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Sample records for candida spp con

  1. Severe Candida spp. infections: new insights into natural immunity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.W.M. van der; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Joosten, L.A.B.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. are associated with high mortality. Colonisation by Candida spp. and the capacity of the host to recognise them as potential pathogens are essential steps in the development of these infections. The major pathogen-associated molecular patterns of Candida ar

  2. Adhesion of different Candida spp. to plastic: XTT formazan determinations.

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    Hawser, S

    1996-01-01

    Adhesion of synchronized yeast-phase Candida cells to tissue culture plastic was investigated using the tetrazolium salt, XTT. The procedure permits the direct enumeration of adherent yeasts following the metabolic conversion of the XTT tetrazolium salt, to its reduced formazan form, by mitochondrial dehydrogenases. Using this procedure, the formation of XTT formazan by Candida cells was typically related to the inoculum size. The adhesion of Candida yeast-phase cells from different Candida spp. to plastic was of the following order: C. krusei (n = 5) > C. albicans (n = 10) > C. glabrata (n = 6). Furthermore, preliminary experiments with several other species indicated that C. tropicalis (n = 2) may adhere as well as C. albicans and that one strain each of C. guilliermondii and C. parapsilosis appear to adhere to plastic in a similar fashion to C. glabrata. The data indicate the utility of the XTT tetrazolium based assay in enumerating the adhesion of different Candida spp. to plastic.

  3. Candida spp. in periodontal disease: a brief review.

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    Sardi, Janaina C O; Duque, Cristiane; Mariano, Flávia S; Peixoto, Iza T A; Höfling, José F; Gonçalves, Reginaldo B

    2010-06-01

    Although the main reservoir of Candida spp. is believed to be the buccal mucosa, these microorganisms can coaggregate with bacteria in subgingival biofilm and adhere to epithelial cells. Such interactions are associated with the capacity of Candida spp. to invade gingival conjunctive tissue, and may be important in the microbial colonization that contributes to progression of oral alterations caused by diabetes mellitus, some medications, and immunosuppressive diseases such as AIDS. In addition, immune deficiency can result in proliferation of Candida spp. and germination of forms that are more virulent and have a higher capacity to adhere to and penetrate cells in host tissues. The virulence factors of Candida spp. increase host susceptibility to proliferation of these microorganisms and are likely to be important in the study of periodontal disease. Herein, we briefly review the literature pertaining to the role of Candida spp. in periodontal disease, and consider the main virulence factors, the host immune response to these microorganisms, and the effect of concomitant immunosuppressive conditions.

  4. Presence of Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. in the human oral cavity

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    Martins Clélia Aparecida de Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of yeasts and staphylococci in the oral cavity is important because they can act as supplementary microbiota and in certain situations can cause oral or systemic diseases. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in the human oral cavity. Oral rinses were collected from sixty-eight individuals according to the technique described by Samaranayake and MacFarlane and then cultured on Sabouraud medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and Baird-Parker agar. After the incubation period, the microorganisms were isolated and identified through biochemical tests. The data obtained were statistically analysed by ANOVA. Candida spp. were isolated from 61.76% of the examined individuals and C. albicans was the more frequently isolated specie. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 95.60% of the individuals and 41 strains were coagulase negative (63%. Among the coagulase positive strains, nine were S. aureus, 11 S. hyicus and 4 S. schleiferi subspecie coagulans. No correlation was observed between the counts (cfu of the isolated Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp.

  5. Identification of Candida spp. by phenotypic tests and PCR

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    Sandra Aparecida Marinho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The correct identification of Candida species is of great importance, as it presents prognostic and therapeutical significance, allowing an early and appropriate antifungical therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify isolates of Candida spp. from oral mucosa of 38 patients with oral candidosis evaluated in 2004 by phenotypic methods and PCR, discriminating C. albicans from the other Candida species. The tests used for phenotypic analysis were germ-tube and chlamydoconidia production, culture in CHROMAgarTM Candida, carbohydrate assimilation test, growth at 45ºC and culture in Tween 80 agar. Genotypic confirmation was performed by PCR. Phenotypic tests showed that 63.2% strains formed germ-tubes, 73.7% produced chlamydoconidia, and 63.2% showed green colonies in chromogenic medium, presumptively indicating C. albicans or C. dubliniensis. The carbohydrate assimilation test confirmed these results. A total of 21% strains were identified as C. krusei and 13.2% were indicative of C. tropicalis. Of these later strains, three produced chlamydoconidia. The association of other phenotypic tests with culture in Tween 80 agar identified 95.8% of strains as C. albicans and 4.2% as C. dubliniensis. All 24 strains indicative of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis were confirmed by PCR as C. albicans.

  6. Miltefosine inhibits Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida spp. biofilms and impairs the dispersion of infectious cells.

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    Vila, Taissa; Ishida, Kelly; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; Rozental, Sonia

    2016-11-01

    Candida spp. can adhere to and form biofilms over different surfaces, becoming less susceptible to antifungal treatment. Resistance of biofilms to antifungal agents is multifactorial and the extracellular matrix (ECM) appears to play an important role. Among the few available antifungals for treatment of candidaemia, only the lipid formulations of amphotericin B (AmB) and the echinocandins are effective against biofilms. Our group has previously demonstrated that miltefosine has an important effect against Candida albicans biofilms. Thus, the aim of this work was to expand the analyses of the in vitro antibiofilm activity of miltefosine to non-albicans Candida spp. Miltefosine had significant antifungal activity against planktonic cells and the development of biofilms of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata. The activity profile in biofilms was superior to fluconazole and was similar to that of AmB and caspofungin. Biofilm-derived cells with their ECM extracted became as susceptible to miltefosine as planktonic cells, confirming the importance of the ECM in the biofilm resistant behaviour. Miltefosine also inhibited biofilm dispersion of cells at the same concentration needed to inhibit planktonic cell growth. The data obtained in this work reinforce the potent inhibitory activity of miltefosine on biofilms of the four most pathogenic Candida spp. and encourage further studies for the utilisation of this drug and/or structural analogues on biofilm-related infections.

  7. In-vitro anti fungal activity of Propolis alcoholic extract on Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp.

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    Diba K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Several studies have shown that propolis has antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and antiparasitic activity. Furthermore propolis has been described to have medicinal usages in some fungal infections like Candidiasis. Our aim is to study the inhibitory effects of alcoholic extract of propolis on Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. "n"n Methods: To determine inhibitory and fatality dose of propolis extract, we prepared serial dilution of the extract including 1/20, 1/40, 1/80, 1/160, 1/320 and 1/640 in 1 ml of liquid medium sabouraud broth. Given numbers of Candida yeasts in 1ml were added to above dilution tubes. Candida and Aspergillus cultures were incubated at 30°C and 25°C respectively for 24-72 hours."n"n Results: We obseved that the concentration of 0.25 g/dl of propolis extract showed an inhibitory and killing effect on more than 50% of the isolates. But there were no inhibitory and killing by the concentrations 0.0312 g/dl and 0.0625 g/dl on Candida isolates. Our findings showed that 0.0312 g/dl of the extract was partially active on Aspergillus fumigatus and dilution of 0.125 g/dl was active on Aspergillus. niger. In the agar dilution method, some changes were observed on morphological features

  8. Vaginal lactobacilli as potential probiotics against Candida spp

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    Natalia F. Gil

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital infections affect millions of people every year worldwide. The treatment of these diseases usually requires the use of antimicrobial agents, and more recently, the use of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB cultures for the management of vaginal infections has been extensively studied. In this work, 11 vaginal lactobacilli isolates, previously obtained from healthy patients, were studied to screen microorganisms with probiotic properties against Candida spp. The LAB were tested for their ability of auto-aggregation, coaggregation with C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis, adhesion to Caco-2 epithelial cells and production of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. All lactobacilli isolates tested were able to auto-aggregate (ranging from 25.3% to 75.4% assessed at 4 hours of incubation and to co-aggregate with the four Candida species into different degrees; among them L. crispatus showed the highest scores of coaggregation. The highest amount of lactic acid was produced by L. salivarius (13.9 g/l, followed by L. johnsonii (6.5 g/l, L. acidophilus (5.5 g/l, and L. jensenii (5.4 g/l. All isolates produced H2O2 , but the highest levels (3 -10 mg/l were observed for L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. johnsonii, and L. vaginalis. Only L. agilis, L. jensenii, L. johnsonii and L. ruminus were able to adhere to epithelial Caco-2 cells. Among the isolates evaluated, L agilis, L. jensenii, L. johnsonii, and L. ruminus exhibited simultaneously several desirable properties as potential probiotic strains justifying future studies to evaluate their technological properties in different pharmaceutical preparations for human use.

  9. Prevalence of Candida spp. during radiographic examination in Diabetes mellitus patients

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    Flávia Cristina Volpato

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is suggested that individuals with diabetes are more susceptible to Candida infections than healthy people, especially if periodontal infection is associated. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the prevalence of colonization by Candida spp. during radiographic examination in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 20 patients without diabetes mellitus, presenting chronic periodontitis and presence of Candida spp. in saliva were evaluated. During radiographic examination, samples of saliva were collected from: oral mucosa, conventional radiographic periapical film, digital x-ray sensor (CDR, and bite block of the receptor-positioning device. Colony forming units (cfu/mL and identification of Candida yeasts were assessed. RESULT: Oral mucosa from both groups showed the highest colonization with Candida spp. if compared with others surfaces collected (p < 0.05. In diabetic patients, the mucosa of the upper left regions showed higher levels of colonization. In non-diabetic patients, the upper right molar region showed the highest level of colonization during the examination of the receptor-positioning device, the sensor and the non-sensitive film. Candida spp. levels in saliva were similar between diabetics (mean = 3.0 × 10(6 and non-diabetics (mean = 3.8 × 10(6. CONCLUSION: No difference in Candida spp. colonization (cfu/mL in diabetics and non-diabetic patients was observed for the five collected surfaces and the simulated radiographic region. Candida albicans was the prevalent species of Candida spp. found on all the samples.

  10. Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis spp. nov. to replace Candida parapsilosis groups II and III.

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    Tavanti, Arianna; Davidson, Amanda D; Gow, Neil A R; Maiden, Martin C J; Odds, Frank C

    2005-01-01

    Two new species, Candida orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis, are proposed to replace the existing designations of C. parapsilosis groups II and III, respectively. The species C. parapsilosis is retained for group I isolates. Attempts to construct a multilocus sequence typing scheme to differentiate individual strains of C. parapsilosis instead revealed fixed DNA sequence differences between pairs of subgroups in four genes: COX3, L1A1, SADH, and SYA1. PCR amplicons for sequencing were obtained for these four plus a further seven genes from 21 group I isolates. For nine group II isolates, PCR products were obtained from only 5 of the 11 genes, and for two group III isolates PCR products were obtained from a different set of 5 genes. Three of the PCR products from group II and III isolates differed in size from the group I products. Cluster analysis of sequence polymorphisms from COX3, SADH, and SYA1, which were common to the three groups, consistently separated the isolates into three distinct sets. All of these differences, together with DNA sequence similarities orthopsilosis suggest that the former species may have evolved very recently from the latter.

  11. Candida spp. airway colonization: A potential risk factor for Acinetobacter baumannii ventilator-associated pneumonia.

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    Tan, Xiaojiang; Zhu, Song; Yan, Dongxing; Chen, Weiping; Chen, Ruilan; Zou, Jian; Yan, Jingdong; Zhang, Xiangdong; Farmakiotis, Dimitrios; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2016-08-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to identify potential risk factors for Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and evaluate the association between Candida spp. airway colonization and A. baumannii VAP. Intensive care unit (ICU) patients who were on mechanical ventilation (MV) for ≥48 hours were divided into the following groups: patients with and without Candida spp. airway colonization; colonized patients receiving antifungal treatment or not; patients with A. baumannii VAP and those without VAP. Logistic regression analysis and propensity score matching were used to identify factors independently associated with A. baumannii VAP. Among 618 eligible patients, 264 (43%) had Candida spp. airway colonization and 114 (18%) developed A. baumannii VAP. Along with MV for ≥7 days (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 8.9, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 4.9-15.8) and presence of a central venous catheter (aOR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1-9), Candida spp. airway colonization (aOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.6-4.3) was identified as an independent risk factor for A. baumannii VAP. Patients with Candida spp. airway colonization were more likely to develop A. baumannii VAP than non-colonized patients (23% vs 15%, P=.01 and 34% vs. 15%, Pbaumannii VAP (29% vs. 21%, P=.153) but with higher in-hospital mortality (53% vs. 39%, P=.037). Candida spp. airway colonization (43%) and A. baumannii VAP (18%) were common in ICU patients who were on mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. Candida spp. airway colonization was an independent risk factor for subsequent A. baumannii VAP.

  12. Vinegar as an antimicrobial agent for control of Candida spp. in complete denture wearers

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    Telma Maria Silva Pinto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of denture is known to increase the carriage of Candida in healthy patients, and the proliferation of Candida albicans strains can be associated with denture-induced stomatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of vinegar as an antimicrobial agent for control of Candida spp. in complete upper denture wearers. Fifty-five patients were submitted to a detailed clinical interview and oral clinical examination, and were instructed to keep their dentures immersed in a 10% vinegar solution (pH less than 3 overnight for 45 days. Before and after the experimental period, saliva samples were collected for detection of Candida, counting of cfu/mL and identification of species by phenotypical tests (germ tube formation, chlamidoconidia production, and carbohydrate fermentation and assimilation. The results were analyzed using Spearman's correlation and Student's t-test (p£0.05. Candida yeasts were present in 87.3% of saliva samples before the treatment. A significant reduction was verified in CFU/mL counts of Candida after treatment. A positive correlation between Candida and denture stomatitis was verified, since the decrease of cfu/mL counts was correlated with a reduction in cases of denture stomatitis. Although it was not able to eliminate C. albicans, the immersion of the complete denture in 10% vinegar solution, during the night, reduced the amounts (cfu/mL of Candida spp. in the saliva and the presence of denture stomatitis in the studied patients.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF CANDIDA SPP . ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL SPECIMENS

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    Sagarika

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the changing health scenario fungal infections have increased significantly, contributing to morbidity, mortality and health care cost. Candida is major human fungal pathogens that cause both superficial and deep tissue infections. With emergence of non - albicans Candida species, availability of advanced identification methods and antifungal resistance, the spectrum of candidiasis has changed. OBJ ECTIVE: The aim of our study was to identify the distribution of Candida species among clinical isolates, risk factors associated with candidiasis and their sensitivity pattern for common antifungal drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred thirty nine dif ferent clinical isolates of Candida were collected from indoor patients of a tertiary care centre of Gujarat from May 2009 to June 2010. Identification of Candida species and antifungal susceptibility testing was performed with miniAPI (Analytical Prophylactic Index (Biomerieux, France which is an automatic identification and susceptibility testing instrument. RESULTS: We found that the non ‑ albicans Candida were more prevalent than Candida albicans . Candida tropicalis (48.9% was the most common Candida spp. and also more resistant than that of C.albicans . C.albicans showed resistance against fluconazole (3.5% and itraconazole (8.8% whereas C.tropicalis were res istant to amphotericin B (10.3%, fluconazole (20.7%, itraconazole (32.3%, and voriconazole (23.5% and flucytosine (5.8%. Overall resistance rates of Candida for amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole and flucytosine were 6.4%, 15. 2%, 22.3%, 12.9%, 5% respectively. CONCLUSION: To achieve better clinical results species ‑ level identification of Candida spp. and their antifungal sensitivity testing should be performed.

  14. Prevalence of Staphylococcus spp and Candida spp in the oral cavity and periodontal pockets of periodontal disease patients.

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    Cuesta, Alicia I; Jewtuchowicz, Virginia; Brusca, María I; Nastri, María L; Rosa, Alcira C

    2010-01-01

    The oral cavity can act as a reservoir of certain pathogens that can cause systemic infections. The periodontal pocket is an ecological niche appropriate for hosting microorganisms that could act as opportunistic pathogens. The ability of Staphylococcus spp and Candida spp to form a biofilm and live within certain niches allows them to develop mechanisms that increase persistence, such as the evasion of host defenses and antibiotic efficacy. These microorganisms can easily be or become resistant to antibiotics and lead to superinfection. The aims of this study were to assess the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus spp in biofilm in subgingival plaque and oral cavity of individuals with gingival-periodontal disease, to identify isolates and the relationship with Candida spp. The study included eighty-two patients, aged 18-70 years with periodontal disease and at least two sites with probing depth > or = 3 mm. Participants' data were evaluated individually. Subgingival biofilm samples were obtained using Gracey curettes 7/8, after supragingival biofilm removal, and a sample from the oral cavity (buccal mucosa, tongue and cheek mucosa) by sterile swab. Of all the patients studied, 42.7% exhibited Staphylococcus spp in the periodontal pocket and 69.5% in the oral cavity while 25.6% exhibited Candida spp in the periodontal pocket and 42.7% in the oral cavity. However, 13.4% had both microorganisms in the periodontal pocket and 36.6% in the oral cavity. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 13.4% in the periodontal pocket and 15.8% in the oral cavity. Candida albicans was the most prevalent yeast in the periodontal pocket (76.2%) and in the oral cavity (63.0%).

  15. Chromogenic medium for direct susceptibility testing of Candida spp. isolated from urine.

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    de Vasconcelos, Antônio Alexandre; Menezes, Everardo Albuquerque; Cunha, Francisco Afrânio

    2011-08-01

    Currently, there has been an increased frequency of fungal infections. Candida albicans and other Candida spp. have been proven to be major causes for urinary tract infection. Increased resistance to antifungals indicates the need to develop strategies in order to prevent the spread of resistance. Chromogenic medium have been proven to be useful in the detection of yeasts in clinical specimens containing mixed cultures of Candida. The aim of this study was to compare the results of antifungal susceptibility testing with fluconazole and amphotericin B on strains of Candida spp. isolated from urine, conducted on a Mueller-Hinton Agar with Glucose and Methylene Blue (MHAGMB) medium and on a Hicrome Candida® Agar with 2% Glucose (HCAG) medium. We used 40 samples of Candida spp. isolated from urine samples from inpatients and outpatients. The results showed that both media presented high rates of agreement, above 94%. The use of the HCAG medium decreases the release time of the results by 24-48 h, which may be decisive for initiating the correct drug treatment.

  16. Biofilm production and evaluation of antifungal susceptibility amongst clinical Candida spp. isolates, including strains of the Candida parapsilosis complex.

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    Melo, Analy S; Bizerra, Fernando C; Freymüller, Edna; Arthington-Skaggs, Beth A; Colombo, Arnaldo L

    2011-04-01

    Candida cells can form biofilms that frequently are sources of infections and are less susceptible to antifungal drugs. Some authors have reported that Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis isolates are not able to produce biofilms in vitro and there are no studies available on biofilm susceptibility for these species to antifungals. The aims of this study were to (i) quantify Candida spp. biofilms in vitro, and (ii) test the in vitro susceptibilities of Candida spp. biofilms to fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin B (AMB). Isolates studied included four Candida albicans, six C. tropicalis, seven C. parapsilosis, eight C. orthopsilosis, and five C. metapsilosis. We compared two different methods to evaluate biofilm production, i.e., crystal violet (CV) staining and XTT-reduction assays (XTT). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe high, medium and low biofilm producing isolates screened by these two methods. To determine the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) for FLC and AMB, XTT-reduction assay was used to measure cell metabolic activity. Biofilm quantification by CV and XTT showed that C. tropicalis isolates were the highest biofilm producer, followed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Examination of SEM images revealed that the extent of biofilms formed by high, medium, and low producers was highly correlated to the results generated by CV assay. Biofilm of all the isolates evaluated were resistant to FLC (MBEC(80) ≥ 256 ug/ml) but, in general, susceptible to AMB, except for six C. parapsilosis strains (MBEC(80) ≥ 8 ug/ml).

  17. Antifungal activity of the lemongrass oil and citral against Candida spp.

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    Cristiane de Bona da Silva

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Superficial mycoses of the skin are among the most common dermatological infections, and causative organisms include dermatophytic, yeasts, and non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi. The treatment is limited, for many reasons, and new drugs are necessary. Numerous essential oils have been tested for both in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity and some pose much potential as antifungal agents. By using disk diffusion assay, we evaluated the antifungal activity of lemongrass oil and citral against yeasts of Candida species (Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. This study showed that lemongrass oil and citral have a potent in vitro activity against Candida spp.

  18. Phenotypical characterization of Candida spp. isolated from crop of parrots (Amazona spp. Caracterização fenotípica de Candida spp. isoladas de inglúvio de papagaios (Amazona spp.

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    Renata G. Vieira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize Candida isolates from crop of parrots. Forty baby parrots of genus Amazona, species aestiva and amazonica that were apprehended from wild animal traffic were used: 18 presented ingluvitis and 22 other alterations, but showing general debilitation. Samples were seeded on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol after be obtained by the introduction of urethral probe through the esophagus. Based on morphology and biochemical reactions (API 20C Candida was confirmed; it was still searched the production of proteinase and phospholipase, virulence factors for Candida species. Candida spp. were isolated from 57.5% parrots, being 72.2% from birds with ingluvitis and 45.5% from without ones. Twenty-five strains of Candida were isolated, 60% and 40%, respectively from parrots with and without ingluvitis, and were speciated: 28% C. humicola, 24% C. parapsilosis, 20% C. guilliermondii, 20% C. famata, and 8% C. albicans. These results demonstrate that C. albicans is not the most frequent species isolated, and it is the first report that shows C. guilliermondii, C. famata, and C. humicola causing infection in parrots. Many isolates presented filamentation (76%, 100% produced proteinase and 68% phospholipase. The observation of Candida spp. producing virulence factors reinforce the pathogenic role of these yeasts in the cases studied.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar cepas de Candida spp. isoladas de inglúvio de papagaios. Foram utilizados 40 papagaios do gênero Amazona, espécies aestiva e amazonica, apreendidos de tráfico de animais selvagens: 18 apresentavam ingluvite e 22 outras alterações, mas todos mostrando sinais de debilitação geral. Colheram-se as amostras clínicas através da introdução de sonda uretral no esôfago dos animais e estas foram semeadas em ágar Sabouraud dextrose acrescido de cloranfenicol. A identificação das espécies de Candida foi baseada em caracter

  19. Epidemiologia das infecções hematogênicas por Candida spp

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    Colombo Arnaldo Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Candida spp é responsável por cerca de 80% das infecções fúngicas no ambiente hospitalar e constitui causa relevante de infecções de corrente sanguínea. Nos Estados Unidos da América, Candida spp é a quarta causa mais comum de infecções de corrente sanguínea, respondendo por cerca de 8% dos casos das infecções documentadas neste sítio. Espécies não-albicans respondem hoje por ao menos 50% das infecções invasivas por Candida spp, apresentando peculiaridades de história natural e sensibilidade a antifúngicos. A mortalidade geral de fungemias por Candida spp é da ordem de 40 a 60%, tornado esta complicação infecciosa um grande desafio para os clínicos que trabalham em hospitais terciários em diferentes países.

  20. Antifungal activity of commercial ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Brazilian propolis against Candida spp.

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    S. M.D. Dias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Fourteen commercial ethanolic extracts (EEP and five aqueous extracts (AEP of Brazilian propolis were tested for antifungal activity in vitro by employing the agar diffusion assay to determine the susceptibility of Candida spp. Nystatin (100 IU, sterile distilled water and ethanol 93.2ºGL were used as positive, negative and solvent controls. Except for one sample, all EEP tested inhibited the in vitro growth of Candida spp., while the AEP extracts were only weakly inhibitory to the growth of these microorganisms. Four EEP products exhibited inhibition zones similar to those induced by nystatin. It was concluded that the commercial EEP extracts were more effective against Candida spp. than the aqueous extracts. This suggests that EEP could be used as an alternative medicine for the treatment of fungal infections of the oral cavity, such as oral candidosis (thrush or denture stomatitis. Keywords: ethanolic extract; aqueous extract; Brazilian propolis; Candida spp.

  1. In Vitro Activity of Tea Tree Oil Vaginal Suppositories against Candida spp. and Probiotic Vaginal Microbiota.

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    Di Vito, Maura; Mattarelli, Paola; Modesto, Monica; Girolamo, Antonietta; Ballardini, Milva; Tamburro, Annunziata; Meledandri, Marcello; Mondello, Francesca

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the in vitro microbicidal activity of vaginal suppositories (VS) containing tea tree oil (TTO-VS) towards Candida spp. and vaginal probiotics. A total of 20 Candida spp. strains, taken from patients with vaginitis and from an established type collection, including reference strains, were analysed by using the CLSI microdilution method. To study the action of VS towards the beneficial vaginal microbiota, the sensitivity of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (DSM 10140) and Lactobacillus spp. (Lactobacillus casei R-215 and Lactobacillus acidophilus R-52) was tested. Both TTO-VS and TTO showed fungicidal activity against all strains of Candida spp. whereas placebo-VS or the Aloe gel used as controls were ineffective. The study of fractional fungicidal concentrations (FFC) showed synergistic interaction with the association between Amphotericin B and TTO (0.25 to 0.08 µg/ml, respectively) against Candida albicans. Instead, the probiotics were only affected by TTO concentration ≥ 4% v/v, while, at concentrations < 2% v/v, they remained viable. TTO-VS exhibits, in vitro, a selective fungicidal action, slightly affecting only the Bifidobacteriun animalis strain growth belonging to the vaginal microbiota. In vivo studies are needed to confirm the efficacy to prevent acute or recurrent vaginal candidiasis.

  2. The immune response against Candida spp. and Sporothrix schenckii.

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    Martínez-Álvarez, José A; Pérez-García, Luis A; Flores-Carreón, Arturo; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is the main causative agent of systemic candidiasis, a condition with high mortality rates. The study of the interaction between C. albicans and immune system components has been thoroughly studied and nowadays there is a model for the anti-C. albicans immune response; however, little is known about the sensing of other pathogenic species of the Candida genus. Sporothrix schenckii is the causative agent of sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis, and thus far there is limited information about its interaction with the immune system. In this paper, we review the most recent information about the immune sensing of species from genus Candida and S. schenckii. Thoroughly searches in scientific journal databases were performed, looking for papers addressing either Candida- or Sporothrix-immune system interactions. There is a significant advance in the knowledge of non-C. albicans species of Candida and Sporothrix immune sensing; however, there are still relevant points to address, such as the specific contribution of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) for sensing by different immune cells and the immune receptors involved in such interactions. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012).

  3. [Presumptive identification of Candida spp. and other clinically important yeasts: usefulness of Brilliance Candida Agar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Claudia; López, Mónica; Arechavala, Alicia; Perrone, María Del Carmen; Guelfand, Liliana; Bianchi, Mario

    2010-06-30

    Fungal infections caused by yeasts have increased during the last decades and invasive forms represent a serious problem for human health. Candida albicans is the species most frequently isolated from clinical samples. However, other emerging yeast pathogens are increasingly responsible for mycotic infections, and some of them are resistant to some antifungal drugs. Consequently, it is necessary to have methods that can provide a rapid presumptive identification at species level. Numerous chromogenic agar media have been shown to be of value as diagnostic tools. We have compared a chromogenic medium, Brilliance Candida Agar, with CHROMagar Candida, the chromogenic medium most used in our country. A multicentre study was conducted in 16 Hospitals belonging to the Mycology Net of Buenos Aires City Government. A total of 240 yeast isolates were included in this research. The new chromogenic agar showed results very similar to those obtained with CHROMagar Candida.

  4. Effects of oral environment stabilization procedures on counts of Candida spp. in children Efeitos da adequação do meio bucal na contagem de Candida spp. em crianças

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The effects of oral environment stabilization procedures on counts of Candida spp. have rarely been discussed, and no conclusive results are found in the literature. The aim of this study was thus to ascertain the effects of oral environment stabilization procedures with glass ionomer and zinc oxide-eugenol cements on counts of Candida spp. in the oral cavity of children. For this purpose, oral rinses of sterile phosphate-buffered saline were initially collected from 30 boys and 30 girls, pos...

  5. Do Candida spp. "read" Nietzsche? Can xenobiotics modulate their aggressiveness? Proposition that chemicals may interfere in their virulence attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    As well as the host, opportunist Candida spp. enface all sorts of exogenous chemicals, so-called xenobiotics. It is plausible that xenobiotics exert some effects on such microorganisms; among them, the modulation of virulence attributes.

  6. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis of voriconazole against Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. in children, adolescents and adults by Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gaoqi; Zhu, Liqin; Ge, Tingyue; Liao, Shasha; Li, Na; Qi, Fang

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative fraction of response of various voriconazole dosing regimens against six Candida and six Aspergillus spp. in immunocompromised children, immunocompromised adolescents, and adults. Using pharmacokinetic parameters and pharmacodynamic data, 5000-subject Monte Carlo simulations (MCSs) were conducted to evaluate the ability of simulated dosing strategies in terms of fAUC/MIC targets of voriconazole. According to the results of the MCSs, current voriconazole dosage regimens were all effective for children, adolescents and adults against Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis. For adults, dosing regimens of 4 mg/kg intravenous every 12 h (q12h) and 300 mg orally q12h were sufficient to treat fungal infections by six Candida spp. (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and C. orthopsilosis) and five Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus nidulans). However, high doses should be recommended for children and adolescents in order to achieve better clinical efficacy against A. fumigatus and A. nidulans. The current voriconazole dosage regimens were all ineffective against A. niger for children and adolescents. All voriconazole dosage regimens were not optimal against Aspergillus versicolor. This is the first study to evaluate clinical therapy of various voriconazole dosing regimens against Candida and Aspergillus spp. infections in children, adolescents and adults using MCS. The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic-based dosing strategy provided a theoretical rationale for identifying optimal voriconazole dosage regimens in children, adolescents and adults in order to maximise clinical response and minimise the probability of exposure-related toxicity.

  7. [Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. causing superficial mycosis. Coro, Falcon state, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saúl-García, Yotsabeth; Humbría-García, Leyla; Hernández-Valles, Rosaura

    2015-09-01

    Candida species other than C. albicans are often described as causative agents of superficial mycosis and are more resistant to treatment with azoles. In order to determine the distribution of species and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp., one ambispective study, which analyzed 18 yeast isolates obtained from samples from patients diagnosed with superficial mycosis, was performed. Taxonomic identification was performed by macroscopic visualization of the growth characteristics in chromogenic agar and by conventional methods. The susceptibility to fluconazole and voriconazole was evaluated by the disc diffusion method. Most of the isolates (88.8%), came from nail samples. C. parapsilosis was the most common species, followed by C. tropicalis, C. albicans and C. krusei, which confirmed the prevalence of non-albicans species as a cause of superficial mycoses. The pattern of susceptibility to fluconazole and voriconazole was similar: all isolates of C. parapsilosis and C. albicans were susceptible, while 83.3% of C. tropicalis showed sensitivity to both antifungals. C. krusei, fluconazole-resistant species showed intermediate susceptibility io voriconazole. The use of chromogenic agar allowed to detect mixed infections in nail samples, involving Candida spp. and C. tropicalis in one case, the latter with resistance to both fluconazole and voriconazole. The results demonstrate the importance of species identification and susceptibility testing to avoid therapeutic failures in superficial mycoses.

  8. The influence of photodynamic therapy parameters on the inactivation of Candida spp: in vitro and in vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, F.; Mima, E. G.; Dovigo, L. N.; Bagnato, V. S.; Jorge, J. H.; de Souza Costa, C. A.; Pavarina, A. C.

    2014-04-01

    The influence of parameters of photodynamic therapy (PDT), such as pre-irradiation time (PIT), on the inactivation of Candida spp. was assessed in vitro and in vivo. Suspensions of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata were treated with Photogem®, incubated for 5, 10 or 15 min and illuminated with a blue LED light. Colonies were cultivated and log values of CFU ml-1 were analyzed by ANOVA and Kruskall-Wallis test. For in vivo evaluation, immunosuppressed mice were inoculated with C. albicans. PDT was performed on the dorsum of the tongue by topical administration of Photogem® and illumination after 5, 10 or 15 min. C. albicans was recovered from the tongue and the number of CFU ml-1 was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test. Animals were killed and the tongues were surgically removed for histological analysis. Susceptibility of Candida spp. suspensions to PDT was in decreasing order: C. albicans = C. tropicalis 0.05), both in vivo and in vitro. A significant reduction (p < 0.05) of log(CFU ml-1) of C. albicans from tongues of mice was observed with no adverse effects in the tissue. PDT was effective to inactivate in vitroCandida spp. and for reduction of C. albicans in vivo, independently of the PIT used.

  9. The problems of urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Hanna; Szałek, Edyta; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women are a growing clinical concern. The most frequent risk factors of UTIs with fungal aetiology in women are: antibiotic therapy (especially broad-spectrum antibiotics), immunosuppressive therapy, diabetes, malnutrition, pregnancy, and frequent intercourse. The aim of the study was to analyse urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women hospitalised at the Clinical Hospital in Poznań, Poland, between 2009 and 2011. The investigations revealed that as many as 71% of positive urine cultures with Candida fungi came from women. The following fungi were most frequently isolated from the patients under analysis: C. albicans (47%), C. glabrata (31%), C. tropicalis (6%), C. krusei (3%). In order to diagnose a UTI the diagnosis cannot be based on a single result of a urine culture. Due to the small number of antifungal drugs and high costs of treatment, antifungal drugs should be applied with due consideration and care.

  10. Chemical composition and antifungal potential of Brazilian propolis against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freires, I A; Queiroz, V C P P; Furletti, V F; Ikegaki, M; de Alencar, S M; Duarte, M C T; Rosalen, P L

    2016-06-01

    Propolis is known to have biological properties against numerous microorganisms of clinical interest. This study aimed to determine the chemical composition and antifungal activity of Brazilian propolis (types 3 and 13) against Candida spp. and their effects on the morphology of preformed and mature Candida biofilms. Samples of propolis (3 and 13) collected by Apis mellifera honeybees were obtained from different regions in Brazil. Ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) were prepared, fractionated and submitted to chemical analysis by GC/MS. The extracts and their hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions were tested for their ability to inhibit Candida spp. (C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. kruzei, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis) by determination of the minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations (MIC/MFC). Additionally, their effects on morphology of preformed and mature biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The phenolic compounds p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), kaempferol and quercetin were identified in the EEP-3 and its bioactive dichloromethane fraction; and isoflavonoids such as medicarpin, vestitol and formononetin were found in the EEP-13, and triterpenes in its bioactive hexane fraction. The EEP-3 and EEP-13 and their bioactive fractions showed MIC values ranging from 0.2 to 125μg/mL and MFC values between 125 and 500μg/mL. The EEP and fractions were predominantly fungistatic agents. All extracts and fractions disrupted biofilm structures at 500μg/mL and amorphous areas with cell damage were clearly observed in preformed and mature biofilms. Propolis types 3 and 13 have strong anti-Candida activity and should be considered as promising candidates to treat oral and systemic candidiasis.

  11. Prevalence of Candida spp. in cervical-vaginal samples and the in vitro susceptibility of isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchana Martinez Brandolt

    Full Text Available Abstract Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is an infection of the genital mucosa caused by different species of the genus Candida. Considering the lack of data on this topic in the south of Brazil, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of Candida spp. in the cervical-vaginal mucosa of patients treated at a university hospital in southern Rio Grande do Sul, as well as the etiology and the susceptibility of the isolates against fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and nystatin. Samples were collected at the gynecology clinic of the Federal Hospital of the University of Rio Grande, and the isolates were identified using phenotypic and biochemical tests. The susceptibility analysis was performed according to the CLSI M27-A2 protocol. Of the 263 patients included, Candida spp. was isolated in 27%, corresponding to a prevalence of approximately 15% for both VVC and colonization. More than 60% of the isolates were identified as Candida albicans; C. non-albicans was isolated at a rate of 8.6% in symptomatic patients and 14.3% in asymptomatic patients. The prevalence of resistance against fluconazole and itraconazole was 42% and 48%, respectively; the minimal inhibitory concentration of miconazole ranged from 0.031 to 8 µg/mL, and that of nystatin ranged from 2 to >16 µg/mL. The high rate of resistance to triazoles observed in our study suggests the necessity of the association of laboratory exams to clinical diagnosis to minimize the practice of empirical treatments that can contribute to the development of resistance in the isolates.

  12. Tratamiento con caspofungina de endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol Treatment with caspofungin of Candida tropicalis endocarditis resistant to fluconazol

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    Marcelo del Castillo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Las endocarditis causadas por hongos, (Candida en particular, requieren tratamiento médico-quirúrgico, siendo la anfotericina B la droga de elección. Caspofungina es una equinocandina con gran actividad sobre Candida y Aspergillus. Se presenta un paciente con una endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol tratado con caspofungina bajo un esquema de salvataje, luego de haber presentado efectos adversos por anfotericina B. El paciente tuvo respuesta microbiológica.Fungal endocarditis, in particular due to Candida species, requires medical and surgical treatment and amphotericin B is the drug of choice. Caspofungin is an echinocandin very effective against Candida and Aspergillus. We present a patient with Candida tropicalis endocarditis, fluconazol resistant, treated with caspofungin, on a compassional basis as a result of adverse effects with amphotericin B. The patient had a microbiological response.

  13. Detection and sampling methods for isolation of Candida spp. from oral cavities in diabetics and non-diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja MATIĆ PETROVIĆ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to detect Candida spp. on the tongue and in the subgingival sites in healthy and type 2 diabetes (T2D patients with chronic periodontitis (CP, and to compare the accuracy of sampling methods. This study included 131 patients divided into four groups: healthy control (group A, nondiabetics + CP (Group B, diabetics with good metabolic control + CP (group C and diabetics with poor glycoregulation + CP (Group D. Cotton swab samples from tongue and subgingival samples were obtained from each patient with help of sterile paper points and a sterile curette. Swab cultures were made on Sabouraud dextrose agar. The number of CFUs was counted. The sampling methods for subgingival plaque were compared by Receiving Operator Curve (ROC. The presence of Candida spp. on the tongue was statistically significant among groups (group D vs. others three groups: χ2: p < 0.005 for each group. Positive findings of subgingival Candida spp. did not differ among the groups. There were no significant differences in the quantification of Candida spp., neither on the tongue, nor in the subgingival samples. 17.2% of diabetic patients revealed the presence of Candida spp. in the subgingival samples, with negative finding on tongue. There was a significant difference in the sampling methods for subgingival plaque (p = 0.000. Candida spp. is more prevalent on the tongue of diabetics. The sampling of subgingival plaque by a sterile curette is more accurate than with paper points. Subgingival plaque may represent a reservoir of commensals. It is necessary to standardize the sampling of subgingival plaque.

  14. Aislamiento de Candida dubliniensis en un adolescente con estomatitis protésica

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, Christian Oscar; Moragues Tosantos, María Dolores; Brena Alonso, Sonia; Rosa, Alcira Cristina; Pontón San Emeterio, José

    2005-01-01

    Objetivos: Utilizar varios métodos que permiten la diferenciación entre Candida albicans y Candida dubliniensis en un intento de conocer si C. dubliniensis puede ser aislada de la cavidad oral de adolescentes con prótesis ortopédicas orales. Materiales y métodos: Se aislaron 12 cepas de género Candida procedentes de mucosa palatina y de soporte de prótesis de 12 pacientes adolescentes portadores de prótesis ortopédicas orales. Para la diferenciación entre C. albicans y C....

  15. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida spp. bloodstream isolates from Latin American hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godoy Patrício

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available From March 1999 to March 2000, we conducted a prospective multicenter study of candidemia involving five tertiary care hospitals from four countries in Latin America. Yeast isolates were identified by classical methods and the antifungal susceptibility profile was determined according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards microbroth assay method. During a 12 month-period we were able to collect a total of 103 bloodstream isolates of Candida spp. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species accounting for 42% of all isolates. Non-albicans Candida species strains accounted for 58% of all episodes of candidemia and were mostly represented by C. tropicalis (24.2% and C. parapsilosis (21.3%. It is noteworthy that we were able to identify two cases of C. lusitaniae from different institutions. In our casuistic, non-albicans Candida species isolates related to candidemic episodes were susceptible to fluconazole. Continuously surveillance programs are needed in order to identify possible changes in the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns of yeasts that may occurs after increasing the use of azoles in Latin American hospitals.

  16. Susceptibility profile of Candida spp. isolated from humans and dogs with stomatitis to the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris

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    Živković R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida spp. form a part of human and animal oral cavity flora. However Candida spp. is the main cause of dental related stomatitis in humans and stomatitis in dogs. Stomatitis treatment implies the use of azoles and polyenes to which yeasts build up resistance. The research is directed to the use of natural compounds such as essential oils. The aim of this paper is to define the antifungal activity of thyme oil on 15 clinical strains of Candida spp., isolated from humans and dogs and to determine if there is a difference in susceptibility between human and dog isolates. Sampling in patients with stomatitis was done by swabbing the denture or oral mucosa swab while sampling in dogs was done by swabbing the oral cavity mucosa after stomatitis has been diagnosed. In order to investigate the antifungal activity of thyme oil in vitro, microdilution method was used. Thyme oil expressed antifungal effects on all investigated strains. Also, our data show that the values of minimum fungicide concentration (MFC and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC are lower in human strains. Explanation is that in most cases, stomatitis in humans is asymptomatic and thus not treated, so Candida strains have not developed resistance. On the other hand, stomatitis in dogs is followed by a marked clinical picture and treated is by antimicotics (mostly by azoles, therefore resistant Candida strains are more likely to occur.

  17. Effects of oral environment stabilization procedures on counts of Candida spp. in children Efeitos da adequação do meio bucal na contagem de Candida spp. em crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Augusto do Rego

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of oral environment stabilization procedures on counts of Candida spp. have rarely been discussed, and no conclusive results are found in the literature. The aim of this study was thus to ascertain the effects of oral environment stabilization procedures with glass ionomer and zinc oxide-eugenol cements on counts of Candida spp. in the oral cavity of children. For this purpose, oral rinses of sterile phosphate-buffered saline were initially collected from 30 boys and 30 girls, positive for Candida in the saliva and aged from 4 to 10 years. Data on the initial quantity of CFU/ml of Candida were obtained. Then, the children were randomly divided into two groups and oral environment stabilization procedures were performed using zinc oxide-eugenol cement or glass ionomer cement. One week after the procedures were performed, oral rinses were collected again and final Candida counts were obtained. An expressive reduction in Candida counts was observed in both groups. The zinc oxide-eugenol and glass ionomer cements were efficient in the reduction of Candida counts and statistically significant differences were observed between initial and final counts in both groups. Considering the percentage of reduction, the zinc oxide-eugenol cement presented more favorable results, with a reduction of 70%. A reduction of 46% was observed with the use of the glass ionomer cement. According to the obtained results, we concluded that oral environment stabilization procedures were efficient in reducing Candida spp. counts, especially when the zinc oxide-eugenol cement was employed.O efeito da adequação de meio sobre contagens de Candida spp. na cavidade bucal tem sido pouco discutido e nenhum resultado conclusivo foi encontrado na literatura. Desse modo, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar os efeitos da adequação de meio bucal, utilizando cimento de óxido de zinco e eugenol e cimento de ionômero de vidro, sobre contagens desses

  18. Two-year surveillance on fluconazole susceptibility of Candida spp isolates in a general and university hospital in Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testore, G P; Falco, F; Sarrecchia, C; Sordillo, P; Bontempo, G; Andreoni, M

    2001-01-01

    Fluconazole susceptibility was tested in 385 clinical yeast isolates (285 Candida albicans, 38 C. glabrata, 31 C. tropicalis, 31 other Candida subsp.) using the agar disk diffusion test. Yeasts were collected from specimens obtained from outpatients (69) and inpatients (intensive care unit: 79 isolates, major burn unit: 31 isolates, hematology ward: 45 isolates, gynecology ward: 67 isolates, other wards: 94 isolates). Three hundred and fifty-six (92%) yeast isolates showed to be susceptible, 18 (5%) were susceptible dose-dependent, and 10 (3%) were resistant to fluconazole. Of the resistant group, 3 isolates were C.albicans, while seven were Candida non-albicans (2 C. rugosa, 2 C. humicola, 1 C. tropicalis, 1 C. ciferrii, 1 C. glabrata). The disk-diffusion method was easy to perform and there were no difficulties in the interpretation of inhibition zone diameters. Fluconazole maintained a good activity against Candida spp despite its extensive use for the prophylaxis and treatment of fungal infections.

  19. Isolation of Candida spp from vaginal microbiota of healthy canine females during estrous cycle Isolamento de Candida spp da microbiota vaginal de fêmeas caninas hígidas durante o ciclo estral

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    Marlete Brum Cleff

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts are commensal organisms found in the skin, genital and gastrointestinal tracts, and other mucosa in mammalians. Candida spp has been frequently isolated from domestic and sylvan animals. Yeast isolation from vaginal mucus is frequent in women, especially of Candida genus. In canine females, however, studies about vaginal fungal microbiota are rare and the connection with estrous cycle is unknown. The purpose of this study was to isolate yeast 5 of Candida genus from healthy canine females and identify the isolated species, establishing their connection with estrous cycle phases. Two hundred twenty-four samples taken from vaginal mucus of 14 canine females were analyzed in this study. Candida spp was observed in 83 (37% from these samples; nine samples were taken in proestrus, 14 in oestrus, 31 in dioestrus, 24 in anoestrus and five samples were obtained during pregnancy. Candida parapsilosis the most frequently isolated specie (21.7%, followed by C. guillermondii (8.4%, C. kefir (6% and C. albicans (4.8%. We concluded that Candida spp is a commion component of healthy canine females' vaginal microbiota, and isolation varies according to the estrous cycle phase.As leveduras são organismos comensais da pele, trato genital e gastrointestinal, e de outras mucosas de mamíferos. O gênero Candida vem sendo isolado freqüentemente de animais domésticos e silvestres. O isolamento de Candida spp da mucosa vaginal de mulheres é freqüente, porém na espécie canina são escassos os estudos referentes à microbiota fúngica vaginal, especialmente do gênero candida, não se tendo conhecimento de sua relação com o ciclo reprodutivo. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo isolar leveduras do gênero Candida em fêmeas caninas hígidas e identificar as espécies isoladas, relacionando-as com as diferentes fases do ciclo estral. Foram analisadas 224 amostras obtidas da mucosa vaginal de 14 fêmeas caninas. Candida spp foi observada em 83 (37

  20. Candida spp. biotypes in the oral cavity of school children from different socioeconomic categories in Piracicaba - SP, Brazil

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    MOREIRA Daniella

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and thirty-nine (239 Brazilian children, distributed into five distinct socioeconomic categories (A to E were studied. Saliva samples were analyzed as to flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and microbial parameters. The results revealed the presence of Candida spp. in 47.3% of the samples. The most commonly isolated species was C. albicans, in all socioeconomic categories, followed by C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis. There was no statistical correlation between secretion rate, buffer capacity and Candida spp. CFU/ml. The prevalence of Candida spp. did not differ substantially among the groups; however the microorganisms were more detected in categories B and C. Among all species, C. albicans was the most prevalent. Only 5% of the sample presented more than one species - C. albicans associated with C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis or C. krusei. It was possible to detect a significant correlation between caries indices and the socioeconomic categories. All categories presented increased caries indices; however the studied population was considered of low caries risk. There was no positive correlation between the presence of Candida and caries risk in the analyzed population.

  1. Antifungal suscepitibility profile of candida spp. oral isolates obtained from denture wearers Perfil de sensibilidade antifungica de isolados de candida sp obtidos de usuários de prótese total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Lyon

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Denture stomatitis is an inflammatory condition that occurs in denture wearers and is frequently associated with Candida yeasts. Antifungal susceptibility profiles have been extensively evaluated for candidiasis patients or immunosupressed individuals, but not for healthy Candida carriers. In the present study, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine and 5-flucytosin were tested against 109 oral Candida spp. isolates. All antifungal agents were effective against the samples tested except for terbinafine. This work might provide epidemiological information about Candida spp. drug susceptibility in oral healthy individuals.A estomatite protética é uma condição inflamatória que ocorre em usuários de prótese total e está frequentemente associada a leveduras do gênero Candida, Os perfis de suscetibilidade a antifúngicos têm sido extensivamente estudados em pacientes com candidíase ou em indivíduos imunossuprimidos, mas não em portadores sadios de Candida. No presente estudo, fluconazol, itraconazol, voriconazol, terbinafina e 5-flucitosina foram testados contra 109 isolados orais de Candida spp. Todos os agentes antifúngicos mostraram-se eficazes contra as amostras avaliadas, exceto a Terbinafina. O presente trabalho pode fornecer dados epidemiológicos com relação à susceptibilidade a antifúngicos de Candida spp em indivíduos com saúde oral.

  2. Identification of Candida spp. isolated from vaginal swab by phenotypic methods and multiplex PCR in Duhok, Iraq

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    Ahmed Basheer Mohammed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida species are the second most common cause of vulvovaginitis worldwide. The purpose of this study was to identify the species of vaginal Candida isolates by using phenotypic and Multiplex PCR techniques. Methods: 91 isolates from patients admitted to Azadi hospital and Maternity hospital in Duhok city were collected. The vaginal swab specimens were inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Colonies were then sub cultured on Chromogenic Candida agar. Genomic DNA extraction was performed using a Genomic DNA Extraction kit. For rapid identification of Candida spp., specific primers based on the genomic sequence of DNA topoisomerase 11 of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis I, C. parapsilosis II, C. guilliermondi, C. dubliniensis, C. krusei, C. kefyr and C. glabrata, C. tropicalis I, C. tropicalis II, C. lusitaniae were used. The multiplex PCR products were separated by electrophoresis in 1.5% agarose gel, visualized by staining with ethidium bromide, and photographed. Results: 4 Candida species, namely C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. tropicalis were distinguished by Chromogenic Candida agar on the basis of colony colour and morphology. PCR with the primer mixes yielded 7 different sized of PCR products corresponding to C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. kefyr, C. krusei and C. tropicalis II. The analysis revealed C. glabrata and C. albicans were the most common species isolated with the percentage 40% and 30% respectively. Conclusions: This study concluded that phenotypic characteristics on selective agar medium such as chromogenic candida agar are useful for presumptive identification of Candiada spp. with the support of molecular method such as multiplex PCR. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3211-3216

  3. Antimicrobial activity, synergism and inhibition of germ tube formation by Crocus sativus-derived compounds against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carradori, Simone; Chimenti, Paola; Fazzari, Marina; Granese, Arianna; Angiolella, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    The limited arsenal of synthetic antifungal agents and the emergence of resistant Candida strains have prompted the researchers towards the investigation of naturally occurring compounds or their semisynthetic derivatives in order to propose new innovative hit compounds or new antifungal combinations endowed with reduced toxicity. We explored the anti-Candida effects, for the first time, of two bioactive compounds from Crocus sativus stigmas, namely crocin 1 and safranal, and some semisynthetic derivatives of safranal obtaining promising biological results in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum fungicidal concentration (MIC/MFC) values, synergism and reduction in the germ tube formation. Safranal and its thiosemicarbazone derivative 5 were shown to display good activity against Candida spp.

  4. Inhibition of germ tube's formation of Candida albicans by lactobacillus spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Huan; WEI Hong

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of 6 strains of lactobacilli and their main culture metabolites on the morphogenesis of Candida albicans (C. albicans) so as to screen medicinal strains as antifungal agents. Methods: Spent culture supernatant (SCS) at different culture time points, live lactobacilli, heatkilled bacteria and bacterial short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) with different molarities were incubated with C. albicans respectively. Crystal violet-based germ tube assay was used to detect the germination of C. albicans and the inhibitory efficiency of each addition was tested by germination rate. Results: SCS of lactobacillus spp. decreased the germination significantly and live bacteria of L. rhamnosus. GG, L. acidophilus L050103-12 as well as L. johnsonii JCM1022 could partially inhibit the conversion, however, all the heatkilled bacteria failed to control the germ tube formation. In addition, only butyric acid blocked the conversion of yeast to hypha among all the SCFA. Conclusion: The excellent fungistasis activities make L.rhamnosus. GG, L. acidophilus L050103-12 and L. johnsonii JCM1022 potential strains as antifungal drugs and the inhibition seems to have direct correlation to the metabolites.

  5. In vitro activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against bacterial and Candida spp. isolates from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banes-Marshall, L; Cawley, P; Phillips, C A

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates the in vitro activity of tea tree oil (TTO) against a range of wild strains of microorganisms isolated from clinical specimens of leg ulcers and pressure sores. The antimicrobial effectiveness of TTO is determined in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) or minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). The isolates include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), S. aureus, faecal streptococci, beta-haemolytic streptococci, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Pseudomonas spp. and coliform bacilli. Eleven Candida spp. isolates from skin and vaginal swabs also are tested. Using an agar dilution assay, the MICs of TTO in 88 out of 90 isolates was 0.5-1.0% (v/v), whilst with P. aeruginosa it was >2% (v/v). A broth microdilution method was used to determine MIC and minimum cidal concentration (MCC) of 80 isolates. In 64 isolates, TTO produced an inhibitory and cidal effect at 3% and 4% (v/v), respectively. S. aureus and Candida spp. were the most susceptible to TTO, with MICs and MBCs of 0.5% and 1%, respectively. P. aeruginosa and the faecal streptococci isolates, with MICs and MBCs of >8%, were resistant to TTO.

  6. In vitro antifungal activity of 2-(2'-hydroxy-5'-aminophenyl)benzoxazole in Candida spp. strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daboit, Tatiane Caroline; Stopiglia, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; Carissimi, Mariana; Corbellini, Valeriano Antonio; Stefani, Valter; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia

    2009-11-01

    The development of azole antifungals has allowed for the treatment of several fungal infections. However, the use of these compounds is restricted because of their hepatotoxicity or because they need to be administered together with other drugs in order to prevent resistance to monotherapy. Benzoxazole derivatives are among the most thriving molecular prototypes for the development of antifungal agents. 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl) benzoxazoles are versatile molecules that emit fluorescence and have antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties. 2-(2'-hydroxy-5'-aminophenyl) benzoxazole (HAMBO) was tested against Candida yeast. The inhibition provided by HAMBO was lower than that of fluconazole, showing low antifungal activity against Candida spp., but equivalent to that of benzoxazoles tested in similar studies. HAMBO showed fungistatic activity against all analysed strains. This class of novel benzoxazole compounds may be used as template to produce better antifungal drugs.

  7. Oral Candida spp carriers: its prevalence in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ramon Felipe Fernandez; Jaimes-Aveldañez, Alejandra; Hernández-Pérez, Francisco; Arenas, Roberto; Miguel, Guadalupe Fabián-San

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevalence of oral candidiasis in diabetic patients is 13.7-64%. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species (75-86.5%). OBJECTIVE: To obtain the prevalence of Candida carriers among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to identify the species of the yeast. Study design: It is an open, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective study. METHODS: We included voluntary patients from the National Diabetes Marathon and performed a blood glucose measurement, sialometry test, Gram-stained exfoliative cytology, and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar and CHROMagar Candida TM. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: We examined 141 patients (mean age 57 years): 103 women (73%) and 38 men (26.9%). Exfoliative cytology was positive in 32 cases (23 with oral lesions); 78 had oral lesions but no Candida (93.9%). Candida was isolated in 58 patients (41.1%), 21 (45.6 %) had blood glucose greater than 126 mg/dl, and 37 (38.9%) had less than 126 mg/dl. The most frequent species was C. albicans (82.7%). Forty-two Candida carriers had salivary flow greater than 20 mm (72.4%), and 16 (27.5%) had hyposalivation. Candida was isolated in 25 of 79 patients with dental prosthesis (31.6%), 9 of 15 were smokers (60%), and 22 of 71 had symptoms (30.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of oral Candida carriers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico was similar to that found in other countries; exfoliative cytology was effective in finding Candida; salivary flow rate, use of prosthesis, and presence of oral lesions and symptoms were similar in oral Candida carriers and negative patients. Most smokers were Candida carriers. PMID:23739717

  8. Presença de Candida spp. na cavidade bucal de lactentes durante os primeiros quatro meses de vida

    OpenAIRE

    Scherma, Alexandre Prado; Faculdade de Odontologia de São José dos Campos-UNESP; Santos, Daniel Valente de O.; Faculdade de Odontologia de São; Cardoso Jorge, Antonio Olavo; Faculdade de Odontologia de São José dos Campos – UNESP; Rocha, Rosilene Fernandes da; Faculdade de Odontologia de São José dos Campos – UNESP

    2010-01-01

    A candidose bucal é um dos processos infecciosos micóticos mais comuns da cavidade bucal e existe suscetibilidade aumentada para o mesmo durante o período neonatal principalmente devido à imaturidade dos mecanismos de defesa e a falta de um microbiota bucal balanceada. Para verificar a presença de Candida spp. na cavidade bucal de lactentes foram examinados inicialmente cem bebês, nos quais foi feita coleta de material do dorso da língua com swa...

  9. Candida spp. morphotype differentiation on Sabouraud-Triphenyltetrazolium-Agar (STTZ-Agar) under three different experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, G; Marinelli, A; Galdiero, E; Arnese, A; Di Onofrio, V; Lucariello, A; Marinelli, P

    2004-04-01

    One hundred and thirty-two strains of Candida spp. were cultured on STTZ-Agar at 37 degrees C for 6 days and at 25 degrees C for 6 and 21 days to determine the culture conditions that would ensure maximum reproducibility in the discrimination of the strains of the same species. Standardization is of utmost importance, as varying experimental conditions can alter the results of the tests. Further studies are needed also implementing molecular tests to establish possible relationships between morphotype, genotype and virulence.

  10. Oral Candida spp carriers: its prevalence in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Ramon Felipe Fernandez; Jaimes-Aveldañez,Alejandra; Hernández-Pérez, Francisco; Arenas, Roberto; Miguel,Guadalupe Fabián-San

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevalence of oral candidiasis in diabetic patients is 13.7-64%. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species (75-86.5%). OBJECTIVE: To obtain the prevalence of Candida carriers among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to identify the species of the yeast. Study design: It is an open, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective study. ...

  11. Streptococcus thermophilus and its biosurfactants inhibit adhesion by Candida spp. on silicone rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, HJ; vanHoogmoed, CG; GeertsemaDoornbusch, GI; vanderKuijlBooij, M; vanderMei, HC

    1997-01-01

    The adhesion of yeasts, two Candida albicans and two Candida tropicalis strains isolated from naturally colonized voice prostheses, to silicone rubber with and without a salivary conditioning film in the absence and presence of adhering Streptococcus thermophilus B, a biosurfactant-releasing dairy i

  12. Synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation and theoretical prediction of NMR chemical shifts of thiazole and selenazole derivatives with high antifungal activity against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łączkowski, Krzysztof Z.; Motylewska, Katarzyna; Baranowska-Łączkowska, Angelika; Biernasiuk, Anna; Misiura, Konrad; Malm, Anna; Fernández, Berta

    2016-03-01

    Synthesis and investigation of antimicrobial activities of novel thiazoles and selenazoles is presented. Their structures were determined using NMR, FAB(+)-MS, HRMS and elemental analyses. To support the experiment, theoretical calculations of the 1H NMR shifts were carried out for representative systems within the DFT B3LYP/6-311++G** approximation which additionally confirmed the structure of investigated compounds. Among the derivatives, compounds 4b, 4h, 4j and 4l had very strong activity against reference strains of Candida albicans ATCC and Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019 with MIC = 0.49-7.81 μg/ml. In the case of compounds 4b, 4c, 4h - 4j and 4l, the activity was very strong against of Candida spp. isolated from clinical materials, i.e. C. albicans, Candida krusei, Candida inconspicua, Candida famata, Candida lusitaniae, Candida sake, C. parapsilosis and Candida dubliniensis with MIC = 0.24-15.62 μg/ml. The activity of several of these was similar to the activity of commonly used antifungal agent fluconazole. Additionally, compounds 4m - 4s were found to be active against Gram-positive bacteria, both pathogenic staphylococci Staphylococcus aureus ATCC with MIC = 31.25-125 μg/ml and opportunistic bacteria, such as Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and Micrococcus luteus ATCC 10240 with MIC = 7.81-31.25 μg/ml.

  13. Prevalence of Candida spp. among healthy denture and nondenture wearers with respect to hygiene and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Bharathi; Shekar, Malathi; Maiti, Biswajit; Karunasagar, Indrani; Padiyath, Sreeshma

    2015-01-01

    Dentures are inert and nonshading surfaces and therefore get easily colonized by Candida species. Subsequent biofilm produced by them lead to denture stomatitis and candidiasis. This study was aimed to understand the prevalence of Candida species among healthy denture and nondenture wearers with respect to their age and hygiene status. Swabs were collected from 50 complete dentures and 50 non-denture wearers and processed on Sabouraud's dextrose agar. Identification of Candida species was done by staining and a battery of biochemical tests. Data obtained was correlated with age & oral hygiene and statistical analysis was performed. Candida was isolated from both denture and nondenture wearers. Prevalence of different Candida species was significantly higher in denture wearers and found predominated by C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. dubliensis and C. glabrata. Among nondenture wearers, C. albicans and C. tropicalis were isolated. Prevalence of Candida increased with increasing age among denture wearers. Men presented declining denture hygiene compared to women with increasing age. In comparison to nondenture wearers, multispecies of Candida colonized the dentures thus presenting higher risk of candidiasis especially with increasing age.

  14. Disinfection efficacy of chlorine and peracetic acid alone or in combination against Aspergillus spp. and Candida albicans in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisti, Maurizio; Brandi, Giorgio; De Santi, Mauro; Rinaldi, Laura; Schiavano, Giuditta F

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the fungicidal activity of chlorine and peracetic acid in drinking water against various pathogenic Aspergillus spp. and Candida albicans strains. A. nidulans exhibited the greatest resistance, requiring 10 ppm of chlorine for 30 min contact time for a complete inactivation. Under the same experimental conditions, peracetic acid was even less fungicidal. In this case, A. niger proved to be the most resistant species (50 ppm for 60 min for complete inactivation). All Aspergillus spp. were insensitive to 10 ppm even with extended exposure (>5 h). The combination of chlorine and peracetic acid against Aspergillus spp. did not show synergistic effects except in the case of A. flavus. Complete growth inhibition of C. albicans was observed after about 3 h contact time with 0.2 ppm. C. albicans was less sensitive to peracetic acid. Hence the concentrations of chlorine that are usually present in drinking water distribution systems are ineffective against several Aspergillus spp. and peracetic acid cannot be considered an alternative to chlorine for disinfecting drinking water. The combination of the two biocides is not very effective in eliminating filamentous fungi at the concentrations permitted for drinking water disinfection.

  15. In-vitro activity of essential oils, in particular Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and tea tree oil products, against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, K A; Carson, C F; Riley, T V

    1998-11-01

    The in-vitro activity of a range of essential oils, including tea tree oil, against the yeast candida was examined. Of the 24 essential oils tested by the agar dilution method against Candida albicans ATCC 10231, three did not inhibit C. albicans at the highest concentration tested, which was 2.0% (v/v) oil. Sandalwood oil had the lowest MIC, inhibiting C. albicans at 0.06%. Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil was investigated for activity against 81 C. albicans isolates and 33 non-albicans Candida isolates. By the broth microdilution method, the minimum concentration of oil inhibiting 90% of isolates for both C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species was 0.25% (v/v). The minimum concentration of oil killing 90% of isolates was 0.25% for C. albicans and 0.5% for non-albicans Candida species. Fifty-seven Candida isolates were tested for sensitivity to tea tree oil by the agar dilution method; the minimum concentration of oil inhibiting 90% of isolates was 0.5%. Tests on three intra-vaginal tea tree oil products showed these products to have MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations comparable to those of non-formulated tea tree oil, indicating that the tea tree oil contained in these products has retained its anticandidal activity. These data indicate that some essential oils are active against Candida spp., suggesting that they may be useful in the topical treatment of superficial candida infections.

  16. Candida spp. occurrence in oral cavities of breastfeeding infants and in their mothers' mouths and breasts Presença de Candida spp. em boca de lactentes em aleitamento materno e em bocas e mamas de suas nutrizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stella Amorim da Costa Zöllner

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the occurrence of Candida spp. in the oral cavity of predominantly breastfed infants and in their mothers' mouths and breasts, as well as in the oral cavity of bottlefed infants and in non-lactating women. One hundred and sixty nine women and eighty-five milk-fed infants took part in this study and were divided into four groups: 1 infants predominantly on breastfeeding (n = 55 and their mothers (n = 55; 2 infants on bottlefeeding (n = 30; 3 non-lactating women on whom oral collections were performed (n = 80 and, 4 non-lactating women on whom breast collections were performed (n = 34. Oral and mammary swabs were cultured on Sabouraud agar dextrose with chloramphenicol. The Candida yeast strains found were isolated and identified through morphological and biochemical tests. Candida species were much less frequent in infants who were predominantly breastfed than in those who were bottlefed. Yeasts were much more frequent on the breasts of lactating women, with statistical difference in relation to the control group.O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a presença de leveduras do gênero Candida na cavidade bucal de lactentes em aleitamento materno predominante e nas bocas e mamas de suas mães, assim como na cavidade bucal de lactentes em aleitamento artificial e em mulheres na ausência de lactação. Participaram do estudo 169 mulheres e 85 lactentes divididos em quatro grupos: 1 crianças em aleitamento natural predominante (n = 55 e suas mães (n = 55; 2 crianças em aleitamento artificial (n = 30; 3 mulheres que não estavam amamentando, em que se realizaram coletas bucais (n = 80 e, 4 mulheres em ausência de lactação em que se realizaram coletas mamárias (n = 34. "Swabs" bucais e mamários, foram semeados em ágar Sabouraud dextrose com cloranfenicol, e as cepas de levedura isoladas foram identificadas utilizando-se provas morfológicas e bioquímicas. Espécies de Candida foram detectadas a partir de um n

  17. Freqüência e atividade enzimática de Candida spp. na cavidade oral de pacientes diabéticos do serviço de endocrinologia de um hospital de Fortaleza-CE Frequency and enzymatic activity of Candida spp. oral cavity of diabetic patients of the service of endocrinology of a hospital of Fortaleza-CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O diabetes mellitus (DM, uma doença endócrino-metabólica de alta e crescente prevalência, é citada como responsável pela ocorrência das candidíases orais. A candidíase constitui um espectro de infecções causadas por fungos do gênero Candida, sendo o seu agente mais comum a Candida albicans, embora outras espécies tenham sido identificadas (Candida tropicalis, Candida guillermondii, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a freqüência e a atividade enzimática de Candida spp. na cavidade oral de pacientes diabéticos atendidos no Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital Universitário Walter Cantídio da Universidade Federal do Ceará (HUWC/UFC. Foram coletadas amostras de 48 pacientes diabéticos, de ambos os sexos, com situações variáveis de controle glicêmico. Os materiais clínicos foram colhidos com ajuda de swabs e semeados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-Sabouraud dextrose com cloranfenicol e incubado a 37°C. Os crescimentos foram identificados pelas provas clássicas usadas em micologia. Depois, essas cepas de Candida foram submetidas a provas de detecção de enzimas fosfolipase e proteinase. Destas, 15 amostras (31,25% apresentaram cultura positiva para o gênero Candida. A espécie mais freqüente foi a C. albicans, com 80%, seguida de C. tropicalis (13,3% e C. guillermondii (6,7%. Quanto à pesquisa da atividade enzimática de Candida spp., foi observado que 86,6% delas apresentaram atividade de proteinase e 80%, de fosfolipase. Conclui-se com tais resultados que a C. albicans é a mais freqüente e que as espécies de Candida isoladas possuem fortes atividades enzimáticas.Diabetes mellitus, a endocrine-metabolic disease, of high and increasing prevalence, is cited as responsible by the occurrence of oral candidiasis. Candidiasis constitutes a specter of infections caused by fungi of genera Candida; the most common agent is Candida albicans, but other species have also been

  18. Prevalence of periodontopathogens and Candida spp. in smokers after nonsurgical periodontal therapy – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Alessandra da Cruz Galhardo CAMARGO

    Full Text Available Abstract This pilot study aimed to evaluate the influence of smoking on clinical and microbiological parameters after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Forty-eight subjects were grouped into smokers (SM, n = 24 and nonsmokers (NS, n = 24 and paired according to gender, age, ethnicity, and periodontal status. Both groups received oral hygiene education and scaling and root planing. Clinical evaluation was performed using plaque index (PI, bleeding on probing (BOP, pocket probing depth (PPD, gingival recession (GR, and clinical attachment level (CAL before instrumentation (baseline and at 3 and 6 months. The prevalence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida dubliniensis in subgingival biofilm was determined by polymerase chain reaction. The data were statistically analyzed considering p < 0.05. Clinical conditions improved between baseline and 3 months after periodontal treatment. However, NS had a better clinical response, presenting greater PPD reduction and CAL increase in comparison to SM. Periodontal treatment reduced the levels of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and T. forsythia individually after 3 months for the NS group and after 6 months for both groups. The prevalence of Candida species was markedly higher in SM than in NS at all time points evaluated. Periodontopathogens associated or not with C. albicans or C. dubliniensis were more prevalent in SM than in NS at baseline and after 3 months. It was concluded that smoking impairs clinical and microbiological responses to periodontal therapy. Periodontopathogens combined or not with some Candida species are resistant to short-term periodontal therapy in SM.

  19. Antifungal Susceptibility of 205 Candida spp. Isolated Primarily during Invasive Candidiasis and Comparison of the Vitek 2 System with the CLSI Broth Microdilution and Etest Methods▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, N.; Dehandschoewercker, L.; Bertout, S.; Bousquet, P.-J.; Rispail, P.; Lachaud, L.

    2010-01-01

    Infections due to Candida spp. are frequent, particularly in immunocompromised and intensive care unit patients. Antifungal susceptibility tests are now required to optimize antifungal treatment given the emergence of acquired antifungal resistance in some Candida species. An antifungal susceptibility automated method, the Vitek 2 system (VK2), was evaluated. VK2 was compared to the CLSI broth microdilution reference method and the Etest procedure. For this purpose, 205 clinical isolates of Candida spp., including 11 different species, were tested for fluconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B susceptibility. For azoles, essential agreement ranged from 25% to 100%, depending on the method used and the Candida species tested. Categorical agreements for all of the species averaged 92.2% and ranged from 14.3 to 100%, depending on the 24-h or 48-h MIC reading by the Etest and CLSI methods and on the Candida species. Results obtained for Candida albicans showed excellent categorical and essential agreements with the two comparative methods. For Candida glabrata, the essential agreement was high with the CLSI method but low with the Etest method, and several very major errors in interpretation were observed between VK2 and the Etest method for both azoles. Low MICs of fluconazole were obtained for all of the Candida krusei isolates, but the VK2 expert software corrected all of the results obtained to resistant. Amphotericin B results showed MICs of ≤1 mg/liter for 201 (VK2), 190 (CLSI), and 202 (Etest) isolates. The AST-YS01 Vitek 2 card system (bioMérieux) is a reliable and practical standardized automated antifungal susceptibility test. Nevertheless, more assays are needed to better evaluate C. glabrata fluconazole sensitivity. PMID:19889902

  20. Feeding of yeast (Candida spp.) improves in vitro ruminal fermentation of ifbrous substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoandra Marrero; Yamicela Castillo; Oscar Ruiz; Eduviges Burrola; Claudio Angulo

    2015-01-01

    In vitro gas production technique (IVGPT) was used with the objective of determining the inclusion effect of live cel s of two strains of Candida yeast on in vitro ruminal fermentation of two ifbrous substrates. In order to achieve this, two experiments were performed:A) using oat straw (Avena sativa) as substrate;B) using alfalfa hay (Medicabo sativa) as substrate, comparing the effect of two different strains of Candida genre, both isolated from the rumen, on the mentioned substrates. Levica 25 (Candida tropicalis) yeast belongs to the culture col ection of the Institute of Animal Science, Cuba, and Levazoot 15 (Can-dida norvegensis) yeast is part of the col ection of the Faculty of Zootechnology and Ecology of the Autonomous University of Chihuahua, Mexico. Both strains demonstrated their potential in activating the ruminal fermentation. They stimulated (P<0.0001) the ruminal fermentation of the substrates under study. However, the Levazoot strain stimulated the dry matter (DM) fermentation of alfalfa in 21.43%, more than Levica 25. It is concluded that there is an inlfuence of yeast strain and diet on the rumen environment and, therefore, it is important to select the appropriate strain in every production condition.

  1. Characterization of thiamine uptake and utilization in Candida spp. subjected to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, Natalia; Tomasi, Massimo; Kozik, Andrzej; Rapala-Kozik, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Candida species are associated with an increasing number of life-threatening infections (candidiases), mainly due to the high resistance of these yeast-like fungi to antifungal drugs and oxidative stress. Recently, thiamine (vitamin B1) was found to alleviate stress responses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; however, thiamine influence on defense systems in pathogenic fungi has never been investigated. The current work was aimed to elucidate the role of thiamine in stress reactions of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis, subjected to hydrogen peroxide treatment. As compared to S. cerevisiae, Candida strains exposed to oxidative stress showed: (i) a much higher dependence on exogenous thiamine; (ii) an increased demand for thiamine diphosphate (TDP) and TDP-dependent enzyme, transketolase; (iii) no changes in gene expression of selected stress markers - superoxide dismutase and catalase - depending on thiamine availability in medium; (iv) a similar decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the presence of thiamine. Moreover, the addition of therapeutic doses of thiamine to yeast culture medium revealed differences in its accumulation between various Candida species. The current findings implicate that the protective action of thiamine observed in S. cerevisiae differs significantly form that in pathogenic Candida strains, both in terms of the cofactor functions of TDP and the effects on fungal defense systems.

  2. Alginate Oligosaccharides Inhibit Fungal Cell Growth and Potentiate the Activity of Antifungals against Candida and Aspergillus spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøndervik, Anne; Sletta, Håvard; Klinkenberg, Geir; Emanuel, Charlotte; Powell, Lydia C.; Pritchard, Manon F.; Khan, Saira; Craine, Kieron M.; Onsøyen, Edvar; Rye, Phil D.; Wright, Chris; Thomas, David W.; Hill, Katja E.

    2014-01-01

    The oligosaccharide OligoG, an alginate derived from seaweed, has been shown to have anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm properties and potentiates the activity of selected antibiotics against multi-drug resistant bacteria. The ability of OligoG to perturb fungal growth and potentiate conventional antifungal agents was evaluated using a range of pathogenic fungal strains. Candida (n = 11) and Aspergillus (n = 3) spp. were tested using germ tube assays, LIVE/DEAD staining, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high-throughput minimum inhibition concentration assays (MICs). In general, the strains tested showed a significant dose-dependent reduction in cell growth at ≥6% OligoG as measured by optical density (OD600; P0.5%) also showed a significant inhibitory effect on hyphal growth in germ tube assays, although strain-dependent variations in efficacy were observed (P<0.05). SEM and AFM both showed that OligoG (≥2%) markedly disrupted fungal biofilm formation, both alone, and in combination with fluconazole. Cell surface roughness was also significantly increased by the combination treatment (P<0.001). High-throughput robotic MIC screening demonstrated the potentiating effects of OligoG (2, 6, 10%) with nystatin, amphotericin B, fluconazole, miconazole, voriconazole or terbinafine with the test strains. Potentiating effects were observed for the Aspergillus strains with all six antifungal agents, with an up to 16-fold (nystatin) reduction in MIC. Similarly, all the Candida spp. showed potentiation with nystatin (up to 16-fold) and fluconazole (up to 8-fold). These findings demonstrate the antifungal properties of OligoG and suggest a potential role in the management of fungal infections and possible reduction of antifungal toxicity. PMID:25409186

  3. Epidemiology and phospholipase activity of oral Candida spp. among patients with central nervous system diseases before and after dental cleaning procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélia Silva Ribeiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients suffering of diseases that affect central nervous system may be considered more susceptible to the infectious diseases of mouth. Sixty-nine patients suffering of cerebral palsy, Down's syndrome and metal retardation were submitted to saliva examination for the presence of Candida spp. before and after a procedure of dental cleaning. The isolates were submitted to assay for verifying phospholipase production. 55.10% of the patients provided isolation of Candida spp. The frequency of isolation obtained before dental procedure was: C. albicans (83.33%, C. krusei (8.33% and C. kefyr, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata (2.78% each. The frequency after the procedure was: C. albicans (68.57%, C. parapsilosis (11.43%, C. krusei and C. kefyr (8.57% each and Candida glabrata (2.86%. We verified significantly difference (p < 0.01 between populations obtained at the two examinations. Phospholipase production was verified only among C. albicans strains and the proportion of producers was higher when testing isolates obtained after dental cleaning procedure. Studies focused on Candida spp. isolation are useful for better comprehension of the role of these yeasts on the oral flora from patients with cerebral palsy, Down's syndrome and metal retardation.

  4. [In vitro biofilm formation and relationship with antifungal resistance of Candida spp. isolated from vaginal and intrauterine device string samples of women with vaginal complaints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calışkan, Seyda; Keçeli Özcan, Sema; Cınar, Selvi; Corakçı, Aydın; Calışkan, Eray

    2011-10-01

    Intrauterin device (IUD) application is a widely used effective, safe and economic method for family planning. However IUD use may cause certain changes in vaginal ecosystem and may disturb microflora leading to increased colonization of various opportunistic pathogen microorganisms. The aims of this study were (i) to detect the biofilm production characteristics of Candida spp. isolated from vaginal and IUD string samples of women with IUDs, and (ii) to investigate the relationship between biofilm production and antifungal resistance. A total of 250 women (mean age: 34.4 ± 7.6 years) admitted to gynecology outpatient clinics with vaginal symptoms (discharge and itching) were included in the study. The patients have been implanted CuT380a type IUDs for a mean duration of 59.8 ± 42.4 months. Without removing IUD, string samples were obtained by cutting and simultaneous vaginal swab samples were also collected. Isolated Candida spp. were identified by conventional methods and API 20C AUX (BioMerieux, Fransa) system. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of fluconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B were determined by broth microdilution method according to the CLSI guidelines. Biofilm formation was evaluated by crystal violet staining and XTT-reduction assays, and the isolates which yielded positive results in both of the methods were accepted as biofilm-producers. In the study, Candida spp. were isolated from 33.2% (83/250) of the vaginal and 34% (85/250) of the IUD string samples, C.albicans being the most frequently detected species (54 and 66 strains for the samples, respectively). The total in vitro biofilm formation rate was 25% (21/83) for vaginal isolates and 44.7% (38/85) for IUD string isolates. Biofilm formation rate of vaginal C.albicans isolates was significantly lower than vaginal non-albicans Candida spp. (14.8% and 44.8%, respectively; p= 0.003). Biofilm formation rate of C.albicans strains isolated from vaginal and IUD string samples were found

  5. An evaluation of manual and mechanical methods to identify Candida spp. from human and animal sources

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Geraldo dos Santos; Ribeiro,Elizabeth Teixeira; Baroni,Francisco de Assis

    2006-01-01

    To compare two yeast identification methods, i. e, the manual and the VITEK mechanical methods, 62 clinical samples from hemocultures and animal sources were analyzed. After identification as Candida yeasts by the VITEK method, the strains were recharacterized using manual assimilation methods and sugar fermentation tests. Our findings reveal 58% concurrent identification between the two methods for animal strains, and 51% for human hemoculture strains.

  6. Antifungal susceptibility and distribution of Candida spp. isolates from the University Hospital in the municipality of Dourados, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Adriana Araujo de Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hospital infections caused by Candida spp. are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, particularly those that are critically ill or immunocompromised. In this study, the distribution of Candida species in isolates from the University Hospital of the Federal University at Grande Dourados and their in vitro susceptibility to antifungal drugs were analyzed. Methods Yeasts were phenotypically identified using classical methodologies. Antifungal susceptibility tests to amphotericin B and fluconazole were performed using the broth microdilution technique. Results A total of 50 Candida isolates were obtained from hospitalized patients during the study period. We analyzed yeast isolates from urine (n=31; 62%, blood (n=12; 24%, and tracheal secretions (n=7; 14%. The following Candida species were identified: C. tropicalis (n=21; 42%, C. albicans (n=18; 36%, C. glabrata (n=10; 20%, and C. krusei (n=1; 2%. Antifungal susceptibility tests demonstrated that C. albicans was susceptible to both antifungal agents. However, 31.2% of the non-C. albicans Candida isolates displayed dose-dependent susceptibility to fluconazole, and 3.1% were resistant to amphotericin B. Conclusions In contrast to previous reports, our results indicated that C. tropicalis was the most commonly isolated yeast species among the hospital patients. The predominance of non-C. albicans Candida infections confirms the importance of species-level identification for implementing appropriate antifungal therapies.

  7. Activity of scorpion venom-derived antifungal peptides against planktonic cells of Candida spp and Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans biofilms.

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    Fernanda Guilhelmelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of fungal infections has been increasing in the last decades, while the number of available antifungal classes remains the same. The natural and acquired resistance of some fungal species to available therapies, associated with the high toxicity of these drugs on the present scenario and makes an imperative of the search for new, more efficient and less toxic therapeutic choices. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are a potential class of antimicrobial drugs consisting of evolutionarily conserved multifunctional molecules with both microbicidal and immunomodulatory properties being part of the innate immune response of diverse organisms. In this study, we evaluated 11 scorpion-venom derived non-disulfide-bridged peptides against Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida spp, which are important human pathogens. Seven of them, including two novel molecules, showed activity against both genera with MICs values ranging from 3.12 to 200 µM and an analogous activity against C. albicans biofilms. Most of the peptides presented low hemolytic and cytotoxic activity against mammalian cells. Modifications in the primary peptide sequence, as revealed by in silico and circular dichroism analyses of the most promising peptides, underscored the importance of cationicity for their antimicrobial activity as well the amphipathicity of these molecules and their tendency to form alpha helices. This is the first report of scorpion-derived AMPs against C. neoformans and our results underline the potential of scorpion venom as a source of antimicrobials. Further characterization of their mechanism of action, followed by molecular optimization to decrease their citotoxicity and increase antimicrobial activity, is needed to fully clarify their real potential as antifungals.

  8. EFFECT OF HIGHLY ACTIVE ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY ON VAGINAL Candida spp. ISOLATION IN HIV-INFECTED COMPARED TO HIV-UNINFECTED WOMEN

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    Silvia de Souza Dantas ALCZUK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC in HIV-infected women contributed to the impairment of their quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART use on the vaginal Candida spp. isolation in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected women. This cross-sectional study included 178 HIV-infected (HIV group and 200 HIV-uninfected women (control that were studied at the Specialized Assistance Service (SAE for sexually transmitted diseases (STD/AIDS of the city of Maringá, Brazil, from April 1 to October 30, 2011. The yeasts were isolated and identified by phenotypic and molecular methods. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, nystatin and amphotericin B was tested by the reference microdilution method. Higher frequencies of total vaginal Candida spp. isolation were found in the HIV-infected group than in the control group. However, both groups showed a similar frequency of colonization and VVC. Although C. albicans was the most frequent and sensitive to azolics and polyenes in both HIV-infected and uninfected women, the emerging resistance of C. glabrata to amphotericin B in the HIV-infected women was observed. Although higher frequency of vaginal Candida spp. isolation had been observed in the HIV-infected than in HIV-uninfected women, colonization and VVC showed similar frequency in both groups, indicating that HAART appears to protect against vaginal colonization and VVC.

  9. Rapid susceptibility testing and microcolony analysis of Candida spp. cultured and imaged on porous aluminum oxide.

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    Colin J Ingham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquired resistance to antifungal agents now supports the introduction of susceptibility testing for species-drug combinations for which this was previously thought unnecessary. For pathogenic yeasts, conventional phenotypic testing needs at least 24 h. Culture on a porous aluminum oxide (PAO support combined with microscopy offers a route to more rapid results. METHODS: Microcolonies of Candida species grown on PAO were stained with the fluorogenic dyes Fun-1 and Calcofluor White and then imaged by fluorescence microscopy. Images were captured by a charge-coupled device camera and processed by publicly available software. By this method, the growth of yeasts could be detected and quantified within 2 h. Microcolony imaging was then used to assess the susceptibility of the yeasts to amphotericin B, anidulafungin and caspofungin (3.5 h culture, and voriconazole and itraconazole (7 h culture. SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, the results showed good agreement with EUCAST (86.5% agreement; n = 170 and E-test (85.9% agreement; n = 170. The closest agreement to standard tests was found when testing susceptibility to amphotericin B and echinocandins (88.2 to 91.2% and the least good for the triazoles (79.4 to 82.4%. Furthermore, large datasets on population variation could be rapidly obtained. An analysis of microcolonies revealed subtle effects of antimycotics on resistant strains and below the MIC of sensitive strains, particularly an increase in population heterogeneity and cell density-dependent effects of triazoles. Additionally, the method could be adapted to strain identification via germ tube extension. We suggest PAO culture is a rapid and versatile method that may be usefully adapted to clinical mycology and has research applications.

  10. Selected Essential Oils as Antifungal Agents Against Antibiotic-Resistant Candida spp.: In Vitro Study on Clinical and Food-Borne Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Maroszyńska, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Candida spp. cause significant health problems, inducing various types of superficial and deep-seated mycoses in humans. As a result of the increasing antibiotic resistance among pathogenic yeasts, the interest in alternative agents of antifungal activity is growing. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of selected essential oils (EOs) against Candida clinical and food-borne strains, including antibiotic-resistant isolates, in relation to yeast cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH). Candida strains showed different range of susceptibility to tea tree, thyme, peppermint, and clove oils, and peppermint oil demonstrated the lowest anticandidal activity with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.03-8.0% v/v. MIC values for thyme and clove oils ranged from 0.03% to 0.25% v/v, and for tea tree oil-from 0.12% to 2.0% v/v. The exception was Candida tropicalis food-borne strain, the growth of which was inhibited after application of EOs at concentration of 8% v/v. Due to diverse yeast susceptibility to EOs, isolates were divided into five clusters in a principal component analysis model, each containing both clinical and food-borne strains. Hydrophobic properties of yeast were also diversified, and 37% of clinical and 50% of food-borne strains exhibited high hydrophobicity. The study indicates high homology of clinical and food-borne Candida isolates in relation to their susceptibility to anticandidal agents and hydrophobic properties. The susceptibility of yeasts to EOs could be partially related to their CSH. High antifungal activity of examined EOs, also against antibiotic-resistant isolates, indicates their usefulness as agents preventing the development of Candida strains of different origin.

  11. Azole resistance in Candida spp. isolated from Catú Lake, Ceará, Brazil: an efflux-pump-mediated mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda S.N.; Paiva, Manoel A.N.; Sampaio, Célia M.S.; Castelo-Branco, Débora S.C.M.; Teixeira, Carlos E.C.; de Alencar, Lucas P.; Bandeira, Tereza J.P.G.; Monteiro, André J.; Cordeiro, Rossana A.; Pereira-Neto, Waldemiro A.; Sidrim, José J.C.; Moreira, José L.B.; Rocha, Marcos F.G.

    2016-01-01

    Since, there is no study reporting the mechanism of azole resistance among yeasts isolated from aquatic environments; the present study aims to investigate the occurrence of antifungal resistance among yeasts isolated from an aquatic environment, and assess the efflux-pump activity of the azole-resistant strains to better understand the mechanism of resistance for this group of drugs. For this purpose, monthly water and sediment samples were collected from Catú Lake, Ceará, Brazil, from March 2011 to February 2012. The obtained yeasts were identified based on morphological and biochemical characteristics. Of the 46 isolates, 37 were Candida spp., 4 were Trichosporon asahii, 3 were Cryptococcus laurentii, 1 Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and 1 was Kodamaea ohmeri. These isolates were subjected to broth microdilution assay with amphotericin B, itraconazole, and fluconazole, according to the methodology standardized by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of amphotericin B, itraconazole, and fluconazole were 0.03125–2 μg/mL, 0.0625 to ≥16 μg/mL, and 0.5 to ≥64 μg/mL, respectively, and 13 resistant azole-resistant Candida isolates were detected. A reduction in the azole MICs leading to the phenotypical reversal of the azole resistance was observed upon addition of efflux-pump inhibitors. These findings suggest that the azole resistance among environmental Candida spp. is most likely associated with the overexpression of efflux-pumps. PMID:26887224

  12. Antifungal activity of the ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum L. and evaluation of the morphological and structural modifications of its compounds upon the cells of Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anibal, Paula Cristina; Peixoto, Iza Teixeira Alves; Foglio, Mary Ann; Höfling, José Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Ethanolic crude extracts prepared from the arils and seeds, pericarp, peels and from the whole fruit of Punica granatum, known as pomegranate, had their antifungal activity tested against Candida spp. The ethanolic crude extracts were analyzed by Mass Spectrometry and yielded many compounds such as punicalagin and galladydilacton. The extracts from the pericarp and peel showed activity against Candida spp., with MICs of 125 μg/mL. The effect of pericarp and peel extracts upon the morphological and structure of C. albicans and C. krusei were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, with the visualization of an irregular membrane and hyphae, formation of vacuoles and thickening of the cell wall. The data obtained revealed potential antimicrobial activity against yeasts cells of the Candida genus, and the bioactive compounds could be responsible for changes in cell morphology and structure. The data obtained open new perspectives for future research in continuation to this study, where information such as determination of the site of action of the compounds could contribute to an alternative therapy against these organisms.

  13. Multicenter Comparison of the Vitek 2 Antifungal Susceptibility Test with the CLSI Broth Microdilution Reference Method for Testing Caspofungin, Micafungin, and Posaconazole against Candida spp.▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jess F.; Pfaller, Michael A.; Diekema, Daniel J.; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Riebe, Katherine M.; Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of the automated Vitek 2 (bioMérieux, Inc., Marcy l'Etoile, France) antifungal susceptibility system was compared to that of broth microdilution (BMD) for the determination of MICs of various antifungal drugs. A total of 112 challenge strains and 755 clinical isolates of Candida spp. were tested against caspofungin and micafungin. An additional 452 clinical isolates of Candida albicans were tested against posaconazole. Reference BMD MIC endpoints were established after 24 h of incubation for caspofungin and micafungin and after 48 h of incubation for posaconazole. Essential agreements (EAs) between the Vitek 2 and BMD methods for caspofungin and micafungin were 99.5% and 98.6%, respectively. EA between the Vitek 2 and BMD methods was 95.6% for posaconazole. The overall categorical agreements (CAs) between the Vitek 2 system and BMD were 99.8% for caspofungin, 98.2% for micafungin, and 98.1% for posaconazole. The Vitek 2 system reliably determined caspofungin and micafungin MICs among Candida spp. and posaconazole MICs among C. albicans isolates and demonstrated excellent quantitative and qualitative agreement with the reference BMD method. PMID:21430096

  14. Multicenter Comparison of the VITEK 2 Yeast Susceptibility Test with the CLSI Broth Microdilution Reference Method for Testing Fluconazole against Candida spp.▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M. A.; Diekema, D. J.; Procop, G. W.; Rinaldi, M. G.

    2007-01-01

    A fully automated commercial antifungal susceptibility test system (VITEK 2 yeast susceptibility test; bioMerieux, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.) was compared in three different laboratories with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference broth microdilution (BMD) method by testing two quality control strains and a total of 426 isolates of Candida spp. (103 to 135 clinical isolates in each laboratory plus 80 challenge isolates in one laboratory) against fluconazole. Reference BMD MIC endpoints were established after 24 and 48 h of incubation. VITEK 2 endpoints were determined spectrophotometrically after 10 to 26 h of incubation (mean, 13 h). Excellent essential agreement (within two dilutions) between the VITEK 2 and the 24- and 48-h BMD MICs was observed. The overall agreement values were 97.9 and 93.7%, respectively. Both intra- and interlaboratory agreement was 100%. The overall categorical agreement between VITEK 2 and BMD was 97.2% at the 24-h BMD time point and 88.3% at the 48-h BMD time point. Decreased categorical agreement at 48 h was attributed to trailing growth observed with Candida glabrata. The VITEK 2 system reliably detected fluconazole resistance among Candida spp. and demonstrated excellent quantitative and qualitative agreement with the reference BMD method. PMID:17215344

  15. Characterization of Candida spp. isolated from vaginal fluid: identification, antifungal susceptibility, and virulence profile - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i1.13557

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 101 (20.0% yeast samples were isolated from vaginal fluids of 504 non-hospitalized patients in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil and Candida albicans was more frequent specie (93.1% identified by seminested PCR method. All the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and nystatin, and 93.1% of them were susceptible to fluconazole. The acid proteinase, hemolytic and phospholipase activities were observed in 99.0, 90.0, and 88.0% of Candida spp., respectively. Around 67.0% of the strains had adherence indexes of 0.5 to 1.5 yeasts by Vero cell, and most of them showed a hydrophilic profile. Correlation studies indicated hydrophilic yeasts presented higher adherence index, proteinase, and phospholipase activities; and a positive correlation between all enzymes was also observed. In addition, the isolates with high hemolytic activity were less susceptible to fluconazole and amphotericin B. These results of Candida prevalence and antifungal susceptibility corroborate with literature’s datas and correlation between virulence factors and MIC values suggest Candida isolates from vaginal fluid less susceptible to antifungal and with higher extracellular enzymes production can be more virulent to cause tissue damage.  

  16. Moringa oleifera inhibits growth of Candida spp. and Hortaea werneckii isolated from Macrobrachium amazonicum prawn farming with a wide margin of safety

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    Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of M. oleifera extracts against fungi isolated from farmed prawns and test the toxicity of the extracts on larvae of Macrobrachium amazonicum. The ethanol extracts of pods, seeds, leaves, stems and flowers and chloroform extract of flowers of M. oleifera were tested against 14 strains of Candida spp. and 10 strains of Hortaea werneckii isolated from farming water and the digestive tract of M. amazonicum. Antifungal activity was determined by microdilution, based on the M27-A3 and M38-A2 CLSI documents. Toxicity was evaluated by exposing larvae of M. amazonicum at concentrations between 10-1000mg mL-1, counting dead larvae (CL50 after 24 hours. The best results were verified with the chloroform extract of flowers, acting against all tested strains, with MICs ranging from 0.019 to 2.5 mg mL-1. Ethanol extracts of leaves, flowers and seeds acted against 22/24, 21/24 and 20/24 strains, respectively. The extract of pods was only effective against strains of Candida spp. (14/24 and extract of stem only against four strains of H. werneckii (4/24. Extracts of seeds, flowers (chloroform fraction, stems and leaves showed low or no toxicity, whereas extracts of pods and flowers (ethanol fraction showed moderate toxicity. Thus, the antifungal activity of these extracts agaisnt Candida spp. and H. werneckii was observed, a wide margin of safety for larvae of M. amazonicum, demonstrating to be promising for the sustainable management of effluents from M. amazonicum farming

  17. Growth inhibition and ultrastructural alterations induced by Δ24(25-sterol methyltransferase inhibitors in Candida spp. isolates, including non-albicans organisms

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    Nakamura Celso

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Candida species are commensal microorganisms, they can cause many invasive fungal infections. In addition, antifungal resistance can contribute to failure of treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of inhibitors of Δ24(25-sterol methyltransferase (24-SMTI, 20-piperidin-2-yl-5α-pregnan-3β-20(R-diol (AZA, and 24(R,S,25-epiminolanosterol (EIL, against clinical isolates of Candida spp., analysing the ultrastructural changes. Results AZA and EIL were found to be potent growth inhibitors of Candida spp. isolates. The median MIC50 was 0.5 μg.ml-1 for AZA and 2 μg.ml-1 for EIL, and the MIC90 was 2 μg.ml-1 for both compounds. All strains used in this study were susceptible to amphotericin B; however, some isolates were fluconazole- and itraconazole-resistant. Most of the azole-resistant isolates were Candida non-albicans (CNA species, but several of them, such as C. guilliermondii, C. zeylanoides, and C. lipolytica, were susceptible to 24-SMTI, indicating a lack of cross-resistance. Reference strain C. krusei (ATCC 6258, FLC-resistant was consistently susceptible to AZA, although not to EIL. The fungicidal activity of 24-SMTI was particularly high against CNA isolates. Treatment with sub-inhibitory concentrations of AZA and EIL induced several ultrastructural alterations, including changes in the cell-wall shape and thickness, a pronounced disconnection between the cell wall and cytoplasm with an electron-lucent zone between them, mitochondrial swelling, and the presence of electron-dense vacuoles. Fluorescence microscopy analyses indicated an accumulation of lipid bodies and alterations in the cell cycle of the yeasts. The selectivity of 24-SMTI for fungal cells versus mammalian cells was assessed by the sulforhodamine B viability assay. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that inhibition of 24-SMT may be a novel approach to control Candida spp. infections, including

  18. Use of amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis to identify medically important Candida spp., including C-dubliniensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, A; Theelen, B; Reinders, E; Boekhout, T; Fluit, AC; Savelkoul, PHM

    2003-01-01

    Non-Candida albicans Candida species are increasingly being isolated. These species show differences in levels of resistance to antimycotic agents and mortality. Therefore, it is important to be able to correctly identify the causative organism to the species level. Identification of C. dubliniensis

  19. 家兔中性粒细胞防御素的纯化及其对念珠菌抗菌活性的研究%IN VITRO ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF NEUIROPHH DEFENSINS AGAINST SOME CANDIDA Spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋献; 冉玉平; 黄宁; 吴琦; 周光平

    2001-01-01

    采用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳分离纯化兔中性粒细胞防御素,兔中性粒细胞防御素NP2具有抗白念珠菌M1012R,NIH A-207,乳酒念珠菌,热带念珠菌和高里氏念珠菌等菌的活性,且抗菌活性随防御素浓度的升高而增强.%To investigate the role and mechanism of neutrophil defensins against some Candida spp. Neutrophil defensins were purified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and neutrophil defensin NP2 were tested for its antifungal activity against C andida albican M1012R, NIH A-207, Candida kefyr, Candida tropicalis and Candida guilliermondii. NP2 was successfully isolated and purified by AU-PAGE, and demonstrated concentration-dependent killing of Candid albican M1012R, NIH A-207, Candida kefyr, Candida tropicalis and Candida guilliermondii in vitro. Acid urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is simple and convient in isolating and purifying protein and polypeptides, neutrophil defensin NP2 exerted potent antifungal activity against Carndida spp.

  20. Oral Candida spp carriers: its prevalence in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Portadores de Candida spp na cavidade oral: a sua prevalência em pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon Felipe Fernandez Martinez; Alejandra Jaimes-Aveldañez; Francisco Hernández-Pérez; Roberto Arenas; Guadalupe Fabián-San Miguel

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevalence of oral candidiasis in diabetic patients is 13.7-64%. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species (75-86.5%). OBJECTIVE: To obtain the prevalence of Candida carriers among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to identify the species of the yeast. Study design: It is an open, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective study. METHODS: We included voluntary patients from the National Diabetes Marathon and performed a blood glucose measurem...

  1. Antifungal Resistance and Virulence Among Candida spp. from Captive Amazonian manatees and West Indian Manatees: Potential Impacts on Animal and Environmental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Carvalho, Vitor Luz; de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Débora; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; de Melo Guedes, Gláucia Morgana; Barbosa, Giovanna Riello; Lazzarini, Stella Maris; Oliveira, Daniella Carvalho Ribeiro; de Meirelles, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Attademo, Fernanda Löffler Niemeyer; da Bôaviagem Freire, Augusto Carlos; de Aquino Pereira-Neto, Waldemiro; de Aguiar Cordeiro, Rossana; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2016-06-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the antifungal susceptibility and production of virulence factors by Candida spp. isolated from sirenians in Brazil. The isolates (n = 105) were recovered from the natural cavities of Amazonian and West Indian manatees and were tested for the susceptibility to amphotericin B, itraconazole, and fluconazole and for the production of phospholipases, proteases, and biofilm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for amphotericin B ranged from 0.03 to 1 µg/mL, and no resistant isolates were detected. Itraconazole and fluconazole MICs ranged from 0.03 to 16 µg/mL and from 0.125 to 64 µg/mL, respectively, and 35.2% (37/105) of the isolates were resistant to at least one of these azole drugs. Concerning the production of virulence factors, phospholipase activity was observed in 67.6% (71/105) of the isolates, while protease activity and biofilm production were detected in 50.5% (53/105) and 32.4% (34/105) of the isolates, respectively. Since the natural cavities of manatees are colonized by resistant and virulent strains of Candida spp., these animals can act as sources of resistance and virulence genes for the environment, conspecifics and other animal species, demonstrating the potential environmental impacts associated with their release back into their natural habitat.

  2. Vernonanthura polyanthes leaves aqueous extract enhances doxorubicin genotoxicity in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster and presents no antifungal activity against Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. Guerra-Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Vernonanthura polyanthes (Spreng. A.J. Vega & Dematt. (Asteraceae, known as “assa-peixe”, has been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, hemoptysis, persistent cough, internal abscesses, gastric and kidney stone pain. Moreover, some studies demonstrated that species of Genus Vernonia present antifungal activity. Due to the biological relevance of this species, the aim of this study was to investigate the toxic, genotoxic, antigenotoxic and antifungal potential of V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster or against Candida spp. The aqueous extract of the plant showed no toxic, genotoxic and antigenotoxic activity in the experimental conditions tested using the wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART/wing. However, when the extract was associated with doxorubicin, used in this work as a positive control, the mutagenic potential of doxorubicin was enhanced, increasing the number of mutations in D. melanogaster somatic cells. In the other hand, no inhibitory activity against Candida spp. was observed for V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract using agar-well diffusion assay. More studies are necessary to reveal the components present in the V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract that could contribute to potentiate the doxorubicin genotoxicity.

  3. Multicenter Comparison of the VITEK 2 Antifungal Susceptibility Test with the CLSI Broth Microdilution Reference Method for Testing Amphotericin B, Flucytosine, and Voriconazole against Candida spp.▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M. A.; Diekema, D. J.; Procop, G. W.; Rinaldi, M. G.

    2007-01-01

    A fully automated commercial antifungal susceptibility test system (VITEK 2; bioMérieux, Inc., Hazelwood, MO) was compared in three different laboratories with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (formerly the NCCLS) reference broth microdilution method (BMD) by testing 2 quality control strains, 10 reproducibility strains, and 426 isolates of Candida spp. against amphotericin B, flucytosine, and voriconazole. Reference BMD MIC endpoints were established after 24 and 48 h of incubation. VITEK 2 system MIC endpoints were determined spectrophotometrically after 9.1 to 27.1 h of incubation (mean, 12 to 14 h). Excellent essential agreement (within 2 dilutions) between the VITEK 2 system and the 24- and 48-h BMD MICs was observed for all three antifungal agents: amphotericin B, 99.1% and 97%, respectively; flucytosine, 99.1% and 98.8%, respectively; and voriconazole, 96.7% and 96%, respectively. Both intra- and interlaboratory agreements were >98% for all three drugs. The overall categorical agreements between the VITEK 2 system and BMD for flucytosine and voriconazole were 98.1 to 98.6% at the 24-h BMD time point and 96.9 to 97.4% at the 48-h BMD time point. The VITEK 2 system reliably detected flucytosine and voriconazole resistance among Candida spp. and demonstrated excellent quantitative and qualitative agreement with the reference BMD method. PMID:17913927

  4. Multicenter Study of Epidemiological Cutoff Values and Detection of Resistance in Candida spp. to Anidulafungin, Caspofungin, and Micafungin Using the Sensititre YeastOne Colorimetric Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Fernandez, M.; Cantón, E.; Carver, P. L.; Chen, S. C.-A.; Eschenauer, G.; Getsinger, D. L.; Gonzalez, G. M.; Grancini, A.; Hanson, K. E.; Kidd, S. E.; Klinker, K.; Kubin, C. J.; Kus, J. V.; Lockhart, S. R.; Meletiadis, J.; Morris, A. J.; Pelaez, T.; Rodriguez-Iglesias, M.; Sánchez-Reus, F.; Shoham, S.; Wengenack, N. L.; Borrell Solé, N.; Echeverria, J.; Esperalba, J.; Gómez-G. de la Pedrosa, E.; García García, I.; Linares, M. J.; Marco, F.; Merino, P.; Pemán, J.; Pérez del Molino, L.; Roselló Mayans, E.; Rubio Calvo, C.; Ruiz Pérez de Pipaon, M.; Yagüe, G.; Garcia-Effron, G.; Perlin, D. S.; Sanguinetti, M.; Shields, R.; Turnidge, J.

    2015-01-01

    Neither breakpoints (BPs) nor epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) have been established for Candida spp. with anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin when using the Sensititre YeastOne (SYO) broth dilution colorimetric method. In addition, reference caspofungin MICs have so far proven to be unreliable. Candida species wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (for microorganisms in a species/drug combination with no detectable phenotypic resistance) were established for 6,007 Candida albicans, 186 C. dubliniensis, 3,188 C. glabrata complex, 119 C. guilliermondii, 493 C. krusei, 205 C. lusitaniae, 3,136 C. parapsilosis complex, and 1,016 C. tropicalis isolates. SYO MIC data gathered from 38 laboratories in Australia, Canada, Europe, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United States were pooled to statistically define SYO ECVs. ECVs for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin encompassing ≥97.5% of the statistically modeled population were, respectively, 0.12, 0.25, and 0.06 μg/ml for C. albicans, 0.12, 0.25, and 0.03 μg/ml for C. glabrata complex, 4, 2, and 4 μg/ml for C. parapsilosis complex, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.06 μg/ml for C. tropicalis, 0.25, 1, and 0.25 μg/ml for C. krusei, 0.25, 1, and 0.12 μg/ml for C. lusitaniae, 4, 2, and 2 μg/ml for C. guilliermondii, and 0.25, 0.25, and 0.12 μg/ml for C. dubliniensis. Species-specific SYO ECVs for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin correctly classified 72 (88.9%), 74 (91.4%), 76 (93.8%), respectively, of 81 Candida isolates with identified fks mutations. SYO ECVs may aid in detecting non-WT isolates with reduced susceptibility to anidulafungin, micafungin, and especially caspofungin, since testing the susceptibilities of Candida spp. to caspofungin by reference methodologies is not recommended. PMID:26282428

  5. Multicenter study of epidemiological cutoff values and detection of resistance in Candida spp. to anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin using the Sensititre YeastOne colorimetric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Alvarez-Fernandez, M; Cantón, E; Carver, P L; Chen, S C-A; Eschenauer, G; Getsinger, D L; Gonzalez, G M; Govender, N P; Grancini, A; Hanson, K E; Kidd, S E; Klinker, K; Kubin, C J; Kus, J V; Lockhart, S R; Meletiadis, J; Morris, A J; Pelaez, T; Quindós, G; Rodriguez-Iglesias, M; Sánchez-Reus, F; Shoham, S; Wengenack, N L; Borrell Solé, N; Echeverria, J; Esperalba, J; Gómez-G de la Pedrosa, E; García García, I; Linares, M J; Marco, F; Merino, P; Pemán, J; Pérez Del Molino, L; Roselló Mayans, E; Rubio Calvo, C; Ruiz Pérez de Pipaon, M; Yagüe, G; Garcia-Effron, G; Guinea, J; Perlin, D S; Sanguinetti, M; Shields, R; Turnidge, J

    2015-11-01

    Neither breakpoints (BPs) nor epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) have been established for Candida spp. with anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin when using the Sensititre YeastOne (SYO) broth dilution colorimetric method. In addition, reference caspofungin MICs have so far proven to be unreliable. Candida species wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (for microorganisms in a species/drug combination with no detectable phenotypic resistance) were established for 6,007 Candida albicans, 186 C. dubliniensis, 3,188 C. glabrata complex, 119 C. guilliermondii, 493 C. krusei, 205 C. lusitaniae, 3,136 C. parapsilosis complex, and 1,016 C. tropicalis isolates. SYO MIC data gathered from 38 laboratories in Australia, Canada, Europe, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United States were pooled to statistically define SYO ECVs. ECVs for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin encompassing ≥97.5% of the statistically modeled population were, respectively, 0.12, 0.25, and 0.06 μg/ml for C. albicans, 0.12, 0.25, and 0.03 μg/ml for C. glabrata complex, 4, 2, and 4 μg/ml for C. parapsilosis complex, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.06 μg/ml for C. tropicalis, 0.25, 1, and 0.25 μg/ml for C. krusei, 0.25, 1, and 0.12 μg/ml for C. lusitaniae, 4, 2, and 2 μg/ml for C. guilliermondii, and 0.25, 0.25, and 0.12 μg/ml for C. dubliniensis. Species-specific SYO ECVs for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin correctly classified 72 (88.9%), 74 (91.4%), 76 (93.8%), respectively, of 81 Candida isolates with identified fks mutations. SYO ECVs may aid in detecting non-WT isolates with reduced susceptibility to anidulafungin, micafungin, and especially caspofungin, since testing the susceptibilities of Candida spp. to caspofungin by reference methodologies is not recommended.

  6. Banco de recursos genéticos de Auricularia spp. con fines industriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Ortiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available La Auricularia spp. presenta amplio potencial industrial debido a sus propiedades nutricionales y medicinales. La obtención de cepas viables y puras de este género se ha visto limitada por una identificación de especies meramente macroscópica y la utilización tanto de medios como técnicas de conservación inadecuados. El objetivo de esta revisión fue describir el proceso de obtención de cepas puras y viables del género Auricularia spp. a partir del medio natural, para resaltar datos técnicos, que faciliten la conformación de bancos de recursos genéticos fúngicos. Estos fungarios constituyen una alternativa para la preservación la biodiversidad fúngica del Ecuador y la obtención de cepas puras y viables. Lo anterior se logra con buenas prácticas de identificación tanto fenotípica como genotípica, de aislamiento en medio selectivos para evitar la inhibición competitiva por otros microorganismos, de conservación y de almacenamiento de especies por congelación, liofilización, repique o inmersión en líquidos inertes como agua o aceite mineral.

  7. Oral Candida spp carriers: its prevalence in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Portadores de Candida spp na cavidade oral: a sua prevalência em pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Felipe Fernandez Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prevalence of oral candidiasis in diabetic patients is 13.7-64%. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species (75-86.5%. OBJECTIVE: To obtain the prevalence of Candida carriers among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to identify the species of the yeast. Study design: It is an open, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective study. METHODS: We included voluntary patients from the National Diabetes Marathon and performed a blood glucose measurement, sialometry test, Gram-stained exfoliative cytology, and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar and CHROMagar Candida TM. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: We examined 141 patients (mean age 57 years: 103 women (73% and 38 men (26.9%. Exfoliative cytology was positive in 32 cases (23 with oral lesions; 78 had oral lesions but no Candida (93.9%. Candida was isolated in 58 patients (41.1%, 21 (45.6 % had blood glucose greater than 126 mg/dl, and 37 (38.9% had less than 126 mg/dl. The most frequent species was C. albicans (82.7%. Forty-two Candida carriers had salivary flow greater than 20 mm (72.4%, and 16 (27.5% had hyposalivation. Candida was isolated in 25 of 79 patients with dental prosthesis (31.6%, 9 of 15 were smokers (60%, and 22 of 71 had symptoms (30.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of oral Candida carriers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico was similar to that found in other countries; exfoliative cytology was effective in finding Candida; salivary flow rate, use of prosthesis, and presence of oral lesions and symptoms were similar in oral Candida carriers and negative patients. Most smokers were Candida carriers. FUNDAMENTOS: A prevalência de candidíase oral em pacientes diabéticos é de 13,7- 64%. A espécie mais frequentemente isolada é Candida albicans(75-86,5%. OBJETIVO: Obter a prevalência de portadores de Candida em pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 para identificar as espécies da levedura

  8. Suscetibilidade a antifúngicos in vitro de Candida spp. em pacientes do Hospital Universitário Regional de Maringá-PR Antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. in vitro among patients from Regional University Hospital of Maringá-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Oliveira Demitto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: No ambiente hospitalar, são frequentes as infecções por leveduras do gênero Candida spp., o que torna esse assunto um importante alvo de estudos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o perfil de suscetibilidade aos antifúngicos de espécies de Candida de pacientes internados no Hospital Universitário Regional de Maringá-PR (HURM. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: As amostras foram submetidas ao teste de microdiluição em caldo (MD, segundo o documento M27-A3 para determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM, e ao teste de difusão em disco de acordo com o documento M44-A2, ambos do Clinical Laboratory Standarts Institute (CLSI. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: Foram obtidos 91 isolados provenientes de amostras de urina, hemocultura, ponta de cateter, secreção orotraqueal, entre outros, sendo 38 Candida albicans, 23 C. tropicalis, 16 C. gabrata, 10 C. parapsilosis e quatro C. krusei. Dos antifúngicos testados, anfotericina B, voriconazol e anidulafungina foram os mais eficazes. CONCLUSÃO: A comparação entre as metodologias de microdiluição em caldo e disco difusão (DD mostrou boa correlação para fluconazol para a maioria das espécies de Candida spp., sendo possível destacar que a DD é útil para triagem dos principais antifúngicos usados na prática clínica. No entanto, casos de resistência detectados por DD devem ser confirmados por meio do método de MD, evitando, assim, resultados falsos resistentes, melhorando a eficácia e a segurança do tratamento.INTRODUCTION: Due to the ubiquity of nosocomial yeast infections of the genus Candida spp., studies in this area have become increasingly relevant. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antifungal Candida spp. susceptibility profile of hospitalized patients from the Regional University Hospital of Maringá-PR (HURM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The samples were submitted to broth microdilution test (MD according to protocol M27-A3 in order to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and disk

  9. Prevalence and Fluconazole Susceptibility Profile of Candida spp. Clinical Isolates in a Brazilian Tertiary Hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves-Junior, Athayde; Cartágenes-Pinto, Ana Carolina; Rocha, Débora A S; de Sá, Leandro F Reis; Junqueira, Maria de Lourdes; Ferreira-Pereira, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Candidiasis has become an important concern for clinical practice, especially with the increasing incidence of immunocompromised patients. In this scenario, the development resistance to fluconazole presents a challenge for treating these opportunistic infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate some epidemiology features of Candida infections in a Brazilian University Hospital using data, previously unavailable. We observed that 44% of the 93 clinical isolates tested, belonged to Candida albicans species and 56% belonged to non-Candida albicans species (mainly Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata). Most strains were isolated from urine samples where C. albicans was predominantly detected. 29 strains presented a fluconazole resistance phenotype and of these, 22 were chemosensitised by FK506, a classical inhibitor of ABC transporters related to azoles resistance. These data suggest the probable role of efflux pumps in this resistance phenotype. Our study highlights the need for developing effective control measures for fungal infections, rational use of antifungal drugs and development of new molecules able to abrogate the active transport of antifungals.

  10. Biocontrol de la pudrición de raíz de nochebuena de interior con Trichoderma spp. Root rot biocontrol for indoor poinsettia with Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Jesús Osuna-Canizalez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En Morelos, la pudrición de la raíz causada por Fusarium spp., es una de las principales enfermedades de la nochebuena de interior. Por su efecto devastador, en su prevención o control se realizan aplicaciones frecuentes de productos químicos, con los riesgos inherentes a la salud humana y al ambiente. En la búsqueda de alternativas bioracionales al manejo de esta enfermedad, se realizó un ensayo en el que se evaluaron tres cepas comerciales de Trichoderma spp., en tres diferentes sustratos: S1= "tierra de hoja" (70% v/v+tezontle grueso (15% v/v+tezontle fino (10% v/v+agrolita (5% v/v; S2= turba (80% v/v+ fibra de coco (20% v/v; S3= "tierra de hoja" (70% + "tepojal" (30%, en las variedades comerciales más comunes, Freedom Red y Prestige Red. Se utilizó un diseño factorial de tratamientos 4 x 3 x 2 y los tratamientos resultantes se evaluaron en un diseño completamente al azar con seis repeticiones. Respecto a la incidencia de pudrición de la raíz, las cepas comerciales de Trichoderma spp., no mostraron diferencias entre sí ni con el testigo químico. La pudrición de la raíz estuvo asociada con S2, debido a una baja capacidad de aireación, y sólo se presentó en Prestige Red. La población (UFC g-¹ de Trichoderma spp., en el sustrato al término del ciclo, fue igual (pIn Morelos, root rot caused by Fusarium spp., is one of the main diseases of indoor poinsettia. In order to prevent or control its devastating effect, frequent applications of chemical products are performed, with inherent risks to human health and environment. In quest for alternative biorational options, an essay in which three commercial strains of Trichoderma spp., was done, in three different substrates: S1= "organic soil" (70% v/v+thick tezontle (15% v/v+thin tezontle (10% v/v+agrolita (5% v/v; S2= peat moss (80% v/v+ coconut fiber (20% v/v; S3= "organic soil" (70%+"tepojal" (30%, in most common commercial varieties, Freedom Red and Prestige Red. A factorial

  11. Prevalence and Fluconazole Susceptibility Profile of Candida spp. Clinical Isolates in a Brazilian Tertiary Hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athayde Neves-Junior

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis has become an important concern for clinical practice, especially with the increasing incidence of immunocompromised patients. In this scenario, the development resistance to fluconazole presents a challenge for treating these opportunistic infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate some epidemiology features of Candidainfections in a Brazilian University Hospital using data, previously unavailable. We observed that 44% of the 93 clinical isolates tested, belonged to Candida albicansspecies and 56% belonged to non-Candida albicansspecies (mainly Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata. Most strains were isolated from urine samples where C. albicans was predominantly detected. 29 strains presented a fluconazole resistance phenotype and of these, 22 were chemosensitised by FK506, a classical inhibitor of ABC transporters related to azoles resistance. These data suggest the probable role of efflux pumps in this resistance phenotype. Our study highlights the need for developing effective control measures for fungal infections, rational use of antifungal drugs and development of new molecules able to abrogate the active transport of antifungals.

  12. Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander essential oil: antifungal activity and mode of action on Candida spp., and molecular targets affected in human whole-genome expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irlan de Almeida Freires

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic fungal infection of the oral cavity with increasingly worldwide prevalence and incidence rates. Novel specifically-targeted strategies to manage this ailment have been proposed using essential oils (EO known to have antifungal properties. In this study, we aim to investigate the antifungal activity and mode of action of the EO from Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander leaves on Candida spp. In addition, we detected the molecular targets affected in whole-genome expression in human cells. The EO phytochemical profile indicates monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes as major components, which are likely to negatively impact the viability of yeast cells. There seems to be a synergistic activity of the EO chemical compounds as their isolation into fractions led to a decreased antimicrobial effect. C. sativum EO may bind to membrane ergosterol, increasing ionic permeability and causing membrane damage leading to cell death, but it does not act on cell wall biosynthesis-related pathways. This mode of action is illustrated by photomicrographs showing disruption in biofilm integrity caused by the EO at varied concentrations. The EO also inhibited Candida biofilm adherence to a polystyrene substrate at low concentrations, and decreased the proteolytic activity of Candida albicans at minimum inhibitory concentration. Finally, the EO and its selected active fraction had low cytotoxicity on human cells, with putative mechanisms affecting gene expression in pathways involving chemokines and MAP-kinase (proliferation/apoptosis, as well as adhesion proteins. These findings highlight the potential antifungal activity of the EO from C. sativum leaves and suggest avenues for future translational toxicological research.

  13. Berberine Antifungal Activity in Fluconazole-Resistant Pathogenic Yeasts: Action Mechanism Evaluated by Flow Cytometry and Biofilm Growth Inhibition in Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Anderson Ramos; de Andrade Neto, João Batista; da Silva, Cecília Rocha; Campos, Rosana de Sousa; Costa Silva, Rose Anny; Freitas, Daniel Domingues; do Nascimento, Francisca Bruna Stefany Aires; de Andrade, Larissa Nara Dantas; Sampaio, Letícia Serpa; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa; Magalhães, Hemerson Iury Ferreira; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Nobre Júnior, Hélio Vitoriano

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of fungal infections and, in particular, the incidence of fungal antibiotic resistance, which is associated with biofilm formation, have significantly increased, contributing to morbidity and mortality. Thus, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. In this context, natural products have emerged as a major source of possible antifungal agents. Berberine is a protoberberine-type isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the roots, rhizomes, and stem bark of natural herbs, such as Berberis aquifolium, Berberis vulgaris, Berberis aristata, and Hydrastis canadensis, and of Phellodendron amurense Berberine has been proven to have broad antibacterial and antifungal activity. In the present study, the potential antifungal effect of berberine against fluconazole-resistant Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans strains, as well as against the biofilm form of Candida spp., was assessed. The antifungal effect of berberine was determined by a broth microdilution method (the M27-A3 method of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) and flow cytometry techniques, in which the probable mechanism of action of the compound was also assessed. For biofilm assessment, a colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the susceptibility of sessile cells. The isolates used in the study belonged to the Laboratory of Bioprospection and Experiments in Yeast (LABEL) of the Federal University of Ceará. After 24 and 72 h, fluconazole-resistant Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans strains showed berberine MICs equal to 8 μg/ml and 16 μg/ml, respectively. Cytometric analysis showed that treatment with berberine caused alterations to the integrity of the plasma and mitochondrial membranes and DNA damage, which led to cell death, probably by apoptosis. Assessment of biofilm-forming isolates after treatment showed statistically significant reductions in biofilm cell activity (P < 0.001).

  14. Interlaboratory variability of Caspofungin MICs for Candida spp. Using CLSI and EUCAST methods: should the clinical laboratory be testing this agent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Arendrup, M C; Pfaller, M A; Bonfietti, L X; Bustamante, B; Canton, E; Chryssanthou, E; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Dannaoui, E; Fothergill, A; Fuller, J; Gaustad, P; Gonzalez, G M; Guarro, J; Lass-Flörl, C; Lockhart, S R; Meis, J F; Moore, C B; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L; Pelaez, T; Pukinskas, S R B S; St-Germain, G; Szeszs, M W; Turnidge, J

    2013-12-01

    Although Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) clinical breakpoints (CBPs) are available for interpreting echinocandin MICs for Candida spp., epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) based on collective MIC data from multiple laboratories have not been defined. While collating CLSI caspofungin MICs for 145 to 11,550 Candida isolates from 17 laboratories (Brazil, Canada, Europe, Mexico, Peru, and the United States), we observed an extraordinary amount of modal variability (wide ranges) among laboratories as well as truncated and bimodal MIC distributions. The species-specific modes across different laboratories ranged from 0.016 to 0.5 μg/ml for C. albicans and C. tropicalis, 0.031 to 0.5 μg/ml for C. glabrata, and 0.063 to 1 μg/ml for C. krusei. Variability was also similar among MIC distributions for C. dubliniensis and C. lusitaniae. The exceptions were C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii MIC distributions, where most modes were within one 2-fold dilution of each other. These findings were consistent with available data from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) (403 to 2,556 MICs) for C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis. Although many factors (caspofungin powder source, stock solution solvent, powder storage time length and temperature, and MIC determination testing parameters) were examined as a potential cause of such unprecedented variability, a single specific cause was not identified. Therefore, it seems highly likely that the use of the CLSI species-specific caspofungin CBPs could lead to reporting an excessive number of wild-type (WT) isolates (e.g., C. glabrata and C. krusei) as either non-WT or resistant isolates. Until this problem is resolved, routine testing or reporting of CLSI caspofungin MICs for Candida is not recommended; micafungin or anidulafungin data could be used instead.

  15. Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander) essential oil: antifungal activity and mode of action on Candida spp., and molecular targets affected in human whole-genome expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freires, Irlan de Almeida; Murata, Ramiro Mendonça; Furletti, Vivian Fernandes; Sartoratto, Adilson; Alencar, Severino Matias de; Figueira, Glyn Mara; de Oliveira Rodrigues, Janaina Aparecida; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic fungal infection of the oral cavity with increasingly worldwide prevalence and incidence rates. Novel specifically-targeted strategies to manage this ailment have been proposed using essential oils (EO) known to have antifungal properties. In this study, we aim to investigate the antifungal activity and mode of action of the EO from Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander) leaves on Candida spp. In addition, we detected the molecular targets affected in whole-genome expression in human cells. The EO phytochemical profile indicates monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes as major components, which are likely to negatively impact the viability of yeast cells. There seems to be a synergistic activity of the EO chemical compounds as their isolation into fractions led to a decreased antimicrobial effect. C. sativum EO may bind to membrane ergosterol, increasing ionic permeability and causing membrane damage leading to cell death, but it does not act on cell wall biosynthesis-related pathways. This mode of action is illustrated by photomicrographs showing disruption in biofilm integrity caused by the EO at varied concentrations. The EO also inhibited Candida biofilm adherence to a polystyrene substrate at low concentrations, and decreased the proteolytic activity of Candida albicans at minimum inhibitory concentration. Finally, the EO and its selected active fraction had low cytotoxicity on human cells, with putative mechanisms affecting gene expression in pathways involving chemokines and MAP-kinase (proliferation/apoptosis), as well as adhesion proteins. These findings highlight the potential antifungal activity of the EO from C. sativum leaves and suggest avenues for future translational toxicological research.

  16. [Evaluation of the API ZYM system and RPMI agar plates supplemented with Tween 40 for detection of lipolytic enzymes of Candida spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciok-Pater, Emilia; Wróblewska, Joanna; Białucha, Agata; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    Lipolytic activity of 40 strains of Candida spp. was tested on API ZYM system and on RPMI agar plates supplemented with 1% Tween 40. Lipolytic activity was indicated by opaque zones around the inoculum cylindrical holes were punched in the medium. Clearing of the medium around the bacterial colonies indicated that an isolate produce lipase. Only 4 (21.1%) strains of C. albicans, and 3 (14.1%) strains of non-C. albicans which hydrolyzed 2-naftylomirystylan by use of the API ZYM system was observed. In contrast, 16 (78.9%) strains of C. albicans and 17 (80.7%) strains of non-C. albicans produced lipases on the agar plate using RPMI agar plates supplemented with 1.0% Tween 40. Determination oflipase activities with the API ZYM system were in no agreement with lipase tests in RPMI supplemented with Tween 40. Our study verify greater usefulness of RPMI supplemented with Tween 40 for detection of lipolytic enzymes of Candida species in comparison to the API ZYM.

  17. Producción de moina sp alimentada con chlorella spp. cultivada con riles orgánicos de la industria pesquera cubana.

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Teresita de J.; Manso, B.M.; López,R.; Martínez, F.C.; Moreno, M.

    2010-01-01

    El incremento sustancial de la acuicultura cubana y la carencia de algunos fertilizantes usados para fines de cultivo fitoplantónico, que finalmente pasan a nutrir especies zooplanctónicas como el cladócero Moina, ha dado pauta para realizar el presente estudio, referido al cultivo de dicha especie con la microalga Chlorella spp. desarrollada previamente con riles orgánicos de la industria pesquera. Se realizaron dos tandas experimentales: 1) en acuarios de 50 L de capacidad efect...

  18. Producción de Moina sp alimentada con Chlorella spp. cultivada con riles orgánicos de la industria pesquera cubana - Production of Moina sp fed with Chlorella spp. developed in organic waste waters from Cuban fishing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Teresita de J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl incremento importante de la acuicultura cubana y la carencia de algunos fertilizantes usados para fines de cultivo fitoplantónico, que finalmente pasan a nutrir especies zooplanctónicas como el cladócero Moina sp, ha motivado el presente estudio, referido al cultivo de dicha especie con la microalga Chlorella spp. desarrollada previamente con riles orgánicos de la industria pesquera.SummarySubstantial increase of Cuban acuiculture and deficiency of some fertilizers used for the phytoplanktonic cultures, that finally feed the zooplanktonic species like cladocera Moina, provides the possibility of conducting the current study, referred to the culture of this species with microalga Chlorella spp. previously developed in waste waters of the fishing industry.

  19. In vitro activity of inexpensive topical alternatives against Candida spp. isolated from the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsi, Rana S; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

    2008-03-01

    The use of inexpensive topical alternatives, e.g. oil of melaleuca (tea tree oil (TTO)), chlorhexidine (CHX), povidone iodine (PI) and gentian violet (GV), to treat oral candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients has been proposed in resource-poor countries. However, pre-clinical studies comparing the antifungal activity of these agents are lacking. This study compared the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of TTO, GV, PI, CHX and fluconazole (FLZ) against 91 clinical Candida strains using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) methodology. Isolates were obtained from the oral cavity of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Among the topical agents examined, GV showed the most potent activity against all Candida isolates tested (MIC range, MIC for 50% of the organisms (MIC(50)) and MIC for 90% of the organisms (MIC(90)) of 0.03-0.25 microg/mL, 0.06 microg/mL and 0.1 2microg/mL, respectively). CHX was 64 times less active than GV (MIC range, MIC(50) and MIC(90) of 0.5-16 microg/mL, 4 microg/mL and 8 microg/mL, respectively). The lowest antifungal activity was seen for PI (MIC(90)=0.25%). Moreover, GV, unlike the other topical agents tested, was fungicidal (minimum fungicidal concentration=1 microg/mL) against Candida albicans isolates (n=83). In addition, GV showed activity against FLZ-resistant C. albicans (n=3). The combination of GV and FLZ was not antagonistic and there was no interaction between the two compounds. GV possesses potent antifungal activity against FLZ-susceptible and -resistant Candida strains and is not antagonistic when used in combination with FLZ. In vivo evaluation is warranted.

  20. Ribosomic DNA intergenic spacer 1 region is useful when identifying Candida parapsilosis spp. complex based on high-resolution melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago, Sara; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Marconi, Marco; Buitrago, María José; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kersey, Paul J; Mellado, Emilia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Cuesta, Isabel

    2014-07-01

    The epidemiology of Candida parapsilosis and the closely related species C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis has changed in recent years, justify the need to identify this complex at the species level. In this study we investigate the intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) to evaluate the utility of this gene region as a phylogenetic molecular marker and the suitability of a high-resolution melting (HRM) strategy based on this region for identification of members of the C. parapsilosis spp. complex. We sequenced the IGS1 and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the rDNA from 33 C. parapsilosis sensu lato strains. Although both regions are useful in identifying species, comparative sequence analysis showed that the diversity in the IGS1 region was higher than in the ITS sequences. We also developed an HRM analysis that reliably identifies C. parapsilosis spp. complex based on the amplification of 70 bp in the IGS1 region. All isolates were correctly identified with a confidence interval >98%. Our results demonstrate that HRM analysis based on the IGS1 region is a powerful tool for distinguishing C. parapsilosis from cryptic species.

  1. Phytochemical Analysis and Modulation of Antibiotic Activity by Luehea paniculata Mart. & Zucc. (Malvaceae) in Multiresistant Clinical Isolates of Candida Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto Júnior, João T.; Morais, Selene M.; Martins, Clécio G.; Vieira, Larissa G.; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B.; Carneiro, Joara N. P.; Machado, Antonio J. P.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Tintino, Saulo R.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of fungal infections has led to the continuous search for new drugs. Extracts of Luehea paniculata, a tree of multiple medicinal uses, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity, as well as its modulator potential of the Fluconazole antibiotic. Chemical prospecting of ethanol extracts of leaf and bark was carried out, the quantification of total phenols and flavonoids, characterized by the HPLC-DAD technique. The rosmarinic acid and the vitexin flavonoid were observed as major constituents in ELELP and ESWELP, respectively. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated by the method of scavenging the free radical DPPH, and quercetin was used as standard, obtaining IC50 values: 0.341 (mg/mL) for ELELP and 0.235 (mg/mL) for ESWELP. The microdilution assay was performed for antifungal activity against strains of Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations values ≥1024 μg/mL. In the modulator action of extracts on Fluconazole against multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida (subinhibitory concentration minimum of 128 μg/mL), a significant synergism was observed, indicating that the extracts potentiated the antifungal effect against C. tropicalis, where antioxidant flavonoids could be responsible. This is the first report about modifying activity of the antibiotic action of a species of the genus Luehea. PMID:25821822

  2. Phytochemical analysis and modulation of antibiotic activity by Luehea paniculata Mart. & Zucc. (Malvaceae) in multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto Júnior, João T; Morais, Selene M; Martins, Clécio G; Vieira, Larissa G; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B; Carneiro, Joara N P; Machado, Antonio J P; Menezes, Irwin R A; Tintino, Saulo R; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of fungal infections has led to the continuous search for new drugs. Extracts of Luehea paniculata, a tree of multiple medicinal uses, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity, as well as its modulator potential of the Fluconazole antibiotic. Chemical prospecting of ethanol extracts of leaf and bark was carried out, the quantification of total phenols and flavonoids, characterized by the HPLC-DAD technique. The rosmarinic acid and the vitexin flavonoid were observed as major constituents in ELELP and ESWELP, respectively. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated by the method of scavenging the free radical DPPH, and quercetin was used as standard, obtaining IC50 values: 0.341 (mg/mL) for ELELP and 0.235 (mg/mL) for ESWELP. The microdilution assay was performed for antifungal activity against strains of Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations values ≥1024 μg/mL. In the modulator action of extracts on Fluconazole against multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida (subinhibitory concentration minimum of 128 μg/mL), a significant synergism was observed, indicating that the extracts potentiated the antifungal effect against C. tropicalis, where antioxidant flavonoids could be responsible. This is the first report about modifying activity of the antibiotic action of a species of the genus Luehea.

  3. Wild-Type MIC Distributions and Epidemiological Cutoff Values for Posaconazole and Voriconazole and Candida spp. as Determined by 24-Hour CLSI Broth Microdilution▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M. A.; Boyken, L.; Hollis, R. J.; Kroeger, J.; Messer, S. A.; Tendolkar, S.; Diekema, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    We tested 16,191 strains of Candida against posaconazole and voriconazole, using the CLSI M27-A3 broth microdilution (BMD) method (24-h incubation), in order to define wild-type (WT) populations and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs). From 2001 to 2009, 8,619 isolates of Candida albicans, 2,415 isolates of C. glabrata, 2,278 isolates of C. parapsilosis, 1,895 isolates of C. tropicalis, 508 isolates of C. krusei, 205 isolates of C. lusitaniae, 177 isolates of C. guilliermondii, and 93 isolates of C. kefyr were obtained from over 100 centers worldwide. The modal MICs (μg/ml) for posaconazole and voriconazole, respectively, were as follows: for C. albicans, 0.016 and 0.007; for C. glabrata, 0.5 and 0.06; for C. parapsilosis, 0.06 and 0.007; for C. tropicalis, 0.03 and 0.015; for C. krusei, 0.25 and 0.12; for C. lusitaniae, 0.03 and 0.007; for C. guilliermondii, 0.12 and 0.03; and for C. kefyr, 0.06 and 0.007. The ECVs (μg/ml [% of isolates that had MICs equal to or less than the ECV]) for posaconazole and voriconazole, respectively, were as follows: 0.06 (98.5) and 0.03 (98.9) for C. albicans, 2 (96.2) and 0.5 (90.4%) for C. glabrata, 0.25 (99.3) and 0.12 (97.9) for C. parapsilosis, 0.12 (97.6) and 0.06 (97.2) for C. tropicalis, 0.5 (99.8) and 0.5 (99.4) for C. krusei, 0.12 (95.6) and 0.03 (96.6) for C. lusitaniae, 0.5 (98.9) and 0.25 (98.3) for C. guilliermondii, and 0.25 (100.0) and 0.015 (100.0) for C. kefyr. In the absence of clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for posaconazole, these WT distributions and ECVs will be useful in surveillance for emergence of reduced susceptibility to posaconazole among Candida spp. Whereas a CBP for susceptibility of ≤1 μg/ml has been established for voriconazole and all species of Candida, it is notable that ECVs for this agent range from 10- to >100-fold lower than the CBP, depending on the species of Candida. The CBP is inadequate in detecting the emergence of voriconazole resistance among most Candida species encountered

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Essential Oil from the Seed of Anethum graveolens L. against Candida spp.

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    Hong Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil produced from the seed of Anethum graveolens L. (Umbelliferae was tested in vitro and in vivo anti-Candida activity. The microbroth dilution method was used in the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, according to M27-A3 of the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI. And then, efficacy evaluation of essential oil in the prophylaxis and treatment of experimental vaginal candidiasis was performed in immunosuppressed mice. The anti-Candida activity was analyzed by microbiological and histological techniques and was compared with that of fluconazole (FCZ. The results showed essential oil was active in vitro against all tested strains, with MICs ranging from 0.312 μL/mL (for C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei to 0.625 μL/mL (for 6 isolated C. albicans strains. Essential oil (2% v/v was highly efficacious in accelerating C. albicans 09-1555 clearance from experimentally infected mice vagina by prophylaxis and therapeutic treatments. In both therapeutic efficacy and prophylaxis studies, the histological findings confirmed the microbiological results. The experimental results revealed that the tested essential oil is effective against vulvovaginal candidiasis in immunosuppressed mice.

  5. Comparison of Visual 24-Hour and Spectrophotometric 48-Hour MICs to CLSI Reference Microdilution MICs of Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Posaconazole, and Voriconazole for Candida spp.: a Collaborative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Barchiesi, F.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Fothergill, A.; Pfaller, M. A.; Rinaldi, M.; Rodriguez-Tudela, J. L.; Verweij, P. E.

    2005-01-01

    A multicenter (six-center) study evaluated the performance (interlaboratory reproducibility, compatibility with reference methods, and categorical agreement) of 24-h visual and 48-h spectrophotometric MICs. MICs of fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole were compared to reference 48-h microdilution broth visual MICs (CLSI [formerly NCCLS] M27-A2 document) for 71 isolates of Candida spp. that included 10 fluconazole-resistant strains. Twenty readings (5%) were reported as showing no growth at 24 h, mostly for Candida dubliniensis and from a single center. The overall interlaboratory agreement of 24-h visual readings and 48-h spectrophotometric MICs, as well their compatibility with reference values, were excellent with the four triazoles for most of the species (93 to 99%, within 3 dilutions). The categorical agreement between the investigational reading conditions and reference values was good with fluconazole and voriconazole (93 to 97%) but lower with itraconazole (86 to 88%), due primarily to minor errors. There were only 0 to 3% very major errors with these three triazoles; the number of substantial errors (more than three dilutions) was also low (<2%) with posaconazole. These data suggest that the performance of both investigational MIC readings gives results similar to those of reference MICs. Since spectrophotometric MICs are more objective and the 24-h time period would shorten the MIC determination of azoles, the description of either of these two reading conditions in the M27-A2 document should be considered by the CLSI subcommittee in addition to or instead of the longer, less practical, and more subjective 48-h visual MIC reading. PMID:16145103

  6. Atividade anti-fúngica do neem e jurema-preta sobre cepas de Candida spp isolados de vacas com mastite subclínica no Estado de Pernambuco Anti-fungal activity of neem and jurema-preta on samples of isolated Candida spp of cows with subclinical mastitis in the State of Pernambuco

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    Andréia V. Pereira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade anti-fungica (in vitro do neem (Azadiracta indica A. Juss. e de jurema preta (Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poir. sobre cepas de Candida spp. isoladas de casos de mastite subclínica em vacas no Estado de Pernambuco. As folhas do neem foram coletadas em árvores de fazendas do município de Patos-PB e a casca da jurema-preta foi coletada na UFCG, Campus de Patos e preparados extratos etanólicos. As amostras de Candida spp. foram coletadas de leite de vacas com mastite subclínica e semeadas em placas de Petri contendo ágar-base acrescido de 5% de sangue desfibrinado de ovino Sabouraud. As placas foram incubadas em estufa bacteriológica a 37 ºC e a leitura foi realizada com 24 e 48 h. Os ensaios foram realizados em duplicata e o resultado final foi determinado pela média aritmética dos halos de inibição. A avaliação microbiológica destes ensaios demonstrou que o extrato da casca da jurema-preta apresentou atividade antifúngica bastante satisfatória sobre a levedura de C. albicans, proporcionando resultado superior aos obtidos com o extrato do neem e fluconazol.The leaves of neem were collected on farms of the city of Patos-PB, and the bark of jurema-preta was collected in the UFCG - Campus of Patos-PB, and the extracts were prepared from the ethanol. The samples of Candida spp. were collected in milk of cows with subclinical mastitis and sown in plates of Petri containing agar-base 5% increased of de-fiber blood of sheep Sabouraud. The plates were incubated in bacteriological greenhouse 37 ºC and the reading was carried through with 24 and 48 h. The assays were carried through in duplicate and the final result was determined by the arithmetic mean of inhibition halos. The microbiological evaluation of these assays demonstrated that the extract from the bark of jurema-preta showed antifungal activity quite satisfactory on the yeast C. albicans, providing superior results to those obtained

  7. Investigating of the antimicrobial effect of total extract of Tribulus terrestris against some gram positive and negative bacteria and candida spp.

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    Mojdeh Hakemi Vala

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the recent years, due to the wide spread of resistant bacteria on one side and several different reports about the side effects of chemical drugs on the other side, vast researches on the medicinal plants have been started. In this study, antimicrobial effect of total extract of Tribulus terrestris L. and its fraction containing Benzoxazine derivative (Terresoxazine was studied for the first time in Iran.Materials and methods: Total aqueous extract of aerial parts of the plant was prepared and in order to separate the components of aqueous extract, liquid/liquid extraction with Petroleum ether was used. Formation of three layers was the result of this extraction. Layers included water fraction, Petroleum ether fraction and a third layer which was formed at the interface of water and petroleum ether. LC/MS system proved the existence of Benzixazine derivative in the water fraction and the thirds fraction. Antimicrobial effects of total extract, water fraction and the third fraction (which were the layers formed after the extraction process were examined against 10 Gram positive and negative and candida spp by cup plate method and Disk diffusion method. Also, the MIC and MBC were determined by micro dilution method.Results: Of 8 evaluated bacteria and 2 Candida spp, the total extract showed antibacterial effect only against E.coli, P.aeruginosa and B.subtilis. Size of the zone of inhibitation increased with increasing the concentration of the extract. Fraction containing Benzoxazine derivative had no effect against tested microbes. MIC and MBC determination showed that B.subtilis had the least sensitivity to the total extract, comparing to other microorganisms. Besides, comparing the zone of inhibitation of Penicillin 200 mg/ml and the zone of inhibitation of the total aqueous extract shows that the solution of total extract in water with 1000 mg/ml concentration and the solution of total extract in DMSO10% with 750 mg/ml density

  8. Wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for amphotericin B, flucytosine, and itraconazole and Candida spp. as determined by CLSI broth microdilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M A; Espinel-Ingroff, A; Canton, E; Castanheira, M; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Diekema, D J; Fothergill, A; Fuller, J; Ghannoum, M; Jones, R N; Lockhart, S R; Martin-Mazuelos, E; Melhem, M S C; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L; Pappas, P; Pelaez, T; Peman, J; Rex, J; Szeszs, M W

    2012-06-01

    Clinical breakpoints (CBPs) and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) have been established for several Candida spp. and the newer triazoles and echinocandins but are not yet available for older antifungal agents, such as amphotericin B, flucytosine, or itraconazole. We determined species-specific ECVs for amphotericin B (AMB), flucytosine (FC) and itraconazole (ITR) for eight Candida spp. (30,221 strains) using isolates from 16 different laboratories in Brazil, Canada, Europe, and the United States, all tested by the CLSI reference microdilution method. The calculated 24- and 48-h ECVs expressed in μg/ml (and the percentages of isolates that had MICs less than or equal to the ECV) for AMB, FC, and ITR, respectively, were 2 (99.8)/2 (99.2), 0.5 (94.2)/1 (91.4), and 0.12 (95.0)/0.12 (92.9) for C. albicans; 2 (99.6)/2 (98.7), 0.5 (98.0)/0.5 (97.5), and 2 (95.2)/4 (93.5) for C. glabrata; 2 (99.7)/2 (97.3), 0.5 (98.7)/0.5 (97.8), and 05. (99.7)/0.5 (98.5) for C. parapsilosis; 2 (99.8)/2 (99.2), 0.5 (93.0)/1 (90.5), and 0.5 (97.8)/0.5 (93.9) for C. tropicalis; 2 (99.3)/4 (100.0), 32 (99.4)/32 (99.3), and 1 (99.0)/2 (100.0) for C. krusei; 2 (100.0)/4 (100.0), 0.5 (95.3)/1 (92.9), and 0.5 (95.8)/0.5 (98.1) for C. lusitaniae; -/2 (100.0), 0.5 (98.8)/0.5 (97.7), and 0.25 (97.6)/0.25 (96.9) for C. dubliniensis; and 2 (100.0)/2 (100.0), 1 (92.7)/-, and 1 (100.0)/2 (100.0) for C. guilliermondii. In the absence of species-specific CBP values, these wild-type (WT) MIC distributions and ECVs will be useful for monitoring the emergence of reduced susceptibility to these well-established antifungal agents.

  9. Seaweed-mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Gracilaria corticata for its antifungal activity against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Senthamil Selvi, S.; Govindaraju, M.

    2013-12-01

    The present study was demonstrated with simple and rapid synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles using marine seaweed, Gracilaria corticata. The visibility of prominent color change at 60 °C within 20 min indicates the formation of Ag nanoparticles. The synthesized Ag nanoparticles were well characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering measurements (DLS). Prominent FTIR peaks were obtained corresponding to phenolic compounds, amide I group and aromatic rings which involved in the stabilization of Ag nanoparticles. G. corticata resulted in spherical shaped nanospheres of 18-46 nm as revealed by TEM. The average size distributions of Ag nanoparticles were 51.82 nm and are fairly stable with a zeta potential value of -26.2 mV. The result showed that, biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles from G. corticata have an effective antifungal activity against Candida albicans and C. glabrata.

  10. Efficient Anaerobic Fermentation of Simple Sugars by Yeast Fuels Resistance Candida spp. Infections to Eradication by Drugs

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    Nedosa I. Valentine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Human systemic Candida infections had proved difficult to eradicate by the medical health care system. Some practitioners and scholars see the problem as being due to drug resistance. For example an author wrote that ‘secondary drug resistance is clearly being encountered in one setting, oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients with advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection usually following years or months of azole therapy. Approach: This research work understudied the nutritional strategies of yeast colonies to serve as a guide to understanding the survival strategies of Candida colonies in human Candidiasis. The aim of the research was to make some impute into more effective ways of eradicating human Candida infections. Ethanol was produced biologically by fermentation of sugar by micro-organisms. The yeast Saccaromyces cerevisiae metabolises complex carbohydrates like starch in the absence of oxygen to ethanol, carbon dioxide and water. This study compared the average ethanol yield of hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed gelatinized cassava starch fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The starch was hydrolyzed by α and β-amylase enzymes. Fermentation of the starch was done with a 1% innoculums of a 12 h culture of saccharomyces cerevisiae incubated for 48 h under anaerobic conditions. Results: The results of the study showed that there was no starch hydrolysis in the absence of α and β-amylase enzymes. Starch hydrolysis in the presence of α and β-amylase enzyme took 1 h. There was no starch fermentation in the absence of saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ethanol yield of starch which had been hydrolyzed by α and β-amylases prior to fermentation by saccharomyces cerevisae was 28 times higher than the ethanol yield of starch which had not been previously hydrolyzed by α and β-amylases. These results of the study suggest that yeast infections in human and animal tissues produce 28 times more ethanol yield from

  11. Differences in exoenzyme production and adherence ability of Candida spp. isolates from catheter, blood and oral cavity Diferenças na produção de exoenzimas e habilidade de aderência entre isolados de espécies de Candida provenientes do cateter, sangue e cavidade bucal

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    Carolina Rodrigues Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase and proteinase production and the ability of adhesion to buccal epithelial cells (BEC of 112 Candida isolates originated from oral cavity of HIV infected patients and from blood and catheter of intensive care unit patients were investigated. The proteinase production was detected by inoculation into bovine serum albumin (BSA agar and the phospholipase activity was performed using egg yolk emulsion. A yeast suspension of each test strain was incubated with buccal epithelial cells and the number of adherence yeast to epithelial cells was counted. A percentage of 88.1% and 55.9% of Candida albicans and 69.8% and 37.7% of non-albicans Candida isolates produced proteinase and phospholipase, respectively. Non-albicans Candida isolated from catheter were more proteolytic than C. albicans isolates. Blood isolates were more proteolytic than catheter and oral cavity isolates while oral cavity isolates produced more phospholipase than those from blood and catheter. C. albicans isolates from oral cavity and from catheter were more adherent to BEC than non-albicans Candida isolates, but the adhesion was not different among the three sources analyzed. The results indicated differences in the production of phospholipase and proteinase and in the ability of adhesion to BEC among Candida spp. isolates from different sources. This study suggests that the pathogenicity of Candida can be correlated with the infected site.A produção de proteinase e fosfolipase e habilidade de adesão à célula epitelial bucal de 112 isolados de Candida originadas da cavidade bucal de pacientes infectados pelo HIV e de sangue e cateter de pacientes hospitalizados foram investigados. A produção de proteinase foi detectada por inoculação em ágar soro albumina bovina e a atividade de fosfolipase foi realizada usando emulsão de gema de ovo. A suspensão de levedura de cada isolado foi incubada com célula epitelial e o número de leveduras aderidas a c

  12. Prevalencia de Cryptosporidium spp en niños menores de 13 años con afecciones oncológicas

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    Ernesto Rueda

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La criptosporidiosis es una de las infecciones parasitarias emergentes del siglo XX considerada hoy como un problema de salud pública. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de Cryptosporidium spp en niños con cáncer 0.05. Conclusión: La prevalencia de Cryptosporidium spp. identificado por medio de la técnica de ZNM en las heces de niños con cáncer fue 42%, y se asoció con dolor abdominal como factor agresivo. Pero, esta prevalencia no es muy distinta si se compara con el grupo control sin cáncer de Bucaramanga, Colombia y con otros estudios en niños inmunocompetentes de la región; en cambio, sí es extremadamente alta al compararla con los informes a nivel mundial.

  13. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Glomus spp. Inoculation on Alfalfa Growth in Soils with Copper Efecto de la Inoculación con Hongos Micorrízicos Arbusculares Glomus spp. sobre el Crecimiento de Alfalfa en Suelos con Cobre

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    Daniela Novoa M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils near mining centers usually have high heavy metal (HM levels. It has been found that some plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF improve growth and tolerance to HM in soils. This symbiosis is a biological resource for degraded soil recovery. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inoculating AMF (Glomus spp. on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. growth in agricultural soils with different copper (Cu levels for degraded soil recovery. To this effect, alfalfa seeds were grown in soils from the Catemu and Casablanca valleys and inoculated with AMF. Plant height, stem diameter, and number of leaves were measured weekly. Dry matter, mycorrhizal colonization, and Cu concentration in alfalfa plant tissues were measured after 81 days. Inoculation increased plant height by 24%, stem diameter by 11%, and number of leaves by 34%. Inoculation had a significant effect (p ≤ 0.05 on alfalfa plants that were grown in soil with the highest Cu concentration, but had no effect on Cu accumulation in alfalfa plant tissues. A direct relationship was observed between Cu accumulation in alfalfa and Cu concentration in soils. It was concluded that alfalfa inoculated with Glomus spp. is applicable to the soil recovery process whenever soil properties can ensure inoculum effectiveness on alfalfa growth, and avoid toxicity by excessive Cu in alfalfa plant tissues.Los suelos cercanos a centros de actividad minera suelen presentar altos niveles de metales pesados (HM. Se ha encontrado que algunas plantas asociadas a hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (AMF mejoran su crecimiento y tolerancia a los HM presentes en los suelos. Esta simbiosis constituye un recurso biológico para la recuperación de suelos degradados. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la inoculación con AMF (Glomus spp. sobre el crecimiento de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. en suelos agrícolas con distintos niveles de cobre (Cu para la recuperación de

  14. Surveillance of Candida spp bloodstream infections: epidemiological trends and risk factors of death in two Mexican tertiary care hospitals.

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    Dora E Corzo-Leon

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Larger populations at risk, broader use of antibiotics and longer hospital stays have impacted on the incidence of Candida sp. bloodstream infections (CBSI. OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of patients with CBSI in two tertiary care reference medical institutions in Mexico City. DESIGN: Prospective and observational laboratory-based surveillance study conducted from 07/2008 to 06/2010. METHODS: All patients with CBSI were included. Identification and antifungal susceptibility were performed using CLSI M27-A3 standard procedures. Frequencies, Mann-Whitney U test or T test were used as needed. Risk factors were determined with multivariable analysis and binary logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: CBSI represented 3.8% of nosocomial bloodstream infections. Cumulative incidence was 2.8 per 1000 discharges (incidence rate: 0.38 per 1000 patient-days. C. albicans was the predominant species (46%, followed by C. tropicalis (26%. C. glabrata was isolated from patients with diabetes (50%, and elderly patients. Sixty-four patients (86% received antifungals. Amphotericin-B deoxycholate (AmBD was the most commonly used agent (66%. Overall mortality rate reached 46%, and risk factors for death were APACHE II score ≥ 16 (OR = 6.94, CI95% = 2.34-20.58, p<0.0001, and liver disease (OR = 186.11, CI95% = 7.61-4550.20, p = 0.001. Full susceptibility to fluconazole, AmBD and echinocandins among C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative incidence rate in these centers was higher than other reports from tertiary care hospitals from Latin America. Knowledge of local epidemiologic patterns permits the design of more specific strategies for prevention and preemptive therapy of CBSI.

  15. Surveillance of Candida spp Bloodstream Infections: Epidemiological Trends and Risk Factors of Death in Two Mexican Tertiary Care Hospitals

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    Corzo-Leon, Dora E.; Alvarado-Matute, Tito; Colombo, Arnaldo L.; Cornejo-Juarez, Patricia; Cortes, Jorge; Echevarria, Juan I.; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Macias, Alejandro E.; Nucci, Marcio; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Ponce-de-Leon, Alfredo; Queiroz-Telles, Flavio; Santolaya, Maria E.; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Tiraboschi, Iris N.; Zurita, Jeannete; Sifuentes-Osornio, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Larger populations at risk, broader use of antibiotics and longer hospital stays have impacted on the incidence of Candida sp. bloodstream infections (CBSI). Objective To determine clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of patients with CBSI in two tertiary care reference medical institutions in Mexico City. Design Prospective and observational laboratory-based surveillance study conducted from 07/2008 to 06/2010. Methods All patients with CBSI were included. Identification and antifungal susceptibility were performed using CLSI M27-A3 standard procedures. Frequencies, Mann-Whitney U test or T test were used as needed. Risk factors were determined with multivariable analysis and binary logistic regression analysis. Results CBSI represented 3.8% of nosocomial bloodstream infections. Cumulative incidence was 2.8 per 1000 discharges (incidence rate: 0.38 per 1000 patient-days). C. albicans was the predominant species (46%), followed by C. tropicalis (26%). C. glabrata was isolated from patients with diabetes (50%), and elderly patients. Sixty-four patients (86%) received antifungals. Amphotericin-B deoxycholate (AmBD) was the most commonly used agent (66%). Overall mortality rate reached 46%, and risk factors for death were APACHE II score ≥16 (OR = 6.94, CI95% = 2.34–20.58, p<0.0001), and liver disease (OR = 186.11, CI95% = 7.61–4550.20, p = 0.001). Full susceptibility to fluconazole, AmBD and echinocandins among C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis was observed. Conclusions The cumulative incidence rate in these centers was higher than other reports from tertiary care hospitals from Latin America. Knowledge of local epidemiologic patterns permits the design of more specific strategies for prevention and preemptive therapy of CBSI. PMID:24830654

  16. Comparison of the Vitek 2 yeast susceptibility system with CLSI microdilution for antifungal susceptibility testing of fluconazole and voriconazole against Candida spp., using new clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Diekema, Daniel J; Procop, Gary W; Rinaldi, Michael G

    2013-09-01

    A commercially available, fully automated yeast susceptibility test system (Vitek 2; bioMérieux, Marcy d'Etoile, France) was compared in 3 different laboratories with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference microdilution (BMD) method by testing 2 quality control strains, 10 reproducibility strains, and 425 isolates of Candida spp. against fluconazole and voriconazole. Reference CLSI BMD MIC endpoints and Vitek 2 MIC endpoints were read after 24 hours and 9.1-27.1 hours incubation, respectively. Excellent essential agreement (within 2 dilutions) between the reference and Vitek 2 MICs was observed for fluconazole (97.9%) and voriconazole (96.7%). Categorical agreement (CA) between the 2 methods was assessed using the new species-specific clinical breakpoints (CBPs): susceptible (S) ≤2 μg/mL, susceptible dose-dependent (SDD) 4 μg/mL, and resistant (R) ≥8 μg/mL for fluconazole and Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis and ≤32 μg/mL (SDD), ≥64 μg/mL (R) for Candida glabrata; S ≤0.12 μg/mL, SDD 0.25-0.5 μg/mL, R ≥1 μg/mL for voriconazole and C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis, and ≤0.5 μg/mL (S), 1 μg/mL (SDD), ≥2 μg/mL (R) for Candida krusei. The epidemiological cutoff value (ECV) of 0.5 μg/mL for voriconazole and C. glabrata was used to differentiate wild-type (WT; MIC ≤ ECV) from non-WT (MIC > ECV) strains of this species. Due to the lack of CBPs for the less common species, the ECVs for fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively, were used for Candida lusitaniae (2 μg/mL and 0.03 μg/mL), Candida dubliniensis (0.5 μg/mL and 0.03 μg/mL), Candida guilliermondii (8 μg/mL and 0.25 μg/mL), and Candida pelliculosa (4 μg/mL and 0.25 μg/mL) to categorize isolates of these species as WT and non-WT. CA between the 2 methods was 96.8% for fluconazole and 96.5% for voriconazole with less than 1% very major errors and 1.3-3.0% major errors. The Vitek 2 yeast susceptibility system

  17. Freqüência e atividade enzimática de Candida spp. na cavidade oral de pacientes diabéticos do serviço de endocrinologia de um hospital de Fortaleza-CE Frequency and enzymatic activity of Candida spp. oral cavity of diabetic patients of the service of endocrinology of a hospital of Fortaleza-CE

    OpenAIRE

    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes; Kristopherson Lustosa Augusto; Caio César Furtado Freire; Francisco Afrânio Cunha; Renan Magalhães Montenegro; Renan Magalhães Montenegro Júnior

    2007-01-01

    O diabetes mellitus (DM), uma doença endócrino-metabólica de alta e crescente prevalência, é citada como responsável pela ocorrência das candidíases orais. A candidíase constitui um espectro de infecções causadas por fungos do gênero Candida, sendo o seu agente mais comum a Candida albicans, embora outras espécies tenham sido identificadas (Candida tropicalis, Candida guillermondii, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei). O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a freqüência e a atividade enzimática ...

  18. Rationale for reading fluconazole MICs at 24 hours rather than 48 hours when testing Candida spp. by the CLSI M27-A2 standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Rex, John H; Pfaller, Michael A; Diekema, Daniel J; Alexander, Barbara D; Andes, David; Brown, Steven D; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Knapp, Cindy C; Sheehan, Daniel J; Walsh, Thomas J

    2008-11-01

    We investigated if CLSI M27-A2 Candida species breakpoints for fluconazole MIC are valid when read at 24 h. Analysis of a data set showed good correlation between 48- and 24-h MICs, as well as similar outcomes and pharmacodynamic efficacy parameters, except for isolates in the susceptible dose-dependent category, such as Candida glabrata.

  19. Rationale for Reading Fluconazole MICs at 24 Hours Rather than 48 Hours When Testing Candida spp. by the CLSI M27-A2 Standard Method▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Rex, John H.; Pfaller, Michael A.; Diekema, Daniel J.; Alexander, Barbara D.; Andes, David; Brown, Steven D.; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.; Knapp, Cindy C.; Sheehan, Daniel J.; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated if CLSI M27-A2 Candida species breakpoints for fluconazole MIC are valid when read at 24 h. Analysis of a data set showed good correlation between 48- and 24-h MICs, as well as similar outcomes and pharmacodynamic efficacy parameters, except for isolates in the susceptible dose-dependent category, such as Candida glabrata. PMID:18809944

  20. Aislamiento de Candida spp. y otras levaduras en el personal que labora en áreas críticas del Hospital San Juan de Dios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carrillo-Dover

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivos: Los pacientes internados en hospitales, principalmente aquellos que se encuentran severamente enfermos, son más susceptibles a las infecciones por hongos oportunistas, en comparación con la población general. El personal hospitalario puede ser fuente potencial de infección para estos pacientes, ya que normalmente actúa como portador de gérmenes, que eventualmente podrían ser transmitidos a los pacientes. Se describe, en esta investigación, el aislamiento de hongos levaduriformes a partir de las manos y la cavidad oral, en un grupo de 77 trabajadores del Hospital San Juan de Dios, en servicios donde se han reportado más casos de infecciones por este tipo de hongos. Métodos: Se realizó un hisopado de cavidad oral y manos de cada participante y se cultivaron placas con agar glucosado de Sabouraud (AGS y Mycosel. A los aislamientos de levaduras se les determinó la capacidad de crecimiento a 37°C, resistencia a la cicloheximida, producción de tubo germinativo, fosfolipasas y proteinasas y se determinó la sensibilidad in vitro al fluconazol por medio de método de microdilución en placa. Resultados: El 72,7% de los participantes resultaron positivos para el aislamiento de levaduras, la especie aislada con mayor frecuencia fue Candida parapsilosis, seguida de C. albicans y C. famata. La mayor positividad se obtuvo en el servicio de Cirugía 3 (83.3%, seguido de la UCI (71.4% y Neonatología (58%. Conclusión: Estos resultados instan a mejorar las acciones preventivas en el manejo de los pacientes, a ser más estrictos en las normas de higiene de manos y promover, en otros centros hospitalarios, la realización de este tipo de estudios, para disminuir los brotes nosocomiales por transmisión horizontal.

  1. DNA-fingerprinting di stipiti di Chryseobacterium spp isolati da pazienti con Fibrosi Cistica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Lambiase

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pulmonary infections by Gram-negative bacteria, as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, are the major cause of morbidity in Cystic Fibrosis patients. In the past decade, several pathogens as Alcaligenes spp and no tuberculosis mycobacteria have been recovered in these patients. Bacteria of genus Chryseobacterium are widespread Gram-negative microrganisms and involved in human infections. Aims of this study were to value the isolation frequency of Chryseobacterium strains in a cohort of Cystic Fibrosis patients, to investigate their antimicrobial sensibility and to establish possible clonal likeness between strains. Methods:A retrospective study was undertaken between January 2003 and December 2005 on 300 patients receiving care at the Regional Cystic Fibrosis Centre of Naples University “Federico II”. Sputum samples were checked: for bacterial identification, selective media and commercial identification systems were used.The activity of antimicrobial agents was determined using diffusion and microdiluthion methods. For DNA-fingerprinting, a genomic DNA macrorestriction followed by pulsed-field electrophoresis was carried out. Results:A total of 26 strains from 17 patients were isolated (7 C. meningosepticum, 14 C. indologenes, 5 C. gleum. Strains were resistant to cephalosporins and carbapenems; some were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. Macrorestriction analysis showed substantial heterogeneity among strains. Conclusions: Actually, the prognostic role of Chryseobacterium in Cystic Fibrosis is unclear and although the small number of isolations, it is need to be on the look out regard such microorganisms. The considerable resistance implies difficulties on therapeutic approach. Results of DNA-fingerprinting indicate no evidence of clonal likeness and then of patient-to-patient spread.

  2. Rapid identification of Candida spp. frequently involved in invasive mycoses by using flow-through hybridization and Gene Chip (FHGC) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Ding, Xiurong; Liu, Zhizhong; Zhu, Juanjuan

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients has increased in recent decades. Rapid and accurate identification of these pathogenic fungi is crucial for initiating a timely, safe, and effective antifungal therapy. Here we developed a microarray based on flow-through hybridization gene chip technology. The microarray was tested for its specificity using a panel of reference and blinded clinical isolates. The results proved that this microarray was highly discriminative, leading to the unequivocal identification of each species, including Candida famata and the highly related species Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis. This new system represents a reliable method that is of potential use in clinical laboratories for the simultaneous detection and identification of the most common pathogenic fungi.

  3. The oral Candida spp infection and related factors in patients with type 2 diabetes%2型糖尿病患者口腔假丝酵母菌属感染及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈云芳; 王林红; 丁奕健

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the oral Candida sp p infection and related factors in patients with type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose regulation (IGR) ,so as to provide clinical basis for the prevention and treatment for oral Candida spp infection in patients with type 2 diabetes and IGR .METHODS Totally 90 patients with type 2 diabe‐tes from Jun .2010 to Jun .2013 were randomly selected and included into the diabetic group (DM group) ,90 pa‐tients with IGR were included into the IGR group ,90 healthy people were included into the control group .The situation of oral Candidaspp infection were compared ,as well as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ,saliva flow and saliva pH .The software SPSS13 .0 was used for statistical analysis .RESULTS The oral Candida spp carrier rate was 17 .78% in the DM group ,10 .00% in the IGR group ,and 8 .89% in the control group ,there was no signifi‐cant difference between the three groups .The oral Candida spp infection rate was 8 .89% in the DM group ,sig‐nificantly higher than 2 .22% in the IGR group and 2 .22% in the control group ,there was significant difference between the three groups (P<0 .05) .CONCLUSION The type 2 diabetic patients are susceptible to oral Candida spp infection ,and FPG is an important factor .%目的:探讨2型糖尿病、糖调节受损(IGR)患者口腔假丝酵母菌属感染及影响因素,为2型糖尿病和IGR患者口腔假丝酵母菌属感染预防和临床治疗提供依据。方法随机选取2010年6月-2013年6月90例2型糖尿病患者纳入糖尿病组(DM组),90例糖调节受损患者纳入IGR组,90名健康者纳入对照组,比较3组研究对象口腔假丝酵母菌属感染情况,并比较空腹血糖、唾液流量及唾液pH值,采用SPSS13.0进行统计分析。结果口腔假丝酵母菌属携带率DM组为17.78%、IGR组为10.00%、对照组为8.89%,DM 组与IGR组、IGR组与对照组比较差异均无统计学意义,口腔假丝

  4. Comparison of microdilution broth and disk diffusion for antifungal susceptibility testing against Candida spp. Comparação entre microdiluição e disco difusão para o teste de susceptibilidade aos antifúngicos contra Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlla Lorena Façanha Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of fungal resistance can be evaluated by testing susceptibility to antifungal agents. The protocols for susceptibility testing most common are Broth Microdilution (BMD, Disk Diffusion (DD and E-test. The objective of this study was to compare the susceptibility tests conducted by the BMD and DD methods for amphotericin B and fluconazole against Candida spp. isolated in Fortaleza/CE. Were used 40 C. albicans, 50 C. tropicalis and 47 C. parapsilosis isolated from blood and urine samples of patients treated at Fortaleza General Hospital. The tests were conducted by the BMD and DD methods according to protocols M27-A3 and M44-A2 of the CLSI. These methods were compared and the percentages of agreement were calculated. For amphotericin B and fluconazole was a predominance of strains with reduced susceptibility. The percentage of agreement for the methods tested was above 97%. No serious errors were detected. The use of DD for performing antifungal susceptibility testing can be applied in routine laboratory tests, since one technique is easy, inexpensive, and reliable when compared to the BMD without compromising the results for the strains of C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis.A evolução da resistência fúngica pode ser avaliada pelo teste de susceptibilidade aos antifúngicos. Os protocolos mais utilizados para testes de susceptibilidade são a micro diluição em caldo (MDC, disco difusão (DD e E-test. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi comparar os testes de sensibilidade realizados pelos métodos de MDC e DD para a anfotericina B e o fluconazol contra cepas de Candida spp. isoladas em Fortaleza/CE. Foram utilizadas 40 C. albicans, 50 C. tropicalis e 47 C. parapsilosis, isoladas de amostras de sangue e urina de pacientes atendidos no Hospital Geral de Fortaleza. Os testes foram realizados pelos métodos MDC e DD, de acordo com os protocolos M27-A3 e M44-A2 do CLSI. As metodologias foram comparadas e calculadas os

  5. Determinación de la sensibilidad a amoxicilina y a clindamicina de staphylococcus spp aislado de cavidad oral de pacientes con alto riesgo de endocarditis infecciosa

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    Silvia Barrientos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En la literatura existen pocos estudios acerca de la distribución de Staphylococcus spp en boca y los que hay sobre estos microorganismos como residentes de la cavidad oral son controversiales.El género Staphylococcus spp conforma un importante grupo de patógenos en el ser humano y origina distintas enfermedades, entre ellas, la Endocarditis Infecciosa; de igual forma, la literatura reporta tasas de resistencia a amoxicilina y clindamicina antibióticos usados comúnmente para la profilaxis en odontología. Objetivo: Conocer la sensibilidad de Staphylococcus spp a amoxicilina y la clindamicina aislados de cavidad oral de pacientes con alto riesgo de Endocarditis Infecciosa.

  6. Masculino de 18 años con Leucemia Linfocitica aguda y Artritis de Rodilla por Candida Tropicalis

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Benavides, Marvin; Bonilla Trejos, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Paciente masculino de 18 años, con antecedente dede Leucemia Linfoblástica Aguda B común desde hace 8 meses, quien abandonó su control y tratamiento. Consultó por cuadro hemorrágico agudo, asociado a sensación febril no cuantificada. Se documentó bicitopenia con neutropenia absoluta, motivo por el que ingresó al Servicio de Hematología, donde se consignó leucemia aguda en recaída y se inició nuevo esquema quimioterapéutico. Durante el internamiento inició con gonalgia izquierda súbita, asocia...

  7. Prevalencia de Cryptosporidium spp en niños menores de 13 años con afecciones oncológicas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Carreño

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La criptosporidiosis es una de las infecciones parasitarias emergentes del siglo XX considerada hoy como un problema de salud pública. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de Cryptosporidium spp en niños con cáncer Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron 121 niños con cáncer y edades de 7 años 5 meses ± 3 años 2 meses, hubo 62 niñas. Las principales características en orden de frecuencia, fueron: LLA, 50; en tratamiento, 53; desnutridos agudos (DNTA, 42; dolor abdominal, 38; enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA, 23; enfermedad diarreica persistente (EDP, 4. Otros datos: Procedencia urbana, 86; en hacinamiento, 32; sin agua potable, 31; sin disposición de excretas, 26; con animales intradomiciliarios, 62; y asistentes a guarderías, 65. Como controles sirvieron 116 niños sin cáncer. Para el análisis estadístico se siguieron la prueba t de Student, la prueba c2, y la prueba de Fischer, siendo significativa una p Resultados: Entre los niños con cáncer 51 (42% y los niños sin cáncer 47 (40%, hubo Cryptosporidium spp en las heces estudiadas mediante la técnica ZNM, con una razón de prevalencia de 1.05 (0.76-1.34 IC 95% (p = 0.902, solo asociado con dolor abdominal [OR = 2.07 (1.47-2.67 IC 95% p = 0.027], sin otras asociaciones clínicas o epidemiológicas (p>0.05. Conclusión: La prevalencia de Cryptosporidium spp. identificado por medio de la técnica de ZNM en las heces de niños con cáncer fue 42%, y se asoció con dolor abdominal como factor agresivo. Pero, esta prevalencia no es muy distinta si se compara con el grupo control sin cáncer de Bucaramanga, Colombia y con otros estudios en niños inmunocompetentes de la región; en cambio, sí es extremadamente alta al compararla con los informes a nivel mundial.

  8. Colonización oral por Candida y su relación con la presencia de caries y/o enfermedad periodontal crónica en población adulta del País Vasco

    OpenAIRE

    Torre Pérez, Janire de la

    2016-01-01

    250 p. Se ha evaluado la colonización oral por Candida en 190 pacientes adultos del País Vasco. Se han relacionado los datos de colonización, carga fúngica e identificación de especies con la caries y/o con la enfermedad periodontal, clasificando a los pacientes de acuerdo a índices establecidos para estas patologías y su gravedad. Posteriormente se han realizado pruebas in vitro de sensibilidad a los antifúngicos de uso terapeútico más común con los aislamientos obtenidos.De los resultado...

  9. Candida bloodstream infection: data from a teaching hospital in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Infecção na corrente sangüínea por Candida spp. dados de um hospital universitário em Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

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    Marilene Rodrigues Chang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Candida bloodstream infection has increased over the past years. In the Center-West region of Brazil, data on candidemia are scarce. This paper reports a retrospective analysis of 96 cases of Candida bloodstream infection at a Brazilian tertiary-care teaching hospital in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, from January 1998 to December 2006. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from medical records and from the hospital's laboratory database. Patients' ages ranged from three days to 92 years, with 53 (55.2% adults and 43 (44.8% children. Of the latter, 25 (58.1% were newborns. The risk conditions most often found were: long period of hospitalization, utilization of venous central catheter, and previous use of antibiotics. Fifty-eight (60.4% patients died during the hospitalization period and eight (13.7% of them died 30 days after the diagnosis of candidemia. Candida albicans (45.8% was the most prevalent species, followed by C. parapsilosis (34.4%, C. tropicalis (14.6% and C. glabrata (5.2%. This is the first report of Candida bloodstream infection in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and it highlights the importance of considering the possibility of invasive Candida infection in patients exposed to risk factors, particularly among neonates and the elderly.RESUMO A incidência de infecções na corrente sangüínea causada por Candida spp. tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil, os dados sobre candidemia são escassos. Realizamos uma análise retrospectiva de casos de infecção na corrente sangüínea por Candida em um hospital terciário de ensino de Mato Grosso do Sul. Noventa e seis episódios diagnosticados de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 2006 foram incluídos no estudo. Os dados demográficos e clínicos foram obtidos de prontuários; os dados laboratoriais provieram de registros do laboratório hospitalar. Dos pacientes, 43 (44,8% eram crianças e 53 (55,2% adultos, com idades

  10. International and multicenter comparison of EUCAST and CLSI M27-A2 broth microdilution methods for testing susceptibilities of Candida spp. to fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Barchiesi, F.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Pfaller, M.A.; Rinaldi, M.; Rodriguez-Tudela, J.L.; Verweij, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare MICs of fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole obtained by the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and CLSI (formerly NCCLS) methods in each of six centers for 15 Candida albicans (5 fluconazole-resistant and 4 susc

  11. Aislamiento de Candida spp. y otras levaduras en el personal que labora en áreas críticas del Hospital San Juan de Dios Isolation of Candida spp. and other yeasts from Health Care Workers in Critical Care Units of the San Juan de Dios Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carrillo-Dover

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivos: Los pacientes internados en hospitales, principalmente aquellos que se encuentran severamente enfermos, son más susceptibles a las infecciones por hongos oportunistas, en comparación con la población general. El personal hospitalario puede ser fuente potencial de infección para estos pacientes, ya que normalmente actúa como portador de gérmenes, que eventualmente podrían ser transmitidos a los pacientes. Se describe, en esta investigación, el aislamiento de hongos levaduriformes a partir de las manos y la cavidad oral, en un grupo de 77 trabajadores del Hospital San Juan de Dios, en servicios donde se han reportado más casos de infecciones por este tipo de hongos. Métodos: Se realizó un hisopado de cavidad oral y manos de cada participante y se cultivaron placas con agar glucosado de Sabouraud (AGS y Mycosel. A los aislamientos de levaduras se les determinó la capacidad de crecimiento a 37°C, resistencia a la cicloheximida, producción de tubo germinativo, fosfolipasas y proteinasas y se determinó la sensibilidad in vitro al fluconazol por medio de método de microdilución en placa. Resultados: El 72,7% de los participantes resultaron positivos para el aislamiento de levaduras, la especie aislada con mayor frecuencia fue Candida parapsilosis, seguida de C. albicans y C. famata. La mayor positividad se obtuvo en el servicio de Cirugía 3 (83.3%, seguido de la UCI (71.4% y Neonatología (58%. Conclusión: Estos resultados instan a mejorar las acciones preventivas en el manejo de los pacientes, a ser más estrictos en las normas de higiene de manos y promover, en otros centros hospitalarios, la realización de este tipo de estudios, para disminuir los brotes nosocomiales por transmisión horizontal.Justification and aim: Critically ill patients are more susceptible than the general population to opportunistic fungal infections. Health workers could be a potential infectious focus to these patients. Thus in

  12. Presencia de Lactobacillus spp. y Bacillus licheniformis en margarina con yogur

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    González, Elisa

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological analysis of thirty samples of commercially produced margarine with incorporated yoghurt was carried out. After the initial control, the other tests were runned after 26, 56, 88,116 and 157 days of refrigerated storage. Constitutive biota of yoghurt was not detected. Occurrence (100% of samples of Lactobacillus spp. (Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum, being the first one slightly more numerous, and Bacillus licheniformis, which counts were mostly in a 103- 104ufc/g range, and only in 10% of the cases were < 103 ufc/g. Samples did not show signs of deterioration. Article calls upon about the convenience of developing a specific normative that clarifies the doubts about main microbiological hazards as well as the legal aspects regarding the product denomination.

    Se ha realizado el análisis de treinta muestras de margarina con yogur. Tras el control inicial, los restantes análisis se efectuaron a los 0,26, 56, 88,116 y 157 días de almacenamiento en refrigeración. No se detectó la biota constitutiva del yogur. Sí se demostró la presencia, en el 100% de las muestras, de Lactobacillus fermentum y Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum, siendo el primero ligeramente más numeroso, así como de Bacillus licheniformis, cuyos recuentos han sido en su mayoría comprendidos en el rango 103-104ufc/g, y sólo en el 10% de los casos fueron inferiores a 103ufc/g. Las muestras no mostraban signos de deterioro. El trabajo llama la atención sobre la conveniencia de desarrollar una normativa específica que aclare las dudas surgidas en torno a los principales riesgos microbiológicos, así como a aspectos legales relacionados con la denominación del producto.

  13. Anti-microbial efficacy of green tea and chlorhexidine mouth rinses against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilli spp. and Candida albicans in children with severe early childhood caries: A randomized clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green tea is a beverage which is consumed worldwide and is reported to have anti-cariogenic effect. So, if it was as effective as chlorhexidine (CHX mouth rinse against cariogenic microbes it could be considered a natural, economical alternative. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the anti-microbial efficacy of 0.5% green tea and 0.2% CHX mouth rinses against Streptococcus Mutans, Lactobacilli spp. and Candida Albicans. Materials and Methods: 30 children aged 4-6 years with S-ECC (based ondefs score were selected. Children were divided randomly into 2 equal groups and were asked to rinse with the prescribed mouth rinse once daily for 2 weeks after breakfast under supervision. A base-line and post rinsing non-stimulated whole salivary sample (2 ml was collected and tested for the number of colony forming units. The data was statistically analyzed using SPSS v16.0 software with one-way ANOVA and Tukey′sPOSTHOC test. Results: A statistically significant fall in colony count was found with both the mouth rinses in Streptococcus Mutans (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and lactobacilli (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 but not against Candida albicans (P = 0.264, P = 0.264. Against Streptococcus Mutans, green tea mouth rinse was found to be significantly better than CHX mouth rinse (P = 0.005. Against lactobacilli spp, CHX mouth rinse was significantly better than green tea mouth rinse (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Green tea mouth rinse can be considered safe, economical and used without much concern. However, further studies are recommended.

  14. Comparison of the Sensititre YeastOne colorimetric antifungal panel with CLSI microdilution for antifungal susceptibility testing of the echinocandins against Candida spp., using new clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M A; Chaturvedi, V; Diekema, D J; Ghannoum, M A; Holliday, N M; Killian, S B; Knapp, C C; Messer, S A; Miskou, A; Ramani, R

    2012-08-01

    A commercially prepared dried colorimetric microdilution panel (Sensititre Yeast One, TREK Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, OH, USA) was compared in 3 different laboratories with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference microdilution method by testing 2 quality control strains, 25 reproducibility strains, and 404 isolates of Candida spp. against anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin. Reference CLSI BMD MIC end points and YeastOne colorimetric end points were read after 24 h of incubation. Excellent (100%) essential agreement (within 2 dilutions) between the reference and colorimetric MICs was observed. Categorical agreement (CA) between the 2 methods was assessed using the new species-specific clinical breakpoints (CBPs): susceptible (S), ≤0.25 μg/mL; intermediate (I), 0.5 μg/mL; and resistant (R), ≥1 μg/mL, for C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei, and ≤2 μg/mL (S), 4 μg/mL (I), and ≥8 μg/mL (R) for C. parapsilosis and all 3 echinocandins. The new CBPs for anidulafungin and caspofungin and C. glabrata are ≤0.12 μg/mL (S), 0.25 μg/mL (I), and ≥0.5 μg/mL (R), whereas those for micafungin are ≤0.06 μg/mL (S), 0.12 μg/mL (I), and ≥0.25 μg/mL (R). Due to the lack of CBPs for any of the echinocandins and C. lusitaniae, the epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) were used for this species to categorize the isolates as wild-type (WT; MIC ≤ECV) and non-WT (MIC >ECV), respectively, for anidulafungin (≤2 μg/mL/>2 μg/mL), caspofungin (≤1 μg/mL/>1 μg/mL), and micafungin (≤0.5 μg/mL/>0.5 μg/mL). CA ranged from 93.6% (caspofungin) to 99.6% (micafungin) with less than 1% very major or major errors. The YeastOne colorimetric method remains comparable to the CLSI BMD reference method for testing the susceptibility of Candida spp. to the echinocandins when using the new (lower) CBPs and ECVs. Further study using defined fks mutant strains of Candida is warranted.

  15. Comparison of EUCAST and CLSI broth microdilution methods for the susceptibility testing of 10 systemically active antifungal agents when tested against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Castanheira, Mariana; Messer, Shawn A; Rhomberg, Paul R; Jones, Ronald N

    2014-06-01

    The antifungal broth microdilution (BMD) method of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) was compared with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) BMD method M27-A3 for amphotericin B, flucytosine, anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, fluconazole, isavuconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole susceptibility testing of 357 isolates of Candida. The isolates were selected from global surveillance collections to represent both wild-type (WT) and non-WT MIC results for the azoles (12% of fluconazole and voriconazole results were non-WT) and the echinocandins (6% of anidulafungin and micafungin results were non-WT). The study collection included 114 isolates of Candida albicans, 73 of C. glabrata, 76 of C. parapsilosis, 60 of C. tropicalis, and 34 of C. krusei. The overall essential agreement (EA) between EUCAST and CLSI results ranged from 78.9% (posaconazole) to 99.6% (flucytosine). The categorical agreement (CA) between methods and species of Candida was assessed using previously determined CLSI epidemiological cutoff values. The overall CA between methods was 95.0% with 2.5% very major (VM) and major (M) discrepancies. The CA was >93% for all antifungal agents with the exception of caspofungin (84.6%), where 10% of the results were categorized as non-WT by the EUCAST method and WT by the CLSI method. Problem areas with low EA or CA include testing of amphotericin B, anidulafungin, and isavuconazole against C. glabrata, itraconazole, and posaconazole against most species, and caspofungin against C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei. We confirm high level EA and CA (>90%) between the 2 methods for testing fluconazole, voriconazole, and micafungin against all 5 species. The results indicate that the EUCAST and CLSI methods produce comparable results for testing the systemically active antifungal agents against the 5 most common species of Candida; however, there are several areas where additional

  16. An evaluation of manual and mechanical methods to identify Candida spp. from human and animal sources Avaliação de métodos de identificação de leveduras do gênero Candida de origem humana e animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo dos Santos Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To compare two yeast identification methods, i. e, the manual and the VITEK mechanical methods, 62 clinical samples from hemocultures and animal sources were analyzed. After identification as Candida yeasts by the VITEK method, the strains were recharacterized using manual assimilation methods and sugar fermentation tests. Our findings reveal 58% concurrent identification between the two methods for animal strains, and 51% for human hemoculture strains.Objetivando comparar os resultados de dois métodos de identificação, o manual e o método automatizado VITEK, foram analisadas 62 amostras clínicas isoladas de hemoculturas humanas e de origem animal. Estas amostras, após serem identificadas como Candida spp. pelo método automatizado VITEK, foram recaracterizadas com a utilização de métodos manuais de assimilação e fermentação de fontes carbonadas. Os resultados demonstraram uma relação de 58% de identificações coincidentes entre os dois métodos para as amostras de origem animal e de 51% para as amostras de hemoculturas humanas.

  17. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Ariane Bruder-Nascimento; Carlos Henrique Camargo; Alessandro Lia Mondelli; Maria Fátima Sugizaki; Terue Sadatsune; Eduardo Bagagli

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Ca...

  18. Candida parapsilosis and candida guillermondii: Emerging pathogens in nail candidiasis

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    Felix Fich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onychomycosis of the fingernails and toenails is generally caused by dermatophytes and yeasts. Toenail mycoses involve mainly dermatophytes but when Candida is also involved, the strain most commonly isolated worldwide is C. albicans. Aims: To determine Candida strains prevailing in onychomycosis. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational and descriptive study of fungal cultures retrieved from the registry of the microbiology laboratory of the Pontificia Universidad Católica was performed. Specimens obtained from patients attending the healthcare network between December 2007 and December 2010 was analyzed. Statistical Analysis: A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: Candida was retrieved from 467 of 8443 specimens (52% fingernails and 48% toenails. Cultures were negative in 5320 specimens (63.6%. Among Candida-positive cultures, parapsilosis was the most commonly isolated strain with 202 cases (43.3%. While isolates of Candida guillermondii were 113 (24.2%, those of Candida albicans were 110 (23.6%, those of spp. were 20 (4.3% and there were 22 cases of other isolates (4.71%. Among the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida, 136 (29,1% were men and 331 (70,9% were women. All patients were older than 18 years old. Clinical files were available for only 169 of the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida. For those, age, gender, underlying illnesses and use of immunossupresive agents during the trial was reviewed. Conclusions: The present study shows that both C. parapsilosis as well as C. guillermondii appear as emerging pathogens that would be in fact taking the place of C. albicans as the most commonly isolated pathogen in patients with Candida onychomycosis. The relative percentage of C parapsilosis increases every year. Identification of Candida strains as etiological agents of nail candidiasis becomes relevant to the management both nail as well as systemic candidiasis, in view of

  19. Antifungal susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of fluconazole-resistant Candida spp. and itraconazole-resistant Aspergillus funmigates to posaconazole%耐氟康唑念珠菌和耐伊曲康唑烟曲霉对泊沙康唑的敏感性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪洁; 万哲; 李若瑜; 刘伟

    2014-01-01

    目的:测定耐氟康唑念珠菌和耐伊曲康唑烟曲霉临床分离株对泊沙康唑的敏感性。方法参照美国临床实验室标准化研究所制定的 M27-A3和 M38-A2方案,测定从临床获得的11株耐氟康唑的念珠菌和3株耐伊曲康唑烟曲霉对泊沙康唑的 MIC 值。结果对于氟康唑耐药的念珠菌,泊沙康唑的 MIC 范围是0.125~1μg/ mL。对于伊曲康唑耐药烟曲霉,泊沙康唑的 MIC 范围是0.06~0.5μg/ mL。结论11株耐氟康唑的念珠菌和3株耐伊曲康唑烟曲霉均对泊沙康唑有效。%Objective To determine the in vitro susceptibility of fluconazole( FLU)-resistant Candida spp. and itraconazole (ITC)-resistant Aspergillus spp. to posaconazole(POS). Methods The MICs of FLU,ITC,voriconazole(VRC)and POS were determined according to CLSI M27-A3 and M38-A2 methods in eleven isolates of Candida spp. and three isolates of Aspergillus spp. Results MICs of FLU,ITC,VRC and POS against FLU-resistant Candida spp. were 64 μg/ mL,0. 5 ~ 16 μg/ mL,0. 25 ~ 2 μg/mL and 0. 125 ~ 1 μg/ mL. And MICs of ITC,VRC and POS against ITC-resistant Aspergillus spp. were ﹥ 16 μg/ mL,1 ~ 2 μg/ mL and 0. 25 ~ 0. 5 μg/ mL. Conclusion POS is effective to FLU-resistant Candida spp. and ITC-resistant Aspergillus spp. in vitro .

  20. Application of DNA microarray in the identification of Candida spp. and mutations of ERG11 gene resulting in fluconazole resistance%DNA芯片鉴定念珠菌种和氟康唑耐药基因ERG11突变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永豪; 王克玉; 李颖; 陈腊梅; 苏英; 孙青; 李春阳

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立DNA芯片技术鉴定念珠菌种和氟康唑耐药基因ERG11突变.方法 根据6种常见念珠菌内转录间隔(ITS2)区种特异性序列和白念珠菌ERG11基因中已证实可导致对氟康唑耐药的6种突变序列设计探针,制备DNA芯片,鉴定12条50 bp的念珠菌种特异性序列和ERG11突变序列及34株念珠菌(其中白念珠菌29株,热带念珠菌、光滑念珠菌、都柏林念珠菌、近平滑念珠菌和克柔念珠菌各1株).结果 ①芯片玤确鉴定12条人工合成序列;②正确鉴定34株试验菌株的菌种;③正确鉴定29株白念珠菌ERG11基因中可致耐药的已知突变.敏感性和特异性均为100%.结论 用DNA芯片进行念珠菌菌种鉴定和自念珠菌ERG11突变筛查,结果可靠.%Objective To investigate the performance of DNA microarray in identifying 6 common Candida spp. and validating ERG11 mutations resulting in fluconazolc-resistance in Candida albicans. Methods Oligonucleotide probes were designed and synthesized targeting the species-specific sequence in the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of rDNA of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida dubliniensis, Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei, as well as 6 sequences embracing the following mutations respectively in ERG11 gene leading to fluconazole-resistance, i.c., T541C, A 1090G, C1361T, G1537A, G1547A, and T1559C, then arranged onto a chip. Twelve 50-base-pair oligonucleotides were artificially synthesized based on the above specific sequences, and utilized to hybridize with the DNA microarray. Thirty-lbur Candida strains, including 29 C. albicans, 1 Candida tropicalis, 1 Candida glabrata,1 Candida dubliniensis, 1 Candida parapsilosis and 1 Candida krusei, were detected with microarray. Genomic DNA was extracted from these tested strains and underwent multiple PCR for the amplification of ITS2 region and ERGI 1 gene. Sequencing was performed to analyze the sequence of ERG11 in 29 strains

  1. Radiotherapy effect on frequency of Candida spp. and on virulence of C. albicans isolated from the oral cavity of head and neck cancer patients

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    Daniela Dambroso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity and prevalence of yeasts, and the virulence of C. albicans found in the oral cavity during the course of ionizing radiation treatment of patients with head and neck tumor (HNTP. Samples from 21 HNTP and 24 healthy controls were isolated and identified. C. albicans isolated from two patients during radiotherapy were analyzed for virulence factors. Radiotherapy induced a higher level of both yeast colonization (81% vs 33% and non-albicans Candida (NAC colonization (52.4% vs 4.0% in HNTP than the control group. Patients were colonized by 5 different NAC species: C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei and C. kefir. On the other hand, C. albicans colonization was similar in patients and controls (6/21, 28.6% vs 7/24, 29.2%, respectively. Also, of the 11 patients assessed before and during radiotherapy, 5 (45.5% were colonized before the start of treatment and another 5 (45.5% during treatment. All of the latter were colonized by NAC species alone. Moreover, we observed a significant and continuous enhancement of C. albicans virulence as the radiotherapy progressed, in the two patients involved in this test. Thus, it is concluded that radiotherapy is an important predisposing factor for the oral candidiasis, including NAC species. Also, it may facilitate the development of more virulent C. albicans strains. Keywords: Candida. Radiotherapy. Virulence factor. Oral candidiasis.

  2. Selección de aislamientos de Trichoderma spp. con potencial biocontrolador de Rhizoctonia solani Kühn en papa bajo condiciones de casa de malla

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    Garcés de Granada Emira

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available El hongo fitopatógeno Rhizoctonia solani afecta raíces, tallos y tubérculos de papa, logrando reducir los rendimientos del cultivo hasta en un 50%. Con el propósito de ofrecer una alternativa biológica para el manejo de este problema, se evaluaron diez cepas nativas del hongo biocontrolador
    Trichoderma spp. Inicialmente se evaluó la actividad patogénica de dos aislamientos de R. solani (Rh005 y Rh006 inoculando suelo en proporciones del 2,5 y 10% peso a peso (p/p donde posteriormente fueron transplantadas plántulas de papa producidas in vitro, encontrando con ambos aislamientos 100% de incidencia de la enfermedad. Sin embargo, fue seleccionado el aislamiento Rh005 ya que presentó mayor porcentaje de daño expresado como volcamiento de las plantas. Como prueba preliminar de antagonismo, en recipientes con suelo se enterraron bolsas de muselina que contenían esclerocios de este último aislamiento y se trataron
    individualmente con suspensiones de los diferentes  aislamientos de Trichoderma spp.ajustadas a una concentración de 107conidios.ml-1, estableciéndose que los aislamientos de Trichoderma Th002, Th003, Th007, Th034 y Th181 parasitaron y degradaron más del 50% de los esclerocios. En el ensayo de protección al evaluar estos últimos aislamientos en casa de malla en donde se inoculó suelo con Rh005 (2% p/p se seleccionaron los aislamientos Th003 y Th034 por presentar diferencias con respecto a mayores pesos de biomasa fresca y seca en comparación con los restantes biocontroladores y los tratamientos químico, patógeno y testigo. Aunque no se logró disminuir la incidencia de la enfermedad, los aislamientos de Trichoderma seleccionados permitieron reducir el daño en las plantas observando mayor vigor, tallos normales con abundante follaje y mejor crecimiento radical.

  3. Incidência de Candida spp. na mucosa oral de pacientes infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV no município de Santo Ângelo -RS

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    Andreia Hartmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Justificativa: Atualmente há um aumento das infecções fúngicas, especialmente em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Dentre os fungos causadores de infecções invasivas destacam-se as leveduras do gênero Candida, considerada marcador de progressão do HIV. A terapêutica antifúngica e diagnóstico são importantes para o tratamento de candidíase oral, devido à resistência atribuída a algumas espécies. Assim, destaca-se a importância de determinar a incidência de candidíase oral em pacientes portadores do vírus do HIV. Objetivo: Pesquisar a incidência de Candida spp em pacientes HIV positivos, as espécies, os fatores de virulência e a sensibilidade ao fluconazol. Metodologia: pesquisou-se a colonização da mucosa oral de pacientes HIV positivos com o auxílio de swab estéril e o cultivo em ágar Sabouraud Dextrose. Estudou-se a atividade de proteinase e fosfolipase. O teste de suscetibilidade foi realizado pelo método de disco difusão. Preencheu-se uma ficha com dados sócio-econômicos, clínicos e informações quanto as medicações e sintomatologias dos pacientes. Resultados: A amostra constituiu-se de 45 pessoas. A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 38 anos (±13,63. A taxa de colonização oral por Candida em pacientes HIV foi de 53,3%, destes, 95,83% pertencentes à espécie albicans. Os isolados apresentaram atividade positiva e fortemente positiva para fosfolipase e proteinase. No teste de suscetibilidade 25% dos isolados mostraram-se resistentes ao fluconazol. Conclusão: O diagnóstico precoce da candidíase em pacientes infectados pelo HIV é fundamental tanto para o tratamento imediato, quanto para melhorar a sua qualidade de vida, uma vez que a candidíase é uma lesão bucal muito frequente nesta população.

  4. Cinética da colonização bucal por Candida spp. durante a corticoterapia tópica

    OpenAIRE

    Thais dos Santos Fontes Pereira

    2014-01-01

    A candidíase bucal é uma importante alteração secundária à corticoterapia tópica bucal. O presente estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar a colonização bucal por cinco espécies de Candida durante a corticoterapia tópica e investigar a patogenicidade e a suscetibilidade in vitro ao fluconazol e à anfotericina B. Amostras de raspado bucal de 11 pacientes com líquen plano bucal (LPB) sintomático foram coletadas antes (dia 0), 7 e 30 dias após o início da corticoterapia. Métodos convencionais de identi...

  5. Prevalencia de anticuerpos anti-Leptospira spp. en personas con exposición laboral en el departamento del Tolima / Prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies among people with occupational exposure in Tolima Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca L. Guzmán-Barragán

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo: estimar la prevalencia de anticuerpos IgM contra Leptospira spp., mediante el Ensayo de Inmunoabsorción Ligado a Enzimas (elisa, en la población de riesgo laboral de 8 municipios del Tolima. Metodología: se obtuvieron muestras de sangre de 261 empleados, las cuales fueron analizadas mediante la técnica de elisa para la detección de anticuerpos IgM anti-Leptospira spp., seguido de mat y serotipificación. Resultado: se estimó una seroprevalencia del 25,29%, con una seroreactividad mayor en trabajadores de plantas de beneficio animal (34,2%, recolección de residuos sólidos (27,1% y trabajadores de acueducto y alcantarillado (14,8%. La actividad en plantas de beneficio animal se identificó como factor de riesgo de Leptospira spp. (OR=1,86. Los serovares identificados fueron L. Bratislava (16, Ballum (5, Tarassovi (3, Hebdomadis (2, Sejroe (2 y Icterhemorragiae (1. El municipio de Libano presento el mayor porcentaje de positividad (36,96%, seguido de Espinal y Guamo con 28,57% cada uno. Discusión: la evaluación del sistema de vigilancia indicó deficiencia en recursos y debilidades de los profesionales de la salud al desconocer los procedimientos, investigación, diagnóstico y notificación de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: la leptospirosis está presente en poblaciones de riesgo laboral en el Tolima y se hace necesario abordar esta problemática en la población de otros municipios y los animales transmisores de la enfermedad. / Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence of IgM antibodies against Leptospira spp. Using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa in a population at occupational risk from 8 municipalities of the Tolima department, Colombia. Methodology: blood samples were collected from 261 employees and analyzed with the elisa technique to detect IgM and anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies. This was followed by mat and serotyping. Results: a seroprevalence of 25.29% was estimated, with higher

  6. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species isolated from urine culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toka Özer, Türkan; Durmaz, Süleyman; Yula, Erkan

    2016-09-01

    Candida spp. are the most common opportunistic mycosis worldwide. Although Candida albicans is the most common cause of urinary tract infections, the frequency of non-albicans Candida species is increasing with common use of antifungal in the prophylaxis and treatment. This may lead to difficulties in treatment. Antifungal tests should be applied with identification of species for effective treatment. In this study, identification of Candida species isolated from urine culture and investigation of susceptibility of these strains to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole was aimed. In this study, 58 Candida strains isolated from urine cultures at Osmaniye State Hospital between January 2012 and April 2013 were included. Urine culture and antifungal susceptibility tests were applied. Incidence rate of Candida spp. was determined as C. albicans (56.9%), Candida glabrata (20.6%), Candida tropicalis (10.3%), Candida parapsilosis (7%), Candida krusei (3.4%), Candida kefyr (1.8%). Most of the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole. Twenty three (39.7%) Candida strains were isolated from internal medical branches and Intensive Care Unit and 12 (20.6%) from the Surgical Medical Branches. C. albicans and C. glabrata species were isolated most frequently as a candiduria factor in this hospital between January 2012 and April 2013. The analysis of antifungal susceptibility profile shows no significant resistance to antifungals.

  7. Interlaboratory comparison of results of susceptibility testing with caspofungin against Candida and Aspergillus species.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odds, F.C.; Motyl, M.; Andrade, R.; Bille, J.; Canton, E.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Davidson, A.; Durussel, C.; Ellis, D.; Foraker, E.; Fothergill, A.; Ghannoum, M.A.; Giacobbe, R.A.; Gobernado, M.; Handke, R.; Laverdiere, M.; Lee-Yang, W.; Merz, W.G.; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Peman, J.; Perea, S.; Perfect, J.R.; Pfaller, M.A.; Proia, L.; Rex, J.H.; Rinaldi, M.; Rodriguez-Tudela, J.L.; Schell, W.A.; Shields, C.; Sutton, D.A.; Verweij, P.E.; Warnock, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Seventeen laboratories participated in a study of interlaboratory reproducibility with caspofungin microdilution susceptibility testing against panels comprising 30 isolates of Candida spp. and 20 isolates of Aspergillus spp. The laboratories used materials supplied from a single source to determine

  8. Isolation Frequency Characteristics of Candida Species from Clinical Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeon, Jae-Sik; Kim, Jae Kyung

    2016-06-01

    Candida spp. is an invasive infectious fungus, a major risk factor that can increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In this study, 2,508 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens collected from university hospitals from July 2011 to October 2014. They were identified in order to determine isolation frequencies and characteristics by specimen, gender, age group, year, season, and month. The strain-specific isolation rate of Candida spp. is in the order of Candida albicans (1,218 strains, 48.56%), Candida glabrata (416 strains, 16.59%), Candida utilis (305 strains, 12.16%), Candida tropicalis (304 strains, 12.12%), and Candida parapsilosis (116 strains, 4.63%) and these five species accounted for more than 94% of the total strains. Of the specimens, Candida spp. were most frequently isolated from urine-catheter, followed by urine-voided, blood, sputum, other, open pus, vaginal discharge, Tip, ear discharge, bronchial aspiration and bile, in that order. Looking at the age distribution, the detection rate of patients in their 60s and older was significantly higher at 75.8% (1,900/2,508). The detection rate of patients in their 20s and younger was shown to be very low at 2.55% (64/2,508). By year, the detection rate of non-albicans Candida spp. showed a tendency to gradually increase each year compared with C. albicans. As isolation of Candida spp. from clinical samples at the specie level can vary depending on characteristics of the patient, sample, season, etc., continual studies are required.

  9. [Isolation rate and susceptibilities of candida species from blood, vascular catheter, urine and stool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Masato; Murakami, Hinako; Yoshizawa, Sadako; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida isolates during 2002-2008. Of 177 Candida isolates from blood, species distribution was 90 (51%) Candida albicans, 30 (17%) C. parapsilosis, 22 (12%) C. glabrata, 6 (3%) C. tropicalis and 29 (16%) other Candida spp.. Of 162 Candida isolates from vascular catheter, species distribution was 87 (54%) C. albicans, 14 (9%) C. parapsilosis, 36 (22%) C. glabrata, 5 (3%), C. tropicalis, 2 (1%) C. krusei and 18 (11%) other Candida spp.. Of 1889 Candida isolates from urine, species distribution was 1165 (62%) C. albicans, 22 (1%) C. parapsilosis, 484 (26%) C. glabrata, 83 (4%) C. tropicalis, 26 (1%) C. krusei and 109 (6%) other Candida spp.. Of 782 Candida isolates from stool, species distribution was 425 (54%) C. albicans, 3 (1%) C. parapsilosis, 103 (13%) C. glabrata, 28 (4%) C. tropicalis, 5 (1%), C. krusei and 218 (28%) other Candida spp. Both C. albicans and non-Candida spp. isolated from urine increased slightly over the past 7 years. Flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole and micafungin still have strong activity against Candida isolates.

  10. Decade-long use of the antimicrobial peptide combination tyrothricin does not pose a major risk of acquired resistance with gram-positive bacteria and Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauss-Grabo, M; Atiye, S; Le, T; Kretschmar, M

    2014-11-01

    Tyrothricin, an antimicrobial peptide combination produced by Bacillus brevis consisting of gramicidins and tyrocidins commands broad antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria and some yeasts in vitro. The polypeptide and its components have been used therapeutically for about 60 years in the local treatment of infected skin and infected oro-pharyngeal mucous membranes. Though older studies suggest that resistance development of originally susceptible microorganisms towards tyrothricin is a rare event, data concerning recent state of resistance are lacking. In the present in vitro study the susceptibility to tyrothricin of clinical isolates of bacterial and yeast origin from superficial swabs of the skin and mucous membranes of outpatients and inpatients obtained from clinical material in the second half of the year 2003 was determined. Using a microdilution assay, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and MIC90, defined as the concentration that inhibits at least 90 percent of the tested strains) of 20 strains each of Staphylococcus aureus of the variety MSSA (susceptible to methicillin), Staphylococcus aureus of the variety MRSA (methicillin resistant), Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Corynebacterium spec., Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis was determined. All of the tested gram-positive bacteria turned out to be highly susceptible to tyrothricin with MICs ≤ 4mg/l. The tested yeast strains were susceptible to the polypeptide antibiotic as well, but (with MICs of 16 mg/l and 32 mg/l, respectively) to a lesser extent. No acquired resistance of the tested strains was determined, indicating that the risk of resistance development against topically applied tyrothricin is only marginal, if there is any at all. Thus, long-term-, i.e. decade-long use of topically applied tyrothricin and its components in the local treatment of infected skin does not pose a major risk with respect to acquired resistance

  11. The Host’s Reply to Candida Biofilm

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    Jeniel E. Nett

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Candida spp. are among the most common nosocomial fungal pathogens and are notorious for their propensity toward biofilm formation. When growing on a medical device or mucosal surface, these organisms reside as communities embedded in a protective matrix, resisting host defenses. The host responds to Candida biofilm by depositing a variety of proteins that become incorporated into the biofilm matrix. Compared to free-floating Candida, leukocytes are less effective against Candida within a biofilm. This review highlights recent advances describing the host’s response to Candida biofilms using ex vivo and in vivo models of mucosal and device-associated biofilm infections.

  12. Presencia de candida en pacientes con estomatitis subprotesica que acuden a la facultad de odontología de la universidad de Cartagena en el periodo transcurrido entre agosto 2006 - junio 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Pulido Rozo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa acción de cubrir la mucosa masticatoria con una prótesis constituye para el tejido una agresión mecánica no fisiológica; los efectos de presión, tracción y empuje que con ella se produce pueden causar acciones irritantes sobre la misma. Cuando estos efectos son de mayor intensidad, suponen un estímulo patógeno que rompe el equilibrio microbiológico existente y conduce a una irritación tisular, acompañada de sus consiguientes reacciones inflamatorias entre las cuales esta la estomatitis subprotésica (E.S.P. Esta lesión por su alta prevalencia en los pacientes rehabilitados por prótesis resulta cada vez más preocupante para nuestros servicios estomatológicos, pues esto implica afección de las funciones normales como la masticación, fonación y estética, debido a que el paciente con esta enfermedad debe retirarse las prótesis y sustituirlas por nuevas ampliando así el período de rehabilitación. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue la determinación de la presencia de Candida en los pacientes con Estomatitis subprotésica que asistieron a las clínicas de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Cartagena en el periodo comprendido entre agosto 2.006- junio 2.007. Estudio descriptivo transversal. La población estudiada fue los pacientes que acudieron a las clínicas de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Cartagena entre agosto 2.006- junio 2.007 que presentaban Estomatitis subprotésica. La muestra estuvo conformada por 44 pacientes. Muestreo no probabilístico por criterio. Variables evaluadas: Presencia de Candida, tipo de Candida, tipo de Estomatitis subprotésica, signos, síntomas, edad, género, localización de la lesión, tipo de prótesis, tiempo de uso, uso de la prótesis al dormir, número de veces que limpia la prótesis al día, sustancias empleadas para limpiarla. Se realizó la toma y procesamiento de las muestras a través de examen en fresco con KOH al 10%, coloración de Gram

  13. International and Multicenter Comparison of EUCAST and CLSI M27-A2 Broth Microdilution Methods for Testing Susceptibilities of Candida spp. to Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Posaconazole, and Voriconazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Barchiesi, F.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Pfaller, M. A.; Rinaldi, M.; Rodriguez-Tudela, J. L.; Verweij, P. E.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare MICs of fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole obtained by the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and CLSI (formerly NCCLS) methods in each of six centers for 15 Candida albicans (5 fluconazole-resistant and 4 susceptible-dose-dependent [S-DD] isolates), 10 C. dubliniensis, 7 C. glabrata (2 fluconazole-resistant isolates), 5 C. guilliermondii (2 fluconazole-resistant isolates), 10 C. krusei, 9 C. lusitaniae, 10 C. parapsilosis, and 5 C. tropicalis (1 fluconazole-resistant isolate) isolates. CLSI MICs were obtained visually at 24 and 48 h and spectrophotometric EUCAST MICs at 24 h. The agreement (within a 3-dilution range) between the methods was species, drug, and incubation time dependent and due to lower EUCAST than CLSI MICs: overall, 94 to 95% with fluconazole and voriconazole and 90 to 91% with posaconazole and itraconazole when EUCAST MICs were compared against 24-h CLSI results. The agreement was lower (85 to 94%) against 48-h CLSI endpoints. The overall interlaboratory reproducibility by each method was ≥92%. When the comparison was based on CLSI breakpoint categorization, the agreement was 68 to 76% for three of the four species that included fluconazole-resistant and S-DD isolates; 9% very major discrepancies (≤8 μg/ml versus ≥64 μg/ml) were observed among fluconazole-resistant isolates and 50% with voriconazole (≤1 μg/ml versus ≥4 μg/ml). Similar results were observed with itraconazole for seven of the eight species evaluated (28 to 77% categorical agreement). Posaconazole EUCAST MICs were also substantially lower than CLSI MIC modes (0.008 to 1 μg/ml versus 1 to ≥8 μg/ml) for some of these isolates. Therefore, the CLSI breakpoints should not be used to interpret EUCAST MIC data. PMID:16081926

  14. Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans fungemia in an institutional hospital during a decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeland, Laurence; Gazon, Mathieu; Guerin, Claude; Argaud, Laurent; Lehot, Jean-Jacques; Bastien, Olivier; Allaouchiche, Bernard; Michallet, Mauricette; Picot, Stephane; Bienvenu, Anne-Lise

    2013-01-01

    Since the outcomes of patients with candidemia is poor and Candida spp. with increased resistance to antifungal therapy may be associated with these results, the emergence of these blood infections caused by non-C. albicans Candida spp. was explored prospectively over a two-year period (2009-2010). Candidemia was defined as the recovery of Candida spp. in culture from a patient's blood sample. The in vitro susceptibility of each isolate to amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole and voriconazole was determined. In addition, characteristics of patients and outcomes were investigated in real-time. The Candida distribution was compared to that observed in a similar study 10 years earlier in the same hospital. A total of 182 patients with candidemia were included in the study. While C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species (n = 102), non-C. albicans Candida spp. included; C. glabrata (n = 32), C. parapsilosis (n = 21), C. tropicalis (n = 13), C. krusei (n = 8), C. kefyr (n = 3), C. lusitaniae (n = 2), C. lipolytica (n = 2), C. famata (n = 1), C. guilliermondii (n = 1), C. inconspicua (n = 1), C. dubliniensis (n = 1), C. sake (n = 1) and C. nivariensis (n = 1). In seven patients, C. albicans was associated with another Candida spp. Surprisingly, this prospective study demonstrated that regardless of the department (intensive care unit or hematological department), Candida spp. distribution was no different from that found in the 1998-2001 survey, except for C. krusei. A reduction in the proportion of C. krusei isolates was observed from 2000-2010 (P = 0.028) as a result of its decreased recovery in the hematological department.

  15. Comparison of the clinical risk factors between Candida albicans and Candida non-albicans species for bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemura, Katsumi; Osawa, Kayo; Jikimoto, Takumi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Hayama, Brian; Ohji, Goh; Iwata, Kentaro; Fujisawa, Masato; Arakawa, Soichi

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the risk factors and susceptibilities to antifungal agents of Candida albicans and Candida non-albicans species (spp.) in candidemia cases in Kobe University Hospital. We investigated all consecutive patients with candida bloodstream infection (BSI) from 2008-2013 for whose full data were available for analyses, examining clinical factors such as gender, general complications, postoperative status or susceptibilities to antifungal agents. These factors were also compared between Candida albicans spp. and Candida non-albicans by univariate and multivariate analyses. Univariate analyses showed a significantly higher rate of Candida non-albicans species BSI patients cancer (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI))=2.29 (1.04-5.06) and P=0.040), chemotherapy (OR=4.35 (1.11-17.1) and P=0.035), fluconazole (FLCZ) resistance (OR=77.3 (4.51-1324) and P=0.003), and itraconazole (ITCZ) resistance (OR=15.6 (5.39-45.1) and PCandida albicans. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that Candida non-albicans spp. had significantly higher rate of chemotherapy (OR=4.44 (1.04-19.0) and P=0.045), FLCZ resistance (OR=5.87 (2.01-17.1) and P=0.001), and ITCZ resistance (OR=18.7(5.77-60.4) and PCandida albicans. In conclusion, this study revealed several risk factors for BSI with Candida albicans (underlying cardiovascular diseases and postoperative status) and Candida non-albicans spp. (cancer and chemotherapy), and demonstrated that Candida non-albicans spp. were more resistant to FLCZ and ITCZ than Candida albicans.

  16. Ocurrencia de levaduras del género Candida y estomatitis protésica antes y después del tratamiento rehabilitador basado en prótesis removible

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Muñoz,Ximena; Cajas Cajas,Nataly; Gómez Carranza,Leyla; Vergara Núñez,Cristian; Ivankovic Silva,Mariana; Astorga Bustamante,Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    El 63,2% de la población chilena mayor de 65 años utiliza prótesis removible. Cuando estas pierden funcionalidad pueden producirse lesiones en la mucosa oral, siendo la más prevalente la estomatitis protésica, proceso inflamatorio de la mucosa de soporte de diversa extensión y severidad, cuyo principal factor etiológico es la infección por Candida spp. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la cantidad y las especies de levaduras del género Candida y su asociación con estomatitis pr...

  17. Activation of innate immunity during systemic Candida infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ifrim, D.C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increased knowledge on the mechanisms of Candida recognition and the networks of innate and adaptive host defense activated during infection, much remains to be learned regarding the distinctive modulatory effects of Candida spp on host immune responses. We showed that the chronic exposu

  18. Performance of chromogenic media for Candida in rapid presumptive identification of Candida species from clinical materials

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    M V Pravin Charles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In perspective of the worldwide increase in a number of immunocompromised patients, the need for identification of Candida species has become a major concern. The development of chromogenic differential media, introduced recently, facilitate rapid speciation. However, it can be employed for routine mycology workup only after an exhaustive evaluation of its benefit and cost effectiveness. This study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit and cost effectiveness of chromogenic media for speciation of Candida clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: Sputum samples of 382 patients were screened for the presence of Candida spp. by Gram stain and culture on sabouraud dextrose agar. Candida species were identified using Gram stain morphology, germ tube formation, cornmeal agar with Tween-80, sugar fermentation tests and morphology on HiCrome Candida differential agar. All the Candida isolates were inoculated on HiCrome Candida agar (HiMedia, Mumbai, India. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of HiCrome agar for identification of Candida albicans were 90% and 96.42%, respectively whereas sensitivity and specificity of carbohydrate fermentation test were 86.67% and 74.07%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity values of HiCrome agar for detection of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata were above 90%. Conclusions: We found HiCrome agar has high sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of the conventional method. In addition, use of this differential media could significantly cut down the turnaround time as well as cost of sample processing.

  19. Aislamiento de Candida spp. y otras levaduras en el personal que labora en áreas críticas del Hospital San Juan de Dios

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Carrillo-Dover; Carolina Álvarez-Vega; Ingrid Salas-Campos; Nury Mora-Brenes

    2009-01-01

    Justificación y objetivos: Los pacientes internados en hospitales, principalmente aquellos que se encuentran severamente enfermos, son más susceptibles a las infecciones por hongos oportunistas, en comparación con la población general. El personal hospitalario puede ser fuente potencial de infección para estos pacientes, ya que normalmente actúa como portador de gérmenes, que eventualmente podrían ser transmitidos a los pacientes. Se describe, en esta investigación, el aislamiento de hongos l...

  20. PITAHAYA (Hylocereus spp. UN RECURSO FITOGENÉTICO CON HISTORIA Y FUTURO PARA EL TRÓPICO SECO MEXICANO

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    Josefina A. Montesinos Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen algunos aspectos relacionadoscon el cultivo de la pitahaya en México. La revisiónenfatiza en la importancia de este cultivo, así como sudistribución y perspectivas, debido a sus potencialidadespara la comercialización y capacidad de aclimatación aambientes adversos, sobre todo al déficit de humedad enel suelo. Los frutos de la pitahaya se comercializan a altosprecios, tanto en mercados locales como internacionales; sinembargo, son escasas las investigaciones sobre su manejoagrotécnico sostenible, sobre todo las relacionadas con elmomento óptimo para la cosecha, que permita obtener unproducto con mejores propiedades organolépticas para sucomercialización a precios ventajosos para el productor.

  1. 环介导等温扩增快速检测临床假丝酵母菌属方法建立与应用%Establishment and application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of clinical isolates of Candida spp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁勇; 汪一萍; 应建飞; 俞燕红; 贺明阳

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立一种环介导等温扩增(LAMP)反应,根据假丝酵母菌属 D1~ D226S rDNA 保守区域设计通用引物,直接对临床标本进行假丝酵母菌属检测。方法根据假丝酵母属的特异 D1~ D226S rDNA 基因序列比对后的相对保守区设计特异引物,分别提取5种假丝酵母菌、临床对照菌株以及临床标本 DNA ,然后以 LAMP 技术扩增,并对白色假丝酵母菌孢子悬液进行系列梯度稀释检测,确定最低检测限。结果5种假丝酵母菌直接提取 DNA 经 LAMP 和 PCR 方法检测均为阳性;30份经培养证实假丝酵母菌属感染标本,经 LAMP 检测有27份标本阳性,阳性检出率为90.0%;另10份临床对照标本和11种非假丝酵母菌属来源 DNA 样本经 LAMP 方法检测后结果均为阴性,无非特异性反应发生;LAMP 最低检测限达到103 CFU /ml 。结论结果证明 LAMP 是一种简便、快速、特异和敏感的检测方法,可以检测临床和环境标本中的常见假丝酵母菌属。%OBJECTIVE To establish the loop-mediated isothermal amplification for direct detection of Candida spp in clinical samples by designing universal primers on the basis of conserved region of D ~ D2 26S rDNA of Candida spp .METHODS The specific primers were designed from the relative conservation region of the published sequence of D1-D2 26S rDNA genes of the Candida sp p ,then the genomic DNA was extracted from five species of Candida spp ,clinical control strains ,and clinical specimens and was amplified by using loop-mediated isothermal amplifica-tion ,and the serial dilutions were carried out for the spore suspensions of Candida albicans so as to determine the minimum detection limit .RESULTS The loop-mediated isothermal amplification and PCR assays obtained positive results for the DNA that was directly extracted from the five species of Candida sp p .Of 30 specimens that were proved infected with Candida sp p through culture

  2. Forestación de un terreno decapitado con Robinia pseudoacacia inoculada con Rhizobium spp. y Glomus deserticola Afforestation of a desurfaced field with Robinia pseudoacacia inoculated with Rhizobium spp. and Glomus deserticola

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    Alejandro E Ferrari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Los terrenos decapitados constituyen un caso extremo de degradación de suelos aptos para agricultura, con graves consecuencias ambientales. El propósito de este trabajo fue ensayar los efectos de la inoculación de acacia blanca (Robinia pseudoacacia L. con una cepa efectiva de Rhizobium y un hongo de micorrizas arbusculares (Glomus deserticola en la supervivencia y crecimiento temprano de plantas trasplantadas a un terreno decapitado de Balcarce, comparando con fresno como árbol no fijador de nitrógeno. La supervivencia inicial fue muy buena (mayor del 77%, especialmente para los fresnos y las acacias inoculadas, las cuales mostraron significativamente mayor supervivencia al estrés por sequía que las acacias control. Todas las plantas se mostraron igualmente tolerantes al ataque de liebres y al estrés por heladas tardías. Durante el primer año las acacias inoculadas crecieron más rápido que las no inoculadas. En el segundo año las alturas se equipararon en parte, probablemente por la colonización de las acacias control con rizobios o micorrizas naturales del suelo. De todos modos, las acacias inoculadas siempre mostraron valores mayores de los distintos parámetros de desarrollo (altura total, diámetro de la copa y cantidad de ramificaciones que las plantas control, tanto en los sectores poco decapitados como en los más severamente degradados. En conclusión, la doble inoculación previa de acacia blanca mejoró la supervivencia inicial, aumentó tolerancia a la sequía y el crecimiento en 2 años y medio desde la plantación. Esta práctica de manejo sería entonces muy recomendable para reducir el período de vivero en la producción de árboles, así como lograr ejemplares más resistentes y mejor adaptados para proyectos de recuperación de suelos degradados.Many agricultural lands in Buenos Aires Province (Argentina have traditionally been desurfaced for the manufacture of bricks and other building materials. The desurfaced

  3. Benefits of blackberry nectar (Rubus spp. relative to hypercholesterolemia and lipid peroxidation Beneficios del néctar de mora (Rubus spp. en relación con la hipercolesterolemia y la peroxidación lipídica

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    P. R. Ferreira de Araujo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In humans, the normal metabolic activity produces free radicals that constantly, along with other risk factors, including hypercholesterolemia may be responsible for the onset of degenerative diseases. Some bioactive compounds present in blackberry (Rubus spp. have the ability to act as natural antioxidants can make the food to minimize effects on the body caused by reactive oxygen species. Objective: This study verified the benefits of blackberry nectar through the quantification of triglycerides, total and fraction cholesterol HDL (high density lipoprotein and LDL-cholesterol (low density lipoprotein, blood glucose and lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. Methods: Two groups were treated with hypercholesterolemic diets (0.1% cholesterol, one of them receiving an additional 5 mL of nectar daily, and a third (control group treated only with a standard diet. In the blood the quantification of lipids, blood glucose and lipid peroxidation was performed. In the brain, liver and small intestine the lipid peroxidation was determined and in other organs, histopathological evaluations were carried out. Results: The blackberry nectar reduced the triglycerides serum levels, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic hamsters, without influencing the HDL and blood glucose concentrations. A decrease in the initiation of lipid peroxidation reactions in the blood, brain and small intestine was also observed. Only the liver showed histopathological changes (steatosis, due to excess cholesterol, with no positive influence from the nectar.Introducción: En los seres humanos, la actividad metabólica normal produce radicales libres que constantemente, junto con otros factores de riesgo, incluyendo la hipercolesterolemia puede ser responsable de la aparición de enfermedades degenerativas. Algunos de los compuestos bioactivos presentes en mora (Rubus spp. tienen la capacidad de actuar como antioxidantes naturales

  4. RESISTENCIA A LOS ANTIBIÓTICOS EN CEPAS DE KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE, SERRATIA SPP. Y ACINETOBACTER SPP.AISLADAS DE PACIENTES CON INFECCIÓN DEL TRACTO URINARIO - LIMA, PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luján Roca DA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INFECTION - LIMA, PERU Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common infections in clinical practice. Gram negative bacteria as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia spp. and Acinetobacter spp. can cause UTI. Objective: To study antibiotic resistance in K. pneumoniae, Serratia spp. and Acinetobacter spp. strains isolated from UTI Material and methods: Urine cultures were collected from January 2003 to December 2003. Identification of isolated bacteria included biochemical characteristics. Bauer-Kirby disc diffusion test was performed. Results: A total of 106 strains were evaluated (41 of K. pneumoniae, 28 of Serratia spp. and 37 of Acinetobacter spp.. Among K. pneumoniae isolates resistance to ampicillin (83% was remarkable. The Serratia spp. isolates displayed a high level of resistance to nalidixic acid (79% and gentamicin (75%. In Acinetobacter spp. isolates high resistance rates were observed against amikacin (81%, gentamicin (67% and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole(71%. Conclusions: In general, antibiotic resistance patterns were high. Acinetobacter spp. showed elevated resistance rates (>50% against antibiotics included.

  5. In vitro activity of Caspofungin combined with Fluconazole on mixed Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesee, Siripen; Angkananuwat, Chayanit; Tancharoensukjit, Sudarat; Muanmai, Somporn; Sirivan, Pattaraporn; Bubphawas, Manita; Tanarerkchai, Nissara

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effect of caspofungin (CAS) combined with fluconazole (FLU) on the biofilm biomass and cultivable viability and microstructure of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata mixed biofilm in vitro.Biofilms were formed in a 96-well microtiter plate for crystal violet assay and colony forming unit (CFU) method and grown on plastic coverslip disks for scanning electron microscopy. MIC50 of CAS and FLU against single Candida spp.and mixed Candida spp.biofilms were evaluated using crystal violet assay. Additional,C. albicans and C. glabrata mixed biofilms were incubated with subinhibitory CAS concentration plus FLU and their percentages of Candida biofilm reduction were calculated. We found that percentages of biofilm reduction were significantly decreased when CAS at 0.25MIC and FLU (0.25 or 0.5MIC) were combined (PCandida glabrata were demonstrated in every group, the total viable cells derived from CAS/FLU combination-treated biofilms at any ratio were not significantly different from positive control. Overall, CAS/FLU combinations appeared to affect the quantity and cell architecture, but number of viable cell, of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata mixed biofilm. This antifungal effect was CAS concentration dependent.

  6. Candida colonization and subsequent infections in critically ill surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, D; Monod, M; Suter, P M; Frenk, E; Auckenthaler, R

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The authors determined the role of Candida colonization in the development of subsequent infection in critically ill patients. DESIGN. A 6-month prospective cohort study was given to patients admitted to the surgical and neonatal intensive care units in a 1600-bed university medical center. METHODS. Patients having predetermined criteria for significant Candida colonization revealed by routine microbiologic surveillance cultures at different body sites were eligible for the study. Risk factors for Candida infection were recorded. A Candida colonization index was determined daily as the ratio of the number of distinct body sites (dbs) colonized with identical strains over the total number of dbs tested; a mean of 5.3 dbs per patient was obtained. All isolates (n = 322) sequentially recovered were characterized by genotyping using contour-clamped homogeneous electrical field gel electrophoresis that allowed strain delineation among Candida species. RESULTS. Twenty-nine patients met the criteria for inclusion; all were at high risk for Candida infection; 11 patients (38%) developed severe infections (8 candidemia); the remaining 18 patients were heavily colonized, but never required intravenous antifungal therapy. Among the potential risk factors for candida infection, three discriminated the colonized from the infected patients--i.e., length of previous antibiotic therapy (p < 0.02), severity of illness assessed by APACHE II score (p < 0.01), and the intensity of Candida spp colonization (p < 0.01). By logistic regression analysis, the latter two who were the independent factors that predicted subsequent candidal infection. Candida colonization always preceded infection with genotypically identical Candida spp strain. The proposed colonization indexes reached threshold values a mean of 6 days before Candida infection and demonstrated high positive predictive values (66 to 100%). CONCLUSIONS. The intensity of Candida colonization assessed by systematic

  7. Characterisation of Candida within the Mycobiome/Microbiome of the Lower Respiratory Tract of ICU Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Krause

    Full Text Available Whether the presence of Candida spp. in lower respiratory tract (LRT secretions is a marker of underlying disease, intensive care unit (ICU treatment and antibiotic therapy or contributes to poor clinical outcome is unclear. We investigated healthy controls, patients with proposed risk factors for Candida growth in LRT (antibiotic therapy, ICU treatment with and without antibiotic therapy, ICU patients with pneumonia and antibiotic therapy and candidemic patients (for comparison of truly invasive and colonizing Candida spp.. Fungal patterns were determined by conventional culture based microbiology combined with molecular approaches (next generation sequencing, multilocus sequence typing for description of fungal and concommitant bacterial microbiota in LRT, and host and fungal biomarkes were investigated. Admission to and treatment on ICUs shifted LRT fungal microbiota to Candida spp. dominated fungal profiles but antibiotic therapy did not. Compared to controls, Candida was part of fungal microbiota in LRT of ICU patients without pneumonia with and without antibiotic therapy (63% and 50% of total fungal genera and of ICU patients with pneumonia with antibiotic therapy (73% (p<0.05. No case of invasive candidiasis originating from Candida in the LRT was detected. There was no common bacterial microbiota profile associated or dissociated with Candida spp. in LRT. Colonizing and invasive Candida strains (from candidemic patients did not match to certain clades withdrawing the presence of a particular pathogenic and invasive clade. The presence of Candida spp. in the LRT rather reflected rapidly occurring LRT dysbiosis driven by ICU related factors than was associated with invasive candidiasis.

  8. Evaluation of the Yeast Traffic Light PNA FISH probes for identification of Candida species from positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Leslie; Le Febre, Kara M; Deml, Sharon M; Wohlfiel, Sherri L; Wengenack, Nancy L

    2012-04-01

    The Yeast Traffic Light PNA FISH kit (YTL) correctly identified Candida spp. in 207/216 (96%) positive blood cultures. Discordant results were seen with known cross-reacting species and cultures containing Candida lambica and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. The YTL provides rapid, reliable identification of the five common Candida species found in blood cultures.

  9. Produção de fatores de virulência in vitro por espécies patogênicas do gênero Candida Production of virulence factors in vitro by pathogenic species of the genus Candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Ortolan Rörig

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, in vitro, a capacidade de crescimento em 39ºC e 42ºC, a produção de enzimas hidrolíticas e a atividade hemolítica de 21 cepas clínicas e de referência de sete espécies de Candida spp, Candida dubliniensis e Candida krusei demonstraram menor potencial de virulência e Candida albicans maior.The growth capacity at 39ºC and 42ºC, production of hydrolytic enzymes and hemolytic activity of 21 clinical and reference strains of seven species of Candida spp were evaluated in vitro.Candida dubliniensis and Candida krusei demonstrated lower virulence potential and Candida albicans higher potential.

  10. Aislamiento de Candida spp. y otras levaduras en el personal que labora en áreas críticas del Hospital San Juan de Dios Isolation of Candida spp. and other yeasts from Health Care Workers in Critical Care Units of the San Juan de Dios Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Carrillo-Dover; Carolina Álvarez-Vega; Ingrid Salas-Campos; Nury Mora-Brenes

    2009-01-01

    Justificación y objetivos: Los pacientes internados en hospitales, principalmente aquellos que se encuentran severamente enfermos, son más susceptibles a las infecciones por hongos oportunistas, en comparación con la población general. El personal hospitalario puede ser fuente potencial de infección para estos pacientes, ya que normalmente actúa como portador de gérmenes, que eventualmente podrían ser transmitidos a los pacientes. Se describe, en esta investigación, el aislamiento de hongos l...

  11. Efficacy of micafungin in invasive candidiasis caused by common Candida species with special emphasis on non-albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornely, Oliver A; Vazquez, Jose; De Waele, Jan; Betts, Robert; Rotstein, Coleman; Nucci, Marcio; Pappas, Peter G; Ullmann, Andrew J

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of invasive candidiasis caused by non-albicans Candida (NAC) spp. is increasing. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of micafungin, caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B in patients with invasive candidiasis and candidaemia caused by different Candida spp. This post hoc analysis used data obtained from two randomised phase III trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of micafungin vs. caspofungin and micafungin vs. liposomal amphotericin B. Treatment success, clinical response, mycological response and mortality were evaluated in patients infected with C. albicans and NAC spp. Treatment success rates in patients with either C. albicans or NAC infections were similar. Outcomes were similar for micafungin, caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B. Candida albicans was the most prevalent pathogen recovered (41.0%), followed by C. tropicalis (17.9%), C. parapsilosis (14.4%), C. glabrata (10.4%), multiple Candida spp. (7.3%) and C. krusei (3.2%). Age, primary diagnosis (i.e. candidaemia or invasive candidiasis), previous corticosteroid therapy and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score were identified as potential predictors of treatment success and mortality. Micafungin, caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B exhibit favourable treatment response rates that are comparable for patients infected with different Candida spp.

  12. Candida Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian R. Naglik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is the predominant cause of both superficial and invasive forms of candidiasis. C. albicans primarily infects immunocompromised individuals as a result of either immunodeficiency or intervention therapy, which highlights the importance of host immune defences in preventing fungal infections. The host defence system utilises a vast communication network of cells, proteins, and chemical signals distributed in blood and tissues, which constitute innate and adaptive immunity. Over the last decade the identity of many key molecules mediating host defence against C. albicans has been identified. This review will discuss how the host recognises this fungus, the events induced by fungal cells, and the host innate and adaptive immune defences that ultimately resolve C. albicans infections during health.

  13. Bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaldau, Niels Christian; Brorson, Stig; Jensen, Poul Einar

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis.......We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis....

  14. Evolution and Application of Inteins in Candida species: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alex Lourenço Fernandes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Inteins are invasive intervening sequences that perform an autocatalytic splicing from their host proteins. Among eukaryotes, these elements are present in many fungal species, including those considered opportunistic or primary pathogens, such as Candida spp. Here we reviewed and updated the list of Candida species containing inteins in the genes VMA, THRRS and GLT1 and pointed out the importance of these elements as molecular markers for molecular epidemiological researches and species-specific diagnosis, since the presence, as well as the size of these inteins, is polymorphic among the different species. Although absent in Candida albicans, these elements are present in different sizes, in some environmental Candida spp. and also in most of the non-albicans Candida spp. considered emergent opportunistic pathogens. Besides, the possible role of these inteins in yeast physiology was also discussed in the light of the recent findings on the importance of these elements as post-translational modulators of gene expression, reinforcing their relevance as alternative therapeutic targets for the treatment of non-albicans Candida infections, because, once the splicing of an intein is inhibited, its host protein, which is usually a housekeeping protein, becomes nonfunctional.

  15. Characterization of atypical Candida tropicalis and other uncommon clinical yeast isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Schlitzer, R L; Ahearn, D G

    1982-01-01

    Clinical yeast isolates representing alpha-glucoside-deficient variants of Candida tropicalis, C. lusitaniae, atypical C. albicans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were characterized. Additional physiological tests, including cellobiose fermentation, rhamnose assimilation, and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride reduction, are recommended for the detection and presumptive identification of uncommon Candida spp. in the clinical laboratory.

  16. Determinación de la sensibilidad a amoxicilina y a clindamicina de staphylococcus spp aislado de cavidad oral de pacientes con alto riesgo de endocarditis infecciosa

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Barrientos; Maritza del Rosario Gómez Tinoco; Hugo Diez; Edna Alarcón Tique; Nelphem Yabrudy Díaz; Gustavo Molina

    2011-01-01

    En la literatura existen pocos estudios acerca de la distribución de Staphylococcus spp en boca y los que hay sobre estos microorganismos como residentes de la cavidad oral son controversiales.El género Staphylococcus spp conforma un importante grupo de patógenos en el ser humano y origina distintas enfermedades, entre ellas, la Endocarditis Infecciosa; de igual forma, la literatura reporta tasas de resistencia a amoxicilina y clindamicina antibióticos usados comúnmente para la profilaxis en ...

  17. Benefits of blackberry nectar (Rubus spp.) relative to hypercholesterolemia and lipid peroxidation Beneficios del néctar de mora (Rubus spp.) en relación con la hipercolesterolemia y la peroxidación lipídica

    OpenAIRE

    P. R. Ferreira de Araujo; V. da Silva Santos; A. Rodrigues Machado; C. Gevehr Fernandes; J.A. Silva; R. da Silva Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: In humans, the normal metabolic activity produces free radicals that constantly, along with other risk factors, including hypercholesterolemia may be responsible for the onset of degenerative diseases. Some bioactive compounds present in blackberry (Rubus spp.) have the ability to act as natural antioxidants can make the food to minimize effects on the body caused by reactive oxygen species. Objective: This study verified the benefits of blackberry nectar through the quantificat...

  18. Candida albicans and non-C. albicans Candida species: comparison of biofilm production and metabolic activity in biofilms, and putative virulence properties of isolates from hospital environments and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A V; Prado, C G; Carvalho, R R; Dias, K S T; Dias, A L T

    2013-04-01

    Candida albicans and, more recently, non-C. albicans Candida spp. are considered the most frequent fungi in hospitals. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency of different species, that is, C. albicans and non-C. albicans Candida spp., and the origins of isolates, that is, from hospital environments or infections. Yeast virulence factors were evaluated based on biofilm production and metabolic activity. Hemolysin production and the antifungal susceptibility profiles of isolates were also evaluated. Candida spp. were highly prevalent in samples collected from hospital environments, which may provide a reservoir for continuous infections with these yeasts. There were no differences in the biofilm productivity levels and metabolic activities of the environmental and clinical isolates, although the metabolic activities of non-C. albicans Candida spp. biofilms were greater than those of the C. albicans biofilms (p albicans Candida spp. predominated in samples collected from hospital environments and infections (p albicans, which may explain the increased incidence of fungal infections with these yeasts during recent years.

  19. Analysis of DNA Heterogeneity and Drug Sensitivity of Candida spp. in Harbin%哈尔滨地区假丝酵母菌DNA异质性及药物敏感性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李菁; 张文莉; 姜丰; 马佳毓

    2009-01-01

    研究假丝酵母菌的DNA异质性及药物敏感性,为预防和监控院内假丝酵母菌感染奠定基础.将临床分离的假丝酵母菌菌株,用科玛嘉显色培养基鉴定菌种,经纸片扩散法进行药敏试验,应用随机扩增多态性DNA(RAPD)技术对这些菌株进行基因分型.结果显示:93 株假丝酵母菌中白假丝酵母菌 68 株,非白假丝酵母菌 25 株,所有菌株对制霉菌素,两性霉素B两种药物的敏感率最高(100%),酮康唑其次(70.9%),氟康唑的敏感率最低(50.5%),引物1和引物 2 将来源不同的 68 株白假丝酵母菌分别分成 4 型(A -1、B -1、C -1、D -1 )和 6 型(A -2、B -2、C -2、D -2、E -2、F -2 ).哈尔滨地区的假丝酵母菌感染以白假丝酵母菌为主,且主要为A -1、B -1型(引物 1)或A -2、B -2型(引物 2);基因型与药敏谱无明显相关性.%The DNA heterogeneity and drug sensitivity of Candida was studied to lay a foundation for guard against, inspect, and control the infection of Candida in the hospital. Candida strains isolated clinically were identified their strain seeds with CHROMagar-Candida medium. And their genetic typing was carried out with paper disk diffusion test for drug sensitivity, and applying randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. The results showed that among 93 Candida strains 68 were C. albicans, 25 were non-C. albicans. All the isolated were 100% sensitive to amphotericin B and nystatin, followed by ketoconazole (70.9%), and the least was fluconazole (50.5%). 68 strains of different origins were divided into 4 types (A1, B1, C1, and D1) and 6 types (A2, B2, C2, D2, E2, and F2) by primer1 and primer2 respectively. The main species of Candida infections in Harbin area were C. albicans, and type A1, B1 (primer1) or A2, B2 (primer2) were the major genotypes; Genotyping of C. albicans did not show obvious correlation with their drug sensitivity spectrum.

  20. Espondilodiscitis por Candida albicans Candida albicans spondylodiscitis: Diagnosis and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Propósito: Describir los hallazgos radiológicos distintivos en resonancia magnética de las espondilodiscitis fúngicas (Candida albicans) y su importancia en el diagnóstico temprano de estas entidades. Se reporta el caso de un paciente masculino de 51 años de edad, inmunocomprometido, que consulta por fiebre y dolor lumbar. La RM con gadolinio demostró en secuencias T2 hipointensidad de la médula ósea en los cuerpos vertebrales afectados, asociados a cambios en la señal discal y realce intenso...

  1. Producción de forraje de guaje (Leucaena spp. asociado con zacate (Brachiaria brizantha para ovejas en pastoreo Forage production of guaje (Leucaena spp. associated with grass (Brachiaria brizantha to sheep grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamili Benítez-Bahena

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la densidad de plantación del guaje (Leucaena collinsii y Leucaena leucocephala asociado con la gramínea Brachiaria brizantha var. Libertad en un sistema silvopastoril, a través de la cantidad y calidad de forraje ofrecido y su efecto en la ganancia diaria de peso de ovejas en pastoreo de 2006 a 2008. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron tres densidades de plantación del guaje (5 000, 3 333 y 2 500 plantas ha-1. Las evaluaciones se hicieron en época de lluvias y en época de secas; para forraje ofrecido, asignación diaria de forraje, forraje rechazado, grado de cosecha, tasa de desaparición de forraje y ganancia diaria de peso. Se determinó proteína cruda en forraje ofrecido y forraje rechazado. La producción de forraje del guaje fue mayor con Leucaena leucocephala; esta gramínea mostró mejor producción de forraje en época de lluvias con 2 500 plantas ha-1 y mayor cantidad de forraje rechazado en época de lluvias con 3 333 plantas ha-1; la asignación diaria de forraje fue mayor en época de lluvias con 2 500 plantas ha-1. El tratamientos con Leucaena collinsii, el grado de cosecha presentó una tendencia mayor con 2 500 plantas ha-1 en época de secas; la tasa de desaparición de forraje mostró una tendencia mayor con 2 500 plantas ha-1 en época de lluvias. El guaje mostró mayor contenido de proteína cruda con Leucaena leucocephala en época de secas. El contenido de proteína cruda del forraje ofrecido de la gramínea mostró una tendencia mayor en época de lluvias con 5 000 plantas ha-1. Los resultados permiten recomendar una densidad de 5 000 plantas ha-1 de guaje, ya que con esta densidad se logró un efecto positivo en la ganancia diaria de peso de los ovinos en pastoreo.The aim of this research was to evaluate the plantation density of guaje (Leucaena collinsii and Leucaena leucocephala related to the poaceae Brachiaria brizantha var. Libertad in a system of forest

  2. Effect of Eugenol on Cell Surface Hydrophobicity, Adhesion, and Biofilm of Candida tropicalis and Candida dubliniensis Isolated from Oral Cavity of HIV-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Balero de Paula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most Candida spp. infections are associated with biofilm formation on host surfaces. Cells within these communities display a phenotype resistant to antimicrobials and host defenses, so biofilm-associated infections are difficult to treat, representing a source of reinfections. The present study evaluated the effect of eugenol on the adherence properties and biofilm formation capacity of Candida dubliniensis and Candida tropicalis isolated from the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients. All isolates were able to form biofilms on different substrate surfaces. Eugenol showed inhibitory activity against planktonic and sessile cells of Candida spp. No metabolic activity in biofilm was detected after 24 h of treatment. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that eugenol drastically reduced the number of sessile cells on denture material surfaces. Most Candida species showed hydrophobic behavior and a significant difference in cell surface hydrophobicity was observed after exposure of planktonic cells to eugenol for 1 h. Eugenol also caused a significant reduction in adhesion of most Candida spp. to HEp-2 cells and to polystyrene. These findings corroborate the effectiveness of eugenol against Candida species other than C. albicans, reinforcing its potential as an antifungal applied to limit both the growth of planktonic cells and biofilm formation on different surfaces.

  3. Candida Infection of the Bloodstream - Candidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 17 different species of Candida. Of these, Candida albicans (C. albicans), C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. ... blood. In many cases, the species found is Candida albicans , however, other species of Candida, Candida tropicalis , C. ...

  4. Oral Candida albicans isolates from HIV-positive individuals have similar in vitro biofilm-forming ability and pathogenicity as invasive Candida isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Rasteiro Vanessa MC; Costa Anna CBP; Vilela Simone FG; Suleiman Jamal MAH; Coleman Jeffrey J; Muhammed Maged; Fuchs Beth B; Junqueira Juliana C; Jorge Antonio OC; Mylonakis Eleftherios

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Candida can cause mucocutaneous and/or systemic infections in hospitalized and immunosuppressed patients. Most individuals are colonized by Candida spp. as part of the oral flora and the intestinal tract. We compared oral and systemic isolates for the capacity to form biofilm in an in vitro biofilm model and pathogenicity in the Galleria mellonella infection model. The oral Candida strains were isolated from the HIV patients and included species of C. albicans, C. glabrata...

  5. Terapia fotodinámica in vitro con Hipericina en hongos causantes de micosis cutáneas

    OpenAIRE

    Paz Cristóbal, Manuel Pablo de la; Pardo Jimeno, Julián; Gilaberte Calzada, Yolanda; Rezusta López, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Las infecciones cutáneas o micosis son muy frecuentes, especialmente las causadas por bacterias y hongos. Dentro de las del segundo tipo, denominadas micosis, se encuentran las producidas por hongos dermatofitos o las causadas por levaduras, especialmente por Candida spp. (15). Un uso abusivo de las sustancias antibióticas clásicas, junto con la inapropiada prescripción médica promueven la generación de resistencias de estos microorganismos frente a los agentes antifúngicos. Además, en los úl...

  6. Aislamiento y caracterización de cepas de Bacillus spp. con actividad contra Tetranychus urticae Koch en cultivos comerciales de rosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Larrea-Izurieta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the species of mites that cause considerable qualitative and quantitative losses in roses growing under greenhouses in Ecuador is Tetranychus urticae, where conventional agrochemicals control is not effective; therefore seeks to identify strains of Bacillus spp. Isolated from T. urticae and determine their anatomical pathogenic scenarios for future control with bacteria. The field phase took place in Naranjo Roses S.A. in Latacunga in a growing roses under organic conditions, where they were collected sheets of each third of six plants with presence of T. urticae Koch. The samples were taken to be processed in Plantsphere Laboratories (PSL in Quito. They were identified and quantified the different stages of the pest and some individuals were isolated for the presence of pathogenic strains of Bacillus spp., which were isolated, purified and identified. Check treatments of pathogenic were strains, distilled water (control and Bacillus thuringiensis biovar acari (positive control. Pathogenic events were evaluated in adult females of T. urticae by citohistochemistry, where breakout of the outer walls, precipitation of cell contents and cuticular malformations were reported. It was determined that the largest numbers of pest individuals are located in the lower third (59.4% with greater presence of eggs (63.3%. Using principal component analysis (PCA of the treatments, the PSL 104, 113, 114 and Bacillus thuringiensis biovar acari was determined as the most efficient Biocatalytic Effectors (EBc©.

  7. ISOLASI SPESIES CANDIDA DARI TINJA PENDERITA HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji K Sjarifuddin

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a saprophyte in the human respiratory tract, gastro intestinal tract and also in the debris under the nail. Inpatients with compromised immunity such as HIV-AIDS, Candida is able to cause infection, in this case oral candidosisor esophagitis. In this study fungi were isolated from the stools of HIV/AIDS patients. Samples consisting of 95diarrheic stools from HIV/AIDS patients were investigated for the yeast especially Candida spp. The stools were inoculated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar then the fungi were identified using morphological methods and Chromagarmedium. Yeast colonies were found in 71 (74,74% out of 95 samples from which Candida was 42 44,21%, Geotrichum 24 (25,26%, and mixed of Candida and Geotrichum 3 (3,16%, Rhodotorula and Trichosporon 1(1,05% each. Species of Candida were identified as C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii, C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr. Although Candida could be isolated from the diarrheic stools of HIV/AIDS patients but its role on the cause of diarrhea is still questionable.

  8. Echinocandin Susceptibility Testing of Candida spp. Using EUCAST EDef 7.1 and CLSI M27-A3 Standard Procedures: Analysis of the Influence of Bovine Serum Albumin Supplementation, Storage Time, and Drug Lots▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan-Luis; Park, Steven; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Delmas, Guillaume; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Gomez-Lopez, Alicia; Perlin, David S.

    2011-01-01

    The MICs of echinocandins against Candida isolates with fks mutations are higher than those for wild-type (WT) isolates. However, the MIC ranges for susceptible and mutant populations overlap or are poorly separated. It was recently reported that a greater separation could be achieved in the presence of serum. To more fully explore this possibility, we compared the performances of the reference microdilution methods by using standard and bovine serum albumin (BSA)-supplemented growth medium. Anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin MICs were determined according to EUCAST and CLSI methods and with 50% BSA in the medium for 93 clinical isolates, including Candida albicans (20/10 [number of isolates/number of mutants]), C. glabrata (19/10), C. dubliniensis (2/1), C. krusei (16/3), C. parapsilosis (19), and C. tropicalis (19/4) isolates. Stability of the plates was tested after storage at −80°C for 2 and 6 months, and the performance of two different lots of caspofungin was investigated. The addition of BSA to the medium resulted in higher MICs (1 to 9 2-fold dilution steps) for all isolates and compounds. The increases were greatest for anidulafungin and micafungin and, among WT isolates, for C. parapsilosis. The number of very major errors (VMEs) was reduced (24% [20/84 isolates] versus ≤7% [6/84 isolates]) using BSA-supplemented EUCAST medium but not using BSA-supplemented CLSI medium (6% versus 9%). MIC results were unchanged after 6 months of storage of test plates. The two lots of caspofungin yielded identical results. Addition of BSA to the EUCAST medium increases the ability to differentiate between WT isolates and isolates harboring resistance mutations. PMID:21245440

  9. Multilaboratory study of epidemiological cutoff values for detection of resistance in eight Candida species to fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Pfaller, M.A.; Bustamante, B.; Canton, E.; Fothergill, A.; Fuller, J.; Gonzalez, G.M.; Lass-Florl, C.; Lockhart, S.R.; Martin-Mazuelos, E.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Melhem, M.S.; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Pelaez, T.; Szeszs, M.W.; St-Germain, G.; Bonfietti, L.X.; Guarro, J.; Turnidge, J.

    2014-01-01

    Although epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) have been established for Candida spp. and the triazoles, they are based on MIC data from a single laboratory. We have established ECVs for eight Candida species and fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole based on wild-type (WT) MIC distributions fo

  10. Obtención de ácido cítrico a partir de suero de leche por fermentación con aspergillus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Toro Óscar Julián; Ortiz Buriticá María Cristina; Betancourt Garcés Adriana Lorenza

    2007-01-01

    El suero de leche se ha constituido en el principal desecho de la industria láctea, a pesar de los constantes esfuerzos por aprovecharlo. El presente trabajo tuvo por objeto estudiar la obtención de ácido cítrico por fermentación sumergida con hongos del género Aspergillus, utilizando lactosuero en calidad de sustrato con miras a su aprovechamiento y a la reducción del impacto ambiental que causan los vertimientos de este subproducto en los cursos de agua. Se utilizaron las siguientes cepas: ...

  11. Physico chemical and microbiological changes in nopal (Opuntia spp.) irradiated with gamma rays of cobalt 60; Cambios fisicoquimicos y microbiologicos en nopal (Opuntia spp.) irradiado con rayos gamma de cobalto 60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez N, M

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this work is to study the physico-chemical and microbiological changes which take place in the nopal (Opuntia spp.) after they have been irradiated and stored at environment and refrigeration temperatures in order to determine the level of irradiation dose more adequate for getting them an increase in the storage life, as well as to determine the physico-chemical changes attributed to the irradiation doses used, comparing the obtained results with those ones of non-irradiated nopal samples, which are considered as control samples. The radiation source used was a GAMMABEAM-651 PT, property of the Nuclear Sciences Institute of UNAM. The nopals studied are of the variety (Milpa Alta, Opuntia ficus) which were cut and packed in polyethylene bags with and without nitrogen. In order to find the adequate dose level it was used a lot of 200 samples which were treated in sets of 10. They were irradiated in doses of 0.5 to 10 kGy at a dose reason of 3.7 kGy/h. The adequate doses for getting an increase in the storage life, where there was not darkness were of 1.5 and 2.0 kGy, allowed doses in the NOM-033-SSA1-1993, it was not found any change in acceptability by flavour, but so in the titled activity values and sugars. The lowest loss of weight was found in the 1.5 kGy dose without nitrogen and the highest in the 2.0 kGy with nitrogen dose. Likewise was determined that with the irradiation treatment in the recommended doses it is diminished the microorganisms growth, obtaining an improvement in the general appearance of the nopals during their storage period. (Author)

  12. Reducción de la fertilización sintética con composta y optimización del riego sobre la pudrición del tallo (Fusarium spp del maíz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca E. López Valenzuela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El maíz es el cultivo agrícola de grano más importante de México por ser sembrado con mayor superficie yser la base de la alimentación en toda la nación siendo Sinaloa el principal productor.La siembra repetitiva delcultivo efectuada a través de los años,ha favorecidola proliferación de enfermedades como la pudrición detallos y la pudrición de mazorcas, atribuidas principalmente aFusariumspp, las cuales representan unpotencial de riesgo y han alertado al productor a poner mucha atención en el manejo del cultivo. Con elobjetivo de evaluar el efecto de la fertilización sintética con composta y riego sobre la pudrición de tallos ymazorcas de maíz en elValle delFuerte; experimentos de campo se condujeron en el ciclo agrícola primavera-verano 2009en el INIFAP. El experimento fue diseñado en parcelas divididas en bloques completos al azarcon tres repeticiones; al final del ciclo se encontró que no hubo diferencias significativas del factorfertilización y riego respecto al rendimiento así como lasvariables fenológicas evaluadas. La incidencia depudrición de tallos evaluada a los 53 días después de la siembra fue de 100%. Sin embargo, se encontrarondiferencias significativas en cuanto a la severidad de mazorcas podridas donde se aplicaron menos riegos.Finalmente, el estudio morfológico mostro que el principal agente asociado en pudrición de tallos fueFusarium verticilliodesy en cuanto a pudrición de mazorcas se detectó una mayor diversidad de agentesasociados tales comoApergillus spp, Penicillum pinophilum,y con mayor incidenciaFusarium verticilliodes.

  13. Obtención de ácido cítrico a partir de suero de leche por fermentación con Aspergillus spp.

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    Sánchez Toro Óscar Julián

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available El suero de leche se ha constituido en el principal desecho de la industria láctea, a pesar de los constantes esfuerzos por aprovecharlo. El presente trabajo tuvo por objeto estudiar la obtención de ácido cítrico por fermentación sumergida con hongos del género Aspergillus, utilizando lactosuero en calidad de sustrato con miras a su aprovechamiento y a la reducción del impacto ambiental que causan los vertimientos de este subproducto en los cursos de agua. Se utilizaron las siguientes cepas: A. carbonarius NRRL 368, A. carbonarius NRRL 67 y A. niger NRRL 3. Fue seleccionado el mejor medio de adaptación para la propagación del inóculo. El diseño experimental planteado para evaluar la biosíntesis de ácido cítrico a partir de suero de leche modificado mediante diferentes tratamientos, dio como resultado que las dos cepas de A. carbonarius no presentaran diferencias significativas en la formación del ácido, mientras A. niger NRRL 3 alcanzó mayores concentraciones cuando se utilizó suero de leche desproteinizado, evaporado y con lactosa hidrolizada con f>-galactosidasa. A. carbonarius arrojó concentraciones promedio de ácido cítrico mayores que las encontradas para A. niger, lo que sugiere la necesidad de profundizar en su estudio como productor potencial. Se obtuvo la cinética de crecimiento celular, consumo de sustrato y formación del ácido en un biorreactor de tanque agitado con aireación de 3 L para el caso de A. niger, la cual fue simulada mediante modelos matemáticos no estructurados. Palabras clave: Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus niger, biorreactor, simulación, p-galactosidasa.

  14. Evidence of Fluconazole-Resistant Candida Species in Tortoises and Sea Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rodrigues, Pedro Henrique de Aragão; de Alencar, Lucas Pereira; Riello, Giovanna Barbosa; Ribeiro, Joyce Fonteles; de Oliveira, Jonathas Sales; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Monteiro, André Jalles; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. recovered from tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) and sea turtles (Chelonia mydas, Caretta caretta, Lepidochelys olivacea, Eretmochelys imbricata). For this purpose, material from the oral cavity and cloaca of 77 animals (60 tortoises and 17 sea turtles) was collected. The collected specimens were seeded on 2% Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, and the identification was carried out by morphological and biochemical methods. Sixty-six isolates were recovered from tortoises, out of which 27 were C. tropicalis, 27 C. famata, 7 C. albicans, 4 C. guilliermondii and 1 C. intermedia, whereas 12 strains were obtained from sea turtles, which were identified as Candida parapsilosis (n = 4), Candida guilliermondii (n = 4), Candida tropicalis (n = 2), Candida albicans (n = 1) and Candida intermedia (n = 1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations for amphotericin B, itraconazole and fluconazole ranged from 0.03125 to 0.5, 0.03125 to >16 and 0.125 to >64, respectively. Overall, 19 azole-resistant strains (14 C. tropicalis and 5 C. albicans) were found. Thus, this study shows that Testudines carry azole-resistant Candida spp.

  15. Endoftalmite por Candida albicans Candida albicans endophthalmitis

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    Pedro Duraes Serracarbassa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O autor descreve os aspectos epidemiológicos, histopatológicos e clínicos da endoftalmite endógena por Candida albicans. Apresenta ainda novos métodos diagnósticos e opções terapêuticas utilizadas no tratamento das infecções fúngicas intra-oculares, por meio de revisão bibliográfica.The author describes epidemiological, histopathological and clinical aspects of endogenous Candida albicans endophthalmitis. He also presents new diagnostic methods and therapeutical options to treat intraocular fungal infections, based on literature review.

  16. Comparison of the Etest and a rapid flow cytometry-based method with the reference CLSI broth microdilution protocol M27-A3 for the echinocandin susceptibility testing of Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale-Silva, L A; Pinto, P; Lopes, V; Ramos, H; Pinto, E

    2012-06-01

    Reference broth microdilution protocols for the antifungal susceptibility testing (AST) of yeasts are available, but routine AST relies more on simpler alternatives. In this work, the Etest and a novel flow cytometry (FC) method were compared to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) protocol M27-A3. Caspofungin and anidulafungin were tested against 60 clinical isolates of Candida glabrata, C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis. There were two intermediate susceptibility results and 19 out of 20 tested C. krusei strains were categorized as resistant to caspofungin (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] of 1.0 mg/L). There was a generally excellent essential agreement with the reference method, only interrupted by Etest results for the anidulafungin susceptibility of C. glabrata (80%) and the FC method's results for caspofungin with C. krusei (40%). Categorical agreements were excellent, with the notable exception of the caspofungin-resistant C. krusei, with 19 very major errors for the FC method and 19 minor errors plus one very major error for the Etest (5% and 0% categorical agreements, respectively). Two additional minor errors were registered for the FC method when testing C. parapsilosis with anidulafungin and caspofungin. Overall, these data come to question the suitability of recently approved clinical breakpoints in the case of C. krusei. Further studies including fks mutants are now required.

  17. Candida infections in newborns: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoory, B J; Vino, L; Dall'Agnola, A; Fanos, V

    1999-10-01

    Despite adequate treatment, nosocomial fungal infections have become an increasingly important cause of morbidity, extended hospitalization, and mortality in critically ill newborn babies. Furthermore, the high incidence of central nervous system involvement in septic newborns frequently results in serious neurological damage and psychomotorial sequelae. The prevention of fungal colonization in the population at risk, together with prompt diagnosis and treatment, are an efficient combination which lead to a better outcome of neonatal fungal infections. New drugs characterized by great efficacy and tolerance have recently been employed in clinical practice. This article summarizes certain aspects of Candida spp. infections in the neonatal period with regard to multisystemic presentation and involvement.

  18. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CANDIDA SPECIES TO ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS IN WESTERN INDIA

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    Geeta M Vaghela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increase in candidaemia is associated with high mortality. A shift has been observed in the relative frequency of each Candida spp. isolated from blood. Options of the antifungal drugs available for treatment of systemic and invasive candidiasis are restricted to polyenes, allylamines, azoles and recently developed echinocandin class of molecules. A rise in the incidence of antifungal resistance to Candida spp. has also been reported over the past decade. Studies on prevalence of infections and antifungal susceptibility testing are useful in deciding clinical strategies. Aims: To do species level identification and detect resistance, if any, among Indian clinical isolates of C. albicans. Methodology: From total 135 patients from a tertiary care hospital of Gujarat, Candida species were isolated from different clinical specimens. The growth of Candida on Sabouraud's dextrose agar was confirmed by Gram staining in which gram positive budding fungal cells were observed. Then its growth was examined for colony morphology on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and chlamydospore production on Corn meal tween 80 agar. Germ tube tests and other biochemical tests like sugar fermentation, sugar assimilation and urease test were performed to identify the species of Candida. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by NCCLS M44-A Disc diffusion method. Results: Out of total 135 samples, C. Albicans were isolated from 52 (38.5%. Among Non Albican Candid (NAC, Candida glabrata was 36 (26.7% followed by Candida tropicalis 25(18.5%. C. albicans was found resistant to Fluconazole, Itraconazole and Amphotericine B in 3.8%, 3.8% and 1.9% cases respectively. For NAC, resistance of Fluconazole, Itraconazole and Amphotericine B was found in 4.8%, 3.6% and 2.4% cases respectively. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(2.000: 122-126

  19. Associations among the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, oral candidiasis, oral Candida species and salivary immunoglobulin A in HIV-infected children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomarico, Luciana; Ferraz Cerqueira, Daniella; de Araujo Soares, Rosangela Maria; Ribeiro de Souza, Ivete Pomarico; Barbosa de Araujo Castro, Gloria Fernanda; Socransky, Sigmund; Haffajee, Anne; Palmier Teles, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To examine the impact of antiretroviral therapy on the prevalence of oral candidiasis, recovery of oral Candida species (spp) and salivary levels of total secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and Candida-specific SIgA in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children. Methods Sixty six HIV-positive and 40 HIV-negative children were cross-sectionally examined for the presence of oral lesions. Whole stimulated saliva samples were collected for the identification of Candida spp using culture and measurement of total and specific SIgA using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results HIV-positive children had a higher prevalence of oral candidiasis (p < 0.05); higher frequency of detection of Candida spp (p < 0.05) and higher levels of total (p < 0.05) and Candida-specific SIgA (p < 0.001) than did HIV-negative children. Among HIV-positive subjects, antiretroviral users had lower viral loads (p < 0.001), lower levels of Candida spp (p < 0.05) and total SIgA (p < 0.05) compared with antiretroviral non-users. Conclusions The use of antiretroviral therapy was associated with decreases in the prevalence of oral candidiasis. This diminished exposure to Candida spp was accompanied by decreases in levels of total and Candida-specific SIgA. PMID:19615660

  20. Candida infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddley, J W; Benjamin, D K; Patel, M; Miró, J; Athan, E; Barsic, B; Bouza, E; Clara, L; Elliott, T; Kanafani, Z; Klein, J; Lerakis, S; Levine, D; Spelman, D; Rubinstein, E; Tornos, P; Morris, A J; Pappas, P; Fowler, V G; Chu, V H; Cabell, C

    2008-07-01

    Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore the epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. We compared 33 Candida IE cases to 2,716 patients with non-fungal IE in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS). Patients were enrolled and the data collected from June 2000 until August 2005. We noted that patients with Candida IE were more likely to have prosthetic valves (p < 0.001), short-term indwelling catheters (p < 0.0001), and have healthcare-associated infections (p < 0.001). The reasons for surgery differed between the two groups: myocardial abscess (46.7% vs. 22.2%, p = 0.026) and persistent positive blood cultures (33.3% vs. 9.9%, p = 0.003) were more common among those with Candida IE. Mortality at discharge was higher in patients with Candida IE (30.3%) when compared to non-fungal cases (17%, p = 0.046). Among Candida patients, mortality was similar in patients who received combination surgical and antifungal therapy versus antifungal therapy alone (33.3% vs. 27.8%, p = 0.26). New antifungal drugs, particularly echinocandins, were used frequently. These multi-center data suggest distinct epidemiologic features of Candida IE when compared to non-fungal cases. Indications for surgical intervention are different and mortality is increased. Newer antifungal treatment options are increasingly used. Large, multi-center studies are needed to help better define Candida IE.

  1. Sequence-identification of Candida species isolated from candidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Naeimeh; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Ghahri, Mohammad; Sadrossadati, Seyedeh Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Candida species are the most prevalent cause of invasive fungal infections such as candidemia. Candidemia is a lethal fungal infection among immunocompromised patients worldwide. Main pathogen is Candida albicans but a global shift in epidemiology toward non-albicans species have reported. Species identification is imperative for good management of candidemia as a fatal infection. The aim of the study is to identify Candida spp. obtained from candidemia and determination of mortality rate among this population. Materials and Methods: The study was performed during February 2014 to March 2015 in Tehran, Iran. Two-hundred and four blood cultures were evaluated for fungal bloodstream infection. Identification of isolates was carried out using phenotypic tests and polymerase chain reaction sequencing technique. Results: Twenty-two out of 204 patients (10.8%) had candidemia. Candida parapsilosis was the most prevalent species (45.4%), followed by C. albicans (31.8%) and Candida glabrata (22.7%). Male to female sex ratio was 8/14. Conclusions: The emergence of resistant strains of Candida species should be considered by physicians to decrease the mortality of this fatal fungal infection by appropriate treatment. PMID:27713871

  2. Cell wall proteinaceous components in isolates of Candida albicans and non-albicans species from HIV-infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ribot, J L; Kirkpatrick, W R; McAtee, R K; Revankar, S G; Patterson, T F

    1998-09-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) remains a common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients. Candida albicans is the most frequent causative agent of OPC. However, non-albicans spp. are being increasingly isolated. Candidal cell wall proteins and mannoproteins play important roles in the biology and patogenesis of candidiasis. In the present study, we have analyzed the proteinaceous components associated with cell wall extracts from C. albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida pseudotropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida guilliermondii and Candida rugosa obtained from HIV-infected patients with recurrent OPC. Cell wall proteinaceous components were extracted with beta-mercaptoethanol and analyzed using electrophoresis, immunoblotting (with antisera generated against C. albicans cell wall components, and with serum samples and oral saline rinses from patients with OPC), and lectin-blotting (concanavalin A) techniques. Numerous molecular species were solubilized from the various isolates. Major qualitative and quantitative differences in the polypeptidic and antigenic profiles associated with the cell wall extracts from the different Candida spp. were discernible. Some of the antibody preparations generated against C. albicans cell wall components were able to recognize homologous materials present in the extracts from non-albicans spp. Information on cell wall antigens of Candida species may be important in the therapy and prevention of HIV-related OPC.

  3. USO DE MÉTODOS MULTIVARIANTES PARA LA AGRUPACIÓN DE AISLAMIENTOS DE Colletotrichum spp. CON BASE EN CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS Y CULTURALES USE OF MULTIVARIATE METHODS FOR GROUPING STRAINS OF Colletotrichum spp. BASED ON CULTURAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS

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    Guillermo Correa Londoño

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 15 variables morfológicas y culturales, con mezcla de variables cuantitativas y cualitativas, a 58 aislamientos de Colletotrichum spp. con cuatro repeticiones. Se generó una agrupación guiada por el Análisis de Coordenadas Principales (ACOP, basado en el coeficiente de similitud de Gower. Las dos primeras dimensiones del ACOP permitieron la perfecta discriminación de tres grandes grupos: la primera dimensión separaba a Colletotrichum gloeosporioides y su teleomorfo Glomerella cingulata de C. dematium; la segunda dimensión permitía separar a C. gloeosporioides de su teleomorfo G. cingulata. Mediante el análisis simultáneo de los tres primeros ejes factoriales, se detectaron 21 grupos menores. Para la caracterización de los grupos se usó la representación Biplot de la tabla de contingencia de los grupos y las variables. Se trabajó con las frecuencias relativas al tamaño de los grupos para evitar la alta influencia que de otra forma tendrían los grupos más numerosos sobre las configuraciones Biplot.Fifteen cultural and morphological characteristics, with a mix of quantitative and qualitative variables, were evaluated on 58 strains of Colletotrichum spp. repeated four times. Using Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCOA, based on Gower’s similarity coefficient, a grouping was obtained. The two first dimensions of PCOA allowed the perfect discrimination of three big groups: the first dimension separated Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and its teleomorph Glomerella cingulata from C. dematium; the second dimension discriminated between C. gloeosporioides and its teleomorph G. cingulata. By analyzing simultaneously the first three factorial axis, 21 minor groups were detected. In order to characterize the groups, a Biplot representation of the groups and variables contingency table was used. Relative frequencies to the size of the groups were used to avoid the high influence that otherwise the more numerous groups would have

  4. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates

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    Ariane Bruder-Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Candida isolates obtained from patients attended at a Brazilian tertiary public hospital (Botucatu, Sao Paulo. C. albicans ALS3 gene polymorphism was also evaluated by determining the number of repeated motifs in the central domain. Of the 198 total biofilm-positive isolates, 72 and 126 were considered as low and high biofilm producers, respectively. Biofilm production by C. albicans was significantly lower than that by non-albicans isolates and was most frequently observed in C. tropicalis. Biofilm production was more frequent among bloodstream isolates than other clinical sources,in urine, the isolates displayed a peculiar distribution by presenting two distinct peaks, one containing biofilm-negative isolates and the other containing isolates with intense biofilm production. The numbers of tandem-repeat copies per allele were not associated with biofilm production, suggesting the evolvement of other genetic determinants.

  5. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder-Nascimento, Ariane; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Sugizaki, Maria Fátima; Sadatsune, Terue; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Candida isolates obtained from patients attended at a Brazilian tertiary public hospital (Botucatu, Sao Paulo). C. albicans ALS3 gene polymorphism was also evaluated by determining the number of repeated motifs in the central domain. Of the 198 total biofilm-positive isolates, 72 and 126 were considered as low and high biofilm producers, respectively. Biofilm production by C. albicans was significantly lower than that by non-albicans isolates and was most frequently observed in C. tropicalis. Biofilm production was more frequent among bloodstream isolates than other clinical sources, in urine, the isolates displayed a peculiar distribution by presenting two distinct peaks, one containing biofilm-negative isolates and the other containing isolates with intense biofilm production. The numbers of tandem-repeat copies per allele were not associated with biofilm production, suggesting the evolvement of other genetic determinants.

  6. 海洋苯酚降解菌Candida sp.P5的分离鉴定及其降解特性%Screening of a Marine Phenol-degrading Yeast Candida sp. P5 and its Biodegradation Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡忠; 吴奕瑞; 徐艳; 黄通旺; 郑天凌

    2007-01-01

    从海洋沉积物中分离、筛选到一株能以苯酚作为唯一碳源和能源的酵母菌P5.根据菌落特征、菌体形态、生理生化特性和18S rDNA序列分析,确定菌株P5为假丝酵母菌属(Candida sp.).该菌株最适宜生长和降解苯酚的条件为:温度25℃,pH6.0~7.0,摇床转速100 r/min,需氧;菌株P5能在较高浓度的苯酚条件下生长,在72 h内可以降解95%以上的苯酚.对苯酚代谢途径和相关酶的研究发现,菌株P5主要在邻苯二酚1,2-双加氧酶作用下通过邻位途径进行苯酚代谢.图7表2参24

  7. Correlation of Neo-Sensitabs Tablet Diffusion Assay Results on Three Different Agar Media with CLSI Broth Microdilution M27-A2 and Disk Diffusion M44-A Results for Testing Susceptibilities of Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans to Amphotericin B, Caspofungin, Fluconazole, Itraconazole, and Voriconazole▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Canton, E.; Gibbs, D.; Wang, A.

    2007-01-01

    We compared the Neo-Sensitabs tablet assay to both reference M27-A2 broth microdilution and M44-A disk diffusion methods for testing susceptibilities of 110 isolates of Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans to amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole. Neo-Sensitabs assay inhibition zone diameters in millimeters on three agars (Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 2% dextrose and 0.5 μg/ml methylene blue [MGM], Shadomy [SHA], and RPMI 1640 [RPMI, 2% dextrose]) were obtained at 24 to 72 h. The correlation coefficient of Neo-Sensitabs results with MICs was similar to that of the disk method for most of the five agents on MGM (R, 0.80 to 0.89 versus 0.76 to 0.89, respectively). Overall, superior correlation was observed at 24 h for most agents. The exception was amphotericin B (R values of 0.68 and 0.5 for disk and tablet, respectively, at 48 h versus 0.68 and 0.48, respectively, at 24 h). In general, Neo-Sensitabs results were less consistent on SHA and RPMI agars. Although agreement by breakpoint category of Neo-Sensitabs and disk results with CLSI method M27-A2 was also similar on MGM (92.7 to 98.2% versus 95.5 to 100%, respectively), the Neo-Sensitabs method failed to identify two of the six isolates with high amphotericin B MICs. These data suggest the potential value of the Neo-Sensitabs assay for testing at least four of the five agents against yeasts evaluated in the clinical laboratory. PMID:17215342

  8. Espondilodiscitis por Candida albicans Candida albicans spondylodiscitis: Diagnosis and Treatment

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    Silvina De Luca

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Propósito: Describir los hallazgos radiológicos distintivos en resonancia magnética de las espondilodiscitis fúngicas (Candida albicans y su importancia en el diagnóstico temprano de estas entidades. Se reporta el caso de un paciente masculino de 51 años de edad, inmunocomprometido, que consulta por fiebre y dolor lumbar. La RM con gadolinio demostró en secuencias T2 hipointensidad de la médula ósea en los cuerpos vertebrales afectados, asociados a cambios en la señal discal y realce intenso discovertebral. Ante un paciente inmunocomprometido con dolor lumbar que presenta modificaciones disco vertebrales atípicas en la resonancia magnética, debe considerarse la infección micótica dentro de las posibilidades diagnósticas. El diagnóstico de certeza requiere la toma de biopsia del tejido afectado mediante punción aspiración y posterior análisis microbiológico. El tratamiento médico es el de elección, aunque en algunos casos se plantea el drenaje quirúrgico. El reconocimiento de las características radiológicas distintivas evita retardos en el diagnóstico y el tratamiento.Purpose: To describe Candida albicans spondylodiscitis distinctive imaging findings and treatment. The authors reported a 51 years old, male inmunocompromised patient with fever and lumbar pain. MR findings include bone marrow hypointense signal intensity in T2 weighted of affected vertebral bodies and intense discovertebral enhancement. Candida albicans spondylodiscitis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis of an inmunocompromised patient with lumbar pain and lumbar atypical findings at MR. Biopsy sample is required in order to reach final diagnosis. The first choice treatment is antyfungal drugs although in certain cases surgery is required. Rapid recognition of distinctive imaging findings avoid missdiagnosis and treatment delays.

  9. Itraconazole-resistant Candida auris with phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity from a case of vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Banerjee, Tuhina; Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Tilak, Ragini

    2015-04-15

    Since the emergence of pathogenic non-albicans Candida species, a number of new isolates have been added to the list. One such unusual species is Candida auris (C. auris), recently isolated and studied in few reports. In this study, a case of vulvovaginitis caused by Candida auris incidentally identified by molecular methods using internal transcribed spacer polymerase chain reaction (ITS PCR) is described. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed the isolate to be resistant to itraconazole (MIC ≥ 2 µg/ml) and expressed important virulence factors including phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity. The patient was successfully treated with oral fluconazole and did not have any invasive fungemia. Very few cases of this emerging pathogen have been reported. However, its isolation from clinical specimens reveals the significance of non-albicans candida species over C. albicans and the diversity of Candida spp causing infections.

  10. Potent Antifungal Activity of Pure Compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine Extracts against Six Oral Candida Species and the Synergy with Fluconazole against Azole-Resistant Candida albicans

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    Zhimin Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activities of four traditional Chinese medicine (TCM extracts. The inhibitory effects of pseudolaric acid B, gentiopicrin, rhein, and alion were assessed using standard disk diffusion and broth microdilution assays. They were tested against six oral Candida species, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida guilliermondii, including clinical isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. It was found that pseudolaric acid B had the most potent antifungal effect and showed similar antifungal activity to all six Candida spp, and to isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. The MIC values ranged from 16 to 128 μg/mL. More interestingly, a synergistic effect of pseudolaric acid B in combination with fluconazole was observed. We suggest that pseudolaric acid B might be a potential therapeutic fungicidal agent in treating oral candidiasis.

  11. Neutrophil activation by Candida glabrata but not Candida albicans promotes fungal uptake by monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Seána; Essig, Fabian; Hünniger, Kerstin; Mokhtari, Zeinab; Bauer, Laura; Lehnert, Teresa; Brandes, Susanne; Häder, Antje; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Martin, Ronny; Figge, Marc Thilo; Kurzai, Oliver

    2015-09-01

    Candida albicans and Candida glabrata account for the majority of candidiasis cases worldwide. Although both species are in the same genus, they differ in key virulence attributes. Within this work, live cell imaging was used to examine the dynamics of neutrophil activation after confrontation with either C. albicans or C. glabrata. Analyses revealed higher phagocytosis rates of C. albicans than C. glabrata that resulted in stronger PMN (polymorphonuclear cells) activation by C. albicans. Furthermore, we observed differences in the secretion of chemokines, indicating chemotactic differences in PMN signalling towards recruitment of further immune cells upon confrontation with Candida spp. Supernatants from co-incubations of neutrophils with C. glabrata primarily attracted monocytes and increased the phagocytosis of C. glabrata by monocytes. In contrast, PMN activation by C. albicans resulted in recruitment of more neutrophils. Two complex infection models confirmed distinct targeting of immune cell populations by the two Candida spp.: In a human whole blood infection model, C. glabrata was more effectively taken up by monocytes than C. albicans and histopathological analyses of murine model infections confirmed primarily monocytic infiltrates in C. glabrata kidney infection in contrast to PMN-dominated infiltrates in C. albicans infection. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the human opportunistic fungi C. albicans and C. glabrata are differentially recognized by neutrophils and one outcome of this differential recognition is the preferential uptake of C. glabrata by monocytes.

  12. Inoculación con Azospirillum spp. en la Región Semiárida-Central de Argentina: factores que afectan la colonización rizosférica Inoculation with Azospirillum spp. in the semiarid-central region of Argentina: factors involved in rhizosphere colonization

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    Adriana Abril

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available La efectividad de la inoculación con Azospirillum spp. en condiciones de campo a menudo es poco consistente. La colonización de la rizosfera por las bacterias del inoculante es un prerrequisito para el éxito de la inoculación. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el grado de colonización de raíces en 11 ensayos de campo con diferentes tratamientos (localidades, cepas, cultivos, cultivares, etc. en la Región semiárida central de la Argentina. Todos los ensayos se realizaron con similar diseño experimental y metodología de análisis para permitir su comparación. El grado de colonización mostró alta variabilidad entre los casos analizados (CV 173%, rango: -18 a >100%. Sólo 11 de los 32 casos analizados presentaron diferencias significativas entre el tratamiento inoculado y el control. No se detectó un patrón definido que permita explicar la alta heterogeneidad de los resultados, sin embargo, se podría especular, que los principales factores que pueden haber afectado el grado de colonización son: el estrés hídrico y el origen de las cepas del inoculante. Bajo condiciones de estrés puede existir una fuerte competencia entre las poblaciones rizosféricas, situación en la cual, las cepas nativas tienen ventaja por su mayor adaptación al medio.The effectivity of inoculation with Azospirillum spp. often lacks consistency under field conditions. Microbial colonization of the rhizosphere is considered a prerequisite for successful inoculation. The objective of this study was to determine the degree of rhizosphere colonization in 11 field inoculation assays under different treatments (sites, crops, strains, cultivars, etc. performed in the semiarid central region of Argentina in the last 15 years, conforming a total of 32 study cases. For comparative purposes, all the assays were performed following the same experimental design and inoculation and analytic methods. Variation results relative to control treatment were clustered

  13. Hand carriage of Candida species and risk factors in hospital personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Mustafa; Sahin, Idris; Kucukbayrak, Abdulkadir; Ozdemir, Davut; Tevfik Yavuz, M; Oksuz, Sukru; Cakir, Selma

    2007-05-01

    The hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) are considered to be important for colonisation and infection of Candida spp. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of Candida carriage on the hands of the hospital personnel the potential risk factors. Samples were collected from the hands of 214 (139 female and 75 male) hospital personnel working at Duzce Medical Faculty Hospital, Duzce, Turkey. Of these, 88 were nurses, 62 resident doctors, 21 laboratory workers, 30 officers and 13 dining room personnel. The hands of all participants were tested by culture with the broth wash technique. Overall, 34.1% of the people analysed were found to harbour Candida spp. on their hands: 30.7% were nurses, 25.8% resident doctors, 28.6% laboratory workers, 84.6% dining room personnel and 43.3% officers. Candida carriage rates of the dining room personnel were higher than found in the other groups (P = 0.001). Isolated Candida species were C. parapsilosis (38.4%), C. tropicalis (26.0%), C. albicans (23.3%), C. kefyr (11.0%) and C. globosa (1.4%). Candida carriage rate was higher in the glove-using group (35.1%) than the non-glove using group (7.1%, P = 0.031). We concluded that carriage of Candida species on the hands of personnel was common especially in non-medical staff. Wearing gloves was found to be related to increased rates of Candida carriage in the nurse group. Candida parapsilosis was the most frequently colonising species that may be a predisposing condition for nosocomial infections transmitted with the hands of HCWs. Hospital personnel should be educated for regular hand washing practice for preventing Candida colonisation.

  14. High throughput multiplex-PCR for direct detection and diagnosis of dermatophyte species, Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis in clinical specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidnia, Ali; Bekers, Wouter; Bliekendaal, Harry; Spaargaren, Joke

    2015-06-01

    We have developed and validated a multiplex-PCR method for detection of dermatophyte spp., Candida albicans and parapsilosis for routine diagnostics. Our m-PCR showed excellent concordance with culture results in 475 clinical samples. Through the rapid diagnosis by our m-PCR, clinicians are able to initiate adequate antimycotic therapy much earlier.

  15. Candida colonization and species identification by two methods in NICU newborn

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    Narges Sadat Taherzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the last two decades invasive candidiasis has become an increasing problem in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. Colonization of skin and mucous membranes with Candida spp. is important factor in the pathogenesis of neonatal infection and several colonized sites are major risk factors evoking higher frequencies of progression to invasive candidiasis. The aim of this study was to detect Candida colonization in NICU patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 93 neonates in NICUs at Imam Khomeini and Children Medical Center Hospitals in Tehran. Cutaneous and mucous membrane samples obtained at first, third, and seventh days of patients’ stay in NICUs during nine months from August 2013 to May 2014. The samples were primarily cultured on CHROMagar Candida medium. The cultured media were incubated at 35°C for 48h and evaluated based on colony color produced on CHROMagar Candida. In addition, isolated colonies were cultured on Corn Meal Agar medium supplemented with tween 80 for identification of Candida spp. based on their morphology. Finally, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method was performed for definite identification of isolated species. Results: Colonization by Candida spp. was occurred in 20.43% of neonates. Fifteen and four patients colonized with one and two different Candida spp., respectively. Isolated Candida spp. identified as; C. parapsilosis (n: 10, C. albicans (n: 7, C. tropicalis (n: 3, C. guilliermondii (n: 2, and C. krusei (n: 1. In present study non-albicans Candia species were dominant (69.56% and C. parapsilosis was the most frequent isolate (43.47%. Using Fisher's exact test, the correlation between fungal colonization with low birth weight, low gestational age, and duration of hospital stay was found to be statistically significant (P=0.003. Conclusion: The results of this study imply to the candida species colonization of neonates

  16. Espondilodiscitis y absceso epidural candidiásico Candida spondylodiscitis and epidural abscess

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    La espondilodiscitis candidiásica asociada a absceso epidural es una enfermedad de aparición excepcional. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con linfoma de Hodgkin en tratamiento quimioterápico que desarrolló candidiasis sistémica complicada con espondilodiscitis y absceso epidural por dicho germen.Candida spondylodiscitis associatd with epidural abscess is rarely seen. We present a patient with Hodgkin lymphoma who received chemotherapy and developed systemic Candida infection, which was com...

  17. Espondilodiscitis y absceso epidural candidiásico Candida spondylodiscitis and epidural abscess

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    Gisela Di Stilio

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available La espondilodiscitis candidiásica asociada a absceso epidural es una enfermedad de aparición excepcional. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con linfoma de Hodgkin en tratamiento quimioterápico que desarrolló candidiasis sistémica complicada con espondilodiscitis y absceso epidural por dicho germen.Candida spondylodiscitis associatd with epidural abscess is rarely seen. We present a patient with Hodgkin lymphoma who received chemotherapy and developed systemic Candida infection, which was complicated by Candida spondylodiscitis and epidural abscess.

  18. Arcobacter spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Filipović, Ivana; Zdolec, Nevijo; Benussi Skukan, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Bakterije roda Arcobacter pripadaju porodici Campylobacteriaceae, no od Campylobacter vrsta razlikuje se po sposobnosti rasta na 15 °C i u aerobnim uvjetima. Ove bakterije izolirane su iz oboljelih životinja, ljudi, ali i s trupova životinja nakon klaoničke obrade, te svježeg mesa, kao i vode. Farmske životinje, posebice perad, smatraju se rezervoarima bakterije. Razvijene su različite mikrobiološke metode za izolaciju Arcobacter spp., ali standardni protokol još uvijek ne postoji. Za brzu i ...

  19. Parámetros hematológicos y bioquímicos en el hámster dorado (Mesocricetus auratus L. alimentado con base en harina de lombriz roja (Eisenia spp. y fuentes convencionales

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    L. Cova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó durante 21 días el efecto de cuatro dietas proteicas con base en harina de Lombriz Roja (Hl (Eisenia spp. (nivel de inclusión de Hl: D1: 21; D2: 24; D3: 27 y D4: 30% y dos alimentos convencionales: Conejarina ® (D0 y Ratarina® (D5 en algunos parámetros hematológicos y bioquímicos en el hámster dorado (Mesocrisetus auratus L. mediante un diseño totalmente aleatorizado para un factor, en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela. El hematocrito (37.65-41.01%, la hemoglobina (10.83-12.25%, la bilirrubina total, directa e indirecta (0.20-0.40; 0.10-0.22; 0.10-0.20mg/ dL, respectivamente, las lipoproteínas de muy baja densidad (Vldl (15.12-41.27mg/dL; los triglicéridos (95.42-190.54mg/dL; así como los valores de Calcio (Ca (9.83-12.32 mg/dL y Potasio (4.24-5.43mg/dL no exhibieron diferencias significativas entre dietas (P>0,05. Los leucocitos (Lto, las plaquetas (Plq, el conteo diferencial (neutrófilos/linfocitos (Linf/eosinófilos, la glicemia (Glc, la amilasa, el colesterol total, las lipoproteínas de elevada (Hdl y baja densidad y el Fósforo mostraron variaciones sustanciales entre los tratamientos (P<0,05. Los niveles crecientes de proteína de las dietas no afectaron los parámetros evaluados. Sin embargo, se observó una relación negativa entre la inclusión de Hl y las cantidades de Lto (r=-0.76**, Plq (r=-0.76**, Linf (r=-0.71**, Glc (r=-0.58* y Hdl (r=-0.50*. La adición de hl en proporciones de 24, 27 y 30% para obtener alimentos formulados entre 13.5 y 19.6% de proteína, para M. auratus, afecta algunos de los parámetros hematológicos y la concentración sérica de metabolitos relacionados con la composición nutricional de la dieta.

  20. Candida/Candida biofilms. First description of dual-species Candida albicans/C. rugosa biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Aline Oliveira; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida Martins; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Abrão, Fariza; Moraes, Thais de; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2016-04-01

    Denture liners have physical properties that favour plaque accumulation and colonization by Candida species, irritating oral tissues and causing denture stomatitis. To isolate and determine the incidence of oral Candida species in dental prostheses, oral swabs were collected from the dental prostheses of 66 patients. All the strains were screened for their ability to form biofilms; both monospecies and dual-species combinations were tested. Candida albicans (63 %) was the most frequently isolated microorganism; Candida tropicalis (14 %), Candida glabrata (13 %), Candida rugosa (5 %), Candida parapsilosis (3 %), and Candida krusei (2 %) were also detected. The XTT assay showed that C. albicans SC5314 possessed a biofilm-forming ability significantly higher (p albicans Candida strains, after 6 h 37 °C. The total C. albicans CFU from a dual-species biofilm was less than the total CFU of a monospecies C. albicans biofilm. In contrast to the profuse hyphae verified in monospecies C. albicans biofilms, micrographies showed that the C. albicans/non-albicans Candida biofilms consisted of sparse yeast forms and profuse budding yeast cells that generated a network. These results suggested that C. albicans and the tested Candida species could co-exist in biofilms displaying apparent antagonism. The study provide the first description of C. albicans/C. rugosa mixed biofilm.

  1. Description of Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. for placement of Candida auringiensis, Candida salmanticensis and Candida tartarivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2016-07-01

    DNA sequence analyses have demonstrated that species of the polyphyletic anamorphic ascomycete genus Candida may be members of described teleomorphic genera, members of the Candida tropicalis clade upon which the genus Candida is circumscribed, or members of isolated clades that represent undescribed genera. From phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences from nuclear large subunit rRNA, mitochondrial small subunit rRNA and cytochrome oxidase II, Candida auringiensis (NRRL Y-17674(T), CBS 6913(T)), Candida salmanticensis (NRRL Y-17090(T), CBS 5121(T)), and Candida tartarivorans (NRRL Y-27291(T), CBS 7955(T)) were shown to be members of an isolated clade and are proposed for reclassification in the genus Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. (MycoBank MB 815817). Neighbouring taxa include species of the Wickerhamiella clade and Candida blankii.

  2. Missed abortion complicated by Candida infection in a woman with rested IUD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, L C; Nenoff, P; Ziegert, M; Höckel, M

    2001-01-01

    Although Candida species are frequent saprophytes of the female genital tract, chorioamnionitis or intrauterine fetal infections are rarely caused by these fungi. The present report describes a 34-year-old woman G2, P2, presenting with vaginal bleeding in the 11.6 weeks of gestation. Clinical and sonographic examination revealed a missed abortion and rested IUD. Histopathologically, a fungal chorioamnionitis due to Candida spp. was found at the curetting material, confirmed by detection of C. albicans infection on mycological culture. Foreign intrauterine bodies, like IUD's and cerclage sutures predispose to fungal chorioamnitis or fetal infections. This conditions urge repetetive search for Candida spp. to establish early anti-fungal therapy which may be therapeutic for this hithero rare intrauterine infection.

  3. In vitro and in vivo activity of a novel antifungal small molecule against Candida infections.

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    Sarah Sze Wah Wong

    Full Text Available Candida is the most common fungal pathogen of humans worldwide and has become a major clinical problem because of the growing number of immunocompromised patients, who are susceptible to infection. Moreover, the number of available antifungals is limited, and antifungal-resistant Candida strains are emerging. New and effective antifungals are therefore urgently needed. Here, we discovered a small molecule with activity against Candida spp. both in vitro and in vivo. We screened a library of 50,240 small molecules for inhibitors of yeast-to-hypha transition, a major virulence attribute of Candida albicans. This screening identified 20 active compounds. Further examination of the in vitro antifungal and anti-biofilm properties of these compounds, using a range of Candida spp., led to the discovery of SM21, a highly potent antifungal molecule (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 0.2-1.6 µg/ml. In vitro, SM21 was toxic to fungi but not to various human cell lines or bacterial species and was active against Candida isolates that are resistant to existing antifungal agents. Moreover, SM21 was relatively more effective against biofilms of Candida spp. than the current antifungal agents. In vivo, SM21 prevented the death of mice in a systemic candidiasis model and was also more effective than the common antifungal nystatin at reducing the extent of tongue lesions in a mouse model of oral candidiasis. Propidium iodide uptake assay showed that SM21 affected the integrity of the cell membrane. Taken together, our results indicate that SM21 has the potential to be developed as a novel antifungal agent for clinical use.

  4. Eficacia in vitro de la moxifloxacina frente a Candida albicans en enfermedad periodontal

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    C.M. Ardila Medina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La periodontitis crónica está asociada a una compleja y diversa flora microbiana que incluye posiblemente especies de Candida. Objetivo: Evaluar la presencia de Candida y su susceptibilidad in vitro a la moxifloxacina en pacientes con periodontitis crónica. Materiales y métodos: Se usó una técnica de diluciones seriales para evaluar la susceptibilidad de la Candida a la moxifloxacina. Se utilizó el porcentaje de individuos con al menos una bolsa infectada para describir la presencia de individuos positivos a especies de Candida. Resultados y conclusiones: se detectaron especies de Candida en 13,2% de 76 pacientes con periodontitis crónica. La moxifloxacina inhibió significativamente el crecimiento de Candida (90%. La moxifloxacina puede ser una buena alternativa para el tratamiento de Candida debido a que en situaciones específicas la sobreinfección por este microorganismo puede responder inadecuadamente a tratamientos periodontales convencionales.

  5. Candida parapsilosis prosthetic valve endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Pinto, André; Ferraz, Rita; Casanova, Jorge; Sarmento, António; Santos, Lurdes

    2015-01-01

    Candida endocarditis is a rare infection associated with high mortality and morbidity. There are still some controversies about Candida endocarditis treatment, especially about the treatment duration. We report a case of a Candida parapsilosis endocarditis that presented as a lower limb ischemia. The patient was surgically treated with a cryopreserved homograft aortic replacement. We used intravenous fluconazole 800 mg as initial treatment, followed with 12 months of 400 mg fluconazole per os. The patient outcome was good. PMID:26288749

  6. Candida's arranged marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, N A; Brown, A J; Odds, F C

    2000-07-14

    Biologists who study the fungus Candida albicans have always assumed that this organism reproduces asexually because they have not found evidence of mating, meiosis, or a haploid stage of the life cycle. However, as Gow et al. explain in a Perspective, sequencing of the C. albicans genome has revealed the existence of a possible mating type locus. This finding has now been extended to demonstrate actual mating in the fungus (Hull et al., Magee and Magee).

  7. Clinical significance of the isolation of Candida species from hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Yankee C; Bomfim, Maria Rosa Q; Melônio, Luciane C; Ribeiro, Patrícia C S; Cosme, Lécia M; Rhoden, Cristianne R; Marques, Sirlei G

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we isolated and phenotypically identified 108 yeast strains from various clinical specimens collected from 100 hospitalized patients at three tertiary hospitals in São Luís-Maranhão, Brazil, from July to December 2010. The isolates were analyzed for their susceptibility to four of the most widely used antifungal agents in the surveyed hospitals, amphotericin B, fluconazole, 5-flucytosine and voriconazole. The species identified were Candida albicans (41.4%), Candida tropicalis (30.1%), C. glabrata (7.4%), Candida parapsilosis (5.5%), Candida krusei (4.6%), Cryptococcus neoformans (4.6%), Trichosporon spp . (3.7%), Candida norvegensis (0.9%), Rhodotorula glutinis (0.9%) and Pichia farinosa (0.9%). A higher isolation rate was observed in the following clinical specimens: urine (54 isolates; 50%), respiratory tract samples (21 isolates; 19.4%) and blood (20 isolates; 18.6%). Candida albicans isolates were 100% sensitive to all antifungal agents tested, whereas Candida krusei and Crytococcus neoformans displayed intermediate resistance to 5-flucytosine, with Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of 8 mg/mL and 16 mg/mL, respectively. Both strains were also S-DD to fluconazole with an MIC of 16 mg/mL. C. tropicalis was resistant to 5-flucytosine with an MIC of 32 μg/mL. This study demonstrates the importance of identifying the yeast species involved in community and nosocomial infections.

  8. Ammonium assimilation by Candida albicans and other yeasts: evidence for activity of glutamate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, A R; Collings, A; Farnden, K J; Shepherd, M G

    1989-06-01

    Activities and properties of the ammonium assimilation enzymes NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamate synthase (GOGAT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) were determined in batch and continuous cultures of Candida albicans. NADP+-dependent GDH activity showed allosteric kinetics, with an S0.5 for 2-oxoglutarate of 7.5 mM and an apparent Km for ammonium of 5.0 mM. GOGAT activity was affected by the buffer used for extraction and assay, but in phosphate buffer, kinetics were hyperbolic, yielding Km values for glutamine of 750 microM and for 2-oxoglutarate of 65 microM. The enzymes GOGAT and NADP+-dependent GDH were also assayed in batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and three other pathogenic Candida spp.: Candida tropicalis, Candida pseudotropicalis and Candida parapsilosis. Evidence is presented that GS/GOGAT is a major pathway for ammonium assimilation in Candida albicans and that this pathway is also significant in other Candida species.

  9. Identificación, establecimiento in vitro y análisis fitoquímico preliminar de especies silvestres de ñame (Dioscorea spp. empleadas con fines medicinales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Andrés Ramos Duarte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Identification, in vitro establishment and preliminary phytochemical analysis of wild yam (Dioscorea spp. used for medicinal purposesTítulo corto: Identificación, establecimiento in vitro y análisis fitoquímico preliminar de especies silvestres de ñameResumen:  Tubérculos del género Dioscorea comercializados con fines medicinales, fueron recolectados con el propósito de lograr su establecimiento a condiciones in vitro. Previamente se lograron identificar taxonómicamente las especies y por medio de análisis fitoquímicos demostrar su potencial farmacéutico. El material recolectado fue identificado como Dioscorea coriacea, D. lehmannii, D. meridensis, D. polygonoides y una especie comestible D. trifida. Tubérculos recolectados de centros de acopio y traídos de campo fueron lavados, desinfectados, asperjados con Ácido Giberélico (AG3 y sembrados en sustrato BM-2®, en invernadero a 18°C día y 10°C noche. Los tubérculos completos o por secciones fueron almacenados en bolsas herméticas a temperatura ambiente. Posteriormente se desinfectó material vegetal de las especies D. coriacea, D. lehmannii, D. meridensis y D polygonoides, seleccionando explantes de brotes sanos (D. coriacea / laboratorio para su establecimiento. Se evaluaron tres medios de cultivo para establecimiento, el que presentó los mejores resultados fue Medio Murashige & Skoog (1962 suplementado con BAP 1 mL/L, AG3 1 mL/L y Putrescina 2 mL/L. Para la extracción y análisis de metabolitos secundarios se utilizaron tubérculos de D. coriacea, D. lehmannii y D. polygonoides, empleando como solvente de extracción metanol. Se  encontró mayor concentración de extracto vegetal en D. coriacea (54%, y mediante cromatografía en capa delgada (CCD, se confirmó la presencia de saponinas, que resultó mayor en comparación con D. polygonoides especie reconocida por su alto contenido de saponinas. Estos resultados permitirán realizar análisis m

  10. Global Surveillance of In Vitro Activity of Micafungin against Candida: a Comparison with Caspofungin by CLSI-Recommended Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M. A.; Boyken, L.; Hollis, R. J.; Messer, S. A.; Tendolkar, S.; Diekema, D. J.

    2006-01-01

    Micafungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent that has recently been approved for the prevention of invasive fungal infection and the treatment of esophageal candidiasis. Prospective sentinel surveillance for the emergence of in vitro resistance to micafungin among invasive Candida sp. isolates is indicated. We determined the in vitro activity of micafungin against 2,656 invasive (bloodstream or sterile site) unique patient isolates of Candida spp. collected from 60 medical centers worldwide in 2004 and 2005. We performed antifungal susceptibility testing according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A2 method and used a 24-hour prominent inhibition endpoint for determination of the MIC. Caspofungin was tested in parallel against all isolates. Of 2,656 invasive Candida sp. isolates, species distribution was 55.6% Candida albicans, 14.4% Candida parapsilosis, 13.4% Candida glabrata, 10.1% Candida tropicalis, 2.4% Candida krusei, 1.7% Candida guilliermondii, 0.9% Candida lusitaniae, 0.6% Candida kefyr, and 0.9% other Candida species. Overall, micafungin was very active against Candida (MIC50/MIC at which 90% of the isolates tested are inhibited [MIC90], 0.015/1 μg/ml; 96% inhibited at a MIC of ≤1 μg/ml, 100% inhibited at a MIC of ≤2 μg/ml) and comparable to caspofungin (MIC50/MIC90, 0.03/0.25 μg/ml; 99% inhibited at a MIC of ≤2 μg/ml). Results by species, expressed as MIC50/MIC90 (micrograms per milliliter), were as follows: C. albicans, 0.015/0.03; C. glabrata, 0.015/0.015; C. tropicalis, 0.03/0.06; C. krusei, 0.06/0.12; C. kefyr, 0.06/0.06; C. parapsilosis, 1/2; C. guilliermondii, 0.5/1; C. lusitaniae, 0.12/0.25; other Candida spp., 0.25/1. Although the species distribution varied considerably among the different geographic regions, there was no difference in micafungin activity across the regions. Micafungin has excellent in vitro activity against invasive clinical isolates of Candida from centers worldwide. PMID:17021079

  11. Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum isolated from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, R M; Ahearn, D G

    1983-11-01

    Ten clinical yeast isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control from diverse geographic areas were identified as Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum. The association of C. ciferrii with clinical specimens, particularly its repeated isolation from a case of onychomycosis, suggests that this species may be an etiological agent of superficial yeast infections.

  12. Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum Isolated from Clinical Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Ten clinical yeast isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control from diverse geographic areas were identified as Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum. The association of C. ciferrii with clinical specimens, particularly its repeated isolation from a case of onychomycosis, suggests that this species may be an etiological agent of superficial yeast infections.

  13. Hichrom candida agar for identification of candida species

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    Baradkar V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromogenic media are frequently used in direct and rapid identification of yeasts because different Candida species produce unique colors on these media. We used 60 isolates of Candida species including 30 C. albicans, 10 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. glabrata, five C. tropicalis, and four C. dubliniensis, isolated from various clinical specimens, to evaluate the performance of HiChrome Candida agar. These strains had been identified by germ tube test, morphology on cornmeal agar, chlamydospore formation on tobacco agar and sugar assimilation tests. The sensitivity and specificity results were: C. albicans (96.55 and 96.42%; C. parapsilosis (80 and 98.03%, C. glabrata (90.90 and 88.23%, C. tropicalis (100 and 100% and C. dubliniensis (60 and 96.55% respectively. HiChrom Candida agaris medium has been useful and capable of presumptive, rapid identification of Candida species within 48 hours.

  14. Isavuconazole and nine comparator antifungal susceptibility profiles for common and uncommon Candida species collected in 2012: application of new CLSI clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Mariana; Messer, Shawn A; Rhomberg, Paul R; Dietrich, Rachel R; Jones, Ronald N; Pfaller, Michael A

    2014-08-01

    The in vitro activity of isavuconazole and nine antifungal comparator agents was assessed using reference broth microdilution methods against 1,421 common and uncommon species of Candida from a 2012 global survey. Isolates were identified using CHROMagar, biochemical methods and sequencing of ITS and/or 28S regions. Candida spp. were classified as either susceptible or resistant and as wild type (WT) or non-WT using CLSI clinical breakpoints or epidemiological cutoff values, respectively, for the antifungal agents. Isolates included 1,421 organisms from 21 different species of Candida. Among Candida spp., resistance to all 10 tested antifungal agents was low (0.0-7.9 %). The vast majority of each species of Candida, with the exception of Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, and Candida guilliermondii (modal MICs of 0.5 µg/ml), were inhibited by ≤0.12 µg/ml of isavuconazole (99.0 %; range 94.3 % [Candida tropicalis] to 100.0 % [Candida lusitaniae and Candida dubliniensis]). C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. guilliermondii were largely inhibited by ≤1 µg/ml of isavuconazole (89.7, 96.9 and 92.8 %, respectively). Decreased susceptibility to isavuconazole was most prominent with C. glabrata where the modal MIC for isavuconazole was 0.5 µg/ml for those strains that were SDD to fluconazole or WT to voriconazole, and was 4 µg/ml for those that were either resistant or non-WT to fluconazole or voriconazole, respectively. In conclusion, these data document the activity of isavuconazole and generally the low resistance levels to the available antifungal agents in a large, contemporary (2012), global collection of molecularly characterized species of Candida.

  15. Candida infections : detection and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, A. (Annemarie)

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that the yeast Candida is the number 4 cause of bloodstream infections in the United States and ranks number 8 in Europe, adequate detection methods are lacking. Furthermore, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of Candida. Our aim was to improve the detection and ident

  16. Aislamiento, purificación y caracterización de la nucleósido difosfato quinasa del hongo patógeno Candida albicans : Comparación con otras especies

    OpenAIRE

    Biondi, Ricardo M

    1996-01-01

    La enzima nucleósido difosfato quinasa (NDP quinasa) es ubicua y cataliza la síntesis de NTPs a partir de sus correspondientes NDPs y un NTP dador (fisiológicamente el ATP). La reacción sigue una cinética de ping-pong con la formación del intermediario de alta energía (P)NDP quinasa. Aparte de su rol fundamental en la síntesis de NTPs, se ha relacionado a esta enzima con a) la activación de proteínas G en la transducción de señales, b) la diferenciación de Drosophila y distintas líneas celula...

  17. Candida peritonitis in dogs: report of 5 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Katy; Meinkoth, Jim; McKeirnen, Kelci; Love, Brenda

    2013-06-01

    Candida peritonitis is reported in people and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality compared with sterile or bacterial peritonitis. Recognized predisposing risk factors include peritoneal dialysis, hollow viscous organ perforation, abdominal surgery, inflamed intestinal mucosa, antimicrobial administration, and immunosuppression. In this report, we describe 5 cases of dogs with peritonitis complicated by Candida spp; 3 dogs with C albicans, one dog with C albicans and C glabrata, and one dog with C glabrata only. The 3 dogs with C albicans peritonitis presented with duodenal perforation due to NSAID therapy, intestinal resection and anastomosis following postspay-surgery dehiscence, and intestinal foreign body removal. The 2 dogs with C glabrata peritonitis had undergone cholecystectomy due to gall bladder rupture and dehiscence of intestinal biopsy removal sites following exploratory laparatomy. In all cases, initial diagnosis of fungal peritonitis was made via cytologic examination of peritoneal effusions, which revealed marked pyogranulomatous inflammation with numerous 3-8 μm oval, deeply basophilic yeast organisms with thin clear capsules noted within phagocytes and extracellularly. In addition, germ tube formation, hyphae, and pseudohyphae were rarely seen in some of the cases with pure C albicans. Identity of the organisms was determined by culture in all cases and confirmed by PCR in 3 cases. Candida spp. are commensals normally inhabiting the alimentary, the upper respiratory, and the lower urogenital tracts of mammals. They are opportunistic pathogens that can invade and colonize tissue when a patient is immune-compromised or there is disruption of the mucosal barrier. Candida peritonitis should be considered in patients with peritoneal contamination with gastrointestinal or biliary contents.

  18. Pyrosequencing analysis of 20 nucleotides of internal transcribed spacer 2 discriminates Candida parapsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, and Candida orthopsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Andrew M; Linton, Christopher J; Oliver, Debra; Palmer, Michael D; Szekely, Adrien; Odds, Frank C; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2009-07-01

    Two new cryptic sister species, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, were recently identified by consistent DNA sequence differences among several genes within the genetically heterogeneous Candida parapsilosis complex. Here, we present data demonstrating that Pyrosequencing analysis of 20 nucleotides of internal transcribed spacer region 2 rapidly and robustly distinguishes between these three closely related Candida species.

  19. Brazilian Green Propolis Compared to Miconazole Gel in the Treatment of Candida-Associated Denture Stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermínia Marques Capistrano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the efficacy of Brazilian green propolis in comparison to miconazole gel in the treatment of Candida-associated denture stomatitis. Methods. Forty-five denture stomatitis patients, with palatal mucosa erythema levels classified according to Newtons’s criteria and with positive culture to Candida spp., were randomly divided into three treatment groups: 15 received miconazole gel 2%, 15 received propolis gel 2,5%, and 15 received propolis 24% for mouthwash. After four daily use lasting two weeks, they were reexamined for the denture stomatitis degree and for a second culture of Candida. The Wilcoxon’s test was applied to compare the results of clinical classification of the denture stomatitis and the Candida spp. colonies numbers, before and after each treatment. The Kruskall-Wallis’s test was used to compare efficacy among the three treatment groups. Results. There were a significant reduction or complete remission of denture stomatitis (P0.05. Conclusion. Brazilian green propolis has a similar effect as miconazole in the treatment of Candida-associated denture stomatitis being an alternative in the therapeutics of this condition.

  20. Brazilian green propolis compared to miconazole gel in the treatment of Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capistrano, Hermínia Marques; de Assis, Eliene Magda; Leal, Rosana Maria; Alvarez-Leite, Maria Eugênia; Brener, Sylvie; Bastos, Esther Margarida Alves Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the efficacy of Brazilian green propolis in comparison to miconazole gel in the treatment of Candida-associated denture stomatitis. Methods. Forty-five denture stomatitis patients, with palatal mucosa erythema levels classified according to Newtons's criteria and with positive culture to Candida spp., were randomly divided into three treatment groups: 15 received miconazole gel 2%, 15 received propolis gel 2,5%, and 15 received propolis 24% for mouthwash. After four daily use lasting two weeks, they were reexamined for the denture stomatitis degree and for a second culture of Candida. The Wilcoxon's test was applied to compare the results of clinical classification of the denture stomatitis and the Candida spp. colonies numbers, before and after each treatment. The Kruskall-Wallis's test was used to compare efficacy among the three treatment groups. Results. There were a significant reduction or complete remission of denture stomatitis (P 0.05). Conclusion. Brazilian green propolis has a similar effect as miconazole in the treatment of Candida-associated denture stomatitis being an alternative in the therapeutics of this condition.

  1. Investigation of ERG11 gene expression among fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans: first report from an Iranian referral paediatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymuri, M; Mamishi, S; Pourakbari, B; Mahmoudi, S; Ashtiani, M T; Sadeghi, R H; Yadegari, M H

    2015-01-01

    The multiplicity of mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents has been described. As fluconazole-resistant clinical Candida albicans isolates that constitutively over-express ERG11 have been identified in previous studies, the aim of this study is to investigate this molecular mechanism involved in fluconazole resistance of C. albicans clinical isolates. Fluconazole susceptibility testing was carried out on clinical isolates of Candida spp. obtained from hospitalised children in an Iranian referral children's hospital. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique was used to differentiate Candida spp. The resistant C. albicans isolates were subjected to RT-qPCR using primers that identify ERG11 gene expression. Of the 142 Candida spp. isolates studied, C. albicans was the most predominant isolate, occurring in 68.3% (97/142) of the patients. According to the CLSI method, the majority of the C. albicans isolates (91.7%, 89/97), categorised as susceptible (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≤8 μg/mL), five isolates were considered resistant (MIC ≤64 μg/mL) and three had dose-dependent susceptibility (MIC = 8.16-32 μg/mL). The ERG11 gene in the five fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates was upregulated 4.15-5.84-fold relative to the ATCC 10231 control strain. In this study, the expression of ERG11 was upregulated in all the fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates. There are limited data on the antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. as well as the molecular mechanism of azole resistance in Iran, especially for isolates causing infections in children. Therefore, the surveillance of antifungal resistance patterns and investigation of other mechanisms of azole resistance in all Candida spp. isolates is recommended.

  2. Candida colonization of the vagina of HIV-seropositive pregnant women and their seronegative counterparts at selected health-care centers in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

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    Blessing Itohan Ebhodaghe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida colonization of the vagina is a risk factor in pregnancy. Candida isolates have been implicated in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The study determined the incidence of Candida species recovered from the vagina of HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative pregnant women that attended antenatal clinics in Akure, Ondo State between November 2014 and December 2015. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty pregnant women aged 19–43 participated in the study, which included 114 HIV-seropositive subjects with mean age 31.81 years and 126 HIV-seronegative subjects with mean age 29.05 years as controls. High vaginal swab was collected from each subject using sterile cotton-tipped applicator, streaked onto Mycological Agar - supplemented with streptomycin. Each sample was incubated 24 h for yeast and 72–120 h for the growth of molds. Yeast colonies that grew on Mycological Agar were picked and studied. Thereafter, colonies resembling Candida were identified using sugar assimilation and fermentation. Candida isolates were further speciated using Candida Ident Agar, modified. Antifungal resistance profile was identified with azoles, polyenes, echinocandins, flucytosine, and griseofulvin drugs. Antifungal resistant assay was determined by disc and agar well diffusion. Results: Altogether, 157 Candida isolates were recovered from HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative subjects. Candida albicans constituted 46.5%, Candida dubliniensis and Candida glabrata 15.3% each, Candida krusei 12.1%, Candida spp. 5.7%, and Candida tropicalis and Candida pseudotropicalis 2.5% each. Antifungal resistance was widespread with azoles, polyenes, echinocandins, flucytosine, and griseofulvin. Conclusion: C. albicans was the predominant isolate recovered (17.2% HIV-seropositive and 29.3% HIV-seronegative subjects. Widespread antifungal resistance seems high and suggests possible abuse of these drugs.

  3. Neonatal Candida arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal arthritis is an uncommon yet serious disorder in the newborn. Delay in diagnosis and management can lead to significant morbidity. We report our experience with management of two such cases. Two preterm neonates with multifocal arthritis caused by Candida were studied. Diagnosis was made by clinical examination, laboratory investigations, radiological investigations and culture. Both were treated by aspiration, arthrotomy and antifungal therapy. One patient recovered fully from the infection while the other had growth disturbances resulting in limb length inequality at recent followup. Prompt and expeditious evacuation of pus from joints and antifungal therapy is imperative for treatment. Associated osteomyelitis leads to further difficulty in treatment.

  4. Antifungal Drug Susceptibility of Candida Species Isolated from HIV-Positive Patients Recruited at a Public Hospital in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terças, Ana L. G.; Marques, Sirlei G.; Moffa, Eduardo B.; Alves, Márcia B.; de Azevedo, Conceição M. P. S.; Siqueira, Walter L.; Monteiro, Cristina A.

    2017-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common fungal infection in hospitalized patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Its progression results in invasive infections, which are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to quickly and accurately identify Candida spp. from oral mucosa of AIDS patients recruited at Presidente Vargas Hospital, in São Luís city, Brazil and to evaluate the sensitivity profile of these fungi to antifungals by using an automated system. Isolates were collected from oropharyngeal mucosa of 52 hospitalized AIDS patients, under anti-viral and antifungal therapies. Patients were included in research if they were HIV-positive, above 18 years of age and after obtaining their written consent. CHROMagar®Candida and the automated ViteK-2®system were used to isolate and identify Candida spp., respectively. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed using the ViteK-2®system, complemented with the Etest®, using the drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, flucytosine, and voriconazole. Oropharyngeal candidiasis had a high prevalence in these hospitalized AIDS patients (83%), and the most prevalent species was Candida albicans (56%). Antifungal susceptibility test showed that 64.7% of the Candida spp. were susceptible, 11.8% were dose-dependent sensitive, and 23.5% were resistant. All the Candida krusei and Candida famata isolates and two of Candida glabrata were resistant to fluconazole. Most of AIDS patients presented oropharyngeal candidiasis and C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species. The results showed high variability in resistance among isolated species and indicates the need to identify the Candida spp. involved in the infection and the need to test antifungal susceptibility as a guide in drug therapy in patients hospitalized with AIDS. This is the first relate about AIDS patients monitoring in a public hospital in São Luís concerning the precise identification and establishing of

  5. [Neonatal Candida infections and the antifungal susceptibilities of the related Candida species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuncu, Emel; Bilgen, Hülya; Cerikçioğlu, Nilgün; Ilki, Arzu; Ulger, Nurver; Bakır, Mustafa; Akman, Ipek; Ozek, Eren

    2010-10-01

    Among nosocomial infections in the newborns, the incidence of fungal infections has been rising over the last decades. Fluconazole has been a new option for treatment however, expanded use of the drug brought up the development of resistance. In this study, species of the Candida isolates from neonates with candida infections, their antifungal susceptibilities and the effectiveness of the therapy were evaluated. All the species of Candida isolates from blood, urine and sterile body fluids of 54 neonates and their antifungal susceptibilities were evaluated retrospectively over the 13-year period. Demographic characteristics, risk factors, infection foci, Candida species causing infection and their in vitro susceptibilities for fluconazole (FCZ) and amphotericin B (AMB) and treatment responses were analyzed. The antifungal susceptibility testing of isolates was performed by microdilution technique. The median birth weight and gestational age of the study groups were 1735 (660-3990) g and 33 (24-40) weeks, respectively. Among the patients, 19 (35%) were term, while 35 (65%) were preterm [Candida spp. were isolated mostly from blood samples (63%), followed by urine (46%), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; 5%), peritoneal fluid (3%) and endotracheal aspirate (2%). Multifocal growth was determined in 10 (18%) cases. The isolated species were C.albicans (n =36) as being the most common isolate followed by C.parapsilosis (n = 12), C.tropicalis (n = 1), C.kefyr (n = 1), C.lusitaniae (n = 1), C.pelluculosa (n = 1) and Candida spp. (n = 2). Prior antibiotic use, long term hospitalization, total parenteral nutrition and use of lipid solutions, prematurity and catheter use were determined as the most frequently associated factors causing candidal infections. A congenital abnormality, mainly myeloschisis and hydrocephaly, was detected in 18 (33%) of the cases. Overall FCZ resistance rate was 5.5% and the rate of resistance according to the species was 2.8% for C.albicans and 11% for non

  6. GENOTYPING Candida albicans FROM CANDIDA LEUKOPLAKIA AND NON-CANDIDA LEUKOPLAKIA SHOWS NO ENRICHMENT OF MULTILOCUS SEQUENCE TYPING CLADES BUT ENRICHMENT OF ABC GENOTYPE C IN CANDIDA LEUKOPLAKIA

    OpenAIRE

    MC MANUS, BRENDA; Coleman, David

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED Oral leukoplakias are histopathologically-diagnosed as Candida leukoplakia or non-Candida leukoplakia by the presence or absence of hyphae in the superficial epithelium. Candida leukoplakia lesions have significantly increased malignant potential. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species associated with oral leukoplakia and may contribute to malignant transformation of Candida leukoplakia. To date, no detailed population analysis of C. albicans isolates from oral leu...

  7. Genotyping Candida albicans from Candida Leukoplakia and Non-Candida Leukoplakia Shows No Enrichment of Multilocus Sequence Typing Clades but Enrichment of ABC Genotype C in Candida Leukoplakia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed H Abdulrahim; Brenda A McManus; Stephen R Flint; David C Coleman

    2013-01-01

    Oral leukoplakias are histopathologically-diagnosed as Candida leukoplakia or non-Candida leukoplakia by the presence or absence of hyphae in the superficial epithelium. Candida leukoplakia lesions have significantly increased malignant potential. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species associated with oral leukoplakia and may contribute to malignant transformation of Candida leukoplakia. To date, no detailed population analysis of C. albicans isolates from oral leukoplakia pati...

  8. Performance of Five Phenotypical Methods for Identification of Candida Isolates from Clinical Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Zaini

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Although Candida albicans is the most common etiologic agent of candidiasis, C. dubliniensis, has been emerged, as another pathogen resembles C. albicans in many phenotypic aspects and noted for its in vitro potential for fluconazole resistance. Since there was no evidence of any report about detection of this organism in Iran, this study was designed to use of five different tests for identification of Candida species with special reference to C. dubliniensis among 313 suspected Candida isolates in Tehran, capital of Iran. Overall, 199 (63.6% C. albicans and 114 (36.6% Candida spp. were identified. All 199 C. albicans isolates were found germ tube and chlamydospore positive. Different shades of green color colonies were yielded on CHROMagar Candida of which 23 (11.6% showed dark green color indicative of C. dubliniensis. All but four C. albicans isolates grew well at 45 °C. These 4 isolates beyond to 23 dark green colony producers were suspected of being C.dubliniensis, later examined by API 20C AUX system. The results indicated that all 27 isolates were able to assimilate both xylose and α-methyl-D-glucoside, therefore these isolates were identified as C. albicans. Overall, C. dubliniensis had not been found in present study. It must be concluded that no single phenotypic test has proven to be highly effective, and the use of several tests may be necessary of these two closely related Candida species for definitive identification.

  9. Antifungal Activity of 14-Helical β-Peptides against Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Candida Species

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    Namrata Raman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is the most prevalent cause of fungal infections and treatment is further complicated by the formation of drug resistant biofilms, often on the surfaces of implanted medical devices. In recent years, the incidence of fungal infections by other pathogenic Candida species such as C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis has increased. Amphiphilic, helical β-peptide structural mimetics of natural antimicrobial α-peptides have been shown to exhibit specific planktonic antifungal and anti-biofilm formation activity against C. albicans in vitro. Here, we demonstrate that β-peptides are also active against clinically isolated and drug resistant strains of C. albicans and against other opportunistic Candida spp. Different Candida species were susceptible to β-peptides to varying degrees, with C. tropicalis being the most and C. glabrata being the least susceptible. β-peptide hydrophobicity directly correlated with antifungal activity against all the Candida clinical strains and species tested. While β-peptides were largely ineffective at disrupting existing Candida biofilms, hydrophobic β-peptides were able to prevent the formation of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis biofilms. The broad-spectrum antifungal activity of β-peptides against planktonic cells and in preventing biofilm formation suggests the promise of this class of molecules as therapeutics.

  10. An extraction method of positive blood cultures for direct identification of Candida species by Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, Rose-Anne; Chauvin, Pamela; Valentin, Alexis; Fillaux, Judith; Roques-Malecaze, Christine; Arnaud, Sylvie; Menard, Sandie; Magnaval, Jean-François; Berry, Antoine; Cassaing, Sophie; Iriart, Xavier

    2013-08-01

    Candida spp. are an important cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections. Currently, complete identification of yeasts with conventional methods takes several days. We report here the first evaluation of an extraction method associated with the Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry for direct identification of Candida species from positive blood cultures. We evaluated this protocol with blood cultures that were inoculated with reference and routine isolates (eight reference strains, 30 patients isolates and six mixed cultures containing two strains of different Candida species), or from patients with candidemia (28 isolates). This method performed extremely well (97% correct identification) with blood cultures of single Candida spp. and significantly reduced the time of diagnosis. Nevertheless, subculture remains indispensable to test fungal resistance and to detect mixed infections.

  11. QUERATOPATÍA CRISTALINA ATÍPICA POR CANDIDA PARAPSILOSIS

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    Raquel Martínez Chico

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Caso clínicoMujer de 91 años con antecedentes de  queratoplastia penetrante excéntrica. Un año después presentó una gran reacción inflamatoria y un infiltrado corneal de aspecto arboriforme. Se inició tratamiento con vancomicina intravenosa y vancomicina y amikacina intravítreas, tópicas e intracamerulares y se obtuvieron muestras de humor acuoso y del infiltrado corneal mediante arrastre con aguja de safil de 8/0 con resultado microbiológico positivo para Candida Parapsilosis. Se inició entonces tratamiento con voriconazol y trimetroprim-sulfametoxazol tópicos con respuesta favorable. DiscusiónEl caso que presentamos es atípico puesto que encontramos una intensa reacción inflamatoria; sin embargo tanto el aspecto biomicroscópico de la cornea, como el resultado del análisis microbiológico y la respuesta positiva al tratamiento apoyan el diagnóstico de queratopatía cristalina por Candida Parapsilosis. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE

  12. Association of clinical and demographic factors in invasive candidiasis caused by fluconazole-resistant Candida species: a study in 15 hospitals, Medellín, Colombia 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Natalia Andrea; Cano, Luz Elena; De Bedout, Catalina; Arbeláez, Carlos Alberto; Roncancio, Gustavo; Tabares, Angela María; Robledo, Carlos Gonzalo; Robledo, Jaime

    2014-06-01

    Candida is the most important agent of fungal infections. Several risk factors have been described associated with invasive infection by fluconazole-resistant Candida spp. A prospective cross-sectional study with case-control analysis was conducted. Case group patients with fluconazole-resistant Candida isolate were included; control group were patients with fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp. A multivariate logistic regression model was performed. Three hundred isolates of Candida spp. were analyzed. Most frequent species were Candida albicans/Candida dubliniensis (48.3%) and Candida tropicalis (22.3%). Posaconazole susceptibility was 93.7%; voriconazole, 84%; and fluconazole, 78.7%. Susceptibility to anidulafungin and caspofungin was 92.7% and 92.3%, respectively. Neutropenia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 6.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-43.1), antifungal exposure (aOR 5.1, 95% CI 2.3-11.2), and antituberculosis therapy (aOR 7.7, 95% CI 1.4-43.2) were associated to fluconazole resistance. Susceptibility results are useful to guide the selection of empiric antifungal treatment and the design of local therapeutic guidelines. Previous antifungal exposure suggests possible resistance to fluconazole, pointing towards the selection of a different class of antifungal agents.

  13. Evaluation of caries-associated virulence of biofilms from Candida albicans isolated from saliva of pediatric patients with sickle-cell anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Brighenti,Fernanda Lourenção; Medeiros, Amanda Coelho; Bruno Mello MATOS; RIBEIRO,Zulene Eveline Abreu; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi

    2014-01-01

    A previous study demonstrated that the amount of Candida spp. in saliva is higher in children with sickle-cell disease. The results from a recent study demonstrate its participation in the etiology of dental caries. Objective This study assessed caries-associated virulence (production of acid, extracellular polysaccharides, proteins and metabolic activity) of biofilms from Candida albicans isolated from saliva of patients with sickle-cell anemia in comparison to isolates obtained from matc...

  14. Yeasts isolated from Algerian infants's feces revealed a burden of Candida albicans species, non-albicans Candida species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddik, Hamza Ait; Ceugniez, Alexandre; Bendali, Farida; Cudennec, Benoit; Drider, Djamel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at showing the yeast diversity in feces of Algerian infants, aged between 1 and 24 months, hospitalized at Bejaia hospital (northeast side of the country). Thus, 20 colonies with yeast characteristics were isolated and identified using biochemical (ID32C Api system) and molecular (sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region) methods. Almost all colonies isolated (19 strains) were identified as Candida spp., with predominance of Candida albicans species, and one strain was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Screening of strains with inhibitory activities unveiled the potential of Candida parapsilosis P48L1 and Candida albicans P51L1 to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Further studies performed with these two Candida strains revealed their susceptibility to clinically used antifungal compounds and were then characterized for their cytotoxicity and hemolytic properties. On the other hand, Saccharomyces cerevisiae P9L1 isolated as well in this study was shown to be devoid of antagonism but resulted safe and overall usable as probiotic.

  15. Productividad y selectividad del medio de cultivo a partir de guayaba agria (Psidium araca en el crecimiento de levaduras nativas del género Candida sp

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    Cecilia Lara Mantilla

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Productivity and selectivity of culture medium from the sour guava (Psidium araca in the growth of native yeast Candida sp Resumen El presente trabajo se llevó a cabo para evaluar la eficiencia del medio de cultivo a partir de guayaba agria (Psidium araca frente a medios comerciales en el crecimiento de tres cepas nativas: Candida guillermondii, Candida famita y Candida sp. Se evaluó el crecimiento microbiano a diferentes concentraciones de fruta, 5, 10, 25 y 50% p/v, tomando como control los medios comerciales: Malta, Sabouraud y agar papa dextrosa (PDA. La productividad y selectividad del medio de guayaba agria fue determinada mediante el método Ecométrico en un tiempo de 48 horas. Los análisis estadísticos aplicados para evaluar y comparar el crecimiento de las cepas en los medios comerciales y en el medio de guayaba agria a diferentes concentraciones demostraron lo siguiente: Candida guillermondii presentó crecimiento mayor o igual a 25 y 50% p/v comparado con los medios comerciales; Candida famata y Candida sp presentaron mejores crecimientos al 5% p/v, con respecto a los diferentes medios comerciales. Los resultados demostraron que el medio de cultivo es altamente productivo y no selectivo, lo que representa una alternativa en la conservación, el mantenimiento y el desarrollo de las levaduras estudiadas. Palabras clave: método Ecométrico; Candida guillermondii; Candida famata; Candida sp. Abstract This work was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of the culture medium from sour guava (Psidium araca against commercial media in the growth of three native strains: Candida guillermondii, Candida famata and Candida sp. Microbial growth was evaluated at different concentrations of fruit, 5, 10, 25, 50% w /v, using as control the commercial media: Malta, Sabouraud and PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar. The productivity and selectivity of the sour guava medium was determined by the Ecometric method in a time of 48 hours

  16. Histone Deacetylases and Their Inhibition in Candida Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnaud, Cécile; Champleboux, Morgane; Maubon, Danièle; Cornet, Muriel; Govin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are generally benign members of the human mucosal flora or live as saprophytes in the environment. However, they can become pathogenic, leading to invasive and life threatening infections in vulnerable patients. These invasive fungal infections are regarded as a major public health problem on a similar scale to tuberculosis or malaria. Current treatment for these infections is based on only four available drug classes. This limited therapeutic arsenal and the emergence of drug-resistant strains are a matter of concern due to the growing number of patients to be treated, and new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Adaptation of fungi to drug pressure involves transcriptional regulation, in which chromatin dynamics and histone modifications play a major role. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove acetyl groups from histones and actively participate in controlling stress responses. HDAC inhibition has been shown to limit fungal development, virulence, biofilm formation, and dissemination in the infected host, while also improving the efficacy of existing antifungal drugs toward Candida spp. In this article, we review the functional roles of HDACs and the biological effects of HDAC inhibitors on Candida spp., highlighting the correlations between their pathogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. We focus on how HDAC inhibitors could be used to treat invasive candidiasis while also reviewing recent developments in their clinical evaluation. PMID:27547205

  17. Validation of 24-Hour Fluconazole MIC Readings versus the CLSI 48-Hour Broth Microdilution Reference Method: Results from a Global Candida Antifungal Surveillance Program ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M. A.; Boyken, L. B.; Hollis, R. J.; Kroeger, J.; Messer, S. A.; Tendolkar, S.; Diekema, D. J.

    2008-01-01

    We performed 24- and 48-h MIC determinations and disk diffusion testing of fluconazole against more than 11,000 clinical isolates of Candida species. By using the reference MIC breakpoints, the categorical agreement between the 24-h and reference 48-h broth microdilution results ranged from 93.8% (all Candida species) to 94.9% (all Candida species minus Candida krusei), with only 0.1% very major errors (VME). The essential agreement (within 2 log2 dilutions) between the 24-h and 48-h results was 99.6%. The categorical agreement between the 24-h disk diffusion results and the 24-h MIC results, using the previously established breakpoints, was 94.4%, with 0.1% VME. Both the MIC and the disk diffusion results obtained for fluconazole after only 24 h of incubation may be used to determine the susceptibilities of Candida spp. to this widely used antifungal agent. PMID:18784314

  18. Karyotyping of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata from patients with Candida sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempp-Selb, B; Rimek, D; Kappe, R

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relatedness of Candida strains from patients suffering from Candida septicaemia by typing of Candida isolates from blood cultures and different body sites by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE using a contour-clamped homogenous electric field, CHEF). We studied 17 isolates of Candida albicans and 10 isolates of Candida glabrata from six patients. Four patients suffered from a C. albicans septicaemia, one patient from a C. glabrata septicaemia, and one patient had a mixed septicaemia with C. albicans and C. glabrata. Eight isolates from blood cultures were compared with 19 isolates of other sites (stool six, urine four, genital swab four, tip of central venous catheter three, tracheal secretion one, sputum one). PFGE typing resulted in 10 different patterns, four with C. albicans and six with C. glabrata. Five of the six patients had strains of identical PFGE patterns in the blood and at other sites. Seven isolates of a 58-year-old female with a C. glabrata septicaemia fell into five different PFGE patterns. However, they showed minor differences only, which may be due to chromosomal rearrangements within a single strain. Thus it appears, that the colonizing Candida strains were identical to the circulating strains in the bloodstream in at least five of six patients.

  19. Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Paula Matos Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common vaginal infection. HIV-infection is a risk factor for this infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of VVC and to describe the main Candida species isolated and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs in HIV-infected patients, compared to HIV-uninfected women in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a group of 64 HIV-infected women and 76 uninfected women, followed up at the AIDS reference center and at the Gynecological Clinic of Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. RESULTS: Frequency of Candida spp. was higher in HIV-infected women (29.7% than in HIV-uninfected controls (14.5% (p = 0.02. The odds ratio value for vulvovaginal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.07 - 6.32 p = 0.03. Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species in both HIV-infected (52.3% and uninfected women (85.7%, followed by C. parapsolis in 17.6% and 14.3%, respectively. In HIV-infected women, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and a coinfection of C. albicans and C. glabrata were also identified. There was no significant difference between Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of women with VVC and colonization of the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. One C. glabrata isolate from an HIV-infected patient was resistant to fluconazole and other two isolates exhibited a dose-dependent susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm a higher frequency of Candida spp. isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women and a broader spectrum of species involved. Only Candida glabrata isolates showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole.

  20. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. by Palmitic, Stearic, and Oleic Acid Sophorolipids and Thiamine Dilauryl Sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejie; Ashby, Richard; Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Uknalis, Joseph; Fan, Xuetong

    2016-01-01

    Food contaminated with human pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, frequently causes outbreaks of foodborne illness. Consumer concern over the use of synthesized antimicrobials to enhance microbial food safety has led to a search of natural alternatives. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of various types of sophorolipids (SLs) and thiamine dilauryl sulfate (TDS) against pathogenic Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Both free and lactonic forms of SLs were synthesized from Candida bombicola using palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids as co-feedstocks. TDS and purified SLs were used to treat cocktails of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Results showed that lactonic SLs had higher antimicrobial activity than the free-acid form, and Gram-positive Listeria spp. were more susceptible to SLs and TDS than Gram-negative Salmonella spp. Listeria populations were reduced from an initial concentration of 7.2 log CFU/mL to a non-detectible level within a 1 min treatment of 0.1% (w/v) lactonic SLs and TDS in the presence of 20% ethanol, which itself did not significantly reduce the populations. There were no significant differences in the antimicrobial efficacy among palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid-based SLs against Salmonella or Listeria spp. Ethanol was utilized to improve the antimicrobial activity of free-acid SLs against Gram-negative bacteria. In general, TDS was more effective than the SLs against Salmonella and Listeria spp. scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that SLs and TDS damaged Listeria cell membranes and resulted in cell lysis. Overall, our results demonstrated that SLs and TDS in the presence of ethanol can be used to inactivate foodborne pathogens, especially Gram-positive bacteria.

  1. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. by Palmitic, Stearic, and Oleic Acid Sophorolipids and Thiamine Dilauryl Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejie; Ashby, Richard; Solaiman, Daniel K. Y.; Uknalis, Joseph; Fan, Xuetong

    2016-01-01

    Food contaminated with human pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, frequently causes outbreaks of foodborne illness. Consumer concern over the use of synthesized antimicrobials to enhance microbial food safety has led to a search of natural alternatives. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of various types of sophorolipids (SLs) and thiamine dilauryl sulfate (TDS) against pathogenic Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Both free and lactonic forms of SLs were synthesized from Candida bombicola using palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids as co-feedstocks. TDS and purified SLs were used to treat cocktails of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Results showed that lactonic SLs had higher antimicrobial activity than the free-acid form, and Gram-positive Listeria spp. were more susceptible to SLs and TDS than Gram-negative Salmonella spp. Listeria populations were reduced from an initial concentration of 7.2 log CFU/mL to a non-detectible level within a 1 min treatment of 0.1% (w/v) lactonic SLs and TDS in the presence of 20% ethanol, which itself did not significantly reduce the populations. There were no significant differences in the antimicrobial efficacy among palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid-based SLs against Salmonella or Listeria spp. Ethanol was utilized to improve the antimicrobial activity of free-acid SLs against Gram-negative bacteria. In general, TDS was more effective than the SLs against Salmonella and Listeria spp. scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that SLs and TDS damaged Listeria cell membranes and resulted in cell lysis. Overall, our results demonstrated that SLs and TDS in the presence of ethanol can be used to inactivate foodborne pathogens, especially Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:28066390

  2. Retrospective analysis of mortality and Candida isolates of 75 patients with candidemia: a single hospital experience

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    Hirano R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ryuichi Hirano,1 Yuichi Sakamoto,2 Kumiko Kudo,1 Motoki Ohnishi31Department of Pharmacy, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori, Japan; 2Laboratory Medicine and Blood transfusion, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori, Japan; 3General Medicine, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori, JapanAbstract: The mortality rate for candidemia is approximately 30%–60%. However, prognostic factors in patients with candidemia have not yet been elucidated in detail. The aim of the present study was to analyze prognostic factors for candidemia using the mortality rate and Candida isolates of patients with candidemia. Seventy-five patients with candidemia were analyzed between January 2007 and December 2013. The main outcome of this study was the 30-day mortality rate after the diagnosis of candidemia. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score (APACHE II score was measured in 34 patients (45.3%. Odds ratios (ORs for death due to candidemia were analyzed using a multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis. Twenty (26.6% patients died within 30 days of being diagnosed with candidemia. Non-survivors had a significantly higher APACHE II score (n=7, mean; 18.9±4.5 than that of survivors (n=27, mean; 14.0±5.0. Advanced age (OR =1.1, 95% confidence interval =1.01–1.23, P=0.04 was a significant risk factor for a high mortality rate, whereas removal of a central venous catheter (OR =0.03, 95% confidence interval =0.002–0.3, P=0.01 was associated with a lower mortality rate. Seventy-six Candida spp. were isolated from blood cultures: Candida albicans 28 (36.8%, Candida parapsilosis 23 (30.2%, Candida guilliermondii 16 (21.0%, Candida glabrata four (5.2%, Candida tropicalis two (2.6%, and Candida spp. three (3.9% that could not be identified. C. parapsilosis was the most frequently isolated species in younger patients (<65 years, whereas C. albicans was the most frequently isolated in elderly patients (≥65 years

  3. Candida famata (Debaryomyces hansenii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibirny, Andriy A.; Voronovsky, Andriy Y.

    Debaryomyces hansenii (teleomorph of asporogenous strains known as Candida famata ) belongs to the group of so named ‘ flavinogenic yeasts ’ capable of riboflavin oversynthesis during starvation for iron. Some strains of C. famata belong to the most flavinogenic organisms known (accumulate 20 mg of riboflavin in 1 ml of the medium) and were used for industrial production of riboflavin in USA for long time. Many strains of D. hansenii are characterized by high salt tolerance and are used for ageing of cheeses whereas some others are able to convert xylose to xylitol, anti-caries sweetener. Transformation system has been developed for D. hansenii. It includes collection of host recipient strains, vectors with complementation and dominant markers and several transformation protocols based on protoplasting and electroporation. Besides, methods of multicopy gene insertion and insertional mutagenesis have been developed and several strong constitutive and regulatable promoters have been cloned. All structural genes of riboflavin synthesis and some regulatory genes involved in this process have been identified. Genome of D. hansenii has been sequenced in the frame of French National program ‘Genolevure’ and is opened for public access

  4. RELATED FACTORS FOR COLONIZATION BY Candida SPECIES IN THE ORAL CAVITY OF HIV-INFECTED INDIVIDUALS

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    Ralciane de Paula MENEZES

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The colonization of the oral cavity is a prerequisite to the development of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Aims: The aims of this study were: to evaluate colonization and quantify Candida spp. in the oral cavity; to determine the predisposing factors for colonization; and to correlate the levels of CD4+ cells and viral load with the yeast count of colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL in HIV-positive individuals treated at a University Hospital. Saliva samples were collected from 147 HIV patients and were plated on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA and chromogenic agar, and incubated at 30 ºC for 72 h. Colonies with similar morphology in both media were counted and the result expressed in CFU/mL. Results: Of the 147 HIV patients, 89 had positive cultures for Candida spp., with a total of 111 isolates, of which C. albicans was the most frequent species (67.6%, and the mean of colonies counted was 8.8 × 10³ CFU/mL. The main predisposing factors for oral colonization by Candida spp. were the use of antibiotics and oral prostheses. The use of reverse transcriptase inhibitors appears to have a greater protective effect for colonization. A low CD4+ T lymphocyte count is associated with a higher density of yeast in the saliva of HIV patients.

  5. RELATED FACTORS FOR COLONIZATION BY Candida SPECIES IN THE ORAL CAVITY OF HIV-INFECTED INDIVIDUALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENEZES, Ralciane de Paula; BORGES, Aércio Sebastião; de ARAUJO, Lúcio Borges; PEDROSO, Reginaldo dos Santos; RÖDER, Denise Von Dolinger de Brito

    2015-01-01

    The colonization of the oral cavity is a prerequisite to the development of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Aims: The aims of this study were: to evaluate colonization and quantify Candida spp. in the oral cavity; to determine the predisposing factors for colonization; and to correlate the levels of CD4+ cells and viral load with the yeast count of colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) in HIV-positive individuals treated at a University Hospital. Saliva samples were collected from 147 HIV patients and were plated on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) and chromogenic agar, and incubated at 30 ºC for 72 h. Colonies with similar morphology in both media were counted and the result expressed in CFU/mL. Results: Of the 147 HIV patients, 89 had positive cultures for Candida spp., with a total of 111 isolates, of which C. albicans was the most frequent species (67.6%), and the mean of colonies counted was 8.8 × 10³ CFU/mL. The main predisposing factors for oral colonization by Candida spp. were the use of antibiotics and oral prostheses. The use of reverse transcriptase inhibitors appears to have a greater protective effect for colonization. A low CD4+ T lymphocyte count is associated with a higher density of yeast in the saliva of HIV patients. PMID:26603229

  6. Sensitivity of clinical isolates of Candida to essential oils from Burseraceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Miloš; Smiljkovic, Marija; Markovic, Tatjana; Cirica, Ana; Glamoclija, Jasmina; Markovic, Dejan; Sokovic, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antifungal activity of four commercial essential oils from the Burseraceae family - two Boswellia carterii Flueck oils, Canarium luzonicum (Blume) A. Gray oil, and Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl oil, against most common Candida spp. recovered from the human oral cavity. The essential oil samples were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. The analysis showed that major essential oils' components were α-pinene (23.04 % and 31.84 %), limonene (45.62 %) and curzerene (34.65 %), respectively. Minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum fungicidal (MFC) concentrations were determined using a microdilution standardized technique. All tested Candida spp. clinical isolates and ATCC strains showed susceptibility to tested essential oils in a dose dependent manner. The strongest antifungal activity was shown by essential oil of B. carterii, sample 2; the average MIC values ranged from 1.25 to 1.34 mg/ml, and MFC values ranged from 2.50 to 3.75 mg/ml, depending on the fungus. This study supports the possible use of essential oils from the Bursecaceae family in reduction and elimination of Candida spp. populations in patients with oral cavity fungal infections.

  7. Candida albicans skin abscess Abscesso de pele por Candida albicans

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    Felipe Francisco Tuon

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous candidal abscess is a very rare infection even in immunocompromised patients. Some cases are reported when breakdown in the skin occurs, as bacterial cellulites or abscess, iatrogenic procedures, trauma and parenteral substance abuse. We describe a case of Candida albicans subcutaneous abscess without fungemia, which can be associated with central venous catheter.Abscesso subcutâneo por Candida é infecção muito rara mesmo em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Alguns casos são relatados quando ocorre dano na pele, como celulite bacteriana ou abscesso, procedimentos iatrogênicos, trauma e abuso de substância parenteral. Relatamos caso de abscesso subcutâneo por Candida albicans sem fungemia, que pode estar associado com cateter venoso central.

  8. Messa a punto di un metodo per l'individuazione di β-1,3- glucanasi e chitinasi attraverso Native PAGE su estratti di piante di Prunus avium L. inoculate con Phytophthora spp.

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    Anna De Rogatis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tecnique to detect on ß-1,3- glucanase and chitinasi by native PAGE, in Prunus avium (L.clones inoculated with Phytophthora spp. ß-1,3-glucanase and chitinase activities have been detected by native PAGE (poliacrylamide gel electrophoresis on leaf extracts of wild cherry (P. avium inoculated with different species of Phytophthora spp.. These pathogens are aggressive in wild cherry and they can cause wiltings and death of the plant. These two PR (pathogen-related proteins are normally produced by plants as first resistance strategy towards pathogens. The PR activities are involved in ifal cell wall degradation and growth. Usually, the techniques to detect them are based on colorimetric assay performed with the total protein extracts or in the poliacrylamide gels, through expensive procedures. In this work a direct colorimetric detection on a Carboximetil (cm-Curdlan RBB (Remazol Brilliant Blu and Glycol Chitosan substrate, is used to reveal ß-1,3-glucanase and chitinasi respectively. This protocol resulted to be very sensible in detecting the two proteins, very simply, reliable and cheap.

  9. 21 CFR 173.160 - Candida guilliermondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.160 Candida guilliermondii. The food additive Candida... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Candida guilliermondii. 173.160 Section 173.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  10. Study on the comparative activity of echinocandins on murine gut colonization by Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, Sofia; Hamilos, George; Dimopoulou, Dimitra; Andrianaki, Angeliki M; Karageorgiadis, Alexander Steven; Kyvernitakis, Andreas; Lionakis, Stelios; Kofteridis, Diamantis P; Samonis, George

    2015-08-01

    Colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by Candida species is a principal pathogenetic event for development of invasive candidiasis. Importantly, the effect of echinocandins, the preferred antifungal agents for treatment of invasive candidiasis, on GI tract colonization by Candida spp. is currently unknown. Herein, we used an established model of persistent murine GI tract colonization by Candida albicans to test the ability of different echinocandins to eradicate the yeast from murine gut. Adult male Crl:CD1 (ICR) BR mice were fed with chow containing C. albicans and subsequently treated with different echinocandins or normal saline via daily intraperitoneal injections for 10 days. Quantitative stool cultures were performed immediately before (week one), and weekly for three months after discontinuation of treatment. Notably, treatment with all three echinocandins used (caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin) resulted in eradication of Candida albicans from the stools, as evidenced by the significant reduction of yeast cells from a mean of 4.2 log10 CFU/g of stool before treatment (week one of colonization) to undetectable (Candida yeast cells in the stools of control mice. Collectively, the ability of echinocandins to eradicate C. albicans from the stools could have important implications in prophylaxis of high-risk patients for development of invasive candidiasis originating from the GI tract.

  11. Relevance of Candida and other mycoses for morbidity and mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock due to peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstern, Christoph; Herold, Christina; Mieth, Markus; Brenner, Thorsten; Decker, Sebastian; Busch, Cornelius J; Hofer, Stefan; Zimmermann, Stefan; Weigand, Markus A; Bernhard, Michael

    2015-07-01

    This single-centre retrospective cohort study evaluated the incidence and outcome of mycoses in critical ill patients (n = 283) with sepsis due to peritonitis. Overall mortality was 41.3%, and the 28-day mortality was 29.3%. Fungal pathogens were found in 51.9%. The common first location was the respiratory tract (66.6%), followed by the abdominal site (19.7%). Candida colonisation was found in 64.6%, and invasive Candida infection in 34.0%. Identified fungi were Candida spp. in 98.6% and Aspergillus spp. in 6.1%. Patients with fungal pathogens showed a higher rate of postoperative peritonitis, APACHE II and tracheotomy. In comparison to patients without fungal pathogens, these patients showed a longer duration on mechanical ventilation, and a higher overall mortality. Patients with Candida-positive swabs from abdominal sites had more fascia dehiscence and anastomosis leakage. Seventy-two patients (48.9%) received antifungal therapy, 26 patients were treated empirically. Antifungal therapy was not associated with a decrease in mortality. Age and renal replacement therapy were associated with mortality. In conclusion, fungi are common pathogens in critically ill patients with peritonitis, and detection of fungi is associated with an increase in overall mortality. Particularly, Candida-positive abdominal swabs are associated with an increase in morbidity. However, we were not able to demonstrate a survival benefit for antifungal therapy in peritonitis patients.

  12. Multi-probe real-time PCR identification of four common Candida species in blood culture broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foongladda, Suporn; Mongkol, Nanthanida; Petlum, Pornphan; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2014-06-01

    We developed a single-tube real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with multiple hybridization probes for detecting Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis. Primers were designed to amplify 18S rRNA gene of the genus Candida, and DNA probes were designed to hybridize two areas of the amplicons. The amplification curves and specific melting peaks of the probes hybridized with PCR product were used for definite species identifications. The reaction specificity was 100 % when evaluating the assay using DNA samples from 21 isolates of fungal and bacterial species. The assay was further evaluated in 129 fungal blood culture broth samples which were culture positive for fungus. Of the 129 samples, 119 were positively identified as: C. albicans (39), C. tropicalis (30), C. parapsilosis (23), C. glabrata (20), Candida spp. (5), and two samples containing mixed C. glabrata/C. albicans and C. glabrata/C. tropicalis. The five Candida spp. were identified by sequencing analysis as C. krusei, C. dubliniensis, C. aquaetextoris, and two isolates of C. athensensis. Of the ten samples which showed negative PCR results, six were Cryptococcus neoformans, and the others were Trichosporon sp., Rhodotorula sp., Fusarium sp., and Penicillium marneffei. Our findings show that the assay was highly effective in identifying the four medically important Candida species. The results can be available within 3 h after positivity of a blood culture broth sample.

  13. Salmonella spp. en niños hospitalizados por enfermedad diarreica: un estudios de casos y controles Salmonella spp. in hospitalized children with diarrheic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ludy Eunice Jaimes Vivas; Carlos Fernando Chinchilla Mejía; Carlos A. Bernal Parra

    1998-01-01

    Entre 1988 y 1995 se hicieron 1.468 coprocultivos a niños hospitalizados por enfermedades diarreicas en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín; se aisló Salmonella spp. en 324 (22.1%). El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar los factores asociados con la presencia de Salmonella spp. Para ello se compararon las características de los niños con coprocultivo positivo para Salmonella spp. Con las de aquéllos en quienes el resultado fue negativo, mediante la determinac...

  14. Oral Candida albicans isolates from HIV-positive individuals have similar in vitro biofilm-forming ability and pathogenicity as invasive Candida isolates

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    Rasteiro Vanessa MC

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida can cause mucocutaneous and/or systemic infections in hospitalized and immunosuppressed patients. Most individuals are colonized by Candida spp. as part of the oral flora and the intestinal tract. We compared oral and systemic isolates for the capacity to form biofilm in an in vitro biofilm model and pathogenicity in the Galleria mellonella infection model. The oral Candida strains were isolated from the HIV patients and included species of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, C. norvegensis, and C. dubliniensis. The systemic strains were isolated from patients with invasive candidiasis and included species of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, and C. kefyr. For each of the acquired strains, biofilm formation was evaluated on standardized samples of silicone pads and acrylic resin. We assessed the pathogenicity of the strains by infecting G. mellonella animals with Candida strains and observing survival. Results The biofilm formation and pathogenicity in Galleria was similar between oral and systemic isolates. The quantity of biofilm formed and the virulence in G. mellonella were different for each of the species studied. On silicone pads, C. albicans and C. dubliniensis produced more biofilm (1.12 to 6.61 mg than the other species (0.25 to 3.66 mg. However, all Candida species produced a similar biofilm on acrylic resin, material used in dental prostheses. C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis were the most virulent species in G. mellonella with 100% of mortality, followed by C. lusitaniae (87%, C. novergensis (37%, C. krusei (25%, C. glabrata (20%, and C. kefyr (12%. Conclusions We found that on silicone pads as well as in the Galleria model, biofilm formation and virulence depends on the Candida species. Importantly, for C. albicans the pathogenicity of oral Candida isolates was similar to systemic Candida isolates

  15. Pancreatic infection with Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, R; Serrano-Heranz, R

    1999-01-01

    Candida species other than C. albicans have been implicated as pathogens in intravascular (bloodstream, intravascular devices, endocarditis) and extravascular (arthritis, osteomielitis, endophtalmitis) infections. C. parapsilosis, however, is rarely implicated in intra-abdominal infections (peritonitis during peritoneal dialysis, complicating surgery or solid-organ transplantation). We describe a case of a 48-y-old male with acute pancreatitis who had a pancreatic abscess produced by primary C. parapsilosis infection. Although he received adequate treatment with antifungal medication and surgical drainage, the outcome was fatal. Because the clinical findings are indistinguishable from bacterial abscesses, Candida species should be considered in cases of complicated pancreatitis, in order to establish a prompt adequate treatment.

  16. Comparison of VITEK 2 YST Card and API 20C AUX system in identification of non- albicans Candida species

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    Süleyman Durmaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In the present study, it was aimed to compare results obtained by using VITEK 2 YST Card (bioMérieux, France with those obtained by using API 20C AUX (bioMérieux, France for identification of non- albicans Candida species, which was isolated from various clinical samples, at level of species.Materials and methods: Forty-one non-albicans Candida isolates, which were isolated from 28 urine, 10 blood and 3 vaginal swab specimens, and found to be negative by germ tube test, were identified by using VITEK 2 YST Card (bioMérieux, France. In addition, microscopic morphology was assessed in corn-meal Tween 80 agar, while carbohydrate assimilation was assessed by using commercially available API 20C AUX kit (bioMérieux, France.Results: Thirty-four isolates (82.9% were identified as identical species by these 2 systems, while different results were obtained in 7 isolates (17.1%. 5 isolates, identified as Candida glabrata by API 20C AUX system, were identified as Candida tropicalis (n=2, Candida krusei, Candida lipolitica and Candida kefyr by VITEK 2 YST Card. One other isolate, identified as C.tropicalis, was identified as Candida parapsilosis; and additional one isolate, identified as C.parapsilosis, was identified as C.tropicalis.Conclusion: It was concluded that one should be cautious in the identification of C.glabrata, in particular, C.tropicalis and C.parapsilosis, although between VITEK 2 YST Card and API 20C AUX system results was found largely similarity in identification of non-albicans Candida spp.

  17. Enrichment of multilocus sequence typing clade 1 with oral Candida albicans isolates in patients with untreated periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Brenda A; Maguire, Rory; Cashin, Phillipa J; Claffey, Noel; Flint, Stephen; Abdulrahim, Mohammed H; Coleman, David C

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and cell density of Candida species in periodontal pockets, healthy subgingival sites, and oral rinse samples of patients with untreated periodontitis. Twenty-one periodontitis patients underwent sampling at two periodontitis sites, and 19/21 of these patients underwent sampling at one periodontally healthy site. Both paper point and curette sampling techniques were employed. The periodontitis patients and 50 healthy subjects were also sampled by oral rinse. Candida isolates were recovered on CHROMagar Candida medium, and representative isolates were identified. Candida spp. were recovered from 10/21 (46.7%) periodontitis patients and from 16/50 (32%) healthy subjects. C. albicans predominated in both groups and was recovered from all Candida-positive subjects. Candida-positive periodontitis patients yielded Candida from periodontal pockets with average densities of 3,528 and 3,910 CFU/sample from curette and paper point samples, respectively, and 1,536 CFU/ml from oral rinse samples. The majority (18/19) of the healthy sites sampled from periodontitis patients were Candida negative. The 16 Candida-positive healthy subjects yielded an average of 279 CFU/ml from oral rinse samples. C. albicans isolates were investigated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine if specific clonal groups were associated with periodontitis. MLST analysis of 31 C. albicans isolates from periodontitis patients yielded 19 sequence types (STs), 13 of which were novel. Eleven STs belonged to MLST clade 1. In contrast, 16 C. albicans isolates from separate healthy subjects belonged to 16 STs, with 4 isolates belonging to clade 1. The distributions of STs between both groups were significantly different (P = 0.04) and indicated an enrichment of C. albicans isolates in periodontal pockets, which warrants a larger study.

  18. Genotyping Candida albicans from Candida leukoplakia and non-Candida leukoplakia shows no enrichment of multilocus sequence typing clades but enrichment of ABC genotype C in Candida leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahim, Mohammed H; McManus, Brenda A; Flint, Stephen R; Coleman, David C

    2013-01-01

    Oral leukoplakias are histopathologically-diagnosed as Candida leukoplakia or non-Candida leukoplakia by the presence or absence of hyphae in the superficial epithelium. Candida leukoplakia lesions have significantly increased malignant potential. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species associated with oral leukoplakia and may contribute to malignant transformation of Candida leukoplakia. To date, no detailed population analysis of C. albicans isolates from oral leukoplakia patients has been undertaken. This study investigated whether specific C. albicans genotypes were associated with Candida leukoplakia and non-Candida leukoplakia in a cohort of Irish patients. Patients with histopathologically-defined Candida leukoplakia (n = 31) or non-Candida leukoplakia (n = 47) were screened for Candida species by culture of oral rinse and lesional swab samples. Selected C. albicans isolates from Candida leukoplakia patients (n = 25), non-Candida leukoplakia patients (n = 19) and oral carriage isolates from age and sex matched healthy subjects without leukoplakia (n = 34) were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and ABC genotyping. MLST revealed that the clade distribution of C. albicans from both Candida leukoplakia and non-Candida leukoplakia lesions overlapped with the corresponding clade distributions of oral carriage isolates and global reference isolates from the MLST database indicating no enrichment of leukoplakia-associated clones. Oral leukoplakia isolates were significantly enriched with ABC genotype C (12/44, 27.3%), particularly Candida leukoplakia isolates (9/25, 36%), relative to oral carriage isolates (3/34, 8.8%). Genotype C oral leukoplakia isolates were distributed in MLST clades 1,3,4,5,8,9 and 15, whereas genotype C oral carriage isolates were distributed in MLST clades 4 and 11.

  19. Expansion of the Candida tanzawaensis yeast clade: 16 novel Candida species from basidiocarp-feeding beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sung-Oui; McHugh, Joseph V; Blackwell, Meredith

    2004-11-01

    A major clade of new yeast taxa from the digestive tract of basidiocarp-feeding beetles is recognized based on rRNA gene sequence analyses. Almost 30 % of 650 gut isolates formed a statistically well-supported clade that included Candida tanzawaensis. The yeasts in the clade were isolated from 11 families of beetles, of which Tenebrionidae and Erotylidae were most commonly sampled. Repeated isolation of certain yeasts from the same beetle species at different times and places indicated strong host associations. Sexual reproduction was never observed in the yeasts. Based on comparisons of small- and large-subunit rRNA gene sequences and morphological and physiological traits, the yeasts were placed in Candida ambrosiae and in 16 other undescribed taxa. In this report, the novel species in the genus Candida are described and their relationships with other taxa in the Saccharomycetes are discussed. The novel species and their type strains are as follows: Candida guaymorum (NRRL Y-27568(T)=CBS 9823(T)), Candida bokatorum (NRRL Y-27571(T)=CBS 9824(T)), Candida kunorum (NRRL Y-27580(T)=CBS 9825(T)), Candida terraborum (NRRL Y-27573(T)=CBS 9826(T)), Candida emberorum (NRRL Y-27606(T)=CBS 9827(T)), Candida wounanorum (NRRL Y-27574(T)=CBS 9828(T)), Candida yuchorum (NRRL Y-27569(T)=CBS 9829(T)), Candida chickasaworum (NRRL Y-27566(T)=CBS 9830(T)), Candida choctaworum (NRRL Y-27584(T)=CBS 9831(T)), Candida bolitotheri (NRRL Y-27587(T)=CBS 9832(T)), Candida atakaporum (NRRL Y-27570(T)=CBS 9833(T)), Candida panamericana (NRRL Y-27567(T)=CBS 9834(T)), Candida bribrorum (NRRL Y-27572(T)=CBS 9835(T)), Candida maxii (NRRL Y-27588(T)=CBS 9836(T)), Candida anneliseae (NRRL Y-27563(T)=CBS 9837(T)) and Candida taliae (NRRL Y-27589(T)=CBS 9838(T)).

  20. Emergence of non-albicans Candida among candidal vulvovaginitis cases and study of their potential virulence factors, from a tertiary care center, North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Kumari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of various Candida species and study some of their virulence factors among thevulvovaginal candidiasis(VVCpatients. Study Design and Settings: The study was conducted in a Tertiary Care University Hospital in North India. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out prospectively for a period of 1 year. High vaginal swabs (HVSs were collected from women in childbearing age group attending the gynecology and obstetrics out-patient departments with the complaints suggestive of vulvovaginitis. Samples were plated on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar slope. Candida spp. isolated was further speciated based on microscopy, biochemical tests and culture characteristics on special media. Virulence factors of these strains were determined by biofilm formation and phospholipase activity. Result: A total of 464 HVS from 232 patients with the complaints of vulvovaginitis were included in this study. Following laboratory workup, 71 specimens were positive for genus Candida (30.6%. Further speciation showed 32.4% as Candida albicans, 45.07% Candida parapsilosis and 22.53% of Candida glabrata. Biofilm production was shown by 50 candidal strains (70.4% and phospholipase activity was given by 41 candidal strains (57.74%. Conclusion: Our study suggests increasing prevalence of non-albicans Candida among the VVC cases along with their virulence factors. Therefore, we recommend that microbiological investigation upto species level should be mandatory to determine the emergence of non-albicans Candida as a major cause of VVC.

  1. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal of a new RFLP profile for differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Bruun, Brita; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2010-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species phenotypically indistinguishable from Candida parapsilosis . We evaluated phenotyping and molecular methods for the detection of these species among 79 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained...

  2. Candida albicans: adapting to succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadosh, David; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L

    2013-11-13

    In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Lu et al. (2013) report on the redundancy of signaling pathways controlling Candida albicans filamentation and pathogenicity. In the process, they provide important insight into how this normal commensal of humans adapts to different host microenvironments to become a highly successful opportunistic pathogen.

  3. Species Distribution and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Vulvovaginal Candida Isolates in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Juan; Zhang, Dai; Liu, Zhao-Hui; Wu, Wen-Xiang; Bai, Hui-Hui; Dong, Han-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) was a common infection associated with lifelong harassment of woman's social and sexual life. The purpose of this study was to describe the species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida species (Candida spp.) isolated from patients with VVC over 8 years. Methods: Species which isolated from patients with VVC in Peking University First Hospital were identified using chromogenic culture media. Susceptibility to common antifungal agents was determined using agar diffusion method based on CLSI M44-A2 document. SPSS software (version 14.0, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis, involving statistical description and Chi-square test. Results: The most common strains were Candida (C.) albicans, 80.5% (n = 1775) followed by C. glabrata, 18.1% (n = 400). Nystatin exhibited excellent activity against all species (<4% resistant [R]). Resistance to azole drugs varied among different species. C. albicans: clotrimazole (3.1% R) < fluconazole (16.6% R) < itraconazole (51.5% R) < miconazole (54.0% R); C. glabrata: miconazole (25.6% R) < clotrimazole (50.5% R) < itraconazole (61.9% R) < fluconazole (73.3% R); Candida krusei: clotrimazole (0 R) < fluconazole (57.7% R) < miconazole (73.1% R) < itraconazole (83.3% R). The susceptibility of fluconazole was noticeably decreasing among all species in the study period. Conclusions: Nystatin was the optimal choice for the treatment of VVC at present. The species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. isolated from patients with VVC had changed over time. PMID:27174323

  4. Candida colonization in preterm babies admitted to neonatal intensive care unit in the rural setting

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    Mendiratta D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Candida colonization in neonates results in significant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine colonization of Candida spp. in preterm babies and identify the risk factors. Methods: Swabs from oral, rectum, groin and umblicus of 103 preterm and 100 term neonates were obtained within 24 hours of birth, day three, day five, day seven and thereafter every week till the neonate was admitted in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Swabs were also collected from the mother′s vagina prior to delivery. Twice every month, air of the NICU was sampled by settle plate and swabs were collected from the hands of health care workers and inanimate objects of NICU. Identification and speciation was done by standard methods. Antibiotic sensitivity was studied against amphotericin B, ketoconazole and fluconazole by disk diffusion method. Results: Colonization with Candida was significantly higher in preterms. Earliest colonization was of oral mucosa and 77.1% of the preterms had colonised at various sites by the first week of life. Significant risk factors in colonized versus non-colonized preterms were male sex, longer duration of rupture of membranes (DROM, administration of steroids and antibiotics and vaginal colonization of mothers, whereas those in preterms versus terms were low birth weight and gestational age. C. albicans was the commonest species, both in the colonized preterms (45.9% and vagina of mothers. Resistance was seen to fluconazole and ketoconazole only. No Candida spp. was isolated from health care personnel or environment. Conclusions: Colonization of preterms by Candida is a significant problem in NICU and the significant risk factors observed in colonized preterms were male sex, longer DROM, administration of steroids and antibiotics and vaginal colonization of mothers.

  5. Species Distribution and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Vulvovaginal Candida Isolates in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Juan Wang; Dai Zhang; Zhao-Hui Liu; Wen-Xiang Wu; Hui-Hui Bai; Han-Yu Dong

    2016-01-01

    Background:Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) was a common infection associated with lifelong harassment of woman's social and sexual life.The purpose of this study was to describe the species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida species (Candida spp.) isolated from patients with WC over 8 years.Methods:Species which isolated from patients with WC in Peking University First Hospital were identified using chromogenic culture media.Susceptibility to common antifungal agents was determined using agar diffusion method based on CLSI M44-A2 document.SPSS software (version 14.0,Inc.,Chicago,IL,USA) was used for statistical analysis,involving statistical description and Chi-square test.Results:The most common strains were Candida (C.) albicans,80.5% (n =1775) followed by C.glabrata,18.1% (n =400).Nystatin exhibited excellent activity against all species (<4% resistant [R]).Resistance to azole drugs varied among different species.C albicans:clotrimazole (3.1% R) < fluconazole (16.6% R) < itraconazole (51.5% R) < miconazole (54.0% R);C.glabrata:miconazole (25.6% R) < clotrimazole (50.5% R) < itraconazole (61.9% R) < fluconazole (73.3% R);Candida krusei:clotrimazole (0 R) < fluconazole (57.7% R) < miconazole (73.1% R) < itraconazole (83.3% R).The susceptibility offluconazole was noticeably decreasing among all species in the study period.Conclusions:Nystatin was the optimal choice for the treatment of WC at present.The species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp.isolated from patients with VVC had changed over time.

  6. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida in the Clinical Laboratory: how to do it, when to do it, and how to interpret it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Manso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant changes in the management of fungaemia have occurred in the last decade with increased use of fluconazole prophylaxis, of empirical treatment and of echinocandins as first-line agents for documented disease. The emergence of drug resistance in fungal pathogens has a profound impact on human health given limited number of antifungal drugs. Antifungal resistance in Candida may be either intrinsic or acquired and may be encountered in the antifungal drug exposed but also the antifungal drug naïve patient The variation in resistance rates between centers emphasizes that it is essential to have knowledge of the local Candida species distribution and antifungal resistance rates to guide initial therapy for Candida BSI. Moreover, all Candida isolates from blood and normally sterile sites should be identified to the species level. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing have developed breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values that are now established for Candida spp. Clinical microbiology laboratories will be employed commercial susceptibility assays, rather than reference broth microdilution methods and comparative studies are particularly important. Vitek 2®, Etest® and Sensititre YeastOne® provided a high degree of essential agreement and comparable sensitivity and specificity to BMD-RPMI for identifying resistance to azole and echinocandins in Candida spp.

  7. Molecular identification of Candida species isolated from cases of neonatal candidemia using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeela Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Candida spp. is an emerging cause of bloodstream infections worldwide. Delay in speciation of Candida isolates by conventional methods and resistance to antifungal drugs in various Candida species are responsible for the increase in morbidity and mortality due to candidemia. Hence, the rapid identification of Candida isolates is very important for the proper management of patients with candidemia. Aims: The aim was to re-evaluate the identification of various Candida spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and to evaluate the accuracy, speed, and cost of phenotypic methodology versus PCR-RFLP. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Ninety consecutive clinical isolates of seven Candida species, isolated from blood of neonates and identified by routine phenotypic methods, were re-evaluated using universal primers internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 and ITS4 for PCR amplification and Msp I restriction enzyme for RFLP. Statistical Analysis Used: Kappa test for agreement. Results: The results of PCR-RFLP were 100% in agreement with those obtained using conventional phenotypic methods. Identification could be achieved within 3 work days by both the methods. Our routine methods proved to be cost effective than PCR-RFLP. Conclusions: We can continue with our routine phenotypic methods and PCR-RFLP can be used for periodic quality control or when conventional methods fail to identify a species.

  8. Antifungal Susceptibility Patterns, In Vitro Production of Virulence Factors, and Evaluation of Diagnostic Modalities for the Speciation of Pathogenic Candida from Blood Stream Infections and Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya Tellapragada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida spp. have emerged as successful pathogens in both invasive and mucosal infections. Varied virulence factors and growing resistance to antifungal agents have contributed to their pathogenicity. We studied diagnostic accuracy of HiCrome Candida Differential Agar and Vitek 2 Compact system for identification of Candida spp. in comparison with species-specific PCR on 110 clinical isolates of Candida from blood stream infections (54, 49% and vulvovaginal candidiasis (56, 51%. C. albicans (61% was the leading pathogen in VVC, while C. tropicalis (46% was prominent among BSIs. HiCrome Agar and Vitek 2 Compact had good measures of agreement (κ 0.826 and 0.895, respectively, in comparison with PCR. We also tested these isolates for in vitro production of proteinase, esterase, phospholipases, and biofilms. Proteinase production was more among invasive isolates (P=0.017, while phospholipase production was more among noninvasive isolates (P=0.001. There was an overall increase in the production of virulence factors among non-albicans Candida. Identification of clinical isolates of Candida up to species level either by chromogenic agar or by Vitek 2 Compact system should be routinely done to choose appropriate therapy.

  9. Epidemiology of candidemia in Qatar, the Middle East : Performance of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of Candida species, species distribution, outcome, and susceptibility pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taj-Aldeen, S. J.; Kolecka, A.; Boesten, R.; Alolaqi, A.; Almaslamani, M.; Chandra, P.; Meis, J. F.; Boekhout, T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to Candida spp. constitute the predominant group of hospital-based fungal infections worldwide. A retrospective study evaluated the performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identi

  10. Epidemiology of candidemia in Qatar, the Middle East: performance of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of Candida species, species distribution, outcome, and susceptibility pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taj-Aldeen, S.J.; Kolecka, A.; Boesten, R.; Alolaqi, A.; Almaslamani, M.; Chandra, P.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Boekhout, T.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to Candida spp. constitute the predominant group of hospital-based fungal infections worldwide. A retrospective study evaluated the performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the ident

  11. Isolation and Antimicrobial Testing of Aeromonas spp., Citrobacter spp., Cronobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Klebsiella spp., and Trabulsiella spp. from the Gallbladder of Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulou, Grammato; Filioussis, Georgios; Kritas, Spyridon; Kantere, Maria; Burriel, Angeliki R

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Gram-negative bacteria species, other than Salmonella spp., in the gallbladder of pigs was examined. Isolated Gram-negative bacteria were assigned to species using the Microgen™ GnA+B-ID Systems. Of the 64 isolated strains 43 were identified as Escherichia coli, seven as Enterobacter spp., three each as Klebsiella spp., Citrobacterfreundii, Aeromonas hydrophila and Cronobacter sakazakii and one each as Escherichiafergusonii and Trabulsiella guamensis. Their antibiograms showed very high resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. It was concluded that the pigs' gallbladder is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria for pork consumers.

  12. Short peptides allowing preferential detection of Candida albicans hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Hani E J; Pölderl, Antonia; Bilitewski, Ursula

    2015-09-01

    Whereas the detection of pathogens via recognition of surface structures by specific antibodies and various types of antibody mimics is frequently described, the applicability of short linear peptides as sensor molecules or diagnostic tools is less well-known. We selected peptides which were previously reported to bind to recombinant S. cerevisiae cells, expressing members of the C. albicans Agglutinin-Like-Sequence (ALS) cell wall protein family. We slightly modified amino acid sequences to evaluate peptide sequence properties influencing binding to C. albicans cells. Among the selected peptides, decamer peptides with an "AP"-N-terminus were superior to shorter peptides. The new decamer peptide FBP4 stained viable C. albicans cells more efficiently in their mature hyphal form than in their yeast form. Moreover, it allowed distinction of C. albicans from other related Candida spp. and could thus be the basis for the development of a useful tool for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis.

  13. [Determination of Candida colonization and Candida score in patients in anesthesia intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökahmetoğlu, Günhan; Mutlu Sarıgüzel, Fatma; Koç, Ayşe Nedret; Behret, Orhan; Gökahmetoğlu, Selma; Atalay, Mustafa Altay; Elmalı, Ferhan; Darçın, Kamil

    2016-07-01

    The colonization rate of Candida spp. reaches up to 80% in patients who reside in intensive care units (ICUs) more than a week, and the mean rate of development of invasive disease is 10% in colonized patients. Since invasive candidiasis (IC) in ICU patients presents with septic shock and high mortality rate, rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between invasive infection and the determination of Candida colonization index (CI) and Candida score (CS) in patients admitted to ICU who are at high risk for IC and likely to benefit from early antifungal therapy. A total of 80 patients (34 female, 46 male; age range: 12-92 years, mean age: 69.57 ± 16.30) who were in ICU over seven days or longer of Anesthesia Department of Kayseri Education and Research Hospital between April, 2014 and July, 2015 were included in the study. None of the patients were neutropenic. After admission, throat, nose, skin (axillary region), urine, rectal swab and blood cultures have been collected weekly beginning from day zero. Isolation and identification of Candida strains were performed by using conventional mycological methods. CI was calculated as the ratio of the number of culture-positive distinct body sites (except blood culture) to the total number of body sites cultured. CI> 0.2 was considered as fungal colonization, while CI≥ 0.5 as intensive colonization. CS value was calculated according to the components including total parenteral nutrition (TPN) (plus 0.908 points), surgery (plus 0.907 points), colonization in multiple areas (plus 1.112) and severe sepsis (plus 2.038 points), and cut-off value for CS was accepted as >2.5. In our study, overall 1009 cultures (mean: 13 cultures per patient) were taken from 80 patients, and yeast growth was detected in 365 (36.2%) of them. Accordingly, among 68 (85%) of 80 patients included, in at least one sample, yeast growth was determined. No yeast growth was observed in the blood

  14. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction identification of Candida species colonized sputum of patients suffering from various respiratory tract disorders in Duhok, Iraq

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    Ahmed Basheer Mohammed

    2016-05-01

    Results: Three Candida species namely C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis were differentiated by their colour produced on Chromogenic Candida agar. PCR with the primer mixes yielded 4 different sized of PCR products corresponding to C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. Keyfer and C. tropicalis II, C. glabrata was the most common species (33.33%, followed by C. albicans (16.66%. The highest rate of isolation of Candida species was between the ages of 36 to 45. Conclusion: This study concluded that phenotypic characteristics on selective agar medium such as chromogenic Candida agar are useful for presumptive identification of Candiada spp with the support of molecular method such as multiplex PCR. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1558-1563

  15. Yeasts isolated from beef heifers with ringworm Levaduras aisladas de terneras de carne con dermatofitosis

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    ER Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine dermatophytosis has a negative impact in cattle breeding and can cause zoonoses. The aim of this study was to report a ringworm outbreak in Brazil and to evaluate the presence of yeast in the lesions. After weaning, 88 hybrid beef heifers in feedlot were clinically investigated. Lesions suggestive of ringworm were observed in 95.5% of the animals. Hyaline hiphae were observed in 58.3% of the samples using direct microscopy with potassium hydroxide. Skin scrapings from 27 heifers with ringworm were inoculated Sabouraud dextrose agar and Mycosel Agar. Nineteen isolates of Trichophyton spp. were identified according to micromorphological characteristics observed with microculture technique. Yeasts were isolated from 24 heifers (88.8% and the most frequently identified species were Candida lusitaniae and C. glabrata. The meaning of these yeast species in the aetiology and pathogeny of bovine dermatophytosis may be evaluated in further epidemiological investigations.En los bovinos, los dermatofitos producen un impacto negativo en la cría de ganado y pueden causar zoonosis. El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir un brote de tiña en Brasil y evaluar la presencia de levaduras en las lesiones. Después del destete, 88 terneras de carne fueron investigadas clínicamente. Las lesiones típicas de tiña fueron constatadas en 95,5% de estos animales. En la microscopía directa con hidróxido de potasio se observaron hifas hialinas en 58,8% de las muestras. Raspados de piel de 27 terneras con tiña fueron inoculados en Agar Dextrosa Sabouraud y Agar Mycosel. Hubo diecinueve aislamientos de Trichophyton spp.. En 24 animales se aislaron levaduras (88,8% y las especies más frecuentes fueron Candida lusitaniae y C. glabrata. El significado de estas levaduras en la etiología y patogenia de la dermatofitosis bovina deben ser evaluadas en nuevos estudios epidemiológicos.

  16. Rapid development of Candida krusei echinocandin resistance during caspofungin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forastiero, A; Garcia-Gil, V; Rivero-Menendez, O; Garcia-Rubio, R; Monteiro, M C; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A; Jordan, R; Agorio, I; Mellado, E

    2015-11-01

    In invasive candidiasis, there has been an epidemiological shift from Candida albicans to non-albicans species infections, including infections with C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei. Although the prevalence of C. krusei remains low among yeast infections, its intrinsic resistance to fluconazole raises epidemiological and therapeutic concerns. Echinocandins have in vitro activity against most Candida spp. and are the first-line agents in the treatment of candidemia. Although resistance to echinocandin drugs is still rare, individual cases of C. krusei resistance have been reported in recent years, especially with strains that have been under selective pressure. A total of 15 C. krusei strains, isolated from the blood, urine, and soft tissue of an acute lymphocytic leukemia patient, were analyzed. Strains developed echinocandin resistance during 10 days of caspofungin therapy. The molecular epidemiology of the isolates was investigated using two different typing methods: PCR-based amplification of the species-specific repetitive polymorphic CKRS-1 sequence and multilocus sequence typing. All isolates were genetically related, and the mechanism involved in decreased echinocandin susceptibility was characterized. Clinical resistance was associated with an increase in echinocandin MICs in vitro and was related to three different mutations in hot spot 1 of the target enzyme Fks1p. Molecular evidence of the rapid acquisition of resistance by different mutations in FKS1 highlights the need to monitor the development of resistance in C. krusei infections treated with echinocandin drugs.

  17. Histidine-rich glycoprotein protects from systemic Candida infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Rydengård

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungi, such as Candida spp., are commonly found on the skin and at mucosal surfaces. Yet, they rarely cause invasive infections in immunocompetent individuals, an observation reflecting the ability of our innate immune system to control potentially invasive microbes found at biological boundaries. Antimicrobial proteins and peptides are becoming increasingly recognized as important effectors of innate immunity. This is illustrated further by the present investigation, demonstrating a novel antifungal role of histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG, an abundant and multimodular plasma protein. HRG bound to Candida cells, and induced breaks in the cell walls of the organisms. Correspondingly, HRG preferentially lysed ergosterol-containing liposomes but not cholesterol-containing ones, indicating a specificity for fungal versus other types of eukaryotic membranes. Both antifungal and membrane-rupturing activities of HRG were enhanced at low pH, and mapped to the histidine-rich region of the protein. Ex vivo, HRG-containing plasma as well as fibrin clots exerted antifungal effects. In vivo, Hrg(-/- mice were susceptible to infection by C. albicans, in contrast to wild-type mice, which were highly resistant to infection. The results demonstrate a key and previously unknown antifungal role of HRG in innate immunity.

  18. Environmental azole fungicide, prochloraz, can induce cross-resistance to medical triazoles in Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria-Ramos, Isabel; Tavares, Pedro R; Farinha, Sofia; Neves-Maia, João; Miranda, Isabel M; Silva, Raquel M; Estevinho, Letícia M; Pina-Vaz, Cidalia; Rodrigues, Acácio G

    2014-11-01

    Acquisition of azole resistance by clinically relevant yeasts in nature may result in a significant, yet undetermined, impact in human health. The main goal of this study was to assess the development of cross-resistance between agricultural and clinical azoles by Candida spp. An in vitro induction assay was performed, for a period of 90 days, with prochloraz (PCZ) - an agricultural antifungal. Afterward, the induced molecular resistance mechanisms were unveiled. MIC value of PCZ increased significantly in all Candida spp. isolates. However, only C. glabrata developed cross-resistance to fluconazole and posaconazole. The increased MIC values were stable. Candida glabrata azole resistance acquisition triggered by PCZ exposure involved the upregulation of the ATP binding cassette multidrug transporter genes and the transcription factor, PDR1. Single mutation previously implicated in azole resistance was found in PDR1 while ERG11 showed several synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms. These results might explain why C. glabrata is so commonly less susceptible to clinical azoles, suggesting that its exposure to agricultural azole antifungals may be associated to the emergence of cross-resistance. Such studies forward potential explanations for the worldwide increasing clinical prevalence of C. glabrata and the associated worse prognosis of an infection by this species.

  19. Typing Candida Species Using Microsatellite Length Polymorphism and Multilocus Sequence Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    To gain more insight into the epidemiological relationships between isolates of Candida spp. obtained from various origins, several molecular typing techniques have been developed. Two methods have emerged in the 2000s as soon as enough knowledge of the Candida spp. genomes was available to choose adequate loci and primers, namely microsatellite length polymorphism (MLP) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). To contrast with previous PCR-based methods, specific amplifications with stringent conditions easily reproducible are the basis of MLP and MLST. MLST relies on Sanger sequencing to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms within housekeeping genes. MLP needs a first in silico step to select tandemly repeated stretches of two to five nucleotides. One of the two primers used to amplify a microsatellite locus is labeled and fragment sizing is automatically performed using high-resolution electrophoresis platforms. MLST provides results easily comparable between laboratories and active MLST schemes are publicly available for the main Candida species. For comparative studies, MLP needs standards to compensate for the electrophoretic variations depending on the platforms used. Both methods can help us gain insight into the genetic relatedness of fungal isolates, both with advantages and drawbacks, and the choice of one method rather than the other depends on the task in question.

  20. IDENTIFICACIÓN DE GENES CANDIDATOS DE PATOGENICIDAD EN LA INTERACCIÓN DE LA CEPA CENICAFE 9501 CON EL NEMÁTODO DEL NUDO RADICAL Meloidogyne spp. IDENTIFICATION OF PATHOGENIC CANDIDATES GENES IN THE INTERACTION OF THE CENICAFE 9501 STRAIN WITH THE ROOT KNOT NEMATODE Meloidogyne spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Lorena Cardona Bustos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1997 se registró por primera vez el aislamiento de un hongo Hyphomycete de suelos de Chinchiná (Caldas, Colombia atacando huevos y otros estadios biológicos de las especies de nematodos fitoparásitos Meloidogyne incognita y M. javanica provenientes de lotes comerciales con café. Debido a la imposibilidad de clasificarlo taxonómicamente en los géneros actuales, este aislamiento se ha denominado temporalmente como CENICAFE 9501. Dado su potencial como biocontrolador, se propuso identificar genes candidatos involucrados en el proceso de patogenicidad de huevos de Meloidogyne. Con este fin se construyeron librerías diferenciales mediante el método de hibridación sustractiva. La secuenciación de 188 clones obtenidos permitió identificar 80 unigenes, de los cuales el mayor porcentaje correspondió a secuencias sin homología (32%, seguidas por genes candidatos a funciones de patogénesis (22%, transporte celular (17%, síntesis de proteínas (11% y en menor proporción aquellos involucrados con transcripción y metabolismo primario (18%. Dentro de aquellos genes que contienen marcos de lectura con homología a proteínas que intervienen en la patogenicidad se encuentran una peptidasa, un receptor para sitios de ubiquitinación, una deubiquinasa, una ubiquinona oxidoreductasa, proteína relacionada con la degradación de pared celular, glicosil hidrolasa e hidroxilasa de ácidos grasos, asi como una serin proteasa. Se hace necesaria la validación de las funciones putativas de estos genes candidatos con el fin de incrementar el conocimiento básico de la fisiología de este hongo con potencial biorregulador.In 1997 it was reported for the first time from soil isolation of a Hyphomycete fungus from Chinchiná ( Caldas, Colombia , attacking eggs and other biological stages of the plant parasite nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica, from commercial coffee plots. Due to the impossibility to classify it taxonomically under current

  1. The effect of Streptococcus mutans and Candida glabrata on Candida albicans biofilms formed on different surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira-Cenci, T.; Deng, D.M.; Kraneveld, E.A.; Manders, E.M.M.; Del Bel Cury, A.A.; ten Cate, J.M.; Crielaard, W.

    2008-01-01

    Although Candida containing biofilms contribute to the development of oral candidosis, the characteristics of multi-species Candida biofilms and how oral bacteria modulate these biofilms is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions between Candida albicans and either C

  2. Antifungal Streptomyces spp. Associated with the Infructescences of Protea spp. in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Zander R.; Moon, Kyuho; Bae, Munhyung; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm; Cha, Sangwon; Wingfield, Michael J.; Slippers, Bernard; Oh, Dong-Chan; Venter, Stephanus N.

    2016-01-01

    Common saprophytic fungi are seldom present in Protea infructescences, which is strange given the abundance of mainly dead plant tissue in this moist protected environment. We hypothesized that the absence of common saprophytic fungi in Protea infructescences could be due to a special symbiosis where the presence of microbes producing antifungal compounds protect the infructescence. Using a culture based survey, employing selective media and in vitro antifungal assays, we isolated antibiotic producing actinomycetes from infructescences of Protea repens and P. neriifolia from two geographically separated areas. Isolates were grouped into three different morphological groups and appeared to be common in the Protea spp. examined in this study. The three groups were supported in 16S rRNA and multi-locus gene trees and were identified as potentially novel Streptomyces spp. All of the groups had antifungal activity in vitro. Streptomyces sp. Group 1 had inhibitory activity against all tested fungi and the active compound produced by this species was identified as fungichromin. Streptomyces spp. Groups 2 and 3 had lower inhibition against all tested fungi, while Group 3 showed limited inhibition against Candida albicans and Sporothrix isolates. The active compound for Group 2 was also identified as fungichromin even though its production level was much lower than Group 1. The antifungal activity of Group 3 was linked to actiphenol. The observed antifungal activity of the isolated actinomycetes could contribute to protection of the plant material against common saprophytic fungi, as fungichromin was also detected in extracts of the infructescence. The results of this study suggest that the antifungal Streptomyces spp. could play an important role in defining the microbial population associated with Protea infructescences. PMID:27853450

  3. Antifungal Streptomyces spp. associated with the infructescences of Protea spp. in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zander Human

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Common saprophytic fungi are seldom present in Protea infructescences, which is strange given the abundance of mainly dead plant tissue in this moist protected environment. We hypothesized that the absence of common saprophytic fungi in Protea infructescences could be due to a special symbiosis where the presence of microbes producing antifungal compounds protect the infructescence. Using a culture based survey, employing selective media and in vitro antifungal assays, we isolated antibiotic producing actinomycetes from infructescences of Protea repens and P. neriifolia from two geographically separated areas. Isolates were grouped into three different morphological groups and appeared to be common in the Protea spp. examined in this study. The three groups were supported in 16S rRNA and multi-locus gene trees and were identified as potentially novel Streptomyces spp. All of the groups had antifungal activity in vitro. Streptomyces sp. Group 1 had inhibitory activity against all tested fungi and the active compound produced by this species was identified as fungichromin. Streptomyces spp. Groups 2 and 3 had lower inhibition against all tested fungi, while Group 3 showed limited inhibition against Candida albicans and Sporothrix isolates. The active compound for Group 2 was also identified as fungichromin even though its production level was much lower than Group 1. The antifungal activity of Group 3 was linked to actiphenol. The observed antifungal activity of the isolated actinomycetes could contribute to protection of the plant material against common saprophytic fungi, as fungichromin was also detected in extracts of the infructescence. The results of this study suggest that the antifungal Streptomyces spp. could play an important role in defining the microbial population associated with Protea infructescences.

  4. Immune defence against Candida fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B; van der Meer, Jos W M; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; van de Veerdonk, Frank L

    2015-10-01

    The immune response to Candida species is shaped by the commensal character of the fungus. There is a crucial role for discerning between colonization and invasion at mucosal surfaces, with the antifungal host defence mechanisms used during mucosal or systemic infection with Candida species differing substantially. Here, we describe how innate sensing of fungi by pattern recognition receptors and the interplay of immune cells (both myeloid and lymphoid) with non-immune cells, including platelets and epithelial cells, shapes host immunity to Candida species. Furthermore, we discuss emerging data suggesting that both the innate and adaptive immune systems display memory characteristics after encountering Candida species.

  5. Atividade enzimática, produção de slime e sensibilidade a antifúngicos de Candida sp Enzymatic activity, slime production and antifungal agent sensitivity of Candida sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Otero Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A habilidade de Candida spp secretar enzimas extracelulares e slime tem sido associada como fatores de patogenicidade. Do total de 37 cepas de Candida sp, 100% foram produtoras de proteinase, 83,8% fosfolipase, 64,9% slime e 100% sensíveis ao fluconazol e itraconazol. Foram encontradas 17 tipagens (enzima/slime. Esta metodologia apresentou um bom índice discriminatório (D=0,93 podendo ser utilizado na caracterização fenotípica das leveduras.Abilith of Candida spp to secrete extracellular enzymes and slime has been associated as pathogenicity factors. Out of a total of 37 strains of Candida sp, 100% were proteinase producers, 83.8% were phospholipase producers, 64.9% were slime producers and 100% were sensitive to fluconazole and itraconazole. Seventeen typings (enzymes/slime were found. This methodology presented a good discrimination rate (D = 0.93 and could be used for phenotypic characterization of yeasts.

  6. Identification and study of non-Albicans Candida species isolated from clinical materials of patients with Candidiasis

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    Afsarian MH

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: I Infections due to Candida spp. have increased dramatically in recent years through a rising number of predisposing factors and immunocompromised hosts. Although Candida albicans is the most prevalent and important causative agent of Candida infections, the importance of C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii and C. kefyr have increased significantly as they tend to be more resistant to antifungal agents. Therefore, it is critical that infecting Candida spp. be identified and considered. Furthermore, clinical laboratories may need to expand their yeast identification capabilities in order to facilitate rapid identification of clinical yeast isolates. Methods: In a discroptive – analytic study, the patients suspected of candidiasis were sampled. Direct examination and culture was carried out for all specimens. The isolated yeast colonies were then identified using various different tests such as culture on corn mealagar tween-80, CHROMagar Candida, and assimilation test by API 20C AUX kit. Results: In the present study, 304 yeast colonies were isolated from referral patients to mycology laboratory of 304 isolated colonies 204 were identified as C. albicans and 100 were identified as non albicans candida as follow 35% C. parapsilosis, 32% C. tropicalis, 8% C. glabrata, 8% C. kefyer, 6% C. krusei, 3% C. guilliermondii, 3% C. famata, 3% C. lusitaniae, 1% C. zeilanoides and 1% C. homicola. C. parapsilosis was the most frequent species. The result showed that clinical specimens were obtained from various infected sites of body and nail samples (59 cases were found to be the most frequent among those specimens. Conclusion: In conclusion, our results suggest that no single phenotypic test has proven to be highly effective for definitive identification. Moreover since these organisms can vary greatly in their susceptibility to the current antifungal agent and causing significant patient management problem

  7. New Thiazolyl-triazole Schiff Bases: Synthesis and Evaluation of the Anti-Candida Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stana, Anca; Enache, Alexandra; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Nastasă, Cristina; Benedec, Daniela; Ionuț, Ioana; Login, Cezar; Marc, Gabriel; Oniga, Ovidiu; Tiperciuc, Brîndușa

    2016-11-22

    In the context of the dangerous phenomenon of fungal resistance to the available therapies, we present here the chemical synthesis of a new series of thiazolyl-triazole Schiff bases B1-B15, which were in vitro assessed for their anti-Candida potential. Compound B10 was found to be more potent against Candida spp. when compared with the reference drugs Fluconazole and Ketoconazole. A docking study of the newly synthesized Schiff bases was performed, and results showed good binding affinity in the active site of co-crystallized Itraconazole-lanosterol 14α-demethylase isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An in silico ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity) study was done in order to predict some pharmacokinetic and pharmacotoxicological properties. The Schiff bases showed good drug-like properties. The results of in vitro anti-Candida activity, a docking study and ADMET prediction revealed that the newly synthesized compounds have potential anti-Candida activity and evidenced the most active derivative, B10, which can be further optimized as a lead compound.

  8. Decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines by monocytes from individuals presenting Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinke, Karen Henriette; Freitas, Patrícia; Viera, Narciso Almeida; Honório, Heitor Marques; Porto, Vinicius Carvalho; Lara, Vanessa Soares

    2016-01-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis (DS) is the most frequent lesion among denture wearers, especially the elderly. DS is strongly associated with Candida albicans, as well as local and systemic factors, such as impaired immune response. Monocytes are important in the protective immune response against the fungus by the production of cytokines that recruit and activate leukocytes. There are functional changes in these cells with age, and individual alterations involving monocyte response may predispose the host to developing infections by Candida spp. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the production of TNF-α, IL-6, CXCL8, IL-1β, MCP-1 and IL-10 by monocytes from elderly denture wearers with/without DS and elderly or young non-denture wearers. We detected that monocytes from elderly denture wearers with Candida-related denture stomatitis produced lower levels of CXCL-8, IL-6 and MCP-1. This imbalance in cytokine levels was observed in spontaneous or LPS-stimulated production. Therefore, our data suggested that inherent aspects of the host, such as changes in cytokine production by monocytes, might be associated with the development and the persistence of DS irrespective of aging.

  9. Candidose experimental e recuperação de candida albicans na cavidade bucal de ratas ovariectomizadas

    OpenAIRE

    Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to observe the development of candidosis and the recovery of C. albicans from the oral cavity of control and ovariectomized rats. Hundred twenty-four rats originally negative for the Candida spp. in the oral cavity were divided into two groups: control and ovariectomized. ln each group, four rats were used for tongue dorsum morphologic analysis by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope; and 58 rats received inoculations of C. albicans for the study of...

  10. The Effect of Essential Oils and Bioactive Fractions on Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans Biofilms: A Confocal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Irlan de Almeida Freires; Bruno Bueno-Silva; Lívia Câmara de Carvalho Galvão; Marta Cristina Teixeira Duarte; Adilson Sartoratto; Glyn Mara Figueira; Severino Matias de Alencar; Pedro Luiz Rosalen

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils (EO) and bioactive fractions (BF) from Aloysia gratissima, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Coriandrum sativum, Cyperus articulatus, and Lippia sidoides were proven to have strong antimicrobial activity on planktonic microorganisms; however, little is known about their effects on the morphology or viability of oral biofilms. Previously, we determined the EO/fractions with the best antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Candida spp. In this report, we used a confo...

  11. Comparison of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis adhesive properties and pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Alessia; De Bernardis, Flavia; Hensgens, Lambert A M; Sandini, Silvia; Senesi, Sonia; Tavanti, Arianna

    2013-03-01

    Retrospective studies indicate that Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis each represents 1-10% of the infections/colonisations attributed to C. parapsilosis by conventional biochemical tests. Little is known on the virulence properties of these fungi and on their role in the establishment/progression of the infection. In this study, the adhesive properties of clinical isolates belonging to the 'psilosis' species were assessed in an in vitro model of co-incubation with human buccal epithelial cells (HBECs). Ectophosphatase activity was also measured for all isolates, since the activity of this enzyme has previously been linked to adhesion properties in C. parapsilosis. The results indicate that whilst C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis strains showed similar adhesion abilities, C. metapsilosis isolates displayed a significantly lower ability to adhere to HBECs (Porthopsilosis has a comparable behaviour to C. parapsilosis, whilst C. metapsilosis seems to possess a reduced virulence potential.

  12. Stephanostomum spp. (Digenea: Acanthocolpidae from scombrids and carangids (Perciformes from the Great Barrier Reef, with the description of two new species Stephanostomum spp. (Digenea: Acanthocolpidae de escómbridos y carángidos (Perciformes del arrecife de la Gran Barrera, con descripción de dos especies nuevas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney A. Bray

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new species and 4 Stephanostomum spp. as new host and/or locality records from Percifomes from the Great Barrier Reef are described: Stephanostomum lamothei n. sp. from Grammatorcynus bilineatus (type-host and G. bicarinatus, Lizard Island and Swain Reefs, is characterised by its 50-55 circum-oral spines and >than 20% of the hindbody length lacking vitelline follicles; Stephanostomum Tupatupa n. sp. from Caranx papuensis, Lizard Island, is characterised by its 34-36 circum-oral spines and Se describen 2 especies nuevas del género Stephanostomum y se redescriben 4 más parásitas de perciformes del arrecife de la Gran Barrera australiana. Stephanostomum lamothei n. sp., parásito de Grammatorcynus bilineatus (hospedero-tipo y de G. bicarinatus, de la isla Lizard y de los arrecifes Swain, se caracteriza por sus 50-55 espinas circumorales y por carecer de folículos vitelinos en más del 20% de la longitud del cuerpo; Stephanostomum Tupatupa n. sp. de Caranx papuensis de la isla Lizard, exhibe como rasgos diagnósticos 34-36 espinas circumorales y folículos vitelinos en menos del 8% de la longitud del cuerpo; Stephanostomum ditrematis (Yamaguti, 1939 se registra en Gnathanodon speciosus de las islas Heron y Lizard; Stephanostomum hawaiiense Yamaguti, 1970 y Stephanostomum carangi Liu, 1998 se recolectaron en Carangoides fulvoguttatus y finalmente, Stephanostomum nyoomwa Bray and Cribb, 2003 se encontró parasitando a Caranx sexfasciatus, ambos peces de la isla Lizard.

  13. 普通血液病房恶性血液病患者念珠菌定植及侵袭性真菌感染的观察%Candida colonization and invasive fungal infection in hospitalized patients with hematological malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖悦云; 鲍立; 卢锡京; 路瑾; 余进; 李若瑜; 黄晓军

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate thee status of Candida colonization and the risk factors of invasive fungal infection (IFI) in hospitalized patients with hematological malignancies. Methods 114 patients with hematological malignancies admitted to the hematology wards from May 2004 to April 2005 underwent fungal culture of their samples of urine, feces, and saliva once a week until the end of the sixth week of hospitalization or they were discharged. Culture of blood, sputum, or sterile body fluids were carried out when the patients were suspected to have IFI. Results 165 strains of Candida spp. were isolated from 46 of the 114 patients, C. albicans accounting for 78. 8% and non-albicans Candida for 21.2% respectively. Candida was found in 38 patients (35. 3% ) were found to have colonization of Candida, chiefly C. albicans (76. 3% ). The risk factors of Candida colonization included long duration of leucopenia (WBC 10 d是IFI的危险因素.

  14. Prevalence, distribution and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis bloodstream isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfietti, Lucas Xavier; Martins, Marilena dos Anjos; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Pukiskas, Sandra Brasil Stolf; Purisco, Sonia Ueda; Pimentel, Fabiana Cortez; Pereira, Graziella Hanna; Silva, Dayane Cristina; Oliveira, Lidiane; Melhem, Marcia de Souza Carvalho

    2012-07-01

    The Candida parapsilosis group encompasses three species: C. parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis. These species are phenotypically indistinguishable, and molecular methods are needed for their detection. We analysed 152 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained during 1997-2011. The isolates were screened by PCR amplification of the gene encoding secondary alcohol dehydrogenase, followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme BanI. Isolates with RFLP patterns distinct from those of the C. parapsilosis group were characterized as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (90.8 %), C. orthopsilosis (8.6 %) and C. metapsilosis (0.6 %). Antifungal susceptibility tests indicated that all isolates were susceptible to itraconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin. Although C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates were susceptible to fluconazole, higher MICs (≥2 mg l(-1)) were observed for C. orthopsilosis. Three isolates (2.0 %) of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto were resistant to voriconazole. Five C. parapsilosis isolates (3.3 %) were intermediate, and a single isolate (0.7 %) was resistant (MIC 16 mg l(-1)) to fluconazole. These data were confirmed using reference strains. It was observed that C. parapsilosis isolates were less susceptible to all triazoles, and this finding deserves further attention to assess the appearance of cross-resistance phenomena. In conclusion, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis are involved in a small but significant number of invasive infections in Brazil.

  15. Virulence of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis in reconstituted human tissue models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gácser, Attila; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Nosanchuk, Jerome S; Salomon, Siegfried; Nosanchuk, Joshua D

    2007-12-01

    Candida parapsilosis is an increasingly important human pathogen. To study the interactions of C. parapsilosis with human tissues, we evaluated the effects of the CBS 604 type strain and three different clinical isolates on reconstituted human oral epithelial and epidermal tissues. The newly described species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis were also examined in these models. Microscopy of reconstituted tissues infected with yeast cells revealed severe attenuation, morphological changes and cellular damage. C. orthopsilosis caused damage similar to C. parapsilosis isolates, whereas C. metapsilosis was less virulent. To further quantitate tissue damage, we measured lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the culture supernatant. The relative LDH measurements correlated with our histopathological observations. We also examined the effect of the lipase inhibitor Ebelactone B and proteinase inhibitor Pepstatin A, to establish the utility of this model for studying factors of C. parapsilosis virulence. Both Ebelactone B and Pepstatin A reduced the destruction of epidermal and epithelial tissues. Our data show that reconstituted human tissues are extremely useful for modeling host interactions with C. parapsilosis and for studying fungal virulence factors.

  16. In vitro activity of tea tree oil against Candida albicans mycelial conversion and other pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, F D; Laino, L; Strippoli, V; Tecca, M; Salvatore, G; Battinelli, L; Mazzanti, G

    2001-08-01

    The antifungal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia Maiden (Myrtaceae) essential oil against yeasts (Candida spp., Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Debaryomyces hansenii) and dermatophytes (Microsporum spp. and Tricophyton spp.) is reported. We focused on the ability of tea tree oil to inhibit Candida albicans conversion from the yeast to the pathogenic mycelial form. Moreover we carried out broth microdilution test and contact tests to evaluate the killing time. M. alternifolia essential oil inhibited the conversion of C. albicans from yeast to the mycelial form at a concentration of 0.16% (v/v). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.12% to 0.50% (v/v) for yeasts and 0.12% to 1% (v/v) for dermatophytes; the cytocidal activity was generally expressed at the same concentration. These results, if considered along with the lipophilic nature of the oil which enables it to penetrate the skin, suggest it may be suitable for topical therapeutic use in the treatment of fungal mucosal and cutaneous infections.

  17. [Development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction method for the identification of Candida species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ağca, Harun; Dalyan Cilo, Burcu; Özmerdiven, Gülşah Ece; Sağlam, Sezcan; Ener, Beyza

    2015-01-01

    Candida species are one of the major causes of nosocomial infections and are the fourth most common agent involved in bloodstream infections. The impact of non-albicans Candida species is increasing, however C.albicans is still the most common species. Since the antifungal susceptibility pattern among Candida spp. may be different, rapid diagnosis and identification of non-albicans Candida spp. are important for the determination of antifungal agents that will be used for treatment. The aim of the study was to describe a real-time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) assay that rapidly detects, identifies and quantitates Candida species from blood culture samples. A total of 50 consecutive positive blood culture bottles (BACTEC, Beckton Dickinson, USA) identified at our laboratory between June-November 2013, were included in the study. Reference strains of Candida spp. (C.albicans ATCC 10231, C.glabrata ATCC 90030, C.tropicalis ATCC 1021, C.krusei ATCC 6258, C.parapsilosis ATCC 22019 and C. dubliniensis CD36) grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar were used for quality control. BACTEC bottles that were positive for Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were also studied to search the cross-reactivity. A commercial kit (Zymo Research, USA) was used for DNA extraction. Real-time PCR was performed on LightCycler 480 (Roche, Germany) with primers and probes specific for 18S rRNA of Candida species. Twenty microlitres of the reaction mix contained 2 μl of extracted DNA, 2 μl of LightCycler Fast Start DNA Master Probe (Roche Diagnostics, Germany), 2 μl of MgCl(2) (5 mmol), 2 μl of 10x PCR buffer (Roche Diagnostics, Germany), 0.5 μl of each primer (0.01 nmol/μl) and 1 μl of each probe (0.1 μmol/μl) (TibMolBiol, Germany). Amplification was performed using the following conditions; 95°C for 10 mins and 50 cycles of denaturation at 95°C for 10 secs, annealing at 62°C for 10 secs and polymerisation at 72°C for 20 secs. A melting curve was

  18. Immune defence against Candida fungal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Kullberg, B.J.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de

    2015-01-01

    The immune response to Candida species is shaped by the commensal character of the fungus. There is a crucial role for discerning between colonization and invasion at mucosal surfaces, with the antifungal host defence mechanisms used during mucosal or systemic infection with Candida species differin

  19. Biofilm formation by and antifungal susceptibility of Candida isolates from urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, N; Kohli, R; Cook, E; Gialanella, P; Chang, T; Fries, B C

    2007-03-01

    Biofilm formation (BF) in the setting of candiduria has not been well studied. We determined BF and MIC to antifungals in Candida spp. isolates grown from urine samples of patients and performed a retrospective chart review to examine the correlation with risk factors. A total of 67 Candida spp. isolates were grown from urine samples from 55 patients. The species distribution was C. albicans (54%), C. glabrata (36%), and C. tropicalis (10%). BF varied greatly among individual Candida isolates but was stable in sequential isolates during chronic infection. BF also depended on the growth medium and especially in C. albicans was significantly enhanced in artificial urine (AU) compared to RPMI medium. In nine of the C. albicans strains BF was 4- to 10-fold higher in AU, whereas in three of the C. albicans strains and two of the C. glabrata strains higher BF was measured in RPMI medium than in AU. Determination of the MICs showed that planktonic cells of all strains were susceptible to amphotericin B (AMB) and caspofungin (CASPO) and that three of the C. glabrata strains and two of the C. albicans strains were resistant to fluconazole (FLU). In contrast, all biofilm-associated adherent cells were resistant to CASPO and FLU. The biofilms of 14 strains (28%) were sensitive to AMB (MIC(50) of Candida strains that varies greatly among clinical strains and is dependent on the growth medium. Resistance to AMB is associated with higher BF in AU, which may represent the more physiologic medium to test BF. Future studies should address whether in vitro BF can predict treatment failure in vivo.

  20. Role of Candida species from HIV infected children in enamel caries lesions: an in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHARONE, Senda; PORTELA, Maristela Barbosa; MARTINS, Karol de Oliveira; SOARES, Rosangela Maria; CASTRO, Gloria Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study analyzed the capacity of Candida spp. from dental biofilm of HIV infected (HIV+) children to demineralize primary molar enamel in vitro by Transversal Microhardness (TMH), Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) and the quantity of calcium ions (Ca2+) released from the enamel. Material and Methods Candida spp. samples were isolated from the supragingival biofilm of HIV+ children. A hundred and forty (140) enamel blocks were randomly assigned to six groups: biofilm formed by C. albicans (Group 1); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. tropicalis (Group 2); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. parapsilosis (Group 3); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata (Group 4); biofilm formed by C. albicans ATCC (Group 5) and medium without Candida (Group 6). Enamel blocks from each group were removed on days 3, 5, 8 and 15 after biofilm formation to evaluate the TMH and images of enamel were analyzed by PLM. The quantity of Ca2+ released, from Groups 1 and 6, was determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The SPSS program was used for statistical analysis and the significance level was 5%. Results TMH showed a gradual reduction in enamel hardness (p<0.05) from the 1st to 15th day, but mainly five days after biofilm formation in all groups. The PLM showed superficial lesions indicating an increase in porosity. C. albicans caused the release of Ca2+ into suspension during biofilm formation. Conclusion Candida species from dental biofilm of HIV+ children can cause demineralization of primary enamel in vitro. PMID:28198976

  1. Antifungal Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains Isolated from Natural Honey against Pathogenic Candida Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgasem, Bulgasem Y.; Lani, Mohd Nizam; Wan Yusoff, Wan Mohtar; Fnaish, Sumaya G.

    2016-01-01

    The role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in honey as antifungal activity has received little attention and their mechanism of inhibitory of fungi is not fully understood. In this study, LAB were isolated from honey samples from Malaysia, Libya, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. Twenty-five isolates were confirmed LAB by catalase test and Gram staining, and were screened for antifungal activity. Four LAB showed inhibitory activity against Candida spp. using the dual agar overlay method. And they were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum HS isolated from Al-Seder honey, Lactobacillus curvatus HH isolated from Al-Hanon honey, Pediococcus acidilactici HC isolated from Tualang honey and Pediococcus pentosaceus HM isolated from Al-Maray honey by the 16S rDNA sequence. The growth of Candida glabrata ATCC 2001 was strongly inhibited (>15.0 mm) and (10~15 mm) by the isolates of L. curvatus HH and P. pentosaceus HM, respectively. The antifungal activity of the crude supernatant (cell free supernatant, CFS) was evaluated using well diffusion method. The CFS showed high antifungal activity against Candida spp. especially The CFS of L. curvatus HH was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited growth of C. glabrata ATCC 2001, C. parapsilosis ATCC 2201, and C. tropicalis ATCC 750 with inhibitory zone 22.0, 15.6, and 14.7 mm, respectively. While CFS of P. pentosaceus HM was significantly (p < 0.05) effective against C. krusei, C. glabrata, and C. albicans with inhibition zone 17.2, 16.0, and 13.3 mm, respectively. The results indicated that LAB isolated from honey produced compounds which can be used to inhibit the growth of the pathogenic Candida species. PMID:28154488

  2. Role of Candida species from HIV infected children in enamel caries lesions: an in vitro study

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    Senda CHARONE

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study analyzed the capacity of Candida spp. from dental biofilm of HIV infected (HIV+ children to demineralize primary molar enamel in vitro by Transversal Microhardness (TMH, Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM and the quantity of calcium ions (Ca2+ released from the enamel. Material and Methods Candida spp. samples were isolated from the supragingival biofilm of HIV+ children. A hundred and forty (140 enamel blocks were randomly assigned to six groups: biofilm formed by C. albicans (Group 1; mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. tropicalis (Group 2; mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. parapsilosis (Group 3; mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata (Group 4; biofilm formed by C. albicans ATCC (Group 5 and medium without Candida (Group 6. Enamel blocks from each group were removed on days 3, 5, 8 and 15 after biofilm formation to evaluate the TMH and images of enamel were analyzed by PLM. The quantity of Ca2+ released, from Groups 1 and 6, was determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The SPSS program was used for statistical analysis and the significance level was 5%. Results TMH showed a gradual reduction in enamel hardness (p<0.05 from the 1st to 15th day, but mainly five days after biofilm formation in all groups. The PLM showed superficial lesions indicating an increase in porosity. C. albicans caused the release of Ca2+ into suspension during biofilm formation. Conclusion Candida species from dental biofilm of HIV+ children can cause demineralization of primary enamel in vitro.

  3. Isolation of Vaginal Lactobacilli and Characterization of Anti-Candida Activity.

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    Carola Parolin

    Full Text Available Healthy vaginal microbiota is dominated by Lactobacillus spp., which form a critical line of defence against pathogens, including Candida spp. The present study aims to identify vaginal lactobacilli exerting in vitro activity against Candida spp. and to characterize their antifungal mechanisms of action. Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy premenopausal women. The isolates were taxonomically identified to species level (L. crispatus B1-BC8, L. gasseri BC9-BC14 and L. vaginalis BC15-BC17 by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. All strains produced hydrogen peroxide and lactate. Fungistatic and fungicidal activities against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. lusitaniae were evaluated by broth micro-dilution method. The broadest spectrum of activity was observed for L. crispatus BC1, BC4, BC5 and L. vaginalis BC15, demonstrating fungicidal activity against all isolates of C. albicans and C. lusitaniae. Metabolic profiles of lactobacilli supernatants were studied by 1H-NMR analysis. Metabolome was found to be correlated with both taxonomy and activity score. Exclusion, competition and displacement experiments were carried out to investigate the interference exerted by lactobacilli toward the yeast adhesion to HeLa cells. Most Lactobacillus strains significantly reduced C. albicans adhesion through all mechanisms. In particular, L. crispatus BC2, L. gasseri BC10 and L. gasseri BC11 appeared to be the most active strains in reducing pathogen adhesion, as their effects were mediated by both cells and supernatants. Inhibition of histone deacetylases was hypothesised to support the antifungal activity of vaginal lactobacilli. Our results are prerequisites for the development of new therapeutic agents based on probiotics for prophylaxis and adjuvant therapy of Candida infection.

  4. Isolation of Vaginal Lactobacilli and Characterization of Anti-Candida Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Carola; Marangoni, Antonella; Laghi, Luca; Foschi, Claudio; Ñahui Palomino, Rogers Alberto; Calonghi, Natalia; Cevenini, Roberto; Vitali, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Healthy vaginal microbiota is dominated by Lactobacillus spp., which form a critical line of defence against pathogens, including Candida spp. The present study aims to identify vaginal lactobacilli exerting in vitro activity against Candida spp. and to characterize their antifungal mechanisms of action. Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy premenopausal women. The isolates were taxonomically identified to species level (L. crispatus B1-BC8, L. gasseri BC9-BC14 and L. vaginalis BC15-BC17) by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. All strains produced hydrogen peroxide and lactate. Fungistatic and fungicidal activities against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. lusitaniae were evaluated by broth micro-dilution method. The broadest spectrum of activity was observed for L. crispatus BC1, BC4, BC5 and L. vaginalis BC15, demonstrating fungicidal activity against all isolates of C. albicans and C. lusitaniae. Metabolic profiles of lactobacilli supernatants were studied by 1H-NMR analysis. Metabolome was found to be correlated with both taxonomy and activity score. Exclusion, competition and displacement experiments were carried out to investigate the interference exerted by lactobacilli toward the yeast adhesion to HeLa cells. Most Lactobacillus strains significantly reduced C. albicans adhesion through all mechanisms. In particular, L. crispatus BC2, L. gasseri BC10 and L. gasseri BC11 appeared to be the most active strains in reducing pathogen adhesion, as their effects were mediated by both cells and supernatants. Inhibition of histone deacetylases was hypothesised to support the antifungal activity of vaginal lactobacilli. Our results are prerequisites for the development of new therapeutic agents based on probiotics for prophylaxis and adjuvant therapy of Candida infection.

  5. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    BAI, YING; Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L.; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat–associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans.

  6. Multi-species biofilm of Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans Candida species on acrylic substrate

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    Apurva K Pathak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In polymicrobial biofilms bacteria extensively interact with Candida species, but the interaction among the different species of the Candida is yet to be completely evaluated. In the present study, the difference in biofilm formation ability of clinical isolates of four species of Candida in both single-species and multi-species combinations on the surface of dental acrylic resin strips was evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The species of Candida, isolated from multiple species oral candidiasis of the neutropenic patients, were used for the experiment. Organisms were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose broth with 8% glucose (SDB. Biofilm production on the acrylic resins strips was determined by crystal violet assay. Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to compare in vitro biofilm formation for the individual species of Candida and its different multi-species combinations. RESULTS: In the present study, differences between the mean values of the biofilm-forming ability of individual species (C. glabrata>C. krusei>C. tropicalis>C. albicans and in its multi-species' combinations (the highest for C. albicans with C. glabrata and the lowest for all the four species combination were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that biofilm-forming ability was found greater for non-Candida albicans Candida species (NCAC than for C. albicans species with intra-species variation. Presence of C. albicans in multi-species biofilms increased, whereas; C. tropicalis decreased the biofilm production with all other NCAC species.

  7. Sensitivity of clinical isolates of Candida to essential oils from Burseraceae family

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić, Miloš; Smiljković, Marija; Marković, Tatjana; Ćirić, Ana; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Marković, Dejan; Soković, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antifungal activity of four commercial essential oils from the Burseraceae family - two Boswellia carterii Flueck oils, Canarium luzonicum (Blume) A. Gray oil, and Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl oil, against most common Candida spp. recovered from the human oral cavity. The essential oil samples were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. The analysis showed that major essential oils' components were α-pinene (23.04 % and 31.84 %), l...

  8. Hosting infection: experimental models to assay Candida virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccallum, Donna M

    2012-01-01

    Although normally commensals in humans, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei are capable of causing opportunistic infections in individuals with altered physiological and/or immunological responses. These fungal species are linked with a variety of infections, including oral, vaginal, gastrointestinal, and systemic infections, with C. albicans the major cause of infection. To assess the ability of different Candida species and strains to cause infection and disease requires the use of experimental infection models. This paper discusses the mucosal and systemic models of infection available to assay Candida virulence and gives examples of some of the knowledge that has been gained to date from these models.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of Candida species isolated from urine at an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergon, M C; Gülay, Z

    2005-03-01

    Candida spp. has been the leading microorganism isolated from the urine specimens of patients hospitalized at the Anesthesiology and Reanimation intensive care unit (ICU) of Dokuz Eylul University Hospital, Izmir, since 1998. This study was undertaken to investigate the clonal relationship of Candida urine isolates in order to find the mode of spread among the patients. Epidemiological surveillance of 38 Candida albicans, 15 Candida tropicalis and 12 Candida glabrata recovered from the urine specimens of patients who were hospitalized in the ICU between June 11, 2000 and October 15, 2001 was carried out by antifungal susceptibility testing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Two short primers [Cnd3 (5'-CCAGATGCAC-3') and Cnd4 (5'-ACGGTACACT-3')] were used for RAPD. None of the isolates had high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values (>1 microg ml(-1)) against amphotericin B with MIC50 values of 0.5 microg ml(-1), 0.5 microg ml(-1) and 0.125 microg ml(-1) for C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata isolates, respectively. However, three C. glabrata isolates were resistant and one C. albicans and five C. glabrata isolates were dose-dependent susceptible (D-DS) to fluconazole. Among C. albicans isolates 19 and 20 patterns were detected with primers Cnd3 and Cnd4, respectively. When primers Cnd3 and Cnd4 were evaluated together, three and four genotypes were identified for C. tropicalis and C. glabrata isolates, respectively. Our results suggest that the source of C. albicans isolates was mostly endogenous. It is difficult to interpret the mode of spread of C. tropicalis and C. glabrata urine isolates as we obtained insufficient banding patterns for these species.

  10. Fluconazole susceptibility of 3,056 clinical isolates of Candida species from 2005 to 2009 in a tertiary-care hospital

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    Y Ying

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Candida infections have been increasing significantly. This study was to investigate the distribution and fluconazole susceptibility of such infections. Totally, 3,056 clinical isolates were analysed, C. albicans was the most prevalent species from respiratory and vaginal specimens. However, non-albicans species constituted the majority of isolates from blood, urine, intensive care unit (ICU, organ transplant and burned patients. Similarly, Candida spp. from different specimens and clinical services had different degrees of susceptibility to fluconazole. Isolates from vagina and burned patients had the highest resistance rate, while all of the isolates from ascites and dermatological services were susceptible to fluconazole.

  11. Fluconazole susceptibility of 3,056 clinical isolates of Candida species from 2005 to 2009 in a tertiary-care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Y; Zhang, J; Huang, S B; Liu, F D; Liu, J H; Zhang, J; Hu, X F; Zhang, Z Q; Liu, X; Huang, X T

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Candida infections have been increasing significantly. This study was to investigate the distribution and fluconazole susceptibility of such infections. Totally, 3,056 clinical isolates were analysed, C. albicans was the most prevalent species from respiratory and vaginal specimens. However, non-albicans species constituted the majority of isolates from blood, urine, intensive care unit (ICU), organ transplant and burned patients. Similarly, Candida spp. from different specimens and clinical services had different degrees of susceptibility to fluconazole. Isolates from vagina and burned patients had the highest resistance rate, while all of the isolates from ascites and dermatological services were susceptible to fluconazole.

  12. Biofilm formation and genotyping of Candida haemulonii, Candida pseudohaemulonii, and a proposed new species (Candida auris) isolates from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Bong Joon; Shin, Jong Hee; Kim, Mi-Na; Sung, Heungsup; Lee, Kyungwon; Joo, Min Young; Shin, Myung Geun; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2011-01-01

    Emergence of Candida haemulonii and closely related species at five Korean hospitals has been recently described. We examined biofilm formation by these isolates and assessed their genotypic relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). This study is the first to show that all bloodstream isolates of Candida pseudohaemulonii can form significant biofilms in glucose-containing medium. PFGE of NotI-digested genomic DNA revealed that C. pseudohaemulonii isolates recovered from seven patients in two hospitals shared five patterns, and that 15 isolates of a proposed new species (Candida auris) obtained from patients at three hospitals shared seven patterns, suggesting that some of these isolates may be related to clonal transmission.

  13. In vitro aktivnost biofilma vrsta roda Candida izdvojenih iz anatolijskih bivolica s mastitisom u zapadnoj Turskoj.

    OpenAIRE

    ŞEKER, Esra; ÖZENÇ, Erhan

    2011-01-01

    Identificirana su bila 66 izolata roda Candida izdvojena iz uzoraka mlijeka upaljenih četvrti vimena anatolijskih bivolica upotrebom sustava API 20 C AUX. Najčešće izdvojene vrste bile su Candida krusei (27,3%), zatim Candida rugosa (16,7%), Candida kefyr (12,1%) i Candida tropicalis (10,6%). Ostale izdvojene vrste bile su Candida albicans (9,1%), Candida zeylanoides (6,1%), Candida parapsilosis (6,1%), Candida guilliermondii (4,5%), Candida famata (3,0%), Candida glabrata (3,0%) i Candida ci...

  14. In Vitro Anti-Candida Activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi; Muhammad Ali Dabbagh; Zahra Fouladi

    2006-01-01

    Zataria multiflora Boiss known as Avishan Shirazi (in Iran) is one of the valuable Iranian medicinal plants. The aim of study was to evaluate anti-Candida activity of Z. multiflora against different species of Candida in vitro. Anti-Candida activity of the aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic maceration extract of the aerial parts of Z. multiflora Boiss was studied in vitro. Anti-Candida activity against Candida species was done using serial dilutions of extracts in Sabouraud's dextrose agar. Mi...

  15. Beyond Candida albicans: Mechanisms of immunity to non-albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-11-01

    The fungal genus Candida encompasses numerous species that inhabit a variety of hosts, either as commensal microbes and/or pathogens. Candida species are a major cause of fungal infections, yet to date there are no vaccines against Candida or indeed any other fungal pathogen. Our knowledge of immunity to Candida mainly comes from studies on Candida albicans, the most frequent species associated with disease. However, non-albicans Candida (NAC) species also cause disease and their prevalence is increasing. Although research into immunity to NAC species is still at an early stage, it is becoming apparent that immunity to C. albicans differs in important ways from non-albicans species, with important implications for treatment, therapy and predicted demographic susceptibility. This review will discuss the current understanding of immunity to NAC species in the context of immunity to C. albicans, and highlight as-yet unanswered questions.

  16. Postantifungal effect of caspofungin against the Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2016-10-01

    Killing and postantifungal effects could be relevant for the selection of optimal dosing schedules. This study aims to compare time-kill and postantifungal effects with caspofungin on Candida albicans (C. albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida africana) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis) clades. In the postantifungal effect experiments, strains were exposed to caspofungin for 1 h at concentrations 0.12-8 μg/mL. Time-kill experiments were conducted at the same concentrations. Caspofungin exhibited a significant and prolonged postantifungal effect (>37 h) with 2 μg/mL against the most strains of C. albicans clade. Against the C. parapsilosis clade, the postantifungal effect was albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. metapsilosis.

  17. Isolated Candida infection of the lung

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    Yousef Shweihat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida pneumonia is a rare infection of the lungs, with the majority of cases occurring secondary to hematological dissemination of Candida organisms from a distant site, usually the gastrointestinal tract or skin. We report a case of a 77-year-old male who is life-long smoker with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica, but did not take immunosuppressants for those conditions. Here, we present an extremely rare case of isolated pulmonary parenchymal Candida infection in the form pulmonary nodules without evidence of systemic disease which has only been described in a few previous reports.

  18. Evaluation of blood stream infections by Candida in three tertiary hospitals in Salvador, Brazil: a case-control study

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    Maria Goreth Barberino

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. are an important problem in immunocompromised patients. There is scarce data on the epidemiology of blood stream candidiasis in Salvador, Brazil. This study evaluates the risk factors associated with candidemia, among patients admitted to three tertiary, private hospitals, in Salvador, Brazil. We conducted a case-control, retrospective study to compare patients with diagnosis of candidemia in three different tertiary hospitals in Salvador, Brazil. Patients were matched for nosocomial, acquired infections, according to the causal agent: cases were defined by positive blood cultures for Candida species. Controls were those patients who had a diagnosis of systemic bacterial infection, with a positive blood culture to any bacteria, within the same time period (± 30 days of case identification. The groups were compared for the main known risk factors for candidemia and for mortality rates. A hundred thirty-eight patients were identified. Among the 69 cases, only 14 were diagnosed as infected by Candida albicans. Candida species were defined in only eight cultures: C. tropicalis (4 cases, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. guillermondi, C. formata (1 case each. The main risk factors, identified in a univariate analysis, were: presence of a central venous catheter (CVC, use of parenteral nutrition support (PNS, previous exposure to antibiotics, and chronic renal failure (CRF. No association was detected with surgical procedures, diabetes mellitus, neutropenia or malignancies. Patients were more likely to die during the hospitalization period, but the rates of death caused by the infections were similar for cases and controls. The length of hospitalization was similar for both groups, as well as the time for a positive blood culture. Blood stream infection by Candida spp. is associated with CVC, PNS, previous use of antibiotics, and CRF. The higher mortality rate for cases probably better reflects the severity

  19. Antibiofilm activity of carboxymethyl chitosan on the biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yulong; Leonhard, Matthias; Moser, Doris; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2016-09-20

    Although most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, non-C. albicans Candida species have been isolated in increasing numbers in patients. In this study, we determined the inhibition of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) on single and mixed species biofilm of non-albicans Candida species, including Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. Biofilm by all tested species in microtiter plates were inhibited nearly 70%. CM-chitosan inhibited mixed species biofilm in microtiter plates and also on medical materials surfaces. To investigate the mechanism, the effect of CM-chitosan on cell viability and biofilm growth was employed. CM-chitosan inhibited Candida planktonic growth as well as adhesion. Further biofilm formation was inhibited with CM-chitosan added at 90min, 12h or 24h after biofilm initiation. CM-chitosan was not only able to inhibit the metabolic activity of Candida cells, but was also active upon the establishment and the development of biofilms.

  20. Adhesins of Bartonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Fiona; Schmidgen, Thomas; Kaiser, Patrick O; Linke, Dirk; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2011-01-01

    Adhesion to host cells represents the first step in the infection process and one of the decisive features in the pathogenicity of Bartonella spp. B. henselae and B. quintana are considered to be the most important human pathogenic species, responsible for cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, trench fever and other diseases. The ability to cause vasculoproliferative disorders and intraerythrocytic bacteraemia are unique features of the genus Bartonella. Consequently, the interaction with endothelial cells and erythrocytes is a focus in Bartonella research. The genus harbours a variety of trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) such as the Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) of B. henselae and the variably expressed outer-membrane proteins (Vomps) of B. quintana, which display remarkable variations in length and modular construction. These adhesins mediate many of the biologically-important properties of Bartonella spp. such as adherence to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins and induction of angiogenic gene programming. There is also significant evidence that the laterally acquired Trw-conjugation systems of Bartonella spp. mediate host-specific adherence to erythrocytes. Other potential adhesins are the filamentous haemagglutinins and several outer membrane proteins. The exact molecular functions of these adhesins and their interplay with other pathogenicity factors (e.g., the VirB/D4 type 4 secretion system) need to be analysed in detail to understand how these pathogens adapt to their mammalian hosts.

  1. Candida pneumonia in intensive care unit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnabel, Ronny M; Linssen, Catharina F; Guion, Nele; van Mook, Walther N; Bergmans, Dennis C

    2014-01-01

    It has been questioned if Candida pneumonia exists as a clinical entity. Only histopathology can establish the definite diagnosis. Less invasive diagnostic strategies lack specificity and have been insufficiently validated. Scarcity of this pathomechanism and nonspecific clinical presentation make v

  2. Folsomia candida (Collembola): a "standard" soil arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Michelle T; Hopkin, Steve P

    2005-01-01

    Folsomia candida Willem 1902, a member of the order Collembola (colloquially called springtails), is a common and widespread arthropod that occurs in soils throughout the world. The species is parthenogenetic and is easy to maintain in the laboratory on a diet of granulated dry yeast. F. candida has been used as a "standard" test organism for more than 40 years for estimating the effects of pesticides and environmental pollutants on nontarget soil arthropods. However, it has also been employed as a model for the investigation of numerous other phenomena such as cold tolerance, quality as a prey item, and effects of microarthropod grazing on pathogenic fungi and mycorrhizae of plant roots. In this comprehensive review, aspects of the life history, ecology, and ecotoxicology of F. candida are covered. We focus on the recent literature, especially studies that have examined the effects of soil pollutants on reproduction in F. candida using the protocol published by the International Standards Organization in 1999.

  3. [Candida ciferrii in an immunocompromised patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martos, Pedro; Ruiz-Aragón, Jesús; García-Agudo, Lidia; Saldarreaga, Abel; Lozano, María Carmen; Marín, Pilar

    2004-06-01

    A case of possible infection due to Candida ciferrii in an immunocompromised patient is presented. This fungal species has been rarely reported as cause of human infection. The isolate showed in vitro resistance to fluconazole.

  4. In vitro modification of Candida albicans invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla de Petrino, S E; de Jorrat, M E; Sirena, A; Valdez, J C; Mesón, O

    1986-05-01

    Candida albicans produces germ-tubes (GT) when it is incubated in animal or human serum. This dimorphism is responsible for its invasive ability. The purpose of the present paper is (1) to evaluate the ability of rat peritoneal macrophages to inhibit GT production of ingested Candida albicans, obtained from immunized rats and then activated in vitro with Candida-induced lymphokines; (2) to determinate any possible alteration of phagocytic and candidacidal activities. The phagocytes were obtained from rats immunized with viable C. albicans. Some of them were exposed to Candida-induced lymphokines in order to activate the macrophages in vitro. The monolayers of activated, immune and normal macrophages were infected with a C. albicans suspension during 4 hr. Activated macrophages presented not only the highest phagocytic and candidacidal activities but a noticeable inhibition of GT formation and incremented candidacidal activity.

  5. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both /sup 32/P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis.

  6. Geographic Distribution and Antifungal Susceptibility of the Newly Described Species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in Comparison to the Closely Related Species Candida parapsilosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lockhart, Shawn R.; Messer, Shawn A.; Pfaller, Michael A.; Diekema, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species, having previously been grouped with the more prevalent species Candida parapsilosis. Current literature contains very little data pertaining to the distributions and antifungal susceptibilities of these Candida species. We determined the species and antifungal susceptibilities of 1,929 invasive clinical isolates from the ARTEMIS antifungal surveillance program collected between 2001 and 2006 and identified as C. pa...

  7. PET-CT manifestation of Candida esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee [Sung-Ae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); O, Joo Hyun [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Candida esophagitis (moniliasis) is the most common infection of the gullet and has generally been attributed to as a complication of immune suppressed state. However, as the current case. Holt found the disease to occur in 3 of his 13 patients without predisposing condition. Predisposing factors other than immune deficient conditions include aplastic anemia, alcoholism and Parkinson's disease and age, diabetes mellitus, and disruption of mucosal integrity. Growing prevalence of Candida esophagitis in recent years is accounted for by an increase in the number of patients with organ transplantation, malignancy and AIDS as well as populrization of endoscopy. Microorganisms that reached the esophagus in oral secretions are rarely cultured from the esophageal surface. Of many species C. albicans is the most common offender although C. tropicalis has also been isolated with high prevalence, particularly in the patients with cancer and disseminated candidiasis. Clinically, the patients with Candida esophagitis seek medical care for esophageal or retrosternal pain, dysphagia or distress. Candida esophagitis may be the extension from oropharyngeal infection but in the majority the esophagus is the sole site of infection. The middle and lower thirds of the esophagus are more typically affected than the upper third. Diagnosis can be indicated by double contrast esophagography or endoscopy and confirmed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain or biopsy. It is to be noted that the more presence of Candida in smear or cultured specimen cannot indict Candida as definitive offender. Differential diagnosis includes herpes simplex infection, cytomegalovirus infection, reflux esophagitis or radiation esophagitis.

  8. The Candida genome database incorporates multiple Candida species: multispecies search and analysis tools with curated gene and protein information for Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Diane O; Arnaud, Martha B; Binkley, Jonathan; Shah, Prachi; Skrzypek, Marek S; Wymore, Farrell; Binkley, Gail; Miyasato, Stuart R; Simison, Matt; Sherlock, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    The Candida Genome Database (CGD, http://www.candidagenome.org/) is an internet-based resource that provides centralized access to genomic sequence data and manually curated functional information about genes and proteins of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans and other Candida species. As the scope of Candida research, and the number of sequenced strains and related species, has grown in recent years, the need for expanded genomic resources has also grown. To answer this need, CGD has expanded beyond storing data solely for C. albicans, now integrating data from multiple species. Herein we describe the incorporation of this multispecies information, which includes curated gene information and the reference sequence for C. glabrata, as well as orthology relationships that interconnect Locus Summary pages, allowing easy navigation between genes of C. albicans and C. glabrata. These orthology relationships are also used to predict GO annotations of their products. We have also added protein information pages that display domains, structural information and physicochemical properties; bibliographic pages highlighting important topic areas in Candida biology; and a laboratory strain lineage page that describes the lineage of commonly used laboratory strains. All of these data are freely available at http://www.candidagenome.org/. We welcome feedback from the research community at candida-curator@lists.stanford.edu.

  9. Four novel yeasts from decaying organic matter: Blastobotrys robertii sp. nov., Candida cretensis sp. nov., Candida scorzettiae sp. nov. and Candida vadensis sp. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.; Kurtzman, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    Four novel yeast species are described, two from decaying mushrooms, viz. Candida cretensis and Candida vadensis, and two from rotten wood, viz. Blastobotrys robertii and Candida scorzettiae. Accession numbers for the CBS and ARS Culture Collections, and GenBank accession numbers for the D1/D2 domai

  10. Multicenter Brazilian Study of Oral Candida Species Isolated from Aids Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla de Laet Sant'Ana

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal candidiasis continues to be considered the most common opportunistic disease in Aids patients. This study was designed to investigate species distribution, serotype and antifungal susceptibility profile among Candida spp. isolated from the oral cavity of Aids patients recruited from six Brazilian university centers. Oral swabs from 130 Aids patients were plated onto CHROMagar Candida medium and 142 isolates were recovered. Yeast isolates were identified by classical methods and serotyped using the Candida Check® system-Iatron. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed according to the NCCLS microbroth assay. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species (91%, and 70% of the isolates belonged to serotype A. We detected 12 episodes of co-infection (9%, including co-infection with both serotypes of C. albicans. Non-albicans species were isolated from 12 episodes, 50% of them exhibited DDS or resistance to azoles. Otherwise, only 8 out 130 isolates of C. albicans exhibited DDS or resistance to azoles. Brazilian Aids patients are infected mainly by C. albicans serotype A, most of them susceptible to all antifungal drugs.

  11. Action of Coriandrum sativum L. Essential Oil upon Oral Candida albicans Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Furletti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of extracts and essential oils from Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, and Santolina chamaecyparissus was evaluated against Candida spp. isolates from the oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease. The most active oil was fractionated and tested against C. albicans biofilm formation. The oils were obtained by water-distillation and the extracts were prepared with macerated dried plant material. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration—MIC was determined by the microdilution method. Chemical characterization of oil constituents was performed using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. C. sativum activity oil upon cell and biofilm morphology was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The best activities against planktonic Candida spp. were observed for the essential oil and the grouped F8–10 fractions from C. sativum. The crude oil also affected the biofilm formation in C. albicans causing a decrease in the biofilm growth. Chemical analysis of the F8–10 fractions detected as major active compounds, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol and cyclodecane. Standards of these compounds tested grouped provided a stronger activity than the oil suggesting a synergistic action from the major oil constituents. The activity of C. sativum oil demonstrates its potential for a new natural antifungal formulation.

  12. Multilocus sequence typing confirms synonymy but highlights differences between Candida albicans and Candida stellatoidea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, M.D.; Boekhout, T.; Odds, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    We used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to investigate 35 yeast isolates representing the two genome-sequenced strains plus the type strain of Candida albicans, four isolates originally identified as Candida stellatoidea type I and 28 representing type strains of other species now regarded as syn

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  14. Characterization of In Vitro Resistance Development to the Novel Echinocandin CD101 in Candida Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jeffrey B; Almaguer, Amanda L; Zuill, Douglas E; Bartizal, Ken

    2016-10-01

    CD101 is a novel echinocandin with a long half-life undergoing clinical development for treatment of candidemia/invasive candidiasis and vulvovaginal candidiasis. The potential for and mechanisms underlying the development of resistance to CD101 in Candida species were investigated by using spontaneous resistance and serial passage selection methodologies. Four Candida spp. (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei) were chosen for resistance characterization with CD101, anidulafungin, and caspofungin. The frequency of spontaneous, single-step mutations conferring reduced susceptibility to CD101 at 1× the agar growth inhibition concentration was low across all species, with median frequencies ranging from 1.35 × 10(-8) to 3.86 × 10(-9), similar to ranges generated for anidulafungin and caspofungin. Serial passage of Candida spp. on agar plates containing drug gradients demonstrated a low potential for resistance development, with passage 20 CD101-selected strains possessing increases in MICs equivalent to or lower than those for the majority of strains generated under selection with anidulafungin and caspofungin. A total of 12 fks "hot spot" mutations were identified, typically in strains with the highest MIC shifts. Cross-resistance was broadly observed among the 3 echinocandins evaluated, with no CD101-selected mutants (with or without fks hot spot mutations) exhibiting reduced susceptibility to CD101 but not also to anidulafungin and/or caspofungin. Consistent with currently approved echinocandins, CD101 demonstrates a low potential for resistance development, which could be further enhanced in vivo by the high maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax)/area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) plasma drug exposure achieved with once-weekly dosing of CD101.

  15. Characterization of In Vitro Resistance Development to the Novel Echinocandin CD101 in Candida Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaguer, Amanda L.; Zuill, Douglas E.; Bartizal, Ken

    2016-01-01

    CD101 is a novel echinocandin with a long half-life undergoing clinical development for treatment of candidemia/invasive candidiasis and vulvovaginal candidiasis. The potential for and mechanisms underlying the development of resistance to CD101 in Candida species were investigated by using spontaneous resistance and serial passage selection methodologies. Four Candida spp. (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei) were chosen for resistance characterization with CD101, anidulafungin, and caspofungin. The frequency of spontaneous, single-step mutations conferring reduced susceptibility to CD101 at 1× the agar growth inhibition concentration was low across all species, with median frequencies ranging from 1.35 × 10−8 to 3.86 × 10−9, similar to ranges generated for anidulafungin and caspofungin. Serial passage of Candida spp. on agar plates containing drug gradients demonstrated a low potential for resistance development, with passage 20 CD101-selected strains possessing increases in MICs equivalent to or lower than those for the majority of strains generated under selection with anidulafungin and caspofungin. A total of 12 fks “hot spot” mutations were identified, typically in strains with the highest MIC shifts. Cross-resistance was broadly observed among the 3 echinocandins evaluated, with no CD101-selected mutants (with or without fks hot spot mutations) exhibiting reduced susceptibility to CD101 but not also to anidulafungin and/or caspofungin. Consistent with currently approved echinocandins, CD101 demonstrates a low potential for resistance development, which could be further enhanced in vivo by the high maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax)/area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) plasma drug exposure achieved with once-weekly dosing of CD101. PMID:27480852

  16. Analysis of the Distribution of Candida Infection on 304 Strains and Its Drug Resistance%304株念珠菌感染分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭俊华; 王海忠; 魏捷; 薛荣利; 马嘉伟

    2011-01-01

    Our objective is to investigate the drug resistance of Candida infection and give a clinical guidance to the rational use of drugs. The fungus was separate by conventional culture,the Candida spp was I-dentified by coloration medium and VITEK 32 automatic microorganism analysor,and the sensitivity was detected by drug analysing box. The results showed that the percent of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei,candida glabrata was 73. 7%, 14. 1%,4. 9% and 4. 3%,respectively,among 304 strains of Candida. The sensitivity of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata treated with ketocon-azole was 90. 5% ,57.1% and 50.0%. A lower sensitivity of Candida albicans was found when treated with itraconazole. The sensitivity of Candida albicans treated with either miconazole or fluconazol was 82. 4% and 86. 5 %, respectively. There was a higher resistance of Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata when treated with miconazole or fluconazol. Our conclusion is that Candida albicans infection is the main clinical Candida spp. Fluconazol is the first choice to administrate Candida spp infection. It is necessary to enforce clinically fungus' segregation,identification and sensitivity dectection,thus decreasing the drug-resistant strains.%为调查念珠菌的耐药情况,指导临床合理用药,采用常规培养分离真菌,用显色培养基和VITEK 32全自动微生物分析仪鉴定真菌,真菌药敏测定试剂盒分析药敏.结果显示,304株念珠菌中白色念珠菌、热带念珠菌、克柔氏念珠菌、光滑念珠菌分别为73.7%、14.1%、4.9%、4.3%.酮康唑对白色念珠菌、热带念珠菌、光滑念珠菌的敏感率分别为90.5%、57.1%、50.0%%,伊曲康唑对念珠菌的敏感性较差.咪康唑、氟康唑对白色念珠菌的敏感率分别为82.4%、86.5%,对热带念珠菌和光滑念珠菌的耐药性较高.表明临床念珠菌感染以白色念珠菌为主,氟康唑是临床较好的首选用

  17. [Activity of doripenem against Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. rods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogiel, Tomasz; Deptuła, Aleksander; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    Doripenem, the newest carbapenem was approved in 2008 by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections and complicated urinary tract infections. Its spectrum of activity is similar to that of meropenem and imipenem/cilastatin. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro activity of doripenem against nonfermentative Gram-negative rods. A total of 235 strains of Pseudomonas spp. (74.9%) and Acinetobacter spp. (25.1%) were included into the study. Strains were isolated in The Department of Clinical Microbiology of the University Hospital No 1 in Bydgoszcz and identified using ID GN tests (bioMérieux). To determine susceptibility to doripenem and other carbapenems disc-diffusion method was applied. Percentage of doripenem resistant strains reached 28.4% and 39.0% for Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp, respectively. All doripenem sensitive or intermediate Acinetobacter spp. strains were simultaneously sensitive to imipenem and meropenem. Activity of imipenem and meropenem among doripenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. were represented by 60.9% and 56.5% strains, respectively. Activity of imipenem and meropenem among doripenem resistant Pseudomonas spp. strains were represented by 12.0% and 18.0%, respectively. Occurence of one doripenem sensitive Pseudomonas spp. strain simultaneously resistant to imipenem and meropenem was observed.

  18. Candida urinary tract infection and Candida species susceptibilities to antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Kayo; Shigemura, Katsumi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Masato; Arakawa, Soichi

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to review Candida isolation from urine of urinary tract infection (UTI) patients over the recent 3 years at the Kobe University Hospital. We recorded the type of strain, the department where the patient was treated such as the intensive care unit (ICU), and combined isolation of Candida with other microorganisms. We investigated Candida isolation and susceptibilities to antifungal agents and analyzed the risk factors for combined isolation with other microorganisms. The most frequently isolated Candida was Candida albicans, which showed good (100%) susceptibilities to 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and fluconazole (FLCZ) but not to voriconazole (VRCZ), followed by C. glabrata. ICU was the greatest source of Candida-positive samples, and the most relevant underlying diseases of ICU patients were pneumonia followed by renal failure and post liver transplantation status. Combined isolation with other bacteria was seen in 27 cases (42.9%) in 2009, 25 (33.3%) in 2010 and 31 (31.3%) in 2011 and comparatively often seen in non-ICU patients. Other candidas than C. albicans showed significantly decreased susceptibility to FLCZ over these 3 years (P=0.004). One hundred (97.1%) of 103 ICU cases were given antibiotics at the time of Candida isolation, and the most often used antibiotics were cefazolin or meropenem. In conclusion, C. albicans was representatively isolated in Candida UTI and showed good susceptibilities to 5-FC, FLCZ and VRCZ, but other candidas than C. albicans showed significantly decreased susceptibility to FLCZ in the change of these 3 years.

  19. Anti-Candida and anti-Cryptococcus evaluation of 15 non-alkaloidal compounds from Pterogyne nitens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caroline Sprengel Lima; Andreia Alves Rezende; Luis Octavio Regasini; Carlos Roberto Polaquini; Mariana Bastos dos Santos; Fernanda Patrcia Gullo; Fernanda Sangalli Leite; Liliane Scorzoni; Vanderlan da Silva Bolzani; Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate anti-Candida and anti-Cryptococcus activities of 15 non-alkaloidal compounds from Pterogyne nitens Tulasne (Leguminosae), a South Amer-ican medicinal plant. Methods: Compounds were submitted to antifungal assays, using microdilution method described by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute document, with minor modifi-cations. Five species of Candida and two species of Cryptococcus, including clinical isolates were screened. Antifungal activity was expressed by minimum inhibitory con-centration (MIC). Amphotericin B and fluconazole were used as standard antifungal drugs. Results: Among tested compounds, six substances presented fungal growth inhibition (MIC Conclusions: Flavone derivatives from Pterogyne nitens can serve as prototypes for the design and development of innovative anti-Candida and anti-Cryptococcus hits.

  20. In vitro differential activity of phospholipases and acid proteinases of clinical isolates of Candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurean D'Eça Júnior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Candida yeasts are commensals; however, if the balance of normal flora is disrupted or the immune defenses are compromised, Candida species can cause disease manifestations. Several attributes contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of Candida, including the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, particularly phospholipase and proteinase. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro activity of phospholipases and acid proteinases in clinical isolates of Candida spp. METHODS: Eighty-two isolates from hospitalized patients collected from various sites of origin were analyzed. Phospholipase production was performed in egg yolk medium and the production of proteinase was verified in a medium containing bovine serum albumin. The study was performed in triplicate. RESULTS: Fifty-six (68.3% of isolates tested were phospholipase positive and 16 (44.4% were positive for proteinase activity. C. tropicalis was the species with the highest number of positive isolates for phospholipase (91.7%. Statistically significant differences were observed in relation to production of phospholipases among species (p<0,0001 and among the strains from different sites of origin (p=0.014. Regarding the production of acid protease, the isolates of C. parapsilosis tested presented a larger number of producers (69.2%. Among the species analyzed, the percentage of protease producing isolates did not differ statistically (χ2=1.9 p=0.5901 (χ2=1.9 p=0.5901. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of C. non-albicans and all C. albicans isolates were great producers of hydrolytic enzymes and, consequently, might be able to cause infection under favorable conditions.

  1. Candida fermenticarens—a. new yeast from arboricole lichen

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    J. P. van der Walt

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Two strains of an undescribed  Candida species were recovered from arboricole lichen collected in the eastern Cape. A description of the new species, Candida fermenticarens, is given.

  2. SCY-078 Is Fungicidal against Candida Species in Time-Kill Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorneaux, Bernard; Angulo, David; Borroto-Esoda, Katyna; Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Peel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT SCY-078 is an orally bioavailable ß-1,3-glucan synthesis inhibitor (GSI) and the first-in-class of structurally novel triterpene antifungals in clinical development for treating candidemia and invasive candidiasis. In vitro susceptibilities by broth microdilution, antifungal carryover, and time-kill dynamics were determined for three reference (ATCC) strains (Candida albicans 90028, Candida parapsilosis 90018, and Candida tropicalis 750), a quality-control (QC) strain (Candida krusei 6258), and four other strains (C. albicans MYA-2732, 64124, and 76485 and Candida glabrata 90030). Caspofungin (CASP), fluconazole (FLC), and voriconazole (VRC) were comparators. For time-kill experiments, SCY-078 and CASP were evaluated at 0.25, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 times the MIC80, and FLU and VRC were evaluated at 4× MIC80. The time to reach 50%, 90%, and 99.9% reduction in the number of CFUs from the starting inoculum was determined. Net change in the number of CFU per milliliter was used to determine 50% and 90% effective concentrations and maximum effect (EC50, EC90, and Emax, respectively). The SCY-078 MIC range was between 0.0625 and 1 μg/ml and generally similar to that of CASP. Antifungal carryover was not observed for SCY-078. SCY-078 was fungicidal against seven isolates at ≥4× MIC (kill of ≥3 log10) and achieved a 1.7-log10 reduction in CFU count/milliliter against C. albicans 90028. CASP behaved similarly against each isolate and achieved a 1.5-log10 reduction in the number of CFU/milliliter against C. albicans 90028. Reductions of 50% in CFU count/milliliter were achieved rapidly (1 to 2.8 h); fungicidal endpoints were reached at 12.1 to 21.8 h at ≥4× MIC. EC90 was reached at ∼5× MIC at each time point to 24 h. The EC50 and EC90 values were generally similar (8 to 24 h). Time-kill behavior of CASP was similar to that of SCY-078. FLC and VRC were fungistatic. Overall, SCY-078 has primarily fungicidal activity against Candida spp. and behaved

  3. The activity of echinocandins, amphotericin B and voriconazole against fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant Brazilian Candida glabrata isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Alves Nunes Mario

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of azole antifungal agents has promoted the resistance of Candida spp to these drugs. Candida glabrata is a problematic yeast because it presents a high degree of primary or secondary resistance to fluconazole. In Brazil, C. glabrata has been less studied than other species. In this paper, we compared the activity of three major classes of antifungal agents (azoles, echinocandins and polyenes against fluconazole-susceptible (FS and fluconazole-resistant (FR C. glabrata strains. Cross-resistance between fluconazole and voriconazole was remarkable. Among the antifungal agents, the echinocandins were the most effective against FS and FR C. glabrata and micafungin showed the lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations.

  4. Killer behavior within the Candida parapsilosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Leal, Efrén; Elizondo-Zertuche, Mariana; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Treviño-Rangel, Rogelio de J; García-Maldonado, Nancy; Adame-Rodríguez, Juan M; González, Gloria M

    2014-11-01

    A group of 29 isolates of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, 29 of Candida orthopsilosis, and 4 of Candida metapsilosis were assayed for the presence of killer activity using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 26609 as a sensitive strain. All C. metapsilosis isolates showed killer activity at 25 °C while strains of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto or C. orthopsilosis did not exhibit this activity. Sensitivity to killer toxins was evaluated using a set of previously reported killer strains of clinical origin. Only 11 isolates of the C. parapsilosis complex were inhibited by at least one killer isolate without resulting in any clear pattern, except for C. parapsilosis sensu stricto ATCC 22019, which was inhibited by every killer strain with the exception of C. parapsilosis and Candida utilis. The lack of sensitivity to killer activity among isolates of the genus Candida suggests that their toxins belong to the same killer type. Differentiation of species within the C. parapsilosis complex using the killer system may be feasible if a more taxonomically diverse panel of killer strains is employed.

  5. MOLECULAR TYPING OF Candida albicans ISOLATES FROM HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS

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    Patricia de Souza Bonfim-Mendonca

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Introduction: The majority of nosocomial fungal infections are caused by Candida spp. where C. albicans is the species most commonly identified. Molecular methods are important tools for assessing the origin of the yeasts isolated in hospitals. Methods: This is a study on the genetic profifiles of 39 nosocomial clinical isolates of C. albicans using two typing methods: random amplifified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and microsatellite, two different primers for each technique were used. Results: RAPD provided 10 and 11 different profiles with values for SAB of 0.84 ± 0.126 and 0.88 ± 0.08 for primers M2 and P4, respectively. Microsatellite using two markers, CDC3 and HIS3, allowed the observation of six and seven different alleles, respectively, with combined discriminatory power of 0.91. Conclusions: Although genetic variability is clear, it was possible to identify high similarity, suggesting a common origin for at least a part of isolates. It is important to emphasize that common origin was proven from yeasts isolated from colonization (urine, catheter or endotracheal secretions and blood culture from the same patient, indicating that the candidemia must have started from a site of colonization. The combination of RAPD and microsatellite provides a quick and efficient analysis for investigation of similarity among nosocomial isolates of C. albicans.

  6. Candida colonization in intensive care unit patients' urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xisto Sena Passos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify possible predisposing factors for candiduria in intensive care unit (ICU patients from Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil, during one year. Urine samples from 153 ICU patients were obtained by catheterization on admission day and every seven days. Data such as sex, age, antifungal therapy, and variables as antibiotics, underlying diseases or comorbid conditions and stay in the hospital, were collected from patients who had at least one urine culture that yielded > 10³ yeast colonies/ml. Candiduria was recovered in 68 patients and the commonest predisposing factors were antibiotic therapy (100% and indwelling urinary catheter (92.6%. The percentage of Candida spp. isolation increased during the extended periods in which patients remained in the ICU. C. albicans was isolated in 69.1%, and the other species non-albicans as C. glabrata, C. kefyr, C. parapsilosis, C. famata, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis were isolated in lower percentage. The high frequency of candiduria and the possible predisposing factors found in ICU patients show that candiduria surveillance should be performed to help reducing nosocomial infections.

  7. Effect of usnic acid on Candida orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Regina Helena; Lucarini, Rodrigo; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose Soares

    2012-01-01

    The activity of usnic acid against Candida orthopsilosis and Candida parapsilosis on planktonic and biofilm conditions was investigated by using a broth microdilution and microplate methods. Potent in vitro activities against different Candida species were obtained. The metabolic activity of sessile cells of C. parapsilosis complex was reduced by 80% at four times the 80% inhibitory concentration. The in vitro studies support further efforts to determine whether usnic acid can be used clinically to cure patients with Candida infections.

  8. IDENTIFIKASI SPESIES CANDIDA ALBICANS PADA PENDERITA ANGULAR CHEILITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Mu`min, Mulia Sari

    2012-01-01

    2011 Abstrak Candida albicans merupakan jenis Candida yang menginfeksi semua organ tubuh manusia, dapat ditemukan pada semua golongan umur, baik pada pria maupun wanita. Candida albicans merupakan fungi patogen oportunistik yang paling sering menginfeksi rongga mulut. Fungi ini dapat ditemukan pada seluruh permukaan rongga mulut, yaitu lidah (punggung lidah merupakan tempat yang disukai Candida albicans untuk tumbuh dan berkembang biak), pipi, mukosa palatal, plak gigi, karies gigi, flo...

  9. Candida costochondritis associated with recent intravenous drug use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon J. Crawford

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida osteoarticular infections are being reported with increasing frequency, possibly due to an expanding population at risk. However, Candida costochondritis is uncommon. We report two cases of Candida costochondritis in patients who presented with subacute-onset chest wall swelling and whose only identifiable risk factor was a history of recent intravenous drug use.

  10. Systemic and localized infection by Candida species in patients with rheumatic diseases receiving anti-TNF therapy

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    Nadia E. Aikawa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of systemic and localized infection by Candida species and its possible association with demographic, clinical and laboratory manifestations and therapy in patients with rheumatic diseases taking TNF blockers. Methods: Consecutive patients with rheumatic diseases receiving anti-TNF agents were included. The following risk factors up to four weeks prior to the study were analyzed: use of antibiotics, immunosuppressant drugs, hospitalization and invasive procedures. All subjects were evaluated for clinical complaints; specific blood cultures were obtained for fungi and blood samples were collected for Candida spp. detection by polymerase chain reaction. Results: 194 patients [67 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, 47 with ankylosing spondylitis (AS, 36 with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA, 28 with psoriatic arthritis and 16 with other conditions] were included. The average age of patients was 42 ± 16 years, with 68 (35% male and mean disease duration of 15 ± 10 years. Sixty-four (33% patients were receiving adalimumab, 59 (30% etanercept and 71 (36% infliximab. Eighty-one percent of patients were concomitantly taking immunosuppressant drugs. At the time of the study, only one (0.5% patient had localized fungal infection (vaginal candidiasis. None of the patients included had systemic candidiasis with positive blood cultures for fungi or PCR positive for Candida spp. in peripheral blood sample. Conclusions: This was the first study to assess the prevalence of invasive and localized fungal disease by Candida in a significant number of patients with rheumatic diseases on anti-TNF therapy, and demonstrated low risk of candidiasis, despite the high prevalence of immunosuppressive drug use.

  11. How to use the Candida Genome Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Marek S.; Binkley, Jonathan; Sherlock, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Studying Candida biology requires access to genomic sequence data in conjunction with experimental information that provides functional context to genes and proteins. The Candida Genome Database (CGD) integrates functional information about Candida genes and their products with a set of analysis tools that facilitate searching for sets of genes and exploring their biological roles. This chapter describes how the various types of information available at CGD can be searched, retrieved, and analyzed. Starting with the guided tour of the CGD Home page and Locus Summary page, this unit shows how to navigate the various assemblies of the C. albicans genome, how to use Gene Ontology tools to make sense of large-scale data, and how to access the microarray data archived at CGD. PMID:26519061

  12. How to Use the Candida Genome Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Marek S; Binkley, Jonathan; Sherlock, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Studying Candida biology requires access to genomic sequence data in conjunction with experimental information that provides functional context to genes and proteins. The Candida Genome Database (CGD) integrates functional information about Candida genes and their products with a set of analysis tools that facilitate searching for sets of genes and exploring their biological roles. This chapter describes how the various types of information available at CGD can be searched, retrieved, and analyzed. Starting with the guided tour of the CGD Home page and Locus Summary page, this unit shows how to navigate the various assemblies of the C. albicans genome, how to use Gene Ontology tools to make sense of large-scale data, and how to access the microarray data archived at CGD.

  13. Prevalence and Susceptibility Profile of Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis: Results from Population-Based Surveillance of Candidemia in Spain▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Lopez, A.; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A.; Rodriguez, D.; Almirante, B.; Pahissa, A.; Rodriguez-Tudela, J. L.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the prevalences and susceptibility profiles of two recently described species, Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis, related to Candida parapsilosis in candidemia. The prevalences of these species (1.7% for C. metapsilosis and 1.4% for C. orthopsilosis) are significant. Differences observed in their susceptibility profiles could have therapeutic importance.

  14. Prevalence and susceptibility profile of Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis: results from population-based surveillance of candidemia in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lopez, A; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A; Rodriguez, D; Almirante, B; Pahissa, A; Rodriguez-Tudela, J L; Cuenca-Estrella, M

    2008-04-01

    We describe the prevalences and susceptibility profiles of two recently described species, Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis, related to Candida parapsilosis in candidemia. The prevalences of these species (1.7% for C. metapsilosis and 1.4% for C. orthopsilosis) are significant. Differences observed in their susceptibility profiles could have therapeutic importance.

  15. Candida albicans isolates from a Malaysian hospital exhibit more potent phospholipase and haemolysin activities than non-albicans Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, V K; Foong, K J; Maha, A; Rusliza, B; Norhafizah, M; Ng, K P; Chong, P P

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining the phospholipase and haemolysin activity of Candida isolates in Malaysia. A total of 37 Candida clinical isolates representing seven species, Candida albicans (12), Candida tropicalis (8), Candida glabrata (4), Candida parapsilosis (1), Candida krusei (4), Candida orthopsilosis (1) and Candida rugosa (7) were tested. In vitro phospholipase activity was determined by using egg yolk plate assay whereas in vitro haemolysin activity was tested by using blood plate assay on sheep blood Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) enriched with glucose. Phospholipase activity was detected in 75% (9 out of 12) of the C. albicans isolates. Among the 25 non- C. albicans Candida isolates, phospholipase activity was detected in only 24% of these isolates. The phospholipase activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.002). Haemolysin activity was detected in 100% of the C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis isolates while 75% of the C. krusei isolates and 12.3% of the C. rugosa isolates showed haemolysin activity. The haemolytic activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.0001).The findings in this study indicate that C. albicans isolates in Malaysia may possess greater virulence potential than the non-albicans species.

  16. Commensal Oral Candida in Asian Cohorts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lakshman Samaranayake

    2009-01-01

    The oral carriage rate of Candida in healthy humans ranges from 40% to 60%. However for a prolonged period, the oral candidal prevalence in humans was documented essentially using data from studies in the West as their prevalence in inhabitants in different regions of the world, including Asia was not known. Yet, recent reports from a number of studies indicate the quality, quantity and prevalence of oral yeasts differ between Asia and other regions for reason that are still unclear. This mini review on such data from Asian studies on oral carriage of Candida provides another intriguing facet of the behavior of this ubiquitous yeast.

  17. Genetic diversity of the yeast Candida utilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltenburg, R; Klinner, U; Ritzerfeld, P; Zimmermann, M; Emeis, C C

    1992-12-01

    The electrophoretic karyotypes and some mtDNA restriction fragment patterns of 13 strains of Candida utilis and one strain of Hansenula jadinii were compared. PFGE separations revealed remarkable chromosome length polymorphisms between two groups of strains suggesting that perhaps they do not belong to the same species. However, all strains had the same or similar EcoRI, HindIII and BamHI mtDNA restriction patterns. The mtDNA genomes had an average size range of 55 kb. These results support the supposition that C. utilis is a yeast with a highly variable electrophoretic karyotype as already known for another imperfect yeast species, Candida albicans.

  18. Caspofungin Etest susceptibility testing of Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Pfaller, Michael A; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of caspofungin Etest and the recently revised CLSI breakpoints. A total of 497 blood isolates, of which 496 were wild-type isolates, were included. A total of 65/496 susceptible isolates (13.1%) were misclassified as intermediate (I) or re......) or resistant (R). Such misclassifications were most commonly observed for Candida krusei (73.1%) and Candida glabrata (33.1%). The revised breakpoints cannot be safely adopted for these two species....

  19. Phospholipase and Aspartyl Proteinase Activities of Candida Species Causing Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassyouni, Rasha H; Wegdan, Ahmed Ashraf; Abdelmoneim, Abdelsamie; Said, Wessam; AboElnaga, Fatma

    2015-10-01

    Few research had investigated the secretion of phospholipase and aspartyl proteinase from Candida spp. causing infection in females with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in diabetic versus non-diabetic women and compare the ability of identified Candida isolates to secrete phospholipases and aspartyl proteinases with characterization of their genetic profile. The study included 80 females with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 100 non-diabetic females within the child-bearing period. Candida strains were isolated and identified by conventional microbiological methods and by API Candida. The isolates were screened for their extracellular phospholipase and proteinase activities by culturing them on egg yolk and bovine serum albumin media, respectively. Detection of aspartyl proteinase genes (SAP1 to SAP8) and phospholipase genes (PLB1, PLB2) were performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicated that vaginal candidiasis was significantly higher among the diabetic group versus nondiabetic group (50% versus 20%, respectively) (p = 0.004). C. albicans was the most prevalent species followed by C. glabrata in both groups. No significant association between diabetes mellitus and phospholipase activities was detected (p = 0.262), whereas high significant proteinase activities exhibited by Candida isolated from diabetic females were found (82.5%) (p = 0.000). Non-significant associations between any of the tested proteinase or phospholipase genes and diabetes mellitus were detected (p > 0.05). In conclusion, it is noticed that the incidence of C. glabrata causing VVC is increased. The higher prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among diabetics could be related to the increased aspartyl proteinase production in this group of patients.

  20. Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study, 1997 to 2007: a 10.5-Year Analysis of Susceptibilities of Candida Species to Fluconazole and Voriconazole as Determined by CLSI Standardized Disk Diffusion ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaller, M.A.; Diekema, D. J.; Gibbs, D. L.; Newell, V. A.; Ellis, D.; Tullio, V; Rodloff, A.; Fu, W; Ling, T. A.

    2010-01-01

    Fluconazole in vitro susceptibility test results for 256,882 isolates of Candida spp. were collected from 142 sites in 41 countries from June 1997 to December 2007. Data were collected for 197,619 isolates tested with voriconazole from 2001 to 2007. A total of 31 different species of Candida were isolated. Increased rates of isolation of the common non-albicans species C. glabrata (10.2% to 11.7%), C. tropicalis (5.4% to 8.0%), and C. parapsilosis (4.8% to 5.6%) were noted when the time perio...

  1. Molecular identification of Candida orthopsilosis isolated from blood culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, P V C; Chong, P P; Lau, L Y; Yeoh, R S C; Jamal, F

    2008-02-01

    The incidence of candidemia and invasive candidiasis have increased markedly due to the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. There are five major medically important species of Candida with their frequency of isolation in the diminishing order namely Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei. In addition, there are numerous other species of Candida which differ in their genetic makeup, virulence properties, drug susceptibilities and sugar assimilation capabilities. In this report, an unusual Candida species was isolated from the blood of two leukaemic patients. Conventional culture and biochemical tests identified the Candida species as C. parapsilosis. Using fungal-specific oligonucleotide primers ITS1 and ITS4, we managed to amplify the ribosomal RNA gene and its internal transcribed spacer region from the genomic DNA of these isolates. The PCR products were then purified and subjected to automated DNA sequencing using BLAST and CLUSTAL sequence analysis identified these isolates to be Candida orthopsilosis. Candida orthopsilosis is a new species recently identified in 2005, being morphologically indistinguishable from C. parapsilosis and was previously classified as a subspecies of C. parapsilosis. This report highlights the importance of complementing traditional culture and biochemical-based identification methods with DNA-based molecular assays such as PCR as the latter is more superior in terms of its discriminatory power and speed.

  2. Characterization of Candida species from different populations in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Liang; Hsieh, Li-Yun; Wang, An-Huei; Lo, Hsiu-Jung

    2011-08-01

    The opportunistic Candida species existing as part of commensal microbiota in humans are usually the etiological agents causing infections. We investigated whether isolates collected from different age groups, hospital units, and sources have distinct characteristics. A total of 913 isolates comprising 395 Candida albicans, 230 Candida tropicalis, 202 Candida glabrata, 62 Candida parapsilosis, 13 Candida krusei, and 11 of other six species were analyzed. Urine was the most common source (41.2%), followed by sputum (16.3%), blood (15.2%), and others (27.3%). Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis were more prevalent in the working group [from 19 to 65 years], whereas C. tropicalis and C. glabrata were more prevalent in the elder one (≥ 66 years). We found that the age of patients and the source of isolates affect the distribution of species. On the other hand, the drug susceptibility of isolates was associated with fungal species and whether patients were hospitalized.

  3. Hosting Infection: Experimental Models to Assay Candida Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. MacCallum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although normally commensals in humans, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei are capable of causing opportunistic infections in individuals with altered physiological and/or immunological responses. These fungal species are linked with a variety of infections, including oral, vaginal, gastrointestinal, and systemic infections, with C. albicans the major cause of infection. To assess the ability of different Candida species and strains to cause infection and disease requires the use of experimental infection models. This paper discusses the mucosal and systemic models of infection available to assay Candida virulence and gives examples of some of the knowledge that has been gained to date from these models.

  4. Defining pheromone-receptor signaling in Candida albicans and related asexual Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hsuan; Choi, Anthony; Bennett, Richard J

    2011-12-01

    Candida albicans is an important human fungal pathogen in which sexual reproduction is under the control of the novel white-opaque switch. Opaque cells are the mating-competent form, whereas white cells do not mate but can still respond to pheromones, resulting in biofilm formation. In this study, we first define the domains of the α-pheromone receptor Ste2 that are necessary for signaling in both white and opaque forms. Both cell states require the IC loop 3 (IC3) and the C-terminal tail of Ste2 for the cellular response, whereas the first IC loop (IC1) of Ste2 is dispensable for signaling. To also address pheromone-receptor interactions in related species, including apparently asexual Candida species, Ste2 orthologues were heterologously expressed in Candida albicans. Ste2 receptors from multiple Candida clade species were functional when expressed in C. albicans, whereas the Ste2 receptor of Candida lusitaniae was nonfunctional. Significantly, however, expression of a chimeric C. lusitaniae Ste2 receptor containing the C-terminal tail of Ste2 from C. albicans generated a productive response to C. lusitaniae pheromone. This system has allowed us to characterize pheromones from multiple Candida species and indicates that functional pheromone-receptor couples exist in fungal species that have yet to be shown to undergo sexual mating.

  5. EPA Method 1682: Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method 1682 describes procedures for analysis of solid samples (biosolids) and may be adapted for assessment of water, liquid, particulate and aerosol samples contaminated with Salmonella spp. using culture and immunoassay.

  6. Therapeutic approach to Candida bezoar in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wall, L. L.; Van Den Heijkant, M. M C; Bökenkamp, A.; Kuijper, C. F.; Van Der Horst, H. J R; De Jong, T. P V M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Candida bezoar (CB) is a rare finding in neonates and infants with candiduria, presenting as necrotic debris with proliferating mycelia in the collecting system of the kidney. If initial antifungal medical treatment does not result in clearance of candiduria and disappearance of CB on u

  7. Melaleuca alternifolia nanoparticles against Candida species biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, M E; Lopes, L Q S; Bonez, P C; Gündel, A; Martinez, D S T; Sagrillo, M R; Giongo, J L; Vaucher, R A; Raffin, R P; Boligon, A A; Santos, R C V

    2017-03-01

    Candida infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality on immunosuppressed patients. This growing trend has been associated with resistance to the antimicrobial therapy and the ability of microorganism to form biofilms. TTO oil is used as antimicrobial which shows antibiofilm activity against Candida species. However, it presents problems due to its poor solubility and high volatility. The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro antibiofilm activity of TTO nanoparticles against many Candida species. It was performed the characterization of the oil and nanoparticles. The levels of exopolysaccharides, proteins, and the biomass of biofilms were measured. The chromatographic profile demonstrated that the TTO oil is in accordance with ISO 4730 with major constituents of 41.9% Terpinen-4-ol, 20.1% of γ-Terpinene, 9,8% of α-Terpinene, and 6,0% of 1,8-Cineole. The TTO nanoparticles showed pH of 6.3, mean diameter of 158.2 ± 2 nm, polydispersion index of 0.213 ± 0.017, and zeta potential of -8.69 ± 0.80 mV. The addition of TTO and its nanoparticles represented a significant reduction of biofilm formed by all Candida species, as well as a reduction of proteins and exopolysaccharides levels. It was possible to visualize the reduction of biofilm in presence of TTO nanoparticles by Calcofluor White method.

  8. Candida albicans escapes from mouse neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ermert, David; Niemiec, Maria J; Röhm, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, is able to grow as budding yeasts or filamentous forms, such as hyphae. The ability to switch morphology has been attributed a crucial role for the pathogenesis of C. albicans. To mimic disseminated candidiasis in humans, the mouse...

  9. INMOVILIZACIÓN DE LIPASA de Candida antarctica SOBRE SOPORTES DE QUITOSANO-GELATINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra X. Rangel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se preparó una serie de películas de quitosano-gelatina variando la relación delos constituyentes, quitosano-gelatinaentre 1:2, 1:5 y 1:10, con concentracióntotal de biopolímeros entre 3,0%, 3,5%,4,0% y pH de 5,5. Se deshidrataron lossoportes por crioconcentración (congelacionesdescongelaciones sucesivas ysecado convectivo con aire. La inmovilizaciónde lipasa de Candida antarcticase realizó sobre un hidrogel entrecruzadoiónicamente con quitosano por atrapamientoy por adsorción; los mejores resultadosen cuanto a actividad enzimáticay reutilización del soporte se obtuvieroncon el método por atrapamiento. Se llevarona cabo pruebas de caracterizaciónfisicoquímica de los soportes, actividaddel sistema biocatalítico y estabilidad.

  10. [Molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species isolated from urine samples of patients in intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksekkaya, Serife; Fındık, Duygu; Arslan, Uğur

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse the amphotericin B and fluconazole susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of Candida strains (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata) isolated from the urine samples of patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit. Identification of the isolates was done according to microscopic morphology (chlamydospor, blastospor, pseudohyphae and true hyphae) on cornmeal agar, germ tube formation and carbohydrate assimilation patterns (API ID 32C bioMérieux, France). Antifungal susceptibilities of the isolates were determined by in vitro broth microdilution method recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). To investigate the clonal relationship of the isolates, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed by using Cnd3 primer. Of the 56 Candida isolates minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges, MIC50 and MIC90 values for amphotericin B were 0.125-1 µg/ml, 0.125 and 0.5 µg/ml for C.albicans, 0.125-1 µg/ml, 0.25 and 1 µg/ml for C.tropicalis and 0.125-1 µg/ml, 0.25 and 1 µg/ml for C.glabrata, respectively. Fluconazole MIC ranges, MIC50 and MIC90 values were 0.25-4 µg/ml, 0.25 and 0.5 µg/ml for C.albicans, 0.25-16 µg/ml, 0.5 and 1 µg/ml for C.tropicalis and 0.5-64 µg/ml, 8 and 16 µg/ml for C.glabrata, respectively. For amphotericin B, none of the isolates had high MIC values (MIC > 1 µg/ml). While one of the C.glabrata isolates was resistant to fluconazole (MIC ≥ 64 µg/ml), one C.tropicalis and two C.glabrata isolates were dose-dependent susceptible (MIC: 16-32 µg/ml). The results of RAPD analysis indicated an exogenous spread from two clones for C.albicans, one clone for C.glabrata and one clone for C.tropicalis. This study underlines the importance of molecular epidemiological analysis of clinical samples together with hospital environmental samples in terms of Candida spp. To determine the exogenous origin for the related strains and to prevent

  11. Amplification of TLO Mediator Subunit Genes Facilitate Filamentous Growth in Candida Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongle; Moran, Gary P.; Myers, Lawrence C.

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous growth is a hallmark of C. albicans pathogenicity compared to less-virulent ascomycetes. A multitude of transcription factors regulate filamentous growth in response to specific environmental cues. Our work, however, suggests the evolutionary history of C. albicans that resulted in its filamentous growth plasticity may be tied to a change in the general transcription machinery rather than transcription factors and their specific targets. A key genomic difference between C. albicans and its less-virulent relatives, including its closest relative C. dubliniensis, is the unique expansion of the TLO (TeLOmere-associated) gene family in C. albicans. Individual Tlo proteins are fungal-specific subunits of Mediator, a large multi-subunit eukaryotic transcriptional co-activator complex. This amplification results in a large pool of ‘free,’ non-Mediator associated, Tlo protein present in C. albicans, but not in C. dubliniensis or other ascomycetes with attenuated virulence. We show that engineering a large ‘free’ pool of the C. dubliniensis Tlo2 (CdTlo2) protein in C. dubliniensis, through overexpression, results in a number of filamentation phenotypes typically associated only with C. albicans. The amplitude of these phenotypes is proportional to the amount of overexpressed CdTlo2 protein. Overexpression of other C. dubliniensis and C. albicans Tlo proteins do result in these phenotypes. Tlo proteins and their orthologs contain a Mediator interaction domain, and a potent transcriptional activation domain. Nuclear localization of the CdTlo2 activation domain, facilitated naturally by the Tlo Mediator binding domain or artificially through an appended nuclear localization signal, is sufficient for the CdTlo2 overexpression phenotypes. A C. albicans med3 null mutant causes multiple defects including the inability to localize Tlo proteins to the nucleus and reduced virulence in a murine systemic infection model. Our data supports a model in which the activation domain of ‘free’ Tlo protein competes with DNA bound transcription factors for targets that regulate key aspects of C. albicans cell physiology. PMID:27741243

  12. EFECTO DE Ulva spp. SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO Y SUPERVIVENCIA DE Argopecten purpuratus EN LA BAHÍA DE PARACAS

    OpenAIRE

    Arce Castro, Daniel; Av. Nueva Toledo 242 B, Cieneguilla (Perú).; Mendo, Jaime; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).

    2014-01-01

    Este estudio compara el crecimiento y supervivencia de Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819) “concha de abanico” sembradas con diferentes densidades de Ulva spp., Linnaeus, 1753 en la bahía Paracas (Ica-Perú) durante el 7 agosto al 16 de octubre del 2011. Para ello se instalaron tres corrales cada uno con tres unidades experimentales de 1m2 y en cada unidad se sembraron conchas de abanico de 40-50mm de altura a una densidad de 60 individuos/m2. En dos de los corrales se sembró Ulva spp., con ...

  13. Efecto Antimicótico in vitro de Origanum vulgare sobre cepas de Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Villavicencio Gastelú, Jorge Eleodoro; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología; Moromi Nakata, Hilda; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología; Salcedo- Moncada, Doris; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología; Pineda-Mejía, Martha; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología; Ramos Perfecto, Donald; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología.; Zambrano de la Peña, Livia Sonia; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología; Martínez Cadillo, Elba Estefanía; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología; Mendoza Rojas, Gilberto Alejandro; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología; Petkova-Gueorguieva, Marieta; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología; Bardales Álvarez, Roxana Margarita; Universidad Nacional San Agustín de Arequipa

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto antimicótico in vitro de aceite esencial de Origanum vulgare, sobre cepa de Candida albicans ATCC 10231 Material y método: Se efectuó la selección de cuatro de diferentes geotipos de orégano, se obtuvo los aceites esenciales mediante proceso de destilación por arrastre con vapor de agua; se determinó su composición química cuantitativa por Cromatografía de Gases, Espectrometría de Masas (CG/EM). Se evaluó in vitro la actividad antimicótica de los aceites esenciales...

  14. Molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yee-Chun; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Kuo-Wei; Lii, Joanne; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Li, Shu-Ying

    2010-11-01

    Candida parapsilosis was recently reclassified into 3 closely related species, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis. Variation in susceptibility characteristics and prevalence of the 3 genomic species could have therapeutic and epidemiologic implications. The aim of this study is to characterize the genetic and antifungal susceptibility profiles of 97 C. parapsilosis isolates from 71 patients. Among the 71 nonduplicate isolates, 85.9% (61/71) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 5.6% (4/71) as C. metapsilosis, and 8.5% (6/71) as C. orthopsilosis species based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The delineation of these 3 species is concordant with that achieved by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of BssHII restriction fragments at 75% similarity. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed that most isolates were susceptible to flucytosine, azoles, amphotericin B, and echinocandins, whereas 3 C. metapsilosis isolates from 1 patient showed resistance and susceptible-dose dependence to fluconazole. The C. metapsilosis isolates exhibited significantly higher MIC values to both fluconazole and voriconazole than those of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. orthopsilosis. On the other hand, the C. metapsilosis isolates showed significantly lower MIC values on 24 h to caspofungin than those of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. orthopsilosis. For micafungin, the isolates of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto had significantly higher MIC values on 24 h than those of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Compared to Candida albicans, mutations from proline to alanine were identified on the hot spot 1 of Fks1 in all these C. parapsilosis sensu lato isolates regardless of their MIC levels. Some of the C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates expressed the isoleucine to valine substitution on the hot spot 2 region. However, the amino acid variations in these isolates did not correlate to their MIC

  15. EVALUATION OF VITEK 2 SYSTEM FOR CLINICAL IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA SPECIES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BJECTIVES 1. To evaluate the Vitek 2 system for clinical identification of Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility test; 2. To study the incidence of various types of Candida species in this part of Tamilnadu. METHODS Samples collected from different wards were subjected for culture, isolation and identification of Candida Species and Antifungal Susceptibility testing by Vitek System. Vitek 2 test was carried out in Apollo Specialty Hospital Lab Services, Madurai. The cost per test is Rs. 200 (Subsidized rate. The expenses for the lab tests (Vitek were borne by the author himself. RESULTS 124 samples were collected from urine, sputum, blood, pus and wounds. Candida albicans formed 43% of the samples. Among the 57% of Non-Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis formed 42%, Candida krusei formed 6%, Candida guilliermondii formed 4%, Candida inconspicua, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, Candida rugosa and Candida lusitaniae formed 1% each. Candida albicans and C. tropicalis showed high sensitivity to Voriconazole, Flucytosine, Amphotericin B and Fluconazole. CONCLUSION Candida tropicalis was identified as the most common Candida non-albicans species. Candida albicans and C. tropicalis showed high sensitivity to Voriconazole, Flucytosine, Amphotericin B and Fluconazole. This study was helpful to treat Candida albicans and Non-Candida albicans species patients accurately and earlier by Vitek method.

  16. Haloalkaliphilic Streptomyces spp. AJ8 isolated from solar salt works and its' pharmacological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenifer, John Selesteen Charles Adlin; Donio, Mariathason Birdilla Selva; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Vincent, Samuel Gnana Prakash; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2015-12-01

    Antagonistic Streptomyces spp. AJ8 was isolated and identified from the Kovalam solar salt works in India. The antimicrobial NRPS cluster gene was characterized by PCR, sequencing and predict the secondary structure analysis. The secondary metabolites will be extracted from different organic solvent extraction and studied the antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and anticancer activities. In vitro antagonistic activity results revealed that, Streptomyces spp. AJ8 was highly antagonistic against Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila WPD1 and Candida albicans. The genomic level identification revealed that, the strain was confirmed as Streptomyces spp. AJ8 and submitted the NCBI database (KC603899). The NRPS gene was generated a single gene fragment of 781 bp length (KR491940) and the database analysis revealed that, the closely related to Streptomyces spp. SAUK6068 and S. coeruleoprunus NBRC15400. The secondary metabolites extracted with ethyl acetate was effectively inhibited the bacterial and fungal growth at the ranged between 7 and 19.2 mm of zone of inhibition. The antiviral activity results revealed that, the metabolite was significantly (P < 0.001) controlled the killer shrimp virus white spot syndrome virus at the level of 85 %. The metabolite also suppressed the L929 fibroblast cancer cells at 35.7 % viability in 1000 µg treatment.

  17. Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto and the closely related species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuxia; Shan, Yingying; Fan, Shangrong; Li, Jianling; Liu, Xiaoping

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics and in vitro susceptibilities of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). We analysed 63 vaginal C. parapsilosis specimens. After the molecular analyses, the isolates were characterised as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (77.8%), C. orthopsilosis (7.9%) and C. metapsilosis (14.3%). The signs and symptoms of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis sensu lato, including itching, erythema and abnormal discharge, were milder than those caused by C. albicans. None of the C. parapsilosis sensu lato isolates were resistant to fluconazole, miconazole or itraconazole. The resistance rates of C. albicans to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and clotrimazole were 2.3, 1.5, 3.1 and 0.8%, respectively. Both C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. albicans were susceptible to nystatin. The mycological eradication rate at follow-up days 7-14 and 30-35 were 77.8% (49/63) and 76.2% (48/63), respectively, when treated with various antifungal agents and regimens. We conclude that C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and the closely related species C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were present in the vaginal samples of VVC patients. The symptoms and signs of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis are milder than those caused by C. albicans. The antifungal susceptibility and therapeutic efficacy in patients colonised by C. parapsilosis sensu lato were similar to those observed in C. albicans-colonised patients.

  18. Candida heliconiae sp. nov., Candida picinguabensis sp. nov. and Candida saopaulonensis sp. nov., three ascomycetous yeasts from Heliconia velloziana (Heliconiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruivo, Carla C C; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A; Bacci, Maurício; Pagnocca, Fernando C

    2006-05-01

    Strains belonging to three novel yeast species, Candida heliconiae (four isolates), Candida picinguabensis (three isolates) and Candida saopaulonensis (two isolates), were recovered in the year 2000 from water of flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana L. Emigd. (Heliconiaceae) found in a forest ecosystem site in an Atlantic rainforest of south-eastern Brazil. C. picinguabensis and C. saopaulonensis were nearly identical in morphology and physiology, but sequence divergence in the D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit rDNA indicated that they should be regarded as different species. They belong to the Metschnikowiaceae clade. C. heliconiae had affinities to Pichia mexicana and related species, but was genetically isolated from all currently accepted species in that group. The type strains are C. heliconiae UNESP 00-91C1T (=CBS 10000T=NRRL Y-27813T), C. picinguabensis UNESP 00-89T (=CBS 9999T=NRRL Y-27814T) and C. saopaulonensis UNESP 00-99T (=CBS 10001T=NRRL Y-27815T).

  19. Particular Candida albicans strains in the digestive tract of dyspeptic patients, identified by multilocus sequence typing.

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    Yan-Bing Gong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Candida albicans is a human commensal that is also responsible for chronic gastritis and peptic ulcerous disease. Little is known about the genetic profiles of the C. albicans strains in the digestive tract of dyspeptic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, diversity, and genetic profiles among C. albicans isolates recovered from natural colonization of the digestive tract in the dyspeptic patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Oral swab samples (n = 111 and gastric mucosa samples (n = 102 were obtained from a group of patients who presented dyspeptic symptoms or ulcer complaints. Oral swab samples (n = 162 were also obtained from healthy volunteers. C. albicans isolates were characterized and analyzed by multilocus sequence typing. The prevalence of Candida spp. in the oral samples was not significantly different between the dyspeptic group and the healthy group (36.0%, 40/111 vs. 29.6%, 48/162; P > 0.05. However, there were significant differences between the groups in the distribution of species isolated and the genotypes of the C. albicans isolates. C. albicans was isolated from 97.8% of the Candida-positive subjects in the dyspeptic group, but from only 56.3% in the healthy group (P < 0.001. DST1593 was the dominant C. albicans genotype from the digestive tract of the dyspeptic group (60%, 27/45, but not the healthy group (14.8%, 4/27 (P < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest a possible link between particular C. albicans strain genotypes and the host microenvironment. Positivity for particular C. albicans genotypes could signify susceptibility to dyspepsia.

  20. Effect of tyrosol on adhesion of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata to acrylic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Douglas Roberto; Feresin, Leonardo Perina; Arias, Laís Salomão; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Barbosa, Debora Barros; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2015-09-01

    The prevention of adhesion of Candida cells to acrylic surfaces can be regarded as an alternative to prevent denture stomatitis. The use of quorum sensing molecules, such as tyrosol, could potentially interfere with the adhesion process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of tyrosol on adhesion of single and mixed cultures of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata to acrylic resin surfaces. Tyrosol was diluted in each yeast inoculum (10(7) cells/ml in artificial saliva) at 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM. Then, each dilution was added to wells of 24-well plates containing the acrylic specimens, and the plates were incubated at 37°C for 2 h. After, the effect of tyrosol was determined by total biomass quantification, metabolic activity of the cells and colony-forming unit counting. Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) was used as a positive control. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Holm-Sidak post hoc test (α = 0.05). The results of total biomass quantification and metabolic activity revealed that the tyrosol promoted significant reductions (ranging from 22.32 to 86.16%) on single C. albicans and mixed cultures. Moreover, tyrosol at 200 mM and CHG significantly reduced (p tyrosol has an inhibitory effect on Candida adhesion to acrylic resin, and further investigations are warranted to clarify its potential against Candida infections.

  1. Miltefosine is effective against Candida albicans and Fusarium oxysporum nail biofilms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado Vila, Taissa Vieira; Sousa Quintanilha, Natália; Rozental, Sonia

    2015-11-01

    Onychomycosis is a fungal nail infection that represents ∼50 % of all nail disease cases worldwide. Clinical treatment with standard antifungals frequently requires long-term systemic therapy to avoid chronic disease. Onychomycosis caused by non-dermatophyte moulds, such as Fusarium spp., and yeasts, such as Candida spp., is particularly difficult to treat, possibly due to the formation of drug-resistant fungal biofilms on affected areas. Here, we show that the alkylphospholipid miltefosine, used clinically against leishmaniasis and cutaneous breast metastases, has potent activity against biofilms of Fusarium oxysporum and Candida albicans formed on human nail fragments in vitro. Miltefosine activity was compared with that of commercially available antifungals in the treatment of biofilms at two distinct developmental phases: formation and maturation (pre-formed biofilms). Drug activity towards biofilms formed on nail fragments and on microplate surfaces (microdilution assays) was evaluated using XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] assays, and drug effects on fingernail biofilms were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For F. oxysporum, miltefosine at 8 μg ml- 1 inhibited biofilm formation by 93%, whilst 256 μg ml- 1 reduced the metabolic activity of pre-formed nail biofilms by 93%. Treatment with miltefosine at 1000 μg ml- 1 inhibited biofilm formation by 89% and reduced the metabolic activity of pre-formed C. albicans biofilms by 99%. SEM analyses of biofilms formed on fingernail fragments showed a clear reduction in biofilm biomass after miltefosine treatment, in agreement with XTT results. Our results show that miltefosine has potential as a therapeutic agent against onychomycosis and should be considered for in vivo efficacy studies, especially in topical formulations for refractory disease treatment.

  2. The Role of IL-33 in Host Response to Candida albicans

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    C. Rodríguez-Cerdeira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Interleukin (IL 33 is a recently identified pleiotropic cytokine that influences the activity of multiple cell types and orchestrates complex innate and adaptive immune responses. Methods. We performed an extensive review of the literature published between 2005 and 2013 on IL-33 and related cytokines, their functions, and their regulation of the immune system following Candida albicans colonization. Our literature review included cross-references from retrieved articles and specific data from our own studies. Results. IL-33 (IL-1F11 is a recently identified member of the IL-1 family of cytokines. Accumulating evidence suggests a pivotal role of the IL-33/ST2 axis in host immune defense against fungal pathogens, including C. albicans. IL-33 induces a Th2-type inflammatory response and activates both innate and adaptive immunity. Studies in animal models have shown that Th2 inflammatory responses have a beneficial role in immunity against gastrointestinal and systemic infections by Candida spp. Conclusions. This review summarizes the most important clinical studies and case reports describing the beneficial role of IL-33 in immunity and host defense mechanisms against pathogenic fungi. The finding that the IL-33/ST2 axis is involved in therapeutic target has implications for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases, including acute or chronic candidiasis.

  3. The inhibitory activity of linalool against the filamentous growth and biofilm formation in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Lai, Wen-Lin; Chuang, Kuei-Chin; Lee, Meng-Hwan; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2013-07-01

    Candida spp. are part of the natural human microbiota, but they also represent important opportunistic human pathogens. Biofilm-associated Candida albicans infections are clinically relevant due to their high levels of resistance to traditional antifungal agents. In this study, we investigated the ability of linalool to inhibit the formation of C. albicans biofilms and reduce existing C. albicans biofilms. Linalool exhibited antifungal activity against C. albicans ATCC 14053, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8 mM. Sub-MIC concentrations of linalool also inhibited the formation of germ tubes and biofilms in that strain. The defective architecture composition of C. albicans biofilms exposed to linalool was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The expression levels of the adhesin genes HWP1 and ALS3 were downregulated by linalool, as assessed by real-time RT-PCR. The expression levels of CYR1 and CPH1, which encode components of the cAMP-PKA and MAPK hyphal formation regulatory pathways, respectively, were also suppressed by linalool, as was the gene encoding their upstream regulator, Ras1. The expression levels of long-term hyphae maintenance associated genes, including UME6, HGC1, and EED1, were all suppressed by linalool. These results indicate that linalool may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of candidiasis associated with medical devices because it interferes with the morphological switch and biofilm formation of C. albicans.

  4. Analysis of the genetic diversity of Candida isolates obtained from diabetic patients and kidney transplant recipients

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    Volmir Pitt Benedetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts of the genus Candida have high genetic variability and are the most common opportunistic pathogenic fungi in humans. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity among 120 isolates of Candida spp. obtained from diabetic patients, kidney transplant recipients and patients without any immune deficiencies from Paraná state, Brazil. The analysis was performed using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and a partial sequence of 28S rDNA. In the phylogenetic analysis, we observed a consistent separation of the species C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis, however with low intraspecific variability. In the analysis of the C. albicans species, two clades were formed. Clade A included the largest number of isolates (91.2% and the majority of isolates from GenBank (71.4%. The phylogenetic analysis showed low intraspecific genetic diversity, and the genetic polymorphisms between C. albicans isolates were similar to genetic divergence found in other studies performed with isolates from Brazil. This low genetic diversity of isolates can be explained by the geographic proximity of the patients evaluated. It was observed that yeast colonisation was highest in renal transplant recipients and diabetic patients and that C. albicans was the species most frequently isolated.

  5. Analysis of the genetic diversity of Candida isolates obtained from diabetic patients and kidney transplant recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Volmir Pitt; Savi, Daiani Cristina; Aluizio, Rodrigo; Adamoski, Douglas; Kava-Cordeiro, Vanessa; Galli-Terasawa, Lygia V; Glienke, Chirlei

    2016-01-01

    Yeasts of the genus Candida have high genetic variability and are the most common opportunistic pathogenic fungi in humans. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity among 120 isolates of Candida spp. obtained from diabetic patients, kidney transplant recipients and patients without any immune deficiencies from Paraná state, Brazil. The analysis was performed using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and a partial sequence of 28S rDNA. In the phylogenetic analysis, we observed a consistent separation of the species C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis, however with low intraspecific variability. In the analysis of the C. albicans species, two clades were formed. Clade A included the largest number of isolates (91.2%) and the majority of isolates from GenBank (71.4%). The phylogenetic analysis showed low intraspecific genetic diversity, and the genetic polymorphisms between C. albicans isolates were similar to genetic divergence found in other studies performed with isolates from Brazil. This low genetic diversity of isolates can be explained by the geographic proximity of the patients evaluated. It was observed that yeast colonisation was highest in renal transplant recipients and diabetic patients and that C. albicans was the species most frequently isolated. PMID:27276363

  6. Inhibition of Candida albicans biofilm formation by antimycotics released from modified polydimethyl siloxane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Prijck, Kristof; De Smet, Nele; Honraet, Kris; Christiaen, Steven; Coenye, Tom; Schacht, Etienne; Nelis, Hans J

    2010-03-01

    Unlike various disinfectants, antifungals have not been commonly incorporated so far in medical devices, such as catheters or prostheses, to prevent biofilm formation by Candida spp. In the present study, five antimycotics were added to polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) disks via admixture (nystatin) or impregnation (trimethylsilyl-nystatin (TMS-nystatin), miconazole, tea tree oil (TTO), zinc pyrithione). Nystatin-medicated PDMS disks exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on biofilm formation in a microtiter plate (MTP) but not in a Modified Robbins Device (MRD). This observation, together with HPLC data and agar diffusion tests, indicates that a small fraction of free nystatin is released, which kills Candida albicans cells in the limited volume of a MTP well. In contrast, biofilm inhibition amounted to more than one log unit in the MRD on disks impregnated with miconazole, TTO, and zinc pyrithione. It is hypothesized that the reduction in biofilm formation by these compounds in a flow system occurs through a contact-dependent effect.

  7. Enzimotipagem de espécies do gênero Candida isoladas da cavidade bucal

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    Candido Regina Celia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas quanto a produção de exoenzimas fosfolipase e proteinase, 79 amostras de Candida isoladas da cavidade bucal de pacientes com lesões bucais características de candidose e indivíduos com boca clinicamente normal, atendidos na Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto USP. Dentre as cepas de C. albicans isoladas de lesões bucais, a fosfolipase e proteinase foram detectadas em, respectivamente, 83,3% e 66,7%. C. tropicalis e C. parapsilosis produziram somente proteinase. Quanto às cepas isoladas de nichos sem lesão, do total de 32 C. albicans, 71,9% apresentaram fosfolipase e 68,7% proteinase. C. tropicalis apresentou apenas a enzima proteinase, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii e Candida spp, não apresentaram nenhuma das exoenzimas. Entre as amostras de C. albicans de ambos os grupos, o enzimotipo 22 (fosfolipase positiva e proteinase fracamente positiva foi prevalente. Enzimotipos diferentes foram detectados em amostras da mesma espécie provenientes de mesmo paciente.

  8. Total Protein Profile and Drug Resistance in Candida albicans Isolated from Clinical Samples

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    Kamal Uddin Zaidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to assess the antifungal susceptibility of clinical isolates of Candida albicans and to evaluate its total protein profile based on morphological difference on drug resistance. Hundred and twenty clinical isolates of C. albicans from various clinical specimens were tested for susceptibility against four antifungal agents, namely, fluconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B, and ketoconazole. A significant increase of drug resistance in clinical isolates of C. albicans was observed. The study showed 50% fluconazole and itraconazole resistance at 32 μg mL−1 with a MIC50 and MIC90 values at 34 and 47 and 36 and 49 μg mL−1, respectively. All isolates were sensitive to amphotericin B and ketoconazole. The SDS-PAGE protein profile showed a prevalent band of ~52.5 kDa, indicating overexpression of gene in 72% strains with fluconazole resistance. Since the opportunistic infections of Candida spp. are increasing along with drug resistance, the total protein profile will help in understanding the evolutionary changes in drug resistance and also to characterize them.

  9. Identification and characterization of nine atypical Candida dubliniensis clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaina, Olatz; Sahand, Ismail H; Brusca, María I; Sullivan, Derek J; Fernández de Larrinoa, Iñigo; Moragues, María D

    2015-02-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a pathogenic yeast of the genus Candida closely related to Candida albicans. The phenotypic similarity of these two species often leads to misidentification of C. dubliniensis isolates in clinical samples. DNA-based methods continue to be the most effective means of discriminating accurately between the two species. Here, we report on the identification of nine unusual Candida isolates that showed ambiguous identification patterns on the basis of their phenotypic and immunological traits. The isolates were categorized into two groups. Group I isolates were unable to produce germ tubes and chlamydospores, and to agglutinate commercial latex particles coated with a mAb highly specific for C. dubliniensis. Group II isolates grew as pink and white colonies on CHROMagar Candida and ChromID Candida, respectively. Carbohydrate assimilation profiles obtained with API/ID32C together with PCR amplification with specific primers and DNA sequencing allowed reliable identification of the nine unusual clinical isolates as C. dubliniensis.

  10. Evaluation of PNA FISH® Yeast Traffic Light in identification of Candida species from blood and non-blood culture specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic, Marina; Goic-Barisic, Ivana; Novak, Anita; Rubic, Zana; Tonkic, Marija

    2016-08-01

    PNA FISH(®) (peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization) Yeast Traffic Light (PNA FISH(®) YTL) assay is a commercially avaliable method for rapid identification of Candida spp. directly from positive blood cultures. This report provides a one-year experience in identification of yeasts from 25 specimens (15 positive blood cultures and 10 other clinically significant specimens) using PNA FISH(®) YTL and comparing it to VITEK 2 System. Overall, assay identification compatibility with VITEK 2 System was found among 21/25 (84%) isolates tested. Only 3/25 (12%) of the isolates were not identified, and one isolate was misidentified by the PNA FISH(®) YTL assay. Our results show that the assay is a reliable method in identification of Candida spp. not only from blood cultures, but even from other clinically significant specimens (urine cultures, catheter tip cultures, peritoneal fluid cultures) when compared to automated method like VITEK 2 System. This novel application of the PNA FISH(®) YTL assay could therefore contribute to cost savings and significant benefit to patients, as rapid information about isolated yeast species is provided.

  11. Adaptive immune responses to Candida albicans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jonathan P; Moyes, David L

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are becoming increasingly prevalent in the human population and contribute to morbidity and mortality in healthy and immunocompromised individuals respectively. Candida albicans is the most commonly encountered fungal pathogen of humans, and is frequently found on the mucosal surfaces of the body. Host defense against C. albicans is dependent upon a finely tuned implementation of innate and adaptive immune responses, enabling the host to neutralise the invading fungus. Central to this protection are the adaptive Th1 and Th17 cellular responses, which are considered paramount to successful immune defense against C. albicans infections, and enable tissue homeostasis to be maintained in the presence of colonising fungi. This review will highlight the recent advances in our understanding of adaptive immunity to Candida albicans infections.

  12. VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDA INFECTION PREVALENCE IN TASHKENT

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    Uktam Ziyadullaev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The information on the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis does not always reflect real situation regarding this disease, since the frequency of patients’ self- treatment remains high, as evidenced by the results of the studies based on anonymous surveys. The prevalence of this disease is growing steadily both in Uzbekistan and elsewhere in the world.  Accumulated problems have provided grounds to conduct the research on the prevalence of Candida vulvovaginitis in the juvenile age population of Tashkent city. Method: The study included examining of 2107 adolescent aged girls of high schools, lyceums and colleges of Tashkent city. Results: Thus, in the studied region the prevalence of Candida vulvovaginitis in adolescent population is high, which in turn requires to take steps to further improve treatment and prevention.  

  13. Candida Biofilms: Development, Architecture, and Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab K

    2015-08-01

    Intravascular device-related infections are often associated with biofilms (microbial communities encased within a polysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix) formed by pathogens on the surfaces of these devices. Candida species are the most common fungi isolated from catheter-, denture-, and voice prosthesis-associated infections and also are commonly isolated from contact lens-related infections (e.g., fungal keratitis). These biofilms exhibit decreased susceptibility to most antimicrobial agents, which contributes to the persistence of infection. Recent technological advances have facilitated the development of novel approaches to investigate the formation of biofilms and identify specific markers for biofilms. These studies have provided extensive knowledge of the effect of different variables, including growth time, nutrients, and physiological conditions, on biofilm formation, morphology, and architecture. In this article, we will focus on fungal biofilms (mainly Candida biofilms) and provide an update on the development, architecture, and resistance mechanisms of biofilms.

  14. Validation of 24-Hour Posaconazole and Voriconazole MIC Readings versus the CLSI 48-Hour Broth Microdilution Reference Method: Application of Epidemiological Cutoff Values to Results from a Global Candida Antifungal Surveillance Program▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M. A.; Boyken, L. B.; Hollis, R. J.; Kroeger, J.; Messer, S. A.; Tendolkar, S.; Diekema, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    We performed 24- and 48-h MIC determinations of posaconazole and voriconazole against more than 16,000 clinical isolates of Candida species. By using the 24- and 48-h epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs), the categorical agreement between the 24-h and reference 48-h broth microdilution results ranged from 97.1% (C. parapsilosis and voriconazole) to 99.8% (C. krusei and voriconazole), with 0.0 to 2.9% very major discrepancies (VMD). The essential agreement (within 2 log2 dilutions) between the 24- and 48-h results was 99.6% for both posaconazole and voriconazole. The MIC results obtained for both posaconazole and voriconazole after only 24 h of incubation may be used to determine the susceptibilities of Candida spp. to these important antifungal agents. The applications of ECVs to this large collection of Candida isolates suggests the potential to develop 24-h species-specific clinical breakpoints for both posaconazole and voriconazole. PMID:21289155

  15. Candida species exhibit differential in vitro hemolytic activities

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Gang; Lakshman P Samaranayake; Yau, Joyce Y. Y.

    2001-01-01

    A total of 80 Candida isolates representing 14 species were examined for their respective responses to an in vitro hemolytic test. A modification of a previously described plate assay system where the yeasts are incubated on glucose (3%)-enriched sheep blood agar in a carbon dioxide (5%)-rich environment for 48 h was used to evaluate the hemolytic activity. A group of eight Candida species which included Candida albicans (15 isolates), C. dubliniensis (2), C. kefyr (2), C. krusei (4), C. zeyl...

  16. Expression and Mutagenesis studies of Candida antactica lipase B

    OpenAIRE

    Rotticci-Mulder, Johanna C.

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant Candida antarctica lipase B was successfullyproduced in the methylotropic yeast Pichia pastoris. Thespecific activities of Candida antarctica lipase B produced inPichia pastoris and commercial Candida antarctica lipase B fromNovozymes were the same. In shake-flask cultivations theexpression levels were about 25 mg L-1. Production levels couldbe increased to 1.5 g L-1, using a fermentor. A model tosimulate growth and oxygen consumption was described. The highcell density growth cou...

  17. Catechol biodegradation kinetics using Candida parapsilopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Rigo; Ranulfo Monte Alegre; José Raniere Mazile Vidal Bezerra; Narjara Coelho; Reinaldo Gaspar Bastos

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the biodegradation of catechol by a yeast strain of Candida parapsilopsis in standard medium in Erlenmeyer flasks. Results shown that the highest concentration of catechol caused the longer lag period, demonstrating that acclimatized cultures could completely degrade an initial catechol concentration of 910 mg/L within 48 h. Haldane's model validated the experimental data adequately for growth kinetics over the studied catechol concentration ranges of 36 to 910 mg/L. The ...

  18. Triclosan antagonises fluconazole activity against Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Epub October 4th Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg/L) triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1? and cdr2? strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole upt...

  19. Candida famata-induced fulminating cholecystitis

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    Paulo Sergio Ramos de Araujo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithiasic cholecystitis is classically associated with the presence of enterobacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter, in the gallbladder. Cholecystitis associated with fungal infections is a rare event related to underlying conditions such as diabetes mellitus, steroid use, and broad-spectrum antibiotic use for prolonged periods, as well as pancreatitis and surgery of the digestive tract. Here, we present the first reported case of a gallbladder infection caused by Candida famata.

  20. Estudo comparativo entre a produção de fosfolipases extracelulares e proteinases do gênero Candida isoladas a partir de infecções de cavidade oral

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    Patrícia ANDREOLA

    Full Text Available Resumo Introdução A habilidade da Candida spp. em produzir enzimas proteolíticas, tais como fosfolipase e proteinases, tem um papel importante na patogenicidade destas leveduras. Objetivo Determinar as espécies causadoras das infecções orais por Candida spp., além de investigar a atividade in vitro das fosfolipases e proteinases em isolados clínicos do gênero Candida, provenientes de pacientes com candidíase oral. Material e método Isolados de Candida spp., pertencentes à Coleção de Cultivos Fúngicos do Laboratório de Microbiologia e Patologia Oral do Departamento de Odontologia da Faculdade da Serra Gaúcha, foram analisados. Produção de fosfolipases foi analisada utilizando-se Ágar gema de ovo. Liberação de proteinases foi medida utilizando-se extrato de levedura adicionado à albumina bovina. Resultado Um total de 35 isolados clínicos do gênero Candida foi testado. C. albicans foi a espécie predominante (77%. Os demais isolados identificados foram: C. parapsilosis (20% e C. tropicalis (2%. Ao comparar a atividade de fosfolipase do grupo C. albicans com o grupo Candida não-albicans, foi encontrada diferença significativa (P=0,04. Não foi encontrada diferença significativa entre a C. albicans e a C. não-albicans, para a produção de proteinase. A liberação de proteinase foi significativamente maior quando comparada à produção de fosfolipase para o gênero Candida (P=0,04. Diferença estatisticamente significativa foi encontrada quando a atividade de fosfolipase e proteinase da C. albicans foi comparada à atividade das espécies de C. não-albicans (P=0,02. Conclusão Diferentes quantificações de fosfolipase extracelular e atividade de proteinase têm sido atribuídas aos isolados clínicos de C. albicans quando comparados a outras espécies de Candida.

  1. Characterization of Candida parapsilosis complex isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toro, M; Torres, M J; Maite, Ruiz; Aznar, J

    2011-03-01

    Candida parapsilosis former groups II and III have recently been established as independent species, named Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, respectively. We investigated the distribution of C. parapsilosis complex species in 122 isolates from blood and other sources in a southern Spain tertiary-care hospital, and we examined the relationship between species, site of isolation and biofilm positivity. We also evaluated the planktonic MICs and sessile MICs (SMICs) of voriconazole, amphotericin B and anidulafungin. One hundred and eleven isolates (91%) were categorized as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, whereas ten isolates (8.2%) were categorized as C. orthopsilosis and one (0.8%) as C. metapsilosis. Biofilm positivity was observed in 58.5% (65 of 111) of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates vs. 0% (0 of 11) of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates (p orthopsilosis than for C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (0.03 mg/L). In contrast to planktonic cells, the SMICs show that amphotericin B and anidulafungin are moderately effective against the biofilm of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, whereas voriconazole is ineffective.

  2. Childhood Candida Infections: Single-center Experience

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    Eren Cagan

    2015-06-01

    Results: Twenty-nine patients were diagnosed with Candida infection. Of these patients 17 were male (59% and 12 were female (41%. Eleven patients were less than a year old (38%, 9 were between 1-5 years (31% and 9 were above the age of five (31%. The most important underlying disease malignancies were congenital heart disease and neurological diseases. Candida growth was determined in the blood cultures of 17 patients, the urine cultures of 10 patients and in the cerebrospinal fluid of one patient. While the most commonly used anti-fungal agent was fluconazole (51.7%, others used were caspofungin (41.3% and amfoterisin B (13.7%. No isolated Candida strain showed resistance to anti-fungal agents. Treatment was clinically and microbiologically 96.5% successful. Conclusions: Fluconazole still appears to be an effective treatment choice we believe there is a necessity to review the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC values for anti-fungal agents. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 245-251

  3. Intestinal colonization with Candida albicans and mucosal immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Bai; Xian-Hua Liu; Qing-Ying Tong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe the relationship between intestinal lumen colonization with Candida albicans and mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA).METHODS: A total of 82 specific-pathogen-free mice were divided randomly into control and colonization groups. After Candida albicans were inoculated into specific-pathogenfree mice, the number of Candida albicans adhering to cecum and mucosal membrane was counted. The lymphocyte proliferation in Peyer's patch and in lamina propria was shown by BrdU incorporation, while mucosal sIgA (surface membrane) isotype switch in Peyer's patch was investigated. IgA plasma cells in lamina propria were observed by immunohistochemical staining. Specific IgA antibodies to Candida albicans were measured with ELISA.RESULTS: From d 3 to d 14 after Candida albicans gavaging to mice, the number of Candida albicans colonizing in lumen and adhering to mucosal membrane was sharply reduced.Candida albicans translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes occurred at early time points following gavage administration and disappeared at later time points. Meanwhile, the content of specific IgA was increased obviously. Proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes in lamina propria were also increased.CONCLUSION: Lymphocytes in lamina propria play an important role in intestinal mucosal immunity of specificpathogen-free mice when they are first inoculated with Candida albicans. The decreasing number of Candida albicans in intestine is related to the increased level of specific IgA antibodies in the intestinal mucus.

  4. Identification and differentiation of Candida parapsilosis complex species by use of exon-primed intron-crossing PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaobo; Wu, Zengbin; Ling, Bo; Pan, Shuming; Liao, Wanqing; Pan, Weihua; Yao, Zhirong

    2014-05-01

    The Candida parapsilosis complex is composed of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, and the closely related species Lodderomyces elongisporus. An exon-primed intron-crossing PCR assay was developed here to distinguish the members of the species complex on the basis of the distinct sizes of amplicons, and Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis were further discriminated by restriction enzyme analysis.

  5. Postantifungal Effect of Micafungin against the Species Complexes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Micafungin is an effective antifungal agent useful for the therapy of invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive candidiasis; however, infections due to non-C. albicans species, such as Candida parapsilosis, are rising. Killing and postantifungal effects (PAFE) are important factors in both dose interval choice and infection outcome. The aim of this study was to determinate the micafungin PAFE against 7 C. albicans strains, 5 Candida dubliniensis, 2 Candida Africana, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 Candida metapsilosis and 2 Candida orthopsilosis. For PAFE studies, cells were exposed to micafungin for 1 h at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 μg/ml. Time-kill experiments (TK) were conducted at the same concentrations. Samples were removed at each time point (0-48 h) and viable counts determined. Micafungin (2 μg/ml) was fungicidal (≥ 3 log10 reduction) in TK against 5 out of 14 (36%) strains of C. albicans complex. In PAFE experiments, fungicidal endpoint was achieved against 2 out of 14 strains (14%). In TK against C. parapsilosis, 8 μg/ml of micafungin turned out to be fungicidal against 4 out 7 (57%) strains. Conversely, fungicidal endpoint was not achieved in PAFE studies. PAFE results for C. albicans complex (41.83 ± 2.18 h) differed from C. parapsilosis complex (8.07 ± 4.2 h) at the highest tested concentration of micafungin. In conclusion, micafungin showed significant differences in PAFE against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complexes, being PAFE for the C. albicans complex longer than for the C. parapsilosis complex. PMID:26168269

  6. Postantifungal Effect of Micafungin against the Species Complexes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Gil-Alonso

    Full Text Available Micafungin is an effective antifungal agent useful for the therapy of invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive candidiasis; however, infections due to non-C. albicans species, such as Candida parapsilosis, are rising. Killing and postantifungal effects (PAFE are important factors in both dose interval choice and infection outcome. The aim of this study was to determinate the micafungin PAFE against 7 C. albicans strains, 5 Candida dubliniensis, 2 Candida Africana, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 Candida metapsilosis and 2 Candida orthopsilosis. For PAFE studies, cells were exposed to micafungin for 1 h at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 μg/ml. Time-kill experiments (TK were conducted at the same concentrations. Samples were removed at each time point (0-48 h and viable counts determined. Micafungin (2 μg/ml was fungicidal (≥ 3 log10 reduction in TK against 5 out of 14 (36% strains of C. albicans complex. In PAFE experiments, fungicidal endpoint was achieved against 2 out of 14 strains (14%. In TK against C. parapsilosis, 8 μg/ml of micafungin turned out to be fungicidal against 4 out 7 (57% strains. Conversely, fungicidal endpoint was not achieved in PAFE studies. PAFE results for C. albicans complex (41.83 ± 2.18 h differed from C. parapsilosis complex (8.07 ± 4.2 h at the highest tested concentration of micafungin. In conclusion, micafungin showed significant differences in PAFE against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complexes, being PAFE for the C. albicans complex longer than for the C. parapsilosis complex.

  7. Postantifungal Effect of Micafungin against the Species Complexes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Micafungin is an effective antifungal agent useful for the therapy of invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive candidiasis; however, infections due to non-C. albicans species, such as Candida parapsilosis, are rising. Killing and postantifungal effects (PAFE) are important factors in both dose interval choice and infection outcome. The aim of this study was to determinate the micafungin PAFE against 7 C. albicans strains, 5 Candida dubliniensis, 2 Candida Africana, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 Candida metapsilosis and 2 Candida orthopsilosis. For PAFE studies, cells were exposed to micafungin for 1 h at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 μg/ml. Time-kill experiments (TK) were conducted at the same concentrations. Samples were removed at each time point (0-48 h) and viable counts determined. Micafungin (2 μg/ml) was fungicidal (≥ 3 log10 reduction) in TK against 5 out of 14 (36%) strains of C. albicans complex. In PAFE experiments, fungicidal endpoint was achieved against 2 out of 14 strains (14%). In TK against C. parapsilosis, 8 μg/ml of micafungin turned out to be fungicidal against 4 out 7 (57%) strains. Conversely, fungicidal endpoint was not achieved in PAFE studies. PAFE results for C. albicans complex (41.83 ± 2.18 h) differed from C. parapsilosis complex (8.07 ± 4.2 h) at the highest tested concentration of micafungin. In conclusion, micafungin showed significant differences in PAFE against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complexes, being PAFE for the C. albicans complex longer than for the C. parapsilosis complex.

  8. Candida parapsilosis complex water isolates from a haemodialysis unit: biofilm production and in vitro evaluation of the use of clinical antifungals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Helena Pires

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida parapsilosis, currently divided into three distinct species, proliferates in glucose-rich solutions and has been associated with infections resulting from the use of medical devices made of plastic, an environment common in dialysis centres. The aims of this study were (i to screen for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis (100 environmental isolates previously identified as C. parapsilosis, (ii to test the ability of these isolates to form biofilm and (iii to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of Candida spp biofilms to the antifungal agents, fluconazole (FLC and amphotericin B (AMB. Isolates were obtained from a hydraulic circuit collected from a haemodialysis unit. Based on molecular criteria, 47 strains were re-identified as C. orthopsilosis and 53 as C. parapsilosis. Analyses using a formazan salt reduction assay and total viable count, together with microscopy studies, revealed that 72 strains were able to form biofilm that was structurally similar, but with minor differences in morphology. A microtitre-based colorimetric assay used to test the susceptibility of fungal biofilms to AMB and FLC demonstrated that the C. parapsilosis complex displayed an increased resistance to these antifungal agents. The results from these analyses may provide a basis for implementing quality controls and monitoring to ensure the microbiological purity of dialysis water, including the presence of yeast.

  9. Inactivation of Candida Strains in Planktonic and Biofilm Forms Using a Direct Current, Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasma Micro-Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei-Dong; Sun, Peng; Sun, Yi; Yu, Shuang; Wu, Haiyan; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    A direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, He/O2 (2%) cold plasma ­microjet is applied to Candida species (C. glabrata, C. albicansand C. krusei). Effective inactivation is achieved both in air and in water within 5 min of plasma treatment. Same plasma treatment also successfully inactivated candida biofilms on Petri dish. The inactivation was verified by cell viability test (XTT assay). Severe deformation of Candida biofilms after the plasma treatment was observed through scanning electron microscope (SEM). Optical emission spectroscopy shows strong atomic oxygen emission at 777 nm. Hydroxyl radical (•OH), superoxide anion radical (•O2-) and singlet molecular oxygen (1O2) are detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The sessile minimal inhibitory concentrations (SMICs) of fluconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin against the Candida spp. biofilms were decreased to 2-6 fold dilutions in plasma microjet treated group in comparison with the controls. This novel approach may become a new tool for the treatment of clinical dermatosis

  10. Non-Candida albicans Candida mediastinitis of odontogenic origin in a diabetic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofteridis, Diamantis P; Mantadakis, Elpis; Karatzanis, Alexander D; Bourolias, Constantinos A; Papazoglou, Georgios; Velegrakis, George A; Samonis, George

    2008-06-01

    Descending mediastinitis occurs as a complication of oropharyngeal or cervical infections and its delayed diagnosis and treatment are associated with high mortality. A rare case of an odontogenic infection in a diabetic patient, complicated by Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei parapharyngeal space infection, descending mediastinitis and aspiration pneumonia is described. Isolate identification was based on colonial and microscopic morphological characteristics and carbohydrate assimilation test results. The patient was successfully treated with surgical drainage and debridement, broad spectrum antibacterials and liposomal amphotericin B followed by prolonged oral voriconazole therapy.

  11. Consumer Perceptions towards Introducing a Genetically Modified Banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of a genetically modified (GM) banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda is not without controversy. It is likely to generate a wide portfolio of concerns as the technology of genetic engineering is still in its early stages of development in Uganda. The purpose of this study is to show how cons

  12. Influence of probiotics on Candida presence and IgA anti-Candida in the oral cavity

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    Agda Lima dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as microorganisms that promote benefits to host health, mainly by regulating resident microbiota. Disequilibrium in microbiota can favor the growth of opportunist microorganisms and the development of pathologies, like candidosis caused by yeasts of the Candida genus. This work evaluated whether probiotics consumption was able to influence a specific immunological response to Candida and the presence of these yeasts in the oral cavity. Saliva samples were collected from healthy individuals and plated in Dextrose Saboraud Agar with chloramphenicol. Individuals presenting Candida in the oral cavity used the probiotic Yakult LBâ for 20 days, after which new collections and identifications were performed. Anti-Candida IgA analysis was conducted using the ELISA technique. Analysis of the results showed a significant reduction in Candida prevalence (46% and mean Candida CFU/mL counts (65%. The Candida species identified were C. albicans (98% and C.tropicalis (2%, before and after probiotics consumption. Immunological analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in anti-Candida IgA levels after probiotics use, probably due to less antigenic stimulation. In conclusion, in the individuals studied, probiotics use significantly reduced the amount of Candida in the oral cavity, possibly due to competition between the yeasts rather than by specific secretory immune response stimulation.

  13. Photodynamic Inactivation of Candida albicans with Imidazoacridinones: Influence of Irradiance, Photosensitizer Uptake and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation.

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    Aleksandra Taraszkiewicz

    Full Text Available The increasing applicability of antifungal treatments, the limited range of available drug classes and the emergence of drug resistance in Candida spp. suggest the need for new treatment options. To explore the applicability of C. albicans photoinactivation, we examined nine structurally different imidazoacridinone derivatives as photosensitizing agents. The most effective derivatives showed a >10(4-fold reduction of viable cell numbers. The fungicidal action of the three most active compounds was compared at different radiant powers (3.5 to 63 mW/cm2, and this analysis indicated that 7 mW/cm2 was the most efficient. The intracellular accumulation of these compounds in fungal cells correlated with the fungicidal activity of all 9 derivatives. The lack of effect of verapamil, an inhibitor targeting Candida ABC efflux pumps, suggests that these imidazoacridinones are not substrates for ABC transporters. Thus, unlike azoles, a major class of antifungals used against Candida, ABC transporter-mediated resistance is unlikely. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR-spin trapping data suggested that the fungicidal light-induced action of these derivatives might depend on the production of superoxide anion. The highest generation rate of superoxide anion was observed for 1330H, 1610H, and 1611. Singlet oxygen production was also detected upon the irradiation of imidazoacridinone derivatives with UV laser light, with a low to moderate yield, depending on the type of compound. Thus, imidazoacridinone derivatives examined in the present study might act via mixed type I/type II photodynamic mechanism. The presented data indicate lack of direct correlation between the structures of studied imidazoacridinones, cell killing ability, and ROS production. However, we showed for the first time that for imidazoacridinones not only intracellular accumulation is necessary prerequisite of lethal photosensitization of C. albicans, but also localization within particular

  14. Photodynamic Inactivation of Candida albicans with Imidazoacridinones: Influence of Irradiance, Photosensitizer Uptake and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Szewczyk, Grzegorz; Sarna, Tadeusz; Bielawski, Krzysztof P; Nakonieczna, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The increasing applicability of antifungal treatments, the limited range of available drug classes and the emergence of drug resistance in Candida spp. suggest the need for new treatment options. To explore the applicability of C. albicans photoinactivation, we examined nine structurally different imidazoacridinone derivatives as photosensitizing agents. The most effective derivatives showed a >10(4)-fold reduction of viable cell numbers. The fungicidal action of the three most active compounds was compared at different radiant powers (3.5 to 63 mW/cm2), and this analysis indicated that 7 mW/cm2 was the most efficient. The intracellular accumulation of these compounds in fungal cells correlated with the fungicidal activity of all 9 derivatives. The lack of effect of verapamil, an inhibitor targeting Candida ABC efflux pumps, suggests that these imidazoacridinones are not substrates for ABC transporters. Thus, unlike azoles, a major class of antifungals used against Candida, ABC transporter-mediated resistance is unlikely. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-spin trapping data suggested that the fungicidal light-induced action of these derivatives might depend on the production of superoxide anion. The highest generation rate of superoxide anion was observed for 1330H, 1610H, and 1611. Singlet oxygen production was also detected upon the irradiation of imidazoacridinone derivatives with UV laser light, with a low to moderate yield, depending on the type of compound. Thus, imidazoacridinone derivatives examined in the present study might act via mixed type I/type II photodynamic mechanism. The presented data indicate lack of direct correlation between the structures of studied imidazoacridinones, cell killing ability, and ROS production. However, we showed for the first time that for imidazoacridinones not only intracellular accumulation is necessary prerequisite of lethal photosensitization of C. albicans, but also localization within particular cellular

  15. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelpud Chaves Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne  spp., en el Departamento  de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%.   En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense  L. en los Departamentos  de Nariño  y Putumayo  y 4 genotipos  silvestres  (S. mammosum, S. hirtum,       S. marginatum  y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en  todos  los  genotipos,  2.04%  genotipos  resistentes,  34.7%  moderadamente  resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raIz, (R2 = 0.71 y 0.98,el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  16. Klinik örneklerde saptanan Candida türlerinin MALDI-TOF MS ile tiplendirilmesi

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    Nida Özcan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Candida species are common nosocomial in­fectious agents. Since they have different antifungal resis­tance profiles, identification up to species level becomes more crucial. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS en­ables rapid and accurate identification of bacteria and fungi up to species level. We aimed to evaluate Candida species identified by MALDI-TOF MS in our laboratory. Methods: Overall 297 strains of Candida spp. were iso­lated from various clinical samples sent to Dicle Univer­sity Hospital Microbiology Laboratory between March 2015 and February 2016. Strains were identified up to the species level by MALDI Biotyper (BrukerDaltonics, USA mass spectrometry. Results: A total of 195 (65.7% yeasts were isolated from intensive care unit (ICU patients, 61 (20.5% yeasts from hospitalized patients other than ICU and 41 (13.8% yeasts from outpatients. The clinical samples consisted of 161 (54.2% urine, 78 (26.3% blood, 34 (11.4% vaginal samples, 10 (3.4% wound, 6 (2.0% respiratory and 8 of other samples (3 pleura, 2 peritoneum, 2 drain and 1 cerebrospinal fluid. Overall, 179 (60.3% C. albicans, 46 (15.5% C. tropicalis, 27 (9.1% C. parapsilosis, 19 (6.4% C. glabrata, 13 (4.4% C. kefyr, 7 (2.3% C. lusitaniae, 3 (1.0% C. krusei, 2 (0.7% C. utilis and 1 (0.3% C. guil­liermondii were isolated. Among all patients; 124 (41.8% were male and 173 (58.2% female. Among 84 patients with invasive samples, 50 (59.5% were male and 34 (40.5% female. Conclusion: Even though Candida albicans is the most frequently (60.3% isolated yeast, other yeast species are not uncommon (39.7% in our hospital. Identification of yeasts to the species level takes several days by conven­tional methods within minutes by mass spectrometry. This period is crucial in the treatment of critically ill patients.

  17. Evaluation of the genotoxic and mutagenic potentials of homeopathic Candida albicans solutions

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    André Luis Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida spp is naturally found in humans’ flora of skin, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts and, in general, up to 75% of the population does not have any symptom [1]. However, oral candidiasis is very common among HIV patients and patients undergoing chemotherapy. The treatment of oral candidiasis is necessary once the disease causes discomfort and dysphagia, resulting in poor nutrition, slow recovery, and prolonged hospital stay [2,3]. Preliminary results obtained by our group with a new biotherapic prepared from Candida albicans (Candida 30x showed a great potential to reduce the candida yeast adhesion rate when the epithelial cells were pre-treated. This study is currently being developed with the evaluation of mutagenic and genotoxic potentials of several homeopathic solutions. Aims: The goal of this study was to assess the genotoxic and mutagenic potentials of different homeopathic potencies of C. albicans. Methodology: One part of C. albicans yeast obtained from Brazilian patient’s blood [4] was diluted in 9 parts of sterile water. This sample was submitted to 100 mechanical succussions (approximately 3 Hz, using Autic® Brazilian machine, originating the first dilution (1x. Then, 1 ml of this solution was diluted in 9 ml of solvent, submitted to 100 succussions, obtaining 2x potency. This procedure was successively repeated to obtain 30x potency, according to Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia [5]. By the same technique, water vehicle was prepared until 30x to be used as control. All samples were prepared in sterile and aseptic conditions, using laminar flow cabinet, class II and were stored in the refrigerator (8ºC. The samples 1x, 6x, 12x, 18x, 24x and 30x of C. albicans and water 30x (vehicle control were analysed by: the Inductest, which assesses the ability of physical or chemical agents to promote lysogenic induction as a reflection of damage in DNA

  18. In vitro efficacy of 5 antifungal agents against Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis as determined by time-kill methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Szabó Zsuzsanna (1973-) (biológus, biológia-kémia szakos középiskolai tanár); Szilágyi Judit (1984-) (környezettudományi vegyész); Tavanti, Ariana; Kardos Gábor (1974-) (szakorvos, klinikai mikrobiológus); Rozgonyi Ferenc; Bayegan, Sedigh (1980-) (népegészségügyi szakember, egészségfejlesztő); Majoros László (1966-) (szakorvos, klinikai mikrobológus)

    2009-01-01

    Killing activity of amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and 5-fluorocytosine was determined against 6 Candida parapsilosis, 3 Candida orthopsilosis, and 4 Candida metapsilosis clinical isolates. After 24 h, 1 of 6 C. parapsilosis, 1 of 3 C. orthopsilosis, and 3 of 4 C. metapsilosis isolates were killed at 1 to 4 ?g/mL (1?8? MIC) amphotericin B. The remaining isolates were killed by 2 to 4 ?g/mL amphotericin B after 48 h. Fluconazole was fungistatic at ?1? MIC (0....

  19. Beneficios para la salud de los frutos de Opuntia spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Obón De Castro, José María; Castellar Rodríguez, María Rosario Lourdes; Díaz García, Miriam Cristina; Lozano Berna, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    El género Opuntia spp. ofrece una gran variedad de frutos con un gran potencial en componentes bioactivos. Son muchos los beneficios para la salud que se han descrito en la medicina tradicional: tratamiento de la diabetes, reducción de los niveles de colesterol y la presión arterial,tratamiento de úlceras y quemaduras, ami-inflamatorio y mejora de dolores reumáticos, tratamiento del dolor y asma. Los principales componentes bioactivos de los frutos son betala[nas, carofenoides, polifeno...

  20. Hyphal content determines the compression strength of Candida albicans biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paramonova, Ekaterina; Krom, Bastiaan P.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Sharma, Prashant K.

    2009-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated human fungal pathogen among species causing biofilm-related clinical infections. Mechanical properties of Candida biofilms have hitherto been given no attention, despite the fact that mechanical properties are important for selection of treatment or d

  1. Rapid identification of Candida species by confocal Raman microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Maquelin (Kees); L.P. Choo-Smith; H.P. Endtz (Hubert); H.A. Bruining (Hajo); G.J. Puppels (Gerwin)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractCandida species are important nosocomial pathogens associated with high mortality rates. Rapid detection and identification of Candida species can guide a clinician at an early stage to prescribe antifungal drugs or to adjust empirical therapy when resistant species are

  2. [Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp.--environmental studies in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Siński, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. are intestinal protozoan parasites of humans and many other species of mammals. The aim of this article was to summarize the last twenty years of research on the environmental distribution of these parasites, with a particular emphasis on the natural reservoir of invasion and human infections in Poland. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia has been studied in different groups of humans, in wildlife, pets and farm animals and in environmental samples. Current knowledge on the distribution of zoonotic and non-zoonotic species/genotypes in reservoir hosts and environmental samples has been summarized. The usefulness of different methods for the detection and identification of the parasites in different types of samples has been presented. Due to the wide distribution and high prevalence of both species in a range of hosts and possible vectors involved in mechanical transmission, the overall risk of outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis and giardiosis in Poland has been assessed as relatively high.

  3. Oral candidiasis-adhesion of non-albicans Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokor-Bratić Marija B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused primarily by Candida albicans. However, in recent years, species of non-albicans Candida have been implicated more frequently in mucosal infection. Candida species usually reside as commensal organisms and are part of normal oral microflora. Determining exactly how transformation from commensal to pathogen takes place and how it can be prevented is continuous challenge for clinical doctors. Candidal adherence to mucosal surfaces is considered as a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. Acrylic dentures, acting as reservoirs, play an important role in increasing the risk from Candida colonisation. Thus, this review discusses what is currently known about the adhesion of non-albicans Candida species of oral origin to buccal epithelial cells and denture acrylics.

  4. The isolation of Candida rugosa and Candida mesorugosa from clinical samples in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Gloria; Bartlett, Michael; Hale, Marie; Garrill, Ashley

    2016-03-01

    Members of the Candida rugosa species complex have been described as emerging fungal pathogens and are responsible for a growing number of Candida infections. In this communication we report the isolation of Candida rugosa and Candida mesorugosa in Ghana. To the best of our knowledge this is the first description of this species complex from a clinical setting in Africa.The isolates were identified on the basis of their rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. For one isolate, obtained from sputum, the sequence grouped well with that of C. rugosa. Two other isolates from urine had sequences that grouped with Candida mesorugosa. Morphologically, C. rugosa formed white, wrinkled, and flat colonies on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA), whereas C. mesorugosa formed white, smooth colonies. On chromogenic medium, the isolates formed small, dry greenish-blue colonies with a pale or white border, similar to C. albicans. The C. rugosa isolate produced pseudohyphae in human serum and on CMA-Tween 80 agar. In contrast, the C. mesorugosa isolates did not generate pseudohyphae in human serum, but generated a few pseudohyphae with abundant blastoconidia on CMA-Tween 80 agar. Growth was observed at 37 °C and 42 °C but not at 45 °C.The two C. mesorugosa isolates had Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of 6 and 48 μg ml(-1) for fluconazole and are thus resistant. The C. rugosa isolate had an MIC of 24 μg ml(-1), indicative of resistance. All three isolates were susceptible to itraconazole and voriconazole (with respective MICs of < 0.125 μg ml(-1)).

  5. Candida albicans commensalism in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, B Anne; d'Enfert, Christophe; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth

    2015-11-01

    Candida albicans is a polymorphic yeast species that often forms part of the commensal gastrointestinal mycobiota of healthy humans. It is also an important opportunistic pathogen. A tripartite interaction involving C. albicans, the resident microbiota and host immunity maintains C. albicans in its commensal form. The influence of each of these factors on C. albicans carriage is considered herein, with particular focus on the mycobiota and the approaches used to study it, models of gastrointestinal colonization by C. albicans, the C. albicans genes and phenotypes that are necessary for commensalism and the host factors that influence C. albicans carriage.

  6. Melittin induces apoptotic features in Candida albicans

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    Park, Cana [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Puk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Gun, E-mail: dglee222@knu.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Puk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-26

    Melittin is a well-known antimicrobial peptide with membrane-active mechanisms. In this study, it was found that Melittin exerted its antifungal effect via apoptosis. Candida albicans exposed to Melittin showed the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, measured by DHR-123 staining. Fluorescence microscopy staining with FITC-annexin V, TUNEL and DAPI further confirmed diagnostic markers of yeast apoptosis including phosphatidylserine externalization, and DNA and nuclear fragmentation. The current study suggests that Melittin possesses an antifungal effect with another mechanism promoting apoptosis.

  7. Molecular Fingerprints to Identify Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Spampinato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of molecular techniques have been developed for genotyping Candida species. Among them, multilocus sequence typing (MLST and microsatellite length polymorphisms (MLP analysis have recently emerged. MLST relies on DNA sequences of internal regions of various independent housekeeping genes, while MLP identifies microsatellite instability. Both methods generate unambiguous and highly reproducible data. Here, we review the results achieved by using these two techniques and also provide a brief overview of a new method based on high-resolution DNA melting (HRM. This method identifies sequence differences by subtle deviations in sample melting profiles in the presence of saturating fluorescent DNA binding dyes.

  8. Clinical Patterns of Candida Infections in Bombay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, J Pratiba; Kelkar, S S

    1980-01-01

    One hundred consecutive cases of candidiasis in Bombay were studied. In each case the suspicion was confirmed by isolation typing of the Candida species. The clinical was as follows: vulvo-vaginitis 30%; intertrigo 18%; onychia and paronychia 12%; thrush 16%; generalised cutaneous candidasis 8%, enteritis 3%; bronchitis 12% and urinary tract infection 1%. When compared to a study carried out in Bombay in 1966, there was an increase in the frequency of disseminated cutaneous candidiasis and a reduction in the cases of intertrigo and onychia and paronychia.

  9. Cerebral candida abscess in an infant

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    Baradkar V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain abscess is uncommon in the pediatric population. Here, we report one such case due to Candida albicans in one-year-old infant, without any predisposing factors. The child presented with progressively increasing size of head circumference. The diagnosis was confirmed by CT scan of brain and microbiological investigations on the drained pus material. The patient responded to combination of surgery (drainage and intravenous amphotericin B. Neurological development six months after hospital discharge was normal. The organism being a rare cause of cerebral abscess in pediatric population is reported here.

  10. Use of micafungin as a surrogate marker to predict susceptibility and resistance to caspofungin among 3,764 clinical isolates of Candida by use of CLSI methods and interpretive criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Messer, Shawn A; Diekema, Daniel J; Jones, Ronald N; Castanheira, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Due to unacceptably high interlaboratory variation in caspofungin MIC values, we evaluated the use of micafungin as a surrogate marker to predict the susceptibility of Candida spp. to caspofungin using reference methods and species-specific interpretive criteria. The MIC results for 3,764 strains of Candida (eight species), including 73 strains with fks mutations, were used. Caspofungin MIC values and species-specific interpretive criteria were compared with those of micafungin to determine the percent categorical agreement (%CA) and very major error (VME), major error (ME), and minor error rates as well as their ability to detect fks mutant strains of Candida albicans (11 mutants), Candida tropicalis (4 mutants), Candida krusei (3 mutants), and Candida glabrata (55 mutants). Overall, the %CA was 98.8% (0.2% VMEs and MEs, 0.8% minor errors) using micafungin as the surrogate marker. Among the 60 isolates of C. albicans (9 isolates), C. tropicalis (5 isolates), C. krusei (2 isolates), and C. glabrata (44 isolates) that were nonsusceptible (either intermediate or resistant) to both caspofungin and micafungin, 54 (90.0%) contained a mutation in fks1 or fks2. An additional 10 C. glabrata mutants, two C. albicans mutants, and one mutant each of C. tropicalis and C. krusei were classified as susceptible to both antifungal agents. Using the epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) of 0.12 μg/ml for caspofungin and 0.03 μg/ml for micafungin to differentiate wild-type (WT) from non-WT strains of C. glabrata, 80% of the C. glabrata mutants were non-WT for both agents (96% concordance). Micafungin may serve as an acceptable surrogate marker for the prediction of susceptibility and resistance of Candida to caspofungin.

  11. Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis induce different T-cell responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toth, A.; Csonka, K.; Jacobs, C.; Vagvolgyi, C.; Nosanchuk, J.D.; Netea, M.G.; Gacser, A.

    2013-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is the third most frequent cause of candidemia. Despite its clinical importance, little is known about the human immunological response to C. parapsilosis. In this study, we compared the cytokine responses evoked by Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis. C. parapsilosis-stimulate

  12. CONTAMINACIÓN POR Toxocara spp. EN PARQUES DE TULYEHUALCO, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo Romero Núñez; Adelfa del Carmen García Contreras; Germán David Mendoza Martínez; Nancy Carolina Torres Corona; Ninfa Ramírez Durán

    2009-01-01

    La toxocariasis es una parasitosis que afecta a los niños, en particular aquellos que juegan con tierra. Con el objetivo de identificar la presencia o incidencia de huevos de Toxocara spp., en parques de Tulyehualco, México, se realizó un análisis en muestras de suelos, heces depositadas en parques y muestras de heces de perros con propietario mediante un procedimiento de flotación-sedimentación. Los resultados mostraron una elevada contaminación por Toxocara, encontrando una contaminación de...

  13. Endocarditis due to a co-infection of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis in a drug abuser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesharaki, Shirinsadat Hashemi; Haghani, Iman; Mousavi, Bita; Kargar, Melika Laal; Boroumand, Mohammadali; Anvari, Maryam Sotoudeh; Abbasi, Kyomars; Meis, Jacques F; Badali, Hamid

    2013-11-01

    In recent decades the incidence of Candida endocarditis has increased dramatically. Despite the application of surgery and antifungal therapy, Candida endocarditis remains a life-threatening infection with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a 37-year-old male drug abuser presenting with high fever, chest pain, loss of appetite and cardiac failure. His echocardiography revealed mobile large tricuspid valve vegetations. Fungal endocarditis was confirmed by culturing of the resected vegetation showing mixed growth of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis, although three consecutive blood cultures were negative for Candida species. Phenotypic identification was reconfirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA) region. The patient was initially treated with intravenous fluconazole (6 mg kg(-1) per day), followed by 2 weeks of intravenous amphotericin B deoxycholate (1 mg kg(-1) per day). Although MICs were low for both drugs, the patient's antifungal therapy combined with valve replacement failed, and he died due to respiratory failure.

  14. Synergistic activity of chloroquine with fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant isolates of Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yali; Wan, Zhe; Liu, Wei; Li, Ruoyu

    2015-02-01

    The in vitro activity of chloroquine and the interactions of chloroquine combined with fluconazole against 37 Candida isolates were tested using the broth microdilution, disk diffusion, and Etest susceptibility tests. Synergistic effect was detected with 6 of 9 fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates, with Candida krusei ATCC 6258, and with all 12 fluconazole-resistant Candida tropicalis isolates.

  15. Genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Čitavičius, Donaldas

    2015-04-01

    Members of the genus Geobacillus are thermophiles that are of great biotechnological importance, since they are sources of many thermostable enzymes. Because of their metabolic versatility, geobacilli can be used as whole-cell catalysts in processes such as bioconversion and bioremediation. The effective employment of Geobacillus spp. requires the development of reliable methods for genetic engineering of these bacteria. Currently, genetic manipulation tools and protocols are under rapid development. However, there are several convenient cloning vectors, some of which replicate autonomously, while others are suitable for the genetic modification of chromosomal genes. Gene expression systems are also intensively studied. Combining these tools together with proper techniques for DNA transfer, some Geobacillus strains were shown to be valuable producers of recombinant proteins and industrially important biochemicals, such as ethanol or isobutanol. This review encompasses the progress made in the genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp. and surveys the vectors and transformation methods that are available for this genus.

  16. Prospective Multicenter Study of the Epidemiology, Molecular Identification, and Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis Isolated from Patients with Candidemia ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Cantón, Emilia; Pemán, Javier; Quindós, Guillermo; Eraso, Elena; Miranda-Zapico, Ilargi; Álvarez, María; Merino, Paloma; Campos-Herrero, Isolina; Marco, Francesc; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gomez G.; Yagüe, Genoveva; Guna, Remedios; Rubio, Carmen; Miranda, Consuelo; Pazos, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    A 13-month prospective multicenter study including 44 hospitals was carried out to evaluate the epidemiology of Candida parapsilosis complex candidemia in Spain. Susceptibility to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin was tested by the microdilution colorimetric method. A total of 364 C. parapsilosis complex isolates were identified by molecular methods: C. parapsilosis (90.7%), Candida orthopsilosis (8.2...

  17. Routine use of CHROMagar Candida medium for presumptive identification of Candida yeast species and detection of mixed fungal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Declerck, Philippe; Cimon, Bernard; Planchenault, Claire; de Gentile, Ludovic; Chabasse, Dominique

    1996-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of the new differential culture medium CHROMagar Candida for routine investigation of clinical specimens. METHODS: During a whole year, 6150 clinical samples were plated on CHROMagar Candida medium. After incubation, the green colonies were considered to be Candida albicans. The colonies of other colors were identified using Bichrolatex-krusei, or by their assimilation pattern on ID 32C test strips and their morphology on rice cream-agar-Tween. RESULTS: Among the 6150 clinical samples, 1643 were positive for fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus and Geotrichum sp. were the predominant filamentous fungi isolated. Candida albicans was the most common species isolated (1274 of the positive samples; 77.5%), and Candida glabrata was the second most common yeast isolated (174 positive samples; 10.6%). Other yeast species were detected at lower frequencies, mainly Candida tropicalis (3.8%), Candida krusei (2.7%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2.7%) and Candida kefyr (2.3%), and 16 samples revealed a lipophilic species, Malassezia furfur. Mixed fungal populations accounted for 14.7% of the positive samples. Two or more yeast species were detected in 206 of the 242 specimens containing mixed fungal populations, and five yeast species were detected in one sample. Additionally, we did not observe significant differences in the isolation of yeasts or filamentous fungi from the 366 samples simultaneously plated on CHROMagar Candida and Sabouraud dextrose agar. Close agreement between the two culture media was observed for 89.9% of these samples. CONCLUSIONS: CHROMagar Candida medium was shown to be extremely helpful in a routine clinical mycology service, facilitating the detection of mixed cultures of yeasts and allowing direct identification of C. albicans, as well as rapid presumptive identification of the other yeasts: C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei and S. cerevisiae. This chromogenic medium thus appears to be suitable as a primary culture medium

  18. Candida albicans adhesion to composite resin materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgers, Ralf; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Rosentritt, Martin; Handel, Gerhard; Hahnel, Sebastian

    2009-09-01

    The adhesion of Candida albicans to dental restorative materials in the human oral cavity may promote the occurrence of oral candidosis. This study aimed to compare the susceptibility of 14 commonly used composite resin materials (two compomers, one ormocer, one novel silorane, and ten conventional hybrid composites) to adhere Candida albicans. Differences in the amount of adhering fungi should be related to surface roughness, hydrophobicity, and the type of matrix. Cylindrical specimens of each material were made according to the manufacturers' instructions. Surface roughness R (a) was assessed by perthometer measurements and the degree of hydrophobicity by computerized contact angle analysis. Specimens were incubated with a reference strain of C. albicans (DMSZ 1386), and adhering fungi were quantified by using a bioluminometric assay in combination with an automated plate reader. Statistical differences were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated to assess correlations. Median R (a) of the tested composite resin materials ranged between 0.04 and 0.23 microm, median contact angles between 69.2 degrees and 86.9 degrees . The two compomers and the ormocer showed lower luminescence intensities indicating less adhesion of fungi than all tested conventional hybrid composites. No conclusive correlation was found between surface roughness, hydrophobicity, and the amount of adhering C. albicans.

  19. Investigation of minor species Candida africana, Candida stellatoidea and Candida dubliniensis in the Candida albicans complex among Yaoundé (Cameroon) HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngouana, Thierry K; Krasteva, Donika; Drakulovski, Pascal; Toghueo, Rufin K; Kouanfack, Charles; Ambe, Akaba; Reynes, Jacques; Delaporte, Eric; Boyom, Fabrice F; Mallié, Michèle; Bertout, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Minor species of the Candida albicans complex may cause overestimation of the epidemiology of C. albicans, and misidentifications could mask their implication in human pathology. Authors determined the occurrence of minor species of the C. albicans complex (C. africana, C. dubliniensis and C. stellatoidea) among Yaoundé HIV-infected patients, Cameroon. Stool, vaginal discharge, urine and oropharyngeal samples were analysed by mycological diagnosis. Isolates were identified by conventional methods and mass spectrometry (MS; carried out by the matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation time-of-flight MS protocol). Candida albicans isolates were thereafter submitted to the PCR amplification of the Hwp1 gene. The susceptibility of isolates to antifungal drugs was tested using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3 protocol. From 115 C. albicans obtained isolates, neither C. dubliniensis nor C. stellatoidea was observed; two strains of C. africana (422PV and 448PV) were identified by PCR electrophoretic profiles at 700 bp. These two C. africana strains were vaginal isolates. The isolate 448PV was resistant to ketoconazole at the minimal inhibitory concentration of 2 μg ml(-1), and showed reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B at 1 μg ml(-1). This first report on C. africana occurrence in Cameroon brings clues for the understanding of the global epidemiology of this yeast as well as that of minor species of the C. albicans complex.

  20. Activity of Polyphenolic Compounds against Candida glabrata

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    Ricardo Salazar-Aranda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic mycoses increase the morbidity and mortality of immuno-compromised patients. Five Candida species have been shown to be responsible for 97% of worldwide cases of invasive candidiasis. Resistance of C. glabrata and C. krusei to azoles has been reported, and new, improved antifungal agents are needed. The current study was designed to evaluatethe activity of various polyphenolic compounds against Candida species. Antifungal activity was evaluated following the M27-A3 protocol of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH assay. Myricetin and baicalein inhibited the growth of all species tested. This effect was strongest against C. glabrata, for which the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value was lower than that of fluconazole. The MIC values against C. glabrata for myricitrin, luteolin, quercetin, 3-hydroxyflavone, and fisetin were similar to that of fluconazole. The antioxidant activity of all compounds was confirmed, and polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity had the greatest activity against C. glabrata. The structure and position of their hydroxyl groups appear to influence their activity against C. glabrata.

  1. Combinatorial stresses kill pathogenic Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloriti, Despoina; Tillmann, Anna; Cook, Emily; Jacobsen, Mette; You, Tao; Lenardon, Megan; Ames, Lauren; Barahona, Mauricio; Chandrasekaran, Komelapriya; Coghill, George; Goodman, Daniel; Gow, Neil A R; Grebogi, Celso; Ho, Hsueh-Lui; Ingram, Piers; McDonagh, Andrew; de Moura, Alessandro P S; Pang, Wei; Puttnam, Melanie; Radmaneshfar, Elahe; Romano, Maria Carmen; Silk, Daniel; Stark, Jaroslav; Stumpf, Michael; Thiel, Marco; Thorne, Thomas; Usher, Jane; Yin, Zhikang; Haynes, Ken; Brown, Alistair J P

    2012-10-01

    Pathogenic microbes exist in dynamic niches and have evolved robust adaptive responses to promote survival in their hosts. The major fungal pathogens of humans, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, are exposed to a range of environmental stresses in their hosts including osmotic, oxidative and nitrosative stresses. Significant efforts have been devoted to the characterization of the adaptive responses to each of these stresses. In the wild, cells are frequently exposed simultaneously to combinations of these stresses and yet the effects of such combinatorial stresses have not been explored. We have developed a common experimental platform to facilitate the comparison of combinatorial stress responses in C. glabrata and C. albicans. This platform is based on the growth of cells in buffered rich medium at 30°C, and was used to define relatively low, medium and high doses of osmotic (NaCl), oxidative (H(2)O(2)) and nitrosative stresses (e.g., dipropylenetriamine (DPTA)-NONOate). The effects of combinatorial stresses were compared with the corresponding individual stresses under these growth conditions. We show for the first time that certain combinations of combinatorial stress are especially potent in terms of their ability to kill C. albicans and C. glabrata and/or inhibit their growth. This was the case for combinations of osmotic plus oxidative stress and for oxidative plus nitrosative stress. We predict that combinatorial stresses may be highly significant in host defences against these pathogenic yeasts.

  2. Description of Martiniozyma gen. nov. and transfer of seven Candida species to Saturnispora as new combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2015-10-01

    DNA sequence analysis has shown Candida abiesophila (NRRL Y-11514(T), CBS 5366(T)) and Candida asiatica (NRRL Y-63747(T), CBS 10863(T)) to be members of a small clade that is phylogenetically separate from other yeasts. In view of their isolation from neighboring genera, such as Pichia and Saturnispora, the two anamorphic species are proposed for transfer to Martiniozyma gen. nov. (MycoBank MB 812061) with Martiniozyma abiesophila designated as type species (MycoBank MB 812062). In keeping with the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, which specifies that related anamorphic and teleomorphic species can be assigned to the same genus, the following Candida species are transferred to Saturnispora to conform with their phylogenetic placement: Candida diversa (NRRL Y-5713(T)), Candida halmiae (CBS 11009(T)), Candida sanitii (CBS 10864(T)), Candida sekii (CBS 10931(T)), Candida siamensis (CBS 11022(T)), Candida silvae (NRRL Y-6725(T)) and Candida suwanaritii (CBS 11021(T)).

  3. Silicone colonization by non-Candida albicans Candida species in the presence of urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Negri, Melyssa; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, Rosário; Williams, David; Azeredo, Joana

    2010-07-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common nosocomial infections and 80 % are related to the use of urinary catheters. Furthermore, Candida species are responsible for around 15 % of UTIs and an increasing involvement of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species (e.g. Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis) has been recognized. Given the fact that silicone is frequently used in the manufacture of urinary catheters, the aim of this work was to compare both the adhesion and biofilm formation on silicone of different urinary clinical isolates of NCAC species (i.e. C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis) in the presence of urine. Several clinical isolates of NCAC species recovered from patients with UTIs, together with reference strains of each species, were examined. Adhesion and biofilm formation were performed in artificial urine and the biofilm biomass was assessed by crystal violet staining. Hydrophobicity and surface charge of cells was determined by measuring contact angles and zeta potential, respectively. The number of viable cells in biofilms was determined by enumeration of c.f.u. after appropriate culture. The biofilm structure was also examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results showed that all isolates adhered to silicone in a species- and strain-dependent manner with C. parapsilosis showing the lowest and C. glabrata the highest levels of adhesion. However, these differences in adhesion abilities cannot be correlated with surface properties since all strains examined were hydrophilic and exhibited a similar zeta potential. Despite a higher number of cultivable cells being recovered after 72 h of incubation, stronger biofilm formation was not observed and CLSM showed an absence of extracellular polymeric material for all isolates examined. In summary, this work demonstrated that all tested NCAC species were able to adhere to and survive on silicone in the presence of urine. Furthermore, C

  4. Chlorhexidine markedly potentiates the oxidants scavenging abilities of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, I; Koren, E; Feuerstein, O; Zogakis, I P; Shalish, M; Gorelik, S

    2015-10-01

    The oxidant scavenging ability (OSA) of catalase-rich Candida albicans is markedly enhanced by chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), polymyxin B, the bile salt ursodeoxycholate and by lysophosphatidylcholine, which all act as detergents facilitating the penetration of oxidants and their intracellular decomposition. Quantifications of the OSA of Candida albicans were measured by a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay and by the Thurman's assay, to quantify hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The OSA enhancing activity by CHX depends to some extent on the media on which candida grew. The OSA of candida treated by CHX was modulated by whole human saliva, red blood cells, lysozyme, cationic peptides and by polyphenols. Concentrations of CHX, which killed over 95 % of Candida albicans cells, did not affect the cells' abilities to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). The OSA of Candida cells treated by CHX is highly refractory to H2O2 (50 mM) but is strongly inhibited by hypochlorous acid, lecithin, trypan blue and by heparin. We speculate that similarly to catalase-rich red blood cells, Candida albicans and additional catalase-rich microbiota may also have the ability to scavenge oxidants and thus can protect catalase-negative anaerobes and facultative anaerobes cariogenic streptococci against peroxide and thus secure their survival in the oral cavity.

  5. Clinicopathologic assessment of Candida colonization of oral leukoplakia

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    Reena Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukoplakia is the most common premalignant lesion of the oral mucosa. We studied the colonization of Candida in oral leukoplakia using direct microscopy, culture and histopathology to determine if there is a statistical correlation between Candida invasion and the clinical appearance and presence of epithelial dysplasia in leukoplakia. Methods: Samples were collected from 40 patients with oral leukoplakia and 21 controls. The swabs collected were used to inoculate Sabouraud′s dextrose agar slant and for direct microscopy with Gram′s stain. Culture growths were subjected to germ tube and corn meal agar tests to differentiate between Candida albicans and non-albicans groups. Biopsies were also done in all patients for histopathological confirmation; Gomori′s methanamine silver stain was used to identify fungal invasion of lesional epithelium. Results and Conclusions: Nineteen cases of leukoplakia showed Candida on direct smears, compared to 3 controls. Eighteen cases and one control showed growth of Candida on culture. Non-homogenous leukoplakia showed a higher positivity rate on microscopy and culture than homogenous lesions. All these correlations were statistically significant. Forty percent of leukoplakia cases were simultaneously positive for Candida on direct microscopy, culture and histopathologic evaluation. No significant difference was found between non-dysplastic and distinctly dysplastic lesions with respect to Candida detection on microscopy or culture.

  6. Interactions of Candida albicans with host epithelial surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Williams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic, fungal pathogen of humans that frequently causes superficial infections of oral and vaginal mucosal surfaces of debilitated and susceptible individuals. The organism is however, commonly encountered as a commensal in healthy individuals where it is a component of the normal microflora. The key determinant in the type of relationship that Candida has with its host is how it interacts with the epithelial surface it colonises. A delicate balance clearly exists between the potentially damaging effects of Candida virulence factors and the nature of the immune response elicited by the host. Frequently, it is changes in host factors that lead to Candida seemingly changing from a commensal to pathogenic existence. However, given the often reported heterogeneity in morphological and biochemical factors that exist between Candida species and indeed strains of C. albicans, it may also be the fact that colonising strains differ in the way they exploit resources to allow persistence at mucosal surfaces and as a consequence this too may affect the way Candida interacts with epithelial cells. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of some of the possible interactions that may occur between C. albicans and host epithelial surfaces that may in turn dictate whether Candida removal, its commensal persistence or infection follows.

  7. Candida Parapsilosis Arthritis Involving the Ankle in a Diabetes Patient: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jin Kyeong; Chun, Kyung Ah [Dept. of Radiology, The Catholic University of Korea Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Candida parapsilosis is a rare opportunistic fungal pathogen of the musculoskeletal region. Immune function of almost all patients is severely disturbed. Most reported cases of septic arthritis of joints by Candida involve the knee, especially Candida parapsilosis. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of Candida parapsilosis involving the ankle presented on only plain radiography. We report a case of Candida parapsilosis arthritis involving the ankle in a diabetes patient which was shown on MR imaging.

  8. Egg parasitoids of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae in Argentina