliar application to plant cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The residual effect of urea - N, foliar applied to plant cane, on sugar cane ratoon is studied. Setts grown in drums containing washed sand are used. 180 days from planting, foliar fertilizer (43.5% urea solution) labelled with 3.95 atom % 15N is applied. The first harvest is made 7 days after application and final harvest of resprouting at 123 days. (M.A.C.)

  14. Possible toxicity of boron on sugar cane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo C., M.

    Analyses of necrotic and green leaf tissues from sugar cane grown in the Tambo Valley (Arequipa, Peru) have shown that the boron concentration in necrotic tissue (average 657.7 ppm) is several times higher than that in the green tissue (average 55.7 ppm). This suggests that the necrosis may be due to boron toxicity.

  15. ECOSTATIC CANE PROCESSING SYSTEM PROTOTYPE PHASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate a systems environmental management approach, from field to final product, for the processing of raw cane sugar. Specific sub-systems which were to be developed and demonstrated as part of this systems approach were: (a) har...

  16. A Cognitive Basis for Teaching Cane Travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, R.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for emphasizing discovery instruction over guided instruction in teaching cane travel skills to people with severe visual impairments. Discovery instruction is seen to facilitate the use of intrinsic feedback in developing perceptual-cognitive skills as well as promoting problem solving, retention, and transfer of…

  17. Growth of sugar cane varieties under salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welson Lima Simões

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Large salty areas in the Brazilian semi-arid region have limited farming in Northeastern Brazil. One example is the sugar cane cultivation, which reinforces the need of selecting varieties that are more tolerant to salinity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of salinity on growth of ten varieties of sugar cane. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, set in the experimental field of Embrapa Semiárido, in Petrolina, Pernambuco State. The experimental design was randomized blocks arranged in a 6 X 10 factorial arrangement, comprised of six levels of salinity (0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 dS m-1 and ten sugar cane varieties (VAT 90212; RB 72454; RB 867515; Q 124; RB 961003; RB 957508; SP791011; RB 835089; RB 92579 and SP 943206. Salt levels of irrigation water were obtained by adding NaCl, CaCl2.2H2O and MgSO4.7H2O to achieve an equivalent ratio among Na:Ca:Mg of 7:2:1. Sixty days later, plant height, stem diameter (base, number of leaves, stalks and sprouts, leaf area and fresh and dry mass of the aerial part and roots were all measured. The varieties of sugar cane showed similar responses for growth reduction as soil salinity increases, being considered moderately sensitive to salinity.

  18. The Effects of the Toxic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix (Strain AC0243) on Bufo marinus Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Olivia; Fabbro, Larelle; Makiela, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Limnothrix (strain AC0243) is a cyanobacterium, which has only recently been identified as toxin producing. Under laboratory conditions, Bufo marinus larvae were exposed to 100,000 cells mL−1 of Limnothrix (strain AC0243) live cultures for seven days. Histological examinations were conducted post mortem and revealed damage to the notochord, eyes, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. The histopathological results highlight the toxicological impact of this strain, particularly during developmental stages. Toxicological similarities to β-N-Methylamino-l-alanine are discussed. PMID:24662524

  19. The Effects of the Toxic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix (Strain AC0243 on Bufo marinus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Daniels

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Limnothrix (strain AC0243 is a cyanobacterium, which has only recently been identified as toxin producing. Under laboratory conditions, Bufo marinus larvae were exposed to 100,000 cells mL−1 of Limnothrix (strain AC0243 live cultures for seven days. Histological examinations were conducted post mortem and revealed damage to the notochord, eyes, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. The histopathological results highlight the toxicological impact of this strain, particularly during developmental stages. Toxicological similarities to β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine are discussed.

  20. Ion transport by mitochondria-rich cells in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Ussing, H H; Spring, K R

    1987-01-01

    The optical sectioning video imaging technique was used for measurements of the volume of mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells of the isolated epithelium of toad skin. Under short-circuit conditions, cell volume decreased by about 14% in response to bilateral exposure to Cl-free (gluconate substitution......) solutions, apical exposure to a sodium-free solution, or to amiloride. Serosal exposure to ouabain resulted in a large increase in volume, which could be prevented either by the simultaneous application of amiloride in the apical solution or by the exposure of the epithelium to bilateral Cl-free solutions...

  1. CANE: The Content Addressed Network Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner-Stephen, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The fragmented nature and asymmetry of local and remote file access and network access, combined with the current lack of robust authenticity and privacy, hamstrings the current internet. The collection of disjoint and often ad-hoc technologies currently in use are at least partially responsible for the magnitude and potency of the plagues besetting the information economy, of which spam and email borne virii are canonical examples. The proposed replacement for the internet, Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), does little to tackle these underlying issues, instead concentrating on addressing the technical issues of a decade ago. This paper introduces CANE, a Content Addressed Network Environment, and compares it against current internet and related technologies. Specifically, CANE presents a simple computing environment in which location is abstracted away in favour of identity, and trust is explicitly defined. Identity is cryptographically verified and yet remains pervasively open in nature. It is argued tha...

  2. The identity of the South African toad Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Annemarie; Dubois, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The toad species Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 was erected for a single specimen from South Africa which has never been properly studied and allocated to a known species. A morphometrical and morphological analysis of this specimen and its comparison with 75 toad specimens referred to five South African toad species allowed to allocate this specimen to the species currently known as Amietophrynus rangeri. In consequence, the nomen Sclerophrys must replace Amietophrynus as the valid nomen of the genus, and capensis as the valid nomen of the species. This work stresses the usefulness of natural history collections for solving taxonomic and nomenclatural problems. PMID:26788431

  3. Fermentation and epiphytic microflora dynamics in sugar cane silage

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroso André de Faria; Nussio Luiz Gustavo; Paziani Solidete de Fátima; Loures Daniele Rebouças Santana; Igarasi Mauricio Scoton; Coelho Rodrigo Michelini; Packer Irineu Humberto; Horii Jorge; Gomes Luiz Humberto

    2005-01-01

    Sugar cane silages are characterized by extensive yeast activity, alcohol production and great dry matter - DM - losses. Better knowledge of the fermentation process is fundamental to the development of efficient ensilage techniques for this forage. This study evaluates temporal changes in chemical composition, DM losses and epiphytic microflora in sugar cane silage. Mature sugar cane, variety RB835486 (12 months of vegetative growth), was hand harvested, processed in a stationary chopper and...

  4. Water requirements of sugar cane grown in tropical environment

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente de Paulo Rodrigues da Silva; Cícera Josefa Rozangela Borges; Walker Gomes de Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    An accurate estimation of water consumption of cane sugar crop is important for maximum productivity with less investment. The objective of this study was to determine the water requirements of sugar cane grown in tropical environments. The field experiment was carried out in Paraiba state, during the productive cycle of sugar cane crop variety RB 92 579 irrigated by central pivot irrigation (sprinkler) from October 2009 to September 2011. The crop evapotranspiration was obtained based on soi...

  5. Characterisation of a phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp composite

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, J.L.; A. T. N. Pires; S. M. A. G. Ulson de Souza; A.A.Ulson de Souza

    2004-01-01

    Polymeric materials are increasingly replacing metallic materials as a result of their properties. In this work a composite of phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp was developed. The sugar cane pulp has been previously alkalinised, dried, and milled and the particles had been classified in a range of grain sizes. Experimental assays were performed, varying the proportion of the resin and the reinforcement and the size of the cane pulp fibre, keeping the pressure and moulding temperature constan...

  6. Energy Cane: Its Concept, Development, Characteristics, and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Sizuo Matsuoka; Anthony J. Kennedy; Eder Gustavo D. dos Santos; André L. Tomazela; Luis Claudio S. Rubio

    2014-01-01

    Unlike conventional sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) energy cane is a cane selected to have more fiber than sucrose in its composition. This is obtained simply by altering the genetic contribution of the ancestral species of sugarcane using traditional breeding methods. The resulting key feature is a significant increase in biomass yield. This happens because accumulating sugar is not physiologically a simple process and results in penalty in the side of fiber and yield. This review paper describe...

  7. Sugar cane bagasse prehydrolysis using hot water

    OpenAIRE

    D. Abril; Medina, M.; A. Abril

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented on the hot water prehydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for obtaining ethanol by fermentation. The experimental study consisted of the determination of the effect of temperature and time of prehydrolysis on the extraction of hemicelluloses, with the objective of selecting the best operating conditions that lead to increased yield of extraction with a low formation of inhibitors. The study, carried out in a pilot plant scale rotational digester, using a 3² experimental desig...

  8. Technical Efficiency in Louisiana Sugar Cane Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jason L.; Zapata, Hector O.; Heagler, Arthur M.

    1995-01-01

    Participants in the Louisiana sugar cane industry have provided little information related to the efficiency of sugar processing operations. Using panel data from the population of Louisiana sugar processors, alternative model specifications are estimated using stochastic frontier methods to measure the technical efficiency of individual sugar factories. Results suggest the Louisiana sugar processing industry is characterized by a constant returns to scale Cobb-Douglas processing function wit...

  9. Supply Response of Sugar Cane in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Noer Soetrisno

    1984-01-01

    The paper investigates the supply response of sugar cane using an extended Nerlovian model, The analysis is separated into sugar mills and farmers’ responses. Output response is decomposed into area response and yield response. An important finding shows farmers to be responsive to price while millers are not, The insignificant results on sugar mills indicate that when they are under strict control, and are no longer profit maximizing, the Nerlovian supply response does not apply.

  10. System for automatic separation of sugar cane top

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, mechanical sugarcane harvesting has been introduced in many regions. It improves the efficiency of sugarcane harvesting, but also brings the cane tops into sugar factories, which decreases the yield and causes economic losses. This study investigated a system that can distinguish cane tops from the mechanically harvested raw sugarcane materials. We used a green He-Ne laser (wavelength 543.5 nm, output 4 mW) to scan the raw sugarcane materials and measured the back-reflected light intensity by a light sensor (avalanche photodiode module). Since the surface roughness is different between cane top and cane stalk, analyzing the different patterns of the distribution of the back reflected light intensity enables the cane top and stalk to be distinguished. In the experiment, 22 cane tops and 32 cane stalks were used as samples. Using kurtosis as a parameter to analyze the patterns, the percentage of correctly identifying cane tops was 90.9, and that of cane stalks was 71.9, and the percentage of correct answers of all samples was 79.6. (author)

  11. Software Development Of Sugar Cane Plantation And Harvesting Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This software is a management system based on database-driven computer software application. It is intended to improve the quality of sugar cane through increased efficiency in managing, harvesting and transporting of sugar cane, as part of a sugar factory operation. The software was developed using the Borland Delphi development platform, with database manipulation using Microsoft Access. The software is intended for Personal Computer with Windows 95 (or later) installed. The application has been tested with acceptable result and can be used in Sragi Sugar Factory's related activities; namely sugar cane plantation management, harvesting and transporting of sugar cane, payment process and other related administrative processes

  12. Helmintos parásitos de anfibios: Dos Especies de Nemátodos parásitos de Bufo spinulosus trifolium (Tschudi)

    OpenAIRE

    Asucena Naupay

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo sobre los helmintos que parasitan a Bufo spinulosus trifolium (Tschudi) de la localidad de Huánuco, se presentan dos especies conocidas para la ciencia pero una de ellas nueva para el Perú.

  13. Variación ontogenética en la palatibilidad de los renacuajos de Bufo spinulosus papillosus Philippi, 1902 (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jara, Fabián Gastón

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la variación ontogenética de la palatabilidad en Bufo spinulosus papillosus expuestos a larvas del odonato Rhionaeshna variegata (Odonata, Aeshnidae. Los renacuajos fueron agrupados en cuatro categorías de desarrollo y fueron expuestos a la depredación directa determinándose el número de renacuajos consumidos al finalizar los experimentos. Bufo spinulosus papillosus no fue palatable en los primeros estadios del desarrollo (categorías I, estadios 24-26 y categoría II, estadios 32-34, mientras que los estadios de las categoría III (estadios 38-40 y categoría IV (estadios 42-45 fueron progresivamente palatables. Se observó un comportamiento de rechazo por parte de los depredadores luego de la captura de renacuajos de las categorías I y II. El patrón de palatabilidad encontrado en Bufo spinulosus papillosus difiere del observado en otras especies relacionadas del género Bufo (Brodie y Formanowicz, 1987; Kehr y Schnack, 1991; Lawler y Hero, 1997. We evaluated the ontogenetic variation in the palatability of Bufo spinulosus papillosus tadpoles exposed to odonate larvae of Rhionaeshna variegata (Odonata, Aeshnidae. We exposed tadpoles to direct predation and determined the number of consumed tadpoles in four developmental categories. Bufo spinulosus papillosus tadpoles of categories I (stages 24-26 and II (stages 32-34 were unpalatable, while categories III (stages 38-40 and IV (stages 42-45 were progressively palatable. We observed a post-capture rejection behavior when they caught unpalatable tadpoles in categories I and II. The palatability pattern observed in Bufo spinulosus papillosus was different from related Bufo species (Brodie and Formanowicz, 1987; Kehr and Schnack, 1991; Lawler and Hero, 1997.

  14. Towed Optical Assessment Device (TOAD) Data to Support Benthic Habitat Mapping since 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Optical validation data were collected using a Tethered Optical Assessment Device (TOAD), an underwater sled equipped with an underwater digital video camera and...

  15. Vascular aspects of water uptake mechanisms in the toad skin: perfusion, diffusion, confusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels; Viborg, Arne L; Hillyard, Stanley D

    2007-01-01

    . Aquaporins 1-3 were characterized by RT-PCR analysis of seat patch skin. AQP 1 was localized in the endothelium of subepidermal capillaries and serves as a pathway for water absorption in series with the apical and basolateral membranes of the epithelium. Dehydrated toads rehydrated more rapidly from dilute...... coupling explains the greater absorption from dilute salt solutions. Rehydration from 10 mM CaCl2 was stimulated above that of DI water by a similar degree as with 50 mM NaCl suggesting the anion might control water permeability of the skin.......Blood cell flow (BCF) in the water absorbing "seat patch" region of toad skin was measured with laser Doppler flow cytometry. BCF of dehydrated toads increased by a factor of 6-8 when water contact was made and declined gradually as toads rehydrated. Water absorption was initially stimulated...

  16. Fungi inhabiting healthy grapevine canes (Vitis spp. in some nurseries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Król

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study, conducted in the years 2000 - 2002, was to identify fungi species colonizing apparently healthy canes and to investigate whether canes storage modify the quantitative and qualitative composition of these fungi. The plant material was collected from 5 commercial plantations growing in various regions of Poland, taking into consideration 8 cultivars which were the most frequently cultivated. From each plantation and cultivar 20 apparently healthy canes were randomly sampled in two terms: before storage - November/December (term I and 3-4 months after storage - February/March (term II. The results showed that from asymptomatic canes 2746 isolates of fungi belonging to 23 species were obtained, but the majority of them origined from canes analysed after storage. It was found that P. viticola is able to live latently within grapevine tissue in Polish conditions because isolates of this fungus from visually healty canes the all studied plantations and terms were obtained. Among the other fungi species inhabiting grapevine canes Alternaria alternata and Fusarium spp. dominated. Moreover, both in term I and term II Botrytis cinerea, Phoma spp., Epicoccum purpurascens and Cladosporium cladosporioides were frequently isolated, whereas fungi from the genus Acremonium only in the term I. Each time isolates of Trichoderma spp. and Gliocladium spp. were also obtained. Inhabitation of grapevine canes by various fungi species shown in the present experiment indicate the danger of pathogens spread with propagation material on the new plantations.

  17. 75 FR 64619 - White Cane Safety Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8588 of October 15, 2010 White Cane Safety Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The white cane, in addition to being a practical mobility...

  18. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Caning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on chair caning is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the history of caning; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and graphically; and the followup,…

  19. Rotating cross arm trellis and cane training for brambles

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the combination of primocane training and cane positioning techniques using a rotatable cross-arm (RCA) trellis system and covering plants in winter to protect buds and canes from freezing temperatures in 'Apache', 'Boysenberry', 'Siskiyou', and 'Triple Crown' blackberry. After tying p...

  20. The Connecticut Pre-Cane: Case Study and Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, C. J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the history and characteristics of the Connecticut Pre-cane, designed to protect young blind children and teach them early mobility techniques. A case study illustrates typical uses, and 12 step-by-step lessons in cane travel are provided for use with young children by the mobility instructor. (DB)

  1. Sugar Cane Genome Numbers Assumption by Ribosomal DNA FISH Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thumjamras, S.; Jong, de H.; Iamtham, S.; Prammanee, S.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional cytological method is limited for polyploidy plant genome study, especially sugar cane chromosomes that show unstable numbers of each cultivar. Molecular cytogenetic as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques were used in this study. A basic chromosome number of sugar cane w

  2. Alimentación y fecundidad de Bufo variegatus (Anura: Bufonidae en Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rappi, Guillermina E.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la alimentación de una población de Bufo variegatus procedente de la región de Lago del Desierto, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. De los 11 ítems presa identificados, los más consumidos por los adultos (tanto machos como hembras fueron los coleópteros. En los machos la segunda categoría presa mas importante en la contribución a la dieta fueron los ácaros, mientras que en las hembras las hormigas y las larvas de insectos siguieron en importancia al consumo de coleópteros. En los especímenes juveniles, los ácaros fueron las presas más consumidas, quedando los coleópteros en segundo lugar en importancia relativa. Se demuestra la existencia de una correlación positiva significativa entre el volumen de las presas y el tamaño del depredador. Se aportan datos referentes a la fecundidad de B. variegatus y se comprueba la ausencia de correlación entre el tamaño de las hembras grávidas y el número de óvulos maduros. The diet of a population of Bufo variegatus from the region of Lago del Desierto, Santa Cruz province, Argentina, is described. Of the 11 prey items identified, Coleoptera was the most consumed prey both for males and females. In males, the second most important prey was Acarii, while in females they were the ants and insect larvae. Acarii was the most consumed prey for juveniles, followed by Coleoptera. A significant positive correlation was found between prey volume and predator body size. Fecundity information for B. variegwus is given, and a lack of correlation between snout-vent length of mature females and ovarian egg complement is demonstrated.

  3. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Description of tadpole stages of the Malabar Tree Toad Pedostibes tuberculosis Gunther, 1875 (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Dinesh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pedostibes tuberculosus, the Malabar tree toad, was described 137 years ago from the Malabar region (now the coastal parts of Kerala of the Western Ghats. Since the description of this arboreal toad, not much information is available on the natural history, breeding habits and life cycle except for its description, range of distribution and advertisement call details. In the present account, the tadpole stages of this toad from Gosner tadpole Stage 21 to 45 are presented and the phytotelmatic mode of life of this toad has been confirmed by locating the tadpoles within the Ochlandra reed culm.

  4. An experimental study on target recognition using white canes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunokawa, Kiyohiko; Ino, Shuichi

    2010-01-01

    To understand basic tactile perception using white canes, we compared tapping (two times) and pushing (two times) methods using the index finger and using a white cane, with and without accompanying auditory information. Participants were six visually impaired individuals who used a white cane to walk independently in their daily lives. For each of the tapping and pushing and sound or no sound conditions, participants gave magnitude estimates for the hardness of rubber panels. Results indicated that using a white cane produces sensitivity levels equal to using a finger when accompanied by auditory information, and suggested that when using a white cane to estimate the hardness of a target, it is most effective to have two different modalities of tactile and auditory information derived from tapping. PMID:21096512

  5. The All Optical New Universal Gate Using TOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutam Kumar Maity

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the seventies of the past century the reversible logic has originated as an unconventional form of computing. It is new relatively in the area of extensive applications in quantum computing, low power CMOS, DNA computing, digital signal processing (DSP, nanotechnology, communication, optical computing, computer graphics, bio information, etc .Here we present and configure a new TAND gate in all-optical domain and also in this paper we have explained their principle of operations and used a theoretical model to fulfil this task, finally supporting through numerical simulations. In the field of ultra-fast all-optical signal processing Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOAD, semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA-based, has an important function. The different logical (composing of Boolean function operations can be executed by designed circuits with TAND gate in the domain of universal logic-based information processing.

  6. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar... processing of raw cane sugar into crystalline refined sugar....

  7. Design Algorithm and Performance Analysis of Conventional and Fuzzy Controller for Maintaining the Cane Level during Sugar Making Process

    OpenAIRE

    Yogesh Misra; H. R. Kamath

    2014-01-01

    The amount of cane fiber carried by cane carrier varies due to non-uniformity of cane supply. The continuous variation of cane in chute during the cane juice extraction inversely affects the cane juice extraction efficiency of mill. This paper deals with the development and performance comparison of conventional controller and fuzzy controller to maintain the cane level in chute during juice extraction. The conventional controller is developed using VHDL language and simulated by using Xilinx...

  8. Sugar cane bagasse prehydrolysis using hot water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abril

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the hot water prehydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for obtaining ethanol by fermentation. The experimental study consisted of the determination of the effect of temperature and time of prehydrolysis on the extraction of hemicelluloses, with the objective of selecting the best operating conditions that lead to increased yield of extraction with a low formation of inhibitors. The study, carried out in a pilot plant scale rotational digester, using a 3² experimental design at temperatures of 150-190ºC and times of 60-90 min, showed that it is possible to perform the hot water prehydrolysis process between 180-190ºC in times of 60-82 min, yielding concentrations of xylose > 35 g/L, furfural < 2.5 g/L, phenols from soluble lignin < 1.5 g/L, and concentrations < 3.0 g/L of hemicelluloses in the cellolignin residue. These parameters of temperature and prehydrolysis time could be used for the study of the later hydrolysis and fermentation stages of ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse.

  9. Dirt in cane removal influenced by soil characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirt level in sugar cane consignments delivered to the factory is dependent on soil type, in association with harvesting system and weather conditions. Efforts for reducing soil in harvested cane have been made by sugar cane millers, especially improving the washing system installed before crushing. Instrumental neutron activation analysis has shown its potential for assessing dirt reductions in the washed material. Knowledge of elemental concentrations in the different soil fractions highlights the reliability of such measurements especially when taking into account the soil characteristics. (author)

  10. Assessment of TS-1, a thick cane mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A true breeding thick cane mutant TS-1, induced by radiations, was obtained in variety Co-419. TS-1 was found to be superior to Co-419 with respect to cane size, weight, yield and juice quality. The thick canes of TS-1 were found to be solid even at 14 months age and so also their ratoons. The tillering habit of TS-1 has a definite advantage over other varieties with respect to easy intercultural field operations. TS-1 is now being tested under various agroclimatic zones in Karnataka, Maharashtra and U.P. (auth.)

  11. Basic analysis of sugar cane lead and cane fields of an AIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of minor and trace elements in sugar cane leaves and soils samples from a cuban sugar factory were determine by means of thermal reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The samples were taken according to the methodology of Sugar Minister for leaves and soils analysis. The concentration of 28 elements was determinate. the concentration values obtained by NAA, XRFA and previous analysis are compared

  12. Dehydration hardly slows hopping toads (Rhinella granulosa) from xeric and mesic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Ivan; Angilleta, Michael J; Wilson, Robbie S; Niehaus, Amanda C; Navas, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    The locomotor capacity of amphibians depends strongly on temperature and hydration. Understanding the potential interactions between these variables remains an important challenge because temperature and water availability covary strongly in natural environments. We explored the effects of temperature and hydration on the hopping speeds of Rhinella granulosa, a small toad from the semiarid Caatinga and the Atlantic Rain Forest in Brazil. We asked whether thermal and hydric states interact to determine performance and whether toads from the Caatinga differ from their conspecifics from the Atlantic Forest. Both dehydration and cooling impaired hopping speed, but effects were independent of one another. In comparison to performances of other anurans, the performance of R. granulosa was far less sensitive to dehydration. Consequently, dehydrated members of this species may be able to sustain performance through high body temperatures, which agrees with the exceptional heat tolerance of this species. Surprisingly, toads from both the Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest were relatively insensitive to dehydration. This observation suggests that migration or gene flow between toads from the forest and those from a drier region occurred or that toads from a dry region colonized the forest secondarily. PMID:23799839

  13. Contribution to the study of immune hemolysis by toad complement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Gennari

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available EA (sheep erythrocytes carrying rabbit antibody are lysed by toad complement under optimal conditions which include a low concentration of cells (1.54 x 10*8/ml, a low temperature of incubation (30°C and the same amounts of Ca++ and Mg++ as required for the titration of guinea-pig complement. Kinetic studies of the role of cations mentioned above in immune lysis by toad C have disclosed a fundamental difference as compared to guinea-pig C. In a limited complement system, the lysis by amphibian C is completely blocked by EDTA, even when the chelating agent is added as late as 15 minutes after zero-time. Inhibition by EGTA is only partial and the findings suggest that Mg++ is required not only at the beginning, but also at late stages of the lytic process. It has been speculated that the activation of amphibian complement proceeds mainly by the alternative pathway.EA (eritrócitos de carneiro, sensibilizados com anticorpos de coelho são lisados por complemento de sapo em condições ótimas, que consistem no uso de uma baixa concentração de células (1.54 x 10*8/ml, incubação a baixa temperatura (30°C e as mesmas quantidades de Ca++ e de Mg++, requeridas para a titulação da atividade hemolítica do complemento de cobaia. Estudos cinéticos do efeito dos cátions mencionados acima na imune-lise produzida pelo complemento de sapo revelam uma diferença fundamental com relação ao complemento de cobaía. Num sistema limitado pela quantidade de complemento, a lise pelo C de anfíbio é totalmente bloqueada por EDTA, mesmo quando a adição do agente quelante é feita após 15 minutos, ao passo que com EGTA o bloqueio é apenas parcial. Os achados experimentais sugerem que Mg++ seja requerido não apenas no estágio inicial, mas também em estágios tardios do processo lítico e permitem especular que a ativação do complemento de anfíbio se processa predominantemente pela via alternativa.

  14. Method for producing tip-layered, long-cane blackberry plants using the rotating cross-arm trellis and cane training system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rotating cross-arm trellis and a unique cane training technique was used to produce 5- to 6-ft-long tall-cane plants of semi-erect (cv. Triple Crown) and trailing (cv. Siskiyou) blackberries. The primocanes were bent to grow horizontally at 18 in height and the lateral canes that developed on th...

  15. Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy. A Study of the Disappearing African-American Worker on the Sugar Cane Plantations in Southern Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John A., Jr.; And Others

    This resource/study guide is designed to accompany the instructional video, "Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy," which explores the significance of cultivating, harvesting, and refining sugar cane. It is also a brief study of the disappearing African-American workers on the sugar cane plantations in southern Louisiana. Seven main ideas are…

  16. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Zulema; Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Serrano, Maria Jose; Palma, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying) and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others) on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5) for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:27322224

  17. Relationship between sugar cane cultivation and stream macroinvertebrate communities

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano José Corbi; Susana Trivinho-Strixino

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of the sugar cane cultivation on the macroinvertebrate communities of 11 streams under different land uses. Analysis of the sediment (organic matter contents and metals) and water complemented the study. Ninety six macroinvertebrates taxa were identified, of which 54 were Chironomidae and 42 of other aquatic macroinvertebrates. The streams located in the areas of sugar cane culture and pasture presented low taxa and a great participation of Chir...

  18. Studio di alcuni tratti del temperamento nel cane

    OpenAIRE

    Beghelli, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Il temperamento può essere definito come l’attitudine che un cane esprime verso le persone e verso altri animali, la combinazione di tratti fisici e mentali, acquisiti e non, che determinano il comportamento del cane. Tale parametro delinea perciò il carattere di un individuo, inclinazioni e tendenze, eccitabilità, tristezza, rabbia e il modo caratteristico di comportarsi di un individuo, con particolare riferimento alle interazioni sociali. La presente tesi di Dottorato rappresenta uno s...

  19. Texture analysis for the segmentation of sugar cane multispectral images

    OpenAIRE

    Solano, Agustin; Schneider, Gerardo; Kemerer, Alejandra; Hadad, Alejandro Javier

    2014-01-01

    In this paper is presented an analysis of the impact of texture features for segmentation of multispectral aerial images of sugar cane. Currently there are no precise techniques to estimate objectively areas of fallen cane and this causes significant losses in crop productivity and industrialization. For the real-ization of this work was made an image dataset. To build this dataset was im-plemented a software from which were obtained labeled regions in the images related to this agronomic phe...

  20. Optimizing the performance of TOAD by changing the wavelength and power of control pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangsheng Wen(温亮生); Peng Zuo(左鹏); Jian Wu(伍剑); Jintong Lin(林金桐)

    2003-01-01

    The performance of terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) has been studied by modelling the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) in which the intraband effects had been taken into account.Numerical results are coincident with the experiment results. We interpret why there are three peaks in the switching window, which has never been reported before. In addition, we put forward the definition of the flatness of the switching window of TOAD for the first time By analysing the different phase of clockwise and counter clockwise signal pulse changed by SOA, appropriate peak power of control pulse and wavelength of signal and control pulse have been calculated in order to obtain large output power and flat switching window of TOAD.

  1. Morfologia da glândula intermaxilar do sapo (Bufo paracnemis Lutz, 1925

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Soares Dias Alves

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The intermaxillary gland of Bufo paracnemis Lutz, 1925 is located at the pre-nasal area being divided anteriorly by the ascendent processes of the intermaxillary bone. The secretory tubules converge to form very ramified ducts which drain into a common opening in a fosseta underlying the vomer bone. The cells of the intermaxillary gland were be classified in four distinct types: Light-granule secretory; Dark-granule secretory; ciliated and basal cells. The light-granule secretory cells, are the main type of the secretory tubules, which are also found, in smaller numbers, in the excretory ducts. The dark-granule secretory cells appear in a low number, both in the secretory tubules and in the excretory ducts. Degranulated cells are frequently found in the excretory ducts and represent the degranulated phase of dark-granule secretory cells. The ciliated cells occur only in the excretory ducts. The basal cells occur in small number in the excretory ducts and secretory tubules. In the excretory ducts these cells are regarded as being mioepithelial cells. Although usually described in the literature as mucous, the secretory cells of the intermaxillary gland have serous characteristics. The intermaxillary gland is the first salivary gland to appear in the vertebrate evolution. Its duct system is uniformly lined by ciliated cells and scattered secretory cells. This indicates that in the evolution, of salivary glands, there was a diversification of the duct system, together with progressxve concentration of secretory cells in special áreas of this system.

  2. The uptake of 14C-glycine to Bufo vulgaris formosus (Boulenger) larva at metamorphosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the eggs of Bufo vulgaris formosus (Boulenger) immediately after fertilization, the larvae in the 50 ml solution containing 1 ml of 14C-glycine were developed to the end of metamorphosis. Measurements were made on the length of body, tail, fore limb and hind leg through the stages of tail degeneration and vestige. The radioactivity of the cut off fore limbs, hind legs, tails and head trunks was measured with a scintillation counter, and the 10 μ sections of the samples were used for autoradiography. The larvae uptook orally 14C-glycine to the organs of cell tissues. On the basis of the reports of the autolysis of tails and the activation of lysosome enzyme in metamorphosis and on the uptake of 14C-leucine and 14C-proline to four legs by other workers, and on the present results, the free amino acids formed from the autolysis of tails were utilized for the recomposition of organ protein synthesis in the metamorphosis of the amphibians. (J.P.N.)

  3. Subcellular localization of calcium and Ca-ATPase activity during nuclear maturation in Bufo arenarum oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Inés; Cisint, Susana B; Crespo, Claudia A; Medina, Marcela F; Fernández, Silvia N

    2009-08-01

    The localization of calcium and Ca-ATPase activity in Bufo arenarum oocytes was investigated by ultracytochemical techniques during progesterone-induced nuclear maturation, under in vitro conditions. No Ca2+ deposits were detected in either control oocytes or progesterone-treated ones for 1-2 h. At the time when nuclear migration started, electron dense deposits of Ca2+ were visible in vesicles, endoplasmic reticulum cisternae and in the space between the annulate lamellae membranes. Furthermore, Ca-ATPase activity was also detected in these membrane structures. As maturation progressed, the cation deposits were observed in the cytomembrane structures, which underwent an important reorganization and redistribution. Thus, they moved from the subcortex and became located predominantly in the oocyte cortex area when nuclear maturation ended. Ca2+ stores were observed in vesicles surrounding or between the cortical granules, which are aligned close to the plasma membrane. The positive Ca-ATPase reaction in these membrane structures could indicate that the calcium deposit is an ATP-dependent process. Our results suggest that during oocyte maturation calcium would be stored in membrane structures where it remains available for release at the time of fertilization. Data obtained under our experimental conditions indicate that calcium from the extracellular medium would be important for the oocyte maturation process. PMID:19397840

  4. Anticipatory motor patterns limit muscle stretch during landing in toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Emanuel; Abbott, Emily M

    2013-02-23

    To safely land after a jump or hop, muscles must be actively stretched to dissipate mechanical energy. Muscles that dissipate energy can be damaged if stretched to long lengths. The likelihood of damage may be mitigated by the nervous system, if anticipatory activation of muscles prior to impact alters the muscle's operating length. Anticipatory motor recruitment is well established in landing studies and motor patterns have been shown to be modulated based on the perceived magnitude of the impact. In this study, we examine whether motor recruitment in anticipation of landing can serve a protective function by limiting maximum muscle length during a landing event. We use the anconeus muscle of toads, a landing muscle whose recruitment is modulated in anticipation of landing. We combine in vivo measurements of muscle length during landing with in vitro characterization of the force-length curve to determine the muscle's operating length. We show that muscle shortening prior to impact increases with increasing hop distance. This initial increase in muscle shortening functions to accommodate the larger stretches required when landing after long hops. These predictive motor strategies may function to reduce stretch-induced muscle damage by constraining maximum muscle length, despite variation in the magnitude of impact. PMID:23256184

  5. Effect of stretch on passive transport in toad urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lief, P D; Mutz, B F; Bank, N

    1976-06-01

    In order to gain further information about the effect of stretch on the urinary bladder of the toad, transepithelial movement of radioactive sucrose, chloride, and urea was measured across bladder sacs during acute changes in the internal volume. Short-circuit current (SCC) and total tissue conductance (Kt) were also measured in each experiment. It was found that sudden large increases or smaller graded increases in volume resulted in a consistent fall in the tracer permeability (P*) of all three isotopes. However, this fall was due entirely to the larger area term in the calculation of P* rather than any real change in isotope movement. When total diffusion (TD) of each isotope was calculated by a method that eliminated the changes in surface area, it was apparent that stretch produced no significant effects on the transepithelial movement of any of these three molecules. Large stretch also resulted in parallel increases in SCC and Kt in most bladders. We conclude from these observations that the intercellular pathway for sucrose and chloride and the transcellular pathway for urea are unaltered by degrees of stretch that enhance SCC and sodium transport. By inference, the observed increases in Kt appear to represent changes in specific active pathway conductance (Ka), and may relate importantly to the changes in sodium transport. PMID:820207

  6. Multiple paternity in a viviparous toad with internal fertilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberger-Loua, Laura; Feldhaar, Heike; Jehle, Robert; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Anurans are renowned for a high diversity of reproductive modes, but less than 1 % of species exhibit internal fertilisation followed by viviparity. In the live-bearing West African Nimba toad ( Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis), females produce yolk-poor eggs and internally nourish their young after fertilisation. Birth of fully developed juveniles takes place after 9 months. In the present study, we used genetic markers (eight microsatellite loci) to assign the paternity of litters of 12 females comprising on average 9.7 juveniles. In 9 out of 12 families (75 %), a single sire was sufficient; in three families (25 %), more than one sire was necessary to explain the observed genotypes in each family. These findings are backed up with field observations of male resource defence (underground cavities in which mating takes place) as well as coercive mating attempts, suggesting that the observed moderate level of multiple paternity in a species without distinct sperm storage organs is governed by a balance of female mate choice and male reproductive strategies.

  7. An anionic antimicrobial peptide from toad Bombina maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ren; Liu, Hen; Hui Lee, Wen; Zhang, Yun

    2002-07-26

    Amphibian skin is a rich resource of antimicrobial peptides like maximins and maximins H from toad Bombina maxima. A novel cDNA clone encoding a precursor protein that comprises maximin 3 and a novel peptide, named maximin H5, was isolated from a skin cDNA library of B. maxima. The predicted primary structure of maximin H5 is ILGPVLGLVSDTLDDVLGIL-NH2. Containing three aspartate residues and no basic amino acid residues, maximin H5 is characterized by an anionic property. Different from cationic maximin H peptides, only Gram-positive strain Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to maximin H5, while the other bacterial and fungal strains tested were resistant to it. The presence of metal ions, like Zn2+ and Mg2+, did not increase its antimicrobial potency. Maximin H5 represents the first example of potential anionic antimicrobial peptides from amphibians. The results provide the first evidence that, together with cationic antimicrobial peptides, anionic antimicrobial peptides may also exist naturally as part of the innate defense system. PMID:12127963

  8. Nux Vomica 200 CH reduced acute hypnotic effect of alcohol in young toads

    OpenAIRE

    Nirmal Sukul; Arniban Sukul; Indrani Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Potentized Nux Vomica has been reported to produce antialcoholic effect in mice, rats and toads. The effect relates to consumption of alcohol and alcohol-induced loss of righting reflex (RR). RR’s maintain normal erect posture of an animal and are centrally controlled in the midbrain. In the present study young toads, Duttaphrynus melanostictus were first treated with Nux vomica 200 CH and then partially immersed in 209 mM ethanol solution in such a way that their head remained above t...

  9. Comparison of Skeletal Muscle Protein Bands among Five Populations of Bufo viridis in Turkey by SDS-PAGE

    OpenAIRE

    BÜLBÜL, Ufuk; KUTRUP, Bilal

    2007-01-01

    Skeletal muscle protein bands of Bufo viridis samples from 5 different populations in Turkey were investigated by SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis). The total number of skeletal muscle protein bands was 23 in Hatay, Kayseri, Rize, and Tekirdağ samples, and 25 in the Mersin sample. It can be ascertained from the present study that some populations of B. viridis in Turkey could be different according to skeletal muscle protein bands and SDS-PAGE results comp...

  10. New regional record and notes on historical specimens of Gunther Toad Duttaphrynus hololius with comments on other southeastern Indian congeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Srinivasulu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on the finding of the Günther Toad Duttaphrynus hololius from Visakhapatnam and discuss aspects of its distribution based on our species distribution modeling. We also provide data on historically collected specimens and refine its intra-specific variation, provide an up-to-date chresonymy and comment on the validity of earlier reported diagnosis. Lastly, we remark on some misidentification-mediated dubious southern Indian records of another, related congener, the Marbled Toad D. stomaticus and correct some misallocations by referring them to another syntopic congener, the Dwarf Toad D. scaber.

  11. Role of cations as components of jelly coats in Bufo arenarum fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Marcela Fátima; Crespo, Claudia Alejandra; Ramos, Inés; Fernández, Silvia Nélida

    2010-02-01

    The role of monovalent (Na+, K+) and divalent (Ca2+, Mg2+) cations in Bufo arenarum fertilization was analysed. Our results showed that the highest fertilization percentages were obtained when strings of uterine oocytes (UO) were inseminated. Under these conditions, full jelly (FJ), which represents the jelly coats surrounding the oocytes at the time of deposition, contained 68.5 +/- 7.0 mM Na+, 27.4 +/- 2.4 mM K+, 6.3 +/- 0.9 mM Ca2+ and 6.9 +/- 0.9 mM Mg2+. When the strings of oocytes were washed in deionized water, these cations diffused into the liquid medium surrounding them. There was a marked similarity between the loss of Ca2+ in the jelly and the decrease in the fertilizability of the UO. Furthermore, the use of chelating agents of divalent cations showed the importance of the Ca2+ contained in the jelly. When Ca2+ was sequestered from the jelly coats by the addition of the chelating agents to the insemination medium as well as by pretreatment of the UO strings, a decrease in fertilization percentages occurred, this effect being dose dependent and more marked with EGTA. These results demonstrate that the Ca2+ in the jelly plays a role in fertilization. Nevertheless, taking into account that during the washing of the jelly other jelly coat components were diffused and considering that the addition of Ca2+ to the insemination medium reverted significantly, but only partially, the loss of fertilizability of jellied UO (washed), the participation of other components in the fertilization mechanism is suggested. PMID:19664308

  12. Nutritional status of sugar cane (planted cane) in 15N experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies with stable isotopes are becoming more common due to the increased safety of operation and quality and reliability of results. However, the use of microplots is required to decrease the costs of such studies. Since microplots are small compared to regular plot areas, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether nutritional data based on microplot samples can adequately represent the whole area, in a comparison of the nutritional status of microplot sugar cane plants at their maximum development stage with those of the regular plots in experiments with N rates. Three experiments were set up, with three N rates (40, 80, and 120 kg ha-1 N) and a control, with four repetitions, in a randomized complete block design, in the state of Sao Paulo. Microplots of 3 m2 containing 15N-fertilizer (5.04% atom 15N) were included in the main plots formed by 48 lines of sugar cane spaced 1.5 m apart. At the time of maximum development stage, diagnostic leaves were collected in the main and microplots to evaluate the nutritional status of plants by analyzing the total concentration of macro nutrients. There were no differences in N, P, Ca, Mg, and S concentrations in the diagnostic leaves from the main and microplots, so that the latter can be considered representative of the experimental area. Higher nitrogen fertilizer rates induced increased concentrations of not only N, but also of P, Ca, Mg, and S in the diagnostic leaves. (author)

  13. Effect of parathyroid hormone on transport by toad and turtle bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors recently demonstrated that parathyroid hormone (PTH) inhibited both vasopressin- and cyclic AMP-stimulated water transport in the toad bladder. This was associated with an increase in calcium uptake by isolated epithelial cells. They postulated that PTH exerts its action on H2O transport by directly stimulating calcium uptake. The current study was designed to compare the effects of PTH and the calcium ionophore, A23187, on H2O and Na transport and Hμ secretion in toad and turtle bladders. In toad bladder, PTH and A23187 decreased arginine vasopressin (AVP)-stimulated H2O flow and short-circuit current (SCC) after 60 min serosal incubation. In turtle bladder A23187 decreased SCC to 79.3 +/- 3.6% of base line (P + secretion in turtle bladders. Both PTH and A23187 increased 45Ca uptake in toad bladder epithelial cells; only A23187 increased 45Ca uptake in the turtle bladder. The different action of PTH in these two membranes, compared with that of the calcium ionophore, illustrates the selectivity of PTH on membrane transport. PTH increases calcium uptake and decreases transport only in a hormone-sensitive epithelium, whereas the ionophore works in virtually all living membranes. The mode of action of these two agents to increase calcium uptake is, therefore likely different

  14. ACTION OF PROGESTERONE ON THE DEPOLARIZATION OF THE MEMBRANE POTENTIAL IN TOAD OOCYTES INDUCED BY LEUCINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYu-Feng

    1989-01-01

    The depolarization of the membrane potential in toad oocytes induced by leucine was found in our previous experiment. In this paper, a possible action or progesterone in the process was further investigated. After oocytes had been incubated for 16 to 24 hours with

  15. Tetrodotoxin and its analogues in extracts from the toad Atelopus oxyrhynchus (family: Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsu-Yamashita, M; Mebs, D; Yasumoto, T

    1992-11-01

    Tetrodotoxin and its analogues, 4-epitetrodotoxin and 4,9-anhydrotetrodotoxin, were detected in the toad Atelopus oxyrhynchus by HPLC analysis. The toxin and its analogues were still present in a specimen which lived 3.5 years in captivity. PMID:1336632

  16. Sugar cane stillage: a potential source of natural antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caderby, Emma; Baumberger, Stéphanie; Hoareau, William; Fargues, Claire; Decloux, Martine; Maillard, Marie-Noëlle

    2013-11-27

    Biorefinery of sugar cane is the first economic activity of Reunion Island. Some sugar cane manufactured products (juice, syrup, molasses) have antioxidant activities and are sources of both phenolic compounds and Maillard Reaction Products (MRP). The study aimed to highlight the global antioxidant activity of sugar cane stillage and understand its identity. Chromatographic fractionation on Sephadex LH-20 resin allowed the recovery of a MRP-rich fraction, responsible for 58 to 66% of the global antioxidant activity according to the nature of the sugar cane stillage (DPPH test), and a phenolic compounds-rich fraction for 37 to 59% of the activity. A good correlation was recorded between the antioxidant activity of the sugar cane stillage and its content in total reducing compounds amount (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), among them 2.8 to 3.9 g/L of phenolic compounds (in 5-caffeoylquinic acid equivalent). Preliminary experiments by HPLC-DAD-MS allowed to identify several free phenolic acids and gave clues to identify esters of quinic acids. PMID:24228787

  17. Water requirements of sugar cane grown in tropical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de Paulo Rodrigues da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An accurate estimation of water consumption of cane sugar crop is important for maximum productivity with less investment. The objective of this study was to determine the water requirements of sugar cane grown in tropical environments. The field experiment was carried out in Paraiba state, during the productive cycle of sugar cane crop variety RB 92 579 irrigated by central pivot irrigation (sprinkler from October 2009 to September 2011. The crop evapotranspiration was obtained based on soil water balance and reference evapotranspiration by Penman-Monteith method (FAO/56, using the data of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation from Data Collection Platform, next to the experimental site. Soil water moisture was monitored by TDR probes (Frequency Domain Reflectometry, Model PR2/6, Delta-T. The results showed that the crop coefficients values proposed by the FAO for sugar cane are not suitable for tropical regions. The water consumption of sugar cane ranged from 2.6 mm day-1, at initial crop growth stage, to 6.38 mm day-1, with an average of 4.3 mm day-1 for all cycle. Similarly, the crop coefficient ranged from 0.56 to 1.43, with an average of 0.99 for the same development crop growth stages.

  18. Seasonal hydroclimatic impacts of Brazilian sugar cane expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Mahalov, A.

    2012-12-01

    Brazil is the leading producer of sugar cane in the world with roughly half used for ethanol production. Because of suitable climatic growing conditions, the majority of biofuel production is derived from sugar plantations in southeastern states. Anticipated increases in global demand for biofuels are expected to lead to future sugar cane expansion extending into Brazilian pasturelands and native cerrado. Prior to undergoing large-scale expansion an evaluation of impacts on the region's hydroclimate is warranted. Using a suite of multi-year ensemble-based simulations with the WRF modeling system, we quantify hydroclimatic consequences of sugar cane expansion across portions of south-central Brazil. Conversion from current land use to sugar cane causes opposing seasonal impacts on near-surface temperature. Proggresively greater cooling is simulated during the course of the growing season, followed by an abrupt warming shift post-harvest. Although seasonal impacts on near-surface temperature are significant, with cooling of 1C occurring during the peak of the growing season followed by warming of similar magnitude, impacts are small when annually averaged. Ensemble mean differences between the imposed sugar cane expansion and non-expansion scenario are suggestive of a drying precipitation trend, yet large uncertainty among individual members precludes definitive statements about impacts on the region's rainfall.

  19. Soil-plant relation in Cuban sugar cane by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows the result of soil-plant relation in samples from Cuban sugar canes of different soil types and cane varieties, using the INAA from thermal reactor. The behaviour of minor and trace elements in sugar cane leaves is uniform and independent of sugar cane variety or type of soil. The soil-plant relation shows four principal groups of micro elements, according to their absorption by the plant

  20. A Model for Touch Technique and Computation of Adequate Cane Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plain-Switzer, Karen

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a model for the motion of a long-cane executing the touch technique and presents formulas for the projected length of a cane adequate to protect an individual with blindness against wall-type and pole-type hazards. The paper concludes that the long-cane should reach from the floor to the user's armpit. (JDD)

  1. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790 Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a) Identification. Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads are...

  2. USE OF FT-IR SPECTROSCOPY TO MONITOR TRASH DECOMPOSITON IN THE SUGAR CANE INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post harvested cane trash, if left unburnt, impedes the growth of emerging ratoons and reduces sugar yields in comparison to unhindered ratoons. Approximately 75% of dry cane trash is decomposable fibre--36% Cellulose, 21%Hemicellulose, 16% Lignin. One alternative for the removal of cane trash wou...

  3. Immediate Effects of Cane Use on Gait Symmetry in Individuals with Subacute Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Beauchamp, Marla K.; Skrela, Martina; Southmayd, Degen; Trick, Jaime; Kessel, Meghan Van; Brunton, Karen; Inness, Elizabeth; McIlroy, William E

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In stroke rehabilitation, there is a lack of consensus regarding the effects of cane use on gait symmetry. This study aimed to evaluate the immediate effects on gait symmetry of ambulating with a standard cane and a quad cane among individuals with subacute stroke.

  4. Climate Superiority of Sugar Cane Planting in Longzhou County of Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aizhen; CHENG; Xingji; ZENG; Zhongxiong; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    According to meteorological conditions for sugar cane growth and development,surface meteorological observation data of Longzhou County in 1981-2010 were taken as basis,to analyze influence of local temperature,precipitation and sunshine conditions on sugar cane planting.Results show that unique climate of Longzhou County is extremely suitable for sugar cane planting and growth.

  5. Climate Superiority of Sugar Cane Planting in Longzhou County of Guangxi

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Aizhen; Zeng, Xingji; Huang, Zhongxiong

    2013-01-01

    According to meteorological conditions for sugar cane growth and development, surface meteorological observation data of Longzhou County in 1981-2010 were taken as basis, to analyze influence of local temperature, precipitation and sunshine conditions on sugar cane planting. Results show that unique climate of Longzhou County is extremely suitable for sugar cane planting and growth.

  6. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  7. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of... domestic cane sugar allotments of 120,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports; and an increase in the... to 9,400,000 STRV ] and a reassignment of surplus cane sugar allotment to imports. The OAQ...

  8. Respiratory, allergy and eye problems in bagasse-exposed sugar cane workers in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gascon, M.; Kromhout, H.; Heederik, D.; Eduard, W.; van Wendel de Joode, B.N.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate bagasse (sugar cane fibres) and microbiological exposure among sugar cane refinery workers in Costa Rica and its relationships with respiratory, allergy and eye problems. METHODS: Ventilatory lung function and total serum IgE were measured in 104 sugar cane workers in five departme

  9. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  10. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  11. Helmintos parásitos de anfibios: Dos Especies de Nemátodos parásitos de Bufo spinulosus trifolium (Tschudi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asucena Naupay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo sobre los helmintos que parasitan a Bufo spinulosus trifolium (Tschudi de la localidad de Huánuco, se presentan dos especies conocidas para la ciencia pero una de ellas nueva para el Perú.

  12. Natural radionuclides as dirt tracers in sugar cane consignments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil is usually carried out to the mills, as an impurity in sugar cane, leading to economic drawbacks for the industry. The quantification of this dirt is important to identify its causes and for routine quality control. Several methods have been used for this purpose, however, no single one has been pointed out as an industrial standard. The use of a γ-ray emitting radionuclide of natural occurence was investigated and, after several soil and cane radioactivity analyses, 212Pb was chosen as the best tracer. Calibration curves developed with the addition of soil in clean cane, from 0 to 10% (dry mass), demonstrated the linearity of the method. Analyses of eleven samples taken from consignments showed that the procedure was consistent and reliable when compared to the traditional ash method. (author)

  13. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  14. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S., E-mail: jujuba_angelo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: aline_sd_timao@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Piracicaba (FATEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br, E-mail: lizmarybueno@gmail.com, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  15. Why are some mitochondria more powerful than others: insights from comparisons of muscle mitochondria from three terrestrial vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guderley, Helga; Turner, Nigel; Else, Paul L; Hulbert, A J

    2005-10-01

    We studied the molecular composition of muscle mitochondria to evaluate whether the contents of cytochromes or adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) or phospholipid acyl compositions reflect differences in mitochondrial oxidative capacities. We isolated mitochondria from three vertebrates of similar size and preferred temperature, the rat (Rattus norvegicus), the cane toad (Bufo marinus) and the bearded dragon lizard (Pogona vitticeps). Mitochondrial oxidative capacities were higher in rats and cane toads than in bearded dragon, whether rates were expressed relative to protein, cytochromes or ANT. Inter-specific differences were least pronounced when rates were expressed relative to cytochrome A, a component of cytochrome C oxidase (CCO), or ANT. In mitochondria from rat and cane toad, cytochrome A was more abundant than C followed by B and then C(1), while in bearded dragon mitochondria, the cytochromes were present in roughly equal levels. Analysis of correlations between mitochondrial oxidative capacities and macromolecular components revealed that cytochrome A explained at least half of the intra- and inter-specific variability in substrate oxidation rates. ANT levels were an excellent correlate of state 3 rates while phospholipid contents were correlated with state 4 rates. As the % poly-unsaturation and the % 20:4n-6 in mitochondrial phospholipids were equivalent in toads and rats, and exceeded the levels in lizards, they may contribute to the inter-specific differences in oxidative capacities. We suggest that the numbers of CCO and ANT together with the poly-unsaturation of phospholipids explain the higher oxidative capacities in muscle mitochondria from rats and cane toads. PMID:16085440

  16. Nitrogen dynamics in a soil-sugar cane system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of an organic matter management experiment of a sugar cane crop are reported for the first cropping year. Sugar cane was planted in October 1997, and labeled with a 15N fertilizer pulse to study the fate of organic matter in the soil-plant system. A nitrogen balance is presented, partitioning the system in plant components (stalk, tip and straw), soil components (five soil organic matter fractions) and evaluating leaching losses. The 15N label permitted to determine, at the end of the growing season, amounts of nitrogen derived from the fertilizer, present in the above mentioned compartments. (author)

  17. The Impact of Cane Supply on Rattan Trade in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Rattan-related products from China are popular and well known in international market, but China is facing shortage of rattan cane supply, and extinction of some rattan species. The big gap between demand and supply of rattan canes in China market is urgent to be bridged. This paper makes a brief introduction on rattan in the world and analyzes the rattan trade in China. The loss of habitats, overexploitation and inadequate replenishment of rattan result in a depleting resource and there are many challe...

  18. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane... used in the control of microorganisms in cane-sugar and/or beet-sugar mills as specified in paragraph...) Combination for cane-sugar mills: Parts per million Disodium cyanodithioimidocarbonate 2.5 Ethylenediamine...

  19. Ethanol from Sugar Cane: Flask Experiments Using the EX-FERM Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Rolz, Carlos; de Cabrera, Sheryl

    1980-01-01

    Alcohol production at the laboratory scale from sugar cane pieces by the EX-FERM technique was studied with 37 strains of Saccharomyces spp. The EX-FERM process is novel in that it employs the simultaneous extraction and fermentation of the sucrose in a cane-water suspension. Two types of cane treatments were used: chips and shredded pith, either fresh or dried. A mother culture of the yeast was prepared in enriched cane juice and then added to the cane-water mixture. After static fermentatio...

  20. Quantification of long cane usage characteristics with the constant contact technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeongmi; Moncada-Torres, Arturo; Furrer, Jonas; Riesch, Markus; Gassert, Roger

    2016-07-01

    While a number of Electronic Travel Aids (ETAs) have been developed over the past decades, the conventional long cane remains the most widely utilized navigation tool for people with visual impairments. Understanding the characteristics of long cane usage is crucial for the development and acceptance of ETAs. Using optical tracking, cameras and inertial measurement units, we investigated grasp type, cane orientation and sweeping characteristics of the long cane with the constant contact technique. The mean cane tilt angle, sweeping angle, and grip rotation deviation were measured. Grasp type varied among subjects, but was maintained throughout the experiments, with thumb and index finger in contact with the cane handle over 90% of the time. We found large inter-subject differences in sweeping range and frequency, while the sweeping frequency showed low intra-subject variability. These findings give insights into long cane usage characteristics and provide critical information for the development of effective ETAs. PMID:26965194

  1. El ciclo evolutivo experimental de Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei en Paracyclops fimbriatus, larvas de Bufo arenarum y caninos Experimental life cycle of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei in Paracyclops fimbriatus, tadpoles of Bufo arenarum and dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Venturini

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue lograr la reproducción experimental del ciclo evolutivo de Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei Rudolphi 1819 (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea con la intervención de Paracyclops fimbriatus y larvas de Bufo arenarum como hospedadores intermediarios y caninos como hospedadores definitivos. Los huevos del parásito se obtuvieron de heces de caninos infectados naturalmente y se conservaron refrigerados en agua. Se incubaron 7 días a 25°C para que desarrollaran los coracidios y se pusieron en recipientes que contenían a los copépodos mencionados. Al cabo de 12 días a 22,6°C (promedio se hallaron procercoides maduros en ellos y se agregaron 10 renacuajos de Bufo arenarum. Estos se examinaron por disección 22, 23, 61 y 107 días después, hallándose en todos 1 o más plerocercoides (Temperatura promedio: 24,9°C. El día 23, de 6 renacuajos se obtuvieron 49 plerocercoides, de los cuales se administraron 28, por vía oral, a una perra. El día 107, 3 de 11 plerocercoides obtenidos de un renacuajo se le dieron a otra perra por la misma vía. Se hallaron huevos del cestode en las heces del primer canino a partir del día 22 posterior a la infección (p.i. y a los 30 días p.i., segmentos de estróbila. En el segundo canino se hallaron huevos a los 30 días p.i..Experiments were performed in order to develop the life cycle of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei Rudolphi 1819 (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea in Paracyclops fimbriatus and Bufo arenarum as intermediate hosts and dogs as definitive hosts. The eggs of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei from faeces of naturally infected dogs were kept refrigered, in water. In order to obtain coracidiums they were incubated at 25°C, and then were placed in a flask which contained Paracyclops fimbriatus. The copepods were observed to be infected with procercoids 12 days after, (mean temperature 22.6°C and then, ten tadpoles of Bufo arenarum were put into the same flask. The tadpoles were examined

  2. Attitudes of Visually Impaired Persons toward Cane Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainapel, S. F.

    1989-01-01

    Semistructured telephone interviews with 10 visually impaired adult cane users found that early negative attitudes of stigma were usually replaced by more positive attitudes and that there was a mean of 1 3/4 years between the onset of severe visual impairment and commencement of orientation and mobility training. (Author/DB)

  3. Preliminary Evaluation of a Computer Simulation of Long Cane Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubon, Robert A.; Keith, Ashley D.

    1989-01-01

    Developed and evaluated long cane mobility computer simulation as visual rehabilitation training device and research tool in graduate students assigned to instruction (BI) (N=10) or enhanced instruction (EI) (N=9). Found higher percentage of EI students completed simulation task. Concluded that students registered positive understanding changes,…

  4. Mechanical planter update: 2007 Bayou Teche test plant cane results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanization of cane planting has been somewhat limited, due to the fact that the entire 4-5 ft stalk must be planted horizontally in the seedbed. Several modifications were made to mechanical planters by a grower cooperator. To test the modifications, a replicated field trial was planted on Augus...

  5. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Napolitano, H. B.; Sculaccio, S. A.; Thiemann, O H; G Oliva

    2004-01-01

    X-ray diffraction data have been collected from crystals of recombinant sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (PRS) and analysis has revealed its quaternary structure, localizing this PRS into the class of enzymes forming an hexameric oligomer of 223 kDa.

  6. Manganese uptake and its redistribution in sugar cane settlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation was conducted to study manganese uptake and partitioning after 2 hr of feeding and its redistribution in settlings after 30 days of growth in two cultivars of sugar cane which differed in their yield, maturity and nutritional and physiological characteristics. (author). 6 refs

  7. Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2014-07-01

    The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

  8. Depth perception in frogs and toads a study in neural computing

    CERN Document Server

    House, Donald

    1989-01-01

    Depth Perception in Frogs and Toads provides a comprehensive exploration of the phenomenon of depth perception in frogs and toads, as seen from a neuro-computational point of view. Perhaps the most important feature of the book is the development and presentation of two neurally realizable depth perception algorithms that utilize both monocular and binocular depth cues in a cooperative fashion. One of these algorithms is specialized for computation of depth maps for navigation, and the other for the selection and localization of a single prey for prey catching. The book is also unique in that it thoroughly reviews the known neuroanatomical, neurophysiological and behavioral data, and then synthesizes, organizes and interprets that information to explain a complex sensory-motor task. The book will be of special interest to that segment of the neural computing community interested in understanding natural neurocomputational structures, particularly to those working in perception and sensory-motor coordination. ...

  9. Lateral cane lengths affect yield components in 'Triple Crown' blackberry on rotating cross-arm trellis and cane training system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three primocanes of mature ‘Triple Crown’ blackberry plants were trained on the rotating cross-arm trellis (RCA) trellis. By the end of the summer, as many as 30 lateral canes with lengths greater than 3.5 m had developed on three primocanes that had been bent at a 0.50-m height and allowed to exte...

  10. Assessment of Cane Yields on Well-drained Ferralsols in the Sugar-cane Estate of Central Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Ranst, E.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential yields of irrigated and of rainfed sugar-cane on three ferrallitic soil series, well represented in the Nkoteng sugar-cane estate of Central Cameroon, are estimated following different methods. The potential yield of irrigated sugar-cane is estimated from the total maximum evapotranspiration during the crop cycle. The potential yield of rainfed sugar-cane is estimated following two methods for the establishment of a water balance and for the determination of a yield reduction as a result of a water deficit. The calculated potential yields are higher than the observed ones. The yield reduction due to rain fed cropping can mainly be attributed to water shortage during the late yield formation and the ripening periods. A supplementary yield decline is due to a combined action of an acid soil reaction, a possible Al-toxicity a low base saturation, an inadequate CEC, organic matter content and P-availability which may adequately explain the actual yield level.

  11. The genetics of amphibian decline: population substructure and molecular differentiation in the Yosemite toad, Bufo canorus (Anura, Bufonidae) based on single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, H.B.; Fellers, G.M.; Magee, A.; Voss, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    (1) DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor were each applied to separate replicate plots in a hay field at 0.6, 2.2, or 9.0 kg/ha. For 11 yr thereafter, soil and earthworms were analysed for residues. (2) The average ratios of residues in earthworms (dry weight) to residues in soil (dry weight) were: total DDT, 5; dieldrin, 8; and heptachlor epoxide, 10. The average time for the initial residues in soil to be reduced by 50% were: total DDT, 3.2 yr; dieldrin, 5.1 yr; and heptachlor epoxide, 3.2 yr. The corresponding times for residues in earthworms were: total DDT, 3.2 yr; dieldrin, 2.6 yr; and heptachlor epoxide, 3.0 yr. (3) DDE was most persistent, and in plots treated at 9.0 kg/ha its concentration remained constant at about 0.4 ppm in soil and about 7 ppm in earthworms. (4) When applied at 9.0 kg/ha, DDT accumulated in earthworms to concentrations (32 ppm) which laboratory studies have shown to be hazardous to some sensitive bird species. When heptachlor was applied at 2.2 or 9.0 kg/ha, heptachlor epoxide in earthworms reached concentrations (8 ppm) potentially hazardous to woodcock. Dieldrin remained at potentially hazardous concentrations (8 ppm) for 3 yr in plots treated with 2.2 kg/ha and for 11 yr in plots treated with 9.0 kg/ha.

  12. Axial gradients of rhodopsin in light-exposed retinal rods of the toad

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Exposure of an intact vertebrate eye to light bleaches the rhodopsin in the photoreceptor outer segments in spatially nonuniform patterns. Some axial bleaching patterns produced in toad rods were determined using microspectrophotometric techniques. More rhodopsin was bleached at the base of the outer segment than at the distal tip. The shape of the bleaching gradient varied with the extent of bleach and with the spectral content of the illuminant. Monochromatic light at the lambda max of the ...

  13. Elevated temperature clears chytrid fungus infections from tadpoles of the midwife toad, Alytes obstetricans

    OpenAIRE

    Geiger, C C; Küpfer, E; Schär, S; Wolf, S.; Schmidt, B R

    2011-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is sensitive to high temperature. Hence, exposing amphibians to high temperature may be a method to clear Bd infection. However, the effect of exposure to elevated temperature has never been tested in larval stages or temperate species.We experimentally exposed tadpoles of the toad Alytes obstetricans to low, medium and high temperatures and found that most, but not all, tadpoles lost the infection when exposed to temperature...

  14. Chytridiomycosis related mortality in a midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans) in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Pasmans, Frank; Muijsers, Mariska; Maes, Sofie; Van Rooij, Pascale; Brutyn, Melanie; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An

    2010-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, contributes to amphibian declines worldwide. Recently, the fungus has shown to be widely distributed in Belgium and the Netherlands, although no clinical cases of the disease have been diagnosed yet. This case report describes the first case of mortality due to chytridiomycosis in Belgium in a wild population of midwife toads (Alytes obstetricans). The presence of clinical chytridiomycosis, combined with the relatively hig...

  15. Deep genetic structure and ecological divergence in a widespread human commensal toad

    OpenAIRE

    Wogan, GOU; Stuart, BL; Iskandar, DT; McGuire, JA

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. The Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus) is a human commensal species that occupies a wide variety of habitats across tropical Southeast Asia. We test the hypothesis that genetic variation in D. melanostictus is weakly associated with geography owing to natural and human-mediated dispersal facilitated by its commensal nature. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequenc...

  16. The action of local anesthetics on myelin structure and nerve conduction in toad sciatic nerve.

    OpenAIRE

    Mateu, L; Morán, O; Padrón, R; Borgo, M; Vonasek, E; Márquez, G; Luzzati, V.

    1997-01-01

    X-ray scattering and electrophysiological experiments were performed on toad sciatic nerves in the presence of local anesthetics. In vitro experiments were performed on dissected nerves superfused with Ringer's solutions containing procaine, lidocaine, tetracaine, or dibucaine. In vivo experiments were performed on nerves dissected from animals anesthesized by targeted injections of tetracaine-containing solutions. In all cases the anesthetics were found to have the same effects on the x-ray ...

  17. Phonotaxis to advertisement calls by midwife toads (Alytes muletensis) is not necessarily related to mating

    OpenAIRE

    Lea, Jerry; Dyson, Mandy; Halliday, Timothy

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies with the Mallorcan midwife toad (Alytes muletensis) found that gravid females show inconsistent phonotactic preferences for male calls unless they are highly motivated to mate; and, non-gravid females will occasionally show phonotaxis to male advertisement calls. These results suggest that sometimes phonotaxis may not be related to seeking a mating partner. In this article we report on experiments that give further support to a non-mating function of phonotaxis in this specie...

  18. Evolution of Rapid Development in Spadefoot Toads Is Unrelated to Arid Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Ce; Gómez-Mestre, Iván; Wiens, John J.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which species' life histories evolve to match climatic conditions is a critical question in evolutionary biology and ecology and as human activities rapidly modify global climate. GIS-based climatic data offer new opportunities to rigorously test this question. Superficially, the spadefoot toads of North America (Scaphiopodidae) seem to offer a classic example of adaptive life-history evolution: some species occur in extremely dry deserts and have evolved the shortest aquatic la...

  19. About a Snail, a Toad, and Rodents: Animal Models for Adaptation Research

    OpenAIRE

    Roubos, Eric W.; Bruce G. Jenks; Lu eXu; Miyuki eKuribara; Wim J. J. M. Scheenen; Tamas eKozicz

    2010-01-01

    Neural adaptation mechanisms have many similarities throughout the animal kingdom, enabling to study fundamentals of human adaptation in selected animal models with experimental approaches that are impossible to apply in man. This will be illustrated by reviewing research on three of such animal models, viz. (1) the egg-laying behavior of a snail, Lymnaea stagnalis: how one neuron type controls behavior, (2) adaptation to the ambient light condition by a toad, Xenopus laevis: how a neuroendoc...

  20. First report on toxins in the Panamanian toads Atelopus limosus, A. glyphus and A. certus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari; Tateki, Eiko

    2010-01-01

    Major toxins from skin extracts of 18 specimens of six Atelopus toad species collected in Panama were analyzed. Chiriquitoxin was identified using (1)H NMR in A. limosus and A. glyphus for the first time. Zetekitoxin in A. zeteki and tetrodotoxin in A. varius, A. chiriquiensis and A. zeteki were identified again. Furthermore, A. certus was suggested to contain a water-soluble toxin other than tetrodotoxin. PMID:19596024

  1. Inhibitory bacteria reduce fungi on early life stages of endangered Colorado boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueneman, Jordan G; Woodhams, Douglas C; Van Treuren, Will; Archer, Holly M; Knight, Rob; McKenzie, Valerie J

    2016-04-01

    Increasingly, host-associated microbiota are recognized to mediate pathogen establishment, providing new ecological perspectives on health and disease. Amphibian skin-associated microbiota interact with the fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), but little is known about microbial turnover during host development and associations with host immune function. We surveyed skin microbiota of Colorado's endangered boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas), sampling 181 toads across four life stages (tadpoles, metamorphs, subadults and adults). Our goals were to (1) understand variation in microbial community structure among individuals and sites, (2) characterize shifts in communities during development and (3) examine the prevalence and abundance of known Bd-inhibitory bacteria. We used high-throughput 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing (Illumina MiSeq) to characterize bacteria and microeukaryotes, respectively. Life stage had the largest effect on the toad skin microbial community, and site and Bd presence also contributed. Proteobacteria dominated tadpole microbial communities, but were later replaced by Actinobacteria. Microeukaryotes on tadpoles were dominated by the classes Alveolata and Stramenopiles, while fungal groups replaced these groups after metamorphosis. Using a novel database of Bd-inhibitory bacteria, we found fewer Bd-inhibitory bacteria in post-metamorphic stages correlated with increased skin fungi, suggesting that bacteria have a strong role in early developmental stages and reduce skin-associated fungi. PMID:26565725

  2. Wearable Virtual White Cane Network for navigating people with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yabiao; Chandrawanshi, Rahul; Nau, Amy C; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2015-09-01

    Navigating the world with visual impairments presents inconveniences and safety concerns. Although a traditional white cane is the most commonly used mobility aid due to its low cost and acceptable functionality, electronic traveling aids can provide more functionality as well as additional benefits. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network is an electronic traveling aid that utilizes ultrasound sonar technology to scan the surrounding environment for spatial information. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network is composed of four sensing nodes: one on each of the user's wrists, one on the waist, and one on the ankle. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network employs vibration and sound to communicate object proximity to the user. While conventional navigation devices are typically hand-held and bulky, the hands-free design of our prototype allows the user to perform other tasks while using the Wearable Virtual Cane Network. When the Wearable Virtual Cane Network prototype was tested for distance resolution and range detection limits at various displacements and compared with a traditional white cane, all participants performed significantly above the control bar (p < 4.3 × 10(-5), standard t-test) in distance estimation. Each sensor unit can detect an object with a surface area as small as 1 cm(2) (1 cm × 1 cm) located 70 cm away. Our results showed that the walking speed for an obstacle course was increased by 23% on average when subjects used the Wearable Virtual Cane Network rather than the white cane. The obstacle course experiment also shows that the use of the white cane in combination with the Wearable Virtual Cane Network can significantly improve navigation over using either the white cane or the Wearable Virtual Cane Network alone (p < 0.05, paired t-test). PMID:26334037

  3. Interaction Effects of the Amount of Practice, Preferred Cane Technique, and Type of Cane Technique Used on Drop-Off Detection Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the interaction effects of the amount of practice and the cane technique used in drop-off detection with a sample of 32 adults who were blind. The advantage of the constant contact technique over the two-point touch technique was significantly greater for the less experienced cane users than for the more experienced ones.…

  4. Interaction Effects of the Amount of Practice, Preferred Cane Technique, and Type of Cane Technique Used on Drop-off Detection Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the interaction effects of the amount of practice and the cane technique used in drop-off detection with a sample of 32 adults who were blind. The advantage of the constant contact technique over the two-point touch technique was significantly greater for the less experienced cane users than for the more experienced ones.

  5. Total On-line Access Data System (TOADS): Phase II Final Report for the Period August 2002 - August 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuracko, K. L. [YAHSGS LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Parang, M. [YAHSGS LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Landguth, D. C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Coleman, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2004-09-13

    TOADS (Total On-line Access Data System) is a new generation of real-time monitoring and information management system developed to support unattended environmental monitoring and long-term stewardship of U.S. Department of Energy facilities and sites. TOADS enables project managers, regulators, and stakeholders to view environmental monitoring information in realtime over the Internet. Deployment of TOADS at government facilities and sites will reduce the cost of monitoring while increasing confidence and trust in cleanup and long term stewardship activities. TOADS: Reliably interfaces with and acquires data from a wide variety of external databases, remote systems, and sensors such as contaminant monitors, area monitors, atmospheric condition monitors, visual surveillance systems, intrusion devices, motion detectors, fire/heat detection devices, and gas/vapor detectors; Provides notification and triggers alarms as appropriate; Performs QA/QC on data inputs and logs the status of instruments/devices; Provides a fully functional data management system capable of storing, analyzing, and reporting on data; Provides an easy-to-use Internet-based user interface that provides visualization of the site, data, and events; and Enables the community to monitor local environmental conditions in real time. During this Phase II STTR project, TOADS has been developed and successfully deployed for unattended facility, environmental, and radiological monitoring at a Department of Energy facility.

  6. 3D-structure of the Canes Venatici I Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Uklein, R I

    2009-01-01

    We present the improved distance moduli of 30 galaxies in the Canes Venatici I Cloud using advanced Tip of Red Giant Branch (TRGB) method (Makarov et.al. 2006). The method was determined for accurate estimation of the distances even if TRGB situated near photometric limit. The data were taken from the Archive of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Based on ACS and WFPC2 images of the HST we construct the color-magnitude diagrams of the resolved stellar population of the galaxies using Dolphot and HSTPhot packages. New refined method of the distance determination allows us to clarify the 3D structure of the Canes Venatici I Cloud. It consists of the central group of galaxies around M94 and the outskirt which is situated in gravitational field of the "core". The mass and mass-to-light ratio of the CVn have been estimated.

  7. A New Milky Way Dwarf Satellite in Canes Venatici

    CERN Document Server

    Zucker, D B; Evans, N W; Wilkinson, M I; Irwin, M J; Sivarani, T; Hodgkin, S; Bramich, D M; Irwin, J M; Gilmore, G; Willman, B; Vidrih, S; Fellhauer, M; Hewett, P C; Beers, T C; Bell, E F; Grebel, E K; Schneider, D P; Newberg, H J; Wyse, R F G; Rockosi, C M; Yanny, B; Lupton, R; Smith, J A; Barentine, J C; Brewington, H; Brinkmann, J; Harvanek, M; Kleinman, S J; Krzesínski, J; Long, D; Nitta, A; Snedden, S A

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, we announce the discovery of a new dwarf satellite of the Milky Way, located in the constellation Canes Venatici. It was found as a stellar overdensity in the North Galactic Cap using Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 (SDSS DR5). The satellite's color-magnitude diagram shows a well-defined red giant branch, as well as a horizontal branch. As judged from the tip of the red giant branch, it lies at a distance of ~220 kpc. Based on the SDSS data, we estimate an absolute magnitude of Mv ~ -7.9, a central surface brightness of mu_0,V ~ 28 mag arcsecond^-2, and a half-light radius of \\~ 8.5' (~ 550 pc at the measured distance). The outer regions of Canes Venatici appear extended and distorted. The discovery of such a faint galaxy in proximity to the Milky Way strongly suggests that more such objects remain to be found.

  8. Design and Evaluation of the Walking Cane Handle Grip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimitomo Taniguchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to optimize the grip shape of canes used as walking aids. We developed a prototype shaped to reduce the dorsiflexion of the wrist joint, which we believe is a cause of wrist pain. The stability of the prototype grip is evaluated using a floor reaction force gauge based on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board [RVL-021]. The grips of conventional (S grip and the prototype (P grip cane were compared to find a significant difference in the behavior of anterior-posterior movement. These results indicate that the prototype showed good weight shift, and that the proposed grip design improved the stability of weight transfer during walking. 

  9. Chromatographic detection of sugar cane samples via polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Juan Carlos; Fajer, Victor; Rodríguez, Carlos W.; Naranjo, Salvador; Mora, Luis; Ravelo, Justo; Cossio, Gladys; Avila, Norma

    2004-03-01

    The combination of molecular exclusion cromatography with the laser polarimetry has become a powerful technique to separate and evaluate some carbohydrates of sugar cane plants. In the following work it has been obtained chromatograms of carbohydrates standards, which has been used as comparison patterns in the studies of the juice quality in different cane varieties of different physiological stadiums and stress conditions. By means of the employment of this technique, it has also been determined the influence of carbohydrates of medium molecular mass in the determination of the apparent sucrose in the routine sugar analysis. On the other hand, discreet determination of the fractions causes time consuming and a troublesome manipulation. In the present work some modifications to the system are shown, obtaining a small volume sample (less than 1 ml) and angular readings on line, avoiding the employment of fraction collectors.

  10. Soil-plant relation in Cuban sugar cane by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows the results of soil-plant relation in samples from Cuban sugar canes of different soil types and cane varieties, using INAA from a thermal reactor. The behavior of minor and trace elements in sugar cane variety or type of soil. The soil-plant relation shows four principal groups of micro elements, according to their absorption by the plant. (author). 25 refs., 2 figs

  11. PHOSPHORUS BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING IN A SUGAR CANE AGROECOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lopez-Hernandez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The annual harvest of sugarcane plantations together with the burning of the crop before harvest, a common practice of management of sugarcane plantations in South America, leads to the loss of significant amounts of nutrients in those agroecosystems. Thus prescribed burning operations could progressively diminish the level of soil organic matter and increase nutrient deficiency in soils of sugar cane agrosystems. This study is an attempt to quantify the P distribution during the period of growth in a plantation of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum located near San Felipe, Yaracuy State, Central, Venezuela focusing on processes related to the cycling of the element as affected by burning operations. The work was performed in 4.5 ha experimental plots planted with the varieties Puerto Rico (PR 1028 and Venezuela (V 58-4. The principal flows of phosphorus, as well the quantities of this element in the soil-plant components were measured throughout the growing cycle of the crop (third ratoon. The inputs through precipitation (wet and dry were high, that was associated with the intense agricultural (prescribed burning and industrial activities occurring in the area. The annual balance for both varieties was negative (-17.31 and -23.63 kg ha–1 for V 58-4 and PR 1028, respectively. The negative budget is mainly due to the important amounts of P that are exported with the cane stems. The losses must be compensated through fertilization; nonetheless, preliminary results indicated no response to P dressing, suggesting that in the studied mollisols the internal processes e.g., Organic-P (Po mineralization and P solubilization efficiently operate generating important available P levels. It was also found that the burning of the sugar cane plantation plays an important role in the recycling of phosphorus, since 25-28 % of the P requirements of the varieties are reincorporated into the soil from the ashes coming as bulk deposition.

  12. Corrosion of Modified Concrete with Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez-Jaquez, R. E.; J. E. Buelna-Rodríguez; C. P. Barrios-Durstewitz; Gaona-Tiburcio, C.; Almeraya-Calderón, F.

    2012-01-01

    Concrete is a porous material and the ingress of water, oxygen, and aggressive ions, such as chlorides, can cause the passive layer on reinforced steel to break down. Additives, such as fly ash, microsilica, rice husk ash, and cane sugar bagasse ash, have a size breakdown that allows the reduction of concrete pore size and, consequently, may reduce the corrosion process. The objective of this work is to determine the corrosion rate of steel in reinforced concrete by the addition of 20% sugar ...

  13. Production of Dextran from Sugar Cane Molasses by Leuconostoc mesenteroides

    OpenAIRE

    M Faramarzi; Y Rahimi Kashkouli; HR RahimiKashkouli; D Gholamzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background & aim: Dextran is a polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that are widely used in medicine as a blood volume extender. The aim of this study was to produce dextran from cane molasses using Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria. Methods: In this experimental study, for bacterial growth and dextran production, sugarcane molasses was added to the culture medium at different concentrations. Dextran sedimentation was obtained by shaking and centrifugation by addi...

  14. Evapotranspiration from a Sugar Cane Field in the Miyako Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evapotranspiration from a sugar cane field was observed during the summer season in the Miyako Islands. Interpolation was also conducted for the data deficit period by using the bulk transfer coefficient and evapotranspiration efficiency, which were represented as a function of solar radiation and soil water content. Evapotranspiration was 6.4 mm day-1 in late June, and decreased gradually. It was under 3.5 mm day-1 (100 Wm-2) at the end of October. (author)

  15. Surficial geology of the Cane Creek basin, Lauderdale County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    The surficial geology of the Cane Creek basin, in Lauderdale County, West Tennessee, was studied from 1985-88. Peoria Loess is the parent material from which soils in the Cane Creek drainage basin were derived. In general, a brown silt grades into a gray silt from 5 to I7 feet below ground surface. This color change probably represents depth to water table prior to the channelization of Cane Creek. Only at river mile 11.9 does rock outcrop near the main channel. Lower reaches of major tributaries have surficial geology similar to the main channel. In upper reaches of Hyde Creek and Fain Spring Creek, the sequence from the St&ace is sand and gravels, red-brown sandstone, sand and clay layers, and then, an orange sand layer. Coarse-grained deposits are found most often along the northern boundary of the basin and only occasionally in areas to the west and south of the main channel. Depth to sand or gravel ranges from about 0 to 158 feet in the uplands, and generally deeper than 40 feet near the main channel.

  16. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray diffraction data have been collected from crystals of recombinant sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (PRS) and analysis has revealed its quaternary structure, localizing this PRS into the class of enzymes forming an hexameric oligomer of 223 kDa. Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthases (PRS; EC 2.7.6.1) are enzymes that are of central importance in several metabolic pathways in all cells. The sugar cane PRS enzyme contains 328 amino acids with a molecular weight of 36.6 kDa and represents the first plant PRS to be crystallized, as well as the first phosphate-independent PRS to be studied in molecular detail. Sugar cane PRS was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Using X-ray diffraction experiments it was determined that the crystals belong to the orthorhombic system, with space group P21212 and unit-cell parameters a = 213.2, b = 152.6, c = 149.3 Å. The crystals diffract to a maximum resolution of 3.3 Å and a complete data set to 3.5 Å resolution was collected and analysed

  17. Crude glycerin combined with sugar cane silage in lamb diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Camilla Flávia Portela Gomes; Cabral, Ícaro dos Santos; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; dos Reis, Larissa Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Souza, Lígia Lins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the level of crude glycerin (CG) on in vitro fermentation kinetics (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), on in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation (0, 30, 60, and 90 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), and intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance (0, 20, 55, 82, and 108 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage) in lambs. The in vitro trials were conducted in a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The in vivo trial was conducted in a Latin square design with five repetitions (5 × 5). For variables in which the F test was considered significant, the statistical interpretation of the effect of CG substitution levels was carried out through regression analyses. Kinetic parameters were not affected by CG inclusion. On in vitro NDF degradation, a significant effect of CG levels was observed on the potentially degradable fraction of NDF, the insoluble potentially degradable fraction of NDF, and the undegradable NDF fraction. The intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance were not affected by CG inclusion. The CG levels change in vitro NDF degradability parameters; however, there were no changes in animal intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance with the inclusion levels used. PMID:26530907

  18. Minerais em melados e em caldos de cana Minerals in sugar cane syrup and cane juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda dos Santos Nogueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A cana-de-açúcar está entre as culturas que apresenta larga escala de adaptações às condições climáticas, sendo utilizada para a fabricação de diversos produtos. Dentre os produtos derivados da cana-de-açúcar, o melado é tido popularmente como um alimento rico em ferro. Este trabalho objetivou conhecer a concentração de alguns minerais em melados comerciais e em melados preparados com equipamentos de aço inoxidável. Ao todo foram 20 amostras, 10 de cada tipo. As amostras foram preparadas para análise por oxidação da matéria orgânica por via úmida e os teores de Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe foram determinados por espectroscopia de absorção atômica, Na e K por fotometria de chama e P por colorimetria. Concluiu-se, com este trabalho, que os teores médios dos minerais Fe, P, Na e Mg foram significativamente mais elevados nos melados comerciais do que nos melados feitos com equipamentos inox. O contrário foi encontrado para o mineral cálcio, que apresentou teor mais elevado nos melados feitos no laboratório, mas condizentes com os teores encontrados nos caldos de cana. Não houve diferença significativa nos teores dos demais minerais.Sugar cane is an easily adaptable crop to diverse climate conditions, and it is used in the manufacturing of many different products. Among those products is the syrup, which is popularly known to be good sources of iron. In this work, we aimed to measure the concentration of some minerals in commercial sugar cane syrup brands and syrup prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. A total of 20 samples were analyzed, 10 of commercial brands and ten prepared in the laboratory. The samples were prepared by wet-air oxidation of organic matter and the contents of Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe were determined by atomic absorption. Na and K were determined by photometry and P by colorimetry. It was found that the mean concentration of Fe, P, Na, and Mn were higher in the commercial

  19. Foraging modality and plasticity in foraging traits determine the strength of competitive interactions among carnivorous plants, spiders and toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, David E; Krupa, James J; Rohr, Jason R

    2016-07-01

    Foraging modalities (e.g. passive, sit-and-wait, active) and traits are plastic in some species, but the extent to which this plasticity affects interspecific competition remains unclear. Using a long-term laboratory mesocosm experiment, we quantified competition strength and the plasticity of foraging traits in a guild of generalist predators of arthropods with a range of foraging modalities. Each mesocosm contained eight passively foraging pink sundews, and we employed an experimental design where treatments were the presence or absence of a sit-and-wait foraging spider and actively foraging toad crossed with five levels of prey abundance. We hypothesized that actively foraging toads would outcompete the other species at low prey abundance, but that spiders and sundews would exhibit plasticity in foraging traits to compensate for strong competition when prey were limited. Results generally supported our hypotheses. Toads had a greater effect on sundews at low prey abundances, and toad presence caused spiders to locate webs higher above the ground. Additionally, the closer large spider webs were to the ground, the greater the trichome densities produced by sundews. Also, spider webs were larger with than without toads and as sundew numbers increased, and these effects were more prominent as resources became limited. Finally, spiders negatively affected toad growth only at low prey abundance. These findings highlight the long-term importance of foraging modality and plasticity of foraging traits in determining the strength of competition within and across taxonomic kingdoms. Future research should assess whether plasticity in foraging traits helps to maintain coexistence within this guild and whether foraging modality can be used as a trait to reliably predict the strength of competitive interactions. PMID:27061175

  20. Evaluation of cyclone gasifier performance for gasification of sugar cane residue - Pt. 1: gasification of cane trash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabra, M.; Pettersson, E.; Kjellstrom, B. [Lulea University of Technology (Sweden). Div. of Energy Engineering; Backman, R. [Abo Akademi University, Abo (Finland). Div. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-11-01

    In Part 1 of this two-part paper, results from gasification of bagasse in a cyclone gasifier have been reported. In this paper results from gasification of cane trash in the same cyclone gasifier are presented. The cane trash powder is injected into the cyclone with air as transport medium. The gasification tests were made with two feeding rates, 39 and 46 kg/h at two equivalence ratios of 0.25 and 0.20 and the gasification temperature ranging from 820{sup o}C to 850{sup o}C. It was found that the heating value of the producer gas is in the range of 4.5-4.8 MJ/Nm{sup 3} (dry gas), which is sufficient for stable gas turbine combustion. Significant alkali separation has been achieved in the cyclone stage. However, the alkali levels and carryover particle concentrations in the producer gas were found to be higher than allowable in a gas turbine. Despite high ash melting temperatures found by the TGA-DTA, deposition problems cannot be excluded since some carryover particles in the producer gas seem to have been melted and since some gasification of K and Na compounds is indicated. As an overall assessment, cane trash appears as a more problematic fuel than bagasse for this application. Integrated experiments with a gas turbine need to be done for accurate evaluation of the possibilities to use the producer gas from the gasification of cane trash to run a gas turbine without problems of hard deposits and corrosion on the turbine blades. (author)

  1. Geology and mammalian paleontology of the Horned Toad Hills, Mojave Desert, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, S.R.; Woodburne, M.O.; Lindsay, E.H.; Albright, L.B.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Wan, E.; Wahl, D.B.

    2011-01-01

    The Horned Toad Formation includes five lithostratigraphic members that record alluvial fan, fluvial, lake margin, and lacustrine deposition within a relatively small basin just south of the active Garlock fault during the late Miocene to early Pliocene. These sediments experienced northwest-southeast contractional deformation during the Pliocene-Pleistocene associated with basement-involved reverse faults. Member Two of the Horned Toad Formation has yielded 24 taxa of fossil mammals, referred to as the Warren Local Fauna, including Cryptotis sp., cf. Scapanus, Hypolagus vetus, Hypolagus edensis,? Spermophilus sp., Prothomomys warrenensis n. gen., n. sp., Perognathus sp., Repomys gustelyi, Postcopemys valensis, Peromyscus sp. A, Peromyscus sp. B, Jacobsomys dailyi n. sp., Borophagus cf. B. secundus, cf. Agriotherium, Machairodus sp. cf. M. coloradensis, Rhynchotherium sp. cf. R. edensis, Pliomastodon vexillarius, Dinohippus edensis, Teleoceras sp. cf. T. fossiger, cf. Prosthennops, Megatylopus sp. cf. M. matthewi, Hemiauchenia vera, Camelidae gen. et. sp. indet., and the antilocaprid cf. Sphenophalos. The majority of fossil localities are confined to a 20 m thick stratigraphic interval within a reversed polarity magnetozone. The fauna demonstrates affinity with other late Hemphillian faunas from California, Nevada, Nebraska, Texas, and Mexico. The Lawlor Tuff, dated elsewhere in California at 4.83 ?? 0.04 Ma and geochemically identified in the Horned Toad Formation, overlies most of the fossil mammal localities. Magnetic polarity data are correlated with Chrons 3n.3r, 3n.3n, and 3n.2r, suggesting an age of approximately 5.0 - 4.6 Ma. These constraints indicate an age for the late Hemphillian Warren Local Fauna of 4.85 - 5.0 Ma. ?? Society of Vertebrate Paleontology November 2011.

  2. The role of common toads in the winter diet of recolonising Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo García-Díaz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Importanza del rospo comune nella dieta invernale di una popolazione di lontra (Lutra lutra in espansione.
    Tramite analisi dei resti fecali, abbiamo evidenziato il ruolo fondamentale degli anfibi nella dieta invernale della lontra Lutra lutra in stagni artificiali della Spagna nord-occidentale. I numerosi “laghi di cava” presenti nell’area umida di Ribeiras do Louro e Gandaras de Budiño sono stati monitorati nel 2007-2009. Il rospo comune (Bufo bufo era la principale preda della lontra, costituendo l’88% della biomassa consumata, mentre il gambero americano Procambarus clarkii e i pesci erano prede secondarie. I nostri risultati contrastano con la ben nota preferenza della lontra per le rane rispetto al rospo. Il mantenimento della popolazione di lontra nel bacino del fiume Louro dipende strettamente dalla corretta gestione degli stagni artificiali.

  3. AVALIATION OF VENTILATORY PATTERN IN THE TOAD RHINELLA SCHNEIDERI (ANURA: BUFONIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    FERNANDES, Marcelo dos Santos; GIUSTI, HumbertoGLASS; Glass, Mogens Lesner

    2010-01-01

    Amphibians ventilated their lungs by buccal pumping mechanism, which was first described in 1969 as a model for studying anurans respiration. Since amphibians do not have alveoli in their lungs, wecalculated to the toad Rhinella schneideri the equivalent lung ventilation from the equation VEFF = (VLCO2·RT)/PLCO2. We analyzed buccal and pulmonary pressures, respiratory volumes, lung and buccalventilation, and ventilation frequency. [VE (12,1 ± 0,6ml BTPS.min-1.kg-1 ) ; VEB (164,3 ± 2,2ml BTPS....

  4. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar... raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES: Effective Date...), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined...

  5. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  6. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  7. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar-containing products. DATES... tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar. Pursuant to Additional...

  8. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases.... SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane... projected surplus cane sugar marketing allotments under the FY 2011 (October 1, 2010-September 30,...

  9. 78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and...) in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imported raw cane sugar, refined sugar (syrups... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar (syrups and molasses). Pursuant to...

  10. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... sector was allotted 54.35 percent of the OAQ (5,019,358 tons), while the cane sugar sector was allotted... structural changes in the allocation to certain sugarcane processors. CCC combined the Louisiana cane...

  11. 77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 26, 2012. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or...

  12. 77 FR 55451 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses; and the Fiscal Year 2013... quantity of the raw, as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ). The FY 2013 raw cane... percent of the OAQ), and the cane sugar sector was allotted 4,433,186 STRV (45.65 percent of the OAQ)....

  13. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing...) among the sugar beet processors and the cane sugar allotment of 4,316,778 STRV (45.65 percent of the OAQ... proportionate shares in Louisiana, the only State eligible for proportionate shares, in FY 2012. The cane...

  14. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES... States (HTS), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar...

  15. 75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round...

  16. 76 FR 42160 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... additional fiscal year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar... the United States (HTS), the United States maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined...

  17. 76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 15, 2011. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or...

  18. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases.... SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane... projected surplus cane sugar marketing allotments and allocations under the FY 2010 (October 1,...

  19. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... Trade Organization (WTO) commitments. The FY 2011 raw cane sugar TRQ is established at 1,117,195 metric... the in-quota TRQ amounts (expressed in terms of raw value) for imports of raw cane sugar and...

  20. SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: CANE RUN STATION, LOUISVILLE GAS AND ELECTRIC COMPANY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a survey of operational flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired utility boilers in the U.S. The FGD systems installed on Units 4, 5, and 6 at the Cane Run Station are described in terms of design and performance. The Cane Run No. 4 FGD sys...

  1. Variables of the Touch Technique that Influence the Safety of Cane Walkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Raoul M.; Schellingerhout, Roelef; van Grinswen, Roland; Smitsman, Ad W.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated variables that determined the safety of 15 cane users who were using the touch technique. The results showed that none of the walkers used a touch technique as described and recommended in the literature, that the detection of obstacles was related mainly to the height of the cane tip during the sweep, and that the early…

  2. Materials Testing in Long Cane Design: Sensitivity, Flexibility, and Transmission of Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Mark D.; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2005-01-01

    Different materials that are used in manufacturing long cane shafts were assessed for their ability to transmit vibration and their sensitivity to tactile information, flexibility, and durability. It was found that the less flexible a cane shaft is, the better it transmits vibrations that are useful for discriminating surface textures and that…

  3. Modifications of the Long Cane for Use by a Multiply Impaired Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Kathleen Ann

    1980-01-01

    The article describes a case study of a 14-year-old deaf/blind girl who was taught to use a modified cane. With the use of the cane, the S learned to walk more swiftly and with more confidence and was able to travel without the frustration she had previously felt. (PHR)

  4. Travel Performance of Preschoolers: The Effects of Mobility Training with a Long Cane versus a Precane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, K. L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of a long cane and a precane device as initial protective devices for preschool children with blindness. The precane device was found to be easier for the children to use, and it protected the children from body contact with travel obstacles better than did the long cane. (Author/DB)

  5. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  6. The role of reactive oxygen species in the herbicide acetochlor-induced DNA damage on Bufo raddei tadpole liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yingmei; Liu, Jianghai; Huang, Dejun

    2006-06-10

    After exposure of Bufo raddei tadpoles to acetochlor (ACETO) for 14 days, malondialdehyde (MDA) and DNA-single strand break (DNA-SSB) in livers were analyzed. An enhanced accumulation of MDA suggests that ACETO causes oxidative stress, and the significant increase in the level of DNA-SSB indicates that ACETO induces DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner as well. On the basis of the fact that oxidative stress is caused by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the present results, we speculate that ACETO-induced DNA damage may be a consequence of the generation of ROS. To evaluate this hypothesis, tadpoles were treated with ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or melatonin (MEL), prior to ACETO exposure. The decrease of DNA-SSB level and the increase of total antioxidant capability (TAC) show that ACETO-caused DNA damage can be attenuated by NAC and MEL. In addition, a negative correlation was observed between the extent of DNA damage and the level of TAC in tadpole liver. In conclusion, the results suggest that ACETO-induced DNA damage is mediated by ROS. PMID:16513190

  7. A comparison of the uptake of [1-14C]palmitate into cell fractions of the perfused toad, chick and guinea-pig heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, J; Achillea, M; Harris, P

    1977-01-01

    1. The incorporation and washout of [1-14C]palmitate in the subcellular fractions of toad, chick and guinea-pig hearts has been studied at warm and cold temperatures. 2. Maximal FFA radioactivity generally occurred in the microsomal fraction. Washout of radioactivity in chick and guinea-pig hearts virtually ceased in the cold, while in the toad it was only moderately affected. 3. The microsomal esterification process was temperature dependent. It was most active in the guinea-pig and least active in the toad. PMID:318436

  8. The sugar cane agro-industry - its contribution to reducing CO2 emissions in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of sugar cane in Brazil is 222 million tonnes (harvested wet weight)/year and is processed to sugar (7.5 million tonnes) and ethanol (11.8 million m3) in 1990. The use of fossil fuels in sugar cane production is 271 MJ/t of cane. Sugar cane bagasse and ethanol substitute for fuel oil in the food and chemical industry (including sugar production) and for gasoline (9.75 million m3/year), thus avoiding CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. Considering the fast carbon cycling in sugar cane production and use, net emissions of 9.45 million tonnes of C/year are avoided; this corresponds roughly to 18% of the total CO2 emissions from fossil fuels in Brazil. (author)

  9. Modification of a prey catching response and the development of behavioral persistence in the fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Zachary J; Ikura, Juntaro; Laberge, Frédéric

    2013-11-01

    The present report investigated how fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) modified their response in a prey catching task in which the attribution of food reward was contingent on snapping toward a visual stimulus of moving prey displayed on a computer screen. Two experiments investigated modification of the snapping response, with different intervals between the opportunity to snap at the visual stimulus and reward administration. The snapping response of unpaired controls was decreased compared with the conditioned toads when hour or day intervals were used, but intervals of 5 min produced only minimal change in snapping. The determinants of extinction of the response toward the visual stimulus were then investigated in 3 experiments. The results of the first experiment suggested that increased resistance to extinction depended mostly on the number of training trials, not on partial reinforcement or the magnitude of reinforcement during training. This was confirmed in a second experiment showing that overtraining resulted in resistance to extinction, and that the pairing of the reward with a response toward the stimulus was necessary for that effect, as opposed to pairing reward solely with the experimental context. The last experiment showed that the time elapsed between training trials also influenced extinction, but only in toads that received few training trials. Overall, the results suggest that toads learning about a prey stimulus progress from an early flexible phase, when an action can be modified by its consequences, to an acquired habit characterized by an increasingly inflexible and automatic response. PMID:23668694

  10. Aversive and non-reward learning in the fire-bellied toad using familiar and unfamiliar prey stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula DICKE, Antje HEIDORN, Gerhard ROTH

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated how snapping behavior toward familiar and unfamiliar prey is modified by reward omission and aversive conditioning in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis. Toads were trained to snap at cricket images by rewarding them with live crickets. The task was learned, and the learning criterion (10 snapping responses within 2 minutes was reached in all individuals investigated. Subsequent reward omission did not alter the frequency of snapping to the familiar cricket stimulus. Snapping decreased only in some individuals, when a mild foot shock was applied at snapping. However, at presentation of images of hitherto unfamiliar meal worms and foot-shock application at snapping to the stimulus, the majority of toads diminished snapping significantly. Snapping responses decreased more rapidly, when snapping at meal worms was not rewarded or a footshock was applied uncorrelated to the presentation of or snapping at meal worms. These results demonstrate that in toads familiarity and unfamiliarity of prey stimuli are important factors in aversive learning, because well-trained responses to familiar stimuli become immune against reward omission. Furthermore, at presentation of unfamiliar stimuli, omission of reward and uncorrelated footshock had a stronger aversive effect than correlated footshock [Current Zoology 57 (6: 709–716, 2011].

  11. Aversive and non-reward learning in the fire-bellied toad using familiar and unfamiliar prey stimuli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ursula DICKE; Antje HEIDORN; Gerhard ROTH

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated how snapping behavior toward familiar and unfamiliar prey is modified by reward omission and aversive conditioning in the fure-bellied toad Bombina orientalis.Toads were trained to snap at cricket images by rewarding them with live crickets.The task was learned,and the learning criterion (10 snapping responses within 2 minutes) was reached in all individuals investigated.Subsequent reward omission did not alter the frequency of snapping to the familiar cricket stimulus.Snapping decreased only in some individuals,when a mild foot shock was applied at snapping.However,at presentation of images of hitherto unfamiliar meal worms and foot-shock application at snapping to the stimulus,the majority of toads diminished snapping significantly.Snapping responses decreased more rapidly,when snapping at meal worms was not rewarded or a footshock was applied uncorrelated to the presentation of or snapping at meal worms.These results demonstrate that in toads familiarity and unfamiliarity of prey stimuli are important factors in aversive learning,because well-trained responses to familiar stimuli become immune against reward omission.Furthermore,at presentation of unfamiliar stimuli,omission of reward and uncorrelated footshock had a stronger aversive effect than correlated footshock [Current Zoology 57 (6):709-716,2011 ].

  12. Growth of Pediococcus acidilactici on sugar cane blackstrap molasses

    OpenAIRE

    Sant'Anna Ernani S.; Torres Regina Coeli O.

    1998-01-01

    Pediococcus acidilactici (IL01) has grown in MRS (Man, Rogosa and Sharpe) broth modified by substitution of glucose by 2.0% (MRS-2), 3.0% (MRS-3), 4.0% (MRS-4) and 5.0% (MRS-5) sugar cane blackstrap molasses. The highest acid production was obtained in MRS-5 broth maintained at a constant pH of 5.0. The highest biomass production was obtained when P. acidilactici was grown in MRS-5 broth at initial pH 6.5, while productivity was higher in MRS-2 broth (28.16%). When the MRS-2 broth was utilize...

  13. Mark A. Cane Receives 2013 Maurice Ewing Medal: Citation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philander, S. George

    2014-01-01

    Mark Cane started his career when theories for the ocean circulation were "dreamlike" (in the words of Henry Stommel). He made major contributions to a complete change in those perceptions by producing theoretical results that explain and by developing computer models that simulate realistically the variability of the complex system of tropical currents, undercurrents, and countercurrents. His results served as the basis for the design of several international field programs in the three tropical oceans whose different dimensions and different surface winds provide stringent tests for the results concerning the interactions between the waves and currents that determine how the oceans adjust to changing winds.

  14. Using cane sensor networks for people monitoring applications

    OpenAIRE

    Khssibi, Sabri

    2015-01-01

    The world is undergoing profound demographic changes closely linked with the development of the field of public health. The increase in life expectancy is accompanied by an increase in the number of elderly people, in particular those with chronic diseases. Several existing research projects have as objective to ensure the maintenance to homes of the elderly, by a better follow-up by using new technologies. Among them, we find the proposed CANet who proposed the use of sugar cane as a tool fo...

  15. A ring galaxy in Canes Venatici and related ring galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectroscopic observation was made of a ring-shaped object in Canes Venatici. A bright knot at the edge of the ring has a recession velocity of 10,960 + or - 30 km/s and so is confirmed as an extragalactic object. It shows no sign of nuclear activity but appears to be an H II region of intermediate excitation class. The linear diameter of the ring is 14.2 + or - 0.8 kpc, a typical size for ring galaxies. Recession velocities of several other ring galaxies are also given. 24 refs

  16. Nuclear techniques in total quality programs to sugar cane industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil contents in sugar cane consignments were monitored with Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using the soil tracers Fe, Hf, Sc and Th. Data showed problems related with heteroscedasticity, non-normality and outliers, which implied in the application of power transformation in ANOVA and MANOVA, and use of non parametric tests. these statistical techniques showed the need for stratification as function of soil type, weather conditions and number of harvesting. Sampling size presently used in factory shows inefficiency to estimate a soil amount. Shewhart control chary with Box-Plot fitted properly for monitoring the process on line. (author)

  17. Energy expenditure during cane-assisted gait in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Jones

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the energy expenditure in patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis while walking with canes of different lengths. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study (single-group was carried out on thirty patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis. An adjustable aluminum cane was used, and three different cane lengths were determined for each subject: C1 - length from the floor to the greater trochanter; C2 - length from the floor to the distal wrist crease; and C3 - length obtained by the formula: height x 0.45 + 0.87 m. Resting and walking heart rates were measured with a Polar hear rate meter. Walking speed was calculated by the time required for the patient to walk 10 m. Gait energy cost was estimated using the physiological cost index, and results were compared. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 25 women and five men (average age of 68 years. Statistically significant differences in physiological cost index measurements were observed between unassisted walking and assisted walking with a cane of any length (p<0.001, as well as between walking with a C2-length cane and unassisted walking, and walking with a C1-length cane and walking with a C3-length cane (p=0.001; p = 0.037; p=0.001; respectively. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that small alterations in the length of canes used for weight-bearing ambulation in patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis increase the energy expenditure measured by the physiological cost index during walking. Further studies are needed for a more precise quantification of the increase in energy expenditure during cane-assisted gait and an assessment of the effectiveness of cane use in relieving pain and improving function in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  18. Monitoring Freeze Injury and Evaluating Losingto Sugar-Cane Using RS and GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zongkun; Ding, Meihua; Wang, Longhe; Yang, Xin; Ou, Zhaorong

    From Jan 12th to Feb 12th 2008, the most severity cold chilling and freeze injury weather took place during the last 50 years in the southern of China.Sugar-cane was suffered injury severity. However, the losing of sugar-cane which it was aroused by thisweather disaster had not been exactitude evaluated till on Apr 1st, 2008. It was not only affected the sugar-cane ordinary harvesting and crushing, but also affected reserving sugar-cane seed for planting. Freeze injury is common disaster for sugar-cane in southern of China and monitoring freeze injury using RS and GIS are of great economic significance but little research work about it has been done in China Freeze injuring is not only related to crop growth stage and the cold air intension from northern to southern and weather types, but also consanguineous related to land form and physiognomy and geographical latitude and height above sea level etc and crop planting spatial distribution. The case study of Guangxi province which is the biggest region of sugar-cane planting in China in this paper, the values of sugar-cane NDVI among the freeze injury occur former and after in early 2008 and without freeze injury occur in the same term 2007 were analyzed and compared based on the sugar-cane planting spatial distribution information which were carried out by using multi-phase EOS/MODIS data. The result showed that it was not only commendably reflected the spatial distribution of freeze injury but also reflected the sugarcane suffered from degree using the values of sugar-cane NDVIof freeze injury occur former and after. The field sample investigation data of using GPS was integrated with the NDVI, the evaluation of region sugar-cane suffer from freeze injury losing could quickly and exactly realize.

  19. Diffusion of 133Xe through frog skins, toad bladders, and water boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the total permeability coefficients P as a function of stirring frequency ω for 133Xe through frog skins and toad bladders. The permeability coefficients for the frog skins and toad bladders proper are, respectively, P/sub m/ = (3.9 +- 0.8) x 10-4 cm/s and (7.4 +- 4.2) x 10-4 cm/s. ''Unstirred'' water layer thickness delta is determined concurrently, from the frequency dependence of P(ω); the result for frog skin is delta = (0.060 +- 0.016)/√ω(rad/s) cm. The stirring frequency range is from ω = 7.5 rad/s (72 rpm) to 55 rad/s (530 rpm). The results support the conclusions that the principal barrier to Xe diffusion in these epithelia is inter- and intracellular water, and that the diffusion is passive and rapid. The experimental method may be straightforwardly adapted to the measurement of diffusion or counterdiffusion of any gamma-radioactive soluble or partly soluble solute through any flat membrane or through a solvent. We estimate the amount of total body-absorbed radioactivity due to environmental 133Xe to be 50 fCi for an ambient concentration of 2.6 pCi/m3 of air

  20. Ba2+-inhibitable 86Rb+ fluxes across membranes of vesicles from toad urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    86Rb+ fluxes have been measured in suspensions of vesicles prepared from the epithelium of toad urinary bladder. A readily measurable barium-sensitive, ouabain-insensitive component has been identified; the concentration of external Ba2+ required for half-maximal inhibition was 0.6 mM. The effects of externally added cations on 86Rb+ influx and efflux have established that this pathway is conductive, with a selectivity for K+, Rb+ and Cs+ over Na+ and Li+. The Rb+ uptake is inversely dependent on external pH, but not significantly affected by internal Ca2+ or external amiloride, quinine, quinidine or lidocaine. It is likely, albeit not yet certain, that the conductive Rb+ pathway is incorporated in basolateral vesicles oriented right-side-out. It is also not yet clear whether this pathway comprises the principle basolateral K+ channel in vivo, and that its properties have been unchanged during the preparative procedures. Subject to these caveats, the data suggest that the inhibition by quinidine of Na+ transport across toad bladder does not arise primarily from membrane depolarization produced by a direct blockage of the basolateral channels. It now seems more likely that the quinidine-induced elevation of intracellular Ca2+ activity directly blocks apical Na+ entry

  1. Functional assessment of toad parotoid macroglands: a study based on poison replacement after mechanical compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Simone G S; Jared, Carlos; Egami, Mizue I; Mailho-Fontana, Pedro L; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Antoniazzi, Marta M

    2014-09-01

    Toads have a pair of parotoid macroglands behind the eyes that secrete poison used in passive defence against predators. These macroglands are composed of juxtaposed alveoli, each one bearing a syncytial gland, all connected to the exterior by ducts. When the parotoids are bitten, the poison is expelled on the predator oral mucosa in the form of jets, causing several pharmacological actions. After poison release, the empty secretory syncytia immediately collapse in the interior of their respective alveoli and gradually start refilling. After parotoid manual compression, simulating a predator's bite, we studied, by means of morphological methods, the replacement of the poison inside the alveoli. The results showed that after compression, a considerable number of alveoli remained intact. In the alveoli that were effectively affected the recovery occurs in different levels, from total to punctual and often restrict to some areas of the syncytia. The severely affected alveoli seem not recover their original functional state. The fact that only a part of the parotoid alveoli is compressed during an attack seems to be crucial for toad survival, since the amphibian, after being bitten by a predator, do not lose all its poison stock, remaining protected in case of new attacks. PMID:24911375

  2. spatial distribution pattern of the steppe toad-headed lizard (phrynocephalus frontalis) and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    spatial distribution patterns are associated with life history and behavioral adaptations of animals.for studying the spatial distribution pattern of the steppe toad-headed lizard (phrynocephalusfrontalis) and its influencing factors,we conducted experiments in hunshandake sandy land in inner mongolia,china in july 2009.by calculating the clustered indices,we found that the lizard was aggregately distributed when the sampling quadrat was smaller than 10 m × 10 m,and uniformly distributed when it was greater than 10 m × 10 m.the nearest neighbor rule showed a clustering distribution pattern for p frontalis and the distribution pattern was quadrat-sampling dependent.furthermore,the cluster was determined by environmental factors when the sampling quadrat was smaller than 20 m × 20 m,but it was determined by both environmental factors and characteristics of the lizard when it was larger than 20 m × 20 m.our results suggested that the steppe toad-headed lizards tended to aggregate into suitable habitat patches in desert areas.additionally,we discussed that the lizard aggregation could be potentially used as an indictor of movement of sand dunes.

  3. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing... the processing of sugar cane into a raw sugar product for those cane sugar factories located on...

  4. Morphological and genetic differentiation among Chilean populations of Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae Diferenciación morfológica y genética entre poblaciones chilenas de Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Méndez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Bufo spinulosus has a wide and fragmented range distribution in Chile (18° to 33° S along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients. Genetic variation was estimated using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers in 10 populations from northern and central Chile. Morphometric and genetic information was analyzed as a function of geographical origin. The correlation between genetic and morphometric differentiation was analyzed by the Mantel test. An increase in body size as a function of latitude was observed. Specimens from El Tatio had the smallest body size and the greatest morphometric divergence. The AMOVA applied to genetic data indicated that 57.85 % of the variance is explained by interregional differences and that 30.12 % of the variance is found within populations. Low levels of within-regions genetic differentiation was observed in northern populations while higher levels of genetic differentiation was found in populations from central Chile. Mantel tests revealed a significant, positive correlation between genetic variation and geographic distance. When we excluded El Tatio population, Mantel test analyses showed significant correlations between morphological distance and genetic and geographic distances. We discuss whether water temperature could explain the morphological divergence observed in individuals from El TatioBufo spinulosus presenta una amplia y fragmentada distribución en Chile (18º a 33º S a lo largo de gradientes altitudinales y latitudinales. La variación genética fue estimada utilizando marcadores RAPD ("Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA" en diez poblaciones del norte y centro de Chile. La información morfométrica y genética fue analizada en función de la procedencia geográfica. La correlación entre diferenciación genética y morfométrica fue analizada utilizando la prueba de Mantel. Se observó un incremento en el tamaño corporal en función de la latitud. Los individuos de El Tatio mostraron el tama

  5. Decomposition of sugar cane crop residues under different nitrogen rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Costa Potrich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of organic residues through mechanical harvesting of cane sugar is a growing practice in sugarcane production system. The maintenance of these residues on the soil surface depends mainly on environmental conditions. Nitrogen fertilization on dry residues tend to retard decomposition of these, providing benefits such as increased SOM. Thus, the object of this research was to evaluate the effect of different doses of nitrogen on sugar cane crop residues, as its decomposition and contribution to carbon sequestration in soil. The experiment was conducted in Dourados-MS and consisted of a randomized complete block design. Dried residues were placed in litter bags and the treatments were arranged in a split plot, being the four nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 N the plots, and the seven sampling times (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 the spit plots. Decomposition rates of residues, total organic carbon and labile carbon on soil were analysed. The application of increasing N doses resulted in an increase in their decomposition rates. Despite this, note also the mineral N application as a strategy to get higher levels of labile carbon in soil.

  6. Nitrogen derived from fertilization and straw for plant cane nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the recovery, by plant cane, of the nitrogen (15N) from urea and from sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crop residues - straw and root system - incorporated into the soil. The experiment was settled in 2005/2006 with the sugarcane cultivar SP81 3250. At planting, microplots of 2 m length and 1.5 m width were installed, and N applications were done with 80 kg ha-1 N (urea with 5.05% in 15N atoms) and 14 Mg ha-1 crop residues - 9 Mg ha-1 of sugarcane straw and 5 Mg ha-1 of root system, labeled with 15N (1.07 and 0.81% in 15N atoms, respectively). The total N accumulation by plants was determined during the crop cycle. Although the N use by shoot from crop residue mineralization (PA and SR) increased significantly over time, this source hardly contributed to crop nutrition. The recovery of the 15N-urea, 15N-SS and 15N-RS by plant cane was 30.3 +- 3.7%, 13.9 +- 4.5% and 6.4 +- 0.9%, respectively, representing 15.9, 4.7 and 1.4% of total nitrogen uptake by shoot. (author)

  7. Economical succinic acid production from cane molasses by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Peng; Zheng, Pu; Sun, Zhi-Hao; Ni, Ye; Dong, Jin-Jun; Zhu, Lei-Lei

    2008-04-01

    In this work, production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes CGMCC1593 using cane molasses as a low cost carbon source was developed. In anaerobic bottles fermentation, succinic acid concentration of 50.6+/-0.9 g l(-1) was attained at 60 h using an optimum medium containing molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid, resulting in a succinic acid yield of 79.5+/-1.1% and sugar utilization of 97.1+/-0.6%. When batch fermentation was carried out in a 5-l stirred bioreactor with pretreated molasses, 46.4 g l(-1) of succinic acid was attained at 48 h and faster cells growth was also observed. Fed batch fermentation was performed to minimize the substrate (sugar) inhibition effect, giving 55.2 g l(-1) of succinic acid and 1.15 g l(-1)h(-1) of productivity at 48 h. The present study suggests that the inexpensive cane molasses could be utilized for the economical and efficient production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes. PMID:17532626

  8. Performance of exotic varieties of sugar cane in varietal trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty sugar cane varieties introduced from Canal Point, ARS-USDA Florida, USA, were evaluated for two years to identify the high yielding varieties for cultivations in Sind. Some of the exotic varieties were superior to check BL4 and PR1000, the local commercial varieties. In cane yield and its components the varieties CP65-3577, CP68-1067, CP70-321, CP52-68, CP67-412, CP56-59, L62-96 and CP68-1026 were better than the checks. In sugar content the varieties CP68-1067, CL61-5, CP67-412, CL54-378, CP68-1026, L62-96, CP65-357 AND CP70-321 were superior to checks. Of the 20 exotic varieties, 7 namely CP65-357, CP68-1067, CP67-321, CP57-412, L62-96, CP68-1026 and CP56-59 have shown the potential to become commercial varieties in Sind. (author)

  9. CRED Optical Validation Data at the island of Ta'u in American Samoa, 2004 to Support Benthic Habitat Mapping (TOAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Optical validation data were collected using a Tethered Optical Assessment Device (TOAD), an underwater sled equipped with an underwater digital video camera and...

  10. CRED Optical Validation Data at the island of Ofu and Olosega in American Samoa, 2012 to support Benthic Habitat Mapping (TOAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Optical validation data were collected using the Tethered Optical Assessment Device (TOAD), a sled equipped with underwater video camera, still camera and lights....

  11. CRED Optical Validation Data at the islands of Ofu and Olosega in American Samoa, 2004 to Support Benthic Habitat Mapping (TOAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Optical validation data were collected using a Tethered Optical Assessment Device (TOAD), an underwater sled equipped with an underwater digital video camera and...

  12. CRED Optical Validation Data at the island of Ta'u in American Samoa, 2006 to support Benthic Habitat Mapping (TOAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Optical validation data were collected using a Tethered Optical Assessment Device (TOAD), an underwater sled equipped with an underwater digital video camera and...

  13. CRED Optical Validation Data at the island of Ofu and Olosega in American Samoa, 2006 to support Benthic Habitat Mapping (TOAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Optical validation data were collected using a Tethered Optical Assessment Device (TOAD), an underwater sled equipped with an underwater digital video camera and...

  14. CRED Optical Validation Data at the island of Ta'u in American Samoa, 2012 to support Benthic Habitat Mapping (TOAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Optical validation data were collected using the Tethered Optical Assessment Device (TOAD), a sled equipped with underwater video camera, still camera and lights....

  15. Analysis of user characteristics related to drop-off detection with long cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Shik Kim, PhD

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how user characteristics affect drop-off detection with the long cane. A mixed-measures design with block randomization was used for the study, in which 32 visually impaired adults attempted to detect the drop-offs using different cane techniques. Younger cane users detected drop-offs significantly more reliably (mean +/- standard deviation = 74.2% +/- 11.2% of the time than older cane users (60.9% +/- 10.8%, p = 0.009. The drop-off detection threshold of the younger participants (5.2 +/- 2.1 cm was also statistically significantly smaller than that of the older participants (7.9 +/- 2.2 cm, p = 0.007. Those with early-onset visual impairment (78.0% +/- 9.0% also detected drop-offs significantly more reliably than those with later-onset visual impairment (67.3% +/- 12.4%, p = 0.01. No interaction occurred between examined user characteristics (age and age at onset of visual impairment and the type of cane technique used in drop-off detection. The findings of the study may help orientation and mobility specialists select appropriate cane techniques in accordance with the cane user's age and onset of visual impairment.

  16. New regional record and notes on historical specimens of Gunther Toad Duttaphrynus hololius with comments on other southeastern Indian congeners

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasulu, B.; S.R. Ganesh; C. Srinivasulu

    2013-01-01

    We report on the finding of the Günther Toad Duttaphrynus hololius from Visakhapatnam and discuss aspects of its distribution based on our species distribution modeling. We also provide data on historically collected specimens and refine its intra-specific variation, provide an up-to-date chresonymy and comment on the validity of earlier reported diagnosis. Lastly, we remark on some misidentification-mediated dubious southern Indian records of another, related congener, the Marbled Toad D. ...

  17. Judging hardness of an object from the sounds of tapping created by a white cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunokawa, K; Seki, Y; Ino, S; Doi, K

    2014-01-01

    The white cane plays a vital role in the independent mobility support of the visually impaired. Allowing the recognition of target attributes through the contact of a white cane is an important function. We have conducted research to obtain fundamental knowledge concerning the exploration methods used to perceive the hardness of an object through contact with a white cane. This research has allowed us to examine methods that enhance accuracy in the perception of objects as well as the materials and structures of a white cane. Previous research suggest considering the roles of both auditory and tactile information from the white cane in determining objects' hardness is necessary. This experimental study examined the ability of people to perceive the hardness of an object solely through the tapping sounds of a white cane (i.e., auditory information) using a method of magnitude estimation. Two types of sounds were used to estimate hardness: 1) the playback of recorded tapping sounds and 2) the sounds produced on-site by tapping. Three types of handgrips were used to create different sounds of tapping on an object with a cane. The participants of this experiment were five sighted university students wearing eye masks and two totally blind students who walk independently with a white cane. The results showed that both sighted university students and totally blind participants were able to accurately judge the hardness of an object solely by using auditory information from a white cane. For the blind participants, different handgrips significantly influenced the accuracy of their estimation of an object's hardness. PMID:25571333

  18. Development of ice cream based sugar cane juice and sensory evaluation with children

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Pedro da Silva; Dayana do Nascimento Ferreira; Nayara Gabriela Gonçalves de Souza; Anatalha Marinho Alexandre; Isrrael Felix Alves Gomes; Ricardo Targino Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Ice cream is a tasty and nutritious source of protein and calcium, but it is deficient in some minerals, as iron, but it is found in sugar cane juice, which is a source of minerals such as iron, phosphorus, calcium, sodium among others. The objective of the present study are: to develop sugar cane juice ice cream, in order to increase the mineral content replacing refined sugar and water during the manufacturing process by sugar cane juice; to analyze its physical-chemical composition; to che...

  19. Elevation of a cane-growing area of the state of Sao Paulo using LANDSAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Tardin, A. T.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Chen, S. C.; Lucht, L. A. M.; Moreira, M. A.; Delima, A. M.; Maia, F. C. S.

    1981-01-01

    Images at a scale of 1:250.000 were visually interpreted for identification and area estimates of sugar cane plantations in Sao Paulo. The basic criteria for crop identification were the spectral characteristics of channels 5 and 7 and their temporal variations observed from different LANDSAT passes. Using this technique, it was possible to map the sugar cane areas as well as the sugar cane already harvested. An area of 801,950 hectares was estimated within the study area. The confidence interval of correct classification ranged from 87.11% to 94.71%.

  20. Soil ratio evaluation in industrial sugar cane by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotope induced energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis has been used for the determination of total contents of Al, Si, Ti, Fe, and Zr, chosen as soil tracers in sugar cane consignments. These elements have been evaluated in ten different types of soils from the sugar cane growing area of the sate of Sao Paulo, aiming to establish elemental ratios which could helping the identification and quantification of the soil loaded with the stalks in the field during harvesting of sugar cane. (author). 16 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  1. Chemical composition and dry matter digestibility of sugar cane oxide treated with calcium

    OpenAIRE

    C.O. Romão; G.G.P. Carvalho; V.M. Leite; Santos, A. S.; D.M.T. Chagas; O.L. Ribeiro; P.A. Oliveira; Magalhães, A F; A.J.V. Pires

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the most adequate level of calcium oxide (CaO) in the treatment of sugar cane by evaluating the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter. The sugar cane was homogenized with CaO levels 0, 0.75, 1.5, 2.25, 3.0, 3.75 and 4.5%, in natura matter, for 24 hours. The dry matter and mineral matter increased, while the organic matter of the sugar cane decreased (P

  2. Sugar-cane juice induces pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in Penicillium griseoroseum

    OpenAIRE

    Minussi Rosana Cristina; Soares-Ramos Juliana Rocha Lopes; Coelho Jorge Luiz Cavalcante; Silva Daison Olzany

    1998-01-01

    The use of other inducers as substitutes for pectin was studied aiming to reduce the production costs of pectic enzymes. The effects of sugar-cane juice on the production of pectin lyase (PL) and polygalacturonase (PG) by Penicillium griseoroseum were investigated. The fungus was cultured in a mineral medium (pH 6.3) in a rotary shaker (150 rpm) for 48 h at 25oC. Culture media were supplemented with yeast extract and sucrose or sugar-cane juice. Sugar-cane juice added singly to the medium pro...

  3. Sugar cane fresh or ensiled with or without bacterial additive in diets for dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Jeruzia Vitória Moreira; Mara Lúcia Albuquerque Pereira; Saulo Tannus Azevedo; Ricardo Dias Signoretti; Gustavo Rezende Siqueira; Aureliano José Vieira Pires

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of using fresh sugar cane, sugar cane silage with or without Lactobacillus buchneri, and burnt sugar cane silage with or without L. buchneri on ingestive behavior, nitrogen balance and synthesis of microbial nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Five ¾ Holstein x Gir crossbred cows, assigned to a 5 x 5 Latin square design, were given diets with a 60:40 forage: concentrate ratio on a dry matter basis, to meet an average body weight of 550 kg and production of 15 kg ...

  4. The use of sugar cane on traditional ceremony in Tabanan, Bali

    OpenAIRE

    I WAYAN SUMANTERA; I NYOMAN PENENG

    2005-01-01

    Sugar cane or tebu (Saccharum officinarum L.) is useful in Hinduism ceremonies in Bali, so that the people plant it in the home yard. Its population is not big but it spreads all over Bali. The farmers use it to be the merchandise at the markets, especially for the ritual ceremonies uses. The use of sugar cane in ritual ceremonies is very popular as symbolize of wedding ceremony. The sugar cane is put in front part of the cars when they go to the bride’s house for the permission. The sugar ca...

  5. Effect of gamma-radiation on sugar cane spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation has appeared as an alternative technique in food preservation. Besides cold decontamination irradiation can increase the quality of the food through the improvement of technological properties. For alcoholic beverages ionizing radiation has been applied to wines, whiskeys and beers in countries such as Thailand and China. In those cases, the purpose of the technique was to accelerate aging, to improve the sensory characteristics and as sterilization treatment. The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation on the quality of sugar cane spirit by gas chromatography analysis of volatile compounds and sensory analysis. The sugar cane spirit newly distilled samples and commercial samples from different states (SP, CE and RJ) were irradiated either in glass or oak cask (Quercus alba sp) in a 60Co Gammacell 220 at dose rate of 7.7 kGy/h and total doses of 0; 0.1; 2; 5 and 10 kGy. The analytical determination of esters, acetaldehyde and higher alcohols were performed in a gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector employing a Megabore CG-745 column. The alcoholic graduation was measured in a Gay-Lussac alcohometer and the pH was determined using an Analyser 300 pHmeter. The color change was measured by the absorbance at 420 nm in a Shimadzu UV 1601 spectrophotometer. The acceptance tests related to odor, taste, global impression and color were analyzed using Tukey average tests (p ≤0,05), ANOVA and histograms of panelists' scores frequency. A correlation between acetaldeyde, esters, higher alcohols levels and radiation dose was found in the sugar cane spirit newly distilled samples irradiated in oak cask and commercial samples. An increase in methanol concentration was verified, although remaining enough below the permissible limit accepted by the Brazilian Legislation. A decrease in the alcoholic graduation and pH in the irradiated samples was observed. A slight discoloration in the irradiated samples was verified. According to ANOVA

  6. EFFECT OF ANGELICA SINENSIS ON AFFERENT DISCHARGE OF SINGLE MUSCLE SPINDLE IN TOADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高云芳; 樊小力

    2004-01-01

    Objective In drugs for invigorating blood circulation, to find a herb that can stimulate afferent discharge of muscle spindle. Methods A single muscle spindle was isolated from sartorial muscle of toad. Using air-gap technique, afferent discharge of the muscle spindle was recorded. Effects of Angelica Sinensis, Salvia Miltiorrhiza, and Safflower on afferent discharge of the muscle spindle were observed. Results Angelica Sinensis could distinctly increase afferent discharge frequency of the muscle spindle, and this increase was dose-dependent. But Salvia Miltiorrhiza and Safflower had no this excitatory effect. Conclusion It is known that Angelica Sinensis can invigorate blood circulation, and we have found its excitatory effect on muscle spindle which makes it possible to serve people with muscle atrophy if more evidences from clinical experiments are available.

  7. Membrane potential plays a dual role for chloride transport across toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Rasmussen, B E

    1983-01-01

    -dependent currents are not caused by a trivial Goldmand-type rectification and ion redistributions following transepithelial potential pertubations. Extended with a dynamic Cl- permeability in the apical membrane according to a Hodgkin-Huxley kinetic scheme, the model predicts voltage clamp data which closely......The Cl- -current through toad skin epithelium depends on the potential in a way consistent with a potential-controlled Cl- permeability. Computer analysis of the Koefoed-Johnsen Ussing two-membrane model provided with constant membrane permeabilities indicates that the voltage- and time...... resemble experimental observations. This extension of the classic frog skin model implies that the Cl- permeability is activated by a voltage change caused by the inward Na+ current through the apical membrane....

  8. KARYOTYPIC STUDY OF THE COMMON INDIAN TOAD, DUTTAPHRYNUS MELANOSTICTUS, FROM JAMMU AND KASHMIR, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Saba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyotypic study of two sexes of the toad species, Duttaphrynus melanostictus, was carried out using giemsa staining, C- banding and NOR banding methods, from Jammu and Kashmir, India. The basic chromosome number was found to be 2n=22, fundamental arm number (NF was 44 with all the biarmed chromosomes and no sex chromosome heteromorphism was found. Cbanding and NOR banding was also performed. Paracentric C-band was on the long arm of first homologous pair. Centromeric heterochromatin appeared as darkly stained C-bands on all the chromosomes of diploid complement, whereas Ag-NOR staining showed a pair of nucleolar organizer regions present on pair no. 7 on short arm i.e. 7p in both male and female karyotypes.

  9. Cytological evidence for population-specific sex chromosome heteromorphism in Palaearctic green toads (Amphibia, Anura)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Odierna; G Aprea; T Capriglione; S Castellano; E Balletto

    2007-06-01

    A chromosome study was carried out on a number of European and Central Asiatic diploid green toad populations by means of standard and various other chromosome banding and staining methods (Ag-NOR-, Q-, CMA3-, late replicating [LR] banding pattern, C- and sequential C-banding + CMA3 + DAPI). This study revealed the remarkable karyological uniformity of specimens from all populations, with the only exception being specimens from a Moldavian population, where one chromosome pair was heteromorphic. Though similar in shape, size and with an identical heterochromatin distribution, the difference in the heteromorphic pair was due to a large inverted segment on its long arms. This heteromorphism was restricted to females, suggesting a female heterogametic sex chromosome system of ZZ/ZW type at a very early step of differentiation.

  10. Bm-TFF2, a toad trefoil factor, promotes cell migration, survival and wound healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yong [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, Guoyu [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Department of Biochemistry, Kunming Medical College, Kunming, Yunnan 650032 (China); Xiang, Yang [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Jianbo [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China); Jiang, Ping [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Lee, Wenhui [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China); Zhang, Yun, E-mail: zhangy@mail.kiz.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China)

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} Bm-TFF2 binds to epithelial cells and induces cell migration and wound healing. {yields} Bm-TFF2 suppresses cell apoptosis. {yields} Bm-TFF2 has no effect on cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Toad skin is naked and continually confronted by various injurious factors. Constant skin renewal and repairs occur frequently. However, the mechanisms of the renewal and repair have not clearly elucidated. In our previous work, a trefoil factor (TFF), Bm-TFF2, has been purified from the Bombina maxima skin and characterized as a platelet agonist. The mRNA of TFFs in toad skin was up-regulated greatly during the metamorphosis, indicating a pivotal role of TFFs in amphibian skin. Here, we presented the effects of Bm-TFF2 on the cell migration, apoptosis and proliferation. Bm-TFF2 bound to epithelial cells and showed strong cell motility activity. At the concentrations of 1-100 nM, Bm-TFF2-induced migration of human epithelial AGS and HT-29 cells, and rat intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cell lines. The in vitro wound healing assay also verified the activity of Bm-TFF2. Bm-TFF2 could also inhibit cell apoptosis induced by ceramide and sodium butyrate. The cell migration-promoting activity was abolished by MEK1 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is crucial for Bm-TFF2 to stimulate cell migration. Taken together, Bm-TFF2 promoted wound healing by stimulating cell migration via MAPK pathway and preventing cell apoptosis. The potent biological activity of Bm-TFF2 makes it a useful molecular tool for further studies of structure-function relationship of the related human TFFs.

  11. Nux Vomica 200 CH reduced acute hypnotic effect of alcohol in young toads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Sukul

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Potentized Nux Vomica has been reported to produce antialcoholic effect in mice, rats and toads. The effect relates to consumption of alcohol and alcohol-induced loss of righting reflex (RR. RR’s maintain normal erect posture of an animal and are centrally controlled in the midbrain. In the present study young toads, Duttaphrynus melanostictus were first treated with Nux vomica 200 CH and then partially immersed in 209 mM ethanol solution in such a way that their head remained above the level of ethanol solution. Toadlets were removed from the ethanol solution every 10 min, tested for the loss of RR and returned to the ethanol solution. Toadlets were placed in a supine position on a dry flat surface. Failure to right within 60 sec was considered as the loss of RR. The experiment was repeated 10 times. Control toadlets were pretreated with 90% ethanol instead of Nux Vomica 200 CH. The percentages of toadlets showing loss of RR, both in the control as well as in the Nux-treated groups, were shown in graphs against the duration of exposure to ethanol solution. Differences in the percentage distribution between the control and the treatment groups losing RR were tested by χ2 test. All the experiments were conducted at room temperature. The percentage of toadlets losing RR increased with time of exposure to ethanol solution. The increase was significantly higher with the control than with the Nux-treated group. Nux Vomica 200 CH might have influenced the mid-brain of toadlets thereby countering the hypnotic effect of ethanol in the toadlets.

  12. Bm-TFF2, a toad trefoil factor, promotes cell migration, survival and wound healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Bm-TFF2 binds to epithelial cells and induces cell migration and wound healing. → Bm-TFF2 suppresses cell apoptosis. → Bm-TFF2 has no effect on cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Toad skin is naked and continually confronted by various injurious factors. Constant skin renewal and repairs occur frequently. However, the mechanisms of the renewal and repair have not clearly elucidated. In our previous work, a trefoil factor (TFF), Bm-TFF2, has been purified from the Bombina maxima skin and characterized as a platelet agonist. The mRNA of TFFs in toad skin was up-regulated greatly during the metamorphosis, indicating a pivotal role of TFFs in amphibian skin. Here, we presented the effects of Bm-TFF2 on the cell migration, apoptosis and proliferation. Bm-TFF2 bound to epithelial cells and showed strong cell motility activity. At the concentrations of 1-100 nM, Bm-TFF2-induced migration of human epithelial AGS and HT-29 cells, and rat intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cell lines. The in vitro wound healing assay also verified the activity of Bm-TFF2. Bm-TFF2 could also inhibit cell apoptosis induced by ceramide and sodium butyrate. The cell migration-promoting activity was abolished by MEK1 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is crucial for Bm-TFF2 to stimulate cell migration. Taken together, Bm-TFF2 promoted wound healing by stimulating cell migration via MAPK pathway and preventing cell apoptosis. The potent biological activity of Bm-TFF2 makes it a useful molecular tool for further studies of structure-function relationship of the related human TFFs.

  13. Wastewater management in a cane molasses distillery involving bioresource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Tapas; Shastry, Sunita; Kaul, S N

    2002-05-01

    Waste management involving bioresource recovery in a cane molasses-based distillery engaged in the manufacture of rectified spirit (alcohol) is described. The spentwash generated from the distillation of fermenter wash is highly acidic (pH 4.0-4.3) with high rates of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand (BOD: 52-58, COD: 92-100 kg/m3) and suspended solids (2.0-2.5 kg/m3). Biogas is recovered from high strength raw spentwash through the full-scale application of a biomethanation system as pretreatment option, comprising anaerobic fixed film reactors. This, combined with subsequent concentration through multiple effect evaporators (MEE), and utilization of concentrated effluent for biocomposting of pressmud (another by-product of the industry) for production of biomanure contributes to the elimination of effluent discharges. PMID:12173420

  14. Sugar cane fresh or ensiled with or without bacterial additive in diets for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeruzia Vitória Moreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of using fresh sugar cane, sugar cane silage with or without Lactobacillus buchneri, and burnt sugar cane silage with or without L. buchneri on ingestive behavior, nitrogen balance and synthesis of microbial nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Five ¾ Holstein x Gir crossbred cows, assigned to a 5 x 5 Latin square design, were given diets with a 60:40 forage: concentrate ratio on a dry matter basis, to meet an average body weight of 550 kg and production of 15 kg of milk per day. The treatment with fresh sugar cane showed higher values (p 0.05 the nitrogen intake and balance, but led to a greater (p 0.05, and showed an average value of 204.32 g microbial crude protein kg-1 total digestible nutrients.

  15. Seasonal variation of prices of sugar cane, ethanol and electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal price of sugar cane, fuel alcohol (hydrated and anhydrous) and electricity tariffs as a way of aiding tool for optimization of energy generation, using biomass originating from cane sugar. Using the method of moving average centered was concluded that cane and electricity rates were close to seasonal average, with low range of prices, suggesting the non-occurrence of seasonal variation in prices. Unlike the seasonal indices of ethanol showed seasonal variation of prices with greater amplitude of seasonal index. Thus, the results suggest that the utilization of by-products of sugar cane to produce electrical power points to the prospect of reducing risks associated with variations in the price of ethanol, thereby contributing to greater stability and possibility to those involved in planning alcohol sector. (author)

  16. Compensatory mechanisms operating in sugar cane: phosphorus uptake by the shoot roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, role of shoot roots in imparting compensatory ability to the sugar cane plant has been investigated by studying uptake of 32P in plants, where dry matter supported by a unit root varied

  17. Indagine retrospettiva sulle neoplasie testicolari del cane in Abruzzo e Molise, Italia

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Rita D’Angelo; Serafina Vita; Giuseppe Marruchella; Gabriella Di Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Le neoplasie testicolari sono piuttosto frequenti nel cane e condividono alcune caratteristiche con quelle umane, rendendole un potenziale modello in patologia comparata. Si riportano i dati relativi ai tumori testicolari del cane conferiti ed esaminati Istituto G. Caporale nel corso degli ultimi 12 anni, dal 2000 al 2011. In totale, sono stati diagnosticati 183 tumori: 108 seminomi, 37 sertoliomi, 18 tumori a cellule interstiziali del Leydig, 10 tumori misti, 9 neoplasie primitive di diversa...

  18. The control of root-eating scarabaeid grubs in Queensland cane-fields

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Edmund

    2010-01-01

    The world-wide damage caused by the larvae of various lamellicorn beetles to sugar-cane, cassava, pasture land, root crops, and miscellaneous economic trees and plants, has engaged the undivided attention of many scientists during the last thirty years or more. The "White Grub" question in America, the notorious Cockchafer or "May Bug" in Europe, and the formidable "Grub Pest" of Australian cane-fields, constitute exceedingly complex problems which have for many years defied the efforts of en...

  19. The water relations and irrigation requirements of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum): a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, M. K. V.; Knox, Jerry W.

    2011-01-01

    The results of research on the water relations and irrigation needs of sugar cane are collated and summarized in an attempt to link fundamental studies on crop physiology to irrigation practices. Background information on the centres of production of sugar cane is followed by reviews of (1) crop development, including roots; (2) plant water relations; (3) crop water requirements; (4) water productivity; (5) irrigation systems and (6) irrigation scheduling. The majority of th...

  20. Cost-effective lignocellulolytic enzyme production by Trichoderma reesei on a cane molasses medium

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jun; Wu, Ai-Min; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; Zheng, Ping; Yu, Jie; Tian, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Background Cane molasses, an important residue of the sugar industry, have the potential as a cost-effective carbon source that could serve as nutrients for industrial enzyme-producing microorganisms, especially filamentous fungi. However, the enzyme mixtures produced in such a complex medium are poorly characterized. In this study, the secretome of Trichoderma reesei grown on a cane molasses medium (CMM) as well as on a lactose-based conventional medium (LCM) were compared and analyzed by us...

  1. Bioaccumulation of metals in aquatic insects of streams located in areas with sugar cane cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano José Corbi; Claudio Gilberto Froehlich; Susana Trivinho Strixino; Ademir dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Streams located in areas of sugar cane cultivation receive elevated concentrations of metal ions from soils of adjacent areas. The accumulation of metals in the sediments results in environmental problems and leads to bioaccumulation of metal ions by the aquatic organisms. In the present study, bioaccumulation of the metals ions Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn in aquatic insects in streams impacted by the sugar cane was evaluated. The results pointed out that the insects were contaminated b...

  2. Conversion of Grazed Pastures to Energy Cane as a Biofuel Feedstock Alters Soil GHG Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, N.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in land use profoundly affect climate through variations in soil Greenhouse Gas (GHG) exchange. The need for alternative energies is accelerating land use change as marginal land or managed ecosystems are being converted to highly productive second-generation bioenergy crops such as energy cane (Saccharum spp. L). Although the deployment of energy cane is a promising strategy to meet global bioenergy industry demands, few studies have investigated soil GHG fluxes in these crops and sub-tropical low-intensity grazing pasture (bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum L., as forage for cattle, Bos taurus L.) with which they are competing for land. Here, we showed that soil N2O fluxes in bioenergy crops were higher (>250%) than those observed in pastures following fertilization when soil moisture and temperature were high. In the absence of recent fertilization, the N2O source strength in energy cane and pasture sites was similar. Under drier and cooler soil conditions, both pastures and bioenergy crops were weak sources of N2O even when energy cane plots were recently fertilized. Soils on grazed pastures were sources of CH4 during the wet season but became sinks under drier, colder conditions. Energy cane plantations were weak sources of CH4 over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. The heterotrophic component of soil respiration was larger (139-155%) in pastures than in energy cane crops, suggesting lower decomposition of SOC in bioenergy crops. In terms of global warming potential, grazed pastures were stronger (120-150%) soil GHG emitters than energy cane crops over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. Moreover, pastures became a substantial source of GHG emitters when including estimates of CH4 flux from cattle. Our results suggest that the conversion of pasture to energy cane will be beneficial in relation to GHGs emitted from soils and cattle. Improved understanding of land use impact on soil GHG dynamics will provide valuable information for decision makers debating

  3. Interaction of Azospirillum brasilense and Glomus intrarradix in Sugar Cane Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Bellone, Carlos H.; de Bellone Silvia, Carrizo

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen-day-old variety NA 56-79 sugar cane seedlings were inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense and Glomus intrarradix. This article aims at examining changes in sugar cane root seedlings inoculated with Glomus intrarradix and Azospirillum brasilense, the increase in microbial biomass and the acetylene reduction process as well. The internal root colonization was studied 20 days after inoculation using scanning and a transmission electron microscope. Both microorganisms entered the sugar c...

  4. Various Extraction Methods for Obtaining Stilbenes from Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Soural; Naděžda Vrchotová; Jan Tříska; Josef Balík; Štěpán Horník; Petra Cuřínová; Jan Sýkora

    2015-01-01

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. ...

  5. Influence of gamma radiation on microbiological parameters of the ethanolic fermentation of sugar-cane must

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of gamma radiation on reducing the population of some bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus that usually contaminate the sugar-cane must and its effects on acidity of the medium and viability of the yeast during fermentation were evaluated. The treatment with gamma radiation reduced the bacterial load of the sugar-cane must. Consequently, the volatile acidity produced during the fermentation of the must decreased and the viability of the yeast afterwards added increased

  6. Production of amino acids by mucor geophillus using sugar cane waste as a substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study Mucor geophillus was used for amino acid production from acid/base hydrolysates of sugar cane bagasse. The Effects of substrate as well as influence of hydrolyzing agent on amino acid production by Mucor geophillus were investigated. Result reveals that higher amount of amino acids were accumulated when acid hydrolysates of sugar cane bagasse were used as substrate in comparison to NH/sub 4/OH and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ hydrolysates. (author)

  7. Firmicutes dominate the bacterial taxa within sugar-cane processing plants

    OpenAIRE

    Farhana Sharmin; Steve Wakelin; Flavia Huygens; Megan Hargreaves

    2013-01-01

    Sugar cane processing sites are characterised by high sugar/hemicellulose levels, available moisture and warm conditions, and are relatively unexplored unique microbial environments. The PhyloChip microarray was used to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition in three Australian sugar cane processing plants. These ecosystems were highly complex and dominated by four main Phyla, Firmicutes (the most dominant), followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Signif...

  8. Case-control study of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers in India

    OpenAIRE

    Amre, D. K.; Infante-Rivard, C; Dufresne, A.; P.M Durgawale; Ernst, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers and sugar mill workers. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted based in six hospitals in the predominantly sugar cane farming districts of the province of Maharashtra in India. Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed cases were identified from these hospitals between May 1996 and April 1998. Other cancers were chosen as controls and matched to cases by age, sex, district of residence, and timing of diagno...

  9. Determining the Future for Louisiana Sugar Cane Products, Inc.: A Case Study Analyzing Vertical Coordination Options

    OpenAIRE

    Gunderson, Michael A.; Johnson, Aaron J.; Michael E. Salassi; Lonnie P. CHAMPAGNE; DeVuyst, Cheryl Sinn

    2009-01-01

    Deciding how to coordinate activities can be a challenge posed in any marketing chain. This case involves an agricultural cooperative that has focused entirely on marketing raw sugar cane for additional refinement. Recent dramatic shifts in the sector have caused the members of the cooperative to consider building a facility that will process the raw sugar cane. In so doing, the cooperative can consider using the spot market, using contracts, vertically coordinating, or vertically integrating...

  10. Development of a sugar cane residue feeding system for a cyclone gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabra, M.; Salman, H.; Kjellstroem, B. [Lulea University of Technology, (Sweden). Energy Technology Centre in Pitea

    1998-12-31

    For the smooth and continuous operation of a cyclone gasifier, the fuel must be fed continuously and without interruption or large fluctuations. A feeding system for bagasse/cane trash powder was therefore designed, built and tested. It consisted of a feeding bin with four feeder screws in the bottom which deliver the fuel to two downcomers from which the fuel is injected by steam into the gasifier. During the first tests, the low bulk density and cohesive characteristics of a crushed bagasse/cane trash power were found to cause an accumulation of the fuel in the feeding system, creating difficulties for the flow into the gasifier. In addition, once the flow of the crushed bagasse/cane trash powder is interrupted by a build-up in the downcomer channels, the crushed bagasse/cane trash powder becomes progressively compacted into a dense structure, resulting in blockage of the discharge. It was found possible to eliminate this problem by changing the shape of the slivers of the crushed bagasse/cane trash powder to render them more homogeneous. This was achieved by pelletizing the crushed bagasse or cane trash before grinding it to powder. (author)

  11. DNA polymorphisms in banana and sugar cane varieties revealed by RAPD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugar cane is the fourth most important cash crop of Pakistan and is grown on 1 million hectares of land, with a total production of 37 million tonnes. It does not flower under existing environmental conditions. Sugar cane is vegetatively propagated and the national breeding programmes is restricted to the adaptation and multiplication of exotic varieties. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to establish polymorphisms among various local sugar cane varieties. DNA from the varieties L-118, L-116, BL-4, BF-162, Col-44, Col-54, Triton and Puri was isolated and amplified by polymerase chain reaction using ten nucleotide primers. The amplification profiles of all the sugar cane varieties were compared and the polymorphisms detected. DNA was isolated from the embryogenic calli of sugar cane subjected to gamma irradiation at different doses (0, 0.5, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 krad) and salt stresses (NaCl: 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM), and was amplified with random primers to detect the polymorphisms introduced by stress. The banana is another important vegetatively propagated crop in Pakistan. DNA isolation from micropropagated banana was optimized and RAPD analysis performed on several clones of the banana variety Williams. The level of genetic variability revealed from calli and vegetatively propagated sugar cane and banana by RAPD analysis is discussed. (author). 10 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Alfaxalone-butorphanol versus alfaxalone-morphine combination for immersion anaesthesia in oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Chiara; d'Ovidio, Dario; Casoni, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    Oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) are small semi-aquatic anuran species popular as both pets and laboratory animals. Although they are commonly anaesthetized to undergo clinical and experimental procedures, very little is known about their anaesthetic management. The aims of this prospective, randomized, cross-over experimental trial were to establish effective butorphanol and morphine concentrations to be added to alfaxalone for immersion anaesthesia (pilot study), and to compare the anaesthetic and antinociceptive effects of the two drug mixtures (alfaxalone-butorphanol and alfaxalone-morphine), in Bombina orientalis toads. For the actual trial, the toads were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: AB and AM, with seven animals in each group, which received alfaxalone-butorphanol and alfaxalone-morphine combinations, respectively, at the concentrations established during the pilot study. Heart rate, respiratory rate, von Frey filament threshold and response to nociceptive withdrawal (NWR), righting and myotactic reflexes were measured at 5 min intervals until return of righting reflex was observed. The investigator who carried out all the measurements was blinded to the treatment. Any undesired effect or complication was noted and recorded. The two treatments were found to be comparable in terms of onset and duration of anaesthesia, and occurrence of undesired effects. However, group AM resulted in lower NWR scores and higher von Frey filament thresholds than group AB. It is concluded that, at the investigated concentrations and in combination with alfaxalone by immersion, morphine provides better antinociception than butorphanol in oriental fire-bellied toads. PMID:26306614

  13. Checklist and Simple Identification Key for Frogs and Toads from District IV of The MADA Scheme, Kedah, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Ibrahim; Chai, Teoh Chia; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Akil, Mohd Abdul Muin Md.

    2009-01-01

    A survey was conducted to catalogue the diversity of anurans in District IV of the Muda Agriculture Development Authority Scheme (MADA) in Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia, from July 1996 to January 1997. Eight species of anurans from three families were present in the study area. Of these, the Common Grass Frog (Fejevarya limnocharis) was the most abundant, followed by Mangrove Frog (Fejevarya cancrivora), Long-legged Frog (Hylarana macrodactyla), and Common Toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus). Pudd...

  14. Lethal and sub-lethal effects on the Asian common toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus from exposure to hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Vindhya A K; Weerasena, Jagathpriya; Lakraj, G Pemantha; Perera, Inoka C; Dangalle, Chandima D; Handunnetti, Shiroma; Premawansa, Sunil; Wijesinghe, Mayuri R

    2016-08-01

    Chromium discharged in industrial effluents frequently occurs as an environmental pollutant, but the lethal and sub-lethal effects the heavy metal might cause in animals exposed to it have been insufficiently investigated. Selecting the amphibian Duttaphrynus melanostictus, we carried out laboratory tests to investigate the effects of short and long term exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in both tadpoles and adult toads. The concentrations used were 0.002, 0.02, 0.2, 1.0 and 2.0mg/L, the first three corresponding to field levels. In vitro exposures were also carried out using toad erythrocytes and Cr(VI) concentrations of 0.0015, 0.003, 0.015, 0.03, 0.15mg/L. Mortality, growth retardation, developmental delays and structural aberrations were noted in the metal-treated tadpoles, with increasing incidence corresponding to increase in Cr(VI) level and duration of exposure. Many of the sub-lethal effects were evident with long term exposure to environmentally relevant levels of the toxicant. Changes in selected blood parameters and erythrocyte morphometry were also detected in Cr(VI) exposed toads, indicating anaemic and leucopenic conditions. In the genotoxicity study, DNA damage indicated by comet assay and increased micronuclei frequency, occurred at the low Cr(VI) concentrations tested. The multiple deleterious effects of exposure to chromium signal the need for monitoring and controlling the discharge of chromium to the environment. The dose-dependency and genotoxic effects observed in this widely distributed Asian toad indicates its suitability for monitoring heavy metal pollution in aquatic systems. PMID:27262939

  15. Effects of acute low temperature stress on the endocrine reactions of the Qinghai toad-headed lizard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunwang LI; Yuan GU; Songhua TANG; Hongxia FANG; Guohua JIANG; Zhigang JIANG

    2011-01-01

    Endocrinological action is generally thought to be a way for animals to respond to stress at low temperatures.To learn the role of hormones in eetotherms inhabiting alpine environments,we studied the effects of acute low temperature exposure on the endocrinological reactions of Qinghai toad-headed lizards in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.We monitored plasma corticosterone and insulin concentration of the lizards under five low temperature treatments.We found no significant difference in plasma corticosterone or insulin in lizards among our five different treatments.For males and females the correlation between plasma corticosterone and insulin concentrations was not significant.In contrast to other studies on reptiles at low altitude,we suggest that due to the alpine environment (low temperature and low oxygen concentration) they inhabit,Qinghai toad-headed lizards respond to experimental cold stress slightly to mobilize energy and live their vivid life.In addition,corticosterone and insulin of Qinghai toad-headed lizards are secreted independently along with low temperature treatments [Current Zoology 57 (6):775-780,2011].

  16. The Greenhouse Gas Flux and Carbon Budget of Land Use Conversion from Pasture to Energy Cane Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, B.; Davis, S. C.; Parton, W. J.; Long, S. P.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    The United States is committed to produce 140 billion liters of ethanol by 2022. To meet this goal, and mitigate concerns about the "fuel versus food" conundrum, there is a pressing need for a second generation of sustainable biofuel feedstocks. Energy cane is a high yield, cold-tolerant C4 grass that can be efficiently used to produce bio-ethanol via existing cellulo-lignosic conversion technologies. There is exciting promise for Energy cane as an ethanol feedstock, however the climate implications of large-scale land use change from pasture (a significant use of land in the Southeastern USA) to production of an energy grass has not been fully explored. Furthermore, the soil type on which Energy cane will be grown will likely have a significant impact on greenhouse gases (GHG). We use DAYCENT, a process based biogeochemical model, to forecast how land use change from pasture to Energy cane production influences ecosystem level GHG flux and soil carbon flux. Because Energy cane is not widely cultivated, we use the available sugar cane literature to validate our in silico experiments. DAYCENT simulations suggest that soil type and fertilization rates have a strong control on the GHG and soil C dynamics after changing land from pasture to Energy cane. Our model results show net losses of ecosystem level C when Energy cane is grown on Histosols (organic matter rich soils), and a net gain of ecosystem C when that crop is grown on Spodosols (sandy soils). Respired CO2, N2O and total GHG efflux is significantly higher on Histosols compared to Spodosols in cane production. We conclude that the soil type on which Energy cane is grown determines the climatic impact of changing a landscape from pasture to Energy cane, and the greatest long-term climate benefit comes from growing cane on Spodosols.

  17. Chemometric Characterization of Alembic and Industrial Sugar Cane Spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Regina F. R.; Vidal, Carla B.; de Lima, Ari C. A.; Melo, Diego Q.; Allan N. S. Dantas; Lopes, Gisele S.; Ronaldo F. do Nascimento; Gomes, Clerton L.; Maria Nataniela da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of...

  18. Development of ice cream based sugar cane juice and sensory evaluation with children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pedro da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ice cream is a tasty and nutritious source of protein and calcium, but it is deficient in some minerals, as iron, but it is found in sugar cane juice, which is a source of minerals such as iron, phosphorus, calcium, sodium among others. The objective of the present study are: to develop sugar cane juice ice cream, in order to increase the mineral content replacing refined sugar and water during the manufacturing process by sugar cane juice; to analyze its physical-chemical composition; to check your sensory acceptance with children. Three formulations were prepared from sugar cane juice ice cream: sugar cane juice ice cream (SC, sugar cane juice ice cream with molasses (SCM and sugar cane juice ice cream with brown sugar (SCR. Sensory evaluation was conducted with 120 children (62 boys and 58 girls from 8 to 10 years old, students from 3rd to 5th years of primary school. Sensory tests were ordering-preference, intention to use and acceptance with facial hedonic scale of 7 points. The results of physico-chemical and acceptance testing were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, the scores compared by Tukey test (p ? 0.05 and the result of the sensory test ordering-preference were assessed using the Friedman. The ice cream it presents has a reduced fat content because it was formulated with palm trans-fat free. The use of sugar cane juice in the formulation of the ice cream increased the amount of minerals when compared to ordinary ice cream. Therefore, sugar cane juice ice cream demonstrated to be more healthy and nutritious compared with traditional ice cream, besides being source of calcium, iron and phosphorus; serving the needs of the recommended daily intake (IDR for children from 7 to 10 years old. About the sensory evaluation, all formulations of sugar cane juice ice cream obtained great sensory acceptance among children in all sensory attributes evaluated, showing excellent percentages of acceptance and intention to use by

  19. A new linearly-combined bi-exponential model for kinetic analysis of the isometric relaxation process of Bufo gastrocnemius under electric stimulation in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There was a slow-relaxing tail of skeletal muscles in vitro upon the inhibition of Ca2+-pump by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). Herein, a new linearly-combined bi-exponential model to resolve this slow-relaxing tail from the fast-relaxing phase was investigated for kinetic analysis of the isometric relaxation process of Bufo gastrocnemius in vitro, in comparison to the single exponential model and the classical bi-exponential model. During repetitive stimulations at a 2-s interval by square pulses of a 2-ms duration at 12 V direct currency (DC), the isometric tension of Bufo gastrocnemius was recorded at 100 Hz. The relaxation curve with tensions falling from 90% of the peak to the 15th datum before next stimulation was analyzed by three exponential models using a program in MATLAB 6.5. Both the goodness of fit and the distribution of the residuals for the best fitting supported the comparable validity of this new bi-exponential model for kinetic analysis of the relaxation process of the control muscles. After CPA treatment, however, this new bi-exponential model showed an obvious statistical superiority for kinetic analysis of the muscle relaxation process, and it gave the estimated rest tension consistent to that by experimentation, whereas both the classical bi-exponential model and the single exponential model gave biased rest tensions. Moreover, after the treatment of muscles by CPA, both the single exponential model and the classical bi-exponential model yielded lowered relaxation rates,nevertheless, this new bi-exponential model had relaxation rates of negligible changes except much higher rest tensions. These results suggest that this novel linearly-combined bi-exponential model is desirable for kinetic analysis of the relaxation process of muscles with altered Ca2+-pumping activity.

  20. Galaxy Flow in the Canes Venatici I Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Karachentsev, I D; Dolphin, A E; Grebel, E K; Geisler, D; Guhathakurta, P; Hodge, P W; Karachentseva, V E; Sarajedini, A; Seitzer, P

    2003-01-01

    We present an analysis of Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 images of eighteen galaxies in the Canes Venatici I cloud. We derive their distances from the luminosity of the tip of the red giant branch stars with a typical accuracy of ~12 %. The resulting distances are 3.9 Mpc (UGC 6541), 4.9 Mpc (NGC 3738), 3.0 Mpc (NGC 3741), 4.5 Mpc (KK 109), >6.3 Mpc (NGC 4150), 4.2 Mpc (UGC 7298), 4.5 Mpc (NGC 4244), 4.6 Mpc (NGC 4395), 4.9 Mpc (UGC 7559), 4.2 Mpc (NGC 4449), 4.4 Mpc (UGC 7605), 4.6 Mpc (IC 3687), 4.7 Mpc (KK 166), 4.7 Mpc (NGC 4736), 4.2 Mpc (UGC 8308), 4.3 Mpc (UGC 8320), 4.6 Mpc (NGC 5204), and 3.2 Mpc (UGC 8833). The CVn I cloud has a mean radial velocity of 286 +- 9 km/s, a mean distance of 4.1 +- 0.2 Mpc, a radial velocity dispersion of 50 km/s, a mean projected radius of 760 kpc, and a total blue luminosity of 2.2 * 10^{10} L_{\\sun}. Assuming virial or closed orbital motions for the galaxies, we estimated their virial and their orbital mass-to-luminosity ratio to be 176 and 88 M_{\\sun}/L_{\\sun}, respecti...

  1. Distances to Dwarf Galaxies of the Canes Venatici I Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Makarov, D I; Uklein, R I

    2013-01-01

    We determined the spatial structure of the scattered concentration of galaxies in the Canes Venatici constellation. We redefined the distances for 30 galaxies of this region using the deep images from the Hubble Space Telescope archive with the WFPC2 and ACS cameras. We carried out a high-precision stellar photometry of the resolved stars in these galaxies, and determined the photometric distances by the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) using an advanced technique and modern calibrations. High accuracy of the results allows us to distinguish the zone of chaotic motions around the center of the system. A group of galaxies around M94 is characterized by the median velocity VLG=287 km/s, distance D=4.28 Mpc, internal velocity dispersion sigma=51 km/s and total luminosity LB=1.61x10^10 Lo. The projection mass of the system amounts to Mp=2.56x10^12 Mo, which corresponds to the mass-luminosity ratio of (M/L)p=159 (M/L)o. The estimate of the mass-luminosity ratio is significantly higher than the typical ratio M/LB...

  2. A blind HI survey in the Canes Venatici region

    CERN Document Server

    Kovac, K; Van der Hulst, J M

    2009-01-01

    We have carried out a blind HI survey using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope to make an inventory of objects with small HI masses (between 10^6 and 10^8 Msol) and to constrain the low-mass end of the HI mass function. The survey has been conducted in a part of the volume containing the nearby Canes Venatici groups of galaxies. The surveyed region covers an area on the sky of about 86 square degrees and a range in velocity from about -450 to about 1330 km/s. We find 70 sources in the survey by applying an automated searching algorithm. Two of the detections have not been catalogued previously, but they can be assigned an optical counterpart, based on visual inspection of the second generation Digital Sky Survey images. Only one of the HI detections is without an optical counterpart. This object is detected in the vicinity of NGC4822 and it has been already detected in previous HI studies. Nineteen of the objects have been detected for the first time in the 21-cm emission line in this survey. The distri...

  3. Geothermal resource utilization: paper and cane sugar industries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornburg, C.D.; Morin, O.J.

    1975-03-01

    This study was made as a specific contribution to an overall report by the United States in the area of industrial utilization of geothermal resources. This is part of an overall study in non-electrical uses of geothermal resources for a sub-committee of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. This study was restricted to the geopressured zone along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast. Also, it was limited to utilizing the thermal energy of this ''geoenergy'' resource for process use in the Pulp and Paper Industry and Cane Sugar Industry. For the selected industries and resource area, this report sets forth energy requirements; identifies specific plant and sites; includes diagrams of main processes used; describes process and equipment modifications required; describes energy recovery systems; sets forth waste disposal schemes and problems; and establishes the economics involved. The scope of work included considerable data collection, analysis and documentation. Detailed technical work was done concerning existing processes and modifications to effectively utilize geothermal energy. A brief survey was made of other industries to determine which of these has a high potential for utilizing geothermal energy.

  4. Development of Powered Disk Type Sugar Cane Stubble Saver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radite P.A.S.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to design, fabricate and test a prototype of sugar cane stubble saver based on powered disk mechanism. In this research, a heavy duty disk plow or disk harrow was used as a rotating knife to cut the sugarcane stubble. The parabolic disk was chosen because it is proven reliable as soil working tools and it is available in the market as spare part of disk plow or disk harrow unit. The prototype was mounted on the four wheel tractor’s three point hitch, and powered by PTO of the tractor. Two kinds of disks were used in these experiments, those were disk with regular edge or plain disk and disk with scalloped edge or scalloped disk. Both disks had diameter of 28 inch. Results of field test showed that powered disk mechanism could satisfy cut sugar cane’s stubble. However, scalloped disk type gave smoother stubble cuts compared to that of plain disk. Plain disk type gave broken stubble cut. Higher rotation (1000 rpm resulted better cuts as compared to lower rotation (500 rpm both either on plain disk and scalloped disk. The developed prototype could work below the soil surface at depth of 5 to 10 cm. With tilt angle setting 20O and disk angle 45O the width of cut was about 25 cm.

  5. Production of Dextran from Sugar Cane Molasses by Leuconostoc mesenteroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Faramarzi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Dextran is a polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that are widely used in medicine as a blood volume extender. The aim of this study was to produce dextran from cane molasses using Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria. Methods: In this experimental study, for bacterial growth and dextran production, sugarcane molasses was added to the culture medium at different concentrations. Dextran sedimentation was obtained by shaking and centrifugation by adding ethanol after 48 hours. Response surface design was used for qualitative identification of the polarization of dextran and statistical analysis methods. Results: After assessing the separation and interactive effects of the parameters on the optimum amount of dextran produced from sugarcane molasses as 50 g, 35 º C and 5/8 = pH , the Dextran produced was more than 82 g/l. The correlation of the computational model for the dextran produced was 99.5%, which indicated excellent agreement with the experimental and computational models of high accuracy. Conclusion: Dextran produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria and sugarcane molasses as substrate, is a cheap and affordable compared to current methods of dextran production. In addition to producing a clinical product, the molasses pollution could be dramatically decreased. Key words: Dextran, Molasses, Leuconostoc Mesenteroides

  6. Improvement of sugar-cane through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results obtained on the use of induced mutations in sugar-cane breeding are summarized. Six commercial varieties under cultivation in India were subjected to mutagenic treatment for inducing mutations for specific characters. More than 50 mutants for various morphological characters, disease resistance and higher sugar content were obtained in these varieties. They were multiplied and studied for their stability for four to five years. Mutants of economic value include glabrous leaf sheath, non-flowering, vigorous and high-yielding mutants in Co 527, high-sugared and early maturing mutants in Co 419 and mutants for smut and disease resistance in Co 1287 and Co 740. Two mutants, one in Co 527 and the other in Co 419, have entered the All India Co-ordinated trials because of their superiority in yield and quality over the parent variety. Smut-resistant mutants of Co 1287 and Co 740 are being evaluated in large-scale trials. Tissue culture techniques have been used for propagating the mutants. Genetic variability has also been created by obtaining plants from callus culture with different chromosome numbers. (author)

  7. Influence of dissolved oxygen conditions on toxicity of ammonium nitrate to larval natterjack toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Marco, Adolfo

    2015-07-01

    Temporary ponds, where many amphibians from temperate regions breed, show an annual cycle with a maximum water volume in spring followed by a progressive desiccation throughout late spring and summer. This desiccation leads to a decrease in dissolved oxygen and an increase in nitrogen levels, which can additionally increase because of anthropogenic sources such as chemical fertilizers. We analyzed the toxicity posed by environmentally relevant levels of a common nitrogenous fertilizer, ammonium nitrate, at different conditions of oxygen availability to Bufo calamita tadpoles, which typically develop in ephemeral ponds. Ammonium nitrate (90.3 mg N-NO3NH4/l) and hypoxic conditions (initial dissolved oxygen 4.53 ± 0.40 mg/l) caused significant lethal effects after 7 and 12 days of exposure, respectively. At the end of experiment (16 days), mortality rates were 32.5 % in individuals exposed to the fertilizer and 15 % in those growing under hypoxic conditions. When both stressors were combined, they showed an additive effect on tadpole survival. Malformations, such as oedemas and spinal curvatures, and locomotory abnormalities, were detected after 12 days of experiment in >90 % of individuals exposed to 45.2 mg N-NO3NH4/l under hypoxic conditions, whereas none of these stressors by separate related to abnormality rates >35 %. Delayed development was also observed in tadpoles exposed to ammonium nitrate with hypoxia affecting developmental rate only after 12 days of exposure. The results are discussed in terms of potential mechanisms linking negative effects of both factors as well as in terms of potential alterations of the ecological plasticity that often allows amphibians to survive in unpredictable environments. PMID:25586169

  8. Substitution of sugar cane bagasse in the chicken diet and immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, R A; el-Faramawy, A A

    2001-10-01

    Total proteins and protein electrophoresis were made in the sera of broiler chicken (Arber Acres) to evaluate the effect of substitution of basal diet for 4 weeks by either 8% sugar cane bagasse +2% wheat germ or 16% sugar cane bagasse +4% wheat germ whether untreated or incubated with rumen liquor for 72 h and then sterilized with 2 Mrad gamma-irradiation (treated). Both levels of untreated sugar can bagasse (8 and 16%) showed significant decrease in gamma globulins but this decrease had no effect on broiler chicken (45 days) while there was significant increase in total proteins in treated sugar cane bagasse 8% with concomitant increase in alpha 2, beta 1, beta 2 and gamma globulins. These results denoted that addition of rumen liquor to 8% sugar cane bagasse diet have resulted in an improvement in the transportation of micro nutrients and immune response most probably due to its high content of microorganisms constituting high quality animal protein; also more vaccines were recommended in feeding of chicken with sugar cane bagasse for a longer period e.g. laying hens to overcome its suppressive effect on the gamma globulins. PMID:11715352

  9. DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cane-based Celotex(trademark) has been used extensively in various Department of Energy (DOE) packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard was only manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new shipping packages requiring the material as a component. Current consolidation plans for the DOE Complex require the procurement of several thousand new Model 9975 shipping packages requiring cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard. Therefore, an alternative to cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard is needed. Knight-Celotex currently manufactures Celotex(trademark) fiberboard from other cellulosic materials, such as hardwood and softwood. A review of the relevant literature has shown that softwood-based Celotex(trademark) meets all parameters important to the Model 9975 shipping package

  10. Antioxidant effects of grape vine cane extracts from different Chinese grape varieties on edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Zhuo; Guo, Zemei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Ang; Li, Hua; Fang, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was significantly reduced under an accelerated storage condition of 70 ± 1 °C in the presence of Vitamin C (VC), which was chosen as a synergist of grape vine cane extract. A 4:1 ratio of Victoria Blanc-ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and VC led to a significant lowering of the peroxide value and indicated a better antioxidant effect. Thus, these results indicated that some varieties of grape vine cane extracts could be applied as natural antioxidants for elevation of the quality of edible oils in the food industry. PMID:25251191

  11. The future of sugar cane in China and India - Supply constraints and expansion potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last decade has seen a surging demand for biofuels in the wake of increasing oil prices and rising environmental concerns. The most common biofuel is bio-ethanol accounting for more than 90% of total biofuel usage. It is increasingly produced from sugar cane making cane a strategic crop for biofuels. Given the growing demand for 'green' fuels, bio-ethanol production has been supported by energy policies in the past decade, which have consequently been accused of contributing to the global trend of rising food prices and thus jeopardising food security. However, while biofuel policies are an important driver, prices as much as food security will ultimately be determined by supply constraints of strategic crops. This paper hence investigates drivers of and constraints to sugar cane production in China and India and shows that supply side constraints vary significantly in the two countries. China and India both face serious limitations with regard to suitable available land for the further expansion of sugar cane production. Equally they are both faced with challenges to increasing yield output per hectare, albeit different ones. With regard to productivity, China achieved 2.7% annual yield growth since 1997, while India has seen yield decreases of -0.1% p.a. over the same period. The authors conclude that cane used as a feedstock to meet the rising energy demand will come at the expense of converting fertile land for non-food purposes.

  12. The future of sugar cane in China and India - Supply constraints and expansion potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last decade has seen a surging demand for biofuels in the wake of increasing oil prices and rising environmental concerns. The most common biofuel is bio-ethanol accounting for more than 90% of total biofuel usage. It is increasingly produced from sugar cane making cane a strategic crop for biofuels. Given the growing demand for ''green'' fuels, bio-ethanol production has been supported by energy policies in the past decade, which have consequently been accused of contributing to the global trend of rising food prices and thus jeopardising food security. However, while biofuel policies are an important driver, prices as much as food security will ultimately be determined by supply constraints of strategic crops. This paper hence investigates drivers of and constraints to sugar cane production in China and India and shows that supply side constraints vary significantly in the two countries. China and India both face serious limitations with regard to suitable available land for the further expansion of sugar cane production. Equally they are both faced with challenges to increasing yield output per hectare, albeit different ones. With regard to productivity, China achieved 2.7% annual yield growth since 1997, while India has seen yield decreases of -0.1% p.a. over the same period. The authors conclude that cane used as a feedstock to meet the rising energy demand will come at the expense of converting fertile land for non-food purposes. (author)

  13. Fluoride bioaccumulation by hydroponic cultures of camellia (Camellia japonica spp.) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarena-Rangel, Nancy; Rojas Velázquez, Angel Natanael; Santos-Díaz, María del Socorro

    2015-10-01

    The ability of hydroponic cultures of camellia and sugar cane adult plants to remove fluoride was investigated. Plants were grown in a 50% Steiner nutrient solution. After an adaptation period to hydroponic conditions, plants were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg L(-1)). Fluoride concentration in the culture medium and in tissues was measured. In sugar cane, fluoride was mainly located in roots, with 86% of it absorbed and 14% adsorbed. Sugar cane plants removed 1000-1200 mg fluoride kg(-1) dry weight. In camellia plants the highest fluoride concentration was found in leaf. Roots accumulated fluoride mainly through absorption, which was 2-5 times higher than adsorption. At the end of the experiment, fluoride accumulation in camellia plants was 1000-1400 mgk g(-1) dry weight. Estimated concentration factors revealed that fluoride bioaccumulation is 74-221-fold in camellia plants and 100-500-fold in sugar cane plants. Thus, the latter appear as a suitable candidate for removing fluoride from water due to their bioaccumulation capacity and vigorous growth rate; therefore, sugar cane might be used for phytoremediation. PMID:25930125

  14. DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, R; Jason Varble, J

    2008-05-27

    Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various Department of Energy (DOE) packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard was only manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new shipping packages requiring the material as a component. Current consolidation plans for the DOE Complex require the procurement of several thousand new Model 9975 shipping packages requiring cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard. Therefore, an alternative to cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is needed. Knight-Celotex currently manufactures Celotex{trademark} fiberboard from other cellulosic materials, such as hardwood and softwood. A review of the relevant literature has shown that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} meets all parameters important to the Model 9975 shipping package.

  15. Sugar-cane juice induces pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in Penicillium griseoroseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minussi Rosana Cristina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of other inducers as substitutes for pectin was studied aiming to reduce the production costs of pectic enzymes. The effects of sugar-cane juice on the production of pectin lyase (PL and polygalacturonase (PG by Penicillium griseoroseum were investigated. The fungus was cultured in a mineral medium (pH 6.3 in a rotary shaker (150 rpm for 48 h at 25oC. Culture media were supplemented with yeast extract and sucrose or sugar-cane juice. Sugar-cane juice added singly to the medium promoted higher PL activity and mycelial dry weight when compared to pectin and the use of sugar-cane juice and yeast extract yielded levels of PG activity that were similar to those obtained with sucrose-yeast extract or pectin. The results indicated that, even at low concentrations, sugar-cane juice was capable of inducing pectin lyase and polygalacturonase with no cellulase activity in P. griseoroseum.

  16. A new species of flea-toad (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condez, Thais Helena; Monteiro, Juliane Petry De Carli; Comitti, Estevão Jasper; Garcia, Paulo Christiano De Anchietta; Amaral, Ivan Borel; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Brachycephalus that is morphologically similar to the flea-toads B. didactylus, B. hermogenesi, and B. pulex. The new species occurs from the sea level up to 1000 m and it is widely distributed throughout southern Atlantic Forest. Brachycephalus sulfuratus sp. nov. is distinguished from all of its congeners by the combination of the following characters: (1) small body size (SVL of adults: 7.4-8.5 mm for males and 9.0-10.8 mm for females); (2) "leptodactyliform" body; (3) pectoral girdle arciferal and less robust compared to the Brachycephalus species with "bufoniform" body; (4) procoracoid and epicoracoid fused with coracoid but separated from the clavicle by a large fenestrae; (5) toe I externally absent; toes II, III, IV, and V distinct; phalanges of toes II and V reduced; (6) skin smooth with no dermal ossifications; (7) in life, general background color brown with small dark-brown spots; skin of throat, chest, arms, and forearms with irregular yellow blotches; in ventral view, cloacal region of alive and preserved specimens surrounded by a dark-brown inverted v-shaped mark outlined with white; (8) advertisement call long, composed of a set of 4-7 high-frequency notes (6.2-7.2 kHz) repeated regularly. PMID:27394218

  17. Deep genetic structure and ecological divergence in a widespread human commensal toad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogan, Guinevere O U; Stuart, Bryan L; Iskandar, Djoko T; McGuire, Jimmy A

    2016-01-01

    The Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus) is a human commensal species that occupies a wide variety of habitats across tropical Southeast Asia. We test the hypothesis that genetic variation in D. melanostictus is weakly associated with geography owing to natural and human-mediated dispersal facilitated by its commensal nature. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence variation, and predictive species distribution modelling, unexpectedly recovered three distinct evolutionary lineages that differ genetically and ecologically, corresponding to the Asian mainland, coastal Myanmar and the Sundaic islands. The persistence of these three divergent lineages, despite ample opportunities for recent human-mediated and geological dispersal, suggests that D. melanostictus actually consists of multiple species, each having narrower geographical ranges and ecological niches, and higher conservation value, than is currently recognized. These findings also have implications for the invasion potential of this human commensal elsewhere, such as in its recently introduced ranges on the islands of Borneo, Sulawesi, Seram and Madagascar. PMID:26763213

  18. Evolution of rapid development in spadefoot toads is unrelated to arid environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Cen; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan; Wiens, John J

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which species' life histories evolve to match climatic conditions is a critical question in evolutionary biology and ecology and as human activities rapidly modify global climate. GIS-based climatic data offer new opportunities to rigorously test this question. Superficially, the spadefoot toads of North America (Scaphiopodidae) seem to offer a classic example of adaptive life-history evolution: some species occur in extremely dry deserts and have evolved the shortest aquatic larval periods known among anurans. However, the relationships between the climatic conditions where spadefoots occur and the relevant life-history traits have not been explicitly tested. Here, we analyzed these relationships using GIS-based climatic data, published life-history data, and a time-calibrated phylogeny for pelobatoid frogs. Surprisingly, we find no significant relationships between life-history variables and precipitation or aridity levels where these species occur. Instead, rapid development in pelobatoids is strongly related to their small genome sizes and to phylogeny. PMID:24800832

  19. Protein synthesis inhibitors attenuate water flow in vasopressin-stimulated toad urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasopressin stimulates the introduction of aggregated particles, which may represent pathways for water flow, into the luminal membrane of toad urinary bladder. It is not known whether water transport pathways are degraded on removal from membrane or whether they are recycled. The authors examined the effect of the protein synthesis inhibitors cycloheximide and puromycin using repeated 30-min cycles of vasopressin followed by washout of vasopressin, all in the presence of an osmotic gradient, a protocol that maximizes aggregate turnover. High dose cycloheximide inhibited flow immediately. Low dose cycloheximide did not affect initial flow. In the absence of vasopressin, inhibition did not develop. Despite the inhibition of flow in vasopressin-treated tissues, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase ratio was elevated in cycloheximide-treated tissues, suggesting modulation at a distal site in the stimulatory cascade. [14C]urea permeability was not inhibited by cycloheximide. Puromycin also inhibited water flow by the fourth challenge with vasopressin. The data suggest that protein synthesis inhibitors attenuate flow at a site that is distal to cAMP-dependent protein kinase. However, the reversal of inhibition in MIX-treated tissues suggests that the water pathway can be fully manifested given suitable stimulation. They conclude that either large stores of the transport system are available or that the transport system is extensively recycled on retrieval from the membrane

  20. Electron-microscopic study of the apical region of the toad bladder epithelial cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, J; Tilles, S; Condeelis, J; Carboni, J; Meiteles, L; Franki, N; Bolon, R; Robertson, C; Hays, R M

    1984-09-01

    Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) promotes fusion of cytoplasmic tubules with the luminal membrane and delivery of particles from the tubules to the membrane. The particles are believed to be the water-conducting elements in the membrane. We have employed several scanning (SEM) and transmission electron-microscopic (TEM) techniques to study the relationship of the cytoplasmic tubules to the luminal membrane and to the apical cytoskeleton of the toad bladder epithelial cell. This paper reports the results of freeze-crack SEM and tannic acid-fixed TEM studies, as well as studies with a resinless method of embedding. Freeze-cracked epithelial cells reveal that the tubules are anchored in a matrix of cytoskeleton and granules just below the luminal membrane, and many, if not all, retain their anchorage to the matrix after ADH-induced fusion. Tannic acid-fixed specimens show that the tubules in unstimulated cells lie horizontally. Fusion appears to involve an angulation of the tubules, and this may be the major mode of ADH-induced tubule movement. There are suggestions in the tannic acid sections of filamentous attachments of tubules to the surrounding cytoskeleton. In addition there are prominent microfilament bundles running down the microvilli and a dense concentration of filaments just below the luminal membrane. The presence of these filaments is confirmed in the resinless sections, and their possible role in ADH action is discussed. PMID:6433717

  1. Phylogeography and demography of Guianan harlequin toads (Atelopus): diversification within a refuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Brice P; Gaucher, Philippe

    2005-09-01

    We investigated the genetic structure of populations of Guianan harlequin toads (genus Atelopus) and their evolutionary affinities to extra-Guianan congeners. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) gene sequences produced well-supported clades largely corresponding to the four recognized taxa in the Guianas (Atelopus spumarius hoogmoedi, Atelopus spumarius barbotini, Atelopus franciscus, and Atelopus flavescens). Our findings suggest that the Guianan A. spumarius represent distinct evolutionary lineages that merit distinction from Amazonian conspecifics, and that the status of A. flavescens and A. franciscus is somewhat less clear. Approximately 69% of the observed genetic variation is accounted for by differences between these four recognized taxa. Coalescent-based estimates of gene flow between taxa suggest that these lineages are largely isolated from one another. Negligible rates of migration between populations and significant divergence within such close proximity suggests that although the region inhabited by these taxa is almost entirely undisturbed, significant habitat heterogeneity exists as to have produced a remarkable diversification of Atelopus within the eastern Guiana Shield. These results contradict the commonly held view of the Guiana Shield as a 'refuge' whose stability during late Tertiary and Quaternary climatic fluctuations served as a biotic reservoir. Instead, we provide evidence that climatic fluctuations during this time had a diversifying effect within the Guianan region. PMID:16101771

  2. Variety of antimicrobial peptides in the Bombina maxima toad and evidence of their rapid diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Hui; Li, Yan; Lai, Ren; Li, Sha; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Wen

    2005-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides secreted by the skin of many amphibians play an important role in innate immunity. From two skin cDNA libraries of two individuals of the Chinese red belly toad (Bombina maxima), we identified 56 different antimicrobial peptide cDNA sequences, each of which encodes a precursor peptide that can give rise to two kinds of antimicrobial peptides, maximin and maximin H. Among these cDNA, we found that the mean number of nucleotide substitution per non-synonymous site in both the maximin and maximin H domains significantly exceed the mean number of nucleotide substitution per synonymous site, whereas the same pattern was not observed in other structural regions, such as the signal and propiece peptide regions, suggesting that these antimicrobial peptide genes have been experiencing rapid diversification driven by Darwinian selection. We cloned and sequenced seven genes amplified from skin or liver genomic DNA. These genes have three exons and share the same gene structure, in which both maximin and maximin H are encoded by the third exon. This suggests that alternative splicing and somatic recombination are less likely to play a role in creating the diversity of maximins and maximin Hs. The gene trees based on different domain regions revealed that domain shuffling or gene conversion among these genes might have happened frequently. PMID:15770703

  3. Maximins S, a novel group of antimicrobial peptides from toad Bombina maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Jie; Shen, Ji-Hong; Jin, Yang; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2005-02-18

    Amphibian skin secretions are rich in antimicrobial peptides acting as important components of innate defense system against invading microorganisms. A novel type of peptide, designated as maximin S, was deduced by random sequencing of 793 clones from a constructed Bombina maxima skin cDNA library. The putative primary structures of maximin S peptides can be grouped into five species, in which maximin S1 has 14 amino acid residues and the rest of maximin S peptides (S2-S5) all have 18 amino acid residues. Unlike most of the amphibian antimicrobial peptides so far identified, the newly characterized four maximin S precursors are composed of maximin S1 and different combinations of tandem repeated maximin S2-S5 linked by internal peptides. Except maximin S1, the predicted secondary structures of maximin S2-S5 show a similar amphipathic alpha-helical structure. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis of partially isolated skin secretions of the toad indicates that most of the deduced maximin S peptides are expressed. Two deduced maximin S peptides (S1, S4) were synthesized and their antimicrobial activities were tested. Maximin S4 only had an antibiotic activity against mycoplasma and had no antibacterial or antifungal activity toward tested strains. Maximin S1 had no activity under the same conditions. PMID:15649437

  4. keratinized nuptial spines are used for male combat in the emei moustache toad (leptobrachium boringii)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    we describe the natural history and reproductive behaviour of the emei moustache toad (leptobrachium boringii)with an emphasis on the development of keratinized nuptial spines in males and document combat behaviour for the first time in this species.between february and march of 2011,19 female and 43 male l.boringii from mount emei unesco world heritage site,sichuan,china were observed throughout the breeding season.this species exhibits male-biased sexual size dimorphism (ssd)with limited evidence of paternal care (nest guarding by males).prior to the breeding season males grow 10-16 keratinized spines on their upper lip,which fall off once the season has ended.throughout the breeding season males construct and defend aquatic nests where they produce advertisement calls to attract females.during this time we documented 14 cases involving a total of 22 males where males used their moustaches for aggressive interaction.combat typically occurred at the beginning of the season when males would compete for a limited number of available nest sites.neither male body size,nor body condition significantly affects the outcome of an aggressive interaction,suggesting that size may not be the only factor influencing an individual's chance of victory.our evidence for male competition and aggression,along with observed paternal care are potential mechanisms to explain the evolution of male-biased ssd observed in this species.

  5. Analysis of heart rate control to assess thermal sensitivity responses in Brazilian toads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E.S. Natali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In anurans, changes in ambient temperature influence body temperature and, therefore, energy consumption. These changes ultimately affect energy supply and, consequently, heart rate (HR. Typically, anurans living in different thermal environments have different thermal sensitivities, and these cannot be distinguished by changes in HR. We hypothesized that Rhinella jimi (a toad from a xeric environment that lives in a wide range of temperatures would have a lower thermal sensitivity regarding cardiac control than R. icterica (originally from a tropical forest environment with a more restricted range of ambient temperatures. Thermal sensitivity was assessed by comparing animals housed at 15° and 25°C. Cardiac control was estimated by heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate complexity (HRC. Differences in HRV between the two temperatures were not significant (P=0.214 for R. icterica and P=0.328 for R. jimi, whereas HRC differences were. All specimens but one R. jimi had a lower HRC at 15°C (all P<0.01. These results indicate that R. jimi has a lower thermal sensitivity and that cardiac control is not completely dependent on the thermal environment because HRC was not consistently different between temperatures in all R. jimi specimens. This result indicates a lack of evolutive trade-offs among temperatures given that heart rate control at 25°C is potentially not a constraint to heart rate control at 15°C.

  6. Analysis of heart rate control to assess thermal sensitivity responses in Brazilian toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, J E S; Santos, B T; Rodrigues, V H; Chauí-Berlinck, J G

    2015-01-01

    In anurans, changes in ambient temperature influence body temperature and, therefore, energy consumption. These changes ultimately affect energy supply and, consequently, heart rate (HR). Typically, anurans living in different thermal environments have different thermal sensitivities, and these cannot be distinguished by changes in HR. We hypothesized that Rhinella jimi (a toad from a xeric environment that lives in a wide range of temperatures) would have a lower thermal sensitivity regarding cardiac control than R. icterica (originally from a tropical forest environment with a more restricted range of ambient temperatures). Thermal sensitivity was assessed by comparing animals housed at 15° and 25°C. Cardiac control was estimated by heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate complexity (HRC). Differences in HRV between the two temperatures were not significant (P=0.214 for R. icterica and P=0.328 for R. jimi), whereas HRC differences were. All specimens but one R. jimi had a lower HRC at 15°C (all Ptemperatures in all R. jimi specimens. This result indicates a lack of evolutive trade-offs among temperatures given that heart rate control at 25°C is potentially not a constraint to heart rate control at 15°C. PMID:25493382

  7. Sexual dimorphism in baseline urinary corticosterone metabolites and their association with body-condition indices in a peri-urban population of the common Asian toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Edward J; Gramapurohit, Narahari P

    2016-01-01

    Field endocrinology research through the quantification of glucocorticoids or stress hormones in free-living wildlife is crucial for assessing their physiological responses towards pervasive environmental changes. Urinary corticosterone metabolite (UCM) enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) has been validated for numerous amphibian species as a non-invasive measure of physiological stress. Body-condition indices (BCIs) have also been widely used in amphibians as an indirect measure of animal health. Field endocrinology research on amphibian species in Asia is limited. In this study, we validated a UCM EIA in a peri-urban sub-population of the common Asian toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus) in Pune, Maharashtra, India. We determined the baseline levels of UCMs in male (n=39) and female (n=19) toads. Secondly, we used a standard capture handling protocol to quantify changes in UCMs during short-term captivity. We also determined BCIs in the male and female toads using Fulton's index (K) and residual condition index (RCI). The results showed that mean baseline levels of UCMs were significantly higher in male toads than in females. There was no significant change in mean levels of UCMs of males and females between capture and captivity (0-12h). This highlights plausible habituation of the species to the peri-urban environment. Associations between UCMs with BCIs (K and R) were positive in male toads but negative in females. In conclusion, our UCMs EIA can be applied with BCIs to assess health of the Asian toads. We also suggest that direct fitness parameters such as sperm and oocyte quality, reproductive ecology and immunocompetence measurements should be applied in combination with these conservation physiology tools to quantify the fitness consequences of pervasive environmental changes on native amphibians. PMID:26478192

  8. 78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Tariff- Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the...-quota aggregate quantity of raw cane sugar at 1,117,195 metric tons raw value (MTRV). The Secretary also... the in-quota TRQ amounts (expressed in terms of raw value) for imports of raw cane sugar and...

  9. Sweet and bitter: trajectories of sugar cane investments in Northern Luzon, the Philippines, and Aceh, Indonesia, 2006-13

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Shohibuddin; M.L. Alano; G. Nooteboom

    2015-01-01

    This chapter aims to understand the complex process of investment and land deal making through the in-depth study of three cases of sugar cane investment in the Philippines and Indonesia. It focuses on three different trajectories of sugar cane schemes—one in northern Luzon, the Philippines, and two

  10. Variability in the occurrence of the sugar cane froghopper Aeneolamia flavilatera (Homoptera: Cercopidae), on sugar estates in Guyana and Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiedijk, F.

    1982-01-01

    Significant numbers of the sugar cane froghopper, Aeneolamia flavilatera, are generally not found to be present on sugar cane during the periodically occurring prolonged dry periods. This is primarily attributable to drought induced quiescence in the froghopper eggs, which delays the appearence of t

  11. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising...

  12. 75 FR 39612 - Allocation of Second Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: July 9, 2010. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or... (HTS), the United States maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d) (3... Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On July 6, 2010, the Secretary of Agriculture announced a second additional...

  13. Pre-irradiation effects of γ-rays on sugar cane bagasse liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, pre-irradiation of sugar cane bagasse with several doses of γ-irradiation was studied. The irradiated samples were submitted to liquefaction and subsequently fractionated. The results show that with increasing doses (until 80 kGy) there is an increase in the product yield, which decreases with higher doses. The results obtained by the fractionation demonstrated that the product quality decreases with higher doses of irradiation. Obtaining compounds of interest, such as hydrocarbons and resins, upon liquefaction suggests a better use for sugar cane bagasse. Since sugar cane is a renewable source, its bagasse is a viable alternative for obtaining feedstocks for chemical and pharmaceutical industries. (author) 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. A novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses for production of prebiotic and functional bioproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manisha; Patel, Satya Narayan; Lata, Kusum; Singh, Umesh; Krishania, Meena; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, Sudhir P

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the sugar industry by-product cane molasses was investigated as feedstock for acceptor reactions by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 10508, leading to the biosynthesis of oligosaccharides. The starch industry corn fiber residue was used as a source for acceptor molecules, maltose, in the reaction. Production of approximately 124g oligosaccharides (DP3-DP6) per kg of fresh molasses was achieved. Further, cane molasses based medium was demonstrated as a sole carbon source for L. mesenteroides growth and dextransucrase production. d-Fructose released by dextransucrase activity as processing by-product was transformed into the functional monosaccharide with zero caloric value, d-psicose, by inducing its epimerization. Quantitative analysis approximated 37g d-psicose per kg of fresh molasses. Thus, the study established a novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses into prebiotic and functional food additives. PMID:27498012

  15. Humidity data for 9975 shipping packages with cane fiberboard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The 9975 surveillance program is developing a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in K-Area Complex beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Direct measurements of humidity and fiberboard moisture content have been made on two test packages with cane fiberboard and varying internal heat levels from 0 up to 19W. With an internal heat load, a temperature gradient in the fiberboard assembly leads to varying relative humidity in the air around the fiberboard. However, the absolute humidity tends to remain approximately constant throughout the package. The moisture content of fiberboard varies under the influence of several phenomena. Changes in local fiberboard temperature (from an internal heat load) can cause fiberboard moisture changes through absorption or evaporation. Fiberboard degradation at elevated temperature will produce water as a byproduct. And the moisture level within the package is constantly seeking equilibrium with that of the surrounding room air, which varies on a daily and seasonal basis. One indicator of the moisture condition within a 9975 package might be obtained by measuring the relative humidity in the upper air space, by inserting a humidity probe through a caplug hole. However, the data indicate that for the higher internal heat loads (15 and 19 watts), a large variation in internal moisture conditions produces little or no variation in the air space relative humidity. Therefore, this approach does not appear to be sensitive to fiberboard moisture variations at the higher heat loads which are of most interest to maintaining fiberboard integrity.

  16. Growth of Pediococcus acidilactici on sugar cane blackstrap molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sant?Anna Ernani S.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediococcus acidilactici (IL01 has grown in MRS (Man, Rogosa and Sharpe broth modified by substitution of glucose by 2.0% (MRS-2, 3.0% (MRS-3, 4.0% (MRS-4 and 5.0% (MRS-5 sugar cane blackstrap molasses. The highest acid production was obtained in MRS-5 broth maintained at a constant pH of 5.0. The highest biomass production was obtained when P. acidilactici was grown in MRS-5 broth at initial pH 6.5, while productivity was higher in MRS-2 broth (28.16%. When the MRS-2 broth was utilized at initial pH 6.5 for a 20-hour fermentation period, the highest growth rate (dx/dt was found in a period of 8 to 16 hours (0.290 g cells/L.h, while the specific growth rate (µ was 0.175 (h-1 for that period, differently from the 0.441 (h-1 obtained for the period comprising the 4th to the 12th hour. The growth in MRS broth was 5.08% (2.95 g/l higher than in MRS-2 broth (2.80 g/l. The data obtained have shown that P. acidilactici has had a significant growth in molasses as the main carbon source, and that it is possible to substitute MRS glucose by this carbon source with the purpose of obtaining a more economical growth medium for the potential large scale productions.

  17. Carbon 14 absorption and translocation in sugar cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant-cane stools were labelled with sup(14) CO sub(2), in the field, at Goiana-PE, Brazil, when 3, 7 and 11 months old. Each stool was enclosed in a chamber with sup(14) CO sub(2) for 90 minutes. The sub(14) C photosynthetic were measured in leaves, stalks, roots and soil 24 hours after labelling. Roots were divided into alive and dead and soil into rhizosphere and outer soil. At the end of the labelling period at 3, 7 and 11 months, 2, 19 and 1% of the initial sup(14) CO sub(2) were recovered in the plant and the soil. The low recovery of sub(14) C at 3 months could be attribute to losses by respiration and lack of sampling of the top growing point. The low CO sub(2) fixation and losses at first sampling in the 7 month old labelling were attributed to low light intensity during the day of labelling. Most of the recovered sub(14) C (>80%) was founded in the leaves but all plant parts received labelled photosynthetic. At 3 months, most of the sub(14) C translocated from the leaves went to the living roots (83%); at 7 and 11 months it went to the stalks (69 and 66%). While the roots received less than 2%. Root masses did not vary consistently along the plant cycle and dead root masses were always less than 10% of the total root mass. Radioactivity in the dead roots was always very low. These results suggest that the root system have a low turnover rate after 3 months old. (author)

  18. Fertilization with filter cake and micronutrients in plant cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Cristiane Adorna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of sugarcane to application of micronutrients is still not very well known. In view of the need for this information, the aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the micronutrients Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo to plant cane in three soils, with and without application of filter cake. This study consisted of three experiments performed in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, (in Igaraçu do Tiete, on an Oxisol; in Santa Maria da Serra, on an Entisol, both in the 2008/2009 growing season; and in Mirassol, on an Ultisol, in the 2009/2010 growing season in a randomized block design with four replications with a 8 x 2 factorial combination of micronutrients (1 - no application/control, 2 - addition of Zn, 3 - addition of Cu, 4 - addition of Mn 5 - addition of Fe, 6 - addition of B, 7 - addition of Mo, 8 - Addition of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo and filter cake (0 and 30 t ha-1 of filter cake in the furrow at planting. The application of filter cake was more efficient than of Borax in raising leaf B concentration to sufficiency levels for sugarcane in the Entisol, and it increased mean stalk yield in the Oxisol. In areas without filter cake application, leaf concentrations were not affected by the application of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo in the furrow at planting; however, Zn and B induced an increase in stalk and sugar yield in micronutrient-poor sandy soil.

  19. Nitrous oxide emissions in giant cane in the Cache River watershed, southern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, A. M.; Williard, K. W.; Schoonover, J.

    2013-12-01

    Large stands of Arundinaria gigantea (Walt.) Muhl, called canebrakes, were vital to wildlife and lowland ecosystem functions and historically covered millions of acres in the southeastern United States. Since European settlement, human disturbances (e.g., clearing for agriculture and fire suppression) have caused giant cane to decline to approximately 2% of its historic range. Cane's ecological importance has led to an increased interest in canebrake restoration in riparian zones. Giant cane is a good candidate to include in multispecies riparian buffers designs, as it promotes infiltration of surface runoff and deposition of sediment and associated nutrients through its high density culms and extensive shallow rooting network. In addition, nitrous oxide is produced naturally in the soil during the microbial processes of nitrification and denitrification. To examine the role that cane plays in nutrient cycling, we have designed a research strategy to determine physical and chemical properties of existing riparian stands of native giant cane and their associated soils. We collected data on soil carbon/nitrogen ratios and monthly nitrous oxide release in both canebrakes and nearby forested riparian areas. Soil in the canebrakes had significantly higher C:N ratios (10.9) than that in cropfields (9.8), but showed no significant difference than that in the forest (10.8). Nitrous oxide emissions had a strong correlation with soil water content (r2 = 24%), but no relation with soil temperature (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in N2O releases between forest and cane, nor among the monthly samples.

  20. Utilization of distillery slop for sugar cane production and environmental pollution reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasanee Thitakamol

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to study the effect of distillery slop and chemical fertilizer on soil fertility, growth and yield of sugar cane. The field experiment was conducted on Mahasarakam soil series, using the K 88-92 variety of sugar cane. The results showed that distillery slop significantly increased some nutrients in soil, particularly potassium, magnesium, sulfur and chloride. The results also showed that application of distillery slop did not affect most of the physical properties of soil. Only the saturated hydraulic conductivity was significantly decreased under non-application of fertilizer. Under the application of distillery slop, chemical fertilizer had no significant effect on the yield and the juice quality of sugar cane for both crop years. However, under non-application of distillery slop in the first crop year, application of 21-0-0 and 20-20-0 fertilizer had a significant effect on cane yield. With the application of chemical fertilizer, distillery slop had an influence on the yield of sugar cane in both crop years while different doses of slop did not make any significant difference on cane yield. The average yields of the first crop year were 126.7, 195.6, 203.0 and 187.2 ton/hectare and those of the second crop year were 85.0, 150.0, 150.8 and 142.4 ton/hectare after the application of 0, 187.5, 375 and 562.5 m3/hectare, respectively. The results also showed that application of distillery slop did not have any significant effect on juice quality for both crop years. Investigation of slop trace under the ground surface indicated that application of distillery slop did not affect the quality of underground water as the deepest level of trace was only 50 centimeters.

  1. Breeding pond selection and movement patterns by eastern spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) in relation to weather and edaphic conditions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathryn H. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Tanner, George W. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2004-08-31

    Cathryn H. Greenberg and George W. Tanner. 2004. Breeding pond selection and movement patterns by eastern spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) in relation to weather and edaphic conditions. J. Herp. 38(4):569-577. Abstract: Eastern Spadefoot Toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) require fish-free, isolated, ephemeral ponds for breeding but otherwise inhabit the surrounding uplands, commonly xeric longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) wiregrass (Aristida beyrichiana). Hence both pond and upland conditions can potentially affect their breeding biology, and population persistence. Hardwood invasion due to fire suppression in sandhills could alter upland and pond suitability by higher hardwood density and increased transpiration. In this paper we explore breeding and neonatal emigration movements in relation to weather, hydrological conditions of ponds, and surrounding upland matrices. We use 9 years of data from continuous monitoring with drift fences and pitfall traps at 8 ephemeral ponds in 2 upland matrices: regularly-burned, savanna-like sandhills (n = 4), and hardwood-invaded sandhills (n = 4). Neither adult nor neonate captures differed between ponds within the 2 upland matrices, suggesting that they are tolerant of upland heterogeneity created by fire frequency. Explosive breeding occurred during 9 periods and in all seasons; adults were captured rarely otherwise. At a landscape-level rainfall, maximum change in barometric pressure, and an interaction between those 2 variables were significant predictors of explosive breeding. At a pond-level, rainfall, change in pond depth during the month prior to breeding, and days since a pond was last dry were significant predictors of adult captures. Transformation date, rather than weather, was associated with neonatal emigrations, which usually were complete within a week. Movement by first-captured adults and neonates was directional, but adult emigrations were apparently not always toward their origin. Our results suggest that

  2. On-line comprehensive two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography for preparative isolation of toad venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Fu; Fang, Hua; Yan, Xia; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Zhen; Wu, Yun-Long; Qiu, Ying-Kun

    2016-07-22

    An on-line comprehensive preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography (2D NPLC×RPLC) system was constructed with a newly developed vacuum evaporation assisted adsorption (VEAA) interface, allowing fast removal of NPLC solvent in the vacuum condition and successfully solving the solvent incompatibility problem between NPLC and RPLC. The system achieved on-line solvent exchange within the two dimensions and its performance was illustrated by gram-scale isolation of crude extract from the venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans. Within separation time of ∼20h, 19 compounds were obtained with high purity in a single run. With the VEAA interface, the 2D system exhibited apparent advantages in separation efficiency and automation compared with conventional methods, indicating its promising application in the routine separation process for complicated natural products. PMID:27328884

  3. Sugar Cane Burning and Human Health: An Analysis Using Spatial Propensity Score Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Chagas, Andre; Almeida, Alex; Azzoni, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The production of ethanol and sugar from sugar cane has sharply increased for the last 20 years. If there are overall incentives to substitute the consumption of fossil fuels by biofuels, the increase of production and the expansion of new cultivated areas of sugar cane have eventually an impact on human health and employment mainly at regional levels. To harvest the crop--mostly manually done by low-skill workers--the practice of burning to clean dry grasses and poisonous insects has been ex...

  4. Aging Model For Cane Fiberboard Overpack In The 9975 Shipping Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many radioactive material shipping packages incorporate a cane fiberboard overpack for thermal insulation and impact resistance. Mechanical, thermal and physical properties have been measured on cane fiberboard following thermal aging in several temperature/humidity environments. Several of the measured properties change significantly over time in the more severe environments, while other properties are relatively constant. Changes in each of the properties have been fit to a model to allow predictions of degradation under various storage scenarios. Additional data continue to be collected to provide for future refinements to the model.

  5. Muscle synergies with Walkaround® postural support vs. “cane/therapist” assistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miljkovic, Nadica; Milovanovic, Ivana; Dragin, Aleksandra;

    2013-01-01

    The main clinical measures of walking recovery in stroke patients were compared for training assisted by Walkaround® postural support (WPS) and conventional (CON) support by a cane/therapist. OBJECTIVE: We attributed the differences between the trainings to modified muscular synergies that occurred...... muscles were more similar to the healthy with the WPS assistance. In parallel, the cocontraction of the rectus femoris muscles in both legs was lower (by up to 39 %) during walking assisted by WPS than by cane/therapist gait support); the results from this case series (10 patients) showed that WPS might...

  6. Cane Fiberboard Degradation within the 9975 Shipping Package during Long-Term Storage Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 9975 shipping package is used as part of the configuration for long-term storage of special nuclear materials in the K Area Complex at the Savannah River Site. The cane fiberboard overpack in the 9975 package provides thermal insulation, impact absorption and criticality control functions relevant to this application. The Savannah River National Laboratory has conducted physical, mechanical and thermal tests on aged fiberboard samples to identify degradation rates and support the development of aging models and service life predictions in a storage environment. This paper reviews the data generated to date, and preliminary models describing degradation rates of cane fiberboard in elevated temperature – elevated humidity environments.

  7. Fungal Invertase as an Aid for Fermentation of Cane Molasses into Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Y. K.; SATO H. H.

    1982-01-01

    Comparative studies of the fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence or absence of fungal invertase were performed. When cane molasses was fermented by the yeast at 30°C and pH 5.0, the presence of the enzyme had no effect on ethanol production. At pH 3.5, ethanol production was increased by the addition of invertase. At 40°C, the addition of invertase increased ethanol production by 5.5% at pH 5.0 and by 20.9% at pH 3.5.

  8. The impact of stress on the health of sugar cane cutters

    OpenAIRE

    Priuli, Roseana Mara Aredes; de Moraes, Maria Silvia; Chiaravalloti, Rafael Morais

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Evaluate the impact of stress on sugar cane cutters and the prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms before and after harvest. METHODS We studied 114 sugarcane cutters and 109 urban workers in the pre-harvest and 102 sugar cane cutters and 81 urban workers in the post-harvest period in the city of Mendonça, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2009. Data analysis was based on the frequency and percentage of the assessed symptoms of stress, using the Lipp-ISSL test (Symptoms of Stres...

  9. The sugar cane and the coconut palm: research and development sources for environmental improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes two plants that were important in the past for the human development in tropical areas: the sugar cane and the coconut palm, being considered now as possible solution for environmental problems. The sugar cane can be considered as a precursor plant to obtaine recyclable combustible, able to correct along the time the hothouse effect happening at global level. As for the coconut palm, it has been demonstrated that the shell of the coconut palm is one of the best raw materials for the preparation of activated coal, an absorbent material used in environmental protection applications

  10. Determination of trace elements in sugar cane refuse by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of micro, trace and ultratrace amounts of Al, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, F, Fe, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Sc, V and W in sugar cane refuses of various Egyptian factories. The element concentrations are below the safety baseline levels. Variations of results may be related to different botanic structures, different compositions of sugar cane plants of ecological changes in soil. The method is accurate and precise. The relative errors are in the range of 0.3-12.3%. (author)

  11. Evaluation of soil contents in sugar cane loading using activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When sugar cane is cut and taken to the sugar and alcohol mills, a significant quantity of soil is loaded with the stalks. This content has been reduced to 1% due to improvement in harvesting methods. Elements present in soil but not in sugar cane have been studied to act as tracers in the determination of unwanted minerals. Samples of different soils were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced radioactivity measured by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. (author). 52 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs

  12. Gamma radiation attenuation to study soil particle distribution to forest and sugar cane soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of a new soil particle size distribution analysis methodology is presented in connection with the study of particle size distribution in soils covered by natural forest and sugar cane crop cultivated during 16, 30 and 50 years, continuously. The technique is based on the attenuation of a gamma ray beam by a conventional soil/water suspension under sedimentation. Results show a significant difference in clay content for the upper soil layer as a function of sugar cane cultivation. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs

  13. Incorporating user experience when developing assistive technology : the case of the I-Cane

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This is a study of the way user experiences can be of help when developing assistive technology for blind and visually impaired. In this thesis I concentrate on mobility and orientation aids. As an example of a current development I use the I-Cane, which is under development in the Netherlands by the I-Cane Foundation. I focus on three empirical topics: visibility in society and social identity as blind, mobility and orientation in an environment and the issue of putting trust in an assistive...

  14. Widespread occurrence in frogs and toads of skin compounds interacting with the ouabain site of Na+, K+-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flier, J; Edwards, M W; Daly, J W; Myers, C W

    1980-05-01

    Amphibians of the family Bufonidae contain high levels of skin compounds that both inhibit Na+- and K+-dependent adenosinetriphosphatase and antagonize the binding of ouabain to the enzyme. In species of Bufo and Atelopus, these compounds are relatively nonpolar bufodienolides, whereas Dendrophryniscus and Melanophryniscus contain more polar compounds of unknown structure. Skin extracts from 30 of 48 species of frogs representing an additional eight families contained relatively low levels of compounds that inhibit binding of ouabain to Na+,K+-adenosinetriphosphatase. The widespread occurrence of low levels of inhibitory compounds is consonant with the role for these compounds as physiological regulators of Na+,K+-adenosinetriphosphatase in amphibian skin; high levels in the Bufonidae probably also serve as a defense against some predators. PMID:6245447

  15. Malformations and mortality in the Asian Common Toad induced by exposure to pleurolophocercous cercariae (Trematoda: Cryptogonimidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Uthpala A; Tkach, Vasyl V; Navaratne, Ayanthi N; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Rajakaruna, Rupika S

    2013-06-01

    Malformations and increased mortality due to infection by the digenetic trematode, Riberioa ondatrae have been reported for many species of amphibians. Severe malformations have also been reported in the Common Hourglass Tree Frog, Polypedates cruciger induced by pleurolophocercous cercariae in Sri Lanka in addition to the changes in the behaviour, development and survival of the host. We exposed pre-limb bud stage tadpoles (Gosner stages 25-26) of the Asian Common Toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus to the same pleurolophocercous type cercariae under laboratory conditions. Molecular and morphological identification showed that these cercariae belonged Acanthostomum burminis infecting freshwater snakes as definitive hosts. These cercariae induced malformations (27.8%) and reduced survival to metamorphosis (53.8%). The magnitude of the effects increased with the dose of cercariae. Types of malformations were mainly axial, such as scoliosis and kyphosis. Severe limb malformations such as extra or missing limbs as reported for amphibians exposed to R. ondatrae were not observed in the D. melanostictus. Same authors reported a higher percentage of malformations previously when P. cruciger was exposed to the cercariae A. burminis compared to D. melanostictus. However, tadpoles of D. melanostictus, which are smaller compared to those of P. cruciger, experienced higher mortality than P. cruciger tadpoles. Trematode induced malformations and mortality in amphibians are highly variable and depend on multiple factors such as host species differences such as resistance to infection and tolerance, life-history characteristics such as size at metamorphosis and length of the metamorphosis period, and other factors such as size of the amphibian at the time of trematode exposure. PMID:23353759

  16. Spatial and temporal ecology of eastern spadefoot toads on a Florida landscape.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathyrn, H.; Tanner, George, W.

    2005-03-01

    Effective amphibian conservation must consider population and landscape processes, but information at multiple scales is rare. We explore spatial and temporal patterns of breeding and recruitment by Eastern Spadefoot Toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii), using 9 years of data from continuous monitoring with drift fences and pitfall traps at 8 ephemeral ponds in longleaf pine-wiregrass sandhills. Breeding events (>25 adults at a pond within a month) occurred 23 times on nine occasions at seven of the eight study ponds, but substantial recruitment(>100 metamorphs) followed only five events. Recruitment ranged from 0-4,648 among ponds. Only four ponds functioned as population ''sources'', but only during some years. The other ponds, and even ''source'' ponds during some years, functioned either as ''sinks'', where breeding occurred with no resulting recruitment, or were not used at all for breeding. Most recruitment occurred during four years. Recruitment was correlated with adult breeding effort, but only during some years. Recaptures were rare, and inter-pond exchange of adults was minimal and short-distance (< 130 m; 1 was 416 m). Most (83.5%) individuals captured were metamorphs, and 15.9% were > 51 mm (est. > 4 years). We conservatively estimated a 7-year lifespan. Adult ''population'' trends clearly reflected breeding effort rather than numbers per se; capture rates fluctuated dramatically among years, but showed no overall trends during the 9-year study. Our paper provides empiracle information that can be used to generate realistic metapopulation models for S. holbrookii as a tool in conservation planning.

  17. EVALUATION OF APPROPRIATENESS OF SUGAR CANE PURCHASE RATE GIVEN BY SUGAR FACTORIES TO SUGAR CANE GROWERS IN KOLHAPUR DISTRICT, MAHARASHTRA (A Case Study of Shri. Chhatrapati Shahu Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana Ltd., Kagal, Tehsil-Kagal)

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, P. T.

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane occupies an area of 20.42 million ha with a total production of 1333 million metric tons worldwide. Now, in India sugar industries are categorized as a co-operative, private and public sectors. Now few crises were come up in case of cooperative sugar factories in Kolhapur district particularly associated with sugar cane purchase rate given to the sugar cane growers by sugar cane factory. For in-depth analysis out of 14 efficiently working co-operative sugar factories in Kolhapur ...

  18. Estudio morfométrico sobre el desarrollo y evolución de las glándulas tiroides durante la metamorfosis de Bufo arenarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda, Leandro Andrés

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado el desarrollo y la evolución de las glándulas tiroideas durante la morfogénesis de Bufo arenarum. Usando diferentes parámetros morfométricos, hemos relacionado el crecimiento y desarrollo larval con el desarrollo de las glándulas tiroideas. Se observó que la longitud total, el peso de las larvas, el volumen glandular tiroideo y el diámetro folicular, aumentan hasta el estadio XV (fin de la prometamorfosis, mientras que el número de folículos y la altura de las células foliculares tiroideas se incrementan hasta el estadio XVII (mitad del clímax metamórfico. Todos estos parámetros disminuyeron considerablemente durante el clímax metamórfico mientras que en animales postmetamórficos se observó un incremento en los valores registrados. En base a los resultados obtenidos concluimos que hay un período de síntesis y almacenamiento de hormonas tiroideas durante el crecimiento larval y un segundo período caracterizado por la liberación de hormonas tiroideas hacia el final de la prometamorfosis y durante el clímax metamórfico. We studied the development and evolution of thyroid glands during Bufo arenarum morphogenesis. Using different morphometric parameters we related larval growth and metamorphosis with thyroid glands development We observed that total length, larval weight, thyroid gland volume and follicle diameter increased until stage XV (end of prometamorphosis, meanwhile the number of follicles and follicle cell height increased until stage XVII (midclimax. All these parameters decreased during metamorphic climax and an increase was observed in postmetamorphic animals. Our results lead us to conclude that during larval growth there is a period of synthesis and store of thyroid hormones. There is a second period characterized by thyroid hormones release during the end of prometamorphosis and metamorphic climax.

  19. Spitzer Observations of Var Her 04: Possible Detection of Dust Formation in a Super-Outbursting TOAD

    CERN Document Server

    Ciardi, D R; Hoard, D W; Howell, S B; Van Belle, G T; Ciardi, David R.; Wachter, Stefanie; Howell, Steve B.; Belle, Gerard T. van

    2006-01-01

    We present four MIPS (24 \\micron) and two IRAC (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 \\micron) Spitzer observations of the newly discovered Tremendous Outburst Amplitude Dwarf nova (TOAD) Var Her 04 during decline from super-outburst. The four MIPS observations span 271 days and the two IRAC observations span 211 days. Along the line-of-sight to Var Her 04, there is a foreground M-star within 1\\arcsec of the variable; as a result, all of the Spitzer photometry presented in this paper is a blend of the foreground M-star and Var Her 04. We estimate the quiescent level of the TOAD to be $\\Delta V=4-5$ magnitudes below that of the M-star. Based upon the spectral energy distribution and the 2MASS colors, we find the M-star to be an M3.5V dwarf at a distance of 80-130 pc. Based upon its outburst amplitude and quiescent apparent magnitude, we estimate the distance to Var Her 04 to be 200-400 pc, suggesting that the line-of-sight foreground star is physically unrelated to the cataclysmic variable. All of the Spitzer photometry is c...

  20. Hydraulic conductivity in sugar cane cultivated in soils previous vin aza application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work analyzes the hydraulic conductivity in soil clay loams developed in Libertad formation in Bella Union where grows sugar cane with vinaza. In the agricultural activities are used different chemical additives such as organic and inorganic fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides, which interact with the biotic (roots, soil microbiology) and abiotic (clay, soil solution, etc.) elements

  1. WHITE PAPER: DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR 9975 PACKAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cane-based Celotex(trademark) has been used extensively in various DOE packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex(trademark) for the 9975 was manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex(trademark) is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new 9975 packages. Knight-Celotex Fiberboard has Celotex(trademark) manufacturing plants in Danville, VA and Sunbury, PA that use softwood and hardwood, respectively, as a raw material in the manufacturing of Celotex(trademark). The purpose of this White Paper is to demonstrate that softwood-based Celotex(trademark) from the Knight-Celotex Danville Plant has performance equivalent to cane-based Celotex(trademark) from the Knight-Celotex Marrero Plant for transportation in a 9975 package

  2. Teaching the Use of a Long Cane Step by Step: Suggestions for Progressive, Methodical Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerburger, Dona; Bourquin, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental part of the orientation and mobility curriculum is the acquisition and retention of skills in using a long cane automatically and proficiently to detect and negotiate obstacles and drop-offs. Using practitioners' experiences and the principles of learning theory, instructors can monitor students' advancement and adapt teaching…

  3. Spectroscopic characterization of D-003 obtained from the sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D-003, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) purified from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax with cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects, is composed of a mixture of free saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), each within specific relative concentration ranges as determined by the gas chromatography (GC). However, the spectroscopic characterization of D-003 had not been previously reported

  4. Spectroscopic characterization of Simultaneous determination of Albendazol from the sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D-003, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) purified from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax with cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects, is composed of a mixture of free saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), each within specific relative concentration ranges as determined by the gas chromatography (GC). However, the spectroscopic characterization of D-003 had not been previously reported

  5. Dispersion of Sphenophorus levis Vaurie, 1978 (Col., Curculionidae) in sugar-cane labelled with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments are described, in which the dispersion of S.levis by applying radiolabelled techniques is investigated: the insects are treated by immersion in a solution of sodium phosphate (Na2H32PO4) for 15 minutes after that insects are released in the field. The capture is mode by using sugar-cane pieces as a trap. (M.A.C.)

  6. Turning Javanese: The Domination of Cuba's Sugar Industry by Java Cane Varieties (1880-1950)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, U.; Curry Machado, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    By the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth, two islands had come to dominate global cane-sugar production. For most of the sixty-year period between 1870 and 1930, around half of the world's internationally traded crop came from Cuba and Java. The two islands had many topogr

  7. Sugar cane management with humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizer: impacts on Oxisol some physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, M. C.; Campos, F. S.; Souza, Z. M.

    2012-04-01

    The present investigation has as objective to study the impact of cultive systems, humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizers on Oxisol some physical properties cultivated of sugar cane. It was developed in Aparecida do Taboado, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in Manufactores Alcoolvale. The study was in sugar cane culture implanted on 3th and 4th cycle. The experimental design was at randomized blocks following scheme in zone with eight treatments and four replications. The two treatments in main zone were represented by cultivation systems (with and without chisel) and the subzone fertilization (T1-mineral, T2-mineral+sugar cane residue, T3-mineral+humic and fulvic acids and T4-mix of mineral, sugar cane residue and humic and fulvic acids). In three soil layers: 0.00-0.05; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m were studied the physical soil properties: macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity and soil bulk density. Also evaluate the technological quality of sugar cane. The conclusions are: the application of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue+humic extract (Humitec ®) and cropping system with chisel were more effective in improving soil physical; the system of crop of sugar cane ratton implanted in the 2th and 3th cycle, without the use of chisel was better in the recovery of soil physical properties; the crop system without the chisel and the combination of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue was promising to increase of Brix, Pol juice, Pol sugar cane and total recoverable sugars Pol.

  8. A new cane variety-Guitang No.22 bred by 60Co γ-ray induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guitang No.22 was developed through seed stems of Xintaitang No.1 exposed at a dosage of 80 Gy 60Co γ-radiation. In Guangxi regional variety test, the results show that the cane yield and the sugar yield are about 106.95 and 14.21 t/hm2 respectively. Moreover, the highest tonnage of biomass and fermentable carbohydrates reaches about 188.1 and 48.92 t/hm2, respectively. Guitang 22 is a new variety which has the characteristic of both sugar cane and energy cane. (authors)

  9. Phosphorus in chronosequence of burnt sugar cane in Brazilian cerrado: humic acid analysis by 31P NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to identify, with the use of 31P NMR spectroscopy, organic P species in humic acids (HA) in samples from Oxisol cultivated in chronosequence with sugar cane, pasture and Cerrado. The main forms of P-type found were orthophosphate, monoester-P (phosphate sugars) and P-diester (orthophosphate). The 31P NMR technique proved capable of identifying changes in the areas studied as a function of sugar cane burning time. In areas with 1 and 5 years of burnt cane, a decrease in recalcitrant organic P in humic acids indicated the need for use of P-humic substances for plant nutrition (author)

  10. Experimental study on compressive strength of concrete by partially replacement of cement with sugar cane bagasse ash

    OpenAIRE

    Jayminkumar A. Patel; Dr. D. B. Raijiwala

    2015-01-01

    Use of waste material in concrete is important for environmental aspect. Sugar cane bagasse ash is a waste by product of sugar mill. Present study is to investigate impact of sugar cane bagasse ash in concrete. In this experimental work sugar cane bagasse ash which is taken from Maroli sugar mill, Navsari, Gujarat, INDIA is partially replace with cement at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by weight in concrete. The grade of concrete is M25 and w/c ratio is 0.49 taken as a reference. 150*1...

  11. Impacts of energy cane expansion on ecosystem services: A Florida case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, J. E.; VanLoocke, A.; Jaiswal, D.; Bernacchi, C. J.; Long, S.

    2012-12-01

    There is a rising demand for sustainable and secure sources of energy. This demand is driving the development of second-generation biofuel crops across the United States. However, in a changing climate the capability of these crops to meet energy demands are uncertain. Additionally, the impacts of energy crop adoption on biophysical and biochemical ecosystem services need to be refined. Central Florida has been identified as a test bed for energy cane in anticipation of increased investment for energy crop production in the southeastern United States. Currently, the land cover in this region is characterized by pasturelands with relatively low rates of productivity and evapotranspiration. By replacing these lands with highly productive and irrigated energy cane significant perturbations to the local and regional budgets of water, energy, and carbon are anticipated. In this study, we extend the Agro-IBIS LSM with a mechanistic multilayer canopy model of biofuel crops to simulate inter-canopy fluxes of energy, moisture, and carbon. We validate the model using published leaf area, surface flux, and yield observations taken from studies that encompassed variable soil types, climatic conditions, and management decisions. This extended Agro-IBIS model is used to simulate the growth of energy cane in central Florida. Using this model we assess the potential impacts of large-scale changes in land cover on future ecosystem services for the region. In particular, we focus on how changes in atmospheric CO2 and temperature influence energy cane's regulation of surface fluxes and storage. Using a series of simulations that represent a range of climatic regimes we test how increased atmospheric carbon concentrations may enhance or diminish stresses associated with changes in regional climate, and how the physiological plant responses feedback on fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. This allows us to quantitatively evaluate how large-scale energy cane production

  12. Utilization of boron ({sup 10}B) derived from fertilizer by sugar cane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Henrique Coutinho Junqueira; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze, E-mail: hjfranco@cena.usp.b, E-mail: pcotrive@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Vitti, Andre Cesar, E-mail: acvitti@apta.sp.gov.b [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Polo Centro Sul; Otto, Rafael, E-mail: rotto@esalq.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz; Faroni, Carlos Eduardo, E-mail: cfaroni@ctc.com.b [Centro de Tecnologia Canavieira (CTC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Tovajar, Joao Gabriel, E-mail: jgtoaliari@bol.com.b [Cosan S.A., Valparaiso, SP (Brazil). Unidade Univalem

    2009-11-15

    The response to B in agricultural systems of sugar cane is still an unexplored issue; B application has however recently been widely publicized and used with a certain degree of frequency. The use of {sup 10}B-labeled fertilizers may further contribute to clarify this practice. With the objective of evaluating sugar cane use of B ({sup 10}B) derived from fertilizer (boric acid), an experiment was conducted under field conditions in the 2005/2006 growing season. The experiment consisted of the installation of microplots (2 x 1.5 m) where 4 kg ha{sup -1} B (boric acid with 85.95 % in {sup 10}B atoms) dissolved in water was applied 90 days after planting (May 2005). The solution was applied to the soil on both sides of the plant row at a distance of 20 cm. After harvest (June 2006) the B content and {sup 10}B abundance in % atoms in all parts of the sugar cane plants (stalks, dry leaves, tips and roots) were determined. Results showed that the total B accumulated was 471 g ha{sup -1} in the entire plant (35 % in the stalks, 22 % in the dry leaves, 9 % in the tips and 34 % in the roots). The sugar cane plants used on average 14 % of the total accumulated B in the above-ground part (44 g ha{sup -1}) and 11 % in the roots (19 g ha{sup -1}), totaling 13 % in the entire plant (63 g ha{sup -1}). The recovery of 10B-fertilizer by sugar cane plants was low, around 2 % of the total applied amount. (author)

  13. Utilization of boron (10B) derived from fertilizer by sugar cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response to B in agricultural systems of sugar cane is still an unexplored issue; B application has however recently been widely publicized and used with a certain degree of frequency. The use of 10B-labeled fertilizers may further contribute to clarify this practice. With the objective of evaluating sugar cane use of B (10B) derived from fertilizer (boric acid), an experiment was conducted under field conditions in the 2005/2006 growing season. The experiment consisted of the installation of microplots (2 x 1.5 m) where 4 kg ha-1 B (boric acid with 85.95 % in 10B atoms) dissolved in water was applied 90 days after planting (May 2005). The solution was applied to the soil on both sides of the plant row at a distance of 20 cm. After harvest (June 2006) the B content and 10B abundance in % atoms in all parts of the sugar cane plants (stalks, dry leaves, tips and roots) were determined. Results showed that the total B accumulated was 471 g ha-1 in the entire plant (35 % in the stalks, 22 % in the dry leaves, 9 % in the tips and 34 % in the roots). The sugar cane plants used on average 14 % of the total accumulated B in the above-ground part (44 g ha-1) and 11 % in the roots (19 g ha-1), totaling 13 % in the entire plant (63 g ha-1). The recovery of 10B-fertilizer by sugar cane plants was low, around 2 % of the total applied amount. (author)

  14. Quality Assessment of Serially Ultradiluted and Agitated Drug Digitalis purpurea by Emission Spectroscopy and Clinical Analysis of Its Effect on the Heart Rate of Indian Bufo melanostictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of ultradiluted (homeopathic drugs is extremely interesting and challenging, and from that point of view this study shows novelty. A study of in vivo changes in heart rate of the Indian Bufo melanostictus caused by commercially available serially ultra-diluted and agitated extract of Digitalis purpurea has been tried in order to understand their pharmacological role. RR interval (of ECG was compared after intraperitoneal administration of serially diluted and agitated Digitalis purpurea extract, diluent rectified spirit, and Digoxin in anesthetized animals. The study revealed statistically significant changes in the heart rate after application of these drugs except in case of Digoxin and the 200th serial dilution of Digitalis purpurea. The duration of RR intervals after application of the drugs was corroborative of the effect of Digoxin and Digitalis purpurea extract up to 30th dilution. Emission spectra were obtained for the experimental ultra-diluted Digitalis purpurea extract and Digoxin to identify and characterize them. The observed RR pattern and emission spectra show an association. The quality assessment of the commercial ultra-diluted organic drugs obtained from natural products may be initiated by monitoring in vivo studies on animal models.

  15. AVALIATION OF VENTILATORY PATTERN IN THE TOAD RHINELLA SCHNEIDERI (ANURA: BUFONIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDES, Marcelo dos Santos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Amphibians ventilated their lungs by buccal pumping mechanism, which was first described in 1969 as a model for studying anurans respiration. Since amphibians do not have alveoli in their lungs, wecalculated to the toad Rhinella schneideri the equivalent lung ventilation from the equation VEFF = (VLCO2·RT/PLCO2. We analyzed buccal and pulmonary pressures, respiratory volumes, lung and buccalventilation, and ventilation frequency. [VE (12,1 ± 0,6ml BTPS.min-1.kg-1 ; VEB (164,3 ± 2,2ml BTPS.min-1.kg- 1 ; fR (5,8 ± 0,4min-1; buccal frequencies (68,5 ± 1,6min-1; Tidal volume(VT = 2.4 ml BTPS·kg-1]. The low oxygen extraction (17,3 ± 2,8% was used to explain the high frequency of pulmonary and buccal ventilation.Os anfíbios ventilam seus pulmões por meio de bombeamento bucal, mecanismo que foi primeiramente descrito 1969 como um modelo para a respiração de anuros. Como os anfíbios não possuem alvéolos em seus pulmões, foi calculado para o sapo Rhinella schneideri a ventilação equivalente do pulmão por meio da equação VEFF = (VLCO2·RT/PLCO2. Analisamos as pressões bucais e pulmonares, os volumes respiratórios, ventilação pulmonar e bucal, e frequências de ventilação. [VE (12,1 ± 0,6 ml BTPS.min-1.kg-1; VEB (164,3 ± 2,2 ml BTPS.min-1.kg-1; fR (5,8 ± 0,4 min -1; Freqüência bucal (68,5 ± 1,6 min-1; volume corrente(VT = 2,4 BTPS ml • kg-1]. A baixa extração de oxigênio (17,3% ± 2,8 foi utilizada para explicar a alta freqüência da ventilação pulmonar e bucal.

  16. Cyclic AMP-and beta-agonist-activated chloride conductance of a toad skin epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willumsen, N J; Vestergaard, L; Larsen, E H

    1992-04-01

    1. The control by intracellular cyclic AMP and beta-adrenergic stimulation of chloride conductance was studied in toad skin epithelium mounted in a chamber on the stage of an upright microscope. Impalement of identified principal cells from the serosal side with single-barrelled conventional or double-barrelled Cl(-)-sensitive microelectrodes was performed at x500 magnification. For blocking the active sodium current 50 microM-amiloride was present in the mucosal bath. 2. When clamped at transepithelial potential difference V = 0 mV, the preparations generated clamping currents of 0.9 +/- 1 microA/cm2 (mean +/- S.E.M.; number of observations n = 55). The intracellular potential of principal cells (Vb) was -96 +/- 2 mV with a fractional resistance of the basolateral membrane (fRb) of 0.016 +/- 0.003 (n = 54), and an intracellular Cl- activity of 40 +/- 2 mM (n = 24). 3. At V = 0 mV, serosal application of a cyclic AMP analogue, dibutyryl cyclic AMP (500 microM) or a beta-adrenergic agonist, isoprenaline (5 microM) resulted in a sixfold increase in transepithelial Cl- conductance identified by standard 36Cl- tracer technique. 4. The clamping current at V = 0 mV was unaffected by cyclic AMP (short-circuit current Isc = 0.1 +/- 0.3 microA/cm2, n = 16) indicating that subepidermal Cl(-)-secreting glands are not functioning in our preparations obtained by collagenase treatment. 5. Cyclic AMP- or isoprenaline-induced chloride conductance (Gcl) activation (V = 0 mV) was not reflected in membrane potential and intracellular Cl- activity in principal cells. Intracellular chloride activity was constant at approximately 40 mM at membrane potentials between -90 and -100 mV. Therefore, it can be concluded that the principal cells are not contributing to activated Cl- currents. 6. At V = -100 mV where the voltage-dependent chloride conductance of mitochondria-rich (MR) cells was already fully activated, GCl was unaffected by cyclic AMP or isoprenaline. The major effect of these

  17. Delimiting genetic units in Neotropical toads under incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomé Maria Tereza C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delimiting genetic units is useful to enhance taxonomic discovery and is often the first step toward understanding evolutionary mechanisms generating diversification. The six species within the Rhinella crucifer group of toads were defined under morphological criteria alone. Previous data suggest limited correspondence of these species to mitochondrial lineages, and morphological intergradation at transitions between forms suggests hybridization. Here we extensively sampled populations throughout the geographic distribution of the group and analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data to delimit genetic units using tree–based and allele frequency–based approaches. Results These approaches yielded complementary results, with allele frequency-based methods performing unexpectedly well given the limited number of loci examined. Both mitochondrial and nuclear markers supported a genetic structure of five units within the group, with three of the inferred units distributed within its main range, while two other units occur in separate isolates. The inferred units are mostly discordant with currently described forms: unequivocal association exists for only two of the six species in the group. Genetic evidence for hybridization exists for two pairs of units, with clear cyto–nuclear allele mixing observed in one case. Conclusions Our results confirmed that current taxonomy does not represent evolutionary units in the Rhinella crucifer group. Correspondence between genetically distinguishable units and the currently recognized species is only possible for Rhinella henseli and R. inopina. The recognition of other species relies on the reassessment of the geographic range of R. crucifer, the examination of the type series of R. ornata for hybrids, and on the use of additional markers to verify the genetic distinctiveness of R. abei. We state that R. pombali should not remain a valid species since its description appears to be

  18. Intramuscular Single-dose Toxicity Test of Bufonis venonum Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kwang-Ho Lee; Seung-Ho Sun; Jun-Sang Yu; Ki-Rok Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Bufonis venonum (BV) is the dried white secretions of the auricular and skin glands of the toads Bufo bufo gargarizans or Bufo melanosticus Schneider. This study was performed to evaluate the toxicity of intramuscularly- administered Bufonis venonum pharmacopuncture (BVP) and to calculate its approximate lethality through a single-dose test with Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: Twenty male and 20 female 6-week-old SD rats were injected intramuscularly with BVP or normal saline. ...

  19. Forest Fragments Surrounded by Sugar Cane Are More Inhospitable to Terrestrial Amphibian Abundance Than Fragments Surrounded by Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing interest in matrix-type influence on forest fragments. Terrestrial amphibians are good bioindicators for this kind of research because of low vagility and high philopatry. This study compared richness, abundance, and species composition of terrestrial amphibians through pitfall traps in two sets of semideciduous seasonal forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, according to the predominant surrounding matrix (sugar cane and pasture. There were no differences in richness, but fragments surrounded by sugar cane had the lowest abundance of amphibians, whereas fragments surrounded by pastures had greater abundance. The most abundant species, Rhinella ornata, showed no biometric differences between fragment groups but like many other amphibians sampled showed very low numbers of individuals in fragments dominated by sugar cane fields. Our data indicate that the sugar cane matrix negatively influences the community of amphibians present in fragments surrounded by this type of land use.

  20. 14C fixation and translocation in two clones of sugar-cane with contrasting rates of sucrose uptake in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rates of 14CO2 fixation and translocation of 14C labelled assimilates were measured in field experiments at two times of the day in two sugar-cane clones known to have different rates of sucrose uptake in vitro but the same weight of leaf per unit weight of cane. The rate of 14CO2 fixation and the velocity and rate of translocation were significantly greater at both times in the clone with the higher rate of sucrose uptake in vitro. The velocities of translocation were 2.18 and 2.36 cm/min-1 for the clone with high sucrose uptake and 1.46 cm min-1 at both times in the clone with low uptake. It is suggested that among sugar-cane clones the ability of their canes to store sugar may play a part in determining their rates of photosynthesis and translocation. (author)

  1. 75 FR 26316 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ...The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) is providing notice of country-by-country allocations of additional fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane...

  2. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers to ashes from burning of sugar cane in Ahome, Sinaloa, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Rodríguez-Quintana, Ana Rosa; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Amador-Muñóz, Omar; Mora-Romero, Arlene; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Rodríguez-Romero, Isabel; Caba, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Burning the sugar cane field before harvesting has a negative impact on both air and human health, however this issue had not been explored in Mexico. The objective of this work was to determine the chromosomal damage in workers from sugar cane burning fields in Sinaloa, México. To this purpose, we analyzed 1000 cells of buccal exfoliated epithelia from 60 exposed workers and 60 non-exposed controls to determine micronucleus frequencies and other nuclear abnormalities. The results indicated significant higher values of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities such as binucleate cells, pyknosis, karyolysis, chromatin condensation and nuclear buds frequencies in the exposed subjects compared to those that were not exposed. Our data indicates that sugar cane burning, that generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, represents a genotoxic risk for workers in this important sugar cane producing area in Mexico. PMID:26245813

  3. Preliminary estudies on the use of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in the manufacture of alkali activated binders

    OpenAIRE

    Castaldelli, V.N.; Mitsuuchi Tashima, Mauro; Melges, J.L.; Monzó Balbuena, José Mª; AKASAKI, JORGE LUIS; Borrachero Rosado, María Victoria; Soriano Martinez, Lourdes; Paya Bernabeu, Jorge Juan

    2014-01-01

    Alkali activated binders require the addition of a mineral-rich amorphous silica and alumina. This paper proposes the use of a mineral residue from the burning of sugar cane bagasse. The alkali activated mixtures were prepared containing binary mixtures of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and other mineral admixtures: fly ash (FA) or blast furnace slag (BFS). As alkaline activators, mixtures of alkali (Na+ or K+) hydroxide and alkali (Na+ or K+) silicate were used. Alkali-activated pastes and mo...

  4. Impact of sugar cane cultivation on biogeochemistry and phytoplankton dynamics in a tropical lagoon and estuary in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Spörl, Gertrud

    2011-01-01

    Sugar cane cultivation has become the main land use in northeast and southeast Brazil and it is still increasing because of a growing national and international demand of sugar and biofuel. Shallow coastal lagoons and estuaries are the linkage between terrestrial and marine environments and are susceptible to anthropogenic modifications. Little is know about the impact of sugar cane cultivation in these systems. Aim of this study was to gain knowledge on the impact of effluents from sugar can...

  5. Dynamic of N fertilizers: urea (15 N) and aqua ammonia (15 N) incorporated to the sugar cane soil. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic of N fertilizers, urea and aqua ammonia, in the soil of sugar cane crops are studied with an emphasis on the horizontal and vertical moving. The nitrogen routing from urea and aqua ammonia sources, by isotopic technique with 15 N in relation to the leaching, volatilization and extraction by the cultivation and residue of N immobilized manure in the soil with sugar cane plantation is also analysed. (C.G.C.)

  6. Rattan cane harvesting in Lambusango forest, Buton, Indonesia: a sustainable practice or a threat to forest conservation?

    OpenAIRE

    Widayati, Atiek

    2010-01-01

    Lambusango forest, Buton, Indonesia, houses the endemic and rare fauna species of Anoa (Bubalus depressicornis). It is also an important site for NTFP extraction. The most important NTFP is rattan cane (Calamus and Daemonorops), which is a common material for furniture and handicraft industries. The extraction has long taken place and is entirely manual harvesting of wild rattan canes by local villagers. With growing concerns about deforestation and forest encroachment in the tropics, NTFP ex...

  7. Use of Slag/Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) Blends in the Production of Alkali-Activated Materials

    OpenAIRE

    María V. Borrachero; Jordi Payá; José Monzó; Lourdes Soriano; Mauro M. Tashima; José L.P. Melges; Jorge L. Akasaki; Vinícius N. Castaldelli

    2013-01-01

    Blast furnace slag (BFS)/sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) blends were assessed for the production of alkali-activated pastes and mortars. SCBA was collected from a lagoon in which wastes from a sugar cane industry were poured. After previous dry and grinding processes, SCBA was chemically characterized: it had a large percentage of organic matter (ca. 25%). Solutions of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as activating reagents. Different BFS/SCBA mixtures were studied, replacing part...

  8. Managing Quantity, Quality and Timing in Cane Sugar Production: Ex Post Marketing Permits or Ex Ante Production Contracts?

    OpenAIRE

    Patlolla, Sandhyarani

    2010-01-01

    Sugarcane produced in India is utilized to manufacture three sweetening agents: sugar, gur, and khandsari. Sugar processors must comply with a floor price for cane, but gur and khandsari producers are exempt from the floor price. Thus, any effect of the sugar processor’s choice of procurement method on the incentives facing farmers will depend on the expected cane price in these competing unregulated markets. In Andhra Pradesh (AP), India, private sugar processors use an unusual form of verti...

  9. Spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Glecio; Silva, Jucicléia; Bezerra, Joel; Silva, Enio; Montenegro, Abelardo

    2013-04-01

    The cultivation of sugar cane in Brazil occupies a prominent place in national production chain, because the country is the main world producer of sugar and ethanol. Accordingly, studies are needed that allow an integrated production and technified, and especially that estimates of crops are consistent with the actual production of each region. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction. The field experiment was conducted at an agricultural research site located in Goiana municipality, Pernambuco State, north-east of Brazil (Latitude 07 ° 34 '25 "S, Longitude 34 ° 55' 39" W). The surface of the studied field is 6.5 ha, and its mean height 8.5 m a.s.l. This site has been under sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) monoculture during the last 24 years and it was managed burning the straw each year after harvesting, renewal of plantation was performed every 7 years. Studied the field is located 10 km east from Atlantic Ocean and it is representative of the regional landscape lowlands, whose soils are affected by salinity seawater, sugarcane plantations with the main economical activity. Soil was classified an orthic the Podsol. The productivity of cane sugar and electrical conductivity were measured in 90 sampling points. The productivity of cane sugar was determined in each of the sampling points in plots of 9 m2. The Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa, mS m-1) was measured with an electromagnetic induction device EM38-DD (Geonics Limited). The equipment consists of two units of measurement, one in a horizontal dipole (ECa-H) to provide effective measurement distance of 1.5 m approximately and other one in vertical dipole (ECa-V) with an effective measurement depth of approximately 0.75 m. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and geostatistical tools. The results showed that productivity in the study area

  10. Recovery of used frying sunflower oil with sugar cane industry waste and hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rehab F M; El Anany, A M

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of the current investigation was to use sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and to compare its adsorption efficiency with Magnesol XL as synthetic adsorbents to regenerate the quality of used frying sunflower oil. In addition, to evaluate the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying oil and the treated oil. The metal patterns of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL were determined. Some physical and chemical properties of unused, used frying and used-treated sunflower oil were determined. Sunflower oil sample was heated at 180 °C + 5 °C, then frozen French fries potato were fried every 30 min. during a continuous period of 20 h. Oil samples were taken every 4 h. The filter aids were added individually to the used frying oil at levels 1, 2 and 3 % (w / v), then mechanically stirred for 60 min at 105 °C. The results indicate that all the filter aids under study were characterized by high levels of Si and variable levels of other minerals. The highest level of Si was recorded for sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) was 76.79 wt. %. Frying process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in physico-chemical properties of sunflower oil. The treatments of used frying sunflower oil with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in the quality of treated oil, however the soap content of treated oil was increased, therefore, the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying and used-treated sunflower oil was evaluated. The values of soap and Total polar compounds after water treatment were about 4.62 and 7.27 times as low as that for sunflower oil treated with 3 % sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA). The results of the present study indicate that filtration treatment with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash( SCBA) regenerated the quality of used sunflower oil and possess higher adsorbing effects than the synthetic filter aid ( Magnesol XL ) in

  11. New energy crop giant cane (Arundo donax L.) can substitute traditional energy crops increasing biogas yield and reducing costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Corno; Pilu, Roberto; Tambone, Fulvia; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-09-01

    Giant cane is a promising non-food crop for biogas production. Giant cane and corn silages coming from full-scale fields were tested, in mixtures with pig slurry, for biomethane production by a continuous stirred tank lab-scale-reactor (CSTR) approach. Results indicated that giant cane produced less biomethane than corn, i.e. 174±10 N m(3) CH4 Mg(-1) TS(-1) and 245±26 N m(3) CH4 Mg(-1) TS(-1), respectively. On the other hand, because of its high field biomass production, the biogas obtainable per Ha was higher for giant cane than for corn, i.e. 12,292 N m(3) CH4 Ha(-1) and 4549 N m(3) CH4 Ha(-1), respectively. Low energetic and agronomic inputs for giant cane cultivation led to a considerable reduction in the costs of producing both electricity and biomethane, i.e. 0.50 € N m(-3) CH4(-1) and 0.81 € N m(-3) CH4(-1), and 0.10 € kW hEE(-1) and 0.19 € kW hEE(-1) for biomethane and electricity production, and for giant cane and corn mixtures respectively. PMID:25997008

  12. First steps in translating human cognitive processes of cane pruning grapevines into AI rules for automated robotic pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxton Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cane pruning of grapevines is a skilled task for which, internationally, there is a dire shortage of human pruners. As part of a larger project developing an automated robotic pruner, we have used artificial intelligence (AI algorithms to create an expert system for selecting new canes and cutting off unwanted canes. A domain and ontology has been created for AI, which reflects the expertise of expert human pruners. The first step in the creation of an expert system was to generate virtual vines, which were then ‘pruned’ by human pruners and also by the expert system in its infancy. Here we examined the decisions of 12 human pruners, for consistency of decision, on 60 virtual vines. 96.7% of the 12 pruners agreed on at least one cane choice after which there was diminishing agreement on which further canes to select for laying. Our results indicate that techniques developed in computational intelligence can be used to co-ordinate and synthesise the expertise of human pruners into a best practice format. This paper describes first steps in this knowledge elicitation process, and discusses the fit between cane pruning expertise and the expertise that can be elicited using AI based expert system techniques.

  13. A new species of Paracapillaria (Nematoda: Capillariidae) from the intestine of the toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Anura) from the Malayan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Modrý, David; Jirků, Miloslav

    2007-08-01

    A new species of parasitic nematode, Paracapillaria malayensis n. sp. (Capillariidae), is described from the small intestine of the toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus imported from the Malayan Peninsula to the Czech Republic. The new species differs from the only other congeneric species, Paracapillaria spratti, mainly in the shape and structure of the spicular proximal end (with a lobular rim), smaller eggs (45-51 x 21-24 microm), longer spicule (336 microm), and the number (37-38) of stichocytes in gravid females; whereas P. spratti parasitizes frogs of the Microhylidae in Papua New Guinea, P. malayensis is a parasite of Bufonidae in the Malayan Peninsula. Other Paracapillaria spp. are parasites of fishes, birds, or mammals and they mostly differ from P. malayensis in the structure of eggs and some other morphological features. PMID:17918374

  14. Immunohistochemical localization of cathepsin D and a possible role of melanocytes during tail resorption in tadpoles of a tropical toad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Cuckoo; Mahapatra, Pravati Kumari

    2012-07-01

    Programmed cell death during anuran tail resorption is primarily brought about by apoptosis. Cathepsin D, a lysosomal aspartyl protease, is involved in the death of tail tissues. Thus, anuran tail resorption presents an ideal model to study cathepsin-mediated cell death during vertebrate development. Present study describes the trend of specific activity of cathepsin D in the tail of different developmental stages and immunohistochemical localization of cathepsin D in the tail tissues of the common Asian toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus. Cathepsin D was involved in programmed cell death in epidermis, muscle, spinal cord, and blood cells in the resorbing tail. Interestingly, it was also involved in the pre-resorbing tail before visible tail resorption which indicates initiation of cell death even before actually the tail resorbs. Melanocytes were found to be one of the causative agents in degrading tail tissues and were associated with the degradation of muscle, epidermis and spinal cord of the resorbing tail. PMID:22505219

  15. Cadmium-induced toxicity on larvae of the common Asian toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider 1799): evidence from empirical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranatunge, R A A R; Wijesinghe, M R; Ratnasooriya, W D; Dharmarathne, H A S G; Wijesekera, R D

    2012-07-01

    This paper investigates the toxicity of cadmium (Cd) on young stages of the common Asian toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider 1799). Signs of acute toxicity were evident in tadpoles repeatedly exposed to five concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 2 mg L(-1)of Cd which included environmentally relevant levels. Mortality at concentrations of 0.02 mg L(-1) and above was enhanced from 2 % at 0.02 mg L(-1) to 100 % at 1 mg L(-1), in a dose-dependent manner. Significant growth impairment was evident at 0.20 mg L(-1) with the larvae being markedly smaller. Delayed metamorphosis and retarded swimming were also observed. Therefore levels of Cd recorded in some freshwater bodies in Sri Lanka (e.g. 0.2 mg L(-1)) may be detrimental to the young stages of D. melanostictus. PMID:22526988

  16. Checklist and Simple Identification Key for Frogs and Toads from District IV of The MADA Scheme, Kedah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Ibrahim; Chai, Teoh Chia; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Akil, Mohd Abdul Muin Md

    2009-12-01

    A survey was conducted to catalogue the diversity of anurans in District IV of the Muda Agriculture Development Authority Scheme (MADA) in Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia, from July 1996 to January 1997. Eight species of anurans from three families were present in the study area. Of these, the Common Grass Frog (Fejevarya limnocharis) was the most abundant, followed by Mangrove Frog (Fejevarya cancrivora), Long-legged Frog (Hylarana macrodactyla), and Common Toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus). Puddle Frog (Occidozyga lima), Taiwanese Giant Frog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus), and Banded Bullfrog (Kaluola pulchra) were rare during the sampling period, and only one Paddy Frog (Hylarana erythraea) was captured. A simple identification key for the anurans of this area is included for use by scientists and laymen alike. PMID:24575178

  17. Changes of body fluid and hematology in toad and their rehabilitation following intermittent exposure to simulated high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, H. M.; Boral, M. C.

    1986-06-01

    Three groups of adult male toads were exposed intermittently in a decompression chamber for a daily period of 4 and 8 hours at a time for 6 consecutive days to an “altitude” of 12,000; 18,000 and 24,000 feet (3658; 5486; 7315 m) respectively. Most of the exposed animals were sacrificed immediately after the last exposure, but only a few animals experiencing 8 hours of exposure were sacrificed after a further 16 hours of exposure at normal atmospheric pressure. Eight hours of daily exposure for 6 days causes a decrease of body fluids and an increase of hematological parameters in all the altitude exposed animals compared with to the changes noted in the animals having 4 hours of daily exposure for 6 days at the same altitude levels. The animals that were exposed to pressures equivalent to altitudes of 12,000 and 18,000 feet daily for 8 hours were found to return nearly to their normal body fluids and hematological balance after 16 hours of exposure to normal atmospheric pressure, whereas the animals exposed for a similar period at an equivalent 24,000 feet failed to get back their normal balance of body fluids and hematology after 16 hours of exposure at normal atmospheric pressure. The present experiment shows that the body weight loss and changes of body fluid and hematological parameters in the toad after exposure to simulated high altitude are due not only to dehydration, but suggest that hypoxia may also have a role.

  18. Maximizing the xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate by controlling the aeration rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, S.S.; Ribeiro, J.D.; Felipe, M.G.A. [Faculty of Chemical Enginering of Lorena (Brazil); Vitolo, M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    Batch fermentations of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated for removing the inhibitors of the fermentation were performed by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 for xylitol production. The fermentative parameters agitation and aeration rate were studied aiming the maximization of xylitol production from this agroindustrial residue. The maximal xylitol volumetric productivity (0.87 g/L {center_dot} h) and yield (0.67 g/g) were attained at 400/min and 0.45 v.v.m. (K{sub L}a 27/h). According to the results, a suitable control of the oxygen input permitting the xylitol formation from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate is required for the development of an efficient fermentation process for large-scale applications. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Nonlinear dynamics approach to the predictability of the Cane-Zebiak coupled ocean-atmosphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, L.; Kirtman, B.

    2014-01-01

    The predictability of the Cane-Zebiak coupled ocean-atmosphere model is investigated using nonlinear dynamics analysis. Newer theoretical concepts are applied to the coupled model in order to help quantify maximal prediction horizons for finite amplitude perturbations on different scales. Predictability analysis based on the maximum Lyapunov exponent considers infinitesimal perturbations, which are associated with errors in the smallest fastest-evolving scales of motion. However, these errors become irrelevant for the predictability of larger scale motions. In this study we employed finite-size Lyapunov exponent analysis to assess the predictability of the Cane-Zebiak coupled ocean-atmosphere model as a function of scale. We demonstrate the existence of fast and slow timescales, as noted in earlier studies, and the expected enhanced predictability of the anomalies on large scales. The final results and conclusions clarify the applicability of these new methods to seasonal forecasting problems.

  20. The structure of groups of galaxies in the Ursa Major/Canes Venatici region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutral hydrogen survey has been made of galaxies in an area of the order of 110 degree2 in Ursa Major and Canes Venatici, and the data yield many new accurate systemic velocities, H I masses and total masses. The spatial distribution and velocity structure of the area is presented and a detailed discussion is given of the global properties of the individual galaxies. The results of the survey show that the Ursa Major/Canes Venatici region contains possibly four associations of galaxies identifiable both in position and velocity. For this part of the sky, any method of defining groups of galaxies based on positional information alone can be subject to serious problems because of contamination by foreground and background groups. (author)