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Sample records for candida parapsilosis spondylodiscitis

  1. Candida parapsilosis prosthetic valve endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Pinto, André; Ferraz, Rita; Casanova, Jorge; Sarmento, António; Santos, Lurdes

    2015-01-01

    Candida endocarditis is a rare infection associated with high mortality and morbidity. There are still some controversies about Candida endocarditis treatment, especially about the treatment duration. We report a case of a Candida parapsilosis endocarditis that presented as a lower limb ischemia. The patient was surgically treated with a cryopreserved homograft aortic replacement. We used intravenous fluconazole 800 mg as initial treatment, followed with 12 months of 400 mg fluconazole per os. The patient outcome was good. PMID:26288749

  2. Pancreatic infection with Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, R; Serrano-Heranz, R

    1999-01-01

    Candida species other than C. albicans have been implicated as pathogens in intravascular (bloodstream, intravascular devices, endocarditis) and extravascular (arthritis, osteomielitis, endophtalmitis) infections. C. parapsilosis, however, is rarely implicated in intra-abdominal infections (peritonitis during peritoneal dialysis, complicating surgery or solid-organ transplantation). We describe a case of a 48-y-old male with acute pancreatitis who had a pancreatic abscess produced by primary C. parapsilosis infection. Although he received adequate treatment with antifungal medication and surgical drainage, the outcome was fatal. Because the clinical findings are indistinguishable from bacterial abscesses, Candida species should be considered in cases of complicated pancreatitis, in order to establish a prompt adequate treatment.

  3. Killer behavior within the Candida parapsilosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Leal, Efrén; Elizondo-Zertuche, Mariana; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Treviño-Rangel, Rogelio de J; García-Maldonado, Nancy; Adame-Rodríguez, Juan M; González, Gloria M

    2014-11-01

    A group of 29 isolates of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, 29 of Candida orthopsilosis, and 4 of Candida metapsilosis were assayed for the presence of killer activity using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 26609 as a sensitive strain. All C. metapsilosis isolates showed killer activity at 25 °C while strains of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto or C. orthopsilosis did not exhibit this activity. Sensitivity to killer toxins was evaluated using a set of previously reported killer strains of clinical origin. Only 11 isolates of the C. parapsilosis complex were inhibited by at least one killer isolate without resulting in any clear pattern, except for C. parapsilosis sensu stricto ATCC 22019, which was inhibited by every killer strain with the exception of C. parapsilosis and Candida utilis. The lack of sensitivity to killer activity among isolates of the genus Candida suggests that their toxins belong to the same killer type. Differentiation of species within the C. parapsilosis complex using the killer system may be feasible if a more taxonomically diverse panel of killer strains is employed.

  4. Characterization of Candida parapsilosis complex isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toro, M; Torres, M J; Maite, Ruiz; Aznar, J

    2011-03-01

    Candida parapsilosis former groups II and III have recently been established as independent species, named Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, respectively. We investigated the distribution of C. parapsilosis complex species in 122 isolates from blood and other sources in a southern Spain tertiary-care hospital, and we examined the relationship between species, site of isolation and biofilm positivity. We also evaluated the planktonic MICs and sessile MICs (SMICs) of voriconazole, amphotericin B and anidulafungin. One hundred and eleven isolates (91%) were categorized as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, whereas ten isolates (8.2%) were categorized as C. orthopsilosis and one (0.8%) as C. metapsilosis. Biofilm positivity was observed in 58.5% (65 of 111) of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates vs. 0% (0 of 11) of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates (p orthopsilosis than for C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (0.03 mg/L). In contrast to planktonic cells, the SMICs show that amphotericin B and anidulafungin are moderately effective against the biofilm of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, whereas voriconazole is ineffective.

  5. Candida parapsilosis and candida guillermondii: Emerging pathogens in nail candidiasis

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    Felix Fich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onychomycosis of the fingernails and toenails is generally caused by dermatophytes and yeasts. Toenail mycoses involve mainly dermatophytes but when Candida is also involved, the strain most commonly isolated worldwide is C. albicans. Aims: To determine Candida strains prevailing in onychomycosis. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational and descriptive study of fungal cultures retrieved from the registry of the microbiology laboratory of the Pontificia Universidad Católica was performed. Specimens obtained from patients attending the healthcare network between December 2007 and December 2010 was analyzed. Statistical Analysis: A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: Candida was retrieved from 467 of 8443 specimens (52% fingernails and 48% toenails. Cultures were negative in 5320 specimens (63.6%. Among Candida-positive cultures, parapsilosis was the most commonly isolated strain with 202 cases (43.3%. While isolates of Candida guillermondii were 113 (24.2%, those of Candida albicans were 110 (23.6%, those of spp. were 20 (4.3% and there were 22 cases of other isolates (4.71%. Among the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida, 136 (29,1% were men and 331 (70,9% were women. All patients were older than 18 years old. Clinical files were available for only 169 of the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida. For those, age, gender, underlying illnesses and use of immunossupresive agents during the trial was reviewed. Conclusions: The present study shows that both C. parapsilosis as well as C. guillermondii appear as emerging pathogens that would be in fact taking the place of C. albicans as the most commonly isolated pathogen in patients with Candida onychomycosis. The relative percentage of C parapsilosis increases every year. Identification of Candida strains as etiological agents of nail candidiasis becomes relevant to the management both nail as well as systemic candidiasis, in view of

  6. Effect of usnic acid on Candida orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Regina Helena; Lucarini, Rodrigo; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose Soares

    2012-01-01

    The activity of usnic acid against Candida orthopsilosis and Candida parapsilosis on planktonic and biofilm conditions was investigated by using a broth microdilution and microplate methods. Potent in vitro activities against different Candida species were obtained. The metabolic activity of sessile cells of C. parapsilosis complex was reduced by 80% at four times the 80% inhibitory concentration. The in vitro studies support further efforts to determine whether usnic acid can be used clinically to cure patients with Candida infections.

  7. Fungal spondylodiscitis in a patient recovered from H7N9 virus infection: a case study and a literature review of the differences between Candida and Aspergillus spondylodiscitis * #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lie-dao; Feng, Zhi-yun; Wang, Xuan-wei; Ling, Zhi-heng; Lin, Xiang-jin

    2016-01-01

    To report a rare case of fungal spondylodiscitis in a patient recovered from H7N9 virus infection and perform a literature review of the different characteristics of Candida and Aspergillus spondylodiscitis, we reviewed cases of spondylodiscitis caused by Candida and Aspergillus species. Data, including patients’ information, pathogenic species, treatment strategy, outcomes, and relapses, were collected and summarized. The characteristics of Candida and Aspergillus spondylodiscitis were compared to see if any differences in clinical features, management, or consequences could be detected. The subject of the case study was first misdiagnosed as having a vertebral tumor, and then, following open biopsy, was diagnosed as having fungal spondylodiscitis. The patient made a good recovery following radical debridement. Seventy-seven additional cases of Candida spondylodiscitis and 94 cases of Aspergillus spondylodiscitis were identified in the literature. Patients with Candida spondylodiscitis tended to have a better outcome than patients with Aspergillus spondylodiscitis (cure rate 92.3% vs. 70.2%). Candida was found more frequently (47.8%) than Aspergillus (26.7%) in blood cultures, while neurological deficits were observed more often in patients with Aspergillus spondylodiscitis (43.6% vs. 25.6%). Candida spinal infections were more often treated by radical debridement (60.5% vs. 39.6%). Patients with Candida spondylodiscitis have better outcomes, which may be associated with prompt recognition, radical surgical debridement, and azoles therapy. A good outcome can be expected in fungal spondylodiscitis with appropriate operations and anti-fungal drugs. PMID:27819134

  8. Espondilodiscitis por Candida albicans Candida albicans spondylodiscitis: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina De Luca

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Propósito: Describir los hallazgos radiológicos distintivos en resonancia magnética de las espondilodiscitis fúngicas (Candida albicans y su importancia en el diagnóstico temprano de estas entidades. Se reporta el caso de un paciente masculino de 51 años de edad, inmunocomprometido, que consulta por fiebre y dolor lumbar. La RM con gadolinio demostró en secuencias T2 hipointensidad de la médula ósea en los cuerpos vertebrales afectados, asociados a cambios en la señal discal y realce intenso discovertebral. Ante un paciente inmunocomprometido con dolor lumbar que presenta modificaciones disco vertebrales atípicas en la resonancia magnética, debe considerarse la infección micótica dentro de las posibilidades diagnósticas. El diagnóstico de certeza requiere la toma de biopsia del tejido afectado mediante punción aspiración y posterior análisis microbiológico. El tratamiento médico es el de elección, aunque en algunos casos se plantea el drenaje quirúrgico. El reconocimiento de las características radiológicas distintivas evita retardos en el diagnóstico y el tratamiento.Purpose: To describe Candida albicans spondylodiscitis distinctive imaging findings and treatment. The authors reported a 51 years old, male inmunocompromised patient with fever and lumbar pain. MR findings include bone marrow hypointense signal intensity in T2 weighted of affected vertebral bodies and intense discovertebral enhancement. Candida albicans spondylodiscitis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis of an inmunocompromised patient with lumbar pain and lumbar atypical findings at MR. Biopsy sample is required in order to reach final diagnosis. The first choice treatment is antyfungal drugs although in certain cases surgery is required. Rapid recognition of distinctive imaging findings avoid missdiagnosis and treatment delays.

  9. Candida parapsilosis meningitis associated with Gliadel (BCNU) wafer implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'brien, Deirdre

    2010-12-15

    A 58-year old male presented with meningitis associated with subgaleal and subdural collections 6 weeks following a temporal craniotomy for resection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme and Gliadel wafer implantation. Candida parapsilosis was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Gliadel wafers removed during surgical debridement. He was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Candida parapsilosis meningitis secondary to Gliadel wafer placement.

  10. Candida parapsilosis meningitis associated with Gliadel (BCNU) wafer implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Deirdre

    2012-02-01

    A 58-year old male presented with meningitis associated with subgaleal and subdural collections 6 weeks following a temporal craniotomy for resection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme and Gliadel wafer implantation. Candida parapsilosis was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Gliadel wafers removed during surgical debridement. He was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Candida parapsilosis meningitis secondary to Gliadel wafer placement.

  11. Prevalence, distribution and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis bloodstream isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfietti, Lucas Xavier; Martins, Marilena dos Anjos; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Pukiskas, Sandra Brasil Stolf; Purisco, Sonia Ueda; Pimentel, Fabiana Cortez; Pereira, Graziella Hanna; Silva, Dayane Cristina; Oliveira, Lidiane; Melhem, Marcia de Souza Carvalho

    2012-07-01

    The Candida parapsilosis group encompasses three species: C. parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis. These species are phenotypically indistinguishable, and molecular methods are needed for their detection. We analysed 152 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained during 1997-2011. The isolates were screened by PCR amplification of the gene encoding secondary alcohol dehydrogenase, followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme BanI. Isolates with RFLP patterns distinct from those of the C. parapsilosis group were characterized as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (90.8 %), C. orthopsilosis (8.6 %) and C. metapsilosis (0.6 %). Antifungal susceptibility tests indicated that all isolates were susceptible to itraconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin. Although C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates were susceptible to fluconazole, higher MICs (≥2 mg l(-1)) were observed for C. orthopsilosis. Three isolates (2.0 %) of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto were resistant to voriconazole. Five C. parapsilosis isolates (3.3 %) were intermediate, and a single isolate (0.7 %) was resistant (MIC 16 mg l(-1)) to fluconazole. These data were confirmed using reference strains. It was observed that C. parapsilosis isolates were less susceptible to all triazoles, and this finding deserves further attention to assess the appearance of cross-resistance phenomena. In conclusion, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis are involved in a small but significant number of invasive infections in Brazil.

  12. Candida Parapsilosis Arthritis Involving the Ankle in a Diabetes Patient: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jin Kyeong; Chun, Kyung Ah [Dept. of Radiology, The Catholic University of Korea Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Candida parapsilosis is a rare opportunistic fungal pathogen of the musculoskeletal region. Immune function of almost all patients is severely disturbed. Most reported cases of septic arthritis of joints by Candida involve the knee, especially Candida parapsilosis. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of Candida parapsilosis involving the ankle presented on only plain radiography. We report a case of Candida parapsilosis arthritis involving the ankle in a diabetes patient which was shown on MR imaging.

  13. Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis induce different T-cell responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toth, A.; Csonka, K.; Jacobs, C.; Vagvolgyi, C.; Nosanchuk, J.D.; Netea, M.G.; Gacser, A.

    2013-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is the third most frequent cause of candidemia. Despite its clinical importance, little is known about the human immunological response to C. parapsilosis. In this study, we compared the cytokine responses evoked by Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis. C. parapsilosis-stimulate

  14. Comparison of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis adhesive properties and pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Alessia; De Bernardis, Flavia; Hensgens, Lambert A M; Sandini, Silvia; Senesi, Sonia; Tavanti, Arianna

    2013-03-01

    Retrospective studies indicate that Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis each represents 1-10% of the infections/colonisations attributed to C. parapsilosis by conventional biochemical tests. Little is known on the virulence properties of these fungi and on their role in the establishment/progression of the infection. In this study, the adhesive properties of clinical isolates belonging to the 'psilosis' species were assessed in an in vitro model of co-incubation with human buccal epithelial cells (HBECs). Ectophosphatase activity was also measured for all isolates, since the activity of this enzyme has previously been linked to adhesion properties in C. parapsilosis. The results indicate that whilst C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis strains showed similar adhesion abilities, C. metapsilosis isolates displayed a significantly lower ability to adhere to HBECs (Porthopsilosis has a comparable behaviour to C. parapsilosis, whilst C. metapsilosis seems to possess a reduced virulence potential.

  15. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal of a new RFLP profile for differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Bruun, Brita; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2010-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species phenotypically indistinguishable from Candida parapsilosis . We evaluated phenotyping and molecular methods for the detection of these species among 79 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained...

  16. Mitochondrial genome variability within the Candida parapsilosis species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valach, Matus; Pryszcz, Leszek P; Tomaska, Lubomir; Gacser, Attila; Gabaldón, Toni; Nosek, Jozef

    2012-09-01

    Candida parapsilosis species complex includes three closely related species, namely C. parapsilosis (sensu stricto), C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. Unlike most other yeast lineages, members of this species complex possess a linear mitochondrial genome. Yet, its circularized mutant form was identified in strains of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. To investigate the underlying variability, we performed comparative analyses of the complete mitochondrial DNA sequences in a collection of strains. Our results demonstrate that in contrast to C. parapsilosis and C. metapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis exhibits remarkably high nucleotide diversity whose pattern is consistent with intraspecific genetic exchange.

  17. Virulence of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis in reconstituted human tissue models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gácser, Attila; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Nosanchuk, Jerome S; Salomon, Siegfried; Nosanchuk, Joshua D

    2007-12-01

    Candida parapsilosis is an increasingly important human pathogen. To study the interactions of C. parapsilosis with human tissues, we evaluated the effects of the CBS 604 type strain and three different clinical isolates on reconstituted human oral epithelial and epidermal tissues. The newly described species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis were also examined in these models. Microscopy of reconstituted tissues infected with yeast cells revealed severe attenuation, morphological changes and cellular damage. C. orthopsilosis caused damage similar to C. parapsilosis isolates, whereas C. metapsilosis was less virulent. To further quantitate tissue damage, we measured lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the culture supernatant. The relative LDH measurements correlated with our histopathological observations. We also examined the effect of the lipase inhibitor Ebelactone B and proteinase inhibitor Pepstatin A, to establish the utility of this model for studying factors of C. parapsilosis virulence. Both Ebelactone B and Pepstatin A reduced the destruction of epidermal and epithelial tissues. Our data show that reconstituted human tissues are extremely useful for modeling host interactions with C. parapsilosis and for studying fungal virulence factors.

  18. Spondylodiscitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titlic, M; Josipovic-Jelic, Z

    2008-01-01

    Spondylodiscitis is the most common complication of sepsis or local infection, usually of an abscess. Very often it develops in patients immunocompromised by a malignant disease, infection, or during immunosupression for organ transplantations etc. Presently, the basic diagnostic examinations to establish spondylodiscitis are the magnetic resonance (MRI) and biopsy, with microbiological tests. Lately, infection causes are increasingly proven by PCR method. In this paper we describe the causes of spondylodiscitis by reviewing the existing literature. The main causative organisms are staphylococci and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The causes of spondylodiscitis are assigned to a large number of bacteria, fungi, zoonoses, which is to be taken into consideration in diagnostic treatment of patients (Ref. 51). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  19. Different scenarios for Candida parapsilosis fungaemia reveal high numbers of mixed C. parapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbedo, Leonardo Silva; Vaz, Catarina; Pais, Célia; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Muniz, Mauro de Medeiros; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Sampaio, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Nosocomial fungal bloodstream infections (BSI) are increasing significantly in hospitalized patients and Candida parapsilosis has emerged as an important pathogen responsible for numerous outbreaks. The objective of this study was to evaluate C. parapsilosis sensu lato infection scenarios, regarding species distribution and strain relatedness. One hundred isolates of C. parapsilosis sensu lato derived from blood cultures and catheter tips were analysed by multiplex microsatellite typing and by sequencing D1/D2 regions of the ribosomal DNA. Our results indicate that 9.5 % of patients presented infections due to C. parapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis, 57.1 % due to C. parapsilosis, 28.3 % due to C. orthopsilosis and 4.8 % due to Candida metapsilosis. Eighty per cent of the C. parapsilosis BSIs were due to a single strain that was also identified in the catheter, but in 10 % of the cases C. parasilosis was identified in the catheter but the BSI was due to C. orthopsilosis. There is a significant probability that C. parapsilosis isolates collected from the same patient at more than 3 months interval are of different strains (P = 0.0179). Moreover, several isolates were identified persistently in the same hospital, infecting six different patients. The incidence of polyfungal BSI infections with C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis is reported herein for the first time, emphasizing the fact that the species identified in the catheter is not always responsible for the BSI, thus impacting the treatment strategy. The observation that strains can remain in the hospital environment for years highlights the possible existence of reservoirs and reinforces the need for accurate genotyping tools, such as the markers used for elucidating epidemiological associations and detecting outbreaks.

  20. Postantifungal effect of caspofungin against the Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2016-10-01

    Killing and postantifungal effects could be relevant for the selection of optimal dosing schedules. This study aims to compare time-kill and postantifungal effects with caspofungin on Candida albicans (C. albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida africana) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis) clades. In the postantifungal effect experiments, strains were exposed to caspofungin for 1 h at concentrations 0.12-8 μg/mL. Time-kill experiments were conducted at the same concentrations. Caspofungin exhibited a significant and prolonged postantifungal effect (>37 h) with 2 μg/mL against the most strains of C. albicans clade. Against the C. parapsilosis clade, the postantifungal effect was albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. metapsilosis.

  1. Pyrosequencing analysis of 20 nucleotides of internal transcribed spacer 2 discriminates Candida parapsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, and Candida orthopsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Andrew M; Linton, Christopher J; Oliver, Debra; Palmer, Michael D; Szekely, Adrien; Odds, Frank C; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2009-07-01

    Two new cryptic sister species, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, were recently identified by consistent DNA sequence differences among several genes within the genetically heterogeneous Candida parapsilosis complex. Here, we present data demonstrating that Pyrosequencing analysis of 20 nucleotides of internal transcribed spacer region 2 rapidly and robustly distinguishes between these three closely related Candida species.

  2. Evolution of mating within the Candida parapsilosis species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Sixiang; Holland, Linda M; McGee, Conor F; Lynch, Denise B; Butler, Geraldine

    2011-04-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are closely related to Candida parapsilosis, a major cause of infection in premature neonates. Mating has not been observed in these species. We show that ∼190 isolates of C. parapsilosis contain only an MTLa idiomorph at the mating-type-like locus. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the MTL loci from C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Among 16 C. orthopsilosis isolates, 9 were homozygous for MTLa, 5 were homozygous for MTLα, and 2 were MTLa/α heterozygotes. The C. orthopsilosis isolates belonged to two divergent groups, as characterized by restriction patterns at MTL, which probably represent subspecies. We sequenced both idiomorphs from each group and showed that they are 95% identical and that the regulatory genes are intact. In contrast, 18 isolates of C. metapsilosis contain only MTLα idiomorphs. Our results suggest that the role of MTL in determining cell type is being eroded in the C. parapsilosis species complex. The population structure of C. orthopsilosis indicates that mating may occur. However, expression of genes in the mating signal transduction pathway does not respond to exposure to alpha factor. C. parapsilosis is also nonresponsive, even when the GTPase-activating protein gene SST2 is deleted. In addition, splicing of introns in MTLa1 and MTLa2 is defective in C. orthopsilosis. Mating is not detected. The alpha factor peptide, which is the same sequence in C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis, can induce a mating response in Candida albicans. It is therefore likely either that mating of C. orthopsilosis takes place under certain unidentified conditions or that the mating pathway has been adapted for other functions, such as cross-species communication.

  3. Espondilodiscitis y absceso epidural candidiásico Candida spondylodiscitis and epidural abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Di Stilio

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available La espondilodiscitis candidiásica asociada a absceso epidural es una enfermedad de aparición excepcional. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con linfoma de Hodgkin en tratamiento quimioterápico que desarrolló candidiasis sistémica complicada con espondilodiscitis y absceso epidural por dicho germen.Candida spondylodiscitis associatd with epidural abscess is rarely seen. We present a patient with Hodgkin lymphoma who received chemotherapy and developed systemic Candida infection, which was complicated by Candida spondylodiscitis and epidural abscess.

  4. Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto and the closely related species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuxia; Shan, Yingying; Fan, Shangrong; Li, Jianling; Liu, Xiaoping

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics and in vitro susceptibilities of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). We analysed 63 vaginal C. parapsilosis specimens. After the molecular analyses, the isolates were characterised as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (77.8%), C. orthopsilosis (7.9%) and C. metapsilosis (14.3%). The signs and symptoms of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis sensu lato, including itching, erythema and abnormal discharge, were milder than those caused by C. albicans. None of the C. parapsilosis sensu lato isolates were resistant to fluconazole, miconazole or itraconazole. The resistance rates of C. albicans to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and clotrimazole were 2.3, 1.5, 3.1 and 0.8%, respectively. Both C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. albicans were susceptible to nystatin. The mycological eradication rate at follow-up days 7-14 and 30-35 were 77.8% (49/63) and 76.2% (48/63), respectively, when treated with various antifungal agents and regimens. We conclude that C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and the closely related species C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were present in the vaginal samples of VVC patients. The symptoms and signs of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis are milder than those caused by C. albicans. The antifungal susceptibility and therapeutic efficacy in patients colonised by C. parapsilosis sensu lato were similar to those observed in C. albicans-colonised patients.

  5. Espondilodiscitis por Candida albicans Candida albicans spondylodiscitis: Diagnosis and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Propósito: Describir los hallazgos radiológicos distintivos en resonancia magnética de las espondilodiscitis fúngicas (Candida albicans) y su importancia en el diagnóstico temprano de estas entidades. Se reporta el caso de un paciente masculino de 51 años de edad, inmunocomprometido, que consulta por fiebre y dolor lumbar. La RM con gadolinio demostró en secuencias T2 hipointensidad de la médula ósea en los cuerpos vertebrales afectados, asociados a cambios en la señal discal y realce intenso...

  6. Identification and differentiation of Candida parapsilosis complex species by use of exon-primed intron-crossing PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaobo; Wu, Zengbin; Ling, Bo; Pan, Shuming; Liao, Wanqing; Pan, Weihua; Yao, Zhirong

    2014-05-01

    The Candida parapsilosis complex is composed of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, and the closely related species Lodderomyces elongisporus. An exon-primed intron-crossing PCR assay was developed here to distinguish the members of the species complex on the basis of the distinct sizes of amplicons, and Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis were further discriminated by restriction enzyme analysis.

  7. Postantifungal Effect of Micafungin against the Species Complexes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Micafungin is an effective antifungal agent useful for the therapy of invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive candidiasis; however, infections due to non-C. albicans species, such as Candida parapsilosis, are rising. Killing and postantifungal effects (PAFE) are important factors in both dose interval choice and infection outcome. The aim of this study was to determinate the micafungin PAFE against 7 C. albicans strains, 5 Candida dubliniensis, 2 Candida Africana, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 Candida metapsilosis and 2 Candida orthopsilosis. For PAFE studies, cells were exposed to micafungin for 1 h at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 μg/ml. Time-kill experiments (TK) were conducted at the same concentrations. Samples were removed at each time point (0-48 h) and viable counts determined. Micafungin (2 μg/ml) was fungicidal (≥ 3 log10 reduction) in TK against 5 out of 14 (36%) strains of C. albicans complex. In PAFE experiments, fungicidal endpoint was achieved against 2 out of 14 strains (14%). In TK against C. parapsilosis, 8 μg/ml of micafungin turned out to be fungicidal against 4 out 7 (57%) strains. Conversely, fungicidal endpoint was not achieved in PAFE studies. PAFE results for C. albicans complex (41.83 ± 2.18 h) differed from C. parapsilosis complex (8.07 ± 4.2 h) at the highest tested concentration of micafungin. In conclusion, micafungin showed significant differences in PAFE against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complexes, being PAFE for the C. albicans complex longer than for the C. parapsilosis complex. PMID:26168269

  8. Postantifungal Effect of Micafungin against the Species Complexes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Gil-Alonso

    Full Text Available Micafungin is an effective antifungal agent useful for the therapy of invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive candidiasis; however, infections due to non-C. albicans species, such as Candida parapsilosis, are rising. Killing and postantifungal effects (PAFE are important factors in both dose interval choice and infection outcome. The aim of this study was to determinate the micafungin PAFE against 7 C. albicans strains, 5 Candida dubliniensis, 2 Candida Africana, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 Candida metapsilosis and 2 Candida orthopsilosis. For PAFE studies, cells were exposed to micafungin for 1 h at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 μg/ml. Time-kill experiments (TK were conducted at the same concentrations. Samples were removed at each time point (0-48 h and viable counts determined. Micafungin (2 μg/ml was fungicidal (≥ 3 log10 reduction in TK against 5 out of 14 (36% strains of C. albicans complex. In PAFE experiments, fungicidal endpoint was achieved against 2 out of 14 strains (14%. In TK against C. parapsilosis, 8 μg/ml of micafungin turned out to be fungicidal against 4 out 7 (57% strains. Conversely, fungicidal endpoint was not achieved in PAFE studies. PAFE results for C. albicans complex (41.83 ± 2.18 h differed from C. parapsilosis complex (8.07 ± 4.2 h at the highest tested concentration of micafungin. In conclusion, micafungin showed significant differences in PAFE against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complexes, being PAFE for the C. albicans complex longer than for the C. parapsilosis complex.

  9. Postantifungal Effect of Micafungin against the Species Complexes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Micafungin is an effective antifungal agent useful for the therapy of invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive candidiasis; however, infections due to non-C. albicans species, such as Candida parapsilosis, are rising. Killing and postantifungal effects (PAFE) are important factors in both dose interval choice and infection outcome. The aim of this study was to determinate the micafungin PAFE against 7 C. albicans strains, 5 Candida dubliniensis, 2 Candida Africana, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 Candida metapsilosis and 2 Candida orthopsilosis. For PAFE studies, cells were exposed to micafungin for 1 h at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 μg/ml. Time-kill experiments (TK) were conducted at the same concentrations. Samples were removed at each time point (0-48 h) and viable counts determined. Micafungin (2 μg/ml) was fungicidal (≥ 3 log10 reduction) in TK against 5 out of 14 (36%) strains of C. albicans complex. In PAFE experiments, fungicidal endpoint was achieved against 2 out of 14 strains (14%). In TK against C. parapsilosis, 8 μg/ml of micafungin turned out to be fungicidal against 4 out 7 (57%) strains. Conversely, fungicidal endpoint was not achieved in PAFE studies. PAFE results for C. albicans complex (41.83 ± 2.18 h) differed from C. parapsilosis complex (8.07 ± 4.2 h) at the highest tested concentration of micafungin. In conclusion, micafungin showed significant differences in PAFE against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complexes, being PAFE for the C. albicans complex longer than for the C. parapsilosis complex.

  10. Comparative phenotypic analysis of the major fungal pathogens Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Linda M; Schröder, Markus S; Turner, Siobhán A; Taff, Heather; Andes, David; Grózer, Zsuzsanna; Gácser, Attila; Ames, Lauren; Haynes, Ken; Higgins, Desmond G; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-09-01

    Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans are human fungal pathogens that belong to the CTG clade in the Saccharomycotina. In contrast to C. albicans, relatively little is known about the virulence properties of C. parapsilosis, a pathogen particularly associated with infections of premature neonates. We describe here the construction of C. parapsilosis strains carrying double allele deletions of 100 transcription factors, protein kinases and species-specific genes. Two independent deletions were constructed for each target gene. Growth in >40 conditions was tested, including carbon source, temperature, and the presence of antifungal drugs. The phenotypes were compared to C. albicans strains with deletions of orthologous transcription factors. We found that many phenotypes are shared between the two species, such as the role of Upc2 as a regulator of azole resistance, and of CAP1 in the oxidative stress response. Others are unique to one species. For example, Cph2 plays a role in the hypoxic response in C. parapsilosis but not in C. albicans. We found extensive divergence between the biofilm regulators of the two species. We identified seven transcription factors and one protein kinase that are required for biofilm development in C. parapsilosis. Only three (Efg1, Bcr1 and Ace2) have similar effects on C. albicans biofilms, whereas Cph2, Czf1, Gzf3 and Ume6 have major roles in C. parapsilosis only. Two transcription factors (Brg1 and Tec1) with well-characterized roles in biofilm formation in C. albicans do not have the same function in C. parapsilosis. We also compared the transcription profile of C. parapsilosis and C. albicans biofilms. Our analysis suggests the processes shared between the two species are predominantly metabolic, and that Cph2 and Bcr1 are major biofilm regulators in C. parapsilosis.

  11. Ambroxol influences voriconazole resistance of Candida parapsilosis biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcrano, Giovanna; Panellis, Dimitrios; De Domenico, Giovanni; Rossano, Fabio; Catania, Maria Rosaria

    2012-06-01

    The ability to form biofilm on different surfaces is typical of most Candida species. Microscopic structure and genetic aspects of fungal biofilms have been the object of many studies because of very high resistance to antimycotic agents because of the scarce permeability of the external matrix and to the alterations in cell metabolism. In our study, 31 isolates of Candida parapsilosis, isolated from bloodstream infections, were tested for their ability to produce biofilm and were found to be good producers. The susceptibility to voriconazole, assayed by colorimetrical XTT assay, revealed a very elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations for sessile cells in comparison with planktonic ones. The addition of ambroxol, a mucolytic agent, increased the susceptibility of biofilm forming cells to voriconazole. Expression of the efflux pump genes CDR and MDR was analyzed in biofilms alone or treated with ambroxol, evidencing a role of ambroxol in the expression of genes involved in azole resistance mechanisms of C. parapsilosis biofilms. In conclusion, our data seem to encourage the use of different substances in combination with classical antimycotics, with the aim of finding a solution to the increasing problem of the resistance of biofilms formed on medical devices by nonalbicans Candida species.

  12. Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis spp. nov. to replace Candida parapsilosis groups II and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavanti, Arianna; Davidson, Amanda D; Gow, Neil A R; Maiden, Martin C J; Odds, Frank C

    2005-01-01

    Two new species, Candida orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis, are proposed to replace the existing designations of C. parapsilosis groups II and III, respectively. The species C. parapsilosis is retained for group I isolates. Attempts to construct a multilocus sequence typing scheme to differentiate individual strains of C. parapsilosis instead revealed fixed DNA sequence differences between pairs of subgroups in four genes: COX3, L1A1, SADH, and SYA1. PCR amplicons for sequencing were obtained for these four plus a further seven genes from 21 group I isolates. For nine group II isolates, PCR products were obtained from only 5 of the 11 genes, and for two group III isolates PCR products were obtained from a different set of 5 genes. Three of the PCR products from group II and III isolates differed in size from the group I products. Cluster analysis of sequence polymorphisms from COX3, SADH, and SYA1, which were common to the three groups, consistently separated the isolates into three distinct sets. All of these differences, together with DNA sequence similarities orthopsilosis suggest that the former species may have evolved very recently from the latter.

  13. Caspofungin in combination with amphotericin B against Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchiesi, Francesco; Spreghini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Serena; Giannini, Daniele; Scalise, Giorgio

    2007-03-01

    Candida parapsilosis has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen. In the present study, a checkerboard broth microdilution method was performed to investigate the in vitro activities of caspofungin (CAS) in combination with amphotericin B (AMB) against three clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis. Although there was a significant reduction of the MIC of one or both drugs used in combination, an indifferent interaction (fractional inhibitory concentration index greater than 0.50 and less than or equal to 4.0) was observed in 100% of cases. This finding was confirmed by killing curve studies. By a disk diffusion assay, the halo diameters produced by antifungal agents in combination were often significantly greater than those produced by each drug alone. Antagonism was never observed. In a murine model of systemic candidiasis, CAS at either 0.25 or 1 mg/kg/day combined with AMB at 1 mg/kg/day was significantly more effective than each single drug at reducing the colony counts in kidneys. Higher doses of the echinocandin (i.e., 5 and 10 mg/kg/day) combined with the polyene did not show any advantage over CAS alone. Overall, our study showed a positive interaction of CAS and AMB against C. parapsilosis.

  14. Espondilodiscitis y absceso epidural candidiásico Candida spondylodiscitis and epidural abscess

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    La espondilodiscitis candidiásica asociada a absceso epidural es una enfermedad de aparición excepcional. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con linfoma de Hodgkin en tratamiento quimioterápico que desarrolló candidiasis sistémica complicada con espondilodiscitis y absceso epidural por dicho germen.Candida spondylodiscitis associatd with epidural abscess is rarely seen. We present a patient with Hodgkin lymphoma who received chemotherapy and developed systemic Candida infection, which was com...

  15. Molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yee-Chun; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Kuo-Wei; Lii, Joanne; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Li, Shu-Ying

    2010-11-01

    Candida parapsilosis was recently reclassified into 3 closely related species, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis. Variation in susceptibility characteristics and prevalence of the 3 genomic species could have therapeutic and epidemiologic implications. The aim of this study is to characterize the genetic and antifungal susceptibility profiles of 97 C. parapsilosis isolates from 71 patients. Among the 71 nonduplicate isolates, 85.9% (61/71) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 5.6% (4/71) as C. metapsilosis, and 8.5% (6/71) as C. orthopsilosis species based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The delineation of these 3 species is concordant with that achieved by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of BssHII restriction fragments at 75% similarity. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed that most isolates were susceptible to flucytosine, azoles, amphotericin B, and echinocandins, whereas 3 C. metapsilosis isolates from 1 patient showed resistance and susceptible-dose dependence to fluconazole. The C. metapsilosis isolates exhibited significantly higher MIC values to both fluconazole and voriconazole than those of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. orthopsilosis. On the other hand, the C. metapsilosis isolates showed significantly lower MIC values on 24 h to caspofungin than those of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. orthopsilosis. For micafungin, the isolates of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto had significantly higher MIC values on 24 h than those of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Compared to Candida albicans, mutations from proline to alanine were identified on the hot spot 1 of Fks1 in all these C. parapsilosis sensu lato isolates regardless of their MIC levels. Some of the C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates expressed the isoleucine to valine substitution on the hot spot 2 region. However, the amino acid variations in these isolates did not correlate to their MIC

  16. QUERATOPATÍA CRISTALINA ATÍPICA POR CANDIDA PARAPSILOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Martínez Chico

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Caso clínicoMujer de 91 años con antecedentes de  queratoplastia penetrante excéntrica. Un año después presentó una gran reacción inflamatoria y un infiltrado corneal de aspecto arboriforme. Se inició tratamiento con vancomicina intravenosa y vancomicina y amikacina intravítreas, tópicas e intracamerulares y se obtuvieron muestras de humor acuoso y del infiltrado corneal mediante arrastre con aguja de safil de 8/0 con resultado microbiológico positivo para Candida Parapsilosis. Se inició entonces tratamiento con voriconazol y trimetroprim-sulfametoxazol tópicos con respuesta favorable. DiscusiónEl caso que presentamos es atípico puesto que encontramos una intensa reacción inflamatoria; sin embargo tanto el aspecto biomicroscópico de la cornea, como el resultado del análisis microbiológico y la respuesta positiva al tratamiento apoyan el diagnóstico de queratopatía cristalina por Candida Parapsilosis. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE

  17. Anticandidal efficacy of cinnamon oil against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Candida parapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Regina Helena; Montanari, Lilian Bueno; Martins, Carlos Henrique G; Zaia, José Eduardo; Almeida, Ana Marisa Fusco; Matsumoto, Marcelo T; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José S

    2011-12-01

    Candida parapsilosis is yeast capable of forming biofilms on medical devices. Novel approaches for the prevention and eradication of the biofilms are desired. This study investigated the anticandidal activity of sixteen essential oils on planktonic and biofilm cultures of C. parapsilosis complex. We used molecular tools, enumeration of colony-forming units, the colourimetric MTT assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a chequerboard assay coupled with software analyses to evaluate the growth kinetics, architecture, inhibition and reduction in biofilms formed from environmental isolates of the Candida parapsilosis complex; further, we also evaluated whether essential oils would interact synergistically with amphotericin B to increase their anticandidal activities. Of the environmental C. parapsilosis isolates examined, C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis were identified. Biofilm growth on polystyrene substrates peaked within 48 h, after which growth remained relatively stable up to 72 h, when it began to decline. Details of the architectural analysis assessed by SEM showed that C. parapsilosis complex formed less complex biofilms compared with C. albicans biofilms. The most active essential oil was cinnamon oil (CO), which showed anticandidal activity against C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis in both suspension (minimum inhibitory concentration-MIC-250 and 500 μg/ml) and biofilm (minimum biofilm reduction concentration-MBRC-1,000 and 2,000 μg/ml) cultures. CO also inhibited biofilm formation (MBIC) at concentrations above 250 μg/ml for both species tested. However, synergism with amphotericin B was not observed. Thus, CO is a natural anticandidal agent that can be effectively utilised for the control of the yeasts tested.

  18. Evolution of Mating within the Candida parapsilosis Species Group▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Sai, Sixiang; Holland, Linda M.; McGee, Conor F.; Lynch, Denise B.; Butler, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are closely related to Candida parapsilosis, a major cause of infection in premature neonates. Mating has not been observed in these species. We show that ∼190 isolates of C. parapsilosis contain only an MTLa idiomorph at the mating-type-like locus. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the MTL loci from C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Among 16 C. orthopsilosis isolates, 9 were homozygous for MTLa, 5 were homozygous for MT...

  19. Different risk factors for candidemia occur for Candida species belonging to the C. parapsilosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constante, C C; Monteiro, A A; Alves, S H; Carneiro, L C; Machado, M M; Severo, L C; Park, S; Perlin, D S; Pasqualotto, A C

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated reduced virulence in the species that comprise the Candida parapsilosis complex. We investigated a cohort of 93 patients with candidemia caused by this complex. Most infections were caused by C. parapsilosis (80.6%), followed by C. orthopsilosis (18.3%) and C. metapsilosis (1.1%). Renal failure (P orthopsilosis group, suggesting an association with patients who had a greater state of immune suppression in comparison with infections caused by C. parapsilosis sensu stricto.

  20. Prospective Multicenter Study of the Epidemiology, Molecular Identification, and Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis Isolated from Patients with Candidemia ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Cantón, Emilia; Pemán, Javier; Quindós, Guillermo; Eraso, Elena; Miranda-Zapico, Ilargi; Álvarez, María; Merino, Paloma; Campos-Herrero, Isolina; Marco, Francesc; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gomez G.; Yagüe, Genoveva; Guna, Remedios; Rubio, Carmen; Miranda, Consuelo; Pazos, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    A 13-month prospective multicenter study including 44 hospitals was carried out to evaluate the epidemiology of Candida parapsilosis complex candidemia in Spain. Susceptibility to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin was tested by the microdilution colorimetric method. A total of 364 C. parapsilosis complex isolates were identified by molecular methods: C. parapsilosis (90.7%), Candida orthopsilosis (8.2...

  1. Antifungal Susceptibility Analysis of Clinical Isolates of Candida parapsilosis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensieh LOTFALI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida parapsilosis is an emergent agent of invasive fungal infections. This yeast is one of the five most widespread yeasts concerned in invasive candidiasis.C. parapsilosis stands out as the second most common yeast species isolated from patients with bloodstream infections especially in neonates with catheter.Recently several reports suggested that its reduced susceptibility to azoles and polyene might become a cause for clinical concern, although C. parapsilosis is not believed to be intensely prone to the development of antifungal resistance.Methods: In the present report, One hundred and twenty clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis complex were identified and differentiated by using PCR-RFLP analysis. The isolates were then analyzed to determine their susceptibility profile to fluconazole (FLU, itraconazole (ITC and amphotericin B. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC results were analyzed according to the standard CLSI guide.Results: All of isolates were identified as C. parapsilosis. No C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis strains were found. Evaluation of the antifungal susceptibility profile showed that only three (2.5% C. parapsilosis were resistant to fluconazole, three (2.5% C. parapsilosis were resistant to itraconazole and two (1.7% C. parapsilosis were amphotericin B resistant.Conclusion: Profiles in clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis can provide important information for the control of antifungal resistance as well as distribution and susceptibility profiles in populations. Keywords: Candida parapsilosis, Antifungal susceptibility, Resistant, Iran

  2. Characterization of the Candida parapsilosis complex in East China: species distribution differs among cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ge, Y.P.; Boekhout, T.; Zhan, P.; Lu, G.X.; Shen, Y.; Li, M.; Shao, H.F.; Liu, W.D.

    2011-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis, which was previously considered to be a complex of three genetically distinct groups, has emerged as a significant agent of nosocomial infections. Recently, this complex was separated into three species: C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. In Ch

  3. Microsatellite genotyping clarified conspicuous accumulation of Candida parapsilosis at a cardiothoracic surgery intensive care unit.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diab-Elschahawi, M.; Forstner, C.; Hagen, F.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Lassnig, A.M.; Presterl, E.; Klaassen, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis has become a significant cause of invasive fungal infections in seriously ill patients. Nosocomial outbreaks through direct and indirect contact have been described. The aim of this study was the molecular characterization of what appeared to be an ongoing C. parapsilosis outbre

  4. Candida metapsilosis as the least virulent member of the 'C. parapsilosis' complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Carlotta Francesca; Colombari, Bruna; Blasi, Elisabetta

    2010-12-01

    Results of recent molecular studies have provided evidence of three distinct species within the Candida parapsilosis complex, namely Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis. While there are initial data pertaining to the virulence of these Candida species with respect to reconstituted epidermal and oral epithelial tissues, there have been no studies, as of yet, on their interaction with immune cells. Employing an in vitro infection model using microglial cells, we investigated the pathogenetic potential of different isolates of each of these three species. We show that C. metapsilosis isolates are more susceptible to microglia-mediated antifungal activity, as compared with those of C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis. Interestingly, C. metapsilosis isolates are also phagocytosed to a lower extent, but the yeast-containing phagosomes exhibit the highest degree of acidification in comparison with the phagosomes containing C. parapsilosis or C. orthopsilosis. Furthermore, when assessing microglia secretory response to infection, comparable high levels of MIP-1α and little or no TNF-α production are observed with all of these Candida species. Finally, unlike C. metapsilosis infected cells, microglial cells infected with C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis release high and time-dependent levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Overall, these findings point to C. metapsilosis as the least virulent member of the 'C. parapsilosis' complex.

  5. The calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporin A exhibits synergism with antifungals against Candida parapsilosis species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Macedo, Ramila de Brito; Teixeira, Carlos Eduardo Cordeiro; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2014-07-01

    Candida parapsilosis complex comprises three closely related species, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis. In the last decade, antifungal resistance to azoles and caspofungin among C. parapsilosis sensu lato strains has been considered a matter of concern worldwide. In the present study, we evaluated the synergistic potential of antifungals and the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporin A (Cys) against planktonic and biofilms of C. parapsilosis complex from clinical sources. Susceptibility assays with amphotericin, fluconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin and Cys were performed by microdilution in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Synergy testing against planktonic cells of C. parapsilosis sensu lato strains was assessed by the chequerboard method. Combinations formed by antifungals with Cys were evaluated against mature biofilms in microtitre plates. No differences in the antifungal susceptibility pattern among species were observed, but C. parapsilosis sensu stricto strains were more susceptible to Cys than C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Synergism between antifungals and Cys was observed in C. parapsilosis sensu lato strains. Combinations formed by antifungals and Cys were able to prevent biofilm formation and showed an inhibitory effect against mature biofilms of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis. These results strengthen the potential of calcineurin inhibition as a promising approach to enhance the efficiency of antifungal drugs.

  6. Differential sensitivity of the species of Candida parapsilosis sensu lato complex against statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szenzenstein, Judit; Gácser, Attila; Grózer, Zsuzsanna; Farkas, Zoltán; Nagy, Katalin; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Márki-Zay, János; Pfeiffer, Ilona

    2013-10-01

    Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are human fungal pathogens with clinical importance. The recently reclassified three closely related species have significant variation in virulence, clinical prevalence and susceptibility characteristics to different antifungal compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro activity of atorvastatin and fluvastatin against C. metapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis. Susceptibility tests showed that C. parapsilosis was the most sensitive while C. orthopsilosis was the least susceptible species to both drugs. On the basis of the differential sensitivity, we developed a simple, reliable and highly cost-effective plate assay to distinguish these closely related species. Applying this method, 54 isolates belonging to the C. parapsilosis sensu lato complex deposited in Szeged Microbial Collection could be sorted into the three species with 100 % probability.

  7. Aspartyl proteinase, phospholipase, esterase and hemolysin activities of clinical isolates of the Candida parapsilosis species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño-Rangel, Rogelio de J; González, J Gerardo; González, Gloria M

    2013-04-01

    Candida parapsilosis is considered as an important emerging fungal pathogen and was recently found to be a complex that include three species, i.e., Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro aspartyl proteinase, phospholipase, esterase and hemolysin activities of 65 clinical isolates of the C. parapsilosis complex, which had been previously identified by RFLP-BanI analysis. Of the enzymes evaluated, aspartyl proteinase was the least produced by the C. parapsilosis species complex. Phospholipase and esterase were strongly expressed by C. orthopsilosis (67% of isolates), while 10% and 13% of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates were strong producers, respectively, of these two enzymes. In contrast, high production of both enzymes was not detected in C. metapsilosis. Hemolysin activity was significantly more abundant in C. orthopsilosis (87%) than C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (67%). Overall, C. orthopsilosis isolates were statistically associated with the production of hemolysins (P= 0.048) and phospholipases (Porthopsilosis and 20% of C. metapsilosis.

  8. Antifungal Susceptibility Analysis of Clinical Isolates of Candida parapsilosis in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOTFALI, Ensieh; KORDBACHEH, Parivash; MIRHENDI, Hossein; ZAINI, Farideh; GHAJARI, Ali; MOHAMMADI, Rasoul; NOORBAKHSH, Fatemeh; MOAZENI, Maryam; FALLAHI, Aliakbar; REZAIE, Sassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Candida parapsilosis is an emergent agent of invasive fungal infections. This yeast is one of the five most widespread yeasts concerned in invasive candidiasis. C. parapsilosis stands out as the second most common yeast species isolated from patients with bloodstream infections especially in neonates with catheter. Recently several reports suggested that its reduced susceptibility to azoles and polyene might become a cause for clinical concern, although C. parapsilosis is not believed to be intensely prone to the development of antifungal resistance. Methods: In the present report, One hundred and twenty clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis complex were identified and differentiated by using PCR-RFLP analysis. The isolates were then analyzed to determine their susceptibility profile to fluconazole (FLU), itraconazole (ITC) and amphotericin B. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results were analyzed according to the standard CLSI guide. Results: All of isolates were identified as C. parapsilosis. No C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis strains were found. Evaluation of the antifungal susceptibility profile showed that only three (2.5%) C. parapsilosis were resistant to fluconazole, three (2.5%) C. parapsilosis were resistant to itraconazole and two (1.7%) C. parapsilosis were amphotericin B resistant. Conclusion: Profiles in clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis can provide important information for the control of antifungal resistance as well as distribution and susceptibility profiles in populations. PMID:27141494

  9. Effectiveness of disinfectants used in hemodialysis against both Candida orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis sensu stricto biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Regina Helena; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; Gomes Martins, Carlos Henrique; Fusco Almeida, Ana Marisa; Pienna Soares, Christiane; Soares Mendes-Giannini, Maria José

    2013-05-01

    Biofilms have been observed in the fluid pathways of hemodialysis machines. The impacts of four biocides used for the disinfection of hemodialysis systems were tested against Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto and Candida orthopsilosis biofilms generated by isolates obtained from a hydraulic circuit that were collected in a hemodialysis unit. Acetic acid was shown to be the most effective agent against Candida biofilms. Strategies for effective disinfection procedures used for hemodialysis systems should also seek to kill and inhibit biofilms.

  10. Antifungal susceptibility and virulence attributes of animal-derived isolates of Candida parapsilosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; de Jesus Santos Rodrigues, Terezinha; de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Débora; Teixeira, Carlos Eduardo Cordeiro; de Brito Macedo, Ramila; Bandeira, Silviane Praciano; Pereira de Alencar, Lucas; Monteiro, André Jalles; de Aguiar Cordeiro, Rossana; de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes Bandeira, Tereza; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to identify strains of the Candida parapsilosis complex isolated from animals, as well as to assess their in vitro antifungal susceptibility profile and in vitro production of virulence attributes. We used 28 isolates of C. parapsilosis sensu lato recovered from clinically healthy animals. The strains were characterized phenotypically, followed by molecular identification of the species through PCR-restriction enzyme analysis. The susceptibility of the strains to amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole and caspofungin was assessed through broth microdilution. Additionally, the ability of the strains to produce biofilm, phospholipases and proteases was analysed. Molecular analysis showed 13 C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 10 Candida orthopsilosis and five Candida metapsilosis strains. In vitro resistance to fluconazole was observed in three strains of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and two C. metapsilosis. All tested strains were able to form biofilms and 23/28 isolates presented protease production, whilst none was able to produce phospholipases. Our study showed that C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. orthopsilosis are the most common species of the C. parapsilosis species complex and that these cryptic species present no significant phenotypical differences.

  11. Protection of Candida parapsilosis from neutrophil killing through internalization by human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Kyle A; Longley, Sarah J; Bliss, Joseph M; Shaw, Sunil K

    2015-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is a fungal pathogen that is associated with hematogenously disseminated disease in premature neonates, acutely ill or immunocompromised patients. In cell culture, C. parapsilosis cells are actively and avidly endocytosed by endothelial cells via actin polymerization mediated by N-WASP. Here we present evidence that C. parapsilosis that were internalized by endothelial cells remained alive, and avoided being acidified or otherwise damaged via the host cell. Internalized fungal cells reproduced intracellularly and eventually burst out of the host endothelial cell. When neutrophils were added to endothelium and C. parapsilosis, they patrolled the endothelial surface and efficiently killed most adherent fungal cells prior to endocytosis. But after endocytosis by endothelial cells, internalized fungal cells evaded neutrophil killing. Silencing endothelial N-WASP blocked endocytosis of C. parapsilosis and left fungal cells stranded on the cell surface, where they were susceptible to neutrophil killing. These observations suggest that for C. parapsilosis to escape from the bloodstream, fungi may adhere to and be internalized by endothelial cells before being confronted and phagocytosed by a patrolling leukocyte. Once internalized by endothelial cells, C. parapsilosis may safely replicate to cause further rounds of infection. Immunosurveillance of the intravascular lumen by leukocytes crawling on the endothelial surface and rapid killing of adherent yeast may play a major role in controlling C. parapsilosis dissemination and infected endothelial cells may be a significant reservoir for fungal persistence.

  12. Molecular investigation of a fungemia outbreak due to Candida parapsilosis in an intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Dizbay

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated a nosocomial cluster of four Candida parapsilosis fungemia episodes that occurred in a neurological intensive care unit over a two-week period. The four infected patients had received parenteral nutrition through central lines, and all four had catheter-related candidemia. All of the isolates were susceptible to all of the antifungals tested, including amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin. They had strictly related fingerprints, based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Additional DNA sequencing data revealed that they were same strain. Although no isolate of Candida parapsilosis was recovered from other clinical, surveillance, or environmental samples, nosocomial spread of this yeast ceased, following the reinforcement of infection-control measures. Candida parapsilosis may require an intravascular foreign body to cause fungemia, but this outbreak shows that it can be transmitted nosocomially and can cause epidemics.

  13. Kinetic studies of Candida parapsilosis phagocytosis by macrophages and detection of intracellular survival mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata eToth

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Even though the number of Candida infections due to non-albicans species like C. parapsilosis has been increasing, little is known about their pathomechanisms. Certain aspects of C. parapsilosis and host interactions have already been investigated; however we lack information about the innate cellular responses towards this species. The aim of our project was to dissect and compare the phagocytosis of C. parapsilosis to C. albicans and to another Candida species C. glabrata by murine and human macrophages by live cell video microscopy. We broke down the phagocytic process into three stages: macrophage migration, engulfment of fungal cells and host cell killing after the uptake. Our results showed increased macrophage migration towards C. parapsilosis and we observed differences during the engulfment processes when comparing the three species. The engulfment time of C. parapsilosis was comparable to that of C. albicans regardless of the pseudohypha length and spatial orientation relative to phagocytes, while the rate of host cell killing and the overall uptake regarding C. parapsilosis showed similarities mainly with C. glabrata. Furthermore, we observed difference between human and murine phagocytes in the uptake of C. parapsilosis. UV-treatment of fungal cells had varied effects on phagocytosis dependent upon which Candida strain was used. Besides statistical analysis, live cell imaging videos showed that this species similarly to the other two also has the ability to survive in host cells via the following mechanisms: yeast replication, and pseudohypha growth inside of phagocytes, exocytosis of fungal cells and also abortion of host cell mitosis following the uptake. According to our knowledge this is the first study that provides a thorough examination of C. parapsilosis phagocytosis and reports intracellular survival mechanisms associated with this species.

  14. Rapid molecular differentiation and genotypic heterogeneity among Candida parapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis strains isolated from clinical specimens in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadzadeh, Mohammad; Ahmad, Suhail; Al-Sweih, Noura; Khan, Zia U

    2009-06-01

    Recent molecular studies have led to the recognition of three distinct species within the Candida parapsilosis complex, namely Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis. As currently available yeast identification systems fail to differentiate these species, there is a paucity of information on their occurrence in different geographical regions. This study describes a simple PCR-based protocol for rapid discrimination among C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis strains by using primers derived from unique sequences within the internally transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8 rRNA-ITS2 region. Retrospective analysis of 114 C. parapsilosis-complex isolates recovered from clinical specimens in Kuwait identified 109 as C. parapsilosis, five as C. orthopsilosis and none as C. metapsilosis. The results were further validated by PCR-RFLP patterns of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase gene fragment. DNA sequencing of the ITS region and the D1/D2 regions of the 28S rRNA gene confirmed the species-specific identification of all five C. orthopsilosis strains. The amplicon length of the intergenic spacer between the 28S and 5S rRNA genes (IGS1) was also species-specific, and PCR-RFLP analyses of the IGS1 region identified two distinct genotypes among the five C. orthopsilosis strains, which corresponded with the ITS region sequence data. The three bloodstream C. orthopsilosis strains were confined to a single genotype. Among 81 randomly selected C. parapsilosis strains, two genotypes were detected by IGS1 region analyses, indicating limited genotypic heterogeneity among C. parapsilosis sensu stricto strains. As far as is known, this is the first report on the identification of C. orthopsilosis from a bloodstream infection in the Arabian Gulf region.

  15. Distribution, virulence attributes and antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida parapsilosis complex strains isolated from clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Ilknur; Akyuz, Zeynep; Guler, Nejla Cebeci; Gulmez, Dolunay; Bayramoglu, Gulcin; Kaklikkaya, Nese; Arikan-Akdagli, Sevtap; Aydin, Faruk

    2013-07-01

    It was recently proposed that Candida parapsilosis represents a complex composed of three closely related species, i.e., C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of C. parapsilosis complex isolates among clinical samples. We also evaluated antifungal susceptibility profiles, in vitro presence of lipase and secreted aspartyl proteinase, as well as their ability to grow in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solution, and biofilm production. A total of 413 non-C. albicans Candida isolates were obtained from various clinical samples between 2010 and 2011 in a Turkish Tertiary Care Hospital. Of them, 42 were identified as members of the C. parapsilosis complex. Among these, 38 (90.5%) were C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 3 (7.1%) C. metapsilosis, and 1 (2.4%) C. orthopsilosis. All isolates recovered from blood were found to be C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. metapsilosis. In phenotypic tests, all 42 isolates grew in TPN solution and, although 26.2% of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto-isolates were capable of forming biofilms in vitro, neither C. orthopsilosis nor C. metapsilosis isolates were able to do so. Acid proteinase activity was detected in 31% of isolates and lipase activity in 33%. All isolates were sensitive to voriconazole, caspofungin, and anidulafungin, with only a single C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolate showing dose-dependent susceptible to fluconazole. While the number of C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis isolates remained low, there were no significant differences in antifungal MIC as compared to C. parapsilosis sensu stricto.

  16. Molecular characterization of Italian Candida parapsilosis isolates reveals the cryptic presence of the newly described species Candida orthopsilosis in blood cultures from newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Orazio; Delfino, Demetrio; Costanzo, Barbara; Cascio, Antonio; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    The authors report the molecular characterization of Candida parapsilosis isolates recovered from the blood and venous central catheter tips of patients admitted to different care units of the Polyclinic Hospital, University of Messina, Italy. Among 97 presumed C. parapsilosis isolates examined, 94 were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and the remaining 3 isolates were found to belong to the cryptic species Candida orthopsilosis which was recovered only from blood cultures of neonates (orthopsilosis in newborns.

  17. Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis virulence in the non-conventional host Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago, Sara; García-Rodas, Rocío; Cuesta, Isabel; Mellado, Emilia; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana

    2014-02-15

    The incidence of fungal infections due to C. parapsilosis and closely related cryptic species (-psilosis complex) has increased in the last few years, but differences in virulence among these species have not been widely studied. Fifteen clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis, including the type strains, were used to evaluate their virulence in Galleria mellonella larvae. Fluctuations in the hemocyte density and in the phagocytic activity were also tested. Differences in the median survival for these species were demonstrated at 37 °C (2.6 ± 1.02, 2.3 ± 0.92, and 4.53 ± 1.65 d for C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis, respectively). Galleria mellonella hemocytes phagocytosed C. metapsilosis strains more effectively than did for C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis (Porthopsilosis (Porthopsilosis (P<0.05). Moreover, in vitro studies of virulence factors such as pseudohyphae production and hydrolytic enzyme secretion showed that the capability of C. metapsilosis strains to produce those virulence factors was reduced. Infections due to -psilosis complex species produced tissue damage in G. mellonella and pseudohyphae could be also observed during infection with C. parapsilosis.

  18. Characterization of Candida parapsilosis complex strains isolated from invasive fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, E; Sciota, R; Iatta, R; Biassoni, C; Montagna, M T; Morace, G

    2011-11-01

    In the present work, we studied the distribution of Candida parapsilosis complex species and the antifungal susceptibility of clinical isolates collected during an Italian surveillance study of yeast invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in intensive care units (ICUs). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference broth microdilution method. BanI digestion patterns of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were used to identify C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. A total of 138 C. parapsilosis isolates were stored (January 2007-December 2008). The overall frequency of C. parapsilosis complex in IFIs was 22%. Of the 138 tested isolates, 95% were C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 3.6% were C. orthopsilosis, and 1.4% were C. metapsilosis. The MIC(50) values (expressed as μg/ml) for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin for C. parapsilosis complex were 2, 1, and 2, respectively, and the MIC(90) values were 4, 2, and 4, respectively. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) values for itraconazole and posaconazole were 0.12 and 0.25, respectively, and for fluconazole, they were 1 and 4, respectively. This study, the most comprehensive study conducted to date to evaluate the frequency and antifungal susceptibility profiles of C. parapsilosis complex isolates from critically ill patients in Italy, highlights the low prevalence of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis in IFIs.

  19. Molecular differentiation and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida parapsilosis isolated from patients with bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Sun Tee; Na, Shiang Ling; Chong, Jennifer

    2009-02-01

    The genetic heterogeneity and antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida parapsilosis isolated from blood cultures of patients were investigated in this study. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis generated 5 unique profiles from 42 isolates. Based on the major DNA fragments of the RAPD profiles, the isolates were identified as RAPD type P1 (29 isolates), P2 (6 isolates), P3 (4 isolates), P4 (2 isolates) and P5 (1 isolate). Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene of the isolates identified RAPD type P1 as C. parapsilosis, P2 and P3 as Candida orthopsilosis, P4 as Candida metapsilosis, and P5 as Lodderomyces elongisporus. Nucleotide variations in ITS gene sequences of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were detected. Antifungal susceptibility testing using Etests showed that all isolates tested in this study were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole. C. parapsilosis isolates exhibited higher MIC(50) values than those of C. orthopsilosis for all of the drugs tested in this study; however, no significant difference in the MICs for these two Candida species was observed. The fact that C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were responsible for 23.8 and 4.8 % of the cases attributed to C. parapsilosis bloodstream infections, respectively, indicates the clinical relevance of these newly described yeasts. Further investigations of the ecological niche, mode of transmission and virulence of these species are thus essential.

  20. Complete DNA sequence of the linear mitochondrial genome of the pathogenic yeast Candida parapsilosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nosek, J.; Novotna, M.; Hlavatovicova, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the opportunistic yeast pathogen Candida parapsilosis was determined. The mitochondrial genome is represented by linear DNA molecules terminating with tandem repeats of a 738-bp unit. The number of repeats varies, thus generating a population...

  1. In vitro efficacy of 5 antifungal agents against Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis as determined by time-kill methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Szabó Zsuzsanna (1973-) (biológus, biológia-kémia szakos középiskolai tanár); Szilágyi Judit (1984-) (környezettudományi vegyész); Tavanti, Ariana; Kardos Gábor (1974-) (szakorvos, klinikai mikrobiológus); Rozgonyi Ferenc; Bayegan, Sedigh (1980-) (népegészségügyi szakember, egészségfejlesztő); Majoros László (1966-) (szakorvos, klinikai mikrobológus)

    2009-01-01

    Killing activity of amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and 5-fluorocytosine was determined against 6 Candida parapsilosis, 3 Candida orthopsilosis, and 4 Candida metapsilosis clinical isolates. After 24 h, 1 of 6 C. parapsilosis, 1 of 3 C. orthopsilosis, and 3 of 4 C. metapsilosis isolates were killed at 1 to 4 ?g/mL (1?8? MIC) amphotericin B. The remaining isolates were killed by 2 to 4 ?g/mL amphotericin B after 48 h. Fluconazole was fungistatic at ?1? MIC (0....

  2. Characterization of biofilms formed by Candida parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattif, Ali Abdul; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Chandra, Jyotsna; Swindell, Kim; Lockhart, Shawn R; Diekema, Daniel J; Pfaller, Michael A; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

    2010-04-01

    Infections due to Candida parapsilosis have been associated with the ability of this fungus to form biofilms on indwelling medical devices. Recently, C. parapsilosis isolates were reclassified into 3 genetically non-identical classes: C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. Little information is available regarding the ability of these newly reclassified species to form biofilms on biomedical substrates. In this study, we characterized biofilm formation by 10 clinical isolates each of C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. Biofilms were allowed to form on silicone elastomer discs to early (6h) or mature (48 h) phases and quantified by tetrazolium (XTT) and dry weight assays. Surface topography and three-dimensional architecture of the biofilms were visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), respectively. Metabolic activity assay revealed strain-dependent biofilm forming ability of the 3 species tested, while biomass determination revealed that all 3 species formed equivalent biofilms (P>0.05 for all comparisons). SEM analyses of representative isolates of these species showed biofilms with clusters of yeast cells adherent to the catheter surface. Additionally, confocal microscopy analyses showed the presence of cells embedded in biofilms ranging in thickness between 62 and 85 microm. These results demonstrate that similar to C. parapsilosis, the 2 newly identified Candida species (C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis) were able to form biofilms.

  3. Prospective multicenter study of the epidemiology, molecular identification, and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis isolated from patients with candidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Emilia; Pemán, Javier; Quindós, Guillermo; Eraso, Elena; Miranda-Zapico, Ilargi; Álvarez, María; Merino, Paloma; Campos-Herrero, Isolina; Marco, Francesc; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gomez G; Yagüe, Genoveva; Guna, Remedios; Rubio, Carmen; Miranda, Consuelo; Pazos, Carmen; Velasco, David

    2011-12-01

    A 13-month prospective multicenter study including 44 hospitals was carried out to evaluate the epidemiology of Candida parapsilosis complex candidemia in Spain. Susceptibility to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin was tested by the microdilution colorimetric method. A total of 364 C. parapsilosis complex isolates were identified by molecular methods: C. parapsilosis (90.7%), Candida orthopsilosis (8.2%), and Candida metapsilosis (1.1%). Most candidemias (C. parapsilosis, 76.4%; C. orthopsilosis, 70.0%; C. metapsilosis, 100%) were observed in adults. No C. orthopsilosis or C. metapsilosis candidemias occurred in neonates. C. parapsilosis was most frequent in adult intensive care unit (28.8%), surgery (20.9%), and internal medicine (19.7%) departments; and C. orthopsilosis was most frequent in hematology (28.6%), pediatrics (12.0%), and neonatology (11.5%) departments. The geographic distribution of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis was not uniform. According to CLSI clinical breakpoints, all C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates were susceptible to the nine agents tested. Resistance (MICs > 1 mg/liter) was observed only in C. parapsilosis: amphotericin B, posaconazole, itraconazole, and caspofungin (0.3% each), anidulafungin (1.9%), and micafungin (2.5%). Applying the new species-specific fluconazole and echinocandin breakpoints, the rates of resistance to fluconazole for C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis increased to 4.8% and 0.3%, respectively; conversely, for C. parapsilosis they shifted from 1.9 to 0.6% (anidulafungin) and from 2.5 to 0.6% (micafungin). Our study confirms the different prevalence of C. parapsilosis complex candidemia among age groups: neither C. orthopsilosis nor C. metapsilosis was isolated from neonates; interestingly, C. metapsilosis was isolated only from adults and the elderly. The disparity in antifungal susceptibility among species

  4. Species Distribution, Virulence Factors, and Antifungal Susceptibility Among Candida parapsilosis Complex Isolates Recovered from Clinical Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Beatriz Virgínia; Silva, Larissa Beatriz; de Oliveira, Diego Batista Carneiro; da Silva, Paulo Roberto; Ferreira-Paim, Kennio; Andrade-Silva, Leonardo Euripides; Silva-Vergara, Mario León; Andrade, Anderson Assunção

    2015-12-01

    The Candida parapsilosis complex has emerged as an important fungal pathogen. In spite of this, relatively little is known about its characteristics. Thus, the purposes of this study were (1) to determine by BanI-RFLP-assay the occurrence of C. parapsilosis complex species among 81 clinical isolates primarily identified as C. parapsilosis; (2) to evaluate their in vitro production of virulence factors; and (3) to compare their susceptibility profiles, grown as planktonic cells and biofilms, against amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin by following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Seventy-seven isolates (95%) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 2 (2.5%) as C. orthopsilosis, and 2 (2.5%) as C. metapsilosis. Protease activity was detected in 29 (37.7%) isolates of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, whereas only 7 (9.1%) exhibited phospholipase activity. None of the C. metapsilosis or C. orthopsilosis was able to produce protease or phospholipase. Biofilm production was detected in 35 (43.2%) isolates, among which 33 were C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and 2 were C. orthopsilosis. Antifungal resistance was uncommon; only one C. metapsilosis was fluconazole resistant. However, biofilm-producing isolates showed a marked resistance to all antifungal agents tested, particularly to voriconazole. This knowledge could be of clinical relevance for guiding therapeutic decisions.

  5. Characterization of the Candida parapsilosis complex in East China: species distribution differs among cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yi P; Boekhout, Teun; Zhan, Ping; Lu, Gui X; Shen, Yong N; Li, Min; Shao, Hai F; Liu, Wei D

    2012-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis, which was previously considered to be a complex of three genetically distinct groups, has emerged as a significant agent of nosocomial infections. Recently, this complex was separated into three species: C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. In China, data pertaining to these fungi are limited. In this study, we examined 57 isolates of members of the C. parapsilosis complex collected from four cities in East China, i.e., Nanjing (n = 22), Nanchang (n = 20), Shanghai (n = 12) and Jinan (n = 3). C. parapsilosis sensu stricto represented 71.9% of all isolates, while C. metapsilosis accounted for the remaining 28.1%. C. orthopsilosis could not be identified. A significantly high prevalence of C. metapsilosis was observed in strains recovered from Nanchang, 60% (12/20) of the isolates were C. metapsilosis. Sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer region revealed two unevenly distributed genotypes among the C. metapsilosis strains. A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was described for rapid identification. The strains were susceptible to fluconazole, voriconazole, amphoterincin B and micafungin. Six (15%) isolates of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and three (18.8%) of C. metapsilosis were found to be dose-dependent susceptible to itraconazole. C. parapsilosis sensu stricto strains were less susceptible to micafungin than C. metapsilosis.

  6. Members of the Candida parapsilosis Complex and Candida albicans are Differentially Recognized by Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Mata, Eine; Navarro-Arias, María J; Pérez-García, Luis A; Mellado-Mojica, Erika; López, Mercedes G; Csonka, Katalin; Gacser, Attila; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2015-01-01

    The systemic infections caused by members of the Candida parapsilosis complex are currently associated to high morbility and mortality rates, and are considered as relevant as those caused by Candida albicans. Since the fungal cell wall is the first point of contact with the host cells, here we performed a comparison of this organelle in members of the C. parapsilosis complex, and its relevance during interaction with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We found that the wall of the C. parapsilosis complex members is similar in composition, but differs to that from C. albicans, with less mannan content and more β-glucan and porosity levels. Furthermore, lectin-based analysis showed increased chitin and β1,3-glucan exposure at the surface of C. parapsilosis sensu lato when compared to C. albicans. Yeast cells of members of the C. parapsilosis complex stimulated more cytokine production by human PBMCs than C. albicans cells; and this significantly changed upon removal of O-linked mannans, indicating this wall component plays a significant role in cytokine stimulation by C. parapsilosis sensu lato. When inner wall components were exposed on the wall surface, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. metapsilosis, but not C. orthopsilosis, stimulated higher cytokine production. Moreover, we found a strong dependency on β1,3-glucan recognition for the members of the C. parapsilosis complex, but not for live C. albicans cells; whereas TLR4 was required for TNFα production by the three members of the complex, and stimulation of IL-6 by C. orthopsilosis. Mannose receptor had a significant role during TNFα and IL-1β stimulation by members of the complex. Finally, we demonstrated that purified N- and O-mannans from either C. parapsilosis sensu lato or C. albicans are capable to block the recognition of these pathogens by human PBMCs. Together; our results suggest that the innate immune recognition of the members of the C. parapsilosis complex is differential

  7. Members of the Candida parapsilosis complex and Candida albicans are differentially recognized by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eine eEstrada-Mata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The systemic infections caused by members of the Candida parapsilosis complex are currently associated to high mobility and mortality rates, and are considered as relevant as those caused by Candida albicans. Since the fungal cell wall is the first point of contact with the host cells, here we performed a comparison of this organelle in members of the C. parapsilosis complex, and its relevance during interaction with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We found that the wall of the C. parapsilosis complex members is similar in composition, but differs to that from C. albicans, with less mannan content and more β-glucan and porosity levels. Furthermore, lectin-based analysis showed increased chitin and β1,3-glucan exposure at the surface of C. parapsilosis sensu lato when compared to C. albicans. Yeast cells of members of the C. parapsilosis complex stimulated more cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells than C. albicans cells; and this significantly changed upon removal of O-linked mannans, indicating this wall component plays a significant role in cytokine stimulation by C. parapsilosis sensu lato. When inner wall components were exposed on the wall surface, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. metapsilosis, but not C. orthopsilosis, stimulated higher cytokine production. Moreover, we found a strong dependency on β1,3-glucan recognition for the members of the C. parapsilosis complex, but not for live C. albicans cells; whereas TLR4 was required for TNFα production by the three members of the complex, and stimulation of IL-6 by C. orthopsilosis. Mannose receptor had a significant role during TNF and IL-1β stimulation by members of the complex. Finally, we demonstrated that purified N- and O-mannans from either C. parapsilosis sensu lato or C. albicans are capable to block the recognition of these pathogens by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Together; our results suggest that the innate immune

  8. Prevalence and distribution profiles of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis responsible for superficial candidiasis in a Chinese university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaobo; Ling, Bo; Yang, Guimei; Yu, Xia; Ren, Daming; Yao, Zhirong

    2012-04-01

    The Candida parapsilosis complex consists of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Recently, many studies described the prevalence of this species complex mainly in invasive candidiasis. Additionally, data showed that these three species are different in virulence and in vitro drug susceptibility. However, to our knowledge, the prevalence and distribution of the species complex in superficial candidiasis is not very clear to date. In this study, 2,128 Candida isolates from specimens of superficial candidiasis were collected over a 1-year period. Combination of routine and molecular tools, a total of 214 samples were identified to be positive for the C. parapsilosis complex (10.1%), of which 198 (92.5%) were monofungal and 16 (7.5%) were polyfungal. Among the 198 monofungal isolates, 191 (96.5%) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 5 (2.5%) as C. metapsilosis, and 2 (1.0%) as C. orthopsilosis species based on the molecular method. All C. parapsilosis complex isolates from the 16 polyfungal populations were found to be C. parapsilosis sensu stricto. Further analysis showed that the distribution profiles of the C. parapsilosis complex in adult patients were different from that in pediatric patients, and the prevalence rate of it varied greatly by sites of isolation. This study provides insight into the epidemiology of the species complex in superficial candidiasis.

  9. Prevalence rates and antifungal susceptibility profiles of the Candida parapsilosis species complex: results from a nationwide surveillance of candidaemia in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalves, S. S. [UNIFESP; Amorim, C. S.; M. Nucci; Padovan, Ana Carolina Barbosa [UNIFESP; Briones, Marcelo Ribeiro da Silva; Melo, A. S. A.; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2010-01-01

    P>The genetically heterogeneous taxon Candida parapsilosis was recently reclassified into three species: Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis. the prevalences of these species among 141 bloodstream isolates tested in Brazil were 88% for C. parapsilosis, 9% for C. orthopsilosis, and 3% for C. metapsilosis. Except for three C. orthopsilosis isolates that were considered resistant to 5-flucytosine, all isolates representing the different species of this complex we...

  10. Prevalence rates and antifungal susceptibility profiles of the Candida parapsilosis species complex: results from a nationwide surveillance of candidaemia in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, S S; Amorim, C S; Nucci, M; Padovan, A C B; Briones, M R S; Melo, A S A; Colombo, A L

    2010-07-01

    The genetically heterogeneous taxon Candida parapsilosis was recently reclassified into three species: Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis. The prevalences of these species among 141 bloodstream isolates tested in Brazil were 88% for C. parapsilosis, 9% for C. orthopsilosis, and 3% for C. metapsilosis. Except for three C. orthopsilosis isolates that were considered resistant to 5-flucytosine, all isolates representing the different species of this complex were susceptible to polyenes, triazoles and caspofungin.

  11. Prevalence, distribution, and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana P; Miranda, Isabel M; Lisboa, Carmen; Pina-Vaz, Cidália; Rodrigues, Acácio G

    2009-08-01

    Candida parapsilosis, an emergent agent of nosocomial infections, was previously made up of a complex of three genetically distinct groups (groups I, II, and III). Recently, the C. parapsilosis groups have been renamed as distinct species: C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. In Portugal, no data pertaining to the distribution and antifungal susceptibility of these Candida species are yet available. In the present report, we describe the incidence and distribution of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis among 175 clinical and environmental isolates previously identified by conventional methods as C. parapsilosis. We also evaluated the in vitro susceptibilities of the isolates to fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B, and two echinocandins, caspofungin and anidulafungin. Of the 175 isolates tested, 160 (91.4%) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 4 (2.3%) were identified as C. orthopsilosis, and 5 (2.9%) were identified as C. metapsilosis. Six isolates corresponded to species other than the C. parapsilosis group. Interestingly, all isolates from blood cultures corresponded to C. parapsilosis sensu stricto. Evaluation of the antifungal susceptibility profile showed that only nine (5.6%) C. parapsilosis sensu stricto strains were susceptible-dose dependent or resistant to fluconazole, and a single strain displayed a multiazole-resistant phenotype; two (1.3%) C. parapsilosis sensu stricto strains were amphotericin B resistant. All C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates were susceptible to azoles and amphotericin B. A high number of strains were nonsusceptible to the echinocandins (caspofungin and anidulafungin).

  12. Geographic distribution and antifungal susceptibility of the newly described species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in comparison to the closely related species Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Shawn R; Messer, Shawn A; Pfaller, Michael A; Diekema, Daniel J

    2008-08-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species, having previously been grouped with the more prevalent species Candida parapsilosis. Current literature contains very little data pertaining to the distributions and antifungal susceptibilities of these Candida species. We determined the species and antifungal susceptibilities of 1,929 invasive clinical isolates from the ARTEMIS antifungal surveillance program collected between 2001 and 2006 and identified as C. parapsilosis using Vitek and conventional methods. Of the 1,929 isolates of presumed C. parapsilosis tested, 117 (6.1%) were identified as C. orthopsilosis and 34 (1.8%) as C. metapsilosis. The percentage of presumed C. parapsilosis isolates found to be C. orthopsilosis varied greatly by region, with the highest percentage (10.9%) from South America and the lowest (0.7%) from Africa. The MIC distributions of the C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates were statistically significantly lower than those of C. parapsilosis for all drugs except fluconazole, for which they were significantly higher (P orthopsilosis or C. metapsilosis isolates were fluconazole resistant, and all were susceptible to caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin.

  13. The differences in the isoelectric points of biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative Candida parapsilosis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Filip; Horka, Marie; Hola, Veronika; Kubesova, Anna; Pavlik, Tomas; Votava, Miroslav

    2010-03-01

    The isoelectric points of 39 Candida parapsilosis strains were determined by means of capillary isoelectric focusing. The value of the isoelectric point corresponded well with cell surface hydrophobicity, as well as with the ability to form biofilm in these yeasts.

  14. Micafungin triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis in Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis biofilms, including caspofungin non-susceptible isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, F; Kontoyiannis, D P

    2015-01-01

    Candida biofilms play an important role in infections associated with medical devices and are resistant to antifungals. We hypothesized that the echinocandin micafungin (MICA) exerts an enhanced antifungal activity against caspofungin (CAS)-susceptible (CAS-S) and CAS-non-susceptible (CAS-NS) Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis which is at least in part through apoptosis, even in the biofilm environment. Apoptosis was characterized by detecting reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation, lack of plasma membrane integrity, and metacaspase activation following exposure of Candida biofilm to MICA for 3h at 37°C in RPMI 1640 medium. The minimum inhibitory concentration was higher for CAS (2.0-16.0 μg/mL) than for MICA (1.0-8.0 μg/mL) for Candida biofilms. Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Finally higher ß-1, 3 glucan levels were seen in sessile cells compared to planktonic cells, especially in CAS-NS strains. MICA treatment might induce a metacaspase-dependent apoptotic process in biofilms of both CAS-S C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, and to some degree in CAS-NS strains.

  15. Identification and typing of the Candida parapsilosis complex: MALDI-TOF MS vs. AFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carolis, Elena; Hensgens, Lambert A M; Vella, Antonietta; Posteraro, Brunella; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Senesi, Sonia; Tavanti, Arianna

    2014-02-01

    In this study we compare the capability of amplification fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify and subtype isolates of members of the Candida parapsilosis complex (C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, C. metapsilosis) and Lodderomyces elongisporus, which cannot be differentiated with biochemical methods. Both techniques correctly identified all isolates included in this study and clustered isolates within the different species. DNA-based and mass spectrum-based dendrograms yielded similar outcomes with regard to phylogenetic distance within C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis species. However, a different clustering was obtained for C. metapsilosis for which AFLP was highly effective in differentiating. While MALDI-TOF MS was found to be a reliable method for species-level identification, further studies are required to assess its value as a fungal typing tool.

  16. Comparison of four molecular approaches to identify Candida parapsilosis complex species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbedo, Leonardo Silva; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Muniz, Mauro de Medeiros; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2017-01-01

    Since the description of Candida orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis in 2005, several methods have been proposed to identify and differentiate these species from C. parapsilosis sensu stricto. Species-specific uniplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed and compared with sequencing of the D1/D2 region of the LSU 28S rDNA gene, microsatellite typing of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA gene. There was agreement between results of testing of 98 clinical isolates with the four PCR-based methods, with 59 isolates identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 37 as C. orthopsilosis, and two as C. metapsilosis. PMID:28225905

  17. Cluster of Candida parapsilosis primary bloodstream infection in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Carmem Lúcia P. da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida parapsilosis is an increasingly important bloodstream pathogen in neonatal intensive care units (NICU. We investigated a cluster of bloodstream infections in a NICU to determine whether nosocomial transmission occurred. During a 3-day period, 3 premature infants hospitalized in the same unit presented with sepsis caused by C. parapsilosis. Electrophoretic karyotype of the organisms was performed by using pulsed field gel electrophoresis in a countour-clamped homogeneous electric field system. The isolate from 1 newborn could not be typed, and the isolates from the remaining 2 infants had identical patterns. All 3 cases are described. We conclude that nosocomial transmission of C. parapsilosis occurred and that neonates under intensive care may represent a risk group for this pathogen.

  18. Native valve endocarditis due to Candida parapsilosis in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnee Moodley

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida endocarditis is rare, but associated with a high mortality. The most common species implicated is Candida albicans. The epidemiology of invasive Candida infections is changing, with a predominance of non-albicans species causing invasive disease. We describe a case of Candida parapsilosis endocarditis in an HIV-positive patient with pre-existing mitral valve disease and renal failure on haemodialysis. The patient presented with fever and malaise. Clinical examination revealed pulmonary oedema and severe mitral regurgitation. Blood cultures were positive for C. parapsilosis. β-D-glucan assay levels were elevated. An echocardiogram showed large, friable vegetations on the mitral valve. C. parapsilosis was cultured from the haemodialysis tip and the vegetations. The patient responded well to mitral valve replacement and antifungal therapy. A high index of suspicion and aggressive diagnostic modalities and therapy are essential in patients with candidaemia, to decrease mortality due to this condition.

  19. Multidrug Transporters and Alterations in Sterol Biosynthesis Contribute to Azole Antifungal Resistance in Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkow, Elizabeth L; Manigaba, Kayihura; Parker, Josie E; Barker, Katherine S; Kelly, Stephen L; Rogers, P David

    2015-10-01

    While much is known concerning azole resistance in Candida albicans, considerably less is understood about Candida parapsilosis, an emerging species of Candida with clinical relevance. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of azole resistance in a collection of resistant C. parapsilosis clinical isolates in order to determine which genes might play a role in this process within this species. We examined the relative expression of the putative drug transporter genes CDR1 and MDR1 and that of ERG11. In isolates overexpressing these genes, we sequenced the genes encoding their presumed transcriptional regulators, TAC1, MRR1, and UPC2, respectively. We also sequenced the sterol biosynthesis genes ERG3 and ERG11 in these isolates to find mutations that might contribute to this phenotype in this Candida species. Our findings demonstrate that the putative drug transporters Cdr1 and Mdr1 contribute directly to azole resistance and suggest that their overexpression is due to activating mutations in the genes encoding their transcriptional regulators. We also observed that the Y132F substitution in ERG11 is the only substitution occurring exclusively among azole-resistant isolates, and we correlated this with specific changes in sterol biosynthesis. Finally, sterol analysis of these isolates suggests that other changes in sterol biosynthesis may contribute to azole resistance in C. parapsilosis.

  20. Candida parapsilosis Resistance to Fluconazole: Molecular Mechanisms and In Vivo Impact in Infected Galleria mellonella Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Ana Carolina R; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Pinhati, Henrique M S; Siqueira, Ricardo A; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Colombo, Arnaldo L

    2015-10-01

    Candida parapsilosis is the main non-albicans Candida species isolated from patients in Latin America. Mutations in the ERG11 gene and overexpression of membrane transporter proteins have been linked to fluconazole resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular mechanisms in fluconazole-resistant strains of C. parapsilosis isolated from critically ill patients. The identities of the nine collected C. parapsilosis isolates at the species level were confirmed through molecular identification with a TaqMan qPCR assay. The clonal origin of the strains was checked by microsatellite typing. The Galleria mellonella infection model was used to confirm in vitro resistance. We assessed the presence of ERG11 mutations, as well as the expression of ERG11 and two additional genes that contribute to antifungal resistance (CDR1 and MDR1), by using real-time quantitative PCR. All of the C. parapsilosis (sensu stricto) isolates tested exhibited fluconazole MICs between 8 and 16 μg/ml. The in vitro data were confirmed by the failure of fluconazole in the treatment of G. mellonella infected with fluconazole-resistant strains of C. parapsilosis. Sequencing of the ERG11 gene revealed a common mutation leading to a Y132F amino acid substitution in all of the isolates, a finding consistent with their clonal origin. After fluconazole exposure, overexpression was noted for ERG11, CDR1, and MDR1 in 9/9, 9/9, and 2/9 strains, respectively. We demonstrated that a combination of molecular mechanisms, including the presence of point mutations in the ERG11 gene, overexpression of ERG11, and genes encoding efflux pumps, are involved in fluconazole resistance in C. parapsilosis.

  1. Evidence of recent interkingdom horizontal gene transfer between bacteria and Candida parapsilosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butler Geraldine

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date very few incidences of interdomain gene transfer into fungi have been identified. Here, we used the emerging genome sequences of Candida albicans WO-1, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Clavispora lusitaniae, Pichia guilliermondii, and Lodderomyces elongisporus to identify recent interdomain HGT events. We refer to these as CTG species because they translate the CTG codon as serine rather than leucine, and share a recent common ancestor. Results Phylogenetic and syntenic information infer that two C. parapsilosis genes originate from bacterial sources. One encodes a putative proline racemase (PR. Phylogenetic analysis also infers that there were independent transfers of bacterial PR enzymes into members of the Pezizomycotina, and protists. The second HGT gene in C. parapsilosis belongs to the phenazine F (PhzF superfamily. Most CTG species also contain a fungal PhzF homolog. Our phylogeny suggests that the CTG homolog originated from an ancient HGT event, from a member of the proteobacteria. An analysis of synteny suggests that C. parapsilosis has lost the endogenous fungal form of PhzF, and subsequently reacquired it from a proteobacterial source. There is evidence that Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Basidiomycotina also obtained a PhzF homolog through HGT. Conclusion Our search revealed two instances of well-supported HGT from bacteria into the CTG clade, both specific to C. parapsilosis. Therefore, while recent interkingdom gene transfer has taken place in the CTG lineage, its occurrence is rare. However, our analysis will not detect ancient gene transfers, and we may have underestimated the global extent of HGT into CTG species.

  2. Molecular Identification and Echinocandin Susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis Complex Bloodstream Isolates in Italy, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovero, Grazia; Borghi, Elisa; Balbino, Stella; Cirasola, Daniela; De Giglio, Osvalda; Perdoni, Federica; Caggiano, Giuseppina; Morace, Giulia; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The Candida parapsilosis group encompasses three species: C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. Here, we describe the incidence and echinocandin susceptibility profile of bloodstream isolates of these three species collected from patients admitted to an Italian university hospital from 2007 to 2014. Molecular identification of cryptic species of the C. parapsilosis complex was performed using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the gene encoding secondary alcohol dehydrogenase, followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme BanI. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the broth microdilution method according to European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST EDef 7.2) and Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI M27-A3) guidelines, and the results were compared with those obtained using the E-test and Sensititre methods. Of the 163 C. parapsilosis complex isolates, 136 (83.4%) were identified as C. parapsilosis, and 27 (16.6%) as C. orthopsilosis. The species-specific incidences were 2.9/10,000 admissions for C. parapsilosis and 0.6/10,000 admissions for C. orthopsilosis. No resistance to echinocandins was detected with any of the methods. The percent essential agreement (EA) between the EUCAST and E-test/Sensititre methods for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin susceptibility was, respectively, as follows: C. parapsilosis, 95.6/97.8, 98.5/88.2, and 93.4/96.3; C. orthopsilosis, 92.6/92.6, 96.3/77.8, and 63.0/66.7. The EA between the CLSI and E-test/Sensititre methods was, respectively, as follows: C. parapsilosis, 99.3/100, 98.5/89.0, and 96.3/98.5; C. orthopsilosis, 96.3/92.6, 100/81.5, and 92.6/88.9. Only minor discrepancies, ranging from 16.9% (C. parapsilosis) to 11.1% (C. orthopsilosis), were observed between the CLSI and E-test/Sensititre methods. In conclusion, this epidemiologic study shows a typical C. parapsilosis complex species distribution, no echinocandin resistance, and it

  3. Molecular Identification and Echinocandin Susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis Complex Bloodstream Isolates in Italy, 2007–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovero, Grazia; Borghi, Elisa; Balbino, Stella; Cirasola, Daniela; De Giglio, Osvalda; Perdoni, Federica; Caggiano, Giuseppina; Morace, Giulia; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The Candida parapsilosis group encompasses three species: C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. Here, we describe the incidence and echinocandin susceptibility profile of bloodstream isolates of these three species collected from patients admitted to an Italian university hospital from 2007 to 2014. Molecular identification of cryptic species of the C. parapsilosis complex was performed using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the gene encoding secondary alcohol dehydrogenase, followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme BanI. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the broth microdilution method according to European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST EDef 7.2) and Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI M27-A3) guidelines, and the results were compared with those obtained using the E-test and Sensititre methods. Of the 163 C. parapsilosis complex isolates, 136 (83.4%) were identified as C. parapsilosis, and 27 (16.6%) as C. orthopsilosis. The species-specific incidences were 2.9/10,000 admissions for C. parapsilosis and 0.6/10,000 admissions for C. orthopsilosis. No resistance to echinocandins was detected with any of the methods. The percent essential agreement (EA) between the EUCAST and E-test/Sensititre methods for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin susceptibility was, respectively, as follows: C. parapsilosis, 95.6/97.8, 98.5/88.2, and 93.4/96.3; C. orthopsilosis, 92.6/92.6, 96.3/77.8, and 63.0/66.7. The EA between the CLSI and E-test/Sensititre methods was, respectively, as follows: C. parapsilosis, 99.3/100, 98.5/89.0, and 96.3/98.5; C. orthopsilosis, 96.3/92.6, 100/81.5, and 92.6/88.9. Only minor discrepancies, ranging from 16.9% (C. parapsilosis) to 11.1% (C. orthopsilosis), were observed between the CLSI and E-test/Sensititre methods. In conclusion, this epidemiologic study shows a typical C. parapsilosis complex species distribution, no echinocandin resistance, and it

  4. Molecular Identification and Echinocandin Susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis Complex Bloodstream Isolates in Italy, 2007-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Lovero

    Full Text Available The Candida parapsilosis group encompasses three species: C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. Here, we describe the incidence and echinocandin susceptibility profile of bloodstream isolates of these three species collected from patients admitted to an Italian university hospital from 2007 to 2014. Molecular identification of cryptic species of the C. parapsilosis complex was performed using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the gene encoding secondary alcohol dehydrogenase, followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme BanI. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the broth microdilution method according to European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST EDef 7.2 and Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI M27-A3 guidelines, and the results were compared with those obtained using the E-test and Sensititre methods. Of the 163 C. parapsilosis complex isolates, 136 (83.4% were identified as C. parapsilosis, and 27 (16.6% as C. orthopsilosis. The species-specific incidences were 2.9/10,000 admissions for C. parapsilosis and 0.6/10,000 admissions for C. orthopsilosis. No resistance to echinocandins was detected with any of the methods. The percent essential agreement (EA between the EUCAST and E-test/Sensititre methods for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin susceptibility was, respectively, as follows: C. parapsilosis, 95.6/97.8, 98.5/88.2, and 93.4/96.3; C. orthopsilosis, 92.6/92.6, 96.3/77.8, and 63.0/66.7. The EA between the CLSI and E-test/Sensititre methods was, respectively, as follows: C. parapsilosis, 99.3/100, 98.5/89.0, and 96.3/98.5; C. orthopsilosis, 96.3/92.6, 100/81.5, and 92.6/88.9. Only minor discrepancies, ranging from 16.9% (C. parapsilosis to 11.1% (C. orthopsilosis, were observed between the CLSI and E-test/Sensititre methods. In conclusion, this epidemiologic study shows a typical C. parapsilosis complex species distribution, no echinocandin

  5. Atomic resolution crystal structure of Sapp2p, a secreted aspartic protease from Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostál, Jiří; Pecina, Adam; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga; Marečková, Lucie; Pichová, Iva; Řezáčová, Pavlina; Lepšík, Martin; Brynda, Jiří

    2015-12-01

    The virulence of the Candida pathogens is enhanced by the production of secreted aspartic proteases, which therefore represent possible targets for drug design. Here, the crystal structure of the secreted aspartic protease Sapp2p from Candida parapsilosis was determined. Sapp2p was isolated from its natural source and crystallized in complex with pepstatin A, a classical aspartic protease inhibitor. The atomic resolution of 0.83 Å allowed the protonation states of the active-site residues to be inferred. A detailed comparison of the structure of Sapp2p with the structure of Sapp1p, the most abundant C. parapsilosis secreted aspartic protease, was performed. The analysis, which included advanced quantum-chemical interaction-energy calculations, uncovered molecular details that allowed the experimentally observed equipotent inhibition of both isoenzymes by pepstatin A to be rationalized.

  6. In vitro efficacy of 5 antifungal agents against Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis as determined by time-kill methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zsuzsa; Szilágyi, Judit; Tavanti, Ariana; Kardos, Gábor; Rozgonyi, Ferenc; Bayegan, Sedique; Majoros, László

    2009-07-01

    Killing activity of amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and 5-fluorocytosine was determined against 6 Candida parapsilosis, 3 Candida orthopsilosis, and 4 Candida metapsilosis clinical isolates. After 24 h, 1 of 6 C. parapsilosis, 1 of 3 C. orthopsilosis, and 3 of 4 C. metapsilosis isolates were killed at 1 to 4 microg/mL (1-8x MIC) amphotericin B. The remaining isolates were killed by 2 to 4 microg/mL amphotericin B after 48 h. Fluconazole was fungistatic at > or =1x MIC (0.5-2 microg/mL) against C. parapsilosis and at > or =2x MIC (4-8 microg/mL) against C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates. Voriconazole inhibited C. parapsilosis at > or =1x MIC (0.015-0.12 microg/mL), but the other 2 species were inhibited only at 4 to 8x MIC (0.25-0.5 microg/mL). Against C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis, posaconazole was fungistatic close to the MIC (0.03-0.06 and 0.015-0.03 microg/mL, respectively). Against C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis, fluconazole and voriconazole, but not posaconazole, seem to be less active in vitro than against C. parapsilosis.

  7. Biofilm production and evaluation of antifungal susceptibility amongst clinical Candida spp. isolates, including strains of the Candida parapsilosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Analy S; Bizerra, Fernando C; Freymüller, Edna; Arthington-Skaggs, Beth A; Colombo, Arnaldo L

    2011-04-01

    Candida cells can form biofilms that frequently are sources of infections and are less susceptible to antifungal drugs. Some authors have reported that Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis isolates are not able to produce biofilms in vitro and there are no studies available on biofilm susceptibility for these species to antifungals. The aims of this study were to (i) quantify Candida spp. biofilms in vitro, and (ii) test the in vitro susceptibilities of Candida spp. biofilms to fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin B (AMB). Isolates studied included four Candida albicans, six C. tropicalis, seven C. parapsilosis, eight C. orthopsilosis, and five C. metapsilosis. We compared two different methods to evaluate biofilm production, i.e., crystal violet (CV) staining and XTT-reduction assays (XTT). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe high, medium and low biofilm producing isolates screened by these two methods. To determine the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) for FLC and AMB, XTT-reduction assay was used to measure cell metabolic activity. Biofilm quantification by CV and XTT showed that C. tropicalis isolates were the highest biofilm producer, followed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Examination of SEM images revealed that the extent of biofilms formed by high, medium, and low producers was highly correlated to the results generated by CV assay. Biofilm of all the isolates evaluated were resistant to FLC (MBEC(80) ≥ 256 ug/ml) but, in general, susceptible to AMB, except for six C. parapsilosis strains (MBEC(80) ≥ 8 ug/ml).

  8. Candida parapsilosis (sensu lato) isolated from hospitals located in the Southeast of Brazil: Species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and virulence attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziccardi, Mariangela; Souza, Lucieri O P; Gandra, Rafael M; Galdino, Anna Clara M; Baptista, Andréa R S; Nunes, Ana Paula F; Ribeiro, Mariceli A; Branquinha, Marta H; Santos, André L S

    2015-12-01

    Candida parapsilosis (sensu lato), which represents a fungal complex composed of three genetically related species - Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, has emerged as an important yeast causing fungemia worldwide. The goal of the present work was to assess the prevalence, antifungal susceptibility and production of virulence traits in 53 clinical isolates previously identified as C. parapsilosis (sensu lato) obtained from hospitals located in the Southeast of Brazil. Species forming this fungal complex are physiologically/morphologically indistinguishable; however, polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism of FKS1 gene has solved the identification inaccuracy, revealing that 43 (81.1%) isolates were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and 10 (18.9%) as C. orthopsilosis. No C. metapsilosis was found. The geographic distribution of these Candida species was uniform among the studied Brazilian States (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo). All C. orthopsilosis and almost all C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (95.3%) isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin. Nevertheless, one C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolate was resistant to fluconazole and another one was resistant to caspofungin. C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates exhibited higher MIC mean values to amphotericin B, fluconazole and caspofungin than those of C. orthopsilosis, while C. orthopsilosis isolates displayed higher MIC mean to itraconazole compared to C. parapsilosis sensu stricto. Identical MIC mean values to voriconazole were measured for these Candida species. All the isolates of both species were able to form biofilm on polystyrene surface. Impressively, biofilm-growing cells of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. orthopsilosis exhibited a considerable resistance to all antifungal agents tested. Pseudohyphae were observed in 67.4% and 80

  9. Isolates from hospital environments are the most virulent of the Candida parapsilosis complex

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    Sabino Raquel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida parapsilosis is frequently isolated from hospital environments, like air and surfaces, and causes serious nosocomial infections. Molecular studies provided evidence of great genetic diversity within the C. parapsilosis species complex but, despite their growing importance as pathogens, little is known about their potential to cause disease, particularly their interactions with phagocytes. In this study, clinical and environmental C. parapsilosis isolates, and strains of the related species C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were assayed for their ability to induce macrophage cytotocixity and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, to produce pseudo-hyphae and to secrete hydrolytic enzymes. Results Environmental C. parapsilosis isolates caused a statistically significant (p = 0.0002 higher cell damage compared with the clinical strains, while C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were less cytotoxic. On the other hand, clinical isolates induced a higher TNF-α production compared with environmental strains (p C. orthopsilosis strains was similar to the obtained with C. parapsilosis environmental isolates, it was lower for C. metapsilosis strains. No correlation between pseudo-hyphae formation or proteolytic enzymes secretion and macrophage death was detected (p > 0.05. However, a positive correlation between pseudo-hyphae formation and TNF-α secretion was observed (p = 0.0119. Conclusions We show that environmental C. parapsilosis strains are more resistant to phagocytic host defences than bloodstream isolates, being potentially more deleterious in the course of infection than strains from a clinical source. Thus, active environmental surveillance and application of strict cleaning procedures should be implemented in order to prevent cross-infection and hospital outbreaks.

  10. OUTCOME OF CANDIDA PARAPSILOSIS COMPLEX INFECTIONS TREATED WITH CASPOFUNGIN IN CHILDREN

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    İlker Devrim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to evaluate the correlation of caspofungin E-tests with the prognosis and response to caspofungin therapy of Candida parapsilosis complex bloodstream infections in children hospitalized in pediatric intensive care unit. Methods: All children who had C.parapsilosis complex bloodstream infections and who were treated with caspofungin were included in this retrospective study. For each patient, the following parameters, including all consecutive blood and central venous catheter (CVC cultures, duration between diagnosis and CVC removal, mortality rate, relapses of the C.parapsilosis complex infections as well as the demographic features, were recorded. Results: The study covered 53 patients with a median age of 11 months. The median duration of C.parapsilosis complex isolation was 31 days. The CVC rescue rate was 33.3% under caspofungin treatment. In 92.4% of the patients, the negative culture was achieved within a median duration of 14 days. The rate of relapses was 18.9%. The overall mortality rate was %37.7 (20 patients and 30-days mortality rate was 7.5% (4 patients. Conclusions: Caspofungin is an attractive option due to its effects on biofilms in vivo, while the reflection of its affect on C.parapsilosis complex was limited in our study, but it should not be underestimated in children who strongly need the presence of central venous catheters. Moreover, in vivo susceptibility might not always guarantee good clinical response in clinical practice. The clinicians should weigh their priority for their patients and choose the optimal antifungal therapy for C.parapsilosis complex infections in children.

  11. Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis complex isolates collected from oral cavities of HIV-infected individuals.

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    Moris, D V; Melhem, M S C; Martins, M A; Souza, L R; Kacew, S; Szeszs, M W; Carvalho, L R; Pimenta-Rodrigues, M V; Berghs, H A M; Mendes, R P

    2012-12-01

    At present, few data are available on the prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis complex isolates from HIV-infected individuals. The C. parapsilosis complex comprises three species, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis. Fifteen of 318 Candida isolates were identified as members of the C. parapsilosis complex by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The prevalence of C. parapsilosis complex isolates was 4.7 %, 2.2 % being identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and 2.5 % as C. metapsilosis, while no C. orthopsilosis was isolated. This is believed to be the first study that has identified isolates of C. metapsilosis obtained from the oral cavity of HIV-infected individuals. Antifungal susceptibility tests indicated that all the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B (AMB), fluconazole (FLC), ketoconazole (KTC), itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VRC) and caspofungin (CASPO). Although isolates of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. metapsilosis were susceptible to FLC, isolates of C. metapsilosis showed a tendency for higher MICs (≥1.0 µg ml(-1)). Based upon the frequency of candidiasis and the fact that certain isolates of the C. parapsilosis complex respond differently to FLC therapy, our data may be of therapeutic relevance with respect to susceptibility and potential resistance to specific antifungal agents. Our data suggest that C. metapsilosis can be a human commensal; its importance as a pathogen has yet to be confirmed.

  12. Clusters of patients with candidaemia due to genotypes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis: differences in frequency between hospitals.

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    Marcos-Zambrano, L J; Escribano, P; Sanguinetti, M; Gómez G de la Pedrosa, E; De Carolis, E; Vella, A; Cantón, R; Bouza, E; Guinea, J

    2015-07-01

    The presence of clusters (identical genotypes infecting different patients) suggests patient-to-patient transmission or a common source for strains. We report the results of a genotyping study based on microsatellite markers of Candida albicans (n = 179) and Candida parapsilosis (n = 76) causing candidaemia, to assess and compare the percentage of patients grouped in clusters during the study period (January 2010 to December 2012). The study was performed in two large tertiary hospitals in Madrid, Spain. We detected 145 C. albicans genotypes (21 in clusters) and 63 C. parapsilosis genotypes (seven in clusters). Clusters involved two to seven patients each. Most of the clusters in the two centres involved two patients for both species, but the number of patients included in each cluster differed between hospitals. Considering both species, the percentage of patients per cluster ranged from 19% to 38% (p albicans and C. parapsilosis genotypes causing candidaemia differed between hospitals, suggesting differences in strain transmission. Occasionally, the same genotypes were found in patients admitted to different hospitals located in the same city.

  13. Analysis of inteins in the Candida parapsilosis complex for simple and accurate species identification.

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    Prandini, Tâmara Heloísa Rocha; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Bruder-Nascimento, Ariane C M O; Scheel, Christina M; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2013-09-01

    Inteins are coding sequences that are transcribed and translated with flanking sequences and then are excised by an autocatalytic process. There are two types of inteins in fungi, mini-inteins and full-length inteins, both of which present a splicing domain containing well-conserved amino acid sequences. Full-length inteins also present a homing endonuclease domain that makes the intein a mobile genetic element. These parasitic genetic elements are located in highly conserved genes and may allow for the differentiation of closely related species of the Candida parapsilosis (psilosis) complex. The correct identification of the three psilosis complex species C. parapsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, and Candida orthopsilosis is very important in the clinical setting for improving antifungal therapy and patient care. In this work, we analyzed inteins that are present in the vacuolar ATPase gene VMA and in the threonyl-tRNA synthetase gene ThrRS in 85 strains of the Candida psilosis complex (46 C. parapsilosis, 17 C. metapsilosis, and 22 C. orthopsilosis). Here, we describe an accessible and accurate technique based on a single PCR that is able to differentiate the psilosis complex based on the VMA intein. Although the ThrRS intein does not distinguish the three species of the psilosis complex by PCR product size, it can differentiate them by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Furthermore, this intein is unusually present as both mini- and full-length forms in C. orthopsilosis. Additional population studies should be performed to address whether this represents a common intraspecific variability or the presence of subspecies within C. orthopsilosis.

  14. A naturally occurring proline-to-alanine amino acid change in Fks1p in Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis accounts for reduced echinocandin susceptibility.

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    Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Katiyar, Santosh K; Park, Steven; Edlind, Thomas D; Perlin, David S

    2008-07-01

    Candida parapsilosis has emerged as a common cause of invasive fungal infection, especially in Latin America and in the neonatal setting. C. parapsilosis is part of a closely related group of organisms that includes the species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis. All three species show elevated MICs for the new echinocandin class drugs caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin relative to other Candida species. Despite potential impacts on therapy, the mechanism behind this reduced echinocandin susceptibility has not been determined. In this report, we investigated the role of a naturally occurring Pro-to-Ala substitution at amino acid position 660 (P660A), immediately distal to the highly conserved hot spot 1 region of Fks1p, in the reduced-echinocandin-susceptibility phenotype. Kinetic inhibition studies demonstrated that glucan synthase from the C. parapsilosis group was 1 to 2 logs less sensitive to echinocandin drugs than the reference enzyme from C. albicans. Furthermore, clinical isolates of C. albicans and C. glabrata which harbor mutations at this equivalent position also showed comparable 2-log decreases in target enzyme sensitivity, which correlated with increased MICs. These mutations also resulted in 2.4- to 18.8-fold-reduced V(max) values relative to those for the wild-type enzyme, consistent with kinetic parameters obtained for C. parapsilosis group enzymes. Finally, the importance of the P660A substitution for intrinsic resistance was confirmed by engineering an equivalent P647A mutation into Fks1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mutant glucan synthase displayed characteristic 2-log decreases in sensitivity to the echinocandin drugs. Overall, these data firmly indicate that a naturally occurring P660A substitution in Fks1p from the C. parapsilosis group accounts for the reduced susceptibility phenotype.

  15. Candida parapsilosis candidaemia in a neonatal unit over 7 years: a case series study

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    Miranda, Lourdes das Neves; Rodrigues, Eliete C A; Costa, Silvia F; van der Heijden, Inneke Marie; Dantas, Kátia C; Lobo, Renata D; Basso, Mariusa; Varkulja, Gláucia F; Krebs, Vera Lúcia Jornada; Gibelli, Maria Augusta Bento Cicaroni; Criado, Paulo R; Levin, Anna Sara

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate Candida parapsilosis candidaemia in a neonatal unit over 7 years. Design Case series study. Setting A 2000-bed tertiary-care university hospital at São Paulo, Brazil. Participants Neonates hospitalised in a 63-bed neonatal unit. Primary and secondary outcome measures We evaluated the incidence of C parapsilosis fungemia in a neonatal unit from 2002 through 2008 and the main microbiological, clinical and epidemiological aspects of this disease in neonates. During the study period an outbreak occurred, an infection control programme was implemented, and isolates from blood and hand healthcare workers (HCWs) were submitted to molecular typing. Results During 7 years, there were 36 cases of C parapsilosis fungaemia and annual incidence varied from 0 to 19.7 per 1000 admissions. Evaluating 31 neonates with fungemia, the mean age at diagnosis was 19 days. All children except for one were premature; all had received total parenteral nutrition and all but one had used central venous catheter. Three neonates had received antifungal treatment previously to the diagnosis. Thirty-day mortality was 45%. Only lower birthweight was associated with mortality. C parapsilosis species complex was isolated from hand cultures in eight (11%) of the HCWs (one isolate was identified as C orthopsilosis). By molecular typing no HCW isolate was similar to any of the blood isolates. Conclusions The incidence of C parapsilosis fungemia in a neonatal unit varied widely over 7 years. We observed in our series a higher death rate than that reported in European countries and the USA. PMID:22869093

  16. In vitro interactions of Candida parapsilosis wild type and lipase deficient mutants with human monocyte derived dendritic cells

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    Vágvölgyi Csaba

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida parapsilosis typically is a commensal of human skin. However, when host immune defense is compromised or the normal microflora balance is disrupted, C. parapsilosis transforms itself into an opportunistic pathogen. Candida-derived lipase has been identified as potential virulence factor. Even though cellular components of the innate immune response, such as dendritic cells, represent the first line of defense against invading pathogens, little is known about the interaction of these cells with invading C. parapsilosis. Thus, the aim of our study was to assess the function of dendritic cells in fighting C. parapsilosis and to determine the role that C. parapsilosis-derived lipase plays in the interaction with dendritic cells. Results Monocyte-derived immature and mature dendritic cells (iDCs and mDCs, respectively co-cultured with live wild type or lipase deficient C. parapsilosis strains were studied to determine the phagocytic capacity and killing efficiency of host cells. We determined that both iDCs and mDCs efficiently phagocytosed and killed C. parapsilosis, furthermore our results show that the phagocytic and fungicidal activities of both iDCs and mDCs are more potent for lipase deficient compared to wild type yeast cells. In addition, the lipase deficient C. parapsilosis cells induce higher gene expression and protein secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in both DC types relative to the effect of co-culture with wild type yeast cells. Conclusions Our results show that DCs are activated by exposure to C. parapsilosis, as shown by increased phagocytosis, killing and proinflammatory protein secretion. Moreover, these data strongly suggest that C. parapsilosis derived lipase has a protective role during yeast:DC interactions, since lipase production in wt yeast cells decreased the phagocytic capacity and killing efficiency of host cells and downregulated the expression of host effector molecules.

  17. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida parapsilosis complex species isolated from culture collection of clinical samples

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    Fábio Silvestre Ataides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION:Candida parapsilosis is a common yeast species found in cases of onychomycosis and candidemia associated with infected intravascular devices. In this study, we differentiated Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis , and Candida metapsilosis from a culture collection containing blood and subungual scraping samples. Furthermore, we assessed the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of these species to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin.METHODS:Differentiation of C. parapsilosis complex species was performed by amplification of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (SADH gene and digestion by the restriction enzyme Ban I. All isolates were evaluated for the determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations using Etest, a method for antifungal susceptibility testing.RESULTS:Among the 87 isolates, 78 (89.7% were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto , five (5.7% were identified as C. orthopsilosis , and four (4.6% were identified as C. metapsilosis . Analysis of antifungal susceptibility showed that C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates were less susceptible to amphotericin B and itraconazole. One C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolate was resistant to amphotericin B and itraconazole. Moreover, 10.2% of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates were resistant to caspofungin. Two C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates and one C. metapsilosis isolate were susceptible to fluconazole in a dose-dependent manner.CONCLUSIONS:We reported the first molecular identification of C. parapsilosiscomplex species in State of Goiás, Brazil. Additionally, we showed that although the three species exhibited differences in antifungal susceptibility profiles, the primary susceptibility of this species was to caspofungin.

  18. In vitro fungicidal activities of echinocandins against Candida metapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. parapsilosis evaluated by time-kill studies.

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    Cantón, Emilia; Espinel-Ingroff, Ana; Pemán, Javier; del Castillo, Lucas

    2010-05-01

    Anidulafungin, micafungin, and caspofungin in vitro activities against Candida metapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. parapsilosis were evaluated by MICs and time-kill methods. All echinocandins showed lower MICs (mean MICs, 0.05 to 0.71 mg/liter) and the highest killing rates (-0.06 to -0.05 CFU/ml/h) for C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis rather than for C. parapsilosis (mean MICs, 0.59 to 1.68 mg/liter). Micafungin and anidulafungin killing rates were greater than those determined for caspofungin. None of the echinocandins had fungicidal activity against C. parapsilosis.

  19. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal of a new RFLP profile for differentiation.

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    Mirhendi, Hossein; Bruun, Brita; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Fuursted, Kurt; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Nielsen, Lene; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2010-04-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species phenotypically indistinguishable from Candida parapsilosis . We evaluated phenotyping and molecular methods for the detection of these species among 79 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained during the years 2004-2008. The isolates were screened by PCR amplification of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase-encoding gene ( SADH) followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme Ban I, using C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019, C. orthopsilosis ATCC 96139 and C. metapsilosis ATCC 96144 as controls. Isolates with RFLP patterns distinct from C. parapsilosis were characterized by sequence analysis of the ITS1-ITS2, 26S rRNA (D1/D2) and SADH regions. Restriction patterns for the 3 species with each of 610 restriction enzymes were predicted in silico using 12 available sequences. By PCR-RFLP of the SADH gene alone, four isolates (5.1 %) had a pattern identical to the C. orthopsilosis reference strain. Sequence analysis of SADH and ITS (internal transcribed spacer) regions identified two of these isolates as C. metapsilosis. These results were confirmed by creating a phylogenetic tree based on concatenated sequences of SADH, ITS and 26S rRNA gene sequence regions. Optimal differentiation between C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis was predicted using digestion with NlaIII, producing discriminatory band sizes of: 131 and 505 bp; 74, 288 and 348 bp; and 131, 217 and 288 bp, respectively. This was confirmed using the reference strains and 79 clinical isolates. In conclusion, reliable discrimination was obtained by PCR-RFLP profile analysis of the SADH gene after digestion with NlaIII but not with BanI. C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis are involved in a small but significant number of invasive infections in Denmark.

  20. Fungal arthritis of the wrist caused by Candida parapsilosis during infliximab therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.

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    Miyamoto, Hideaki; Miura, Toshiki; Morita, Euan; Morizaki, Yutaka; Uehara, Kosuke; Ohe, Takashi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2012-11-01

    A 60-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis, who had been treated with infliximab, presented with uncontrollable wrist arthritis. Fungal arthritis caused by Candida parapsilosis was confirmed by examining her aspirated joint fluid. Her infliximab therapy was interrupted, and antifungal therapy with fluconazole was started. After the fungal infection had been ameliorated, surgical debridement and arthrodesis of the wrist joint were conducted, and her symptoms completely resolved. Although fungal arthritis is rare, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis of exacerbated monoarthritis in patients treated with biological agents.

  1. Candidemia by species of the Candida parapsilosis complex in children's hospital: prevalence, biofilm production and antifungal susceptibility.

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    Ruiz, Luciana da Silva; Khouri, Sonia; Hahn, Rosane Christine; da Silva, Eriques Gonçalves; de Oliveira, Vanessa Krummer Perinazzo; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues

    2013-04-01

    Opportunistic infections are an increasingly common problem in hospitals, and the yeast Candida parapsilosis has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen. The aims of this study were to determine and compare (i) the prevalence rate among C. parapsilosis complex organisms isolated from blood in a public children's hospital in São Paulo state, (ii) the ability of the complex C. parapsilosis species identified to produce biofilm and (iii) the antifungal susceptibility profiles. Forty-nine (49) specimens of isolated blood yeast were analyzed, previously identified as C. parapsilosis by conventional methods. After the molecular analysis, the isolates were characterized as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (83.7 %), C. orthopsilosis (10.2 %) and C. metapsilosis (6.1 %). All species were able to form biofilm. The species with the highest biofilm production was C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, followed by C. orthopsilosis and further by C. metapsilosis. All of the strains have demonstrated similar susceptibility to fluconazole, caspofungin, voriconazole, cetoconazole and 5-flucytosine. Only one strain of C. parapsilosis was resistant to amphotericin B. Regarding itraconazole, 66.6 and 43.9 % isolates of C. metapsilosis and C. parapsilosis, respectively, have demonstrated to be susceptible dose-dependent, with one isolate of the latter species resistant to the drug. Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto has demonstrated to be the less susceptible, mainly to amphotericin B, caspofungin and "azoles" such as fluconazole. Therefore, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis are still involved in a restricted number of infections, but these data have become essential for there are very few studies of these species in Latin America.

  2. [Genotypic identification and distribution patterns of Candida parapsilosis complex species (C.parapsilosis sensu stricto, C.metapsilosis and C.orthopsilosis) isolated from clinical samples].

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    Cebeci Güler, Nejla; Tosun, Ilknur; Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Buruk, Kurtuluş; Aydın, Faruk

    2011-10-01

    Candida parapsilosis, which has recently gained increasing importance, is the second most common fungal pathogen isolated from clinical specimens. C.parapsilosis strains exhibiting genetic heterogeneity were previously considered as a complex of three genetically different groups (group I, II, III). However, they have recently been reclassified as new species and named as C.parapsilosis sensu stricto (Grup I), C.orthopsilosis (Grup II) and C.metapsilosis (Grup III). In the present study we aimed to identify C.parapsilosis complex species by PCR-RFLP (Polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment lenght polymorphism) method and to determine the distribution of new species isolated from clinical specimens. A total of 68 samples (44 blood, 10 urine, 5 wound, 2 paracentesis fluids, 2 tympanocentesis samples and one of each cerebrospinal fluid, peritoneal fluid, surgical material, oral lesion and nail sample) in which C.parapsilosis had been isolated and identified with API 20C AUX (bioMérieux, France) between October 2005 - July 2009 in the Microbiology Laboratory of Karadeniz Technical University Hospital, in Trabzon, Turkey, were included in the study. Yeast genomic DNA was extracted using the "High Pure PCR Template Preparation Kit" (Roche Diagnostic, USA) and amplification of SADH gene was performed by using specific primers (S1-F sense; 5'-GTTGATGCTGTTGGATTGT-3' ve S1-R antisense; 5'-CAATGCCAAATCTCCCAA-3') with PCR. RFLP method was then applied by digesting PCR product (716 bp) with BanI enzyme (Fermentas, USA). In our study 98.5% (67/68) of the isolates were identified as C.parapsilosis sensu stricto, and 1.5% (1/68) was identifed as C.orthopsilosis, whereas no C.metapsilosis strains were detected. The strain identified as C.orthopsilosis was from a urine specimen and all the blood culture isolates were C.parapsilosis sensu stricto. In conclusion, the inability to differentiate C.parapsilosis complex species by phenotypical and routine tests leads to lack of

  3. Different Candida parapsilosis clinical isolates and lipase deficient strain trigger an altered cellular immune response

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    Renata eToth

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous human diseases can be associated with fungal infections either as potential causative agents or as a result of changed immune status due to a primary disease. Fungal infections caused by Candida species can vary from mild to severe dependent upon the site of infection, length of exposure and past medical history. Patients with impaired immune status are at increased risk for chronic fungal infections. Recent epidemiologic studies have revealed the increasing incidence of candidiasis caused by non-albicans species such as C. parapsilosis. Due to its increasing relevance we chose two distinct C. parapsilosis strains, to describe the cellular innate immune response towards this species. In the first section of our study we compared the interaction of CLIB 214 and GA1 cells with murine and human macrophages. Both strains are commonly used to investigate C. parapsilosis virulence properties. CLIB 214 is a rapidly pseudohyphae-forming strain and GA1 is an isolate that mainly exists in a yeast form. Our results showed, that the phagocyte response was similar in terms of overall uptake, however differences were observed in macrophage migration and engulfment of fungal cells. As C. parapsilosis releases extracellular lipases in order to promote host invasion we further investigated the role of these secreted components during the distinct stages of the phagocytic process. Using a secreted lipase deficient mutant strain and the parental strain GA1 individually and simultaneously, we confirmed that fungal secreted lipases influence the fungi’s virulence by detecting altered innate cellular responses.In this study we report that two isolates of a single species can trigger markedly distinct host responses and that lipase secretion plays a role on the cellular level of host pathogen interactions.

  4. Molecular mechanisms of fluconazole resistance in Candida parapsilosis isolates from a U.S. surveillance system.

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    Grossman, Nina T; Pham, Cau D; Cleveland, Angela A; Lockhart, Shawn R

    2015-02-01

    Candida parapsilosis is the second or third most common cause of candidemia in many countries. The Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends fluconazole as the primary therapy for C. parapsilosis candidemia. Although the rate of fluconazole resistance among C. parapsilosis isolates is low in most U.S. institutions, the resistance rate can be as high as 7.5%. This study was designed to assess the mechanisms of fluconazole resistance in 706 incident bloodstream isolates from U.S. hospitals. We sequenced the ERG11 and MRR1 genes of 122 C. parapsilosis isolates with resistant (30 isolates; 4.2%), susceptible dose-dependent (37 isolates; 5.2%), and susceptible (55 isolates) fluconazole MIC values and used real-time PCR of RNA from 17 isolates to investigate the regulation of MDR1. By comparing these isolates to fully fluconazole-susceptible isolates, we detected at least two mechanisms of fluconazole resistance: an amino acid substitution in the 14-α-demethylase gene ERG11 and overexpression of the efflux pump MDR1, possibly due to point mutations in the MRR1 transcription factor that regulates MDR1. The ERG11 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was found in 57% of the fluconazole-resistant isolates and in no susceptible isolates. The MRR1 SNPs were more difficult to characterize, as not all resulted in overexpression of MDR1 and not all MDR1 overexpression was associated with an SNP in MRR1. Further work to characterize the MRR1 SNPs and search for overexpression of other efflux pumps is needed.

  5. Complicated Candida parapsilosis peritonitis on peritoneal dialysis in a neonate with renal failure because of bilateral adrenal abscesses.

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    Cheng, I; Chen, Yi-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Jow, Guey-Mei; Mu, Shu-Chi

    2011-10-01

    We present a full-term female infant with a difficult delivery course complicated with Escherichia coli sepsis and bilateral adrenal abscesses. She developed renal failure and received peritoneal dialysis. Peritonitis of Candida parapsilosis developed later. The infant was successfully treated with hemofiltration and a combination of antifungal agents.

  6. Effect of caspofungin and micafungin in combination with farnesol against Candida parapsilosis biofilms.

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    Kovács, Renátó; Bozó, Aliz; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Domán, Marianna; Kardos, Gábor; Nagy, Fruzsina; Tóth, Zoltán; Majoros, László

    2016-04-01

    The in vitro activities of caspofungin and micafungin were determined with and without farnesol against Candida parapsilosis biofilms. Drug interactions were examined using the XTT colorimetric assay-based broth microdilution chequerboard method. Drug-drug interactions were assessed utilising the FICI, Bliss independence models and time-kill experiments. Median sessile MICs of five C. parapsilosis clinical isolates ranged between 32-256 mg/L, 16-512 mg/L and >300 μM for caspofungin, micafungin and farnesol, respectively. Median MICs for caspofungin and micafungin in combination with farnesol showed 8-64- and 4-64-fold decreases, respectively. Paradoxical growth noticed with both echinocandins was eliminated by farnesol. Based on FICIs for sessile clinical isolates, synergism was observed for caspofungin (range of median FICIs, 0.155-0.5) and micafungin (range of median FICIs, 0.093-0.5). Concordantly, MacSynergy analysis and global fitting of non-linear regression based on a Bliss independence models also showed synergism for caspofungin and micafungin. In line with FICI findings and the Bliss independence model, synergistic interactions were confirmed by time-kill experiments. The metabolic activity of fungal cells was significantly inhibited by caspofungin+farnesol at all three tested combinations (4 mg/L+75 μM, 8 mg/L+75 μM and 16 mg/L+75 μM) between 3 and 24 h compared with the control (P<0.05-0.001). Significant inhibition was observed for micafungin+farnesol between 3 and 12h (P<0.001) but not at 24 h. Despite the favourable effect of farnesol in combination with echinocandins, further in vivo studies are needed to confirm its therapeutic advantage in catheter-associated infections caused by C. parapsilosis.

  7. High throughput multiplex-PCR for direct detection and diagnosis of dermatophyte species, Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis in clinical specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidnia, Ali; Bekers, Wouter; Bliekendaal, Harry; Spaargaren, Joke

    2015-06-01

    We have developed and validated a multiplex-PCR method for detection of dermatophyte spp., Candida albicans and parapsilosis for routine diagnostics. Our m-PCR showed excellent concordance with culture results in 475 clinical samples. Through the rapid diagnosis by our m-PCR, clinicians are able to initiate adequate antimycotic therapy much earlier.

  8. Post intrastromal corneal ring segments insertion complicated by Candida parapsilosis keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Bradley M; Kanellopoulos, A John; Font, Ramon L

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes the clinical and histopathologic features, including molecular confirmation, of fungal keratitis after intrastromal corneal ring segments placement for keratoconus. A 52-year-old woman underwent insertion of Intacs® corneal implants for treatment of keratoconus. Extrusion of the implants was noted 5 months post insertion and replaced. Three months later, monocular infiltrates and an epithelial defect were observed. The Intacs were removed and the infiltrates were treated with ofloxacin and prednisolone acetate. Microbial cultures and stains were negative. The patient demonstrated flares and exacerbation one month later. Mycoplasma and/or fungus were suspected and treated without improvement. Therapeutic keratoplasty was performed 10 months following initial placement of the corneal ring implants. The keratectomy specimen was analyzed by light microscopy and a panfungal polymerase chain reaction assay. A histopathologic diagnosis of Candida parapsilosis keratitis was made and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. One year postoperatively, a systemic workup of the patient was done with no signs of recurrence. This rare report of fungal keratitis following Intacs insertion is the first reported case of C. parapsilosis complicating Intacs implantation. PMID:23467516

  9. Post intrastromal corneal ring segments insertion complicated by Candida parapsilosis keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell BM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bradley M Mitchell,1 A John Kanellopoulos,2 Ramon L Font31Eclipse IS Consulting, Rosenberg, TX, 2Department of Ophthalmology, New York University Medical School, New York City, NY, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Ophthalmic Pathology Laboratory, Cullen Eye Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: This case report describes the clinical and histopathologic features, including molecular confirmation, of fungal keratitis after intrastromal corneal ring segments placement for keratoconus. A 52-year-old woman underwent insertion of Intacs® corneal implants for treatment of keratoconus. Extrusion of the implants was noted 5 months post insertion and replaced. Three months later, monocular infiltrates and an epithelial defect were observed. The Intacs were removed and the infiltrates were treated with ofloxacin and prednisolone acetate. Microbial cultures and stains were negative. The patient demonstrated flares and exacerbation one month later. Mycoplasma and/or fungus were suspected and treated without improvement. Therapeutic keratoplasty was performed 10 months following initial placement of the corneal ring implants. The keratectomy specimen was analyzed by light microscopy and a panfungal polymerase chain reaction assay. A histopathologic diagnosis of Candida parapsilosis keratitis was made and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. One year postoperatively, a systemic workup of the patient was done with no signs of recurrence. This rare report of fungal keratitis following Intacs insertion is the first reported case of C. parapsilosis complicating Intacs implantation.Keywords: keratoconus, Intacs®, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, molecular diagnosis, histopathology

  10. Identificação molecular e suscetibilidade antifúngica de Candida parapsilosis isoladas no Ceará, Brasil Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis isolates in Ceará, Brazil

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    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Candida parapsilosis é a segunda ou terceira levedura mais isolada de hemoculturas em várias partes do mundo. É um patógeno comumente isolado no Brasil e no Ceará. Apresenta capacidade de formar biofilmes em cateteres e outros dispositivos médicos e esses fatores contribuem para a disseminação dessa levedura. OBJETIVOS: Identificar e avaliar a suscetibilidade aos antifúngicos de C. parapsilosis isoladas de amostras de sangue e urina de pacientes atendidos em hospitais no Ceará. MÉTODOS: Foram isoladas e identificadas 57 cepas de C. parapsilosis. As cepas foram identificadas por testes fenotípicos e moleculares. A suscetibilidade foi avaliada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo (protocolo do Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute [CLSI] M27-A3. Foram avaliados cinco antifúngicos (anfotericina B, caspofungina, fluconazol, itraconazol e voriconazol. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: As cepas foram identificadas como C. parapsilosis por testes fenotípicos e confirmadas pelos testes moleculares. Quanto ao perfil de sensibilidade, elas se mostraram sensíveis aos antifúngicos testados, sendo a resistência ainda um fenômeno raro entre cepas de C. parapsilosis isoladas no Ceará.INTRODUCTION: C. parapsilosis is the second or third most isolated yeast from blood cultures in various parts of the world. It is a commonly isolated pathogen in Brazil and Ceará. C. parapsilosis is liable to form biofilms on catheters and other medical devices, which contributes to the spread of this yeast. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify and assess the antifungal susceptibility of C. parapsilosis isolates from blood and urine samples collected from patients in hospitals in Ceará. METHODS: We isolated and identified 57 strains of C. parapsilosis. The strains were identified by phenotypic and molecular tests. The susceptibility to antifungals was assessed by broth microdilution (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute

  11. Olecranon Bursitis Caused by Candida parapsilosis in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    Carla F. Gamarra-Hilburn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Septic bursitis is usually caused by bacterial organisms. However, infectious bursitis caused by fungi is very rare. Herein, we present a 68-year-old woman with long-standing rheumatoid arthritis who developed pain, erythema, and swelling of the right olecranon bursa. Aspiration of the olecranon bursa showed a white blood cell count of 3.1×103/μL (41% neutrophils, 30% lymphocytes, and 29% monocytes. Fluid culture was positive for Candida parapsilosis. She was treated with caspofungin 50 mg intravenously daily for 13 days followed by fluconazole 200 mg orally daily for one week. She responded well to this treatment but had recurrent swelling of the bursa. Bursectomy was recommended but she declined this option. This case, together with other reports, suggests that the awareness of uncommon pathogens, their presentation, and predisposing risk factors are important to establish an early diagnosis and prevent long-term complications.

  12. Evaluation of the MALDI-TOF VITEK MS™ system for the identification of Candida parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis from bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobrega de Almeida Júnior, João; de Souza, Letícia Bonato; Motta, Adriana Lopes; Rossi, Flávia; Romano Di Gioia, Thais Sabato; Benard, Gil; Del Negro, Gilda Maria Barbaro

    2014-10-01

    Twenty-nine Candida parapsilosis, seventeen Candida orthopsilosis and two Candida metapsilosis bloodstream isolates were submitted for identification by VITEK-MS™ mass spectrometer. Four isolates, two C. orthopsilosis and two C. metapsilosis, were not identified. Inclusion of Superspectra of both species in this database is required to improve its discrimination power.

  13. Evaluation of in vivo pathogenicity of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis with different enzymatic profiles in a murine model of disseminated candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño-Rangel, Rogelio de J; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Irám P; Elizondo-Zertuche, M; Martínez-Fierro, Margarita L; Garza-Veloz, Idalia; Romero-Díaz, Víktor J; González, José G; González, Gloria M

    2014-04-01

    Six isolates of the Candida parapsilosis complex with different enzymatic profiles were used to induce systemic infection in immunocompetent BALB/c mice. Fungal tissue burden was determined on days 2, 5, 10, and 15 post challenge. The highest fungal load irrespective of post-infection day was detected in the kidney, followed by the spleen, lung, and liver, with a tendency for the fungal burden to decrease by day 15 in all groups. Significant differences among the strains were not detected, suggesting that the three species of the "psilosis" group possess a similar pathogenic potential in disseminated candidiasis regardless of their enzymatic profiles.

  14. Separation of phenotypically indistinguishable Candida species, C. orthopsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. parapsilosis, by capillary electromigration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horká, Marie; Růžička, Filip; Kubesová, Anna; Němcová, Eva; Slais, Karel

    2011-06-24

    At the current state of laboratory diagnostics, methods for fast identification of phenotypically indistinguishable species are difficult or inaccurate. An example is represented by Candida parapsilosis, which is the second most common yeast species isolated from bloodstream infections. C. parapsilosis comprises a complex of three genetically distinct groups. Genotypes II and III have been designated as the separate species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, phenotypically indistinguishable. The considerable genetic variability of these newly described yeasts species has caused difficulties in the development of molecular techniques for their precise identification. Similarly, the detection of biofilm formation, which is considered as an important yeast virulence factor, is accompanied by difficulties. In this study we optimize the first precise and reproducible method for the separation and possible identification of C. orthopsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. parapsilosis as well as the detection of their ability to form biofilm. The method is based on capillary isoelectric focusing and capillary electrophoresis with UV detection. In capillary isoelectric focusing, very narrow pH gradients were established. With such gradients, differences in isoelectric points of biofilm-negative and biofilm-positive species calculated from the migration times of the selected pI markers were below 0.03 pI units. In the capillary zone electrophoresis narrow zones of the cells of Candida species were detected with sufficient resolution. The values of the isoelectric point and the migration velocities of the examined species were independent on the origin of the tested strains. Capillary isoelectric focusing was examined also for the separation and detection of the cultivated biofilm-negative C. parapsilosis in the blood serum.

  15. The crystal structure of the secreted aspartic protease 1 from Candida parapsilosis in complex with pepstatin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dostál, Ji& #345; í; Brynda, Ji& #345; í; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga; Sieglová, Irena; Pichová, Iva; & #344; ezá& #269; ová, Pavlína; (ASCR-ICP)

    2010-09-01

    Opportunistic pathogens of the genus Candida cause infections representing a major threat to long-term survival of immunocompromised patients. Virulence of the Candida pathogens is enhanced by production of extracellular proteolytic enzymes and secreted aspartic proteases (Saps) are therefore studied as potential virulence factors and possible targets for therapeutic drug design. Candida parapsilosis is less invasive than C. albicans, however, it is one of the leading causative agents of yeast infections. We report three-dimensional crystal structure of Sapp1p from C. parapsilosis in complex with pepstatin A, the classical inhibitor of aspartic proteases. The structure of Sapp1p was determined from protein isolated from its natural source and represents the first structure of Sap from C. parapsilosis. Overall fold and topology of Sapp1p is very similar to the archetypic fold of monomeric aspartic protease family and known structures of Sap isoenzymes from C. albicans and Sapt1p from C. tropicalis. Structural comparison revealed noticeable differences in the structure of loops surrounding the active site. This resulted in differential character, shape, and size of the substrate binding site explaining divergent substrate specificities and inhibitor affinities. Determination of structures of Sap isoenzymes from various species might contribute to the development of new Sap-specific inhibitors.

  16. Using RNA-seq to determine the transcriptional landscape and the hypoxic response of the pathogenic yeast Candida parapsilosis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Guida, Alessandro

    2011-12-22

    Abstract Background Candida parapsilosis is one of the most common causes of Candida infection worldwide. However, the genome sequence annotation was made without experimental validation and little is known about the transcriptional landscape. The transcriptional response of C. parapsilosis to hypoxic (low oxygen) conditions, such as those encountered in the host, is also relatively unexplored. Results We used next generation sequencing (RNA-seq) to determine the transcriptional profile of C. parapsilosis growing in several conditions including different media, temperatures and oxygen concentrations. We identified 395 novel protein-coding sequences that had not previously been annotated. We removed > 300 unsupported gene models, and corrected approximately 900. We mapped the 5\\' and 3\\' UTR for thousands of genes. We also identified 422 introns, including two introns in the 3\\' UTR of one gene. This is the first report of 3\\' UTR introns in the Saccharomycotina. Comparing the introns in coding sequences with other species shows that small numbers have been gained and lost throughout evolution. Our analysis also identified a number of novel transcriptional active regions (nTARs). We used both RNA-seq and microarray analysis to determine the transcriptional profile of cells grown in normoxic and hypoxic conditions in rich media, and we showed that there was a high correlation between the approaches. We also generated a knockout of the UPC2 transcriptional regulator, and we found that similar to C. albicans, Upc2 is required for conferring resistance to azole drugs, and for regulation of expression of the ergosterol pathway in hypoxia. Conclusion We provide the first detailed annotation of the C. parapsilosis genome, based on gene predictions and transcriptional analysis. We identified a number of novel ORFs and other transcribed regions, and detected transcripts from approximately 90% of the annotated protein coding genes. We found that the transcription factor

  17. Mitochondrial Carriers Link the Catabolism of Hydroxyaromatic Compounds to the Central Metabolism in Candida parapsilosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Igor; Neboháčová, Martina; Gérecová, Gabriela; Katonová, Kornélia; Jánošíková, Eva; Jakúbková, Michaela; Centárová, Ivana; Dunčková, Ivana; Tomáška, L'ubomír; Pryszcz, Leszek P.; Gabaldón, Toni; Nosek, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenic yeast Candida parapsilosis metabolizes hydroxyderivatives of benzene and benzoic acid to compounds channeled into central metabolism, including the mitochondrially localized tricarboxylic acid cycle, via the 3-oxoadipate and gentisate pathways. The orchestration of both catabolic pathways with mitochondrial metabolism as well as their evolutionary origin is not fully understood. Our results show that the enzymes involved in these two pathways operate in the cytoplasm with the exception of the mitochondrially targeted 3-oxoadipate CoA-transferase (Osc1p) and 3-oxoadipyl-CoA thiolase (Oct1p) catalyzing the last two reactions of the 3-oxoadipate pathway. The cellular localization of the enzymes indicates that degradation of hydroxyaromatic compounds requires a shuttling of intermediates, cofactors, and products of the corresponding biochemical reactions between cytosol and mitochondria. Indeed, we found that yeast cells assimilating hydroxybenzoates increase the expression of genes SFC1, LEU5, YHM2, and MPC1 coding for succinate/fumarate carrier, coenzyme A carrier, oxoglutarate/citrate carrier, and the subunit of pyruvate carrier, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis uncovered distinct evolutionary trajectories for sparsely distributed gene clusters coding for enzymes of both pathways. Whereas the 3-oxoadipate pathway appears to have evolved by vertical descent combined with multiple losses, the gentisate pathway shows a striking pattern suggestive of horizontal gene transfer to the evolutionarily distant Mucorales. PMID:27707801

  18. High-level expression of Candida parapsilosis lipase/acyltransferase in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunel, Laetitia; Neugnot, Virginie; Landucci, Laure; Boze, Hélène; Moulin, Guy; Bigey, Frédéric; Dubreucq, Eric

    2004-07-01

    Candida parapsilosis has been previously shown to produce a lipase/acyltransferase (EC 3.1.1.3) that preferentially catalyses transfer reactions such as alcoholysis over hydrolysis in the presence of suitable nucleophiles other than water, even in aqueous media (aw > 0.9 ). This enzyme has been shown to belong to a new family of lipases. The present work describes the cloning of the gene coding for this lipase/acyltransferase in the yeast Pichia pastoris and the heterologous high-level expression of the recombinant enzyme. The lipase/acyltransferase gene, in which the sequence encoding the signal peptide was replaced by that of the alpha-factor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was placed under the control of the methanol inducible promoter of the alcohol oxidase 1 gene (AOX1). A transformed P. pastoris clone, containing five copies of the lipase/acyltransferase gene, was selected for the production of recombinant enzyme. The fed-batch culture supernatant contained 5.8 gl(-1) (weighted) of almost pure recombinant lipase/acyltransferase displaying the same catalytic behavior as the original enzyme.

  19. Differentiation of Candida parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis by specific PCR amplification of the RPS0 intron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pilar Vercher, M; García Martínez, José M; Cantón, Emilia; Pemán, Javier; Gómez García, M Micaela; Gómez, Eulogio Valentín; del Castillo Agudo, Lucas

    2011-08-01

    Although Candida parapsilosis is the most prevalent among the 3 species of the *psilosis group, studies applying DNA-based diagnostic techniques with isolates previously identified as C. parapsilosis have revealed that both C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis account for 0-10% of all these isolates, depending on the geographical area. Differences in the degrees of antifungal susceptibility and virulence have been found, so a more precise identification is required. In a first approach, we reidentified 38 randomly chosen clinical isolates, previously identified as C. parapsilosis, using the RPO2 (CA2) RAPD marker. Among them, we reclassified 4 as C. metapsilosis and 5 as C. orthopsilosis. We previously developed a method to identify different pathogen yeast species, including C. parapsilosis, based on the amplification of the RPS0 gene intron. In this work, we extend this approach to the new *psilosis species by partially sequencing their RPS0 gene, including the intron sequence. Based on intron sequences, we designed specific primers capable of identifying C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis species, and we reidentified species among the initial isolates. These new primers have allowed a specific and rapid identification of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis.

  20. The mPEG-PCL Copolymer for Selective Fermentation of Staphylococcus lugdunensis Against Candida parapsilosis in the Human Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ming-Shan; Wang, Yanhan; Marito, Shinta; Huang, Stephen; Lin, Wan-Zhen; Gangoiti, Jon A; Barshop, Bruce A; Hyun, Choi; Lee, Woan-Ruah; Sanford, James A; Gallo, Richard L; Ran, Yuping; Chen, Wan-Tzu; Huang, Chun-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Fa; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Many human skin diseases, such as seborrheic dermatitis, potentially occur due to the over-growth of fungi. It remains a challenge to develop fungicides with a lower risk of generating resistant fungi and non-specifically killing commensal microbes. Our probiotic approaches using a selective fermentation initiator of skin commensal bacteria, fermentation metabolites or their derivatives provide novel therapeutics to rein in the over-growth of fungi. Staphylococcus lugdunensis (S. lugdunensis) bacteria and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) fungi coexist in the scalp microbiome. S. lugdunensis interfered with the growth of C. parapsilosis via fermentation. A methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) copolymer functioned as a selective fermentation initiator of S. lugdunensis, selectively triggering the S. lugdunensis fermentation to produce acetic and isovaleric acids. The acetic acid and its pro-drug diethyleneglycol diacetate (Ac-DEG-Ac) effectively suppressed the growth of C. parapsilosis in vitro and impeded the fungal expansion in the human dandruff. We demonstrate for the first time that S. lugdunensis is a skin probiotic bacterium that can exploit mPEG-PCL to yield fungicidal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The concept of bacterial fermentation as a part of skin immunity to re-balance the dysbiotic microbiome warrants a novel avenue for studying the probiotic function of the skin microbiome in promoting health.

  1. Rapid and accurate identification of species belonging to the Candida parapsilosis complex by real-time PCR and melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Constantin; Duhamel, Chantal; Cattoir, Vincent; Bonhomme, Julie

    2011-04-01

    Candida parapsilosis is the second most frequent Candida species isolated from blood cultures. Since 2005, C. parapsilosis has been divided into three distinct species based on genetic traits: Candida parapsilosis, Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid real-time PCR assay able to distinguish these closely related species via a melting curve analysis. This identification method was optimized by using reference strains and well-characterized clinical isolates of Candida species. A single set of consensus primers was designed to amplify a 184 bp portion of the SADH gene in order to identify species based on the unique melt profile resulting from DNA sequence variations from each species of the complex. PCR products were detected with SYBR Green fluorescent dye and identification was established by melting curve analysis. For validation of the technique, a total of 116 clinical isolates, phenotypically identified as C. parapsilosis, were tested by real-time PCR and results were further compared with PCR-RFLP patterns of the SADH gene, used as the reference method. The melting curve analysis of amplified DNA could differentiate between C. parapsilosis (83.5 °C), C. metapsilosis (82.9 °C) and C. orthopsilosis (82.1 °C), with a sensitivity and specificity comparable to those of the reference method. One hundred and fourteen C. parapsilosis and two C. orthopsilosis isolates were identified among the clinical isolates. This method provides a simple, rapid and reliable identification of species belonging to the C. parapsilosis complex. This novel approach could be helpful for clinical and epidemiological investigations.

  2. Evaluation of the correlation of caspofungin MICs and treatment outcome in murine infections by wild type strains of Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Valentina; Pastor, F Javier; Capilla, Javier; Sutton, Deanna A; Mayayo, Emilio; Fothergill, Annette W; Rinaldi, Michael G; Guarro, Josep

    2013-09-01

    We have evaluated the in vitro activity of caspofungin against 36 wild-type strains of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto using 3 techniques: broth microdilution, disk diffusion, and the determination of minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC). The first 2 methods showed a good in vitro activity of caspofungin, but the MFCs were ≥2 dilutions above their corresponding MICs. In a murine model of disseminated infection, we evaluated the efficacy of caspofungin at 5 mg/kg against 8 strains of C. parapsilosis representing different degrees of in vitro susceptibility (0.12-1 μg/mL). All the isolates responded to treatment and (1→3)-β-D-glucan levels were reduced in all the cases; however, the study revealed differences among isolates, since caspofungin reduced the tissue burden of mice infected with isolates with MICs ≤0.5 μg/mL but was less effective against those with MICs of 1 μg/mL.

  3. Simple, Low-Cost Detection of Candida parapsilosis Complex Isolates and Molecular Fingerprinting of Candida orthopsilosis Strains in Kuwait by ITS Region Sequencing and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadzadeh, Mohammad; Ahmad, Suhail; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Al-Sweih, Noura; Khan, Ziauddin

    2015-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis has now emerged as the second or third most important cause of healthcare-associated Candida infections. Molecular studies have shown that phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates represent a complex of three species, namely, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Lodderomyces elongisporus is another species phenotypically closely related to the C. parapsilosis-complex. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, low cost multiplex (m) PCR assay for species-specific identification of C. parapsilosis complex isolates and to study genetic relatedness of C. orthopsilosis isolates in Kuwait. Species-specific amplicons from C. parapsilosis (171 bp), C. orthopsilosis (109 bp), C. metapsilosis (217 bp) and L. elongisporus (258 bp) were obtained in mPCR. Clinical isolates identified as C. parapsilosis (n = 380) by Vitek2 in Kuwait and an international collection of 27 C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates previously characterized by rDNA sequencing were analyzed to evaluate mPCR. Species-specific PCR and DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA were performed to validate the results of mPCR. Fingerprinting of 19 clinical C. orthopsilosis isolates (including 4 isolates from a previous study) was performed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. Phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates (n = 380) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (n = 361), C. orthopsilosis (n = 15), C. metapsilosis (n = 1) and L. elongisporus (n = 3) by mPCR. The mPCR also accurately detected all epidemiologically unrelated C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates. The 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates obtained from 16 patients were divided into 3 haplotypes based on ITS region sequence data. Seven distinct genotypes were identified among the 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates by AFLP including a dominant genotype (AFLP1) comprising 11 isolates recovered from 10 patients. A

  4. Comparison of in vitro and vivo efficacy of caspofungin against Candida parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földi, Richárd; Kovács, Renátó; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Kardos, Gábor; Berényi, Réka; Juhász, Béla; Szilágyi, Judit; Mózes, Julianna; Majoros, László

    2012-10-01

    Caspofungin activity was determined in vitro and in vivo against three Candida orthopsilosis, three C. metapsilosis, two C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and two C. albicans isolates. MIC values and killing activity were determined in RPMI-1640 plus 50 % human serum. Neutropenic (cyclophosphamide-treated) mice were infected intravenously. Five-day intraperitoneal treatment with caspofungin was started after 24 h postinfection. Kidney burden was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's post-test. In killing studies, caspofungin was fungistatic and fungicidal against C. albicans at ≥0.25 and ≥2 μg/ml concentrations, respectively. Caspofungin was fungistatic at ≥8-16, ≥2-8 and at ≥2-8 μg/ml against C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis, respectively. In the murine model, C. albicans was inhibited by 1, 2 and 5 mg/kg of caspofungin (P caspofungin was effective against both isolates (P caspofungin was effective against all C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates (P caspofungin against four Candida species. Caspofungin at clinically attainable concentrations proved to be effective against all four species.

  5. Candida parapsilosis complex water isolates from a haemodialysis unit: biofilm production and in vitro evaluation of the use of clinical antifungals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Helena Pires

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida parapsilosis, currently divided into three distinct species, proliferates in glucose-rich solutions and has been associated with infections resulting from the use of medical devices made of plastic, an environment common in dialysis centres. The aims of this study were (i to screen for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis (100 environmental isolates previously identified as C. parapsilosis, (ii to test the ability of these isolates to form biofilm and (iii to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of Candida spp biofilms to the antifungal agents, fluconazole (FLC and amphotericin B (AMB. Isolates were obtained from a hydraulic circuit collected from a haemodialysis unit. Based on molecular criteria, 47 strains were re-identified as C. orthopsilosis and 53 as C. parapsilosis. Analyses using a formazan salt reduction assay and total viable count, together with microscopy studies, revealed that 72 strains were able to form biofilm that was structurally similar, but with minor differences in morphology. A microtitre-based colorimetric assay used to test the susceptibility of fungal biofilms to AMB and FLC demonstrated that the C. parapsilosis complex displayed an increased resistance to these antifungal agents. The results from these analyses may provide a basis for implementing quality controls and monitoring to ensure the microbiological purity of dialysis water, including the presence of yeast.

  6. Biofilm production and antifungal susceptibility of co-cultured Malassezia pachydermatis and Candida parapsilosis isolated from canine seborrheic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumroongthai, K; Chetanachan, P; Niyomtham, W; Yurayart, C; Prapasarakul, N

    2016-07-01

    The yeasts Malassezia (M.) pachydermatis and Candida (C.) parapsilosis are often co-isolated in case of canine seborrhea dermatitis (SD) and also are emerging as opportunistic pathogens of immunocompromised human beings. Increased information about how their relationship results in biofilm production and an antifungal response would be useful to inform treatment and control. This study was designed to investigate biofilm production derived from co-culture of M. pachydermatis and C. parapsilosis from dog skin and to determine their in vitro antifungal susceptibility. We demonstrated that regardless of yeast strain or origin all single and dual cultures produced biofilms within 24 hours, and the greatest amount was present after 72 hours. Biofilm production from mixed cultures was greater than for single strains (P < .05). All sessile forms of the single and dual cultures were resistant to the tested antifungals itraconazole and ketoconazole, whereas planktonic forms were susceptible. The study suggests that dual cultures produce stronger biofilms that are likely to enhance persistence in skin lesions in dogs and result in greater resistance to antifungal treatment.

  7. Cloning and expression of the gene encoding (R)-specific carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis CCTCC M203011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The gene which encodes (R)-specific carbonyl reductase (rCR) from Candida parapsilosis CCTCC M203011 was cloned, sequenced and compared with genes from the GenBank. The results indicated that rCR gene was 1011 bp, encoding a protein of 336 amino acids with a molecular weight of 35.9 kDa, and its nucleotide sequence showed 99% similarity to those of other members of the alcohol dehydrogenase superfamily. The rCR gene could express in recombinant strain Escherichia coli JM 109, and the expression plasmid could produce (R)-1-pheny-1,2-ethanediol (100% e.e., 80.14% yield) fromβ-hydroxyacetophenone without any additive to regenerate NAD+ from NADH.

  8. Isolamento de Candida parapsilosis em paciente com diagnóstico clínico de candidíase atrófica crônica

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Ana Cristina Azevedo; Falcão, Antônio Fernando P.; Andrade, Ana Paula [UNESP; SOUZA, ELISABETE RIBEIRO DE

    2002-01-01

    p.124-128 Espécies do gênero Candida fazem parte da microbiota indígena bucal. Podem causar diferentes tipos de candidoses, quando fatores locais ou sistêmicos interrompem o equilíbrio ecológico, tornando o fungo um patógeno oportunista. A candidíase atrófica crônica ou estomatite por dentadura é freqüente em nosso meio, sendo o principal agente etiológico a Candida albicans. Outras espécies como a Candida parapsilosis, C. tropicalis e C. stellatoidea também podem ser iso...

  9. Evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry for identification of Candida parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles-Melero, I; García-Rodríguez, J; Gómez-López, A; Mingorance, J

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry for the rapid identification of Candida parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. A total of 103 isolates, including reference strains and clinical isolates, were identified by pyrosequencing of the ITS1 region and then assay by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Concordance between the two methods was 100%, showing that MALDI-TOF may be useful as a rapid and reliable method for discrimination of species within the C. parapsilosis group.

  10. In Vitro Fungicidal Activities of Echinocandins against Candida metapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. parapsilosis Evaluated by Time-Kill Studies ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Cantón, Emilia; Espinel-Ingroff, Ana; Pemán, Javier; del Castillo, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    Anidulafungin, micafungin, and caspofungin in vitro activities against Candida metapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. parapsilosis were evaluated by MICs and time-kill methods. All echinocandins showed lower MICs (mean MICs, 0.05 to 0.71 mg/liter) and the highest killing rates (−0.06 to −0.05 CFU/ml/h) for C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis rather than for C. parapsilosis (mean MICs, 0.59 to 1.68 mg/liter). Micafungin and anidulafungin killing rates were greater than those determined for ca...

  11. Simple, Low-Cost Detection of Candida parapsilosis Complex Isolates and Molecular Fingerprinting of Candida orthopsilosis Strains in Kuwait by ITS Region Sequencing and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asadzadeh

    Full Text Available Candida parapsilosis has now emerged as the second or third most important cause of healthcare-associated Candida infections. Molecular studies have shown that phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates represent a complex of three species, namely, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Lodderomyces elongisporus is another species phenotypically closely related to the C. parapsilosis-complex. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, low cost multiplex (m PCR assay for species-specific identification of C. parapsilosis complex isolates and to study genetic relatedness of C. orthopsilosis isolates in Kuwait. Species-specific amplicons from C. parapsilosis (171 bp, C. orthopsilosis (109 bp, C. metapsilosis (217 bp and L. elongisporus (258 bp were obtained in mPCR. Clinical isolates identified as C. parapsilosis (n = 380 by Vitek2 in Kuwait and an international collection of 27 C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates previously characterized by rDNA sequencing were analyzed to evaluate mPCR. Species-specific PCR and DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of rDNA were performed to validate the results of mPCR. Fingerprinting of 19 clinical C. orthopsilosis isolates (including 4 isolates from a previous study was performed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis. Phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates (n = 380 were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (n = 361, C. orthopsilosis (n = 15, C. metapsilosis (n = 1 and L. elongisporus (n = 3 by mPCR. The mPCR also accurately detected all epidemiologically unrelated C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates. The 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates obtained from 16 patients were divided into 3 haplotypes based on ITS region sequence data. Seven distinct genotypes were identified among the 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates by AFLP including a dominant genotype (AFLP1 comprising 11 isolates recovered from 10

  12. Ribosomic DNA intergenic spacer 1 region is useful when identifying Candida parapsilosis spp. complex based on high-resolution melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago, Sara; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Marconi, Marco; Buitrago, María José; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kersey, Paul J; Mellado, Emilia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Cuesta, Isabel

    2014-07-01

    The epidemiology of Candida parapsilosis and the closely related species C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis has changed in recent years, justify the need to identify this complex at the species level. In this study we investigate the intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) to evaluate the utility of this gene region as a phylogenetic molecular marker and the suitability of a high-resolution melting (HRM) strategy based on this region for identification of members of the C. parapsilosis spp. complex. We sequenced the IGS1 and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the rDNA from 33 C. parapsilosis sensu lato strains. Although both regions are useful in identifying species, comparative sequence analysis showed that the diversity in the IGS1 region was higher than in the ITS sequences. We also developed an HRM analysis that reliably identifies C. parapsilosis spp. complex based on the amplification of 70 bp in the IGS1 region. All isolates were correctly identified with a confidence interval >98%. Our results demonstrate that HRM analysis based on the IGS1 region is a powerful tool for distinguishing C. parapsilosis from cryptic species.

  13. Isolation and drug susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis sensu lato and other species of C. parapsilosis complex from patients with blood stream infections and proposal of a novel LAMP identification method for the species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabasso, Plinio; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Fagnani, Renata; Muraosa, Yasunori; Tominaga, Kenichiro; Resende, Mariangela Ribeiro; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Mikami, Yuzuru; Schreiber, Angelica Zaninelli; Moretti, Maria Luiza

    2015-02-01

    Candida parapsilosis complex (CPC) is the third Candida species isolated in blood cultures of patients from our Hospital, following C. albicans and C. tropicalis. From 2006 to 2010, the median annual distribution of CPC was 8 cases/year. Records of 36 patients were reviewed. CPC were 31 (86.1%) C. parapsilosis; 4 (11.1%) C. orthopsilosis; and 1 (2.8%) C. metapsilosis. Clinical characteristics were central venous catheter, 34 (94.4%); parental nutrition, 25 (70%); surgery, 27 (57.9%); prior bacteremia, 20 (51.3%); malignancy, 18 (50%). General mortality was 47.2%. Death was higher in immunosuppressed patients (17 vs. 11; p = 0.003). Three out four (75%) patients with C. orthopsilosis and 14 out 31 (45.2%) with C. parapsilosis died (p = 0.558). Thirty-nine individual isolates were tested for susceptibility to seven antifungal drugs, with MICs values showing susceptibility to all of them. Two isolates, one C. orthopsilosis and one C. parapsilosis, had fluconazole MIC = 4 μg/mL. Differentiation among CPC has implication in caring for patients with invasive candidiasis since there are differences in virulence, pathogenicity and drug susceptibility. A method targeting the topoisomerase II gene based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was developed. LAMP emerges as a promising tool for the identification of fungal species due to the high sensitivity and specificity. LAMP can be performed at the point-of-care, being no necessary the use of expensive equipment. In our study, the method was successful comparing to the DNA sequencing and proved to be a reliable and fast assay to distinguish the three species of CPC.

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Bacillus cereus, and Candida parapsilosis from a multicontaminated soil alleviate metal toxicity in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcón, Rosario; Perálvarez, María del Carmen; Roldán, Antonio; Barea, José-Miguel

    2010-05-01

    We investigated if the limited development of Trifolium repens growing in a heavy metal (HM) multicontaminated soil was increased by selected native microorganisms, bacteria (Bacillus cereus (Bc)), yeast (Candida parapsilosis (Cp)), or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), used either as single or dual inoculants. These microbial inoculants were assayed to ascertain whether the selection of HM-tolerant microorganisms can benefit plant growth and nutrient uptake and depress HM acquisition. The inoculated microorganisms, particularly in dual associations, increased plant biomass by 148% (Bc), 162%, (Cp), and 204% (AMF), concomitantly producing the highest symbiotic (AMF colonisation and nodulation) rates. The lack of AMF colonisation and nodulation in plants growing in this natural, polluted soil was compensated by adapted microbial inoculants. The metal bioaccumulation abilities of the inoculated microorganisms and particularly the microbial effect on decreasing metal concentrations in shoot biomass seem to be involved in such effects. Regarding microbial HM tolerance, the activities of antioxidant enzymes known to play an important role in cell protection by alleviating cellular oxidative damage, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase, were here considered as an index of microbial metal tolerance. Enzymatic mechanisms slightly changed in the HM-adapted B. cereus or C. parapsilosis in the presence of metals. Antioxidants seem to be directly involved in the adaptative microbial response and survival in HM-polluted sites. Microbial inoculations showed a bioremediation potential and helped plants to develop in the multicontaminated soil. Thus, they could be used as a biotechnological tool to improve plant development in HM-contaminated environments.

  15. 氟康唑对近平滑念珠菌生物膜的影响%Effect of fluconazole on biofilm of Candida parapsilosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁秀荣; 苏建荣

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究近平滑念珠菌不同时期生物膜对氟康唑的药物敏感性及氟康唑对其生物膜生成的影响。方法甲基四氮盐( XTT)减低法检测不同阶段生物膜对氟康唑的敏感性及生物膜的生成量。结果对氟康唑敏感的近平滑念珠菌在生物膜生成12 h后即对氟康唑耐药。在12、24和48 h时间点,治疗浓度为8μg/mL的氟康唑均可显著抑制氟康唑耐药株生物膜的生成;浓度0.5μg/mL的氟康唑可显著抑制氟康唑敏感株生物膜形成,但要抑制耐药株生物膜的形成则需更高浓度的氟康唑(≥1μg/mL)。结论近平滑念珠菌不同阶段生物膜对氟康唑耐药性不同,氟康唑可显著抑制近平滑念珠菌敏感株和耐药株生物膜的生成。%Objective To explore the sensitivity of Candida parapsilosis cells grown in developing biofilm to fluconazole and the effect of different concentration of fluconazole on Candida parapsilosis biofilm formation .Methods XTT reduction assay was used to evaluate the effect of fluconazole on developing biofilm of Candida parapsilosis and the inhibition of fluconazole on Candida parapsilosis biofilm formation.Results Twelve-hours biofilms of fluconazole-susceptible strains were resistant to fluconazole .At 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h time points, biofilm formation by fluconazole-resistant strains was significantly inhibited when fluconazole ( 8 μg/mL ) was present. Concentration of 0.5 μg/mL of fluconazole could reduce the biofilm formation by fluconazole-susceptible strains, but the concentration of fluconazole was higher (≥1 μg/mL) for fluconazole-resistant strains .Conclusion The sensitivity to fluconazole of Candida parapsilosis cells grown in developing biofilms was different .Fluconazole inhibited biofilm formation by a variety of laboratory isolated strains .

  16. Biodiesel production from crude jatropha oil catalyzed by immobilized lipase/acyltransferase from Candida parapsilosis in aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Joana; Perrier, Véronique; Lecomte, Jérôme; Dubreucq, Eric; Ferreira-Dias, Suzana

    2016-10-01

    The lipase/acyltransferase from Candida parapsilosis (CpLIP2) immobilized on two synthetic resins (Accurel MP 1000 and Lewatit VP OC 1600) was used as catalyst for the production of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAME) by transesterification of jatropha oil with methanol, in a lipid/aqueous system. The oil was dispersed in a buffer solution (pH 6.5) containing methanol in excess (2M in the biphasic system; molar ratio methanol/acyl chains 2:1). Transesterification was carried out at 30°C, under magnetic stirring, using 10% (w/w) of immobilized enzyme in relation to oil. The maximum FAME yields were attained after 8h reaction time: 80.5% and 93.8%, when CpLIP2 immobilized on Accurel MP 1000 or on Lewatit VP OC 1600 were used, respectively. CpLIP2 on both Accurel MP 1000 and Lewatit VP OC 1600 showed high operational stability along 5 consecutive 8h batches.

  17. ISOLAMENTO DE CANDIDA PARAPSILOSIS EM PACIENTE COM DIAGNÓSTICO CLÍNICO DE CANDIDÍASE ATRÓFICA CRÔNICA

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Ana Cristina Azevedo; Falcão, Antônio Fernando P.; Andrade, Ana Paula [UNESP; SOUZA, ELISABETE RIBEIRO DE

    2002-01-01

    p. 124 - 128 Espécies do gênero Candida fazem parte da microbiota indígena bucal. Podem causar diferentes tipos de candidoses, quando fatores locais ou sistêmicos interrompem o equilíbrio ecológico, tornando o fungo um patógeno oportunista. A candidíase atrófica crônica ou estomatite por dentadura é freqüente em nosso meio, sendo o principal agente etiológico a Candida albicans. Outras espécies como a Candida parapsilosis, C. tropicalis e C. stellatoidea também podem ser isoladas da infecç...

  18. Comparison of commercial methods and the CLSI broth microdilution to determine the antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis complex bloodstream isolates from three health institutions in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena G; Barbedo, Leonardo S; Oliveira, Manoel M E; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M

    2014-08-01

    Two commercial methods, the Etest and Vitek 2, were compared with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method to determine the susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis complex to amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole, voriconazole, and itraconazole. One-hundred bloodstream isolates of C. parapsilosis complex from three hospitals in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, between 1998 and 2006 were analyzed. C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (61 %) was the predominant species, followed by C. orthopsilosis (37 %) and C. metapsilosis (2 %). Most isolates were susceptible to the tested drugs. However, one C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolate was considered resistant for amphotericin B. The essential agreement was 100 % between the methods, except for itraconazole (96.3 %). The categorical agreement varied for fluconazole and itraconazole by Etest and for amphotericin B and fluconazole by Vitek 2. This study reinforces the suitability of the commercial methods in routine clinical microbiology laboratories for antifungal susceptibility testing.

  19. Efficient anti-Prelog enantioselective reduction of acetyltrimethylsilane to (R-1-trimethylsilylethanol by immobilized Candida parapsilosis CCTCC M203011 cells in ionic liquid-based biphasic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Bo-Bo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biocatalytic asymmetric reductions with whole cells can offer high enantioselectivity, environmentally benign processes and energy-effective operations and thus are of great interest. The application of whole cell-mediated bioreduction is often restricted if substrate and product have low water solubility and/or high toxicity to the biocatalyst. Many studies have shown that a biphasic system is often useful in this instance. Hence, we developed efficient biphasic reaction systems with biocompatible water-immiscible ionic liquids (ILs, to improve the biocatalytic anti-Prelog enantioselective reduction of acetyltrimethylsilane (ATMS to (R-1-trimethylsilylethanol {(R-1-TMSE}, which is key synthon for a large number of silicon-containing drugs, using immobilized Candida parapsilosis CCTCC M203011 cells as the biocatalyst. Results It was found that the substrate ATMS and the product 1-TMSE exerted pronounced toxicity to immobilized Candida parapsilosis CCTCC M203011 cells. The biocompatible water-immiscible ILs can be applied as a substrate reservoir and in situ extractant for the product, thus greatly enhancing the efficiency of the biocatalytic process and the operational stability of the cells as compared to the IL-free aqueous system. Various ILs exerted significant but different effects on the bioreduction and the performances of biocatalysts were closely related to the kinds and combination of cation and anion of ILs. Among all the water-immiscible ILs investigated, the best results were observed in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (C4mim·PF6/buffer biphasic system. Furthermore, it was shown that the optimum substrate concentration, volume ratio of buffer to IL, buffer pH, reaction temperature and shaking rate for the bioreduction were 120 mM, 8/1 (v/v, 6.0, 30°C and 180 r/min, respectively. Under these optimized conditions, the initial reaction rate, the maximum yield and the product e.e. were 8.1

  20. Antifungal Activity of Cumin Oil Against Candida parapsilosis SS25, C. orthopsilosis NN14, C. metapsilosis MP27, and C. etchellsii MP18.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellyzar Sjamsuridzal4

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal Activity of Cumin Oil Against Candida parapsilosis SS25, C. orthopsilosis NN14, C. metapsilosisMP27, and C. etchellsii MP18. Many kinds of spices are used in Indonesia, one of them is white cumin seed. Thisspice is used not only for cooking, but also for traditional medicine. This study reported of antifungal activity fromwhite cumin’s essential oil. Extraction and identification of Cumin oil were carried out. We obtained 2.5-3.0% of whiteessential oil which was colorless or light yellow color. GCMS analysis revealed that there were 12 peaks. Based onpeak’s intensity the oil were dominated by 4 compound i.e. cuminaldehide (35.44%, ρ-cymene (34.77%, β-pynene(15.08 % and γ-terpinene (8.15%. Growth inhibition zone determination has been carried out by diffusion disc anddirect method against yeast i.e. C. parapsilosis SS25, C. orthopsilosis NN14, C. metapsilosis MP27, and C. etchellsiiMP18. The results showed that all of the yeasts were sensitive to cumin oil. The inhibition zone radius were 13.4-16.5mm. The cumin oil showed the inhibition of yeast growth with MIC values of 0.028%-0.042% and MFC values 0.09%-0.14%, while nystatin had MIC values 0.40%-0.50% and MFC values 3.0%-4.0%. The activity of cumin oil was verystrong as antifungal.

  1. The identification and differentiation of the Candida parapsilosis complex species by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer region of the rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbedo, Leonardo Silva; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Muniz, Mauro de Medeiros; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-04-01

    Currently, it is accepted that there are three species that were formerly grouped under Candida parapsilosis: C. para- psilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis. In fact, the antifungal susceptibility profiles and distinct virulence attributes demonstrate the differences in these nosocomial pathogens. An accurate, fast, and economical identification of fungal species has been the main goal in mycology. In the present study, we searched sequences that were available in the GenBank database in order to identify the complete sequence for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1-5.8S-ITS2 region, which is comprised of the forward and reverse primers ITS1 and ITS4. Subsequently, an in silico polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was performed to differentiate the C. parapsilosis complex species. Ninety-eight clinical isolates from patients with fungaemia were submitted for analysis, where 59 isolates were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 37 were identified as C. orthopsilosis, and two were identified as C. metapsilosis. PCR-RFLP quickly and accurately identified C. parapsilosis complex species, making this method an alternative and routine identification system for use in clinical mycology laboratories.

  2. The identification and differentiation of the Candida parapsilosis complex species by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer region of the rDNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Silva Barbedo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, it is accepted that there are three species that were formerly grouped under Candida parapsilosis: C. para- psilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, andCandida metapsilosis. In fact, the antifungal susceptibility profiles and distinct virulence attributes demonstrate the differences in these nosocomial pathogens. An accurate, fast, and economical identification of fungal species has been the main goal in mycology. In the present study, we searched sequences that were available in the GenBank database in order to identify the complete sequence for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, which is comprised of the forward and reverse primers ITS1 and ITS4. Subsequently, an in silico polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP was performed to differentiate the C. parapsilosis complex species. Ninety-eight clinical isolates from patients with fungaemia were submitted for analysis, where 59 isolates were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 37 were identified as C. orthopsilosis, and two were identified as C. metapsilosis. PCR-RFLP quickly and accurately identified C. parapsilosis complex species, making this method an alternative and routine identification system for use in clinical mycology laboratories.

  3. The identification and differentiation of the Candida parapsilosis complex species by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer region of the rDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbedo, Leonardo Silva; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Muniz, Mauro de Medeiros; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-01-01

    Currently, it is accepted that there are three species that were formerly grouped under Candida parapsilosis: C. para- psilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, andCandida metapsilosis. In fact, the antifungal susceptibility profiles and distinct virulence attributes demonstrate the differences in these nosocomial pathogens. An accurate, fast, and economical identification of fungal species has been the main goal in mycology. In the present study, we searched sequences that were available in the GenBank database in order to identify the complete sequence for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1-5.8S-ITS2 region, which is comprised of the forward and reverse primers ITS1 and ITS4. Subsequently, an in silico polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was performed to differentiate the C. parapsilosis complex species. Ninety-eight clinical isolates from patients with fungaemia were submitted for analysis, where 59 isolates were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 37 were identified as C. orthopsilosis, and two were identified as C. metapsilosis. PCR-RFLP quickly and accurately identified C. parapsilosis complex species, making this method an alternative and routine identification system for use in clinical mycology laboratories. PMID:27074256

  4. Candida Infection of the Bloodstream - Candidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 17 different species of Candida. Of these, Candida albicans (C. albicans), C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. ... blood. In many cases, the species found is Candida albicans , however, other species of Candida, Candida tropicalis , C. ...

  5. Plausible exploitation of Jatropha de-oiled seed cake for lipase and phytase production and simultaneous detoxification by Candida parapsilosis isolated from poultry garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannoju, Balakrishna; Ganapathiwar, Swaruparani; Nunavath, Hanumalal; Sunkar, Bindu; Bhukya, Bhima

    2017-02-01

    Jatropha de-oiled seed cake was explored to utilize as a basic nutrient source for Candida parapsilosis, isolated from poultry garbage and selected based on the production of lipase and phytase enzymes under submerged fermentation. At optimized parameters under solid-state fermentation, lipase and phytase activities were recorded as 1056.66±2.92 and 833±2.5U/g of substrate (U/g), respectively. Besides enzyme production, complete elimination of phorbol esters and significant phytate reduction from 6.51±0.01 to 0.43±0.01g/100g of seed cake were noted after 3days incubation. Curcin and trypsin inhibition activity were reduced significantly from 26.33±0.43 to 0.56±0.02mg/100g and 229.33±2.02 to 11.66±0.28U/g, respectively after 5days incubation. Saponins were reduced from 5.56±0.19 to 1.95±0.01g/100g of seed cake after 7days incubation.

  6. Using a water-immiscible ionic liquid to improve asymmetric reduction of 4-(trimethylsilyl-3-butyn-2-one catalyzed by immobilized Candida parapsilosis CCTCC M203011 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Thomas J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole cells are usually employed for biocatalytic reduction reactions to ensure efficient coenzyme regeneration and to avoid problems with enzyme purification and stability. The efficiency of whole cell-catalyzed bioreduction is frequently restricted by pronounced toxicity of substrate and/or product to the microbial cells and in many instances the use of two-phase reaction systems can solve such problems. Therefore, we developed new, biphasic reaction systems with biocompatible water-immiscible ionic liquids (ILs as alternatives to conventional organic solvents, in order to improve the asymmetric reduction of 4-(trimethylsilyl-3-butyn-2-one (TMSB to (S-4-(trimethylsilyl-3-butyn-2-ol {(S-TMSBOL}, a key intermediate for synthesis of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors, using immobilized Candida parapsilosis CCTCC M203011 cells as the biocatalyst. Results Various ILs exerted significant but different effects on the bioreduction. Of all the tested water-immiscible ILs, the best results were observed with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (C4MIM·PF6, which exhibited not only good biocompatibility with the cells but also excellent solvent properties for the toxic substrate and product, thus markedly improving the efficiency of the bioreduction and the operational stability of the cells as compared to the IL-free aqueous system. 2-Propanol was shown to be the most suitable co-substrate for coenzyme regeneration, and it was found that the optimum volume ratio of buffer to C4MIM·PF6, substrate concentration, buffer pH, 2-propanol concentration and reaction temperature were 4/1 (v/v, 24 mM, 5.5, 130 mM and 30°C, respectively. Under these optimized conditions, the maximum yield and the product e.e. wer 97.7% and >99%, respectively, which are much higher than the corresponding values previously reported. The efficient whole-cell biocatalytic process was shown to be feasible on a 250-mL scale. Conclusion The whole cell

  7. Candida parapsilosis-c aused candidiasis characterized by verrucous nodules: two case reports%以疣状结节为特征的近平滑念珠菌病二例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑岳臣; 曾敬思; 连昕; 张桂英; 毛叶红

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report two cases of Candida parapsilosis-caused candidiasis characterized by verrucous nodules and masses,and to assess their clinical features,diagnosis and treatment.Methods A medical history including medication history and therapeutic response was carefully collected from two male patients.Physical examination was carried out with a focus on skin lesions.Diagnosis was made according to medical history as well as physical,mycological and histopathological examination findings.Antifungal agents were given at a high enough dose in time.After lesions improved,the doses of antifungal agents were tapered gradually,and drugs were withdrawn until patients completely healed.Compound preparations containing both antifungal agents and glucocorticoids were also topically applied in the early period of treatment.Results Both patients were diagnosed as Candida parapsilosis-caused candidiasis characterized by verrucous nodules and masses,and cured after 100-day supporting treatment and antifungal treatment with oral itraconazole,etc.Conclusions Candida parapsilosis-caused candidiasis should be managed with combination therapy mainly including antifungal agents.To achieve a satisfying efficacy,antifungal agents should be given early at a high enough dose for a long enough period.%目的 报告2例以疣状结节、肿块为特征的近平滑念珠菌病,分析其临床特征、探讨诊治方法.方法 仔细询问病史、了解用药史及疗效,体检时重点检查皮损和真菌学检查,结合组织病理学而确诊.及时给予足量的抗真菌药物,见效后渐减量,直至痊愈才停药.早期外用含糖皮质激素的抗真菌制剂等治疗.结果 2例确诊为以疣状结节肿块为特征的平滑念珠菌病.经服伊曲康唑等治疗及支持治疗100 d痊愈.结论 坚持以抗真菌为主的综合治疗,抗真菌药物要早期、足量、足疗程,以达满意疗效.

  8. Combined effect of crude herbal extracts, pH and sucrose on the survival of Candida parapsilosis and Zygosaccharomyces fermentati in orange juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aran H-Kittikun

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of cinnamon and clove compared with potassium sorbate against food spoilage yeasts isolated from orange juice (Candidaparapsilosis and Zygosaccharomyces fermentati. The ethanolic extract of both cinnamon and clove showed activity against C. parapsilosis and Z. fermentati with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of 1.0 and0.5 mg/ml by agar dilution method, respectively. While potassium sorbate showed activity against both yeasts with MIC 0.4 mg/ml. The combined effect of pH, concentration of sucrose and cinnamon extract or cloveextract or potassium sorbate in orange juice on the survival of the isolated yeasts were studied using Response Surface Methodology. The pH of orange juice and the concentration of cinnamon or clove extracthad the most significant (P<0.05 effect on the survival of C. parapsilosis and Z. fermentati while concentration of sucrose had the least effect. Survival of C. parapsilosis and Z. fermentati was mostly affected by theconcentration of potassium sorbate but pH and the concentration of sucrose did not have significant effect on the survival of Z. fermentati.

  9. Elucidation of a key position for acyltransfer activity in Candida parapsilosis lipase/acyltransferase (CpLIP2) and in Pseudozyma antarctica lipase A (CAL-A) by rational design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Anne-Hélène; Subileau, Maeva; Deyrieux, Charlotte; Perrier, Véronique; Dubreucq, Éric

    2016-02-01

    Performing transesterifications in aqueous media is becoming a priority challenge in lipid biotechnology in order to develop more eco-friendly and efficient biocatalytic processes in systems containing both polar and apolar substrates. In this context, our group has explored for several years the high potential of the lipase/acyltransferase CpLIP2 from Candida parapsilosis and of several of its homologs, that catalyze efficiently acyltransfer reactions in lipid/water media with high water activity (aw>0.9). The discovery of a new member of this group, CduLAc from Candida dubliniensis, with a higher acyltransferase activity than CpLIP2, has provided a new insight on structure-function relationships in this group. Indeed, the comparison of sequences and 3D models, especially of CpLIP2 and CduLAc, with those of the phylogenetically related lipase A from Pseudozyma antarctica (CAL-A), allowed elucidating a key structural determinant of the acyltransferase activity: serine S369 in CpLIP2 and its equivalents E370 in CAL-A and A366 in CduLAc. Mutants obtained by rational design at this key position showed significant changes in acyltransfer activity. Whereas mutation S369E resulted in an increase in the hydrolytic activity of CpLIP2, S369A increased alcoholysis. More strikingly, the single E370A mutation in CAL-A drastically increased the acyltransferase activity of this enzyme, giving it the character of a lipase/acyltransferase. Indeed, this single mutation lowered the methanol concentration for which the initial rates of alcoholysis and hydrolysis are equal from 2M in CAL-A down to 0.3M in its mutant, while the exceptional stability of the parental enzyme toward alcohol and temperature was conserved.

  10. 1株酵母菌产GABA发酵条件的优化%Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Producing γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) by Candida parapsilosis GPT-5-11

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚莉; 秘鸣; 魏珍珍; 史佳; 周红杰

    2013-01-01

    The optimized fermentation conditions of Candida parapsilosis GPT-5-11 (patent number:201010182948.5) were analyzed for the production ofγ-aminobutyric acid by liquid fermentation experiments. The liquid fermentation experiments included selection of fermentation medium and cultivating conditions such as pH, concentration of L-MSG and period. The results showed that the optimum conditions were as follows: the optimal medium composition was glucose 24.5 g/L, yeast 6.2 g/L, soy peptone 6.2 g/L, Twain 80 2 g/L mL, alcohol 4 mL, MgSO4·7H2O 0.2 g/L, MnSO4·4H2O 0.045 g/L, L-MSG 12.5 g/L;concentration of L-MSG was 12 g/L; cultivating pH was 6.5; and cultivating period was 48 h under 37℃. Under optimal conditions,γ-aminobutyric acid production reached 2.58 g/L. It provided the experimental data for application of GPT-5-11.%通过液态发酵试验研究专利菌株近平滑假丝酵母(Candida parapsilosis) GPT-5-11(专利号:201010182948.5)合成γ-氨基丁酸的最佳工艺条件。对发酵培养基及发酵培养条件(初始pH、添加L-MSG浓度和发酵周期)进行优化。结果表明,最佳培养基成分为:葡萄糖24.5 g/L,酵母膏6.2 g/L,大豆蛋白胨6.2 g/L,吐温802 mL,乙醇4 mL,MgSO4·7H2O 0.2 g/L,MnSO4·4H2O 0.045 g/L,L-MSG 12.5 g/L,含0.5%谷氨酸;培养基中添加L-MSG浓度为12 g/L;pH为6.5;37℃发酵48 h。在最优条件下,γ-氨基丁酸产量最高可达2.58 g/L。实验为该菌株的进一步利用提供了参考依据。

  11. Pharmaceutical Care for Fluconazole against Candida Parapsilosis Infection in A Patient%对1例氟康唑抗近平滑念珠菌感染患者的药学监护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许文叹; 张雅兰

    2012-01-01

    目的:为临床合理用药提供参考.方法:报道1例67岁女性患者应用氟康唑抗近平滑念珠菌感染的药学监护过程.结果与结论:参照《念珠菌病处理临床实践指南》,采用氟康唑进行抗真菌治疗.在应用氟康唑注射液过程中,患者出现低血钾及呕吐,予对症治疗,根据每日血钾监测情况,积极给予静脉滴注氯化钾和口服氯化钾缓释片对症治疗;同时对患者尿路感染进行治疗.患者接受氟康唑治疗1个月后,症状较前改善.临床应加强监控,避免氟康唑相关不良反应的发生.%OBJECTIVE: To provide reference for rational drag use in the clinic. METHODS: Pharmaceutical care process for fluconazole against Candida parapsilosis infection in a 67-year-old female patient was reported. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: According to Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Candidiasis, fluconazole is chose as antifungal therapy. During the treatment, the patient experiences hypopotassaetnia and vomiting, and receives symptomatic treatment. According to serum potassium level daily monitored, the patient is supplemented with Potassium chloride injection and Potassium chloride sustained-release tablets, and receives urinary tract infections treatment. The patient has a good recovery lmonth after effective antifungal treatment. Great importance should be attached to adverse drug reaction of fluconazole.

  12. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

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    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Ji Yoon [Dept. of Pathology, National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis.

  13. DIAGNOSTIC DIFFICULTIES IN BACTERIAL SPONDYLODISCITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Orso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To analyze aspects related to the diagnostic difficulty in patients with bacterial spondylodiscitis. Methods : Cross-sectional observational study with retrospective data collected in the period from March 2004 to January 2014.Twenty-one patients diagnosed with bacterial spondylodiscitis were analyzed. Results : Women were the most affected, as well as older individuals. Pain in the affected region was the initial symptom in 52% of patients, and 45.5% of the patients had low back pain, and those with dorsal discitis had back pain as the main complaint; the patients with thoracolumbar discitis had pain in that region, and only one patient had sacroiliac discitis. The average time between onset of symptoms and treatment was five months. The lumbar segment was the most affected with 11 cases (52%, followed by thoracolumbar in 24%, dorsal in 19% of cases and a case in the sacroiliac segment. Only seven patients had fever. Pain in the affected level was coincidentally the most common symptom. Conclusions : Early diagnosis of bacterial spondylodiscitis remains a challenge due to the nonspecific signs and symptoms reported by the patient and the wide variability of laboratory results and imaging. The basis for early diagnosis remains the clinical suspicion at the time of initial treatment.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Differentatial Diagnosis of Pyogenic Spondylodiscitis and Tuberculous Spondylodiscitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frel, Małgorzata; Białecki, Jerzy; Wieczorek, Janusz; Paluch, Łukasz; Dąbrowska-Thing, Agnieszka; Walecki, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Infectious spondylodiscitis is characterized by the involvement of two adjacent vertebrae and the intervening disc. Incidence rate of the disease is estimated at 0.4–2 cases per 100000 per year. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common infectious agent causing pyogenic spondylodiscitis. Non-pyogenic infections of the spine are most frequently caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and fungi. Clinical symptoms are nonspecific. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can prevent unfavorable irreversible sequela for the patient. Significant developments in techniques of imaging of pathological tissues raised expectations among the clinicians regarding possibility to distinguish between tuberculous spondylodiscitis and pyogenic spondylodiscitis on MR images. The aim of this study was to identify and differentiate between features of tuberculous and pyogenic spondylodiscitis on MR images. Material/Methods We performed retrospective analysis of MR images obtained from 34 patients with confirmed spondylodiscitis (18 with pyogenic spondylodiscitis, and 16 with tuberculous spondylodiscitis). Data acquisition was performed using 1.5 T MRI scanners where images were obtained using similar protocols. T2 TIRM and T1-weighted images with and without contrast enhancement were subject to assessment in coronal, axial and sagittal planes. Results Characteristic features of pyogenic spondylodiscitis include: involvement of the lumbar spine, ill-defined paraspinal abnormal contrast enhancement, diffuse/homogeneous contrast enhancement of vertebral bodies, low-grade destruction of vertebral bodies, hyperintense/homogeneous signal from the vertebral bodies on T2 TIRM images. Prevailing features of tuberculous spondylodiscitis included: involvement of the thoracic spine, involvement of 2 or more adjacent vertebral bodies, severe destruction of the vertebral body, focal/heterogeneous contrast enhancement of vertebral bodies, heterogeneous signal from the vertebral

  15. Hichrom candida agar for identification of candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradkar V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromogenic media are frequently used in direct and rapid identification of yeasts because different Candida species produce unique colors on these media. We used 60 isolates of Candida species including 30 C. albicans, 10 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. glabrata, five C. tropicalis, and four C. dubliniensis, isolated from various clinical specimens, to evaluate the performance of HiChrome Candida agar. These strains had been identified by germ tube test, morphology on cornmeal agar, chlamydospore formation on tobacco agar and sugar assimilation tests. The sensitivity and specificity results were: C. albicans (96.55 and 96.42%; C. parapsilosis (80 and 98.03%, C. glabrata (90.90 and 88.23%, C. tropicalis (100 and 100% and C. dubliniensis (60 and 96.55% respectively. HiChrom Candida agaris medium has been useful and capable of presumptive, rapid identification of Candida species within 48 hours.

  16. In vitro aktivnost biofilma vrsta roda Candida izdvojenih iz anatolijskih bivolica s mastitisom u zapadnoj Turskoj.

    OpenAIRE

    ŞEKER, Esra; ÖZENÇ, Erhan

    2011-01-01

    Identificirana su bila 66 izolata roda Candida izdvojena iz uzoraka mlijeka upaljenih četvrti vimena anatolijskih bivolica upotrebom sustava API 20 C AUX. Najčešće izdvojene vrste bile su Candida krusei (27,3%), zatim Candida rugosa (16,7%), Candida kefyr (12,1%) i Candida tropicalis (10,6%). Ostale izdvojene vrste bile su Candida albicans (9,1%), Candida zeylanoides (6,1%), Candida parapsilosis (6,1%), Candida guilliermondii (4,5%), Candida famata (3,0%), Candida glabrata (3,0%) i Candida ci...

  17. Spondylodiscitis: a rare complication following percutaneous nephrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiancone, Francesco; Fedelini, Maurizio; Meccariello, Clemente; Pucci, Luigi; Fabiano, Marco; Fedelini, Paolo

    2016-11-28

    Spondylodiscitis is an inflammation of the intervertebral disc and the adjacent vertebral bodies. The spondylodiscitis can not only be a complication of medical interventions such as an operation near spinal column but also urogenital and vascular interventions and intravenous catheter use. A 71-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department with fever and severe abdominal pain. Antibiotic therapy had been performed with intravenous administration of 2 g of ceftriaxone and the patient underwent the placement of a percutaneous nephrostomy according to Seldinger technique. After 1 week, the patient experienced a severe pain at the lumbar tract of the vertebral column associated with a moderate abdominal pain and septic fever. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine showed widespread impregnation of the upper portion of L3 and the lower portion of L2 compressing the spinal roots as well as the ileopsoas muscle such as a spondylodiscitis. Liquor culture showed an increase of liquor immunoglobulin G, total liquor protein and was positive for Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) - producing Escherichia coli. After the antibiotic therapy, the spondylodiscitis resolves without important sequelae. In the present case report, we describe a very rare complication of percutaneous nephrostomy tube placement, despite of the prophylactic antibiotic therapy according to the most recent guidelines. Predisposing factors to spondylodiscitis include the very young and elderly, the immunosuppressed, diabetic individuals and a general debilitating disease such as renal failure. This case suggests the importance of remembering spondylodiscitis when septic fever and back pain occurs following the placement of a percutaneous nephrostomy in a septic patient.

  18. Kingella kingae spondylodiscitis in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bining, H J S; Saigal, G; Chankowsky, J; Rubin, E E; Camlioglu, E B

    2006-11-01

    Most osteoarticular infections in children are due to Staphylococcus aureus. In this case, the isolation of Kingella kingae by image guided disc aspiration resulted in modification and optimization of treatment. We take a look at a case of spondylodiscitis in a young child and review some of the current literature with regards to Kingella kingae infections.

  19. Clinical and MRI findings of brucellar spondylodiscitis

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    Bozgeyik, Zulkif [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)], E-mail: bozgeyik4@hotmail.com; Ozdemir, Huseyin [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Demirdag, Kutbettin; Ozden, Mehmet [Department of Infection Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey); Sonmezgoz, Fitnet [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Ozgocmen, Salih [Division of Rheumatology, Department of PMR, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey)

    2008-07-15

    Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to report the clinical features and MR imaging findings of patients with brucellar spondylodiscitis. Materials and methods: Twenty-two patients with spondylodiscitis, recruited among 152 patients with brucellosis referred from the Department of Infectious Diseases. Patients were diagnosed based on positive clinical findings, {>=}1/160 titers of brucella agglutination tests and/or positive blood cultures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to all of the patients with spondylodiscitis. Signal changes and enhancement of vertebral bodies, involvement of paravertebral soft tissues and epidural spaces, nerve root and cord compression and abscess formation were assessed. Results: All of the patients (n = 22; 7 F, 15 M) had {>=}1/160 titers of brucella agglutination test and blood culture was positive in 9. A great majority of the patients had involvement at only one vertebrae level (n = 21, 95.5%), whereas one patient (4.5%) had multilevel involvement. In MRI, eight patients had soft tissue involvement and three had abscess formation. All cases had vertebral and discal enhancement. Additionally epidural extension was detected in four cases, posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) elevation in five cases and root compression in two cases. Conclusion: Brucella is still a public health problem in endemic areas. MRI is a highly sensitive and non-invasive imaging technique which should be first choice of imaging in the early diagnosis of spondylodiscitis.

  20. Prevalence and Susceptibility Profile of Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis: Results from Population-Based Surveillance of Candidemia in Spain▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Lopez, A.; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A.; Rodriguez, D.; Almirante, B.; Pahissa, A.; Rodriguez-Tudela, J. L.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the prevalences and susceptibility profiles of two recently described species, Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis, related to Candida parapsilosis in candidemia. The prevalences of these species (1.7% for C. metapsilosis and 1.4% for C. orthopsilosis) are significant. Differences observed in their susceptibility profiles could have therapeutic importance.

  1. Prevalence and susceptibility profile of Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis: results from population-based surveillance of candidemia in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lopez, A; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A; Rodriguez, D; Almirante, B; Pahissa, A; Rodriguez-Tudela, J L; Cuenca-Estrella, M

    2008-04-01

    We describe the prevalences and susceptibility profiles of two recently described species, Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis, related to Candida parapsilosis in candidemia. The prevalences of these species (1.7% for C. metapsilosis and 1.4% for C. orthopsilosis) are significant. Differences observed in their susceptibility profiles could have therapeutic importance.

  2. Molecular identification of Candida orthopsilosis isolated from blood culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, P V C; Chong, P P; Lau, L Y; Yeoh, R S C; Jamal, F

    2008-02-01

    The incidence of candidemia and invasive candidiasis have increased markedly due to the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. There are five major medically important species of Candida with their frequency of isolation in the diminishing order namely Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei. In addition, there are numerous other species of Candida which differ in their genetic makeup, virulence properties, drug susceptibilities and sugar assimilation capabilities. In this report, an unusual Candida species was isolated from the blood of two leukaemic patients. Conventional culture and biochemical tests identified the Candida species as C. parapsilosis. Using fungal-specific oligonucleotide primers ITS1 and ITS4, we managed to amplify the ribosomal RNA gene and its internal transcribed spacer region from the genomic DNA of these isolates. The PCR products were then purified and subjected to automated DNA sequencing using BLAST and CLUSTAL sequence analysis identified these isolates to be Candida orthopsilosis. Candida orthopsilosis is a new species recently identified in 2005, being morphologically indistinguishable from C. parapsilosis and was previously classified as a subspecies of C. parapsilosis. This report highlights the importance of complementing traditional culture and biochemical-based identification methods with DNA-based molecular assays such as PCR as the latter is more superior in terms of its discriminatory power and speed.

  3. Spondylodiscitis in familial dysautonomia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghermandi, R; Mesfin, A; Terzi, S; Colangeli, S; Zamparini, E; Gasbarrini, A

    2014-01-01

    Familial dysautomonia (FD, or Riley-Day syndrome) is a rare but fatal autosomal recessive peripheral neuropathy caused by a point mutation in I-κ-B kinase complex associated protein (IKBCAP) gene. The disease, that affects primarily people of Ashkenazi Jewish origin, prejudices the development of primary sensory neurons determining depletion of autonomic and sensory neurons. Musculoskeletal problems include: spinal deformities, foot deformities, fractures and arthopathies. In this article we review a case of a 34 years old male of non-Jewish origin affected by FD presenting L2-L3 kyphosis and inability to walk due to chronic L2-L3 spondylodiscitis not surgically treated 14 years before as acute disease. De novo spondylodiscitis affecting patients presenting FD and its subsequent management was not previously described in the literature.

  4. Geographic Distribution and Antifungal Susceptibility of the Newly Described Species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in Comparison to the Closely Related Species Candida parapsilosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lockhart, Shawn R.; Messer, Shawn A.; Pfaller, Michael A.; Diekema, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species, having previously been grouped with the more prevalent species Candida parapsilosis. Current literature contains very little data pertaining to the distributions and antifungal susceptibilities of these Candida species. We determined the species and antifungal susceptibilities of 1,929 invasive clinical isolates from the ARTEMIS antifungal surveillance program collected between 2001 and 2006 and identified as C. pa...

  5. Infectious Discitis and Spondylodiscitis in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Principi; Susanna Esposito

    2016-01-01

    In children, infectious discitis (D) and infectious spondylodiscitis (SD) are rare diseases that can cause significant clinical problems, including spinal deformities and segmental instabilities. Moreover, when the infection spreads into the spinal channel, D and SD can cause devastating neurologic complications. Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce these risks. The main aim of this paper is to discuss recent concepts regarding the epidemiology, microbiology, clinical presentation, diagno...

  6. Hosting infection: experimental models to assay Candida virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccallum, Donna M

    2012-01-01

    Although normally commensals in humans, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei are capable of causing opportunistic infections in individuals with altered physiological and/or immunological responses. These fungal species are linked with a variety of infections, including oral, vaginal, gastrointestinal, and systemic infections, with C. albicans the major cause of infection. To assess the ability of different Candida species and strains to cause infection and disease requires the use of experimental infection models. This paper discusses the mucosal and systemic models of infection available to assay Candida virulence and gives examples of some of the knowledge that has been gained to date from these models.

  7. Characterization of Candida species from different populations in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Liang; Hsieh, Li-Yun; Wang, An-Huei; Lo, Hsiu-Jung

    2011-08-01

    The opportunistic Candida species existing as part of commensal microbiota in humans are usually the etiological agents causing infections. We investigated whether isolates collected from different age groups, hospital units, and sources have distinct characteristics. A total of 913 isolates comprising 395 Candida albicans, 230 Candida tropicalis, 202 Candida glabrata, 62 Candida parapsilosis, 13 Candida krusei, and 11 of other six species were analyzed. Urine was the most common source (41.2%), followed by sputum (16.3%), blood (15.2%), and others (27.3%). Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis were more prevalent in the working group [from 19 to 65 years], whereas C. tropicalis and C. glabrata were more prevalent in the elder one (≥ 66 years). We found that the age of patients and the source of isolates affect the distribution of species. On the other hand, the drug susceptibility of isolates was associated with fungal species and whether patients were hospitalized.

  8. Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida Biofilms: Unique Efficacy of Amphotericin B Lipid Formulations and Echinocandins

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, D M; T. George; CHANDRA, J; P. K. Mukherjee; Ghannoum, M A

    2002-01-01

    Biofilms, likely the predominant mode of device-related microbial infection, exhibit resistance to antimicrobial agents. Evidence suggests that Candida biofilms have dramatically reduced susceptibility to antifungal drugs. We examined antifungal susceptibilities of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis biofilms grown on a bioprosthetic model. In addition to conventional agents, we determined if new antifungal agents (triazoles, amphotericin B lipid formulations, and echinocandins) have ac...

  9. [Isolation rate and susceptibilities of candida species from blood, vascular catheter, urine and stool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Masato; Murakami, Hinako; Yoshizawa, Sadako; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida isolates during 2002-2008. Of 177 Candida isolates from blood, species distribution was 90 (51%) Candida albicans, 30 (17%) C. parapsilosis, 22 (12%) C. glabrata, 6 (3%) C. tropicalis and 29 (16%) other Candida spp.. Of 162 Candida isolates from vascular catheter, species distribution was 87 (54%) C. albicans, 14 (9%) C. parapsilosis, 36 (22%) C. glabrata, 5 (3%), C. tropicalis, 2 (1%) C. krusei and 18 (11%) other Candida spp.. Of 1889 Candida isolates from urine, species distribution was 1165 (62%) C. albicans, 22 (1%) C. parapsilosis, 484 (26%) C. glabrata, 83 (4%) C. tropicalis, 26 (1%) C. krusei and 109 (6%) other Candida spp.. Of 782 Candida isolates from stool, species distribution was 425 (54%) C. albicans, 3 (1%) C. parapsilosis, 103 (13%) C. glabrata, 28 (4%) C. tropicalis, 5 (1%), C. krusei and 218 (28%) other Candida spp. Both C. albicans and non-Candida spp. isolated from urine increased slightly over the past 7 years. Flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole and micafungin still have strong activity against Candida isolates.

  10. Candida/Candida biofilms. First description of dual-species Candida albicans/C. rugosa biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Aline Oliveira; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida Martins; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Abrão, Fariza; Moraes, Thais de; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2016-04-01

    Denture liners have physical properties that favour plaque accumulation and colonization by Candida species, irritating oral tissues and causing denture stomatitis. To isolate and determine the incidence of oral Candida species in dental prostheses, oral swabs were collected from the dental prostheses of 66 patients. All the strains were screened for their ability to form biofilms; both monospecies and dual-species combinations were tested. Candida albicans (63 %) was the most frequently isolated microorganism; Candida tropicalis (14 %), Candida glabrata (13 %), Candida rugosa (5 %), Candida parapsilosis (3 %), and Candida krusei (2 %) were also detected. The XTT assay showed that C. albicans SC5314 possessed a biofilm-forming ability significantly higher (p albicans Candida strains, after 6 h 37 °C. The total C. albicans CFU from a dual-species biofilm was less than the total CFU of a monospecies C. albicans biofilm. In contrast to the profuse hyphae verified in monospecies C. albicans biofilms, micrographies showed that the C. albicans/non-albicans Candida biofilms consisted of sparse yeast forms and profuse budding yeast cells that generated a network. These results suggested that C. albicans and the tested Candida species could co-exist in biofilms displaying apparent antagonism. The study provide the first description of C. albicans/C. rugosa mixed biofilm.

  11. Long-term mortality after Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Larsen, Anders R; Roed-Petersen, Casper;

    2014-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis have increased long-term mortality compared with the background population mainly due to infectious, endocrine, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and alcohol and drug abuse-related diseases.......Patients diagnosed with Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis have increased long-term mortality compared with the background population mainly due to infectious, endocrine, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and alcohol and drug abuse-related diseases....

  12. Infectious Discitis and Spondylodiscitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    In children, infectious discitis (D) and infectious spondylodiscitis (SD) are rare diseases that can cause significant clinical problems, including spinal deformities and segmental instabilities. Moreover, when the infection spreads into the spinal channel, D and SD can cause devastating neurologic complications. Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce these risks. The main aim of this paper is to discuss recent concepts regarding the epidemiology, microbiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric D and SD. It is highlighted that particular attention must be paid to the identification of the causative infectious agent and its sensitivity to antibiotics, remembering that traditional culture frequently leads to negative results and modern molecular methods can significantly increase the detection rate. Several different bacterial pathogens can cause D and SD, and, in some cases, particularly those due to Staphylococcus aureus, Kingella kingae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Brucella spp., the appropriate choice of drug is critical to achieve cure. PMID:27070599

  13. Infectious Discitis and Spondylodiscitis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Principi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In children, infectious discitis (D and infectious spondylodiscitis (SD are rare diseases that can cause significant clinical problems, including spinal deformities and segmental instabilities. Moreover, when the infection spreads into the spinal channel, D and SD can cause devastating neurologic complications. Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce these risks. The main aim of this paper is to discuss recent concepts regarding the epidemiology, microbiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric D and SD. It is highlighted that particular attention must be paid to the identification of the causative infectious agent and its sensitivity to antibiotics, remembering that traditional culture frequently leads to negative results and modern molecular methods can significantly increase the detection rate. Several different bacterial pathogens can cause D and SD, and, in some cases, particularly those due to Staphylococcus aureus, Kingella kingae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Brucella spp., the appropriate choice of drug is critical to achieve cure.

  14. Spondylodiscitis: update on diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouliouris, Theodore; Aliyu, Sani H; Brown, Nicholas M

    2010-11-01

    Spondylodiscitis, a term encompassing vertebral osteomyelitis, spondylitis and discitis, is the main manifestation of haematogenous osteomyelitis in patients aged over 50 years. Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant pathogen, accounting for about half of non-tuberculous cases. Diagnosis is difficult and often delayed or missed due to the rarity of the disease and the high frequency of low back pain in the general population. In this review of the published literature, we found no randomized trials on treatment and studies were too heterogeneous to allow comparison. Improvements in surgical and radiological techniques and the discovery of antimicrobial therapy have transformed the outlook for patients with this condition, but morbidity remains significant. Randomized trials are needed to assess optimal treatment duration, route of administration, and the role of combination therapy and newer agents.

  15. Sequence and analysis of the genome of the pathogenic yeast Candida orthopsilosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Riccombeni

    Full Text Available Candida orthopsilosis is closely related to the fungal pathogen Candida parapsilosis. However, whereas C. parapsilosis is a major cause of disease in immunosuppressed individuals and in premature neonates, C. orthopsilosis is more rarely associated with infection. We sequenced the C. orthopsilosis genome to facilitate the identification of genes associated with virulence. Here, we report the de novo assembly and annotation of the genome of a Type 2 isolate of C. orthopsilosis. The sequence was obtained by combining data from next generation sequencing (454 Life Sciences and Illumina with paired-end Sanger reads from a fosmid library. The final assembly contains 12.6 Mb on 8 chromosomes. The genome was annotated using an automated pipeline based on comparative analysis of genomes of Candida species, together with manual identification of introns. We identified 5700 protein-coding genes in C. orthopsilosis, of which 5570 have an ortholog in C. parapsilosis. The time of divergence between C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis is estimated to be twice as great as that between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis. There has been an expansion of the Hyr/Iff family of cell wall genes and the JEN family of monocarboxylic transporters in C. parapsilosis relative to C. orthopsilosis. We identified one gene from a Maltose/Galactoside O-acetyltransferase family that originated by horizontal gene transfer from a bacterium to the common ancestor of C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis. We report that TFB3, a component of the general transcription factor TFIIH, undergoes alternative splicing by intron retention in multiple Candida species. We also show that an intein in the vacuolar ATPase gene VMA1 is present in C. orthopsilosis but not C. parapsilosis, and has a patchy distribution in Candida species. Our results suggest that the difference in virulence between C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis may be associated with expansion of gene families.

  16. Sequence and analysis of the genome of the pathogenic yeast Candida orthopsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccombeni, Alessandro; Vidanes, Genevieve; Proux-Wéra, Estelle; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Butler, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis is closely related to the fungal pathogen Candida parapsilosis. However, whereas C. parapsilosis is a major cause of disease in immunosuppressed individuals and in premature neonates, C. orthopsilosis is more rarely associated with infection. We sequenced the C. orthopsilosis genome to facilitate the identification of genes associated with virulence. Here, we report the de novo assembly and annotation of the genome of a Type 2 isolate of C. orthopsilosis. The sequence was obtained by combining data from next generation sequencing (454 Life Sciences and Illumina) with paired-end Sanger reads from a fosmid library. The final assembly contains 12.6 Mb on 8 chromosomes. The genome was annotated using an automated pipeline based on comparative analysis of genomes of Candida species, together with manual identification of introns. We identified 5700 protein-coding genes in C. orthopsilosis, of which 5570 have an ortholog in C. parapsilosis. The time of divergence between C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis is estimated to be twice as great as that between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis. There has been an expansion of the Hyr/Iff family of cell wall genes and the JEN family of monocarboxylic transporters in C. parapsilosis relative to C. orthopsilosis. We identified one gene from a Maltose/Galactoside O-acetyltransferase family that originated by horizontal gene transfer from a bacterium to the common ancestor of C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis. We report that TFB3, a component of the general transcription factor TFIIH, undergoes alternative splicing by intron retention in multiple Candida species. We also show that an intein in the vacuolar ATPase gene VMA1 is present in C. orthopsilosis but not C. parapsilosis, and has a patchy distribution in Candida species. Our results suggest that the difference in virulence between C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis may be associated with expansion of gene families.

  17. Case report: Candida zeylanoides infective endocarditis complicating infection with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitby, S; Madu, E C; Bronze, M S

    1996-09-01

    Despite the frequent occurrence of mucosal candidiasis in patients infected with HIV, systemic candidiasis is uncommon and usually associated with intravenous catheters, parenteral nutrition, or antibiotics and neutropenia. Most of the fungal isolates are usually Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis or Candida parapsilosis. The authors report a case of infective endocarditis due to Candida zeylanoides that occurred in a patient infected with HIV in the absence of the usual risk factors for systemic candidiasis.

  18. Biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species: quantification, structure and matrix composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Henriques, Mariana; Martins, António; Oliveira, Rosário; Williams, David; Azeredo, Joana

    2009-11-01

    Most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to C. albicans, but recently, non- Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species have been identified as common pathogens. The ability of Candida species to form biofilms has important clinical repercussions due to their increased resistance to antifungal therapy and the ability of yeast cells within the biofilms to withstand host immune defenses. Given this clinical importance of the biofilm growth form, the aim of this study was to characterize biofilms produced by three NCAC species, namely C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. The biofilm forming ability of clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata recovered from different sources, was evaluated by crystal violet staining. The structure and morphological characteristics of the biofilms were also assessed by scanning electron microscopy and the biofilm matrix composition analyzed for protein and carbohydrate content. All NCAC species were able to form biofilms although these were less extensive for C. glabrata compared with C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. It was evident that C. parapsilosis biofilm production was highly strain dependent, a feature not evident with C. glabrata and C. tropicalis. Scanning electron microscopy revealed structural differences for biofilms with respect to cell morphology and spatial arrangement. Candida parapsilosis biofilm matrices had large amounts of carbohydrate with less protein. Conversely, matrices extracted from C. tropicalis biofilms had low amounts of carbohydrate and protein. Interestingly, C. glabrata biofilm matrix was high in both protein and carbohydrate content. The present work demonstrates that biofilm forming ability, structure and matrix composition are highly species dependent with additional strain variability occurring with C. parapsilosis.

  19. Candida albicans isolates from a Malaysian hospital exhibit more potent phospholipase and haemolysin activities than non-albicans Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, V K; Foong, K J; Maha, A; Rusliza, B; Norhafizah, M; Ng, K P; Chong, P P

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining the phospholipase and haemolysin activity of Candida isolates in Malaysia. A total of 37 Candida clinical isolates representing seven species, Candida albicans (12), Candida tropicalis (8), Candida glabrata (4), Candida parapsilosis (1), Candida krusei (4), Candida orthopsilosis (1) and Candida rugosa (7) were tested. In vitro phospholipase activity was determined by using egg yolk plate assay whereas in vitro haemolysin activity was tested by using blood plate assay on sheep blood Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) enriched with glucose. Phospholipase activity was detected in 75% (9 out of 12) of the C. albicans isolates. Among the 25 non- C. albicans Candida isolates, phospholipase activity was detected in only 24% of these isolates. The phospholipase activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.002). Haemolysin activity was detected in 100% of the C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis isolates while 75% of the C. krusei isolates and 12.3% of the C. rugosa isolates showed haemolysin activity. The haemolytic activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.0001).The findings in this study indicate that C. albicans isolates in Malaysia may possess greater virulence potential than the non-albicans species.

  20. Brucellar spondylodiscitis: comparison of patients with and without abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptan, Figen; Gulduren, Hakki Mustafa; Sarsilmaz, Aysegul; Sucu, Hasan Kamil; Ural, Serap; Vardar, Ilknur; Coskun, Nejat Ali

    2013-04-01

    Brucellosis is an important cause of spondylodiscitis in endemic areas. Brucellar spondylodiscitis is a serious complication because of its association with abscess formation. Prospective studies comparing patients with and without abscesses are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological features of brucellar spondylodiscitis and to compare patients with and without abscesses regarding treatment and outcome. Out of 135 consecutive patients with brucellosis, 31 patients with spondylodiscitis were recruited for the study. Patients were grouped according to magnetic resonance imaging findings. The frequency of spondylodiscitis was 23.0 %. Sites of involvement were lumbar (58.1 %), lumbosacral (22.6 %), cervical (9.7 %), thoracolumbar (6.5 %), and thoracic (3.2 %). Abscesses occurred in 19 (61.3 %) patients and were associated with low hemoglobin levels. Medical treatment included a combination of streptomycin (for the first 3 weeks), doxycycline, and rifampin. The total duration of treatment was 12-39 (mean 17.0 ± 8.5 SD) weeks. By 12 weeks of treatment, evidence of clinical improvement (67 vs. 28 %) and radiological regression (92 vs. 50 %) was significantly greater in patients without abscesses. The duration of treatment was longer if an abscess was present. Two female patients with abscesses required surgical intervention. Both patients presented with high fever, neurologic deficit, and high Brucella standard tube agglutination test titers. Each patient should be evaluated individually, based on clinical findings, laboratory data, and radiological results, when undergoing treatment for brucellar spondylodiscitis. If abscesses are found, a longer course of treatment and even surgical intervention may be needed.

  1. Migrated pharyngeal fish bone causing spondylodiscitis. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluizio Augusto Arantes Júnior

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of foreign bodies is a common problem seen at emergency rooms and frequently involves chicken and fish bones. There are few cases of migrated foreign bodies through the retropharynx causing infectious process in the area but no one, despite the proximity, causing spondylodiscitis. Perhaps such condition is attributed to the integrity of the longus colli fascia covering and protecting the cervical spine. We described the first case of spondylodiscitis due to a foreign body (saw-toothed fish bone that penetrated the longus colli fascia and carved into vertebral body C3.

  2. Long-term prognosis and causes of death after spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed, Casper; Dahl, Benny;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on long-term prognosis after spondylodiscitis are scarce. The purpose of this study was to determine long-term mortality and the causes of death after spondylodiscitis. METHODS: A nationwide, population-based cohort study using national registries of patients diagnosed with non.......62), respiratory (MRR = 1.71), gastrointestinal (MRR = 3.35), musculoskeletal (MRR = 5.39) and genitourinary diseases (MRR = 3.37), but also due to trauma, poisoning and external causes (MRR = 2.78), alcohol abuse-related diseases (MRR = 5.59) and drug abuse-related diseases (6 vs 0 deaths, MRR not calculable...

  3. Emergence of a Candida krusei Isolate with Reduced Susceptibility to Caspofungin during Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hakki, Morgan; Staab, Janet F.; Marr, Kieren A.

    2006-01-01

    Clinical failure associated with reduced susceptibility to caspofungin has been described in Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis. We report a case of Candida krusei infection that progressed despite caspofungin therapy. Reduced microbial susceptibility to all three echinocandins (caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin) was noted but was not associated with mutations in FKS1.

  4. Cervical spondylodiscitis a rare complication of palatopharyngeal flap surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, R.; Jakobsen, Linda Plovmand

    2008-01-01

    Cervical spondylodiscitis was diagnosed in a 31-year-old man 2 months after palatopharyngeal flap surgery. Symptoms included pain in the neck and tingling and numbness in the left arm. The diagnosis was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, and the patient recovered on antibiotic treatment. We...

  5. Differentiation of Candida species obtained from nosocomial candidemia using RAPD-PCR technique Diferenciação de espécies de Candida obtidas de candidemia nosocomial pela técnica de RAPD-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Maia Valério; Rita de Cássia Botelho Weikert-Oliveira; Maria Aparecida de Resende

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen strains of the genus Candida were isolated from catheter, urine and surgical wounds from individual patients of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Ten strains were characterized as Candida albicans, two as Candida glabrata, and one as Candida parapsilosis. Isolates were evaluated for molecular relatedness by random amplified polymorphic DNA technique using 15 primers. The analysis of the genomic DNA obtained revealed a low intraspecific polymorphism and did n...

  6. Co-expression of formate dehydrogenase form Candida boidinii and (R)-specific carbonyl reductase form Candida parapsilosis CCTCC M203011 in Escherichia coli%(R)-专一性羰基还原酶与甲酸脱氢酶基因在大肠杆菌中的共表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙莹; 张荣珍; 徐岩

    2008-01-01

    [目的]通过研究-专一性拨基还原酶和甲酸脱氢酶基因在大肠杆菌中的共表达,解决较高底物浓度下不对称转化反应的辅酶限制性问题.[方法]分别以近平滑假丝酵母(candida parapsitosis CCTCC M203011)和博伊丁假丝酵母(Candida boidinii)基因组为模板,采用PCR方法扩增得到(R伏)-专一性拨基还原酶基因(rcr)和甲酸脱氢酶基因(fdh),克隆到共表达载体pETDuetTM-1中进行表达.共表达质粒 pETDuet-rcr-fdh转化稀有密码子优化型菌株E.coli Rosetta,获得重组菌E.coli Rosetta/pETDuet-rcr-fdh.结果 在30℃ 条件下,经1mmol/L IPTG诱导表达8h后,SDS-PAGE结果表明-专一性拨基还原酶和甲酸脱氢酶均有明显的表达,其相对分子质量分别为37kDa和40kDa.以高浓度(6glL)2一经基苯乙酮为底物时,0.19重组菌细胞催化产生(R)-苯基乙二醇,产物光学纯度为100% e.e.,产率为85.9%.与无甲酸脱氢酶参与辅酶再生循环的重组菌E.coli Rosetta/pETDuet-rrc;相比,产物光学纯度和产率分别提高了1.3和2.7倍.讨论 该重组菌的构建为基因工程法生物合成(R)-苯基乙二醇的工业应用奠定了基础.

  7. Elevated chitin content reduces the susceptibility of Candida species to caspofungin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Louise A; Gow, Neil A R; Munro, Carol A

    2013-01-01

    The echinocandin antifungal drugs inhibit synthesis of the major fungal cell wall polysaccharide β(1,3)-glucan. Echinocandins have good efficacy against Candida albicans but reduced activity against other Candida species, in particular Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii. Treatment of Candida albicans with a sub-MIC level of caspofungin has been reported to cause a compensatory increase in chitin content and to select for sporadic echinocandin-resistant FKS1 point mutants that also have elevated cell wall chitin. Here we show that elevated chitin in response to caspofungin is a common response in various Candida species. Activation of chitin synthesis was observed in isolates of C. albicans, Candida tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii and in some isolates of Candida krusei in response to caspofungin treatment. However, Candida glabrata isolates demonstrated no exposure-induced change in chitin content. Furthermore, isolates of C. albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii which were stimulated to have higher chitin levels via activation of the calcineurin and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways had reduced susceptibility to caspofungin. Isolates containing point mutations in the FKS1 gene generally had higher chitin levels and did not demonstrate a further compensatory increase in chitin content in response to caspofungin treatment. These results highlight the potential of increased chitin synthesis as a potential mechanism of tolerance to caspofungin for the major pathogenic Candida species.

  8. Hosting Infection: Experimental Models to Assay Candida Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. MacCallum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although normally commensals in humans, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei are capable of causing opportunistic infections in individuals with altered physiological and/or immunological responses. These fungal species are linked with a variety of infections, including oral, vaginal, gastrointestinal, and systemic infections, with C. albicans the major cause of infection. To assess the ability of different Candida species and strains to cause infection and disease requires the use of experimental infection models. This paper discusses the mucosal and systemic models of infection available to assay Candida virulence and gives examples of some of the knowledge that has been gained to date from these models.

  9. EVALUATION OF VITEK 2 SYSTEM FOR CLINICAL IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA SPECIES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BJECTIVES 1. To evaluate the Vitek 2 system for clinical identification of Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility test; 2. To study the incidence of various types of Candida species in this part of Tamilnadu. METHODS Samples collected from different wards were subjected for culture, isolation and identification of Candida Species and Antifungal Susceptibility testing by Vitek System. Vitek 2 test was carried out in Apollo Specialty Hospital Lab Services, Madurai. The cost per test is Rs. 200 (Subsidized rate. The expenses for the lab tests (Vitek were borne by the author himself. RESULTS 124 samples were collected from urine, sputum, blood, pus and wounds. Candida albicans formed 43% of the samples. Among the 57% of Non-Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis formed 42%, Candida krusei formed 6%, Candida guilliermondii formed 4%, Candida inconspicua, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, Candida rugosa and Candida lusitaniae formed 1% each. Candida albicans and C. tropicalis showed high sensitivity to Voriconazole, Flucytosine, Amphotericin B and Fluconazole. CONCLUSION Candida tropicalis was identified as the most common Candida non-albicans species. Candida albicans and C. tropicalis showed high sensitivity to Voriconazole, Flucytosine, Amphotericin B and Fluconazole. This study was helpful to treat Candida albicans and Non-Candida albicans species patients accurately and earlier by Vitek method.

  10. The Susceptibility Patterns of Candida Species Isolated From Urine Samples to Posaconazole and Caspofungin

    OpenAIRE

    Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; REZAEI-MATEHKOLAEI, Ali; Ghanavati, Fataemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Candiduria is a rising condition among hospitalized patients and Candida albicans is the most common recovered agent. However, non-albicans Candida species (NACs) such as C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis are also important. Although most Candida species especially C. albicans are sensitive to routinely used antifungals, an increasing trend in resistance has been observed among NACs. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to detect the susceptibility...

  11. Differentiation of Candida species obtained from nosocomial candidemia using RAPD-PCR technique Diferenciação de espécies de Candida obtidas de candidemia nosocomial pela técnica de RAPD-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Maia Valério

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen strains of the genus Candida were isolated from catheter, urine and surgical wounds from individual patients of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Ten strains were characterized as Candida albicans, two as Candida glabrata, and one as Candida parapsilosis. Isolates were evaluated for molecular relatedness by random amplified polymorphic DNA technique using 15 primers. The analysis of the genomic DNA obtained revealed a low intraspecific polymorphism and did not allow for the differentiation between strains of the same species obtained from distinct clinical sources (catheter, urine and surgical wounds. The RAPD profiles generated were able to differentiate among the species of Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata strains isolated in this study.Treze amostras de leveduras do gênero Candida foram isoladas de catéter, urina e feridas cirúrgicas de pacientes da Santa Casa de Misericórida de Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil. Dez amostras foram identificadas como Candida albicans, duas como Candida glabrata e uma como Candida parapsilosis. Os isolados foram avaliados quanto ao perfil molecular pela técnica de amplificação aleatória de DNA polimórfico utilizando 15 iniciadores. A análise do DNA genômico obtido revelou um baixo polimorfismo intraespecífico e não permitiu a diferenciação entre amostras da mesma espécie obtidas a partir de diferentes espécimes clínicos (catéter, urina e feridas cirúrgicas. Os perfis de RAPD obtidos foram capazes de diferenciar entre as espécies Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis e Candida glabrata isoladas neste estudo.

  12. High cervical spine spondylodiscitis management and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Sebben

    Full Text Available Summary Spondylodiscitis affecting the cervical spine is the most unusual type. Disease progression can be dramatic, even causing quadriplegia and death. We present an unusual case that progressed with osteolytic lesions between C2 and C3, causing cord compression and epidural abscess. The patient was treated surgically by a double approach and improved without neurological deficits and with better inflammatory markers. We reviewed the current literature on the subject.

  13. Performance of chromogenic media for Candida in rapid presumptive identification of Candida species from clinical materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Pravin Charles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In perspective of the worldwide increase in a number of immunocompromised patients, the need for identification of Candida species has become a major concern. The development of chromogenic differential media, introduced recently, facilitate rapid speciation. However, it can be employed for routine mycology workup only after an exhaustive evaluation of its benefit and cost effectiveness. This study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit and cost effectiveness of chromogenic media for speciation of Candida clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: Sputum samples of 382 patients were screened for the presence of Candida spp. by Gram stain and culture on sabouraud dextrose agar. Candida species were identified using Gram stain morphology, germ tube formation, cornmeal agar with Tween-80, sugar fermentation tests and morphology on HiCrome Candida differential agar. All the Candida isolates were inoculated on HiCrome Candida agar (HiMedia, Mumbai, India. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of HiCrome agar for identification of Candida albicans were 90% and 96.42%, respectively whereas sensitivity and specificity of carbohydrate fermentation test were 86.67% and 74.07%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity values of HiCrome agar for detection of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata were above 90%. Conclusions: We found HiCrome agar has high sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of the conventional method. In addition, use of this differential media could significantly cut down the turnaround time as well as cost of sample processing.

  14. Identification of Candida species isolated from bovine mastitic milk and their in vitro hemolytic activity in Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, Esra

    2010-04-01

    In this study, identification of 207 Candida isolates, previously isolated from mastitic bovine quarter milk samples at the level of genus, was made using API 20 C AUX system. The most frequently isolated species were Candida krusei (34.8%), followed by Candida rugosa (16.4%), Candida kefyr (12.6%), Candida albicans (10.1%), and Candida tropicalis (9.2%). Less common isolates were Candida zeylanoides (5.8%), Candida parapsilosis (4.3%), Candida guilliermondii (3.4%), Candida famata (1.9%), and Candida glabrata (1.5%). Additionally, in vitro hemolytic activity of all Candida strains were also examined in the present study. C. krusei (72 isolates), C. kefyr (26), C. albicans (21), C. tropicalis (19), C. zeylanoides (12), and C. glabrata (3) demonstrated both alpha and beta hemolysis at 48-h postinoculation. Only alpha hemolysis was detected in C. rugosa (34), C. guilliermondii (7), and C. famata (4), while C. parapsilosis (9) did not show any hemolytic activity after incubation for 72 h. Statistically significant difference (P hemolytic activities of Candida strains. The hemolytic activities of C. zeylanoides, C. albicans and C. kefyr were higher than other strains. This is the first study to describe variable hemolysis types exhibited by different Candida strains isolated from bovine mastitic milk in Turkey.

  15. In vitro activity of 23 tea extractions and epigallocatechin gallate against Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Zhai, Lin; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2015-01-01

    .0-0.005 mg/ml) to 23 different teas and tea catechins including epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) isolated from green tea. All teas exhibited potent in vitro antifungal activity against C. glabrata. Six out of nine green teas and three of eight black teas had an MIC of 0.078 mg/ml, one white tea had an MIC......In this study, we investigate the susceptibility of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Aspergillus fumigatus using the EUCAST microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method (final tea supernatant concentration range 5...... of 0.156 mg/ml, and finally three of five oolong teas had an MIC of 0.156 mg/ml. Three teas exhibited activity against C. albicans (MIC 1.25 mg/ml), one green tea was active against C. parapsilosis (MIC 1.25 mg/ml), but none were effective against C. krusei, C. tropicalis or A. fumigatus...

  16. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species isolated from urine culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toka Özer, Türkan; Durmaz, Süleyman; Yula, Erkan

    2016-09-01

    Candida spp. are the most common opportunistic mycosis worldwide. Although Candida albicans is the most common cause of urinary tract infections, the frequency of non-albicans Candida species is increasing with common use of antifungal in the prophylaxis and treatment. This may lead to difficulties in treatment. Antifungal tests should be applied with identification of species for effective treatment. In this study, identification of Candida species isolated from urine culture and investigation of susceptibility of these strains to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole was aimed. In this study, 58 Candida strains isolated from urine cultures at Osmaniye State Hospital between January 2012 and April 2013 were included. Urine culture and antifungal susceptibility tests were applied. Incidence rate of Candida spp. was determined as C. albicans (56.9%), Candida glabrata (20.6%), Candida tropicalis (10.3%), Candida parapsilosis (7%), Candida krusei (3.4%), Candida kefyr (1.8%). Most of the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole. Twenty three (39.7%) Candida strains were isolated from internal medical branches and Intensive Care Unit and 12 (20.6%) from the Surgical Medical Branches. C. albicans and C. glabrata species were isolated most frequently as a candiduria factor in this hospital between January 2012 and April 2013. The analysis of antifungal susceptibility profile shows no significant resistance to antifungals.

  17. Non-Candida albicans Candida mediastinitis of odontogenic origin in a diabetic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofteridis, Diamantis P; Mantadakis, Elpis; Karatzanis, Alexander D; Bourolias, Constantinos A; Papazoglou, Georgios; Velegrakis, George A; Samonis, George

    2008-06-01

    Descending mediastinitis occurs as a complication of oropharyngeal or cervical infections and its delayed diagnosis and treatment are associated with high mortality. A rare case of an odontogenic infection in a diabetic patient, complicated by Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei parapharyngeal space infection, descending mediastinitis and aspiration pneumonia is described. Isolate identification was based on colonial and microscopic morphological characteristics and carbohydrate assimilation test results. The patient was successfully treated with surgical drainage and debridement, broad spectrum antibacterials and liposomal amphotericin B followed by prolonged oral voriconazole therapy.

  18. Antibiofilm activity of carboxymethyl chitosan on the biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yulong; Leonhard, Matthias; Moser, Doris; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2016-09-20

    Although most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, non-C. albicans Candida species have been isolated in increasing numbers in patients. In this study, we determined the inhibition of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) on single and mixed species biofilm of non-albicans Candida species, including Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. Biofilm by all tested species in microtiter plates were inhibited nearly 70%. CM-chitosan inhibited mixed species biofilm in microtiter plates and also on medical materials surfaces. To investigate the mechanism, the effect of CM-chitosan on cell viability and biofilm growth was employed. CM-chitosan inhibited Candida planktonic growth as well as adhesion. Further biofilm formation was inhibited with CM-chitosan added at 90min, 12h or 24h after biofilm initiation. CM-chitosan was not only able to inhibit the metabolic activity of Candida cells, but was also active upon the establishment and the development of biofilms.

  19. [A case of Brucella spondylodiscitis after a visit to Lebanon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Johansen, Isik Somuncu

    2012-02-13

    Brucellosis is a widespread endemic zoonotic infection affecting more than 500,000 people per year. The disease is very uncommon in Denmark and almost always imported. We present a case of a 57 year-old male with blood culture and magnetic resonance imaging verified brucella spondylodiscitis. Prior to debut of symptoms the patient had visited Lebanon where he had ingested unpasteurized goat milk. The patient was initially treated with an antimicrobial chemotherapy regimen for 12 weeks, which was prolonged due to inadequate radiological response.

  20. Adhesion of different Candida spp. to plastic: XTT formazan determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawser, S

    1996-01-01

    Adhesion of synchronized yeast-phase Candida cells to tissue culture plastic was investigated using the tetrazolium salt, XTT. The procedure permits the direct enumeration of adherent yeasts following the metabolic conversion of the XTT tetrazolium salt, to its reduced formazan form, by mitochondrial dehydrogenases. Using this procedure, the formation of XTT formazan by Candida cells was typically related to the inoculum size. The adhesion of Candida yeast-phase cells from different Candida spp. to plastic was of the following order: C. krusei (n = 5) > C. albicans (n = 10) > C. glabrata (n = 6). Furthermore, preliminary experiments with several other species indicated that C. tropicalis (n = 2) may adhere as well as C. albicans and that one strain each of C. guilliermondii and C. parapsilosis appear to adhere to plastic in a similar fashion to C. glabrata. The data indicate the utility of the XTT tetrazolium based assay in enumerating the adhesion of different Candida spp. to plastic.

  1. Adjacent level spondylodiscitis after anterior cervical decompression and fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumyajit Basu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative spondylodiscitis after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF is rare, but the same occurring at adjacent levels without disturbing the operated level is very rare. We report a case, with 5 year followup, who underwent ACDF from C5 to C7 for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. He showed neurological improvement after surgery but developed discharging sinus after 2 weeks, which healed with antibiotics. He improved on his preoperative symptoms well for the first 2 months. He started developing progressive neck pain and myelopathy after 3 months and investigations revealed spondylodiscitis at C3 and C4 with erosion, collapse, and kyphosis, without any evidence of implant failure or graft rejection at the operated level. He underwent reexploration and implant removal at the operated level (there was good fusion from C5 to C7 followed by debridement/decompression at C3, C4 along with iliac crest bone grafting and stabilization with plate and screws after maximum correction of kyphosis. The biopsy specimen grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa and appropriate sensitive antibiotics (gentamycin and ciprofloxacin were given for 6 weeks. He was under regular followup for 5 years his myelopathy resolved completely and he is back to work. Complete decompression of the cord and fusion from C2 to C7 was demonstrable on postoperative imaging studies without any evidence of implant loosening or C1/C2 instability at the last followup.

  2. Pathogen Identification in Suspected Cases of Pyogenic Spondylodiscitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Ahmad Farajzadeh; Khosravi, Azar D.; Goodarzi, Hamed; Nashibi, Roohangiz; Teimouri, Alireaza; Motamedfar, Azim; Ranjbar, Reza; Afzalzadeh, Sara; Cyrus, Mehrandokht; Hashemzadeh, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Pyogenic spinal infection continues to represent a worldwide problem. In approximately one-third of patients with pyogenic spondylodiscitis, the infectious agent is never identified. Of the cases that lead to organismal identification, bacteria are more commonly isolated from the spine rather than fungi and parasites. This study applied universal prokaryotic 16S rRNA PCR as a rapid diagnostic tool for the detection of bacterial agents in specimens from patients suspected of pyogenic spondylodiscitis. Gram and Ziehl-Neelsen staining were used as a preliminary screening measure for microbiologic evaluation of patient samples. PCR amplification targeting 16S rRNA gene was performed on DNA extracted from 57 cases including specimens from epidural abscesses, vertebral, and disc biopsies. Positive samples were directly sequenced. MRI findings demonstrated that disc destruction and inflammation were the major imaging features of suspected pyogenic spondylodiscitis cases, as 44 cases showed such features. The most common site of infection was the lumbar spine (66.7%), followed by thoracic spine (19%), the sacroiliac joint (9.5%), and lumbar-thoracic spine (4.8%) regions. A total of 21 samples amplified the 16S rRNA-PCR product. Sanger sequencing of the PCR products identified the following bacteriological agents: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (n = 9; 42.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 6; 28.5%), Mycobacterium abscessus (n = 5; 23.8%), and Mycobacterium chelonae (n = 1; 4.8%). 36 samples displayed no visible 16S rRNA PCR signal, which suggested that non-bacterial infectious agents (e.g., fungi) or non-infectious processes (e.g., inflammatory, or neoplastic) may be responsible for some of these cases. The L3–L4 site (23.8%) was the most frequent site of infection. Single disc/vertebral infection were observed in 9 patients (42.85%), while 12 patients (57.15%) had 2 infected adjacent vertebrae. Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP

  3. Serum annexin A2 levels in acute brucellosis and brucellar spondylodiscitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktug Demir, N; Kolgelier, S; Sumer, S; Inkaya, A C; Ozcimen, S; Demir, L S; Ural, O; Arpaci, A

    2014-10-01

    Brucellosis is a chronic granulomatous infection and may present with various clinical manifestations. Brucellar spondylodiscitis symptoms are initially subtle and nonspecific. Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is involved in various biological functions, including osteoclast formation, bone resorption, and cell growth regulation. In this study, we aimed to determine the clinical significance of serum ANXA2 levels in acute brucellosis and brucellar spondylodiscitis. This prospective study included 96 acute brucellosis patients and 51 healthy controls. Acute brucellosis was diagnosed by a 1/160 or higher titer in a standard tube agglutination (STA) test or a four-fold increase in titers between two STA tests performed two weeks apart in the presence of clinical symptoms within the last eight weeks and/or growth of Brucella spp. in appropriately prepared culture media. ANXA2 levels were determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Forty (41.7 %) of 96 acute brucellosis patients were male and 56 (58.3 %) were female. Serum ANXA2 levels were elevated in patients compared to healthy controls (p = 0.001). Eighteen of 96 (18.7 %) acute brucellosis patients had brucellar spondylodiscitis. The serum ANXA2 levels of patients with brucellar spondylodiscitis were higher than those of patients with acute disease without brucellar spondylodiscitis (p = 0.001). ANXA2, C-reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) values were elevated in the brucellar spondylodiscitis group compared to patients without brucellar spondylodiscitis. Serum ANXA2 measurement together with ESR and CRP is thought to be indicative in the diagnosis of brucellar spondylodiscitis, a common complication of brucellosis.

  4. Silicone colonization by non-Candida albicans Candida species in the presence of urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Negri, Melyssa; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, Rosário; Williams, David; Azeredo, Joana

    2010-07-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common nosocomial infections and 80 % are related to the use of urinary catheters. Furthermore, Candida species are responsible for around 15 % of UTIs and an increasing involvement of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species (e.g. Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis) has been recognized. Given the fact that silicone is frequently used in the manufacture of urinary catheters, the aim of this work was to compare both the adhesion and biofilm formation on silicone of different urinary clinical isolates of NCAC species (i.e. C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis) in the presence of urine. Several clinical isolates of NCAC species recovered from patients with UTIs, together with reference strains of each species, were examined. Adhesion and biofilm formation were performed in artificial urine and the biofilm biomass was assessed by crystal violet staining. Hydrophobicity and surface charge of cells was determined by measuring contact angles and zeta potential, respectively. The number of viable cells in biofilms was determined by enumeration of c.f.u. after appropriate culture. The biofilm structure was also examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results showed that all isolates adhered to silicone in a species- and strain-dependent manner with C. parapsilosis showing the lowest and C. glabrata the highest levels of adhesion. However, these differences in adhesion abilities cannot be correlated with surface properties since all strains examined were hydrophilic and exhibited a similar zeta potential. Despite a higher number of cultivable cells being recovered after 72 h of incubation, stronger biofilm formation was not observed and CLSM showed an absence of extracellular polymeric material for all isolates examined. In summary, this work demonstrated that all tested NCAC species were able to adhere to and survive on silicone in the presence of urine. Furthermore, C

  5. Distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species causing candidemia from 1996 to 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Fang; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Tang, Ran-Bin; Fan, Yu-Hua; Yang, Yun-Liang; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Ho, Monto; Lo, Hsiu-Jung

    2004-01-01

    Susceptibilities to amphotericin B and fluconazole of 383 Candida species isolated from blood were determined. Candida albicans was the most common species (55.6%), followed by Candida parapsilosis (17.5%), Candida tropicalis (16.5%), Candida glabrata (5.2%), Candida guilliermondii (2.3%), and others (2.9%). All but three isolates, Candida ciferrii, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata, one each, were susceptible to amphotericin B. A total of 367 (95.8%) and 15 (4.2%) isolates were susceptible and susceptible-dose dependent to fluconazole, respectively. Only one isolate, a C. glabrata, was resistant to fluconazole. Few patients (13%) having prior fluconazole treatments may explain the low rate of resistance to fluconazole in this study.

  6. Analysis of gene evolution and metabolic pathways using the Candida Gene Order Browser

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, David A

    2010-05-10

    Abstract Background Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. Recent sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of Candida genomic data. We have developed the Candida Gene Order Browser (CGOB), an online tool that aids comparative syntenic analyses of Candida species. CGOB incorporates all available Candida clade genome sequences including two Candida albicans isolates (SC5314 and WO-1) and 8 closely related species (Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia stipitis, Candida guilliermondii and Candida lusitaniae). Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also included as a reference genome. Results CGOB assignments of homology were manually curated based on sequence similarity and synteny. In total CGOB includes 65617 genes arranged into 13625 homology columns. We have also generated improved Candida gene sets by merging\\/removing partial genes in each genome. Interrogation of CGOB revealed that the majority of tandemly duplicated genes are under strong purifying selection in all Candida species. We identified clusters of adjacent genes involved in the same metabolic pathways (such as catabolism of biotin, galactose and N-acetyl glucosamine) and we showed that some clusters are species or lineage-specific. We also identified one example of intron gain in C. albicans. Conclusions Our analysis provides an important resource that is now available for the Candida community. CGOB is available at http:\\/\\/cgob.ucd.ie.

  7. Analysis of gene evolution and metabolic pathways using the Candida Gene Order Browser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrne Kevin P

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. Recent sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of Candida genomic data. We have developed the Candida Gene Order Browser (CGOB, an online tool that aids comparative syntenic analyses of Candida species. CGOB incorporates all available Candida clade genome sequences including two Candida albicans isolates (SC5314 and WO-1 and 8 closely related species (Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia stipitis, Candida guilliermondii and Candida lusitaniae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also included as a reference genome. Results CGOB assignments of homology were manually curated based on sequence similarity and synteny. In total CGOB includes 65617 genes arranged into 13625 homology columns. We have also generated improved Candida gene sets by merging/removing partial genes in each genome. Interrogation of CGOB revealed that the majority of tandemly duplicated genes are under strong purifying selection in all Candida species. We identified clusters of adjacent genes involved in the same metabolic pathways (such as catabolism of biotin, galactose and N-acetyl glucosamine and we showed that some clusters are species or lineage-specific. We also identified one example of intron gain in C. albicans. Conclusions Our analysis provides an important resource that is now available for the Candida community. CGOB is available at http://cgob.ucd.ie.

  8. Genotyping of Candida orthopsilosis Clinical Isolates by Amplification Fragment Length Polymorphism Reveals Genetic Diversity among Independent Isolates and Strain Maintenance within Patients▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tavanti, Arianna; Hensgens, Lambert A. M.; Ghelardi, Emilia; Campa, Mario; Senesi, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis former groups II and III have recently been established as independent species named C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis, respectively. In this report, 400 isolates (290 patients) previously classified as C. parapsilosis by conventional laboratory tests were screened by BanI digestion profile analysis of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase gene fragment and by amplification fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Thirty-three strains collected from 13 patients were identifi...

  9. A rare agent of spondylodiscitis in adult patient: Salmonella enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan Aygen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella infections are a public health problem in Turkey,as all over the world. Salmonella spp. can causevery different infections such as gastroenteritis, typhoidparatyphoidfever, bacteremia, local metastatic infectionsand chronic carriage. Salmonella spondylodiscitis occursrarely in the adult population. In this case report, we havepresented a 66 years old female patient followed with thediagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and treated with prednisolone.The patient had a new diagnosis of Salmonellaenteritidis and we aimed to discuss similar cases by theculture of lumbar empyema culture ampiciline, cefotaxime,trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin was revealedthe presence of resistant S.enteritidis. The patienthas received ciprofloxacin 2x200 mg per day for 3 weeksas intravenous. And patient was discharged with advice ofusing ciprofloxacin as per oral long three months.

  10. Inflammatory spondylodiscitis as a unique radiological manifestation of the Sapho syndrome; La spondylodiscite inflammatoire comme manisfestation radiologique unique du Sapho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabay, J.E.; Marcelis, S.; Dondelinger, R.F. [Domaine Universitaire du Sart-Thilman, Liege (Belgium)

    1998-04-01

    We describe two cases of SAPHO with an exclusive spinal involvement. Diagnosis was established by sterno-clavicular arthralgias, palmar and plantar pustulosis and by radiological signs of inflammatory spondylodiscitis and vertebral osteitis. Spondylodiscitis and medullary edema resolved as shown by MRI after administration of steroids in one case and methotrexate in the other. (authors)

  11. CT-guided percutaneous drainage within intervertebral space for pyogenic spondylodiscitis with psoas abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Morishita, Hiroyuki; Lida, Shigeharu; Asai, Shunsuke; Masui, Koji; Sato, Osamu (Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Japanese Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, Kyoto (Japan)), Email: t-matsu@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp; Yamagami, Takuji; Nishimura, Tsunehiko (Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)); Yamazoe, Shoichi (Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Japanese Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, Kyoto (Japan))

    2012-02-15

    Background. Reports on CT-guided percutaneous drainage within the intervertebral space for pyogenic spondylodiscitis with a secondary psoas abscess are limited. Purpose. To evaluate CT-guided percutaneous drainage within the intervertebral space for pyogenic spondylodiscitis and a secondary psoas abscess in which the two sites appear to communicate. Material and Methods. Eight patients with pyogenic spondylodiscitis and a secondary psoas abscess showing communication with the intradiscal abscess underwent CT-guided percutaneous drainage within the intervertebral space. The clinical outcome was retrospectively assessed. Results. An 8-French pigtail catheter within the intervertebral space was successfully placed in all patients. Seven patients responded well to this treatment. The one remaining patient who had developed septic shock before the procedure died on the following day. The mean duration of drainage was 32 days (13-70 days). Only one patient with persistent back pain underwent surgery for stabilization of the spine after the improvement of inflammation. Among seven patients responding well, long-term follow-up (91-801 days, mean 292 days) was conducted in six patients excluding one patient who died of asphyxiation due to aspiration unrelated to the procedure within 30 days after the procedure. In these six patients, no recurrence of either pyogenic spondylodiscitis or the psoas abscess was noted. Conclusion. CT-guided percutaneous drainage within the intervertebral space can be effective for patients with pyogenic spondylodiscitis and a secondary psoas abscess if the psoas abscess communicates with the intradiscal abscess

  12. Antifungal, anti-biofilm and adhesion activity of the essential oil of Myrtus communis L. against Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannas, Sara; Molicotti, Paola; Usai, Donatella; Maxia, Andrea; Zanetti, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Candida species belong to the normal microbiota of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract and vagina. The increasing incidence of drug-resistant pathogens and the toxicity of the antifungal compounds have drawn the attention towards the antimicrobial activity of natural products, an inexpensive alternative. The aim of this work was to evaluate the adhesion activity, the biofilm formation and the action of the Myrtus communis L. essential oil (EO) on the biofilm formation towards three species isolated from clinical samples: Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis. Furthermore, we evaluated the antimycotic activity of the EO towards the three species, and the results were compared with the minimum inhibitory concentration of six antimycotics. The activity of the EO against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis was better than that obtained against C. tropicalis; moreover, the strains used in the assay were adhesive and biofilm producer, and the effect of myrtle EO on the biofilm formation yielded encouraging results.

  13. Candida species distribution and fluconazole susceptibility of blood isolates at a regional hospital in Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Giseli C. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Candidemia is a bloodstream infection produced by Candida genus yeasts. Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize the epidemiology and the fluconazole susceptibility in Candida species isolated from patients at a regional hospital in Passo Fundo, RS. Methods: Records from the laboratory were used to identify patients with positive blood cultures for Candida between 2010 and 2011. The in vitro activity of fluconazole was determined using the disk diffusion method. Results: Were analyzed 24 positive blood cultures for Candida and found a 54.16% mortality rate. C. albicans was the most prevalent species, followed by C. parapsilosis and C. krusei. For susceptibility to fluconazole, C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis showed 100% sensitivity. However, C. krusei was 100% resistant; and C. glabrata, 50% resistant. Conclusion: The high mortality and fluconazole resistance rates emphasize the importance of the diagnosis of candidemia in a hospital environment.

  14. Species distribution & antifungal susceptibility pattern of oropharyngeal Candida isolates from human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Pratim Das

    2016-01-01

    Results: From the 59 culture positive HIV seropositive cases, 61 Candida isolates were recovered; Candidaalbicans (n=47, 77.0%, C. dubliniensis (n=9, 14.7%, C. parapsilosis (n=2, 3.2%, C. glabrata (n=2, 3.2%, and C. famata (n=1, 1.6%. Candida colonization in HIV-seropositive individuals was significantly higher than that of HIV-seronegative (control group. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed (n=6, 9.3% C. albicans isolates resistant to voriconazole and fluconazole by disk-diffusion method whereas no resistance was seen by Fungitest method. Interpretation & conclusions: C. albicans was the commonest Candida species infecting or colonizing HIV seropositive individuals. Oropharyngeal Candida isolates had high level susceptibility to all the major antifungals commonly in use. Increased level of immunosuppression in HIV-seropositives and drug resistance of non-albicans Candida species makes identification and susceptibility testing of Candida species necessary in different geographical areas of the country.

  15. Antifungal activity of the lemongrass oil and citral against Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Bona da Silva

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Superficial mycoses of the skin are among the most common dermatological infections, and causative organisms include dermatophytic, yeasts, and non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi. The treatment is limited, for many reasons, and new drugs are necessary. Numerous essential oils have been tested for both in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity and some pose much potential as antifungal agents. By using disk diffusion assay, we evaluated the antifungal activity of lemongrass oil and citral against yeasts of Candida species (Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. This study showed that lemongrass oil and citral have a potent in vitro activity against Candida spp.

  16. Antifungal Susceptibilities of Candida Species Causing Vulvovaginitis and Epidemiology of Recurrent Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Sandra S.; Galask, Rudolph P.; Messer, Shawn A.; Hollis, Richard J.; Diekema, Daniel J.; Pfaller, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    There are limited data regarding the antifungal susceptibility of yeast causing vulvovaginal candidiasis, since cultures are rarely performed. Susceptibility testing was performed on vaginal yeast isolates collected from January 1998 to March 2001 from 429 patients with suspected vulvovaginal candidiasis. The charts of 84 patients with multiple positive cultures were reviewed. The 593 yeast isolates were Candida albicans (n = 420), Candida glabrata (n = 112), Candida parapsilosis (n = 30), Candida krusei (n = 12), Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( n = 9), Candida tropicalis (n = 8), Candida lusitaniae (n = 1), and Trichosporon sp. (n = 1). Multiple species suggesting mixed infection were isolated from 27 cultures. Resistance to fluconazole and flucytosine was observed infrequently (3.7% and 3.0%); 16.2% of isolates were resistant to itraconazole (MIC ≥ 1 μg/ml). The four imidazoles (econazole, clotrimazole, miconazole, and ketoconazole) were active: 94.3 to 98.5% were susceptible at ≤1 μg/ml. Among different species, elevated fluconazole MICs (≥16 μg/ml) were only observed in C. glabrata (15.2% resistant [R], 51.8% susceptible-dose dependent [S-DD]), C. parapsilosis (3.3% S-DD), S. cerevisiae (11.1% S-DD), and C. krusei (50% S-DD, 41.7% R, considered intrinsically fluconazole resistant). Resistance to itraconazole was observed among C. glabrata (74.1%), C. krusei (58.3%), S. cerevisiae (55.6%), and C. parapsilosis (3.4%). Among 84 patients with recurrent episodes, non-albicans species were more common (42% versus 20%). A ≥4-fold rise in fluconazole MIC was observed in only one patient with C. parapsilosis. These results support the use of azoles for empirical therapy of uncomplicated candidal vulvovaginitis. Recurrent episodes are more often caused by non-albicans species, for which azole agents are less likely to be effective. PMID:15872235

  17. Spondylodiscitis and infectious endocarditis: a round-trip to be considered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Calderaro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The association between spondylodiscitis and endocarditis was first reported in 1965 by de Sèze et al. The most common clinical picture of this association is musculoskeletal symptoms preceding endocarditis diagnosis, but we report here a case of spondylodiscitis complicating endocarditis in its late course. A 70-year-old man, with an established diagnosis of mitral valve endocarditis caused by Streptococcus intermedius, early submitted to surgical treatment because of heart failure, who had an uneventful recovery up to the 12th day of antibiotic therapy when he presented intensive backache, with tenderness in the two lower lumbar vertebras. Spondylodiscitis was confirmed by a magnetic resonance imaging and the treatment was non-esteroidal anti-inflamatory and analgetics drug, with good results, and prolongation of antibiotic treatment up to 3 months. Appropriate diagnosis of this association has important consequences, as the need of a longer antibiotic therapy course, which can range from 6 weeks to 3 months.

  18. Cervical brucellar spondylodiscitis mimicking a cervical disc herniation with epidural abscess: a case report

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    Ahmet Aslan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis can show many clinical manifestations according to the affected sites of the body, and is usually diagnosed with osteoarticular symptoms. We present a patient with cervical brucellar spondylodiscitis and epidural abscess who presented with severe neck and left upper extremity pain and was referred to our hospital for surgery because of cervical disc herniation. The patient didn’t undergo surgery and was cured with 6 months of medical therapy. Duration of the medical therapy was assessed by magnetic resonans imaging (MRI studies. In endemic regions, brucellar spondylodiscitis should be included in differential diagnoses for patients who have cervical pain with or without neurological deficits. Patients should be attentively questioned concerning occupation, settlement place, subfebril fever, consumption of raw milk or dairy products, travel to endemic regions or past brucellosis history in the family. MRI is an important imaging modality in the diagnosis and response to medical treatment in brucellar spondylodiscitis.

  19. Community Acquired Spondylodiscitis caused by Escherichia Coli; Case Report and Literature Review

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    F Javier Fonseca del Pozo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral osteomyelitis, or spondylodiscitis, is a rare disease with increasing prevalence in recent years due to a greater number of spinal surgical procedures, nosocomial bacteraemia, an aging population and intravenous drug addiction. Haematogenous infection is the most common cause of spondylodiscitis. We report a 47-year-old man diagnosed with Escherichia coli spondylodiscitis. The patient initially presented with a 4-day history of inflammatory, mechanical pain in the lower back suggesting sciatica. Treatment included NSAIDs and opioids. Two days after discharge from hospital following an admission due to an upper GI bleeding, the back pain intensified, precipitating a new attendance to the emergency department; during which lumbosacral radiography showed marked reduction of L2/L3 intervertebral space. After a new admission to the rheumatology unit due to worsening of symptoms and raised inflammatory markers, an expedited MRI showed loss of intervertebral disc space at L2/L3, with an irregular high intensity area at L2; suggesting a fluid collection extending to adjacent soft tissues. Fluoroscopy-guided core needle bone biopsies were reported positive for Escherichia coli sensitive to ceftriaxone. The patient was treated (received treatment with a three week course of ceftriaxone following a formal diagnosis of E. coli spondylodiscitis. Follow-up MRI demonstrated complete recovery with the patient able to return (has returned to normal activity. In this case we highlight the importance of correct and timely diagnosis of spondylodiscitis. Diagnosis of spondylodiscitis is often difficult, delayed or even missed due to the rarity of the disease but can lead to devastating consequences. Therefore a high index of suspicion is needed for prompt diagnosis to ensure improved long-term outcomes.

  20. Effect of Piper betle and Brucea javanica on the Differential Expression of Hyphal Wall Protein (HWP1) in Non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Harun, Wan Himratul Aznita; Jamil, Nur Alyaa; Jamaludin, Nor Hazwani; Nordin, Mohd-Al-Faisal

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the HWP1 gene in non-Candida albicans Candida species and the differential expression of HWP1 following treatment with Piper betle and Brucea javanica aqueous extracts. All candidal suspensions were standardized to 1 × 10(6) cells/mL. The suspension was incubated overnight at 37 °C (C. parapsilosis, 35°C). Candidal cells were treated with each respective extract at 1, 3, and 6 mg/mL for 24 h. The total RNA was extracted and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was carried out with a specific primer of HWP1. HWP1 mRNAs were only detected in C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. Exposing the cells to the aqueous extracts has affected the expression of HWP1 transcripts. C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis have demonstrated different intensity of mRNA. Compared to P. betle, B. javanica demonstrated a higher suppression on the transcript levels of HWP1 in all samples. HWP1 was not detected in C. albicans following the treatment of B. javanica at 1 mg/mL. In contrast, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis were shown to have HWP1 regulation. However, the expression levels were reduced upon the addition of higher concentration of B. javanica extract. P. betle and B. javanica have potential to be developed as oral health product.

  1. Effect of Piper betle and Brucea javanica on the Differential Expression of Hyphal Wall Protein (HWP1 in Non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Himratul Aznita Wan Harun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify the HWP1 gene in non-Candida albicans Candida species and the differential expression of HWP1 following treatment with Piper betle and Brucea javanica aqueous extracts. All candidal suspensions were standardized to 1×106 cells/mL. The suspension was incubated overnight at 37 °C (C. parapsilosis, 35°C. Candidal cells were treated with each respective extract at 1, 3, and 6 mg/mL for 24 h. The total RNA was extracted and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was carried out with a specific primer of HWP1. HWP1 mRNAs were only detected in C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. Exposing the cells to the aqueous extracts has affected the expression of HWP1 transcripts. C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis have demonstrated different intensity of mRNA. Compared to P. betle, B. javanica demonstrated a higher suppression on the transcript levels of HWP1 in all samples. HWP1 was not detected in C. albicans following the treatment of B. javanica at 1 mg/mL. In contrast, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis were shown to have HWP1 regulation. However, the expression levels were reduced upon the addition of higher concentration of B. javanica extract. P. betle and B. javanica have potential to be developed as oral health product.

  2. Isolation Frequency Characteristics of Candida Species from Clinical Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeon, Jae-Sik; Kim, Jae Kyung

    2016-06-01

    Candida spp. is an invasive infectious fungus, a major risk factor that can increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In this study, 2,508 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens collected from university hospitals from July 2011 to October 2014. They were identified in order to determine isolation frequencies and characteristics by specimen, gender, age group, year, season, and month. The strain-specific isolation rate of Candida spp. is in the order of Candida albicans (1,218 strains, 48.56%), Candida glabrata (416 strains, 16.59%), Candida utilis (305 strains, 12.16%), Candida tropicalis (304 strains, 12.12%), and Candida parapsilosis (116 strains, 4.63%) and these five species accounted for more than 94% of the total strains. Of the specimens, Candida spp. were most frequently isolated from urine-catheter, followed by urine-voided, blood, sputum, other, open pus, vaginal discharge, Tip, ear discharge, bronchial aspiration and bile, in that order. Looking at the age distribution, the detection rate of patients in their 60s and older was significantly higher at 75.8% (1,900/2,508). The detection rate of patients in their 20s and younger was shown to be very low at 2.55% (64/2,508). By year, the detection rate of non-albicans Candida spp. showed a tendency to gradually increase each year compared with C. albicans. As isolation of Candida spp. from clinical samples at the specie level can vary depending on characteristics of the patient, sample, season, etc., continual studies are required.

  3. Emergence of non-albicans Candida species and antifungal resistance in intensive care unit patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravinder Kaur; Megh Singh Dhakad; Ritu Goyal; Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology of candidiasis and the antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida species isolated from the intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Methods: The study used a qualitative descriptive design. Relevant samples depending on organ system involvement from 100 ICU patients were collected and processed. Identification and speciation of the isolates was conducted by the biochemical tests. Antifungal susceptibility testing was carried out as per CLSI-M27-A3 document. Results: Ninety Candida isolates were isolated from the different clinical samples:urine (43.3%), tracheal aspirate (31.1%), urinary catheter (12.2%), endotracheal tube (7.8%), abdominal drains (3.3%), sputum (2.2%). The incidence of candidiasis caused by non-albicans Candida (NAC) species (63.3%) was higher than Candida albicans (36.7%). The various NAC species were isolated as: Candida tropicalis (41.1%), Candida glab-rata (10%), Candida parapsilosis (6.7%), Candida krusei (3.3%) and Candida kefyr (2.2%). The overall isolation rate of Candida species from samples was 53.3%. Anti-fungal susceptibility indicated that 37.8%and 7.8%of the Candida isolates were resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Conclusions: Predominance of NAC species in ICU patients along with the increasing resistance being recorded to fluconazole which has a major bearing on the morbidity and management of these patients and needs to be further worked upon.

  4. Emergence of non-albicans Candida species and antifungal resistance in intensive care unit patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravinder Kaur; Megh Singh Dhakad; Ritu Goyal; Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology of candidiasis and the antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida species isolated from the intensive care unit(ICU) patients.Methods: The study used a qualitative descriptive design. Relevant samples depending on organ system involvement from 100 ICU patients were collected and processed.Identification and speciation of the isolates was conducted by the biochemical tests.Antifungal susceptibility testing was carried out as per CLSI-M27-A3 document.Results: Ninety Candida isolates were isolated from the different clinical samples: urine(43.3%), tracheal aspirate(31.1%), urinary catheter(12.2%), endotracheal tube(7.8%),abdominal drains(3.3%), sputum(2.2%). The incidence of candidiasis caused by nonalbicans Candida(NAC) species(63.3%) was higher than Candida albicans(36.7%).The various NAC species were isolated as: Candida tropicalis(41.1%), Candida glabrata(10%), Candida parapsilosis(6.7%), Candida krusei(3.3%) and Candida kefyr(2.2%). The overall isolation rate of Candida species from samples was 53.3%. Antifungal susceptibility indicated that 37.8% and 7.8% of the Candida isolates were resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively.Conclusions: Predominance of NAC species in ICU patients along with the increasing resistance being recorded to fluconazole which has a major bearing on the morbidity and management of these patients and needs to be further worked upon.

  5. Reduced ability to work both before and after infectious spondylodiscitis in working-age patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehrer, Michala; Hallas, Jesper; Bælum, Jesper;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As little is known about the ability to work in patients with infectious spondylodiscitis, we compared the relation between the workforce before infection with that of a reference population and described the patients' ability to work after infection including predictors of return...... before infection compared with a reference population and infection further lowered their ability to RTW....

  6. Lumbosacral spondylodiscitis due to rectal fistula following mesh penetration 7 years after colpopexy

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    S. Núñez-Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In cases of spondyodiscitis that are resistant to adequate treatment, a search for infection source must be continued until the focus is found and treated. The presence of uncommon enteric microorganisms causing spondylodiscitis, such as Enterococcus spp., is suggestive of contiguous spread and should therefore be further investigated.

  7. Candida colonization and species identification by two methods in NICU newborn

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    Narges Sadat Taherzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the last two decades invasive candidiasis has become an increasing problem in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. Colonization of skin and mucous membranes with Candida spp. is important factor in the pathogenesis of neonatal infection and several colonized sites are major risk factors evoking higher frequencies of progression to invasive candidiasis. The aim of this study was to detect Candida colonization in NICU patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 93 neonates in NICUs at Imam Khomeini and Children Medical Center Hospitals in Tehran. Cutaneous and mucous membrane samples obtained at first, third, and seventh days of patients’ stay in NICUs during nine months from August 2013 to May 2014. The samples were primarily cultured on CHROMagar Candida medium. The cultured media were incubated at 35°C for 48h and evaluated based on colony color produced on CHROMagar Candida. In addition, isolated colonies were cultured on Corn Meal Agar medium supplemented with tween 80 for identification of Candida spp. based on their morphology. Finally, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method was performed for definite identification of isolated species. Results: Colonization by Candida spp. was occurred in 20.43% of neonates. Fifteen and four patients colonized with one and two different Candida spp., respectively. Isolated Candida spp. identified as; C. parapsilosis (n: 10, C. albicans (n: 7, C. tropicalis (n: 3, C. guilliermondii (n: 2, and C. krusei (n: 1. In present study non-albicans Candia species were dominant (69.56% and C. parapsilosis was the most frequent isolate (43.47%. Using Fisher's exact test, the correlation between fungal colonization with low birth weight, low gestational age, and duration of hospital stay was found to be statistically significant (P=0.003. Conclusion: The results of this study imply to the candida species colonization of neonates

  8. Miltefosine inhibits Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida spp. biofilms and impairs the dispersion of infectious cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Taissa; Ishida, Kelly; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; Rozental, Sonia

    2016-11-01

    Candida spp. can adhere to and form biofilms over different surfaces, becoming less susceptible to antifungal treatment. Resistance of biofilms to antifungal agents is multifactorial and the extracellular matrix (ECM) appears to play an important role. Among the few available antifungals for treatment of candidaemia, only the lipid formulations of amphotericin B (AmB) and the echinocandins are effective against biofilms. Our group has previously demonstrated that miltefosine has an important effect against Candida albicans biofilms. Thus, the aim of this work was to expand the analyses of the in vitro antibiofilm activity of miltefosine to non-albicans Candida spp. Miltefosine had significant antifungal activity against planktonic cells and the development of biofilms of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata. The activity profile in biofilms was superior to fluconazole and was similar to that of AmB and caspofungin. Biofilm-derived cells with their ECM extracted became as susceptible to miltefosine as planktonic cells, confirming the importance of the ECM in the biofilm resistant behaviour. Miltefosine also inhibited biofilm dispersion of cells at the same concentration needed to inhibit planktonic cell growth. The data obtained in this work reinforce the potent inhibitory activity of miltefosine on biofilms of the four most pathogenic Candida spp. and encourage further studies for the utilisation of this drug and/or structural analogues on biofilm-related infections.

  9. Candida and candidaemia. Susceptibility and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2013-11-01

    In our part of the world invasive fungal infections include invasive yeast infections with Candida as the absolutely dominating pathogen and invasive mould infections with Aspergillus as the main organism. Yeasts are part of our normal micro-flora and invasive infections arise only when barrier leakage or impaired immune function occurs. On the contrary, moulds are ubiquitous in the nature and environment and their conidia inhaled at a daily basis. Hence invasive mould infections typically arise from the airways whereas invasive yeast infections typically enter the bloodstream causing fungaemia. Candida is by far the most common fungal blood stream pathogen; hence this genus has been the main focus of this thesis. As neither the Danish epidemiology nor the susceptibility of fungal pathogens was well described when we initiated our studies we initially wanted to be able to include animal models in our work. Therefore, a comprehensive animal study was undertaken comparing the virulence in a haematogenous mouse model of eight different Candida species including the five most common ones in human infections (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis and in addition three rarer species C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr). We found remarkable differences in the virulence among these species and were able to group the species according to decreasing virulence in three groups I: C. albicans and C. tropicalis, II: C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr, and III: C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii. Apart from being necessary for our subsequent animal experiments exploring in vivo antifungal susceptibility, these findings also helped us understand at least part of the reason for the differences in the epidemiology and the pitfalls associated with the establishment of genus rather than species specific breakpoints. In example, it was less surprising that C. albicans has been the dominant pathogen and associated with a

  10. Comparison of VITEK 2 YST Card and API 20C AUX system in identification of non- albicans Candida species

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    Süleyman Durmaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In the present study, it was aimed to compare results obtained by using VITEK 2 YST Card (bioMérieux, France with those obtained by using API 20C AUX (bioMérieux, France for identification of non- albicans Candida species, which was isolated from various clinical samples, at level of species.Materials and methods: Forty-one non-albicans Candida isolates, which were isolated from 28 urine, 10 blood and 3 vaginal swab specimens, and found to be negative by germ tube test, were identified by using VITEK 2 YST Card (bioMérieux, France. In addition, microscopic morphology was assessed in corn-meal Tween 80 agar, while carbohydrate assimilation was assessed by using commercially available API 20C AUX kit (bioMérieux, France.Results: Thirty-four isolates (82.9% were identified as identical species by these 2 systems, while different results were obtained in 7 isolates (17.1%. 5 isolates, identified as Candida glabrata by API 20C AUX system, were identified as Candida tropicalis (n=2, Candida krusei, Candida lipolitica and Candida kefyr by VITEK 2 YST Card. One other isolate, identified as C.tropicalis, was identified as Candida parapsilosis; and additional one isolate, identified as C.parapsilosis, was identified as C.tropicalis.Conclusion: It was concluded that one should be cautious in the identification of C.glabrata, in particular, C.tropicalis and C.parapsilosis, although between VITEK 2 YST Card and API 20C AUX system results was found largely similarity in identification of non-albicans Candida spp.

  11. Hand carriage of Candida species and risk factors in hospital personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Mustafa; Sahin, Idris; Kucukbayrak, Abdulkadir; Ozdemir, Davut; Tevfik Yavuz, M; Oksuz, Sukru; Cakir, Selma

    2007-05-01

    The hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) are considered to be important for colonisation and infection of Candida spp. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of Candida carriage on the hands of the hospital personnel the potential risk factors. Samples were collected from the hands of 214 (139 female and 75 male) hospital personnel working at Duzce Medical Faculty Hospital, Duzce, Turkey. Of these, 88 were nurses, 62 resident doctors, 21 laboratory workers, 30 officers and 13 dining room personnel. The hands of all participants were tested by culture with the broth wash technique. Overall, 34.1% of the people analysed were found to harbour Candida spp. on their hands: 30.7% were nurses, 25.8% resident doctors, 28.6% laboratory workers, 84.6% dining room personnel and 43.3% officers. Candida carriage rates of the dining room personnel were higher than found in the other groups (P = 0.001). Isolated Candida species were C. parapsilosis (38.4%), C. tropicalis (26.0%), C. albicans (23.3%), C. kefyr (11.0%) and C. globosa (1.4%). Candida carriage rate was higher in the glove-using group (35.1%) than the non-glove using group (7.1%, P = 0.031). We concluded that carriage of Candida species on the hands of personnel was common especially in non-medical staff. Wearing gloves was found to be related to increased rates of Candida carriage in the nurse group. Candida parapsilosis was the most frequently colonising species that may be a predisposing condition for nosocomial infections transmitted with the hands of HCWs. Hospital personnel should be educated for regular hand washing practice for preventing Candida colonisation.

  12. Antifungal Activity of 14-Helical β-Peptides against Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Candida Species

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    Namrata Raman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is the most prevalent cause of fungal infections and treatment is further complicated by the formation of drug resistant biofilms, often on the surfaces of implanted medical devices. In recent years, the incidence of fungal infections by other pathogenic Candida species such as C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis has increased. Amphiphilic, helical β-peptide structural mimetics of natural antimicrobial α-peptides have been shown to exhibit specific planktonic antifungal and anti-biofilm formation activity against C. albicans in vitro. Here, we demonstrate that β-peptides are also active against clinically isolated and drug resistant strains of C. albicans and against other opportunistic Candida spp. Different Candida species were susceptible to β-peptides to varying degrees, with C. tropicalis being the most and C. glabrata being the least susceptible. β-peptide hydrophobicity directly correlated with antifungal activity against all the Candida clinical strains and species tested. While β-peptides were largely ineffective at disrupting existing Candida biofilms, hydrophobic β-peptides were able to prevent the formation of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis biofilms. The broad-spectrum antifungal activity of β-peptides against planktonic cells and in preventing biofilm formation suggests the promise of this class of molecules as therapeutics.

  13. Spondylodiscitis (Andersson lesion in psoriatic spondyloarthritis: a rare event successfully treated with an anti-TNF therapy.

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    Vincenzo Bruzzese

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Spondylodiscitis (Andersson lesion is an infrequent and late complication of advanced ankilosing arthritis. Scanty data on the efficacy of anti-TNF therapy for these lesions are available. To our knowledge, only few cases of spondylodiscitis occurring in patients with psoriatic arthritis were reported in literature. We describe the case of a patient with psoriatic arthritis who early developed Andersson lesions successfully treated with infliximab plus methotrexate therapy.

  14. In vitro antimicrobial properties of coconut oil on Candida species in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbolu, D O; Oni, A A; Daini, O A; Oloko, A P

    2007-06-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance, coupled with the availability of fewer antifungal agents with fungicidal actions, prompted this present study to characterize Candida species in our environment and determine the effectiveness of virgin coconut oil as an antifungal agent on these species. In 2004, 52 recent isolates of Candida species were obtained from clinical specimens sent to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Their susceptibilities to virgin coconut oil and fluconazole were studied by using the agar-well diffusion technique. Candida albicans was the most common isolate from clinical specimens (17); others were Candida glabrata (nine), Candida tropicalis (seven), Candida parapsilosis (seven), Candida stellatoidea (six), and Candida krusei (six). C. albicans had the highest susceptibility to coconut oil (100%), with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 25% (1:4 dilution), while fluconazole had 100% susceptibility at an MIC of 64 microg/mL (1:2 dilution). C. krusei showed the highest resistance to coconut oil with an MIC of 100% (undiluted), while fluconazole had an MIC of > 128 microg/mL. It is noteworthy that coconut oil was active against species of Candida at 100% concentration compared to fluconazole. Coconut oil should be used in the treatment of fungal infections in view of emerging drug-resistant Candida species.

  15. Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans fungemia in an institutional hospital during a decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeland, Laurence; Gazon, Mathieu; Guerin, Claude; Argaud, Laurent; Lehot, Jean-Jacques; Bastien, Olivier; Allaouchiche, Bernard; Michallet, Mauricette; Picot, Stephane; Bienvenu, Anne-Lise

    2013-01-01

    Since the outcomes of patients with candidemia is poor and Candida spp. with increased resistance to antifungal therapy may be associated with these results, the emergence of these blood infections caused by non-C. albicans Candida spp. was explored prospectively over a two-year period (2009-2010). Candidemia was defined as the recovery of Candida spp. in culture from a patient's blood sample. The in vitro susceptibility of each isolate to amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole and voriconazole was determined. In addition, characteristics of patients and outcomes were investigated in real-time. The Candida distribution was compared to that observed in a similar study 10 years earlier in the same hospital. A total of 182 patients with candidemia were included in the study. While C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species (n = 102), non-C. albicans Candida spp. included; C. glabrata (n = 32), C. parapsilosis (n = 21), C. tropicalis (n = 13), C. krusei (n = 8), C. kefyr (n = 3), C. lusitaniae (n = 2), C. lipolytica (n = 2), C. famata (n = 1), C. guilliermondii (n = 1), C. inconspicua (n = 1), C. dubliniensis (n = 1), C. sake (n = 1) and C. nivariensis (n = 1). In seven patients, C. albicans was associated with another Candida spp. Surprisingly, this prospective study demonstrated that regardless of the department (intensive care unit or hematological department), Candida spp. distribution was no different from that found in the 1998-2001 survey, except for C. krusei. A reduction in the proportion of C. krusei isolates was observed from 2000-2010 (P = 0.028) as a result of its decreased recovery in the hematological department.

  16. Synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation and theoretical prediction of NMR chemical shifts of thiazole and selenazole derivatives with high antifungal activity against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łączkowski, Krzysztof Z.; Motylewska, Katarzyna; Baranowska-Łączkowska, Angelika; Biernasiuk, Anna; Misiura, Konrad; Malm, Anna; Fernández, Berta

    2016-03-01

    Synthesis and investigation of antimicrobial activities of novel thiazoles and selenazoles is presented. Their structures were determined using NMR, FAB(+)-MS, HRMS and elemental analyses. To support the experiment, theoretical calculations of the 1H NMR shifts were carried out for representative systems within the DFT B3LYP/6-311++G** approximation which additionally confirmed the structure of investigated compounds. Among the derivatives, compounds 4b, 4h, 4j and 4l had very strong activity against reference strains of Candida albicans ATCC and Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019 with MIC = 0.49-7.81 μg/ml. In the case of compounds 4b, 4c, 4h - 4j and 4l, the activity was very strong against of Candida spp. isolated from clinical materials, i.e. C. albicans, Candida krusei, Candida inconspicua, Candida famata, Candida lusitaniae, Candida sake, C. parapsilosis and Candida dubliniensis with MIC = 0.24-15.62 μg/ml. The activity of several of these was similar to the activity of commonly used antifungal agent fluconazole. Additionally, compounds 4m - 4s were found to be active against Gram-positive bacteria, both pathogenic staphylococci Staphylococcus aureus ATCC with MIC = 31.25-125 μg/ml and opportunistic bacteria, such as Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and Micrococcus luteus ATCC 10240 with MIC = 7.81-31.25 μg/ml.

  17. Sequence-identification of Candida species isolated from candidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Naeimeh; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Ghahri, Mohammad; Sadrossadati, Seyedeh Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Candida species are the most prevalent cause of invasive fungal infections such as candidemia. Candidemia is a lethal fungal infection among immunocompromised patients worldwide. Main pathogen is Candida albicans but a global shift in epidemiology toward non-albicans species have reported. Species identification is imperative for good management of candidemia as a fatal infection. The aim of the study is to identify Candida spp. obtained from candidemia and determination of mortality rate among this population. Materials and Methods: The study was performed during February 2014 to March 2015 in Tehran, Iran. Two-hundred and four blood cultures were evaluated for fungal bloodstream infection. Identification of isolates was carried out using phenotypic tests and polymerase chain reaction sequencing technique. Results: Twenty-two out of 204 patients (10.8%) had candidemia. Candida parapsilosis was the most prevalent species (45.4%), followed by C. albicans (31.8%) and Candida glabrata (22.7%). Male to female sex ratio was 8/14. Conclusions: The emergence of resistant strains of Candida species should be considered by physicians to decrease the mortality of this fatal fungal infection by appropriate treatment. PMID:27713871

  18. FREQUENCY OF Candida SPECIES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN TRIANGULO MINEIRO, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralciane de Paula MENEZES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infections by Candida species are a high-impact problem in public health due to their wide incidence in hospitalized patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate frequency, susceptibility to antifungals, and genetic polymorphism of Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients. The Candida isolates included in this study were obtained from blood cultures, abdominal fluids, and central venous catheters (CVC of hospitalized patients at the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Uberlândia during the period of July 2010 - June 2011. Susceptibility tests were conducted by the broth microdilution method. The RAPD-PCR tests used employed initiator oligonucleotides OPA09, OPB11, and OPE06. Of the 63 Candida isolates, 18 (28.5% were C. albicans, 20 (31.7% were C. parapsilosis complex species, 14 (22.2% C. tropicalis, four (6.4% C. glabrata, four (6.4% C. krusei, two (3.3% C. kefyr, and one (1.6% C. lusitaniae. In vitro resistance to amphotericin B was observed in 12.7% of isolates. In vitro resistance to azoles was not detected, except for C. krusei. The two primers, OPA09 and OPB11, were able to distinguish different species. Isolates of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complex species presented six and five clusters, respectively, with the OPA09 marker by RAPD-PCR, showing the genetic variability of the isolates of those species. It was concluded that members of the C. parapsilosis complex were the most frequent species found, and most isolates were susceptible to the antifungals amphotericin B, flucozanole, and itraconazole. High genetic polymorphisms were observed for isolates of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complex species, mainly with the OPA09 marker.

  19. Miconazole activity against Candida biofilms developed on acrylic discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, S; Dorocka-Bobkowska, B; Prylinski, M; Konopka, K; Duzgunes, N

    2014-08-01

    Oral candidiasis in the form of Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CaDS) is associated with Candida adhesion and biofilm formation on the fitting surface of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) dentures. Candida biofilms show considerable resistance to most conventional antifungal agents, a phenomenon that is considered a developmental-phase-specific event that may help explain the high recurrence rates associated with CaDS. The aim of this study was to examine the activity of miconazole towards in vitro-grown mature Candida biofilms formed on heat-cured PMMA discs as a standardized model. The effect of miconazole nitrate on Candida biofilms developed on acrylic discs was determined for C. albicans MYA-2732 (ATCC), C. glabrata MYA-275 (ATCC), and clinical isolates, C. albicans 6122/06, C. glabrata 7531/06, C. tropicalis 8122/06, and C. parapsilosis 11375/07. Candida biofilms were developed on heat-cured poly(methyl methacrylate) discs and treated with miconazole (0.5 - 96 μg/ml). The metabolic activity of the biofilms was measured by the XTT reduction assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of miconazole against Candida species were determined by the microdilution method. The MICs for miconazole for the investigated strains ranged from 0.016-32 μg/ml. Treatment with miconazole resulted in a significant reduction of biofilm metabolic activity for all strains. The highest inhibition was observed at 96 μg/ml miconazole. In the case of C. glabrata MYA-275 and C. tropicalis 8122/06 this corresponded to 83.7% and 75.4% inhibition, respectively. The lowest reduction was observed for C. parapsilosis 11375/07-46.1%. For all Candida strains there was a strong correlation between MIC values and miconazole concentrations corresponding to a reduction of metabolic activity of the biofilm by 50%. Miconazole exhibits high antifungal activity against Candida biofilms developed on the surface of PMMA discs. The study provides support for the use of miconazole as an

  20. Brucellar spondylodiscitis with rapidly progressive spinal epidural abscess showing cauda equina syndrome.

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    Hu, Tan; Wu, Ji; Zheng, Chao; Wu, Di

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Brucellosis is often difficult in the patient with only single non-specific symptom because of its rarity. We report a patient with Brucellar spondylodiscitis, in which the low back pain was the only symptom and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed not radiographic features about infection at initial stage. He was misdiagnosed as a lumbar disc herniation for inappropriate treatment in a long time. The delay in diagnosis and correct treatment led to rapid progression of the disease and severe complications. The patient was treated successfully with triple-antibiotic and surgical intervention in the end. Brucellar spondylodiscitis should always be suspended in the differential diagnosis specially when the patient comes from an endemic area or has consumed dairy products from animals in such an area and comprehensive examination should be done for the patent to rule out some important diseases like Brucellosis with sufficient reasons.

  1. Detection and identification of the Candida species by 25S ribosomal DNA analysis in the urine of candidal cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Rui; Hattori, Yousuke; Okuzumi, Katsuko; Miyazaki, Yoshio; Yamauchi, Rie; Koie, Hiroshi; Watari, Toshihiro; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2002-02-01

    Candida species in clinical urine samples were identified directly by the newly developed method of PCR analysis on 25S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Two dogs were referred to the Animal Medical Center, Nihon University School of Veterinary Medicine, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan for the examination of chronic cystitis. Microscopic examination of urine samples from these dogs revealed yeast cells. Urine culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar at 27 degrees C for 5 days produced white to cream colored colonies. The isolates were identifical to Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis by mycological examination, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of 25S ribosomal DNA from these urine isolates showed 99% similarity to those of a reference strain of Candida albicans or C. parapsilosis. The nucleotide sequences of 25S rDNA obtained directly from urine samples were also identical to C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, respectively. Confirming the results on the isolates cultured from the same urine samples. This PCR analysis method could be available for the direct identification of Candida species in urine samples within 2 days.

  2. Differential Regulation of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells by Candida Species

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    Singh, Anurag; Lelis, Felipe; Braig, Stefanie; Schäfer, Iris; Hartl, Dominik; Rieber, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are innate immune cells characterized by their ability to suppress T-cell responses. Recently, we demonstrated that the human-pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus induced a distinct subset of neutrophilic MDSCs. To dissect Candida-mediated MDSC induction in more depth, we studied the relative efficacy of different pathogenic non-albicans Candida species to induce and functionally modulate neutrophilic MDSCs, including C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. dubliniensis, and C. krusei. Our data demonstrate that the extent of MDSC generation is largely dependent on the Candida species with MDSCs induced by C. krusei and C. glabrata showing a higher suppressive activity compared to MDSCs induced by C. albicans. In summary, these studies show that fungal MDSC induction is differentially regulated at the species level and differentially affects effector T-cell responses.

  3. Candida isolates in tertiary hospitals in northeastern Brazil Isolados de Candida em hospital terciário no nordeste do Brasil

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    Sylvia Lemos Hinrichsen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida is an opportunistic pathogen that affects highrisk patients who are either immunocompromised or critically ill and is associated with almost 80% of all nosocomial fungal infections, representing the major cause of fungemia with high mortality rates (40%. Candida albicans is the main cause of candidemia and among the non-albicans species C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis are the most frequent agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of Candida species in two tertiary hospitals in Recife, Northeastern Brazil. It began by surveying all positive Candida cultures processed by the microbiology laboratory from September 2003 to September 2006. The cultures, originated from various types of biological material (blood, urine, tracheal, catheter and others, were processed by Vitec® system (Biomerieux SA, France. A total of 1.279 (hospital A: 837; hospital B: 442 sample isolates were positive for Candida. The most frequent species in both hospitals were: C. albicans (367, C. tropicalis (363, C. parapsilosis (147, C. glabrata (81, C. krusei (30 and C. guillermondii (14. The isolates were obtained from 746 hospitalized patients. A total of 221 positive hemocultures were detected in 166 different patients in both hospitals, and 113 (68.1% of these patients with positive hemocultures presented Candida in other body sites.This study shows thatCandida non-albicans was the main isolated agent and evidences the importante of C. tropicalis in nosocomial fungal infections.Candida é um patógeno oportunista que afeta pacientes de alto risco que estão também imunocomprometidos ou criticamente doentes, estando associada a quase 80% de todos os casos de infecções fúngicas nosocomiais, representando a maior causa de fungemia com alta taxa de mortalidade (40%. Candida albicans é a principal causa de candidemia e dentre as espécies não-albicans a C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata e C. tropicalis são os agentes mais

  4. Oral Candida albicans isolates from HIV-positive individuals have similar in vitro biofilm-forming ability and pathogenicity as invasive Candida isolates

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    Rasteiro Vanessa MC

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida can cause mucocutaneous and/or systemic infections in hospitalized and immunosuppressed patients. Most individuals are colonized by Candida spp. as part of the oral flora and the intestinal tract. We compared oral and systemic isolates for the capacity to form biofilm in an in vitro biofilm model and pathogenicity in the Galleria mellonella infection model. The oral Candida strains were isolated from the HIV patients and included species of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, C. norvegensis, and C. dubliniensis. The systemic strains were isolated from patients with invasive candidiasis and included species of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, and C. kefyr. For each of the acquired strains, biofilm formation was evaluated on standardized samples of silicone pads and acrylic resin. We assessed the pathogenicity of the strains by infecting G. mellonella animals with Candida strains and observing survival. Results The biofilm formation and pathogenicity in Galleria was similar between oral and systemic isolates. The quantity of biofilm formed and the virulence in G. mellonella were different for each of the species studied. On silicone pads, C. albicans and C. dubliniensis produced more biofilm (1.12 to 6.61 mg than the other species (0.25 to 3.66 mg. However, all Candida species produced a similar biofilm on acrylic resin, material used in dental prostheses. C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis were the most virulent species in G. mellonella with 100% of mortality, followed by C. lusitaniae (87%, C. novergensis (37%, C. krusei (25%, C. glabrata (20%, and C. kefyr (12%. Conclusions We found that on silicone pads as well as in the Galleria model, biofilm formation and virulence depends on the Candida species. Importantly, for C. albicans the pathogenicity of oral Candida isolates was similar to systemic Candida isolates

  5. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil of Salvia sclarea L. from Bulgaria against isolates of Candida species

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    Yana Hristova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Salvia sclarea L., growing in Bulgaria, was analyzed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. A total of 52 different compounds were identified, representing 98.25% of total oil content. Linalyl acetate (56.88% and linalool (20.75% were determined as major essential oil constituents, followed by germacrene D (5.08% and β-cariophyllene (3.41%. Antifungal activities of clary sage essential oil and major compounds linalyl acetate and linalool against 30 clinical isolates, belonging to species Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis were evaluated. Essential oil characterized with stronger anticandidial activity in comparison with pure compounds.

  6. Evaluation of Urinary Tract Infections Due to Candida Species

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    Yeser Karaca Derici

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Although urinary tract infections often caused by bacteria, fungal etiology is detected in a significant number of infections in which Candida is the leading cause. In this study we aimed to evaluate the distribution of Candida strains isolated from urine samples in our hospital. Material and Method: Candida species were identified based on germ tube test, colony morphology on chrom agar Candida (Biomerieux, France and API ID32C AUX (Biomerieux, France commercial kit. Data were analyzed with SPSS 15.0 software for data analysis. Results: During March 2011-March 2014 a total of 109662 urine cultures were evaluated and 24364 samples revealed significant growth. Of the significant growth detected 24364 (22% samples 1096 (4.5% were defined as yeasts. The isolates most frequently detected in this study were C. albicans (50.5%, C. tropicalis (15.9%, C. glabrata (12.7%, C. parapsilosis (7.2%, C. kefyr (5.8%, C. krusei (5.5%. The highest yeast growth was observed in anesthesia intensive care unit. Discussion: In our study, the most frequently isolated species of yeast in the urine was C. albicans. Determination of Candida species and their clinical distributions in hospitals is very important in terms of giving direction to the treatment and measures to be taken.

  7. Efficacy of micafungin in invasive candidiasis caused by common Candida species with special emphasis on non-albicans Candida species.

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    Cornely, Oliver A; Vazquez, Jose; De Waele, Jan; Betts, Robert; Rotstein, Coleman; Nucci, Marcio; Pappas, Peter G; Ullmann, Andrew J

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of invasive candidiasis caused by non-albicans Candida (NAC) spp. is increasing. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of micafungin, caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B in patients with invasive candidiasis and candidaemia caused by different Candida spp. This post hoc analysis used data obtained from two randomised phase III trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of micafungin vs. caspofungin and micafungin vs. liposomal amphotericin B. Treatment success, clinical response, mycological response and mortality were evaluated in patients infected with C. albicans and NAC spp. Treatment success rates in patients with either C. albicans or NAC infections were similar. Outcomes were similar for micafungin, caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B. Candida albicans was the most prevalent pathogen recovered (41.0%), followed by C. tropicalis (17.9%), C. parapsilosis (14.4%), C. glabrata (10.4%), multiple Candida spp. (7.3%) and C. krusei (3.2%). Age, primary diagnosis (i.e. candidaemia or invasive candidiasis), previous corticosteroid therapy and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score were identified as potential predictors of treatment success and mortality. Micafungin, caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B exhibit favourable treatment response rates that are comparable for patients infected with different Candida spp.

  8. Typing and antifungal susceptibility of the candida species isolated in geriatric patients at a tertiary care center

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    Sevgi Yılmaz Hancı

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study we aimed to detect, identification and distribution of the Candida species in blood and urine samples; and antifungal susceptibility of Candida bloodstream isolates in geriatric patients Methods: All Candida species isolated from blood and urine cultures samples of patients over than 65 years of during the period December 2011 -November 2014 in İzmir Tepecik Training and Research Hospital were enrolled in this study. For Candida species identification conventional methods, colony appearance in candida chromogenic agar and for some unidentified isolates API ID32C AUX (BioMérieux, France was used. Antifungal susceptibility testing of the isolates was performed with API ATB Fungus 3 (BioMérieux, France. Results: During the study period 681 Candida species were isolated in blood and urine samples of patients over than 65 years. When the sample species were evaluated, Candida species detected in 561(82.4% urine sample, and 120 (17.6% blood samples. Most isolated species were respectively detected C. albicans (47.0%, C.parapsilosis (16.0%, C.tropicalis (15.9%, C.glabrata (12.2%, C.kefy (3.7% and C.krusei (2.8%. C. albicans detected the most common in urine samples (51.7 %, on the other hand C.parapsilosis the most common species in blood samples (50.8%. In general surgery unit, C.tropicalis was found as the most common isolate. On the other hand C.albicans the most common species in the other units and services. C.parapsilosis rate in blood cultures increased with age. Antifungal susceptibility of the Candida bloodstream isolates were detected as 97.5% for flucytosine, 95.8% for amfotericin B, 82.5% for fluconazole, 91.7% for itraconazole and 77.5% for voriconazole. Conclusion: The most frequently isolated yeast species in blood and urinesamples of geriatric patients has been found C. albicans. C.parapsilosis especially frequently isolated from blood cultures and increasing the frequency with age. Voriconazole in Candida

  9. Identification and study of non-Albicans Candida species isolated from clinical materials of patients with Candidiasis

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    Afsarian MH

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: I Infections due to Candida spp. have increased dramatically in recent years through a rising number of predisposing factors and immunocompromised hosts. Although Candida albicans is the most prevalent and important causative agent of Candida infections, the importance of C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii and C. kefyr have increased significantly as they tend to be more resistant to antifungal agents. Therefore, it is critical that infecting Candida spp. be identified and considered. Furthermore, clinical laboratories may need to expand their yeast identification capabilities in order to facilitate rapid identification of clinical yeast isolates. Methods: In a discroptive – analytic study, the patients suspected of candidiasis were sampled. Direct examination and culture was carried out for all specimens. The isolated yeast colonies were then identified using various different tests such as culture on corn mealagar tween-80, CHROMagar Candida, and assimilation test by API 20C AUX kit. Results: In the present study, 304 yeast colonies were isolated from referral patients to mycology laboratory of 304 isolated colonies 204 were identified as C. albicans and 100 were identified as non albicans candida as follow 35% C. parapsilosis, 32% C. tropicalis, 8% C. glabrata, 8% C. kefyer, 6% C. krusei, 3% C. guilliermondii, 3% C. famata, 3% C. lusitaniae, 1% C. zeilanoides and 1% C. homicola. C. parapsilosis was the most frequent species. The result showed that clinical specimens were obtained from various infected sites of body and nail samples (59 cases were found to be the most frequent among those specimens. Conclusion: In conclusion, our results suggest that no single phenotypic test has proven to be highly effective for definitive identification. Moreover since these organisms can vary greatly in their susceptibility to the current antifungal agent and causing significant patient management problem

  10. Characterization of mitochondrial DNA in various Candida species: isolation, restriction endonuclease analysis, size, and base composition.

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    Su, C S; Meyer, S A

    1991-01-01

    A practical and effective method for the extraction of mitochondrial DNA from Candida species was developed. Zymolyase was used to induce yeast protoplasts, and mitochondrial DNA was extracted from DNase I-treated mitochondrial preparations. Restriction endonuclease analyses of mitochondrial DNAs from 19 isolates representing seven species of Candida (C. albicans, C. kefyr, C. lusitaniae, C. maltosa, C. parapsilosis, C. shehatae, and C. tropicalis) and Lodderomyces elongisporus revealed different cleavage patterns that appeared to be specific for the species. Few common restriction fragments were evident. The genome sizes of the mitochondrial DNAs ranged from 26.4 to 51.4 kilobase pairs, and the guanine-plus-cytosine contents ranged from 20.7 to 36.8 mol%. There was no correlation between the base compositions of nuclear and mitochondrial DNAs. Eight isolates of C. parapsilosis, including the type culture, and an ascosporogenous strain of L. elongisporus, which was once proposed as the teleomorph of C. parapsilosis, had similar mitochondrial DNA molecular sizes (30.2 and 28.8 kilobase pairs); however, restriction endonuclease patterns of these organisms were distinct. These data provide additional support for discrimination of these two species. The results of our experiments demonstrate that mitochondrial DNA analyses may provide useful criteria for the differentiation of yeast species.

  11. Global Surveillance of In Vitro Activity of Micafungin against Candida: a Comparison with Caspofungin by CLSI-Recommended Methods

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    Pfaller, M. A.; Boyken, L.; Hollis, R. J.; Messer, S. A.; Tendolkar, S.; Diekema, D. J.

    2006-01-01

    Micafungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent that has recently been approved for the prevention of invasive fungal infection and the treatment of esophageal candidiasis. Prospective sentinel surveillance for the emergence of in vitro resistance to micafungin among invasive Candida sp. isolates is indicated. We determined the in vitro activity of micafungin against 2,656 invasive (bloodstream or sterile site) unique patient isolates of Candida spp. collected from 60 medical centers worldwide in 2004 and 2005. We performed antifungal susceptibility testing according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A2 method and used a 24-hour prominent inhibition endpoint for determination of the MIC. Caspofungin was tested in parallel against all isolates. Of 2,656 invasive Candida sp. isolates, species distribution was 55.6% Candida albicans, 14.4% Candida parapsilosis, 13.4% Candida glabrata, 10.1% Candida tropicalis, 2.4% Candida krusei, 1.7% Candida guilliermondii, 0.9% Candida lusitaniae, 0.6% Candida kefyr, and 0.9% other Candida species. Overall, micafungin was very active against Candida (MIC50/MIC at which 90% of the isolates tested are inhibited [MIC90], 0.015/1 μg/ml; 96% inhibited at a MIC of ≤1 μg/ml, 100% inhibited at a MIC of ≤2 μg/ml) and comparable to caspofungin (MIC50/MIC90, 0.03/0.25 μg/ml; 99% inhibited at a MIC of ≤2 μg/ml). Results by species, expressed as MIC50/MIC90 (micrograms per milliliter), were as follows: C. albicans, 0.015/0.03; C. glabrata, 0.015/0.015; C. tropicalis, 0.03/0.06; C. krusei, 0.06/0.12; C. kefyr, 0.06/0.06; C. parapsilosis, 1/2; C. guilliermondii, 0.5/1; C. lusitaniae, 0.12/0.25; other Candida spp., 0.25/1. Although the species distribution varied considerably among the different geographic regions, there was no difference in micafungin activity across the regions. Micafungin has excellent in vitro activity against invasive clinical isolates of Candida from centers worldwide. PMID:17021079

  12. Bacteriological features of infectious spondylodiscitis at Mohammed V Military Teaching Hospital of Rabat

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    A Zohoun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To review the bacteriological features of infectious spondylodiscitis and provide recommendations for the initial therapy which remains empirical in our context. Retrospective study including patients diagnosed with spondylodiscitis over a period of 4 years (2006-2009 at the Rabat Military Teaching Hospital. During the study period, we analysed 30 cases: the mean age was 49.9 years and 21 cases (70% were male. The patients were predominantly hospitalized in neurosurgery department (15/30 followed by rheumatology department (10/30. The site of infection was lumbar in 21 cases (21/30, dorsal in 7 cases (7/30. 26 cultures were positive of which 19 (19/26 were monomicrobial. Tuberculosis (TB was implicated in 10 cases (10/30 including 4 cases in association with common organisms (Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium species. Brucella melitensis was isolated in 1 case. Infections caused by pyogenic bacteria were isolated in 15 cases of which 12 (12/15 revealed simple organisms including Gram-positive cocci in 9 cases (9/12 with 3 cases of S. aureus and Gram-negative bacilli in 3 cases (3/12 with 2 cases of P. aeruginosa. Blood cultures carried out for 16 patients were positive in 7 cases. The anatomopathologic exams carried out for 20 patients found in 6 cases epithelioid granulomata and giants cells with caseous necrosis in total concordance with TB culture. TB is the most frequent cause of spondylodiscitis in Morocco. Our study found the same frequency for non-specific and specific germs. Empirical treatment must take into account S. aureus and M. tuberculosis.

  13. Susceptibility of Clinical Candida Species Isolates to Antifungal Agents by E-Test, Southern Iran: A Five Year Study

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    A Alborzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The incidence of fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, especially by Candida species, has increased in recent years. This study was designed to identify Candida species and determine antifungal susceptibility patterns of 595 yeast strains isolated from various clinical specimens.Material and Methods: Identification of the isolates were determined by the API 20 C AUX kit and antifungal susceptibilities of the species to fluconazole, amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin were determined by the agar-based E-test method.Results: Candida albicans (48% was the most frequently isolated species, followed by Candida kruzei (16.1%, Candida glabrata (13.5%, Candida kefyr (7.4%, Candida parapsilosis (4.8%, Candida tropicalis (1.7% and other species (8.5%. Resistance varies depending on the species and the respective antifungal agents. Comparing the MIC90 for all the strains, the lower MIC90 was observed for caspofungin (0.5 μg/ml. The MIC90 for all Candida species were 64 μg/ml for fluconazole, 0.75 μg/ml for amphotericin B, 4 μg/ml for ketoconazole, 4 μg/ml for itraconazole, and 2 μg/ml for voriconazole.Conclusions: Species definition and determination of antifungal susceptibility patterns are advised for the proper management and treatment of patients at risk for systemic candidiasis. Resistance to antifungal agents is an alarming sign for the emerging common nosocomial fungal infections.

  14. Candida Immunity

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    Julian R. Naglik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is the predominant cause of both superficial and invasive forms of candidiasis. C. albicans primarily infects immunocompromised individuals as a result of either immunodeficiency or intervention therapy, which highlights the importance of host immune defences in preventing fungal infections. The host defence system utilises a vast communication network of cells, proteins, and chemical signals distributed in blood and tissues, which constitute innate and adaptive immunity. Over the last decade the identity of many key molecules mediating host defence against C. albicans has been identified. This review will discuss how the host recognises this fungus, the events induced by fungal cells, and the host innate and adaptive immune defences that ultimately resolve C. albicans infections during health.

  15. Et tilfælde af brucella spondylodiscitis efter rejse til Libanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Johansen, Isik Somuncu

    2012-01-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread endemic zoonotic infection affecting more than 500,000 people per year. The disease is very uncommon in Denmark and almost always imported. We present a case of a 57 year-old male with blood culture and magnetic resonance imaging verified brucella spondylodiscitis. Prior...... to debut of symptoms the patient had visited Lebanon where he had ingested unpasteurized goat milk. The patient was initially treated with an antimicrobial chemotherapy regimen for 12 weeks, which was prolonged due to inadequate radiological response....

  16. Multi-probe real-time PCR identification of four common Candida species in blood culture broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foongladda, Suporn; Mongkol, Nanthanida; Petlum, Pornphan; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2014-06-01

    We developed a single-tube real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with multiple hybridization probes for detecting Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis. Primers were designed to amplify 18S rRNA gene of the genus Candida, and DNA probes were designed to hybridize two areas of the amplicons. The amplification curves and specific melting peaks of the probes hybridized with PCR product were used for definite species identifications. The reaction specificity was 100 % when evaluating the assay using DNA samples from 21 isolates of fungal and bacterial species. The assay was further evaluated in 129 fungal blood culture broth samples which were culture positive for fungus. Of the 129 samples, 119 were positively identified as: C. albicans (39), C. tropicalis (30), C. parapsilosis (23), C. glabrata (20), Candida spp. (5), and two samples containing mixed C. glabrata/C. albicans and C. glabrata/C. tropicalis. The five Candida spp. were identified by sequencing analysis as C. krusei, C. dubliniensis, C. aquaetextoris, and two isolates of C. athensensis. Of the ten samples which showed negative PCR results, six were Cryptococcus neoformans, and the others were Trichosporon sp., Rhodotorula sp., Fusarium sp., and Penicillium marneffei. Our findings show that the assay was highly effective in identifying the four medically important Candida species. The results can be available within 3 h after positivity of a blood culture broth sample.

  17. Antifungal susceptibility of Candida biofilms: unique efficacy of amphotericin B lipid formulations and echinocandins.

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    Kuhn, D M; George, T; Chandra, J; Mukherjee, P K; Ghannoum, M A

    2002-06-01

    Biofilms, likely the predominant mode of device-related microbial infection, exhibit resistance to antimicrobial agents. Evidence suggests that Candida biofilms have dramatically reduced susceptibility to antifungal drugs. We examined antifungal susceptibilities of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis biofilms grown on a bioprosthetic model. In addition to conventional agents, we determined if new antifungal agents (triazoles, amphotericin B lipid formulations, and echinocandins) have activities against Candida biofilms. We also explored effects of preincubation of C. albicans cells with subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of drugs to see if they could modify subsequent biofilm formation. Finally, we used confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) to image planktonic- and biofilm-exposed blastospores to examine drug effects on cell structure. Candida biofilms were formed on silicone elastomer and quantified by tetrazolium and dry weight (DW) assays. Susceptibility testing of fluconazole, nystatin, chlorhexidine, terbenafine, amphotericin B (AMB), and the triazoles voriconazole (VRC) and ravuconazole revealed resistance in all Candida isolates examined when grown as biofilms, compared to planktonic forms. In contrast, lipid formulations of AMB (liposomal AMB and AMB lipid complex [ABLC]) and echinocandins (caspofungin [Casp] and micafungin) showed activity against Candida biofilms. Preincubation of C. albicans cells with sub-MIC levels of antifungals decreased the ability of cells to subsequently form biofilm (measured by DW; P formulations.

  18. Clinical significance of the isolation of Candida species from hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Yankee C; Bomfim, Maria Rosa Q; Melônio, Luciane C; Ribeiro, Patrícia C S; Cosme, Lécia M; Rhoden, Cristianne R; Marques, Sirlei G

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we isolated and phenotypically identified 108 yeast strains from various clinical specimens collected from 100 hospitalized patients at three tertiary hospitals in São Luís-Maranhão, Brazil, from July to December 2010. The isolates were analyzed for their susceptibility to four of the most widely used antifungal agents in the surveyed hospitals, amphotericin B, fluconazole, 5-flucytosine and voriconazole. The species identified were Candida albicans (41.4%), Candida tropicalis (30.1%), C. glabrata (7.4%), Candida parapsilosis (5.5%), Candida krusei (4.6%), Cryptococcus neoformans (4.6%), Trichosporon spp . (3.7%), Candida norvegensis (0.9%), Rhodotorula glutinis (0.9%) and Pichia farinosa (0.9%). A higher isolation rate was observed in the following clinical specimens: urine (54 isolates; 50%), respiratory tract samples (21 isolates; 19.4%) and blood (20 isolates; 18.6%). Candida albicans isolates were 100% sensitive to all antifungal agents tested, whereas Candida krusei and Crytococcus neoformans displayed intermediate resistance to 5-flucytosine, with Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of 8 mg/mL and 16 mg/mL, respectively. Both strains were also S-DD to fluconazole with an MIC of 16 mg/mL. C. tropicalis was resistant to 5-flucytosine with an MIC of 32 μg/mL. This study demonstrates the importance of identifying the yeast species involved in community and nosocomial infections.

  19. Ammonium assimilation by Candida albicans and other yeasts: evidence for activity of glutamate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, A R; Collings, A; Farnden, K J; Shepherd, M G

    1989-06-01

    Activities and properties of the ammonium assimilation enzymes NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamate synthase (GOGAT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) were determined in batch and continuous cultures of Candida albicans. NADP+-dependent GDH activity showed allosteric kinetics, with an S0.5 for 2-oxoglutarate of 7.5 mM and an apparent Km for ammonium of 5.0 mM. GOGAT activity was affected by the buffer used for extraction and assay, but in phosphate buffer, kinetics were hyperbolic, yielding Km values for glutamine of 750 microM and for 2-oxoglutarate of 65 microM. The enzymes GOGAT and NADP+-dependent GDH were also assayed in batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and three other pathogenic Candida spp.: Candida tropicalis, Candida pseudotropicalis and Candida parapsilosis. Evidence is presented that GS/GOGAT is a major pathway for ammonium assimilation in Candida albicans and that this pathway is also significant in other Candida species.

  20. Evidence of Fluconazole-Resistant Candida Species in Tortoises and Sea Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rodrigues, Pedro Henrique de Aragão; de Alencar, Lucas Pereira; Riello, Giovanna Barbosa; Ribeiro, Joyce Fonteles; de Oliveira, Jonathas Sales; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Monteiro, André Jalles; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. recovered from tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) and sea turtles (Chelonia mydas, Caretta caretta, Lepidochelys olivacea, Eretmochelys imbricata). For this purpose, material from the oral cavity and cloaca of 77 animals (60 tortoises and 17 sea turtles) was collected. The collected specimens were seeded on 2% Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, and the identification was carried out by morphological and biochemical methods. Sixty-six isolates were recovered from tortoises, out of which 27 were C. tropicalis, 27 C. famata, 7 C. albicans, 4 C. guilliermondii and 1 C. intermedia, whereas 12 strains were obtained from sea turtles, which were identified as Candida parapsilosis (n = 4), Candida guilliermondii (n = 4), Candida tropicalis (n = 2), Candida albicans (n = 1) and Candida intermedia (n = 1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations for amphotericin B, itraconazole and fluconazole ranged from 0.03125 to 0.5, 0.03125 to >16 and 0.125 to >64, respectively. Overall, 19 azole-resistant strains (14 C. tropicalis and 5 C. albicans) were found. Thus, this study shows that Testudines carry azole-resistant Candida spp.

  1. Bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaldau, Niels Christian; Brorson, Stig; Jensen, Poul Einar

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis.......We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis....

  2. A comparison of the diagnostic value of MRI and 18F-FDG-PET/CT in suspected spondylodiscitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smids, C.; Kouijzer, I.J.E.; Vos, F.J.; Sprong, T.A.; Hosman, A.J.F.; Rooy, de J.W.; Aarntzen, E.H.J.G.; Geus-Oei, de L.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing spondylodiscitis and its complications, such as epidural and paraspinal abscess

  3. A comparison of the diagnostic value of MRI and 18F-FDG-PET/CT in suspected spondylodiscitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smids, C.; Kouijzer, I.J.E.; Vos, F.J.; Sprong, T.A.; Hosman, A.J.F.; Rooy, de J.W.; Aarntzen, E.H.J.G.; Geus-Oei, de L.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing spondylodiscitis and its complications, such as epidural and paraspinal abscess

  4. Ten-year study of species distribution and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida bloodstream isolates at a Brazilian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfietti, L X; Szeszs, M W; Chang, M R; Martins, M A; Pukinskas, S R B S; Nunes, M O; Pereira, G H; Paniago, A M M; Purisco, S U; Melhem, M S C

    2012-12-01

    To describe the incidence and susceptibility profile of Candida bloodstream infections in a tertiary-care hospital, we performed a retrospective observational study from 1998 to 2007. Comorbidities and risk factors were compiled from all cases. In vitro susceptibility testing to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B was performed for 100 isolates, and caspofungin was tested for C. parapsilosis complex. In a ten-year evaluation of candidemias, 44 % were caused by C. albicans, and species of the C. parapsilosis complex were the second most frequent agents (37 %). Other species presented lower incidences (C. tropicalis, 13 %, C. glabrata, 5 %, and C. krusei, 1 %). Neither C. dubliniensis nor C. metapsilosis were observed in this study. C. orthopsilosis (3 %) and C. parapsilosis stricto sensu (34 %) were also found. Species distribution was independent of catheterization, mechanical ventilation, or previous use of antifungals or corticoids. Parenteral nutrition administration was strongly related to C. glabrata infection, and the highest mortality (80 %) was observed in patients infected by this species. All C. albicans isolates showed high susceptibility to all tested drugs. However, two C. parapsilosis stricto sensu isolates presented high minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (4 mg/L each) to fluconazole, and one exhibited voriconazole MIC of 0.25 mg/L, highlighting the cross-resistance to these azoles. All isolates of C. tropicalis and C. glabrata showed no resistance to any drug tested. No difference was noted between C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis susceptibilities to caspofungin. Our results suggest that resistance to amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and caspofungin in Brazilian Candida bloodstream isolates is still uncommon.

  5. Postoperative Spondylodiscitis and Epidural Abscess Becoming Visible on Magnetic Resonance Imaging before Positive Laboratory Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysin Pourbagher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Post operative disc space infection is relatively uncommon. The incidence of postoperative disc space infection is 0.21%-3.6% in association with all vertebral surgical procedures. Surgery causes a variety of neuroendocrine and metabolic responses which generally results in immunosupression. Clinical results of immunosupression include delayed wound healing and septic complications. In this article, we report magnetic resonance imaging findings of a case with spondylodiscitis and spinal epidural abscess in which the imaging findings were apparent before the infection and inflammation related laboratory findings laboratory findings become positive. She has a history of surgery due to lumbar herniated disc a month. She was complaining of back and left leg pain. We performed contrast-enhanced MR imaging. MR imaging showed post operative changes at level L5 and S1. There was contrast enhancement at the level of the surgical gap in the posterior paravertebral muscles. MR imaging may help to differentiate postoperative spondylodiscitis and epidural abscess from early postoperative changes even before the laboratory tests appearing positive. In our case, surgery induced immunosupression may cause the infection and inflammation related laboratory findings being within normal limits at the beginning. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 97-101

  6. Characterization of virulence properties in the C. parapsilosis sensu lato species.

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    Tibor Németh

    Full Text Available The C. parapsilosis sensu lato group involves three closely related species, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Although their overall clinical importance is dramatically increasing, there are few studies regarding the virulence properties of the species of the psilosis complex. In this study, we tested 63 C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 12 C. metapsilosis and 18 C. orthopsilosis isolates for the ability to produce extracellular proteases, secrete lipases and form pseudohyphae. Significant differences were noted between species, with the C. metapsilosis strains failing to secrete lipase or to produce pseudohyphae. Nine different clinical isolates each of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were co-cultured with immortalized murine or primary human macrophages. C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates showed a significantly higher resistance to killing by primary human macrophages compared to C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates. In contrast, the killing of isolates by J774.2 mouse macrophages did not differ significantly between species. However, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates induced the most damage to murine and human macrophages, and C. metapsilosis strains were the least toxic. Furthermore, strains that produced lipase or pseudohyphae were most resistant to macrophage-mediated killing and produced the most cellular damage. Finally, we used 9 isolates of each of the C. parapsilosis sensus lato species to examine their impact on the survival of Galleriamellonella larvae. The mortality rate of G. mellonella larvae infected with C. metapsilosis isolates was significantly lower than those infected with C. parapsilosis sensu stricto or C. orthopsilosis strains. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that C. metapsilosis is indeed the least virulent member of the psilosis group, and also highlight the importance of pseudohyphae and secreted lipases during fungal

  7. Characterization of virulence properties in the C. parapsilosis sensu lato species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Tibor; Tóth, Adél; Szenzenstein, Judit; Horváth, Péter; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Grózer, Zsuzsanna; Tóth, Renáta; Papp, Csaba; Hamari, Zsuzsanna; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Gácser, Attila

    2013-01-01

    The C. parapsilosis sensu lato group involves three closely related species, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Although their overall clinical importance is dramatically increasing, there are few studies regarding the virulence properties of the species of the psilosis complex. In this study, we tested 63 C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 12 C. metapsilosis and 18 C. orthopsilosis isolates for the ability to produce extracellular proteases, secrete lipases and form pseudohyphae. Significant differences were noted between species, with the C. metapsilosis strains failing to secrete lipase or to produce pseudohyphae. Nine different clinical isolates each of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were co-cultured with immortalized murine or primary human macrophages. C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates showed a significantly higher resistance to killing by primary human macrophages compared to C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates. In contrast, the killing of isolates by J774.2 mouse macrophages did not differ significantly between species. However, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates induced the most damage to murine and human macrophages, and C. metapsilosis strains were the least toxic. Furthermore, strains that produced lipase or pseudohyphae were most resistant to macrophage-mediated killing and produced the most cellular damage. Finally, we used 9 isolates of each of the C. parapsilosis sensus lato species to examine their impact on the survival of Galleriamellonella larvae. The mortality rate of G. mellonella larvae infected with C. metapsilosis isolates was significantly lower than those infected with C. parapsilosis sensu stricto or C. orthopsilosis strains. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that C. metapsilosis is indeed the least virulent member of the psilosis group, and also highlight the importance of pseudohyphae and secreted lipases during fungal-host interactions.

  8. Cell wall proteinaceous components in isolates of Candida albicans and non-albicans species from HIV-infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ribot, J L; Kirkpatrick, W R; McAtee, R K; Revankar, S G; Patterson, T F

    1998-09-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) remains a common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients. Candida albicans is the most frequent causative agent of OPC. However, non-albicans spp. are being increasingly isolated. Candidal cell wall proteins and mannoproteins play important roles in the biology and patogenesis of candidiasis. In the present study, we have analyzed the proteinaceous components associated with cell wall extracts from C. albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida pseudotropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida guilliermondii and Candida rugosa obtained from HIV-infected patients with recurrent OPC. Cell wall proteinaceous components were extracted with beta-mercaptoethanol and analyzed using electrophoresis, immunoblotting (with antisera generated against C. albicans cell wall components, and with serum samples and oral saline rinses from patients with OPC), and lectin-blotting (concanavalin A) techniques. Numerous molecular species were solubilized from the various isolates. Major qualitative and quantitative differences in the polypeptidic and antigenic profiles associated with the cell wall extracts from the different Candida spp. were discernible. Some of the antibody preparations generated against C. albicans cell wall components were able to recognize homologous materials present in the extracts from non-albicans spp. Information on cell wall antigens of Candida species may be important in the therapy and prevention of HIV-related OPC.

  9. Candida Species Prevalence Profile in HIV Seropositive Patients from a Major Tertiary Care Hospital in New Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Monika; Kaur, Ravinder; Chadha, Sanjim

    2016-01-01

    Candida is a common opportunistic pathogen during the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression. Changes in the clinical severity of candidiasis and the Candida species prevalence profile may be a reflection of immunological changes in HIV positive patients. The aim of this study was to document the changing pattern of Candida species prevalence profile in HIV seropositive patients from a tertiary care hospital in North India. One hundred and twenty HIV seropositive subjects were recruited for Candida microbial screening. Clinical specimens including blood, oral swabs, expectorated or induced sputum/bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and urine were collected depending on the patient's symptoms. A total of 128 Candida isolates were obtained from 88 cases and 7 different Candida species were identified. C. albicans (50%) was the most common species isolated followed by C. glabrata (17%) and C. dubliniensis (12.5%). Other species isolated were C. parapsilosis (7.8%), C. krusei, C. tropicalis (4.6% each), and C. kefyr (3%). Strong clinical suspicion along with optimal sampling of an accurate diagnosis of Candida species involved would go a long way in decreasing the morbidity associated with non-albicans Candida species. PMID:27092278

  10. Candida Species Prevalence Profile in HIV Seropositive Patients from a Major Tertiary Care Hospital in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Monika; Kaur, Ravinder; Chadha, Sanjim

    2016-01-01

    Candida is a common opportunistic pathogen during the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression. Changes in the clinical severity of candidiasis and the Candida species prevalence profile may be a reflection of immunological changes in HIV positive patients. The aim of this study was to document the changing pattern of Candida species prevalence profile in HIV seropositive patients from a tertiary care hospital in North India. One hundred and twenty HIV seropositive subjects were recruited for Candida microbial screening. Clinical specimens including blood, oral swabs, expectorated or induced sputum/bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and urine were collected depending on the patient's symptoms. A total of 128 Candida isolates were obtained from 88 cases and 7 different Candida species were identified. C. albicans (50%) was the most common species isolated followed by C. glabrata (17%) and C. dubliniensis (12.5%). Other species isolated were C. parapsilosis (7.8%), C. krusei, C. tropicalis (4.6% each), and C. kefyr (3%). Strong clinical suspicion along with optimal sampling of an accurate diagnosis of Candida species involved would go a long way in decreasing the morbidity associated with non-albicans Candida species.

  11. Candida Species Prevalence Profile in HIV Seropositive Patients from a Major Tertiary Care Hospital in New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Maheshwari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a common opportunistic pathogen during the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease progression. Changes in the clinical severity of candidiasis and the Candida species prevalence profile may be a reflection of immunological changes in HIV positive patients. The aim of this study was to document the changing pattern of Candida species prevalence profile in HIV seropositive patients from a tertiary care hospital in North India. One hundred and twenty HIV seropositive subjects were recruited for Candida microbial screening. Clinical specimens including blood, oral swabs, expectorated or induced sputum/bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and urine were collected depending on the patient’s symptoms. A total of 128 Candida isolates were obtained from 88 cases and 7 different Candida species were identified. C. albicans (50% was the most common species isolated followed by C. glabrata (17% and C. dubliniensis (12.5%. Other species isolated were C. parapsilosis (7.8%, C. krusei, C. tropicalis (4.6% each, and C. kefyr (3%. Strong clinical suspicion along with optimal sampling of an accurate diagnosis of Candida species involved would go a long way in decreasing the morbidity associated with non-albicans Candida species.

  12. [Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. causing superficial mycosis. Coro, Falcon state, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saúl-García, Yotsabeth; Humbría-García, Leyla; Hernández-Valles, Rosaura

    2015-09-01

    Candida species other than C. albicans are often described as causative agents of superficial mycosis and are more resistant to treatment with azoles. In order to determine the distribution of species and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp., one ambispective study, which analyzed 18 yeast isolates obtained from samples from patients diagnosed with superficial mycosis, was performed. Taxonomic identification was performed by macroscopic visualization of the growth characteristics in chromogenic agar and by conventional methods. The susceptibility to fluconazole and voriconazole was evaluated by the disc diffusion method. Most of the isolates (88.8%), came from nail samples. C. parapsilosis was the most common species, followed by C. tropicalis, C. albicans and C. krusei, which confirmed the prevalence of non-albicans species as a cause of superficial mycoses. The pattern of susceptibility to fluconazole and voriconazole was similar: all isolates of C. parapsilosis and C. albicans were susceptible, while 83.3% of C. tropicalis showed sensitivity to both antifungals. C. krusei, fluconazole-resistant species showed intermediate susceptibility io voriconazole. The use of chromogenic agar allowed to detect mixed infections in nail samples, involving Candida spp. and C. tropicalis in one case, the latter with resistance to both fluconazole and voriconazole. The results demonstrate the importance of species identification and susceptibility testing to avoid therapeutic failures in superficial mycoses.

  13. Comparison of the hemolytic activity between C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Vilela, Simone Furgeri Godinho; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2013-01-01

    The ability to produce enzymes, such as hemolysins, is an important virulence factor for the genus Candida.The objective of this study was to compare the hemolytic activity between C. albicansand non-albicans Candida species. Fifty strains of Candida species, isolated from the oral cavity of patients infected with HIV were studied. The isolates included the following species: C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. dubliniensis, C. norvegensis, C. lusitaniae, and C. guilliermondii. Hemolysin production was evaluated on Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol, blood, and glucose. A loop-full of pure Candidaculture was spot-inoculated onto plates and incubated at 37 ºC for 24 h in a 5% CO2 atmosphere. Hemolytic activity was defined as the formation of a translucent halo around the colonies. All C. albicansstrains that were studied produced hemolysins. Among the non-albicans Candidaspecies, 86% exhibited hemolytic activity. Only C. guilliermondiiand some C. parapsilosis isolates were negative for this enzyme. In conclusion, most non-albicans Candidaspecies had a similar ability to produce hemolysins when compared to C. albicans.

  14. Identification of Candida spp. isolated from vaginal swab by phenotypic methods and multiplex PCR in Duhok, Iraq

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    Ahmed Basheer Mohammed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida species are the second most common cause of vulvovaginitis worldwide. The purpose of this study was to identify the species of vaginal Candida isolates by using phenotypic and Multiplex PCR techniques. Methods: 91 isolates from patients admitted to Azadi hospital and Maternity hospital in Duhok city were collected. The vaginal swab specimens were inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Colonies were then sub cultured on Chromogenic Candida agar. Genomic DNA extraction was performed using a Genomic DNA Extraction kit. For rapid identification of Candida spp., specific primers based on the genomic sequence of DNA topoisomerase 11 of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis I, C. parapsilosis II, C. guilliermondi, C. dubliniensis, C. krusei, C. kefyr and C. glabrata, C. tropicalis I, C. tropicalis II, C. lusitaniae were used. The multiplex PCR products were separated by electrophoresis in 1.5% agarose gel, visualized by staining with ethidium bromide, and photographed. Results: 4 Candida species, namely C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. tropicalis were distinguished by Chromogenic Candida agar on the basis of colony colour and morphology. PCR with the primer mixes yielded 7 different sized of PCR products corresponding to C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. kefyr, C. krusei and C. tropicalis II. The analysis revealed C. glabrata and C. albicans were the most common species isolated with the percentage 40% and 30% respectively. Conclusions: This study concluded that phenotypic characteristics on selective agar medium such as chromogenic candida agar are useful for presumptive identification of Candiada spp. with the support of molecular method such as multiplex PCR. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3211-3216

  15. Candida spp. biotypes in the oral cavity of school children from different socioeconomic categories in Piracicaba - SP, Brazil

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    MOREIRA Daniella

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and thirty-nine (239 Brazilian children, distributed into five distinct socioeconomic categories (A to E were studied. Saliva samples were analyzed as to flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and microbial parameters. The results revealed the presence of Candida spp. in 47.3% of the samples. The most commonly isolated species was C. albicans, in all socioeconomic categories, followed by C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis. There was no statistical correlation between secretion rate, buffer capacity and Candida spp. CFU/ml. The prevalence of Candida spp. did not differ substantially among the groups; however the microorganisms were more detected in categories B and C. Among all species, C. albicans was the most prevalent. Only 5% of the sample presented more than one species - C. albicans associated with C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis or C. krusei. It was possible to detect a significant correlation between caries indices and the socioeconomic categories. All categories presented increased caries indices; however the studied population was considered of low caries risk. There was no positive correlation between the presence of Candida and caries risk in the analyzed population.

  16. Prevalence of candida and non-candida yeasts isolated from patients with yeast fungal infections in Tehran labs

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    Hashemi SJ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Infections caused by opportunistic yeasts such as Candida species, Trichosporon, Rhodotorula and Saccharomyces have increased in immunocompromis-ed patients and their identification is crucial as intrinsic and acquired resistance of some yeast species to antifungal agents are on the rise. The aim of this study was to identify the organisms to the species level in order to suggest accurate and effective antifungal therapies."n"nMethods: In this study that carried out in Tehran, Iran in 2009, 200 patients with yeast infection were medically examined and clinical specimens were prepared for direct examination and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Subsequently, the isolated yeast colonies were identified using various tests including culture on Corn Meal agar with Tween 80, CHROMagar Candida and casein agar. For the definite identification of organisms some biochemical tests were done based on carbohydrate assimilation by RapID Yeast Plus System kit, and, finally, a molecular method, PCR-RFLP, using Hpa II enzyme, was performed for the remaining unknown yeast species."n"nResults: A total of 211 yeast isolates were identified in 200 patients with yeast infections. The most frequent isolated yeasts were Candida albicans, 124 (58.77%, followed by Candida parapsilosis, 36 (17.06%, Candida tropicalis, 17 (8.06%, Candida glabrata, 13 (6.16%, Candida krusei, 8 (3.79%, Candida guilliermondii, 2 (0.96%, Trichosporon, 3 (1.14%, Rhodotorula, 1 (0.47%, Saccaromyces cerevisiae, 1 (0.47% and other

  17. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis of voriconazole against Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. in children, adolescents and adults by Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gaoqi; Zhu, Liqin; Ge, Tingyue; Liao, Shasha; Li, Na; Qi, Fang

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative fraction of response of various voriconazole dosing regimens against six Candida and six Aspergillus spp. in immunocompromised children, immunocompromised adolescents, and adults. Using pharmacokinetic parameters and pharmacodynamic data, 5000-subject Monte Carlo simulations (MCSs) were conducted to evaluate the ability of simulated dosing strategies in terms of fAUC/MIC targets of voriconazole. According to the results of the MCSs, current voriconazole dosage regimens were all effective for children, adolescents and adults against Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis. For adults, dosing regimens of 4 mg/kg intravenous every 12 h (q12h) and 300 mg orally q12h were sufficient to treat fungal infections by six Candida spp. (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and C. orthopsilosis) and five Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus nidulans). However, high doses should be recommended for children and adolescents in order to achieve better clinical efficacy against A. fumigatus and A. nidulans. The current voriconazole dosage regimens were all ineffective against A. niger for children and adolescents. All voriconazole dosage regimens were not optimal against Aspergillus versicolor. This is the first study to evaluate clinical therapy of various voriconazole dosing regimens against Candida and Aspergillus spp. infections in children, adolescents and adults using MCS. The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic-based dosing strategy provided a theoretical rationale for identifying optimal voriconazole dosage regimens in children, adolescents and adults in order to maximise clinical response and minimise the probability of exposure-related toxicity.

  18. Yeasts isolated from Algerian infants's feces revealed a burden of Candida albicans species, non-albicans Candida species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddik, Hamza Ait; Ceugniez, Alexandre; Bendali, Farida; Cudennec, Benoit; Drider, Djamel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at showing the yeast diversity in feces of Algerian infants, aged between 1 and 24 months, hospitalized at Bejaia hospital (northeast side of the country). Thus, 20 colonies with yeast characteristics were isolated and identified using biochemical (ID32C Api system) and molecular (sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region) methods. Almost all colonies isolated (19 strains) were identified as Candida spp., with predominance of Candida albicans species, and one strain was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Screening of strains with inhibitory activities unveiled the potential of Candida parapsilosis P48L1 and Candida albicans P51L1 to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Further studies performed with these two Candida strains revealed their susceptibility to clinically used antifungal compounds and were then characterized for their cytotoxicity and hemolytic properties. On the other hand, Saccharomyces cerevisiae P9L1 isolated as well in this study was shown to be devoid of antagonism but resulted safe and overall usable as probiotic.

  19. Brucella spondylodiscitis: Multifocal involvement in thoracic and lumbar areas; a rare case

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    Pınar Korkmaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonosis that can affect many organs or systems. Musculoskeletal system is the most commonly affected site in brucellosis and the frequency of musculoskeletal system involvement varies between 2% and 53%. Multifocal spinal involvement is rare. Here, it was aimed to present our case with brucellar spondylodiscitis involving the thoracic and lumbar regions simultaneously. MRI is a useful imaging method in the diagnosis of multifocal spinal infection caused by brucellosis. Especially in endemic regions, at least two serological tests should be used in the diagnosis of brucellosis. Brucellosis should be absolutely kept in mind for the differential diagnosis of the lderly patients with complaint of longstanding thoracic and back pain in the regions where brucellosis is endemic. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(3: 129-132

  20. C1-C2 spondylodiscitis in an adult with SAPHO syndrome: an unusual presentation.

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    Harifi, Ghita; Belkhou, Ahlam; El Bouchti, Imane; Ouali Idrissi, Meryem; Chérif Idrissi, Najat; Ousehal, Ahmed; El Hassani, Selma

    2012-02-01

    The main advantage of recognition and diagnosis of SAPHO syndrome is the avoidance of unnecessary prolonged antibiotic treatment and repeated invasive procedures. The combination of synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and aseptic osteitis is known as SAPHO syndrome. The most common site of the disease is the upper anterior chest wall, characterized by predominantly osteosclerotic lesions, hyperostosis, and arthritis of the adjacent joints. Osteosclerosis of the vertebral bodies, hyperostosis, and erosions of the vertebral plates are rarely encountered. We present a case of SAPHO syndrome with C1-C2 spondylodiscitis. Diagnosis of SAPHO syndrome was established using Khan et al. criteria (Schilling, SAPHO syndrome, Encyclopedie Orphanet, 2004). CT showed osteosclerotic lesions of dens axis. MRI sequences reveal inflammatory bone marrow oedema. Radiologists should be aware of this unusual syndrome to avoid misdiagnosis (tumour/infection), unnecessary surgery, and antibiotic therapy.

  1. Use of restriction fragment length polymorphism to identify Candida species, related to onychomycosis

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    Mohammadi, Rasoul; Badiee, Parisa; Badali, Hamid; Abastabar, Mahdi; Safa, Ahmad Hosseini; Hadipour, Mahboubeh; Yazdani, Hajar; Heshmat, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Onychomycosis is one of the most common clinical forms of fungal infections due to both filamentous fungi and yeasts. The genus of Candida is one of the most prominent causes of onychomycosis in all around the world. Although Candida albicans is still the most frequent cause of nail infections, use of broad-spectrum antifungal agents has led to a shift in the etiology of C. albicans to non-albicans species. The aim of the present study is rapid and precise identification of candida species isolated from nail infection by using of PCR-RFLP technique. Materials and Methods: A total of 360 clinical yeast strains were collected from nail infections in Iran. Genomic DNA was extracted using FTA; cards. ITS1-5.8SrDNA-ITS2 region was amplified using universal primers and subsequently products were digested with the restriction enzyme MspI. For identification of newly described species (C. parapsilosis complex), the SADH gene was amplified, followed by digestion with Nla III restriction enzyme. Results: Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species (41.1%), followed by C. parapsilosis (21.4%), C. tropicalis (12.8%), C. kefyr (9.4%), C. krusei (5.5%), C. orthopsilosis (4.1%), C. glabrata (2.8%), C. guilliermondii (1.4%), C. rugosa (0.8%), and C. lusitaniae (0.5%). Patients in the age groups of 51-60 and 81-90 years had the highest and lowest distribution of positive specimens, respectively. Conclusion: Rapid and precise identification of Candida species from clinical specimens lead to appropriate therapeutic plans. PMID:26015921

  2. Distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species causing nosocomial candiduria.

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    Ozhak-Baysan, Betil; Ogunc, Dilara; Colak, Dilek; Ongut, Gozde; Donmez, Levent; Vural, Tumer; Gunseren, Filiz

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution of Candida species isolated from urine specimens of hospitalized patients in Akdeniz University Hospital, Antalya, Turkey, as well as their susceptibilities to antifungal agents. A total of 100 patients who had nosocomial candiduria between March 2003 and May 2004 at the facility were included in the study. Organisms were identified by conventional methods and the use of API ID 32C strips. Susceptibilities of the isolates to amphotericin B were determined by Etest, whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of these same strains to fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin were assessed using the broth microdilution method. The most common species recovered was C. albicans 44% of all yeasts, followed by C. tropicalis (20%), C. glabrata (18%), C. krusei (6%), C. famata (5%), C. parapsilosis (4%), C. kefyr (2%) and C. guilliermondii (1%). A total of nine (9%) of the isolates, including five C. krusei and four C. glabrata isolates were susceptible dose-dependent (SDD) to fluconazole. In constrast, only two C. glabrata and one C. krusei isolates were resistant to this antifungal. The voriconazole MICs for all Candida isolates were ≤0.5 μg/ml, except for one C. glabrata isolate with a MIC value of 2 μg/ml. Among all isolates, 94% were susceptible to amphotericin B with MIC values of Candida urinary tract infections.

  3. A comparative study of carrier state of Candida and its speciation in oral flora – Among healthy individuals, persons with DM and HIV sero positive individuals

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    M. Bharathi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to determine colonization rate of candida in oral cavity of healthy individuals, diabetics and HIV seropositive individuals.Material and methods: Samples were collected from oral cavity of 50 HIV sero positive individuals, 50 diabetics and 50 healthy individuals by swabbing palatal mucosa, dorsum of tongue and buccal mucosa with a sterile swab. Samples were processed by inoculating on Hi Chrome Agar and speciation was done by growth on Hi Chrome agar, germ tube test, chlamydospore formation on CMA, pellicle formation in SDA broth and growth at 45ºc.Results: 27 HIV sero positive individuals (54% carried candida in their oral cavities (single strain in 44% and combination of strains in 10%. Whereas it was 44% in diabetics (single species in 38% and a combination of species in 6% and 24% in healthy individuals (only single species. Candida albicans accounts for 41.66% in healthy individuals, 68% in diabetics and 42.42% in HIV seropositive persons. other species isolated were Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata in all 3 groups in addition to Candida dubliniensis in healthy and HIV seropositive individuals and C.krusei in HIV seropositive persons only. P value- less than 0.05 between healthy persons & diabetics and between healthy persons & HIV seropositives (significant.Conclusion: candidal carriage was higher in diabetics and HIV seropositive individuals. Candida albicans was the commonest species in all three groups. Candida krusei was seen only in HIV positive persons.

  4. Retrospective analysis of mortality and Candida isolates of 75 patients with candidemia: a single hospital experience

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    Hirano R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ryuichi Hirano,1 Yuichi Sakamoto,2 Kumiko Kudo,1 Motoki Ohnishi31Department of Pharmacy, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori, Japan; 2Laboratory Medicine and Blood transfusion, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori, Japan; 3General Medicine, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori, JapanAbstract: The mortality rate for candidemia is approximately 30%–60%. However, prognostic factors in patients with candidemia have not yet been elucidated in detail. The aim of the present study was to analyze prognostic factors for candidemia using the mortality rate and Candida isolates of patients with candidemia. Seventy-five patients with candidemia were analyzed between January 2007 and December 2013. The main outcome of this study was the 30-day mortality rate after the diagnosis of candidemia. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score (APACHE II score was measured in 34 patients (45.3%. Odds ratios (ORs for death due to candidemia were analyzed using a multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis. Twenty (26.6% patients died within 30 days of being diagnosed with candidemia. Non-survivors had a significantly higher APACHE II score (n=7, mean; 18.9±4.5 than that of survivors (n=27, mean; 14.0±5.0. Advanced age (OR =1.1, 95% confidence interval =1.01–1.23, P=0.04 was a significant risk factor for a high mortality rate, whereas removal of a central venous catheter (OR =0.03, 95% confidence interval =0.002–0.3, P=0.01 was associated with a lower mortality rate. Seventy-six Candida spp. were isolated from blood cultures: Candida albicans 28 (36.8%, Candida parapsilosis 23 (30.2%, Candida guilliermondii 16 (21.0%, Candida glabrata four (5.2%, Candida tropicalis two (2.6%, and Candida spp. three (3.9% that could not be identified. C. parapsilosis was the most frequently isolated species in younger patients (<65 years, whereas C. albicans was the most frequently isolated in elderly patients (≥65 years

  5. [Candida dubliniensis studies and isolation of Candida types in oropharyngeal specimens from oncologic patients].

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    Tekeli, Alper; Dolapçi, Iştar; Cesur, Salih; Tekeli, Emin; Içli, Fikri

    2002-01-01

    Fungal opportunistic infections, and in particular those caused by the various Candida species, have gained considerable significance as a cause of morbidity and, often, mortality. Although Candida albicans remains to be the most frequently isolated fungal species as an opportunistic oral pathogen, other yeast species are often identified in immunocompromised patients. C. dubliniensis, the recently described species, has been recovered primarily from oropharyngeal candidasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected patients. C. dubliniensis shares many phenotypic characteristics with, and is phylogenetically closely related to, C. albicans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the colonization rates of fungal species, and especially C. dubliniensis, in the oropharyngeal samples from cancer patients. The oropharyngeal swabs of 543 patients were collected during their visits to oncology clinic in 9 months period, and a total of 209 Candida species have been isolated. Of them, 147 isolates were found to be positive for germ tube and chlamydospore formation, and they were tested for the growth inability at 42 degrees C and 45 degrees C, colony morphology in Staib agar and the intracellular beta-glucosidase activity, in order to identify C. dubliniensis. The results of these tests and carbohydrate assimilation tests by API 20C AUX yeast identification system, yielded that all these 147 (70.3%) isolates were C. albicans. The other isolates were identified as follows; 16 C. parapsilosis (7.6%), 13 C. tropicalis (6.2%), 10 C. glabrata (4.7%), 5 C. guilliermondii (2.3%), 4 C. krusei (1.9%), 3 C. keyfr (1.4%), 3 C. famata (1.4%), 2 S. cerevisiae (0.9%), 2 C. pelliculosa (0.9%), 1 C. utiles (0.4%), 1 C. neoformans (0.4%) and 1 Hansenula polymorpha (0.4%), while no C. dubliniensis was isolated.

  6. Presumptive identification of Candida species other than C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis with the chromogenic medium CHROMagar Candida

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    Horvath Lynn L

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CHROMagar Candida (CaC is increasingly being reported as a medium used to differentiate Candida albicans from non-albicans Candida (NAC species. Rapid identification of NAC can assist the clinician in selecting appropriate antifungal therapy. CaC is a differential chromogenic medium designed to identify C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis based on colony color and morphology. Some reports have proposed that CaC can also reliably identify C. dubliniensis and C. glabrata. Methods We evaluated the usefulness of CaC in the identification of C. dubliniensis, C. famata, C. firmetaria, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. inconspicua, C. kefyr, C. lipolytica, C. lusitaniae, C. norvegensis, C. parapsilosis, and C. rugosa. Results Most NAC produced colonies that were shades of pink, lavender, or ivory. Several isolates of C. firmetaria and all C. inconspicua produced colonies difficult to differentiate from C. krusei. Most C. rugosa isolates produced unique colonies with morphology like C. krusei except in a light blue-green color. C. glabrata isolates produced small dark violet colonies that could be differentiated from the pink and lavender colors produced by other species. All seventeen isolates of C. dubliniensis produced green colonies similar to those produced by C. albicans. Conclusion C. glabrata and C. rugosa appear distinguishable from other species using CaC. Some NAC, including C. firmetaria and C. inconspicua, could be confused with C. krusei using this medium.

  7. [Candida carriage in the oral mucosa of a student population: adhesiveness of the strains and predisposing factors].

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    Negroni, M; González, M I; Levin, B; Cuesta, A; Iovanniti, C

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish oral carriage of Candida and possible factors associated to their virulence in young adults and their relation with local and general situations considered as predisposing factors. Samples were obtained from dorsum tongue in 70 students attending the Faculty of Dentistry (University of Buenos Aires) average age: 23, all in healthy oral conditions. Of these, 21.42% were Candida positive. These samples were seeded in CHROMagar. Candida identification was completed in milk agar and Fungichrom 1. The following species were identified: 11 Candida albicans (C.a), 2 Candida parapsilosis (C.p) and 1 Candida glabrata (C.g). In one case, 2 species (C.a and C.g) were isolated in the same sample. Virulence was determined as adherence capacity by biofilm or in vitro plaque formation and hydrophobicity. Different host factors were analyzed statistically to establish their importance as predisposing factors to allow Candida colonization. Adherence of C.a. was found to be similar in all C.a. strains, whereas significant differences were found between C.a. and C.p. and between C.a. and C.g. Only the antiseptic mouthrinse and the diet were significant among the considered factors.

  8. Atividade antifúngica de óleos essenciais sobre espécies de Candida Antifungal activity from essential oils on Candida species

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    Igara de Oliveira Lima

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A candidíase apresenta-se como uma infecção fúngica superficial ou profunda causada por leveduras pertencentes ao gênero Candida, sendo considerada a principal infecção micótica em ambiente nosocomial. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a concentração inibitória mínima - CIM do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Citrus limon Risso, Eucalyptus citriodora HK, Eugenia uniflora L., Peumus boldus Benth e de Rosmarinus officinialis L. sobre cepas de Candida albicans, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. stellatoidea e C. tropicalis. Os ensaios de atividade antifúngica foram realizados através da técnica de difusão em meio sólido. Os óleos essenciais de C. zeylanicum e P. boldus mostraram os mais destacáveis resultados, visto que inibiram o crescimento de 58% das cepas ensaiadas e apresentaram CIM de 4%.Candidiasis occurs as a superficial or profound fungal infection caused by yeasts belonging to the Candida genus. This infectious has been considered the main mycotic infection in the nosocomial environment. The aim of this study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration - MIC of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Citrus limon Risso, Eucalyptus citriodora HK, Eugenia uniflora L., Peumus boldus Benth and Rosmarinus officinialis L. essential oils against Candida albicans, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. stellatoidea e C. tropicalis strains. The antifungal activity assays were carried out by solid medium diffusion technique. C. zeylanicum and P. boldus essential oils showed the most prominent results which inhibited the growth of 58% of the assayed yeasts strains and presented MIC of 4%.

  9. Rapid identification of Candida spp. frequently involved in invasive mycoses by using flow-through hybridization and Gene Chip (FHGC) technology.

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    Li, Chen; Ding, Xiurong; Liu, Zhizhong; Zhu, Juanjuan

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients has increased in recent decades. Rapid and accurate identification of these pathogenic fungi is crucial for initiating a timely, safe, and effective antifungal therapy. Here we developed a microarray based on flow-through hybridization gene chip technology. The microarray was tested for its specificity using a panel of reference and blinded clinical isolates. The results proved that this microarray was highly discriminative, leading to the unequivocal identification of each species, including Candida famata and the highly related species Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis. This new system represents a reliable method that is of potential use in clinical laboratories for the simultaneous detection and identification of the most common pathogenic fungi.

  10. A Minimally Invasive Endoscopic Surgery for Infectious Spondylodiscitis of the Thoracic and Upper Lumbar Spine in Immunocompromised Patients

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    Hsin-Chuan Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the safety and effectiveness of computed tomography- (CT- assisted endoscopic surgery in the treatment of infectious spondylodiscitis of the thoracic and upper lumbar spine in immunocompromised patients. From October 2006 to March 2014, a total of 41 patients with infectious spondylodiscitis underwent percutaneous endoscopic surgery under local anesthesia, and 13 lesions from 13 patients on the thoracic or upper lumbar spine were selected for evaluation. A CT-guided catheter was placed before percutaneous endoscopic surgery as a guide to avoid injury to visceral organs, major vessels, and the spinal cord. All 13 patients had quick pain relief after endoscopic surgery without complications. The bacterial culture rate was 77%. Inflammatory parameters returned to normal after adequate antibiotic treatment. Postoperative radiographs showed no significant kyphotic deformity when compared with preoperative films. As of the last follow-up visit, no recurrent infections were noted. Traditional transthoracic or diaphragmatic surgery with or without posterior instrumentation is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly patients, patients with multiple comorbidities, or immunocompromised patients. Percutaneous endoscopic surgery assisted by a CT-guided catheter provides a safe and effective alternative treatment for infectious spondylodiscitis of the thoracic and upper lumbar spine.

  11. Antifungal Susceptibility Patterns of Candida Species Recovered from Endotracheal Tube in an Intensive Care Unit.

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    Baghdadi, Elham; Khodavaisy, Sadegh; Rezaie, Sassan; Abolghasem, Sara; Kiasat, Neda; Salehi, Zahra; Sharifynia, Somayeh; Aala, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Biofilms formed by Candida species which associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study was to identify and determine the antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida species isolated from endotracheal tubes from ICU patients. Methods. One hundred forty ICU patients with tracheal tubes who were intubated and mechanically ventilated were surveyed for endotracheal tube biofilms. Samples were processed for quantitative microbial culture. Yeast isolates were identified to the species level based on morphological characteristics and their identity was confirmed by PCR-RFLP. Antifungal susceptibility testing was determined according to CLSI document (M27-A3). Results. Ninety-five strains of Candida were obtained from endotracheal tubes of which C. albicans (n = 34; 35.7%) was the most frequently isolated species followed by other species which included C. glabrata (n = 24; 25.2%), C. parapsilosis (n = 16; 16.8%), C. tropicalis (n = 12; 12.6%), and C. krusei (n = 9; 9.4%). The resulting MIC90 for all Candida species were in increasing order as follows: caspofungin (0.5 μg/mL); amphotericin B (2 μg/mL); voriconazole (8.8 μg/mL); itraconazole (16 μg/mL); and fluconazole (64 μg/mL). Conclusion. Candida species recovered from endotracheal tube are the most susceptible to caspofungin.

  12. Antifungal Susceptibility Patterns of Candida Species Recovered from Endotracheal Tube in an Intensive Care Unit

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    Elham Baghdadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Biofilms formed by Candida species which associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study was to identify and determine the antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida species isolated from endotracheal tubes from ICU patients. Methods. One hundred forty ICU patients with tracheal tubes who were intubated and mechanically ventilated were surveyed for endotracheal tube biofilms. Samples were processed for quantitative microbial culture. Yeast isolates were identified to the species level based on morphological characteristics and their identity was confirmed by PCR-RFLP. Antifungal susceptibility testing was determined according to CLSI document (M27-A3. Results. Ninety-five strains of Candida were obtained from endotracheal tubes of which C. albicans (n=34; 35.7% was the most frequently isolated species followed by other species which included C. glabrata (n=24; 25.2%, C. parapsilosis (n=16; 16.8%, C. tropicalis (n=12; 12.6%, and C. krusei (n=9; 9.4%. The resulting MIC90 for all Candida species were in increasing order as follows: caspofungin (0.5 μg/mL; amphotericin B (2 μg/mL; voriconazole (8.8 μg/mL; itraconazole (16 μg/mL; and fluconazole (64 μg/mL. Conclusion. Candida species recovered from endotracheal tube are the most susceptible to caspofungin.

  13. Emergence of non-albicans Candida among candidal vulvovaginitis cases and study of their potential virulence factors, from a tertiary care center, North India

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    Varsha Kumari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of various Candida species and study some of their virulence factors among thevulvovaginal candidiasis(VVCpatients. Study Design and Settings: The study was conducted in a Tertiary Care University Hospital in North India. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out prospectively for a period of 1 year. High vaginal swabs (HVSs were collected from women in childbearing age group attending the gynecology and obstetrics out-patient departments with the complaints suggestive of vulvovaginitis. Samples were plated on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar slope. Candida spp. isolated was further speciated based on microscopy, biochemical tests and culture characteristics on special media. Virulence factors of these strains were determined by biofilm formation and phospholipase activity. Result: A total of 464 HVS from 232 patients with the complaints of vulvovaginitis were included in this study. Following laboratory workup, 71 specimens were positive for genus Candida (30.6%. Further speciation showed 32.4% as Candida albicans, 45.07% Candida parapsilosis and 22.53% of Candida glabrata. Biofilm production was shown by 50 candidal strains (70.4% and phospholipase activity was given by 41 candidal strains (57.74%. Conclusion: Our study suggests increasing prevalence of non-albicans Candida among the VVC cases along with their virulence factors. Therefore, we recommend that microbiological investigation upto species level should be mandatory to determine the emergence of non-albicans Candida as a major cause of VVC.

  14. Role of Candida species from HIV infected children in enamel caries lesions: an in vitro study

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    CHARONE, Senda; PORTELA, Maristela Barbosa; MARTINS, Karol de Oliveira; SOARES, Rosangela Maria; CASTRO, Gloria Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study analyzed the capacity of Candida spp. from dental biofilm of HIV infected (HIV+) children to demineralize primary molar enamel in vitro by Transversal Microhardness (TMH), Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) and the quantity of calcium ions (Ca2+) released from the enamel. Material and Methods Candida spp. samples were isolated from the supragingival biofilm of HIV+ children. A hundred and forty (140) enamel blocks were randomly assigned to six groups: biofilm formed by C. albicans (Group 1); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. tropicalis (Group 2); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. parapsilosis (Group 3); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata (Group 4); biofilm formed by C. albicans ATCC (Group 5) and medium without Candida (Group 6). Enamel blocks from each group were removed on days 3, 5, 8 and 15 after biofilm formation to evaluate the TMH and images of enamel were analyzed by PLM. The quantity of Ca2+ released, from Groups 1 and 6, was determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The SPSS program was used for statistical analysis and the significance level was 5%. Results TMH showed a gradual reduction in enamel hardness (p<0.05) from the 1st to 15th day, but mainly five days after biofilm formation in all groups. The PLM showed superficial lesions indicating an increase in porosity. C. albicans caused the release of Ca2+ into suspension during biofilm formation. Conclusion Candida species from dental biofilm of HIV+ children can cause demineralization of primary enamel in vitro. PMID:28198976

  15. Role of Candida species from HIV infected children in enamel caries lesions: an in vitro study

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    Senda CHARONE

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study analyzed the capacity of Candida spp. from dental biofilm of HIV infected (HIV+ children to demineralize primary molar enamel in vitro by Transversal Microhardness (TMH, Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM and the quantity of calcium ions (Ca2+ released from the enamel. Material and Methods Candida spp. samples were isolated from the supragingival biofilm of HIV+ children. A hundred and forty (140 enamel blocks were randomly assigned to six groups: biofilm formed by C. albicans (Group 1; mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. tropicalis (Group 2; mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. parapsilosis (Group 3; mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata (Group 4; biofilm formed by C. albicans ATCC (Group 5 and medium without Candida (Group 6. Enamel blocks from each group were removed on days 3, 5, 8 and 15 after biofilm formation to evaluate the TMH and images of enamel were analyzed by PLM. The quantity of Ca2+ released, from Groups 1 and 6, was determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The SPSS program was used for statistical analysis and the significance level was 5%. Results TMH showed a gradual reduction in enamel hardness (p<0.05 from the 1st to 15th day, but mainly five days after biofilm formation in all groups. The PLM showed superficial lesions indicating an increase in porosity. C. albicans caused the release of Ca2+ into suspension during biofilm formation. Conclusion Candida species from dental biofilm of HIV+ children can cause demineralization of primary enamel in vitro.

  16. Evaluation of Candida strains isolated from clinical specimens

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    Hafize Sav

    2014-01-01

    [¤]METHODS[|]January 2011 to June 2012, Candida strains were isolated from 3905 clinical specimen. In identification of Candida species that were isolated, germ tube test, growth in Cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and formation of clamydospore, presence of pseudohyphae, carbonhytrate fermentation and assimilation tests, and the test of nitrate were studied.[¤]RESULTS[|]Finally 1122 Candida strains were isolated from 3905 various clinical specimens. The distribution of clinical specimens were as fallows: 556 from bronchoalveolar lavage (49.6%, 271 from sputum (24.2%, 114 from blood (10.2%, 51 vaginal swabs (4.6%, 50 from urine (4.4%, 30 from tissue (2.6%, 22 from endotracheal tracheal aspirate (ETA (1.9%, nine from pleural mai (0.80%, six from peritoneal fluid (0.53%, four from gastric fluid(0.35%,three from stool(0.28%,two from abscess (0.18%,three from nail (0.26%, one from cerebrospinal fluid (0.10%. From these clinical samples 848 C. albicans (75.6%, 143 C. glabrata (12.8%, 40 C. parapsilosis, (3.57%, 33 C. krusei (2.94%, 33 C. kefyr (2.94%, 19 C. tropicalis (1.7% were isolated. Other strains were identified as C. lusitania, C. lipolytica, C. norvegensis, C. pelliculosa ve C. zeylanoides.[¤]CONCLUSION[|] It was concluded that C.albicans has still been the most frequent species among Candida isolates of in our hospital; however, the incidence of non-albicans species have increased.[¤

  17. Rapid detection and identification of Candida albicans and Torulopsis (Candida) glabrata in clinical specimens by species-specific nested PCR amplification of a cytochrome P-450 lanosterol-alpha-demethylase (L1A1) gene fragment.

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    Burgener-Kairuz, P; Zuber, J P; Jaunin, P; Buchman, T G; Bille, J; Rossier, M

    1994-08-01

    PCR of a Candida albicans cytochrome P-450 lanosterol-alpha-demethylase (P450-L1A1) gene segment is a rapid and sensitive method of detection in clinical specimens. This enzyme is a target for azole antifungal action. In order to directly detect and identify the clinically most important species of Candida, we cloned and sequenced 1.3-kbp fragments of the cytochrome P450-L1A1 genes from Torulopsis (Candida) glabrata and from Candida krusei. These segments were compared with the published sequences from C. albicans and Candida tropicalis. Amplimers for gene sequences highly conserved throughout the fungal kingdom were first used; positive PCR results were obtained for C. albicans, T. glabrata, C. krusei, Candida parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Trichosporon beigelii DNA extracts. Primers were then selected for a highly variable region of the gene, allowing the species-specific detection from purified DNA of C. albicans, T. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis. The assay sensitivity as tested for C. albicans in seeded clinical specimens such as blood, peritoneal fluid, or urine was 10 to 20 cells per 0.1 ml. Compared with results obtained by culture, the sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of the species-specific nested PCR tested with 80 clinical specimens were 71, 95, and 83% for C. albicans and 100, 97, and 98% for T. glabrata, respectively.

  18. Subcutaneous fluid collection: An imaging marker for treatment response of infectious thoracolumbar spondylodiscitis

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    Kakigi, Takahide, E-mail: tkakigi@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Okada, Tomohisa, E-mail: tomokada@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Sakai, Osamu, E-mail: osamu.sakai@bmc.org [Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, FGH Building, 3rd Floor, 820 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Iwamoto, Yoshitaka, E-mail: iwacame@hotmail.co.jp [Department of General Internal Medicine, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, 2 Otowachoinji-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8062 (Japan); Kubo, Soichi, E-mail: kubo-s@mbox.kyoto-inet.or.jp [Department of Radiology, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, 2 Otowachoinji-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8062 (Japan); Yamamoto, Akira, E-mail: yakira@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Togashi, Kaori, E-mail: nmdioffice@kuhp.kyoto-ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • No imaging marker for treatment response of spondylodiscitis (SD) has been proposed. • Volume changes of subcutaneous fluid collection (SFC) had significant correlation with changes of C-reactive protein (CRP). • SFC can be used as an imaging marker for treatment response of SD on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate prevalence of subcutaneous fluid collection (SFC) in infectious thoracolumbar spondylodiscitis (SD) compared with control patients and to investigate correlation between volume changes of SFC and treatment response of SD. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board. From April 2011 to March 2012, 49 patients (24 SD and 25 non-SD patients) were enrolled. Prevalence of SFC was evaluated respectively for SD and non-SD patients using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the sagittal short tau inversion recovery (STIR) imaging or fat-saturated T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and compared. In SD patients with SFC, correlation was investigated between SFC volume on the 1st MRI and initial clinical status. The same analysis was conducted also for SFC volume changes from the 1st to 2nd or last MRI. Results: SFC was found in 20 patients with SD (83.3%) and 3 non-SD patients (12%) with significant difference (p < .001). In 20 SD patients with SFC, 17 patients had follow-up MRI. For the 1st MRI, no significant correlation was found between volume of SFC and initial status of patients, including body weight, body mass index (BMI), white blood cell (WBC), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). However, significant positive correlations were found between changes of C-reactive protein (CRP) and SFC volume from the 1st to 2nd as well as from the 1st to the last MRI (each p < .05). Conclusion: SD patients had significantly higher prevalence of SFC than non-SD patients. Volume changes of SFC had significant correlation with changes of CRP, which can be used as an imaging

  19. Endoftalmite por Candida albicans Candida albicans endophthalmitis

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    Pedro Duraes Serracarbassa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O autor descreve os aspectos epidemiológicos, histopatológicos e clínicos da endoftalmite endógena por Candida albicans. Apresenta ainda novos métodos diagnósticos e opções terapêuticas utilizadas no tratamento das infecções fúngicas intra-oculares, por meio de revisão bibliográfica.The author describes epidemiological, histopathological and clinical aspects of endogenous Candida albicans endophthalmitis. He also presents new diagnostic methods and therapeutical options to treat intraocular fungal infections, based on literature review.

  20. Effect of 50% human serum on the killing activity of micafungin against eight Candida species using time-kill methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földi, Richárd; Szilágyi, Judit; Kardos, Gábor; Berényi, Réka; Kovács, Renátó; Majoros, László

    2012-08-01

    Micafungin activity was determined against 24 wild-type clinical isolates and 5 American Type Culture Collection strains belonging to 8 Candida species in RPMI-1640 with and without 50% serum using broth microdilution and time-kill methodology. MIC values increased from 4- to 128-folds in 50% serum for all Candida species. Micafungin was not fungicidal against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and against 2 of 3 C. metapsilosis at ≥0.25, 1, and 1 μg/mL, respectively, after 48 h with 50% serum, showing good fungistatic activity. Fungicidal activity at ≥2, 4, and 32 μg/mL was noticed against C. glabrata, C. inconspicua, and C. krusei isolates, respectively. Micafungin at 8-32 μg/mL showed fungistatic activity against C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis. Serum decreased the in vitro activity of micafungin. With serum binding of echinocandins taken into account, safely fungistatic or fungicidal concentrations seem to require elevated doses against some Candida species, including C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. krusei.

  1. The Evaluation of the Distribution of Yeast like Fungi 'Candida Species' at a Tertiary Care Center in Western Turkey

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    Gulfem Ece, Pinar Samlioglu, Gulgun Akkoclu, Sabri Atalay, Sukran Kose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Candida infections have increased due to transplant patients, prolonged ICU stay and invasive procedures. The most common isolated strain is C. albicans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of Candida isolates at Tepecik Education and Research Hospital.Materials and Methods: Yeast like fungi were isolated between 13.01.2010 and 19.08.2011 at Mycology Laboratory. The identification was done by conventional methods and carbohydrate assimilation profile using the ID32C identification system (Biomerieux, France.Results: Yeast like fungi were isolated from 337 clinical specimens. They consisted of urine, blood culture, respiratory specimen and wound. The most isolated yeast strains were C.albicans (38.6%, C.tropicalis (13.9%, C. parapsilosis (28.4%, C.glabrata (7.4%, C.krusei (3.8%.Conclusion: Recently there is an increment in Candida infections. In this study the most common strain was C.albicans and the rate C. glabrata and C. krusei isolates were lower than expected. C. parapsilosis was the most isolated strain in blood cultures and this may be due to invasive procedures and the use of indwelling catheters.

  2. Time to overcome fluconazole resistant Candida isolates: Solid lipid nanoparticles as a novel antifungal drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni, Maryam; Kelidari, Hamid Reza; Saeedi, Majid; Morteza-Semnani, Ketayoun; Nabili, Mojtaba; Gohar, Atefeh Abdollahi; Akbari, Jafar; Lotfali, Ensieh; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Antifungal therapy results in complications in management due to changes in the patterns of epidemiology and drug susceptibility of invasive fungal infections. In this study, we prepared fluconazole-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (FLZ-SLNs) and investigated the efficacy of the optimal formulation on fluconazole (FLZ)-resistant strains of several Candida species. FLZ-SLN was produced using probe ultrasonication techniques. The morphology of the obtained SLNs was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for the new formulations against fluconazole-resistant strains of Candida were investigated using CLSI document M27-A3. The FLZ-SLNs presented a spherical shape with a mean diameter, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency of 84.8nm, -25mV and 89.6%, respectively. The drug release from FLZ-SLNs exhibited burst release behaviour at the initial stage (the first 30min) followed by a sustained release over 24h FLZ-resistant yeast strains behaved as susceptible strains after treatment with FLZ-SLNs (≤8μg/ml). The MIC50 drug concentrations were 2μg/ml, 1μg/ml and 2μg/ml for FLZ-resistant strains of Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata, respectively. In this study, we evaluated novel delivery systems for combating Candida strains that exhibit low susceptibility against the conventional formulation of FLZ as a first-line treatment.

  3. Epidemiology and phospholipase activity of oral Candida spp. among patients with central nervous system diseases before and after dental cleaning procedure

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    Aurélia Silva Ribeiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients suffering of diseases that affect central nervous system may be considered more susceptible to the infectious diseases of mouth. Sixty-nine patients suffering of cerebral palsy, Down's syndrome and metal retardation were submitted to saliva examination for the presence of Candida spp. before and after a procedure of dental cleaning. The isolates were submitted to assay for verifying phospholipase production. 55.10% of the patients provided isolation of Candida spp. The frequency of isolation obtained before dental procedure was: C. albicans (83.33%, C. krusei (8.33% and C. kefyr, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata (2.78% each. The frequency after the procedure was: C. albicans (68.57%, C. parapsilosis (11.43%, C. krusei and C. kefyr (8.57% each and Candida glabrata (2.86%. We verified significantly difference (p < 0.01 between populations obtained at the two examinations. Phospholipase production was verified only among C. albicans strains and the proportion of producers was higher when testing isolates obtained after dental cleaning procedure. Studies focused on Candida spp. isolation are useful for better comprehension of the role of these yeasts on the oral flora from patients with cerebral palsy, Down's syndrome and metal retardation.

  4. Candida infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddley, J W; Benjamin, D K; Patel, M; Miró, J; Athan, E; Barsic, B; Bouza, E; Clara, L; Elliott, T; Kanafani, Z; Klein, J; Lerakis, S; Levine, D; Spelman, D; Rubinstein, E; Tornos, P; Morris, A J; Pappas, P; Fowler, V G; Chu, V H; Cabell, C

    2008-07-01

    Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore the epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. We compared 33 Candida IE cases to 2,716 patients with non-fungal IE in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS). Patients were enrolled and the data collected from June 2000 until August 2005. We noted that patients with Candida IE were more likely to have prosthetic valves (p < 0.001), short-term indwelling catheters (p < 0.0001), and have healthcare-associated infections (p < 0.001). The reasons for surgery differed between the two groups: myocardial abscess (46.7% vs. 22.2%, p = 0.026) and persistent positive blood cultures (33.3% vs. 9.9%, p = 0.003) were more common among those with Candida IE. Mortality at discharge was higher in patients with Candida IE (30.3%) when compared to non-fungal cases (17%, p = 0.046). Among Candida patients, mortality was similar in patients who received combination surgical and antifungal therapy versus antifungal therapy alone (33.3% vs. 27.8%, p = 0.26). New antifungal drugs, particularly echinocandins, were used frequently. These multi-center data suggest distinct epidemiologic features of Candida IE when compared to non-fungal cases. Indications for surgical intervention are different and mortality is increased. Newer antifungal treatment options are increasingly used. Large, multi-center studies are needed to help better define Candida IE.

  5. Espondilodiscite brucelósica: relato de caso Brucella spondylodiscitis: case report

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    César Ribeiro Ferreira

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A localização vertebral da brucelose apresenta ocorrência pouco freqüente atualmente. Por este motivo é indispensável a atenção para as modificações estruturais no segmento vertebral causadas pela espondilodiscite bacteriana. A partir do caso clínico, em que se relatam aspectos radiográficos, anatomopatológicos e laboratoriais relacionados ao diagnóstico, bem como ao tratamento desta doença, chama-se a atenção para sua importância, e para as graves conseqüências em caso de demora para a definição diagnóstica.Vertebral localization of Brucellosis has a low occurrence nowadays. Because of its rarity, it is essential to pay attention to structural modifications of the vertebral segment caused by bacterial spondylodiscitis. Based on a clinical case, with radiological, anatomicopathological and laboratorial aspects related to the diagnostic and also the treatment of this disease, the authors underscore the importance and serious consequences arising from a late diagnostic definition.

  6. Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study, 1997 to 2007: a 10.5-Year Analysis of Susceptibilities of Candida Species to Fluconazole and Voriconazole as Determined by CLSI Standardized Disk Diffusion ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaller, M.A.; Diekema, D. J.; Gibbs, D. L.; Newell, V. A.; Ellis, D.; Tullio, V; Rodloff, A.; Fu, W; Ling, T. A.

    2010-01-01

    Fluconazole in vitro susceptibility test results for 256,882 isolates of Candida spp. were collected from 142 sites in 41 countries from June 1997 to December 2007. Data were collected for 197,619 isolates tested with voriconazole from 2001 to 2007. A total of 31 different species of Candida were isolated. Increased rates of isolation of the common non-albicans species C. glabrata (10.2% to 11.7%), C. tropicalis (5.4% to 8.0%), and C. parapsilosis (4.8% to 5.6%) were noted when the time perio...

  7. Rapid development of Candida krusei echinocandin resistance during caspofungin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forastiero, A; Garcia-Gil, V; Rivero-Menendez, O; Garcia-Rubio, R; Monteiro, M C; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A; Jordan, R; Agorio, I; Mellado, E

    2015-11-01

    In invasive candidiasis, there has been an epidemiological shift from Candida albicans to non-albicans species infections, including infections with C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei. Although the prevalence of C. krusei remains low among yeast infections, its intrinsic resistance to fluconazole raises epidemiological and therapeutic concerns. Echinocandins have in vitro activity against most Candida spp. and are the first-line agents in the treatment of candidemia. Although resistance to echinocandin drugs is still rare, individual cases of C. krusei resistance have been reported in recent years, especially with strains that have been under selective pressure. A total of 15 C. krusei strains, isolated from the blood, urine, and soft tissue of an acute lymphocytic leukemia patient, were analyzed. Strains developed echinocandin resistance during 10 days of caspofungin therapy. The molecular epidemiology of the isolates was investigated using two different typing methods: PCR-based amplification of the species-specific repetitive polymorphic CKRS-1 sequence and multilocus sequence typing. All isolates were genetically related, and the mechanism involved in decreased echinocandin susceptibility was characterized. Clinical resistance was associated with an increase in echinocandin MICs in vitro and was related to three different mutations in hot spot 1 of the target enzyme Fks1p. Molecular evidence of the rapid acquisition of resistance by different mutations in FKS1 highlights the need to monitor the development of resistance in C. krusei infections treated with echinocandin drugs.

  8. 中药洗剂对外阴阴道假丝酵母菌体外抑制作用的实验研究%Experimental study on the inhibition of traditional Chinese medicine lotion on vulva vaginal Candida in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢玲; 陈宜斌

    2012-01-01

    Objective It is to study the inhibition sensitivity of traditional Chinese medicine lotion for Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, smooth and yeast Candida albicans. Methods Experimental study on the inhibition of traditional Chinese medicine lotion on vulva vaginal Candida in vitro was performed on to observe their effect on the growth of Candida albicans and transformation from yeast phase to mycelial phase. Results The inhibition sensitivity of traditional Chinese medicine on the order of the four yeasts: Candida albicans > smooth and yeast Candida albicans > Candida tropicalis > Candida parapsilosis. Conclusion Chinese herbal lotion has a good significance for the treatment of common genital vaginal Candida albicans in clinic, it also can treat for the other three kinds of yeast.%目的 研究中药洗剂对白假丝酵母菌、热带假丝酵母菌、近平滑假丝酵母菌、光滑假丝酵母菌酵母相及菌丝相的抑制敏感性.方法 应用中药洗剂对外阴阴道的假丝酵母菌进行体外抑制试验,观察中药洗剂对白假丝酵母菌的生长和从酵母相向菌丝相转变的影响.结果 中药对四种酵母菌的敏感性顺序为:白色假丝酵母>光滑假丝酵母>热带假丝酵母>近平滑假丝酵母.结论 中药洗剂在外阴阴道最常见的假丝酵母菌的临床治疗中有明显意义,对其余3种酵母菌亦有临床意义.

  9. A fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) based assay for Candida parapsilosis ATCC 7330 mediated oxidation of aryl alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakara, Sneha; Chadha, Anju

    2015-09-10

    We present an FTIR based assay to monitor the whole cell mediated oxidation of aryl alcohols by measuring the characteristic IR absorption of the hydroxyl group [OH] of the substrate and the carbonyl group [CO] of the corresponding oxidized product. This method expedites the analysis of whole cell mediated catalysis which is usually done by GC and/or HPLC. The FTIR assay had linearity with R(2)≥0.980 and sensitivity up to 10μM. The accuracy and precision of FTIR assay was found ≥81% and ≥94%, respectively. This assay was validated by GC which exhibited ≥82% accuracy and ≥79% precision. The time of analysis taken by this assay was 2-3min per sample in comparison with 20-40min by GC.

  10. [In vitro activities of posaconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole and voriconazole against Candida glabrata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, M T; Cañadas, J; García-Martos, P; Marín, P; García-Tapia, A; Rodríguez, J

    2009-09-01

    This study has been conducted to asses the in vitro activity of the novel triazole antifungal agent posaconazole against 123 clinically important isolates of yeasts. Susceptibility was tested using the Sensititre YeastOne microdilution commercial method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined at the recommended endpoints and time intervals. The activity of posaconazole against Candida glabrata was compared with those of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole and voriconazole. The most susceptible species to posaconazole were C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis. Candida glabrata was the least susceptible. The percentage of strains with MIC for posaconazole >or= 1 mg/L was 9%, all of them were C. glabrata. The species with MIC for itraconazole >or= 0.5 mg/L were 36% (41 C. glabrata, 1 C. krusei, 1 C. guilliermondii, 1 C. ciferrii). Candida glabrata strains resistant to fluconazole, ketoconazole and voriconazole were 8%, 4% and 4%, respectively. Posaconazole exhibited good activity to the majority of Candida species. However, it was similar to itraconazole and less active than ketoconazole and voriconazole against C. glabrata.

  11. 子宫内膜炎患牛子宫黏液内念珠菌的分离及体外溶血活性鉴定%Identification of Candida Species and the Hemolytic Activity Isolated from Endometritis Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永生; 郭梦尧; 张乃生; 王国卿

    2011-01-01

    本研究通过API20CAUX系统对从子宫内膜炎患牛子宫内黏液中分离到的183株念珠菌进行鉴定.结果显示克鲁斯念珠菌最多,为33.9%,其次是皱褶念珠菌为17.5%,乳酒念珠菌为13.1%,白色念珠菌为11.5%及热带念珠菌为8.7%.分离中不常见的有假丝酵母为5.5%,近平滑念珠菌为4.4%,吉利蒙念珠菌为3.3%,著名念珠菌为1.1%和光滑念珠菌为1.1%.此外,还对所分离到的念珠菌进行体外溶血活性检测,结果显示克鲁斯念珠菌、乳酒念珠菌、白色念珠菌、热带念珠菌、涎沫假丝念珠菌和光滑念珠菌在接种后48 h后显示α和β溶血;皱褶念珠菌、吉利蒙念珠菌、著名念珠菌只显示α溶血;在孵育72 h后,近平滑念珠菌不显示任何溶血活性.涎沫假丝酵母、白色念珠菌和乳酒念珠菌的β溶血活性比其他菌株高.本研究为临床牛真菌性子宫内膜炎的防治及发病机理的研究奠定了基础.%Candida stain is a conditional pathomycete that could be isolated from the bovine with the disease of endoraetri-tis. The 183 Candida strains were isolated from the uterus mucus of bovine with disease endometritis were used to identified at the level of generic by API20CAUX. The most commonly could be isolated were Candida krusei which accounted for 33. 9%, followed by Candida rugosa were 17. 5%, and the Candida kefyr, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis were 13. 1%, 11.5%, 8. 7%. The seldom could be isolated were Candida zeylanoides, Candida parapsilosis, Candida guilliermondi, Candida fanata , Candida glabrata were 5. 5% , 4. 4% , 3. 3% , 1.1%, 1. 1%. In addition, we had also tested the active of hemolyzation in vitro of the Candida stain. Candida krusei, Candida kefyr, Candida albicans , Candida tropicalis , Candida zeylanoides and Candida glabrata display α and β haemolysis post inoculation 48 h. Candida rugosa , Candida guilliermondi , Candida fanata only display α haemolysis, Candida

  12. Epidemiological characteristics of Candida species colonizing oral and rectal sites of Jordanian infants

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    Aqel Kamal F

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that Candida colonization contributes to increasing invasion of candidiasis in hospitalized neonates. Few studies investigated the epidemiology and risk factors of Candida colonization among hospitalized and non-hospitalized infants. This prospective study investigated the major epidemiological characteristics of Candida species colonizing oral and rectal sites of Jordanian infants. Methods Infants aged one year or less who were examined at the pediatrics outpatient clinic or hospitalized at the Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan, were included in this study. Culture swabs were collected from oral and rectal sites and inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. All Candida isolates were confirmed by the Remel RapID yeast plus system, and further investigated for specific virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility MIC using E-test. Genotyping of C. albicans isolates was determined using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis method. Results A total of 61/492 (12.4% infants were colonized with Candida species by either their oral/rectal sites or both. Rectal colonization was significantly more detected than oral colonization (64.6% verses 35.4%, particularly among hospitalized infants aged more than one month. The pattern and rates of colonization were as follows: C. albicans was the commonest species isolated from both sites and accounted for 67.1% of all isolates, followed by C.kefyr (11.4%, each C. tropicalis and C. glabrata (8.9% and C. parapsilosis (3.8%. A various rates of Candida isolates proved to secrete putative virulence factors in vitro; asparatyl proteinase, phospholipase and hemolysin. C. albicans were associated significantly (P Candida species. All Candida isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and caspofungin, whereas 97% of Candida species isolates were susceptible to fluconazole using E-test. The genetic similarity of 53 C. albicans isolates as demonstrated by dendrogram

  13. Candida colonisation in asymptomatic HIV patients attending a tertiary hospital in Benin City, Nigeria

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    Newton O. Esebelahie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candidiasis is the commonest opportunistic fungal infection in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. CD4+ lymphocyte counts have been found to be a marker of HIV disease progression. Aim: This study focused on determining the spectrum of Candida isolates in urine, stool, and oral specimens among HIV patients in a tertiary hospital. Methods: A total of 300 subjects comprising of 200 HIV patients and 100 non-HIV subjects were used for this study. Three samples (urine, stool, and oral swab were collected from each subject. Each specimen was processed using standard microbiological techniques and emergent Candida isolates were identified with CHROMagar™ Candida and sugar fermentation tests. Results: The overall prevalence of Candida colonisation among HIV patients was 52.5%. HAART-naive patients had a significantly higher prevalence (OR = 3.65; 95% CI = 2.03–6.56; p<0.0001 than their counterpart on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.13–3.50; p=0.0232. Female gender was a significant risk factor for acquiring Candida infection (OR = 3.40; 95% CI = 1.14–10.13; p=0.0289. The effect of age on prevalence of candidiasis was observed among HIV patients on HAART (p=0.0161. A CD4+ count <200 cells/µl was a significant risk factor for acquiring candidal infection only among HAART-naive patients (OR = 4.37; 95% CI = 1.60–11.95; p=0.0042. The five species of Candida recovered from this study were C. albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata. Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between antiretroviral therapy, CD4+ counts, and the prevalence of candidiasis.

  14. Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Paula Matos Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common vaginal infection. HIV-infection is a risk factor for this infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of VVC and to describe the main Candida species isolated and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs in HIV-infected patients, compared to HIV-uninfected women in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a group of 64 HIV-infected women and 76 uninfected women, followed up at the AIDS reference center and at the Gynecological Clinic of Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. RESULTS: Frequency of Candida spp. was higher in HIV-infected women (29.7% than in HIV-uninfected controls (14.5% (p = 0.02. The odds ratio value for vulvovaginal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.07 - 6.32 p = 0.03. Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species in both HIV-infected (52.3% and uninfected women (85.7%, followed by C. parapsolis in 17.6% and 14.3%, respectively. In HIV-infected women, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and a coinfection of C. albicans and C. glabrata were also identified. There was no significant difference between Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of women with VVC and colonization of the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. One C. glabrata isolate from an HIV-infected patient was resistant to fluconazole and other two isolates exhibited a dose-dependent susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm a higher frequency of Candida spp. isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women and a broader spectrum of species involved. Only Candida glabrata isolates showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole.

  15. [Neonatal Candida infections and the antifungal susceptibilities of the related Candida species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuncu, Emel; Bilgen, Hülya; Cerikçioğlu, Nilgün; Ilki, Arzu; Ulger, Nurver; Bakır, Mustafa; Akman, Ipek; Ozek, Eren

    2010-10-01

    Among nosocomial infections in the newborns, the incidence of fungal infections has been rising over the last decades. Fluconazole has been a new option for treatment however, expanded use of the drug brought up the development of resistance. In this study, species of the Candida isolates from neonates with candida infections, their antifungal susceptibilities and the effectiveness of the therapy were evaluated. All the species of Candida isolates from blood, urine and sterile body fluids of 54 neonates and their antifungal susceptibilities were evaluated retrospectively over the 13-year period. Demographic characteristics, risk factors, infection foci, Candida species causing infection and their in vitro susceptibilities for fluconazole (FCZ) and amphotericin B (AMB) and treatment responses were analyzed. The antifungal susceptibility testing of isolates was performed by microdilution technique. The median birth weight and gestational age of the study groups were 1735 (660-3990) g and 33 (24-40) weeks, respectively. Among the patients, 19 (35%) were term, while 35 (65%) were preterm [Candida spp. were isolated mostly from blood samples (63%), followed by urine (46%), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; 5%), peritoneal fluid (3%) and endotracheal aspirate (2%). Multifocal growth was determined in 10 (18%) cases. The isolated species were C.albicans (n =36) as being the most common isolate followed by C.parapsilosis (n = 12), C.tropicalis (n = 1), C.kefyr (n = 1), C.lusitaniae (n = 1), C.pelluculosa (n = 1) and Candida spp. (n = 2). Prior antibiotic use, long term hospitalization, total parenteral nutrition and use of lipid solutions, prematurity and catheter use were determined as the most frequently associated factors causing candidal infections. A congenital abnormality, mainly myeloschisis and hydrocephaly, was detected in 18 (33%) of the cases. Overall FCZ resistance rate was 5.5% and the rate of resistance according to the species was 2.8% for C.albicans and 11% for non

  16. CT-Guided Biopsy in Suspected Spondylodiscitis--The Association of Paravertebral Inflammation with Microbial Pathogen Detection.

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    Daniel Spira

    Full Text Available To search for imaging characteristics distinguishing patients with successful from those with futile microbiological pathogen detection by CT-guided biopsy in suspected spondylodiscitis.34 consecutive patients with suspected spondylodiscitis underwent CT-guided biopsy for pathogen detection. MR-images were assessed for inflammatory infiltration of disks, adjacent vertebrae, epidural and paravertebral space. CT-images were reviewed for arrosion of adjacent end plates and reduced disk height. Biopsy samples were sent for microbiological examination in 34/34 patients, and for additional histological analysis in 28/34 patients.Paravertebral infiltration was present in all 10/10 patients with positive microbiology and occurred in only 12/24 patients with negative microbiology, resulting in a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 50% for pathogen detection. Despite its limited sensitivities, epidural infiltration and paravertebral abscesses showed considerably higher specificities of 83.3% and 90.9%, respectively. Paravertebral infiltration was more extensive in patients with positive as compared to negative microbiology (p = 0.002. Even though sensitivities for pathogen detection were also high in case of vertebral and disk infiltration, or end plate arrosion, specificities remained below 10%.Inflammatory infiltration of the paravertebral space indicated successful pathogen detection by CT-guided biopsy. Specificity was increased by the additional occurrence of epidural infiltration or paravertebral abscesses.

  17. Mechanisms involved in the inhibition of glycolysis by cyanide and antimycin A in Candida albicans and its reversal by hydrogen peroxide. A common feature in Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Antonio; Sánchez, Norma Silvia; González-López, Omar; Calahorra, Martha

    2015-12-01

    In Candida albicans, cyanide and antimycin A inhibited K(+) transport, not only with ethanol-O2 as the substrate, but also with glucose. The reason for this was that they inhibited not only respiration, but also fermentation, decreasing ATP production. Measurements of oxygen levels in cell suspensions allowed identification of the electron pathways involved. NADH fluorescence levels increased in the presence of the inhibitors, indirectly indicating lower levels of NAD(+) and so pointing to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as the limiting step responsible for the inhibition of glycolysis, which was confirmed by the levels of glycolytic intermediaries. The cyanide effect could be reversed by hydrogen peroxide, mainly due to an activity by which H2O2 can be reduced by electrons flowing from NADH through a pathway that can be inhibited by antimycin A, and appears to be a cytochrome c peroxidase. Therefore, the inhibition of glycolysis by the respiratory inhibitors seems to be due to the decreased availability of NAD(+), resulting in a decreased activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Compartmentalization of pyridine nucleotides in favor of the mitochondria can contribute to explaining the low fermentation capacity of C. albicans. Similar results were obtained with three C. albicans strains, Candida dubliniensis and, to a lower degree, Candida parapsilosis.

  18. Changes in cell wall synthesis and ultrastructure during paradoxical growth effect of caspofungin on four different Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizerra, Fernando C; Melo, Analy S A; Katchburian, Eduardo; Freymüller, Edna; Straus, Anita H; Takahashi, Hélio K; Colombo, Arnaldo L

    2011-01-01

    Paradoxical growth (PG) has been described for echinocandins and is characterized by cell growth at drug concentrations above the MIC. In this study, two isolates each of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. parapsilosis, all of which displaying PG in response to caspofungin, were subjected to MIC, minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and time-kill curve assays to evaluate the levels of PG. Cell wall components and ultrastructural modifications of the PG cells were also investigated. The results showed that when cell growth and survival were evaluated by MFC or time-kill curve assays, high concentrations of caspofungin did not show fungicidal activity against PG cells. Furthermore, for C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis, time-kill curves were more discriminatory than MFCs in detecting the PG effect. The four different Candida species studied demonstrated similar alterations in cell wall components and ultrastructure associated with PG. In PG cells, β-1,3-glucan content decreased from 2.7- to 7.8-fold, whereas chitin content increased from 4.0- to 6.6-fold. An electron microscopy study of the PG cells revealed morphological alterations, clumping of cells, enlarged cells, the absence of filamentation, abnormal septa, and accumulation of chitin in the cell wall. Also, PG cells basically exhibited a single dark high-density layer in the cell wall, indicating the loss of the β-1,3-glucan layer. Our results present novel details about the ultrastructural alterations that occur in C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. tropicalis during PG and show that chitin is the major component of the cell walls of PG cells. Stimulation of chitin synthesis may represent a rescue mechanism against caspofungin activity.

  19. Influence of culture media on biofilm formation by Candida species and response of sessile cells to antifungals and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Fujarte, Isela; López-Romero, Everardo; Reyna-López, Georgina Elena; Martínez-Gámez, Ma Alejandrina; Vega-González, Arturo; Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the influence of culture media on biofilm formation by C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis and to investigate the responses of sessile cells to antifungals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as compared to planktonic cells. For biofilm formation, the Candida species were grown at different periods of time in YP or YNB media supplemented or not with 0.2 or 2% glucose. Sessile and planktonic cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of antifungals, H2O2, menadione or silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantified by the XTT assay. C. albicans formed biofilms preferentially in YPD containing 2% glucose (YPD/2%), C. glabrata in glucose-free YNB or supplemented with 0.2% glucose (YNB/0.2%), while C. krusei and C. parapsilosis preferred YP, YPD/0.2%, and YPD/2%. Interestingly, only C. albicans produced an exopolymeric matrix. This is the first report dealing with the in vitro effect of the culture medium and glucose on the formation of biofilms in four Candida species as well as the resistance of sessile cells to antifungals, AgNPs, and ROS. Our results suggest that candidiasis in vivo is a multifactorial and complex process where the nutritional conditions, the human immune system, and the adaptability of the pathogen should be considered altogether to provide an effective treatment of the patient.

  20. The Genomic Aftermath of Hybridization in the Opportunistic Pathogen Candida metapsilosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryszcz, Leszek P.; Németh, Tibor; Saus, Ester; Ksiezopolska, Ewa; Hegedűsová, Eva; Nosek, Jozef; Wolfe, Kenneth H.; Gacser, Attila; Gabaldón, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Candida metapsilosis is a rarely-isolated, opportunistic pathogen that belongs to a clade of pathogenic yeasts known as the C. parapsilosis sensu lato species complex. To gain insight into the recent evolution of C. metapsilosis and the genetic basis of its virulence, we sequenced the genome of 11 clinical isolates from various locations, which we compared to each other and to the available genomes of the two remaining members of the complex: C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis. Unexpectedly, we found compelling genomic evidence that C. metapsilosis is a highly heterozygous hybrid species, with all sequenced clinical strains resulting from the same past hybridization event involving two parental lineages that were approximately 4.5% divergent in sequence. This result indicates that the parental species are non-pathogenic, but that hybridization between them formed a new opportunistic pathogen, C. metapsilosis, that has achieved a worldwide distribution. We show that these hybrids are diploid and we identified strains carrying loci for both alternative mating types, which supports mating as the initial mechanism for hybrid formation. We trace the aftermath of this hybridization at the genomic level, and reconstruct the evolutionary relationships among the different strains. Recombination and introgression -resulting in loss of heterozygosis- between the two subgenomes have been rampant, and includes the partial overwriting of the MTLa mating locus in all strains. Collectively, our results shed light on the recent genomic evolution within the C. parapsilosis sensu lato complex, and argue for a re-definition of species within this clade, with at least five distinct homozygous lineages, some of which having the ability to form hybrids. PMID:26517373

  1. The Genomic Aftermath of Hybridization in the Opportunistic Pathogen Candida metapsilosis.

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    Leszek P Pryszcz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Candida metapsilosis is a rarely-isolated, opportunistic pathogen that belongs to a clade of pathogenic yeasts known as the C. parapsilosis sensu lato species complex. To gain insight into the recent evolution of C. metapsilosis and the genetic basis of its virulence, we sequenced the genome of 11 clinical isolates from various locations, which we compared to each other and to the available genomes of the two remaining members of the complex: C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis. Unexpectedly, we found compelling genomic evidence that C. metapsilosis is a highly heterozygous hybrid species, with all sequenced clinical strains resulting from the same past hybridization event involving two parental lineages that were approximately 4.5% divergent in sequence. This result indicates that the parental species are non-pathogenic, but that hybridization between them formed a new opportunistic pathogen, C. metapsilosis, that has achieved a worldwide distribution. We show that these hybrids are diploid and we identified strains carrying loci for both alternative mating types, which supports mating as the initial mechanism for hybrid formation. We trace the aftermath of this hybridization at the genomic level, and reconstruct the evolutionary relationships among the different strains. Recombination and introgression -resulting in loss of heterozygosis- between the two subgenomes have been rampant, and includes the partial overwriting of the MTLa mating locus in all strains. Collectively, our results shed light on the recent genomic evolution within the C. parapsilosis sensu lato complex, and argue for a re-definition of species within this clade, with at least five distinct homozygous lineages, some of which having the ability to form hybrids.

  2. Evaluation of surgical strategy of conventional vs. percutaneous robot-assisted spinal trans-pedicular instrumentation in spondylodiscitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keric, Naureen; Eum, David J; Afghanyar, Feroz; Rachwal-Czyzewicz, Izabela; Renovanz, Mirjam; Conrad, Jens; Wesp, Dominik M A; Kantelhardt, Sven R; Giese, Alf

    2017-03-01

    Robot-assisted percutaneous insertion of pedicle screws is a recent technique demonstrating high accuracy. The optimal treatment for spondylodiscitis is still a matter of debate. We performed a retrospective cohort study on surgical patients treated with pedicle screw/rod placement alone without the application of intervertebral cages. In this collective, we compare conventional open to a further minimalized percutaneous robot-assisted spinal instrumentation, avoiding a direct contact of implants and infectious focus. 90 records and CT scans of patients treated by dorsal transpedicular instrumentation of the infected segments with and without decompression and antibiotic therapy were analysed for clinical and radiological outcome parameters. 24 patients were treated by free-hand fluoroscopy-guided surgery (121 screws), and 66 patients were treated by percutaneous robot-assisted spinal instrumentation (341 screws). Accurate screw placement was confirmed in 90 % of robot-assisted and 73.5 % of free-hand placed screws. Implant revision due to misplacement was necessary in 4.95 % of the free-hand group compared to 0.58 % in the robot-assisted group. The average intraoperative X-ray exposure per case was 0.94 ± 1.04 min in the free-hand group vs. 0.4 ± 0.16 min in the percutaneous group (p = 0.000). Intraoperative adverse events were observed in 12.5 % of free-hand placed pedicle screws and 6.1 % of robot robot-assisted screws. The mean postoperative hospital stay in the free-hand group was 18.1 ± 12.9 days, and in percutaneous group, 13.8 ± 5.6 days (p = 0.012). This study demonstrates that the robot-guided insertion of pedicle screws is a safe and effective procedure in lumbar and thoracic spondylodiscitis with higher accuracy of implant placement, lower radiation dose, and decreased complication rates. Percutaneous spinal dorsal instrumentation seems to be sufficient to treat lumbar and thoracic spondylodiscitis.

  3. Species distribution and in vitro fluconazole susceptibility of clinical Candida isolates in a Brazilian tertiary-care hospital over a 3-year period

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    Márcia Cristina Furlaneto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In this study, we aimed at identifying Candida isolates obtained from blood, urine, tracheal secretion, and nail/skin lesions from cases attended at the Hospital Universitário de Londrina over a 3-year period and at evaluating fluconazole susceptibilities of the isolates. METHODS: Candida isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using species-specific forward primers. The in vitro fluconazole susceptibility test was performed according to EUCAST-AFST reference procedure. RESULTS: Isolates were obtained from urine (53.4%, blood cultures (19.2%, tracheal secretion (17.8%, and nail/skin lesions (9.6%. When urine samples were considered, prevalence was similar in women (45.5% and in men (54.5% and was high in the age group >61 years than that in younger ones. For blood samples, prevalence was high in neonates (35% and advanced ages (22.5%. For nail and skin samples, prevalence was higher in women (71.4% than in men (28.6%. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated in the hospital, but Candida species other than C. albicans accounted for 64% of isolates, including predominantly Candida tropicalis (33.2% and Candida parapsilosis (19.2%. The trend for non-albicans Candida as the predominant species was noted from all clinical specimens, except from urine samples. All Candida isolates were considered susceptible in vitro to fluconazole with the exception of isolates belonging to the intrinsically less-susceptible species C. glabrata. CONCLUSIONS: Non-albicans Candida species were more frequently isolated in the hospital. Fluconazole resistance was a rare finding in our study.

  4. [Determination of Candida colonization and Candida score in patients in anesthesia intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökahmetoğlu, Günhan; Mutlu Sarıgüzel, Fatma; Koç, Ayşe Nedret; Behret, Orhan; Gökahmetoğlu, Selma; Atalay, Mustafa Altay; Elmalı, Ferhan; Darçın, Kamil

    2016-07-01

    cultures. Of 365 yeast-positive cultures, C.albicans was isolated from 184 (50.4%), C.glabrata from 66 (18%), C.parapsilosis from 42 (11.5%), C.tropicalis from 12 (3.3%), C.kefyr from three (0.8%), and C.krusei from one (0.3%) samples, whereas six (1.6%) samples yielded other yeasts (3 Saprochaete capitata, 3 Trichosporon spp.) and 51 (13.9%) samples yielded multiple yeast growth. The highest colonization rates were detected in rectal swabs (27.4%), urine (23.3%) and throat (22.5%) samples. CI value was found as >0.2 in 65% (52/80), and ≥0.5 in 25% (20/80) of the patients, whereas CS value was >2.5 in only 2.5% (2/80) of the patients. In the statistical evaluation, significant correlations were found between fungal colonization (CI> 0.2) and gender (p=0.032) and length of stay in ICU (p=0.004), and between intensive colonization (CI≥ 0.5) and gender (p=0.008) and age (p=0.012). However, the correlation between Candida colonization and the presence of underlying diseases, APACHE II score, Glasgow coma scale, invasive procedures, use of extended-spectrum antibiotics, presence of bacterial infections, haemodialysis, transfusion and history of previous hospitalization was not statistically significant. Our results have also indicated a statistically significant relationship between fungal colonization and the positivity of C.albicans, C.glabrata, C.parapsilosis ang C.albicans/C.glabrata (p=0.001, p=0.002, p=0.008 and p=0.028, respectively), emphasizing the importance of species-level identification of Candida isolates. The reason of lacking of IC development in our patients may be explained by their low CI and CS values. In conclusion, monitoring of ICU patients who are at high risk for IC in terms of CI and CS would be beneficial. However it is clear that our data need to be supported by multi-center and high-scale studies.

  5. Description of Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. for placement of Candida auringiensis, Candida salmanticensis and Candida tartarivorans.

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    Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2016-07-01

    DNA sequence analyses have demonstrated that species of the polyphyletic anamorphic ascomycete genus Candida may be members of described teleomorphic genera, members of the Candida tropicalis clade upon which the genus Candida is circumscribed, or members of isolated clades that represent undescribed genera. From phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences from nuclear large subunit rRNA, mitochondrial small subunit rRNA and cytochrome oxidase II, Candida auringiensis (NRRL Y-17674(T), CBS 6913(T)), Candida salmanticensis (NRRL Y-17090(T), CBS 5121(T)), and Candida tartarivorans (NRRL Y-27291(T), CBS 7955(T)) were shown to be members of an isolated clade and are proposed for reclassification in the genus Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. (MycoBank MB 815817). Neighbouring taxa include species of the Wickerhamiella clade and Candida blankii.

  6. In Vitro Activity of Seven Systemically Active Antifungal Agents against a Large Global Collection of Rare Candida Species as Determined by CLSI Broth Microdilution Methods ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekema, D. J.; Messer, S. A.; Boyken, L. B.; Hollis, R. J.; Kroeger, J.; Tendolkar, S.; Pfaller, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    Five Candida species (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei) account for over 95% of invasive candidiasis cases. Some less common Candida species have emerged as causes of nosocomial candidiasis, but there is little information about their in vitro susceptibilities to antifungals. We determined the in vitro activities of fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin against invasive, unique patient isolates of Candida collected from 100 centers worldwide between January 2001 and December 2007. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by the CLSI M27-A3 method. CLSI breakpoints for susceptibility were used for fluconazole, voriconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin, while a provisional susceptibility breakpoint of ≤1 μg/ml was used for amphotericin and posaconazole. Of 14,007 Candida isolates tested, 658 (4.7%) were among the less common species. Against all 658 isolates combined, the activity of each agent, expressed as the MIC50/MIC90 ratio (and the percentage of susceptible isolates) was as follows: fluconazole, 1/4 (94.8%); voriconazole, 0.03/0.12 (98.6%); posaconazole, 0.12/0.5 (95.9%); amphotericin, 0.5/2 (88.3%); anidulafungin, 0.5/2 (97.4%); caspofungin, 0.12/0.5 (98.0%); and micafungin, 0.25/1 (99.2%). Among the isolates not susceptible to one or more of the echinocandins, most (68%) were C. guilliermondii. All isolates of the less common species within the C. parapsilosis complex (C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis) were susceptible to voriconazole, posaconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin. Over 95% of clinical isolates of the rare Candida species were susceptible to the available antifungals. However, activity did vary by drug-species combination, with some species (e.g., C. rugosa and C. guilliermondii) demonstrating reduced susceptibilities to commonly used agents such as fluconazole and echinocandins. PMID:19710283

  7. FTIR spectroscopy in medical mycology: applications to the differentiation and typing of Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubas, Dominique; Essendoubi, Mohammed; Adt, Isabelle; Pinon, Jean-Michel; Manfait, Michel; Sockalingum, Ganesh D

    2007-03-01

    The incidence of fungal infections, in particular candidiasis and aspergillosis, has considerably increased during the last three decades. This is mainly due to advances in medical treatments and technologies. In high risk patients (e.g. in haematology or intensive care), the prognosis of invasive candidiasis is relatively poor. Therefore, a rapid and correct identification of the infectious agent is important for an efficient and prompt therapy. Most clinical laboratories rely on conventional identification methods that are based on morphological, physiological and nutritional characteristics. However, these have their limitations because they are time-consuming and not always very accurate. Moreover, molecular methods may be required to determine the genetic relationship between the infectious strains, for instance in Candida outbreaks. In addition, the latter methods require time, expensive consumables and highly trained staff to be performed adequately. In this study, we have applied the FTIR spectroscopic approach to different situations encountered in routine mycological diagnosis. We show the potentials of this phenotypic approach, used in parallel with routine identification methods, for the differentiation of 3 frequently encountered Candida species (C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei) by using both suspensions and microcolonies. This approach, developed for an early discrimination, may help in the initial choice of antifungal treatment. Furthermore, we demonstrate the feasibility of the method for intraspecies comparison (typing) of 3 Candida species (C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis), particularly when an outbreak is suspected.

  8. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida spp. bloodstream isolates from Latin American hospitals

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    Godoy Patrício

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available From March 1999 to March 2000, we conducted a prospective multicenter study of candidemia involving five tertiary care hospitals from four countries in Latin America. Yeast isolates were identified by classical methods and the antifungal susceptibility profile was determined according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards microbroth assay method. During a 12 month-period we were able to collect a total of 103 bloodstream isolates of Candida spp. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species accounting for 42% of all isolates. Non-albicans Candida species strains accounted for 58% of all episodes of candidemia and were mostly represented by C. tropicalis (24.2% and C. parapsilosis (21.3%. It is noteworthy that we were able to identify two cases of C. lusitaniae from different institutions. In our casuistic, non-albicans Candida species isolates related to candidemic episodes were susceptible to fluconazole. Continuously surveillance programs are needed in order to identify possible changes in the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns of yeasts that may occurs after increasing the use of azoles in Latin American hospitals.

  9. Identification of Candida species isolated from cows suffering mastitis in four Brazilian states

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    L.C.A. Sartori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A mastite representa um dos problemas mais sérios que afetam as fazendas de gado leiteiro. As mastites clínica e subclínica em bovinos, devido a leveduras, são causadas principalmente por espécies do gênero Candida. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar quais espécies dessa levedura estavam presentes em amostras de leite obtidas da glândula mamária de vacas apresentando mastite. Um total de 428 amostras de leite foi coletado nos estados de São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina e Rio Grande do Sul. A identificação foi realizada por meio de critérios fenotípicos e fisiológicos. Foi possível isolar seis espécies de Candida em 55 (12,8% das amostras. As espécies mais frequentes foram C. krusei (34,6%, C. parapsilosis (25,4%, C. tropicalis (18,2% e C. albicans (12,8%. Esses resultados sugerem que outras espécies de Candida, além da C. albicans, possuem um papel importante em mastites micóticas em vacas.

  10. Genome comparison of Candida orthopsilosis clinical strains reveals the existence of hybrids between two distinct subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryszcz, Leszek P; Németh, Tibor; Gácser, Attila; Gabaldón, Toni

    2014-05-01

    The Candida parapsilosis species complex comprises a group of emerging human pathogens of varying virulence. This complex was recently subdivided into three different species: C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. metapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis. Within the latter, at least two clearly distinct subspecies seem to be present among clinical isolates (Type 1 and Type 2). To gain insight into the genomic differences between these subspecies, we undertook the sequencing of a clinical isolate classified as Type 1 and compared it with the available sequence of a Type 2 clinical strain. Unexpectedly, the analysis of the newly sequenced strain revealed a highly heterozygous genome, which we show to be the consequence of a hybridization event between both identified subspecies. This implicitly suggests that C. orthopsilosis is able to mate, a so-far unanswered question. The resulting hybrid shows a chimeric genome that maintains a similar gene dosage from both parental lineages and displays ongoing loss of heterozygosity. Several of the differences found between the gene content in both strains relate to virulent-related families, with the hybrid strain presenting a higher copy number of genes coding for efflux pumps or secreted lipases. Remarkably, two clinical strains isolated from distant geographical locations (Texas and Singapore) are descendants of the same hybrid line, raising the intriguing possibility of a relationship between the hybridization event and the global spread of a virulent clone.

  11. Normal Human Gingival Epithelial Cells Sense C. parapsilosis by Toll-Like Receptors and Module Its Pathogenesis through Antimicrobial Peptides and Proinflammatory Cytokines

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    Raouf Bahri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the interaction between C. parapsilosis and human epithelial cells using monolayer cultures and an engineered human oral mucosa (EHOM. C. parapsilosis was able to adhere to gingival epithelial cells and to adopt the hyphal form in the presence of serum. Interestingly, when cultured onto the engineered human oral mucosa (EHOM, C. parapsilosis formed small biofilm and invaded the connective tissue. Following contact with C. parapsilosis, normal human gingival epithelial cells expressed high levels of Toll-like receptors (TLR-2, -4, and -6, but not TLR-9 mRNA. The upregulation of TLRs was paralleled by an increase of IL-1β, TNFα, and IFNγ mRNA expression, suggesting the involvement of these cytokines in the defense against infection with C. parapsilosis. The active role of epithelial cells in the innate immunity against C. parapsilosis infection was enhanced by their capacity to express high levels of human beta-defensin-1, -2, and -3. The upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial peptide expression may explain the growth inhibition of C. parapsilosis by the gingival epithelial cells. Overall results provide additional evidence of the involvement of epithelial cells in the innate immunity against C. parapsilosis infections.

  12. Isolation of Candida spp from vaginal microbiota of healthy canine females during estrous cycle Isolamento de Candida spp da microbiota vaginal de fêmeas caninas hígidas durante o ciclo estral

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    Marlete Brum Cleff

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts are commensal organisms found in the skin, genital and gastrointestinal tracts, and other mucosa in mammalians. Candida spp has been frequently isolated from domestic and sylvan animals. Yeast isolation from vaginal mucus is frequent in women, especially of Candida genus. In canine females, however, studies about vaginal fungal microbiota are rare and the connection with estrous cycle is unknown. The purpose of this study was to isolate yeast 5 of Candida genus from healthy canine females and identify the isolated species, establishing their connection with estrous cycle phases. Two hundred twenty-four samples taken from vaginal mucus of 14 canine females were analyzed in this study. Candida spp was observed in 83 (37% from these samples; nine samples were taken in proestrus, 14 in oestrus, 31 in dioestrus, 24 in anoestrus and five samples were obtained during pregnancy. Candida parapsilosis the most frequently isolated specie (21.7%, followed by C. guillermondii (8.4%, C. kefir (6% and C. albicans (4.8%. We concluded that Candida spp is a commion component of healthy canine females' vaginal microbiota, and isolation varies according to the estrous cycle phase.As leveduras são organismos comensais da pele, trato genital e gastrointestinal, e de outras mucosas de mamíferos. O gênero Candida vem sendo isolado freqüentemente de animais domésticos e silvestres. O isolamento de Candida spp da mucosa vaginal de mulheres é freqüente, porém na espécie canina são escassos os estudos referentes à microbiota fúngica vaginal, especialmente do gênero candida, não se tendo conhecimento de sua relação com o ciclo reprodutivo. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo isolar leveduras do gênero Candida em fêmeas caninas hígidas e identificar as espécies isoladas, relacionando-as com as diferentes fases do ciclo estral. Foram analisadas 224 amostras obtidas da mucosa vaginal de 14 fêmeas caninas. Candida spp foi observada em 83 (37

  13. Genotyping of Candida orthopsilosis clinical isolates by amplification fragment length polymorphism reveals genetic diversity among independent isolates and strain maintenance within patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavanti, Arianna; Hensgens, Lambert A M; Ghelardi, Emilia; Campa, Mario; Senesi, Sonia

    2007-05-01

    Candida parapsilosis former groups II and III have recently been established as independent species named C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis, respectively. In this report, 400 isolates (290 patients) previously classified as C. parapsilosis by conventional laboratory tests were screened by BanI digestion profile analysis of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase gene fragment and by amplification fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Thirty-three strains collected from 13 patients were identified as C. orthopsilosis, thus giving the first retrospective evidence that C. orthopsilosis was responsible for 4.5% of the infections/colonization attributed to C. parapsilosis. AFLP was proven to unambiguously identify C. orthopsilosis at the species level and efficiently delineate intraspecific genetic relatedness. A high percentage of polymorphic AFLP bands was observed for independent isolates collected from each patient. Statistical analysis of the pairwise genetic distances and bootstrapping revealed that clonal reproduction and recombination both contribute to C. orthopsilosis genetic population structure. AFLP patterns of sequential isolates obtained from two patients demonstrated that a successful strain colonization within the same patient occurred, as revealed by strain maintenance in various body sites. No association between AFLP markers and drug resistance was observed, and none of the clinical C. orthopsilosis isolates were found to produce biofilm in vitro.

  14. Candida's arranged marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, N A; Brown, A J; Odds, F C

    2000-07-14

    Biologists who study the fungus Candida albicans have always assumed that this organism reproduces asexually because they have not found evidence of mating, meiosis, or a haploid stage of the life cycle. However, as Gow et al. explain in a Perspective, sequencing of the C. albicans genome has revealed the existence of a possible mating type locus. This finding has now been extended to demonstrate actual mating in the fungus (Hull et al., Magee and Magee).

  15. Validation of 24-Hour Posaconazole and Voriconazole MIC Readings versus the CLSI 48-Hour Broth Microdilution Reference Method: Application of Epidemiological Cutoff Values to Results from a Global Candida Antifungal Surveillance Program▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M. A.; Boyken, L. B.; Hollis, R. J.; Kroeger, J.; Messer, S. A.; Tendolkar, S.; Diekema, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    We performed 24- and 48-h MIC determinations of posaconazole and voriconazole against more than 16,000 clinical isolates of Candida species. By using the 24- and 48-h epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs), the categorical agreement between the 24-h and reference 48-h broth microdilution results ranged from 97.1% (C. parapsilosis and voriconazole) to 99.8% (C. krusei and voriconazole), with 0.0 to 2.9% very major discrepancies (VMD). The essential agreement (within 2 log2 dilutions) between the 24- and 48-h results was 99.6% for both posaconazole and voriconazole. The MIC results obtained for both posaconazole and voriconazole after only 24 h of incubation may be used to determine the susceptibilities of Candida spp. to these important antifungal agents. The applications of ECVs to this large collection of Candida isolates suggests the potential to develop 24-h species-specific clinical breakpoints for both posaconazole and voriconazole. PMID:21289155

  16. Candida colonization in intensive care unit patients' urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xisto Sena Passos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify possible predisposing factors for candiduria in intensive care unit (ICU patients from Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil, during one year. Urine samples from 153 ICU patients were obtained by catheterization on admission day and every seven days. Data such as sex, age, antifungal therapy, and variables as antibiotics, underlying diseases or comorbid conditions and stay in the hospital, were collected from patients who had at least one urine culture that yielded > 10³ yeast colonies/ml. Candiduria was recovered in 68 patients and the commonest predisposing factors were antibiotic therapy (100% and indwelling urinary catheter (92.6%. The percentage of Candida spp. isolation increased during the extended periods in which patients remained in the ICU. C. albicans was isolated in 69.1%, and the other species non-albicans as C. glabrata, C. kefyr, C. parapsilosis, C. famata, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis were isolated in lower percentage. The high frequency of candiduria and the possible predisposing factors found in ICU patients show that candiduria surveillance should be performed to help reducing nosocomial infections.

  17. Citric acid production by Candida species grown on a soy-based crude glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Thomas P

    2013-01-01

    Citric acid was produced by five species of the yeast Candida after growth on a medium containing soy biodiesel-based crude glycerol. After growth on a medium containing 10 g L(-1) or 60 g L(-1) crude glycerol for 168 hr at 30°C, Candida parapsilosis ATCC 7330 and C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 produced the highest citric acid levels. On 10 g L(-1) or 60 g L(-1) crude glycerol for 168 hr at 30°C, the citric acid level produced by C. parapsilosis ATCC 7330 was 1.8 g L(-1) or 11.3 g L(-1), respectively, while C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 produced citric acid concentrations of 3.0 g L(-1) or 10.4 g L(-1), respectively. Biomass production by C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 on 10 g L(-1) or 60 g L(-1) crude glycerol for 168 hr at 30°C was highest at 1.2 g L(-1) or 6.9 g L(-1), respectively. The citric acid yields observed for C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 after growth on 10 g L(-1) or 60 g L(-1) crude glycerol (0.35 g g(-1) or 0.21 g g(-1), respectively) were generally higher than for the other Candida species tested. When similar crude glycerol concentrations were present in the culture medium, citric acid yields observed for some of the Candida species utilized in this study were about the same or higher compared to citric acid yields by Yarrowia lipolytica strains. Based on the findings, it appeared that C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 was the most effective species utilized, with its citric acid production being similar to what has been observed when citric acid-producing strains of Y. lipolytica were grown on crude glycerol under batch conditions that could be of significance to biobased citric acid production.

  18. Antifungal Effect of Novel 2-Bromo-2-Chloro-2-(4-Chlorophenylsulfonyl)-1-Phenylethanone against Candida Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniszewska, Monika; Bondaryk, Małgorzata; Wieczorek, Magdalena; Estrada-Mata, Eine; Mora-Montes, Héctor M.; Ochal, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the antifungal activity of novel a 2-bromo-2-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl)-1-phenylethanone (compound 4). The synthesis of compound 4 was commenced from sodium 4-chlorobenzene sulfinate and the final product was obtained by treatment of α-chloro-β-keto-sulfone with sodium hypobromite. The sensitivity of 63 clinical isolates belonging to the most relevant Candida species toward compound 4 using the method M27-A3 was evaluated. We observed among most of the clinical strains of C. albicans MIC ranging from 0.00195 to 0.0078 μg/mL. Compound 4 at 32 μg/mL exhibited fungicidal activity against nine Candida strains tested using the MFC assay. Compound 4 displayed anti-Candida activity (with clear endpoint) against 22% of clinical strains of Candida. Under compound 4, Candida susceptibility and tolerance, namely paradoxical effect (PG), was found for only two clinical isolates (C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis) and reference strain 14053 using both M27-A3 and MFC method. We found that compound 4 does not induce toxicity in vivo against larvae of Galleria mellonella (≥97% survival) and it displays reduced toxicity on mammalian cells in vitro (< CC20 at 64 μg/mL). Furthermore, XTT assay denoted clear metabolic activity of sessile cells in the presence of compound 4. Thus, the effect of compound 4 on formed C. albicans biofilms was minimal. Moreover, strain 90028 exhibited no defects in hyphal growth on Caco-2 monolayer under compound 4 influence at MIC = 16 μg/mL. The MIC values of compound 4 against C. albicans 90028, in medium with sorbitol did not suggest that compound 4 acts by inhibiting fungal cell wall synthesis. Our findings with compound 4 suggest a general strategy for antifungal agent development that might be useful in limiting the emergence of resistance in Candida strains. PMID:27610100

  19. Antifungal Effect of Novel 2-bromo-2-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl-1-phenylethanone against Candida strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Staniszewska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the antifungal activity of novel a 2-bromo-2-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl-1-phenylethanone (compound 4. The synthesis of compound 4 was commenced from sodium 4-chlorobenzene sulfinate and the final product was obtained by treatment of β-chloro β-keto-sulfone with sodium hypobromite. The sensitivity of sixty three clinical isolates belonging to the most relevant Candida species towards compound 4 using the method M27-A3 was evaluated. We observed among most of the clinical strains of C. albicans MIC ranging from 0.00195 to 0.0078 µg/mL. Compound 4 at 32 μg/mL exhibited fungicidal activity against nine Candida strains tested using the MFC assay. Compound 4 displayed anti-Candida activity (with clear endpoint against 22% of clinical strains of Candida. Under compound 4, Candida susceptibility and tolerance, namely paradoxical effect (PG, was found for only two clinical isolates (C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis and reference strain 14053 using both M27-A3 and MFC method. We found that compound 4 does not induce toxicity in vivo against larvae of Galleria mellonella (≥97% survival and it displays reduced toxicity on mammalian cells in vitro (Candida strains.

  20. Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum isolated from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, R M; Ahearn, D G

    1983-11-01

    Ten clinical yeast isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control from diverse geographic areas were identified as Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum. The association of C. ciferrii with clinical specimens, particularly its repeated isolation from a case of onychomycosis, suggests that this species may be an etiological agent of superficial yeast infections.

  1. Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum Isolated from Clinical Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Ten clinical yeast isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control from diverse geographic areas were identified as Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum. The association of C. ciferrii with clinical specimens, particularly its repeated isolation from a case of onychomycosis, suggests that this species may be an etiological agent of superficial yeast infections.

  2. Evaluation of biochemical and serological methods to identify and clustering yeast cells of oral Candida species by CHROMagar test, SDS-PAGE and ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. de O. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate biochemical and serological methods to characterize and identify Candida species from the oral cavity. The strains used were five Candida species previously identified: C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, and Kluyveromyces marxianus, as a negative control. The analyses were conducted through the SDS-PAGE associated with statistical analysis using software, chromogenic medium, and CHROMagar Candida (CA, as a differential medium for the isolation and presumptive identification of clinically important yeasts and an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA, using antisera produced against antigens from two C. albicans strains. This method enabled the screening of the three Candida species: C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. Krusei, with 100% of specificity. The ELISA using purified immunoglobulin G showed a high level of cross-reaction against protein extracts of Candida species. The SDS-PAGE method allowed the clustering of species-specific isolates using the Simple Matching coefficient, S SM = 1.0. The protein profile analysis by SDS-PAGE increases what is known about the taxonomic relationships among oral yeasts. This methodology showed good reproducibility and allows collection of useful information for numerical analysis on information relevant to clinical application, and epidemiological and systematical studies.

  3. Prospective comparison of whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and MRI of the spine in the diagnosis of haematogenous spondylodiscitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuster, David; Mayoral, Maria; Manchon, Francisco; Granados, Ulises; Pons, Francesca [Hospital Clinic, Nuclear Medicine Department, Barcelona (Spain); Tomas, Xavier; Cardenal, Carles [Hospital Clinic, Radiology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Soriano, Alex [Hospital Clinic, Infectious Diseases Department, Barcelona (Spain); Monegal, Anna [Hospital Clinic, Rheumatology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, Sebastia [Hospital Clinic, Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology Department, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-09-04

    To prospectively compare {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and MRI in the diagnosis of haematogenous spondylodiscitis The study included 26 patients (12 women, 14 men; mean age 59 ± 17 years) with clinical symptoms of infection of the spine. Patients who had had prior spinal surgery or any type of antibiotic therapy in the previous 3 months were excluded from the study. Whole-body PET/CT 60 min after injection of 4.07 MBq/kg of {sup 18}F-FDG and an MRI scan of the spine was performed in all patients. SUVmax in an area surrounding the lesions with the suspicion of infection as well as a background SUVmean in a preserved area of the spine were calculated for quantification. Infection was diagnosed by microbiological documentation in cultures of image-guided spinal puncture fluid or blood. Infection was excluded if symptoms were absent without antimicrobial therapy during a follow-up of at least 6 months. Spondylodiscitis was confirmed in 18 of the 26 patients. Staphylococcus aureus was found in 8 patients, Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 4, Escherichia coli in 2 and other pathogens in 4. Of the remaining 8 patients, the diagnoses were degenerative spondyloarthropathy in 5 and vertebral fracture in 3. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value were 83 %, 88 %, 94 % and 70 % for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, and 94 %, 38 %, 77 % and 75 % for MRI, respectively. The accuracies of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and MRI were similar (84 % and 81 %, respectively). The combination of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and MRI detected the infection in 100 % of the patients with spondylodiscitis. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake, quantified in terms of SUVmax corrected by the background SUVmean, was significantly higher in patients with spondylodiscitis than in those without infection (p < 0.001). Due to its high specificity, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT should be considered as a first-line imaging procedure in the diagnosis of spondylodiscitis. Quantification of uptake in terms of SUVmax was able to

  4. Phenotypical characterization of Candida spp. isolated from crop of parrots (Amazona spp. Caracterização fenotípica de Candida spp. isoladas de inglúvio de papagaios (Amazona spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata G. Vieira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize Candida isolates from crop of parrots. Forty baby parrots of genus Amazona, species aestiva and amazonica that were apprehended from wild animal traffic were used: 18 presented ingluvitis and 22 other alterations, but showing general debilitation. Samples were seeded on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol after be obtained by the introduction of urethral probe through the esophagus. Based on morphology and biochemical reactions (API 20C Candida was confirmed; it was still searched the production of proteinase and phospholipase, virulence factors for Candida species. Candida spp. were isolated from 57.5% parrots, being 72.2% from birds with ingluvitis and 45.5% from without ones. Twenty-five strains of Candida were isolated, 60% and 40%, respectively from parrots with and without ingluvitis, and were speciated: 28% C. humicola, 24% C. parapsilosis, 20% C. guilliermondii, 20% C. famata, and 8% C. albicans. These results demonstrate that C. albicans is not the most frequent species isolated, and it is the first report that shows C. guilliermondii, C. famata, and C. humicola causing infection in parrots. Many isolates presented filamentation (76%, 100% produced proteinase and 68% phospholipase. The observation of Candida spp. producing virulence factors reinforce the pathogenic role of these yeasts in the cases studied.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar cepas de Candida spp. isoladas de inglúvio de papagaios. Foram utilizados 40 papagaios do gênero Amazona, espécies aestiva e amazonica, apreendidos de tráfico de animais selvagens: 18 apresentavam ingluvite e 22 outras alterações, mas todos mostrando sinais de debilitação geral. Colheram-se as amostras clínicas através da introdução de sonda uretral no esôfago dos animais e estas foram semeadas em ágar Sabouraud dextrose acrescido de cloranfenicol. A identificação das espécies de Candida foi baseada em caracter

  5. Complete DNA sequences of the mitochondrial genomes of the pathogenic yeasts Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis: insight into the evolution of linear DNA genomes from mitochondrial telomere mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Peter; Valach, Matus; Tomaska, Lubomir; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Nosek, Jozef

    2006-01-01

    We determined complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of the two yeast species, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, and compared them with the linear mitochondrial genome of their close relative, C.parapsilosis. Mitochondria of all the three species harbor compact genomes encoding the same set of genes arranged in the identical order. Differences in the length of these genomes result mainly from the presence/absence of introns. Multiple alterations were identified also in the sequences of the ribosomal and transfer RNAs, and proteins. However, the most striking feature of C.orthopsilosis and C.metapsilosis is the existence of strains differing in the molecular form of the mitochondrial genome (circular-mapping versus linear). Their analysis opens a unique window for understanding the role of mitochondrial telomeres in the stability and evolution of molecular architecture of the genome. Our results indicate that the circular-mapping mitochondrial genome derived from the linear form by intramolecular end-to-end fusions. Moreover, we suggest that the linear mitochondrial genome evolved from a circular-mapping form present in a common ancestor of the three species and, at the same time, the emergence of mitochondrial telomeres enabled the formation of linear monomeric DNA forms. In addition, comparison of isogenic C.metapsilosis strains differing in the form of the organellar genome suggests a possibility that, under some circumstances, the linearity and/or the presence of telomeres provide a competitive advantage over a circular-mapping mitochondrial genome.

  6. [Development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction method for the identification of Candida species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ağca, Harun; Dalyan Cilo, Burcu; Özmerdiven, Gülşah Ece; Sağlam, Sezcan; Ener, Beyza

    2015-01-01

    Candida species are one of the major causes of nosocomial infections and are the fourth most common agent involved in bloodstream infections. The impact of non-albicans Candida species is increasing, however C.albicans is still the most common species. Since the antifungal susceptibility pattern among Candida spp. may be different, rapid diagnosis and identification of non-albicans Candida spp. are important for the determination of antifungal agents that will be used for treatment. The aim of the study was to describe a real-time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) assay that rapidly detects, identifies and quantitates Candida species from blood culture samples. A total of 50 consecutive positive blood culture bottles (BACTEC, Beckton Dickinson, USA) identified at our laboratory between June-November 2013, were included in the study. Reference strains of Candida spp. (C.albicans ATCC 10231, C.glabrata ATCC 90030, C.tropicalis ATCC 1021, C.krusei ATCC 6258, C.parapsilosis ATCC 22019 and C. dubliniensis CD36) grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar were used for quality control. BACTEC bottles that were positive for Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were also studied to search the cross-reactivity. A commercial kit (Zymo Research, USA) was used for DNA extraction. Real-time PCR was performed on LightCycler 480 (Roche, Germany) with primers and probes specific for 18S rRNA of Candida species. Twenty microlitres of the reaction mix contained 2 μl of extracted DNA, 2 μl of LightCycler Fast Start DNA Master Probe (Roche Diagnostics, Germany), 2 μl of MgCl(2) (5 mmol), 2 μl of 10x PCR buffer (Roche Diagnostics, Germany), 0.5 μl of each primer (0.01 nmol/μl) and 1 μl of each probe (0.1 μmol/μl) (TibMolBiol, Germany). Amplification was performed using the following conditions; 95°C for 10 mins and 50 cycles of denaturation at 95°C for 10 secs, annealing at 62°C for 10 secs and polymerisation at 72°C for 20 secs. A melting curve was

  7. Candida infections : detection and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, A. (Annemarie)

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that the yeast Candida is the number 4 cause of bloodstream infections in the United States and ranks number 8 in Europe, adequate detection methods are lacking. Furthermore, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of Candida. Our aim was to improve the detection and ident

  8. Comparison of EUCAST and CLSI broth microdilution methods for the susceptibility testing of 10 systemically active antifungal agents when tested against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Castanheira, Mariana; Messer, Shawn A; Rhomberg, Paul R; Jones, Ronald N

    2014-06-01

    The antifungal broth microdilution (BMD) method of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) was compared with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) BMD method M27-A3 for amphotericin B, flucytosine, anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, fluconazole, isavuconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole susceptibility testing of 357 isolates of Candida. The isolates were selected from global surveillance collections to represent both wild-type (WT) and non-WT MIC results for the azoles (12% of fluconazole and voriconazole results were non-WT) and the echinocandins (6% of anidulafungin and micafungin results were non-WT). The study collection included 114 isolates of Candida albicans, 73 of C. glabrata, 76 of C. parapsilosis, 60 of C. tropicalis, and 34 of C. krusei. The overall essential agreement (EA) between EUCAST and CLSI results ranged from 78.9% (posaconazole) to 99.6% (flucytosine). The categorical agreement (CA) between methods and species of Candida was assessed using previously determined CLSI epidemiological cutoff values. The overall CA between methods was 95.0% with 2.5% very major (VM) and major (M) discrepancies. The CA was >93% for all antifungal agents with the exception of caspofungin (84.6%), where 10% of the results were categorized as non-WT by the EUCAST method and WT by the CLSI method. Problem areas with low EA or CA include testing of amphotericin B, anidulafungin, and isavuconazole against C. glabrata, itraconazole, and posaconazole against most species, and caspofungin against C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei. We confirm high level EA and CA (>90%) between the 2 methods for testing fluconazole, voriconazole, and micafungin against all 5 species. The results indicate that the EUCAST and CLSI methods produce comparable results for testing the systemically active antifungal agents against the 5 most common species of Candida; however, there are several areas where additional

  9. A phylogenetic study on galactose-containing Candida species based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Suh, Sung-Oui; Sugita, Takashi; Nakase, Takashi

    1999-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of 33 Candida species containing galactose in the cells were investigated by using 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Galactose-containing Candida species and galactose-containing species from nine ascomycetous genera were a heterogeneous assemblage. They were divided into three clusters (II, III, and IV) which were phylogenetically distant from cluster I, comprising 9 galactose-lacking Candida species, C. glabrata, C. holmii, C. krusei, C. tropicalis (the type species of Candida), C. albicans, C. viswanathii, C. maltosa, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, and C. lusitaniae, and 17 related ascomycetous yeasts. These three clusters were also phylogenetically distant from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which contains galactomannan in its cell wall. Cluster II comprised C. magnoliae, C. vaccinii, C. apis, C. gropengiesseri, C. etchellsii, C. floricola, C. lactiscondensi, Wickerhamiella domercqiae, C. versatilis, C. azyma, C. vanderwaltii, C. pararugosa, C. sorbophila, C. spandovensis, C. galacta, C. ingens, C. incommunis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Galactomyces geotrichum, and Dipodascus albidus. Cluster III comprised C. tepae, C. antillancae and its synonym C. bondarzewiae, C. ancudensis, C. petrohuensis, C. santjacobensis, C. ciferrii (anamorph of Stephanoascus ciferrii), Arxula terrestris, C. castrensis, C. valdiviana, C. paludigena, C. blankii, C. salmanticensis, C. auringiensis, C. bertae, and its synonym C. bertae var. chiloensis, C. edax (anamorph of Stephanoascus smithiae), Arxula adeninivorans, and C. steatolytica (synonym of Zygoascus hellenicus). Cluster IV comprised C. cantarellii, C. vinaria, Dipodascopsis uninucleata, and Lipomyces lipofer. Two galactose-lacking and Q-8-forming species, C. stellata and Pichia pastoris, and 5 galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. apicola, C. bombi, C. bombicola, C. geochares, and C. insectalens, were included in Cluster II. Two galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. drimydis and C

  10. Chemical composition and antifungal potential of Brazilian propolis against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freires, I A; Queiroz, V C P P; Furletti, V F; Ikegaki, M; de Alencar, S M; Duarte, M C T; Rosalen, P L

    2016-06-01

    Propolis is known to have biological properties against numerous microorganisms of clinical interest. This study aimed to determine the chemical composition and antifungal activity of Brazilian propolis (types 3 and 13) against Candida spp. and their effects on the morphology of preformed and mature Candida biofilms. Samples of propolis (3 and 13) collected by Apis mellifera honeybees were obtained from different regions in Brazil. Ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) were prepared, fractionated and submitted to chemical analysis by GC/MS. The extracts and their hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions were tested for their ability to inhibit Candida spp. (C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. kruzei, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis) by determination of the minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations (MIC/MFC). Additionally, their effects on morphology of preformed and mature biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The phenolic compounds p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), kaempferol and quercetin were identified in the EEP-3 and its bioactive dichloromethane fraction; and isoflavonoids such as medicarpin, vestitol and formononetin were found in the EEP-13, and triterpenes in its bioactive hexane fraction. The EEP-3 and EEP-13 and their bioactive fractions showed MIC values ranging from 0.2 to 125μg/mL and MFC values between 125 and 500μg/mL. The EEP and fractions were predominantly fungistatic agents. All extracts and fractions disrupted biofilm structures at 500μg/mL and amorphous areas with cell damage were clearly observed in preformed and mature biofilms. Propolis types 3 and 13 have strong anti-Candida activity and should be considered as promising candidates to treat oral and systemic candidiasis.

  11. In vitro differential activity of phospholipases and acid proteinases of clinical isolates of Candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurean D'Eça Júnior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Candida yeasts are commensals; however, if the balance of normal flora is disrupted or the immune defenses are compromised, Candida species can cause disease manifestations. Several attributes contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of Candida, including the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, particularly phospholipase and proteinase. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro activity of phospholipases and acid proteinases in clinical isolates of Candida spp. METHODS: Eighty-two isolates from hospitalized patients collected from various sites of origin were analyzed. Phospholipase production was performed in egg yolk medium and the production of proteinase was verified in a medium containing bovine serum albumin. The study was performed in triplicate. RESULTS: Fifty-six (68.3% of isolates tested were phospholipase positive and 16 (44.4% were positive for proteinase activity. C. tropicalis was the species with the highest number of positive isolates for phospholipase (91.7%. Statistically significant differences were observed in relation to production of phospholipases among species (p<0,0001 and among the strains from different sites of origin (p=0.014. Regarding the production of acid protease, the isolates of C. parapsilosis tested presented a larger number of producers (69.2%. Among the species analyzed, the percentage of protease producing isolates did not differ statistically (χ2=1.9 p=0.5901 (χ2=1.9 p=0.5901. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of C. non-albicans and all C. albicans isolates were great producers of hydrolytic enzymes and, consequently, might be able to cause infection under favorable conditions.

  12. Antifungal Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains Isolated from Natural Honey against Pathogenic Candida Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgasem, Bulgasem Y.; Lani, Mohd Nizam; Wan Yusoff, Wan Mohtar; Fnaish, Sumaya G.

    2016-01-01

    The role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in honey as antifungal activity has received little attention and their mechanism of inhibitory of fungi is not fully understood. In this study, LAB were isolated from honey samples from Malaysia, Libya, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. Twenty-five isolates were confirmed LAB by catalase test and Gram staining, and were screened for antifungal activity. Four LAB showed inhibitory activity against Candida spp. using the dual agar overlay method. And they were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum HS isolated from Al-Seder honey, Lactobacillus curvatus HH isolated from Al-Hanon honey, Pediococcus acidilactici HC isolated from Tualang honey and Pediococcus pentosaceus HM isolated from Al-Maray honey by the 16S rDNA sequence. The growth of Candida glabrata ATCC 2001 was strongly inhibited (>15.0 mm) and (10~15 mm) by the isolates of L. curvatus HH and P. pentosaceus HM, respectively. The antifungal activity of the crude supernatant (cell free supernatant, CFS) was evaluated using well diffusion method. The CFS showed high antifungal activity against Candida spp. especially The CFS of L. curvatus HH was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited growth of C. glabrata ATCC 2001, C. parapsilosis ATCC 2201, and C. tropicalis ATCC 750 with inhibitory zone 22.0, 15.6, and 14.7 mm, respectively. While CFS of P. pentosaceus HM was significantly (p < 0.05) effective against C. krusei, C. glabrata, and C. albicans with inhibition zone 17.2, 16.0, and 13.3 mm, respectively. The results indicated that LAB isolated from honey produced compounds which can be used to inhibit the growth of the pathogenic Candida species. PMID:28154488

  13. Neonatal Candida arthritis

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    Saurabh Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal arthritis is an uncommon yet serious disorder in the newborn. Delay in diagnosis and management can lead to significant morbidity. We report our experience with management of two such cases. Two preterm neonates with multifocal arthritis caused by Candida were studied. Diagnosis was made by clinical examination, laboratory investigations, radiological investigations and culture. Both were treated by aspiration, arthrotomy and antifungal therapy. One patient recovered fully from the infection while the other had growth disturbances resulting in limb length inequality at recent followup. Prompt and expeditious evacuation of pus from joints and antifungal therapy is imperative for treatment. Associated osteomyelitis leads to further difficulty in treatment.

  14. Arachidonic acid affects biofilm formation and PGE2 level in Candida albicans and non-albicans species in presence of subinhibitory concentration of fluconazole and terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Nripendra Nath; Ali, Shakir; Shukla, Praveen K

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans utilizes arachidonic acid (AA) released during the course of infection (Candidiasis) from phospholipids of infected host cell membranes and synthesizes extracellular prostaglandin(s) which play an important role in hyphae formation and host cell damage. C. albicans biofilms secrete significantly more prostaglandin(s) and evidence suggests that Candida biofilms have dramatically reduced susceptibility to majority of antifungal drugs. AA influences the saturation level of lipids and fluidity of yeast cell membranes. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of AA alone or in combination with antifungal agents on biofilm formation and production of prostaglandin (PGE2) in C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and C. albicans amphotericin B resistant strain (AmBR). Maximum biofilm formation was found to be in the case of C. albicans compared to C. non-albicans species. However, among the non-albicans species C. tropicalis exhibited highest biofilm formation. Treatment with AA in combination with subinhibitory concentrations of fluconazole and terbinafine separately exhibited significant (p<0.05) reduction in biofilm formation against C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and AmBR as compared to their individual effect. Further, these two antifungal agents in combination with AA caused an increase in production of prostaglandin from fungal cell itself which was significant (p<0.05) in case of all the strains tested.

  15. Comparison of the Broth Microdilution (BMD) Method of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing with the 24-Hour CLSI BMD Method for Testing Susceptibility of Candida Species to Fluconazole, Posaconazole, and Voriconazole by Use of Epidemiological Cutoff Values▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M. A.; Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Boyken, L.; Hollis, R. J.; Kroeger, J.; Messer, S. A.; Tendolkar, S.; Diekema, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    The antifungal broth microdilution (BMD) method of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) was compared with CLSI BMD method M27-A3 for fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole susceptibility testing of 1,056 isolates of Candida. The isolates were obtained in 2009 from more than 60 centers worldwide and included 560 isolates of C. albicans, 175 of C. glabrata, 162 of C. parapsilosis, 124 of C. tropicalis, and 35 of C. krusei. The overall essential agreement (EA) between EUCAST and CLSI results ranged from 96.9% (voriconazole) to 98.6% (fluconazole). The categorical agreement (CA) between methods and species of Candida was assessed using previously determined epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs). The ECVs (expressed as μg/ml) for fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole, respectively, were as follows: 0.12, 0.06, and 0.03 for C. albicans; 32, 2, and 0.5 for C. glabrata; 2, 0.25, and 0.12 for C. parapsilosis; 2, 0.12, and 0.06 for C. tropicalis; 64, 0.5, and 0.5 for C. krusei. Excellent CA was observed for all comparisons between the EUCAST and CLSI results for fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole, respectively, for each species: 98.9%, 93.6%, and 98.6% for C. albicans; 96.0%, 98.9%, and 93.7% for C. glabrata; 90.8%, 98.1%, and 98.1% for C. parapsilosis; 99.2%, 99.2%, and 96.8% for C. tropicalis; 97.1%, 97.1%, and 97.1% for C. krusei. We demonstrate high levels of EA and CA between the CLSI and EUCAST BMD methods for testing of triazoles against Candida when the MICs were determined after 24 h and ECVs were used to differentiate wild-type (WT) from non-WT strains. These results provide additional data in favor of the harmonization of these two methods. PMID:21227994

  16. GENOTYPING Candida albicans FROM CANDIDA LEUKOPLAKIA AND NON-CANDIDA LEUKOPLAKIA SHOWS NO ENRICHMENT OF MULTILOCUS SEQUENCE TYPING CLADES BUT ENRICHMENT OF ABC GENOTYPE C IN CANDIDA LEUKOPLAKIA

    OpenAIRE

    MC MANUS, BRENDA; Coleman, David

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED Oral leukoplakias are histopathologically-diagnosed as Candida leukoplakia or non-Candida leukoplakia by the presence or absence of hyphae in the superficial epithelium. Candida leukoplakia lesions have significantly increased malignant potential. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species associated with oral leukoplakia and may contribute to malignant transformation of Candida leukoplakia. To date, no detailed population analysis of C. albicans isolates from oral leu...

  17. Genotyping Candida albicans from Candida Leukoplakia and Non-Candida Leukoplakia Shows No Enrichment of Multilocus Sequence Typing Clades but Enrichment of ABC Genotype C in Candida Leukoplakia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed H Abdulrahim; Brenda A McManus; Stephen R Flint; David C Coleman

    2013-01-01

    Oral leukoplakias are histopathologically-diagnosed as Candida leukoplakia or non-Candida leukoplakia by the presence or absence of hyphae in the superficial epithelium. Candida leukoplakia lesions have significantly increased malignant potential. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species associated with oral leukoplakia and may contribute to malignant transformation of Candida leukoplakia. To date, no detailed population analysis of C. albicans isolates from oral leukoplakia pati...

  18. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of spontaneous spondylodiscitis; Diagnosi radiologica della spondilodiscite. Ruolo della Risonanza Magnetica

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    Cusmano, F.; Calabrese, G.; Bassi, S.; Branislav, S.; Bassi, P. [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Radiologiche

    2000-09-01

    Purpose of this work is to report the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) features of acute and chronic spontaneous spondylodiscitis as well as any as well as any typical patterns which can be useful for the differential diagnosis between pyogenic and tuberculous forms. Eleven patients affected with spontaneous spondylodiscitis were selected for the study; they were 7 men and 4 women ranging in age 33-87 years (mean: 64). Patients with a superconductive magnet at 1.5, with the following sequences: sagittal PD and T2-weighted TSE, sagittal T1-weighted SE, axial PD and T2-weighted TSE for the lumbar spine, axial T2-weighted GRE for the cervical and dorsal spine and axial and sagittal T1-weighted SE after contrast agent (gadolinium DTPA) injection. MR images were reviewed by three experienced radiologists and morphological and signal intensity changes of vertebral body and disk were recorded on a standard form. In 9 patients it was possible to compare MR to CT findings. Three patients had infectious diseases in other organs and 2 were diabetics. Biopsy was performed in two cases only and demonstrated Staphylococcus aureus in one and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the other patient. MRI, allowed the correct diagnosis to be made in all cases, demonstrating the pathological involvement of the paravertebral structures and into the spinal canal earlier and more accurately than CT. A common finding in pyogenic and tuberculous spondylodiscitis was the low signal of the subcortical bone marrow on T1-weighted sagittal images, which enhanced after Gd-DTPA administration and became intermediate or high on T2-weighted images. Moreover, the steady high signal intensity of the disk on T2-weighted images and its contrast enhancement on T1-weighted images is typical for an acute inflammatory process. Based on our personal experience an literature data, it is believed that MRI is the most sensitive technique for the diagnosis of spondylodiscitis in the acute phase, whereas it is

  19. Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study, 1997 to 2007: a 10.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of Candida Species to fluconazole and voriconazole as determined by CLSI standardized disk diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M A; Diekema, D J; Gibbs, D L; Newell, V A; Ellis, D; Tullio, V; Rodloff, A; Fu, W; Ling, T A

    2010-04-01

    Fluconazole in vitro susceptibility test results for 256,882 isolates of Candida spp. were collected from 142 sites in 41 countries from June 1997 to December 2007. Data were collected for 197,619 isolates tested with voriconazole from 2001 to 2007. A total of 31 different species of Candida were isolated. Increased rates of isolation of the common non-albicans species C. glabrata (10.2% to 11.7%), C. tropicalis (5.4% to 8.0%), and C. parapsilosis (4.8% to 5.6%) were noted when the time periods 1997 to 2000 and 2005 to 2007 were compared. Investigators tested clinical isolates of Candida spp. by the CLSI M44-A disk diffusion method. Overall, 90.2% of Candida isolates tested were susceptible (S) to fluconazole; however, 13 of 31 species identified exhibited decreased susceptibility (ciferrii remained S to voriconazole. An increase in fluconazole resistance over time was seen with C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae, C. sake, and C. pelliculosa. Among the emerging fluconazole-R species were C. guilliermondii (11.4% R), C. inconspicua (53.2% R), C. rugosa (41.8% R), and C. norvegensis (40.7% R). The rates of isolation of C. rugosa, C. inconspicua, and C. norvegensis increased by 5- to 10-fold over the 10.5-year study period. C. guilliermondii and C. rugosa were most prominent in Latin America, whereas C. inconspicua and C. norvegensis were most common in Eastern European countries. This survey identifies several less-common species of Candida with decreased susceptibility to azoles. These organisms may pose a future threat to optimal antifungal therapy and underscore the importance of prompt and accurate species identification and antifungal susceptibility testing.

  20. Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study, 1997 to 2007: a 10.5-Year Analysis of Susceptibilities of Candida Species to Fluconazole and Voriconazole as Determined by CLSI Standardized Disk Diffusion ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M. A.; Diekema, D. J.; Gibbs, D. L.; Newell, V. A.; Ellis, D.; Tullio, V.; Rodloff, A.; Fu, W.; Ling, T. A.

    2010-01-01

    Fluconazole in vitro susceptibility test results for 256,882 isolates of Candida spp. were collected from 142 sites in 41 countries from June 1997 to December 2007. Data were collected for 197,619 isolates tested with voriconazole from 2001 to 2007. A total of 31 different species of Candida were isolated. Increased rates of isolation of the common non-albicans species C. glabrata (10.2% to 11.7%), C. tropicalis (5.4% to 8.0%), and C. parapsilosis (4.8% to 5.6%) were noted when the time periods 1997 to 2000 and 2005 to 2007 were compared. Investigators tested clinical isolates of Candida spp. by the CLSI M44-A disk diffusion method. Overall, 90.2% of Candida isolates tested were susceptible (S) to fluconazole; however, 13 of 31 species identified exhibited decreased susceptibility (ciferrii remained S to voriconazole. An increase in fluconazole resistance over time was seen with C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae, C. sake, and C. pelliculosa. Among the emerging fluconazole-R species were C. guilliermondii (11.4% R), C. inconspicua (53.2% R), C. rugosa (41.8% R), and C. norvegensis (40.7% R). The rates of isolation of C. rugosa, C. inconspicua, and C. norvegensis increased by 5- to 10-fold over the 10.5-year study period. C. guilliermondii and C. rugosa were most prominent in Latin America, whereas C. inconspicua and C. norvegensis were most common in Eastern European countries. This survey identifies several less-common species of Candida with decreased susceptibility to azoles. These organisms may pose a future threat to optimal antifungal therapy and underscore the importance of prompt and accurate species identification and antifungal susceptibility testing. PMID:20164282

  1. Evaluation of blood stream infections by Candida in three tertiary hospitals in Salvador, Brazil: a case-control study

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    Maria Goreth Barberino

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. are an important problem in immunocompromised patients. There is scarce data on the epidemiology of blood stream candidiasis in Salvador, Brazil. This study evaluates the risk factors associated with candidemia, among patients admitted to three tertiary, private hospitals, in Salvador, Brazil. We conducted a case-control, retrospective study to compare patients with diagnosis of candidemia in three different tertiary hospitals in Salvador, Brazil. Patients were matched for nosocomial, acquired infections, according to the causal agent: cases were defined by positive blood cultures for Candida species. Controls were those patients who had a diagnosis of systemic bacterial infection, with a positive blood culture to any bacteria, within the same time period (± 30 days of case identification. The groups were compared for the main known risk factors for candidemia and for mortality rates. A hundred thirty-eight patients were identified. Among the 69 cases, only 14 were diagnosed as infected by Candida albicans. Candida species were defined in only eight cultures: C. tropicalis (4 cases, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. guillermondi, C. formata (1 case each. The main risk factors, identified in a univariate analysis, were: presence of a central venous catheter (CVC, use of parenteral nutrition support (PNS, previous exposure to antibiotics, and chronic renal failure (CRF. No association was detected with surgical procedures, diabetes mellitus, neutropenia or malignancies. Patients were more likely to die during the hospitalization period, but the rates of death caused by the infections were similar for cases and controls. The length of hospitalization was similar for both groups, as well as the time for a positive blood culture. Blood stream infection by Candida spp. is associated with CVC, PNS, previous use of antibiotics, and CRF. The higher mortality rate for cases probably better reflects the severity

  2. Evaluation of a rapid, quantitative real-time PCR method for enumeration of pathogenic Candida cells in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Nichole E.; Haugland, Richard A.; Wymer, Larry J.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Whitman, Richard L.; Vesper, Stephen J.

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative PCR (QPCR) technology, incorporating fluorigenic 5′ nuclease (TaqMan) chemistry, was utilized for the specific detection and quantification of six pathogenic species of Candida (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata and C. lusitaniae) in water. Known numbers of target cells were added to distilled and tap water samples, filtered, and disrupted directly on the membranes for recovery of DNA for QPCR analysis. The assay's sensitivities were between one and three cells per filter. The accuracy of the cell estimates was between 50 and 200% of their true value (95% confidence level). In similar tests with surface water samples, the presence of PCR inhibitory compounds necessitated further purification and/or dilution of the DNA extracts, with resultant reductions in sensitivity but generally not in quantitative accuracy. Analyses of a series of freshwater samples collected from a recreational beach showed positive correlations between the QPCR results and colony counts of the corresponding target species. Positive correlations were also seen between the cell quantities of the target Candida species detected in these analyses and colony counts of Enterococcus organisms. With a combined sample processing and analysis time of less than 4 h, this method shows great promise as a tool for rapidly assessing potential exposures to waterborne pathogenic Candida species from drinking and recreational waters and may have applications in the detection of fecal pollution.

  3. Analysis of the genetic diversity of Candida isolates obtained from diabetic patients and kidney transplant recipients

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    Volmir Pitt Benedetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts of the genus Candida have high genetic variability and are the most common opportunistic pathogenic fungi in humans. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity among 120 isolates of Candida spp. obtained from diabetic patients, kidney transplant recipients and patients without any immune deficiencies from Paraná state, Brazil. The analysis was performed using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and a partial sequence of 28S rDNA. In the phylogenetic analysis, we observed a consistent separation of the species C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis, however with low intraspecific variability. In the analysis of the C. albicans species, two clades were formed. Clade A included the largest number of isolates (91.2% and the majority of isolates from GenBank (71.4%. The phylogenetic analysis showed low intraspecific genetic diversity, and the genetic polymorphisms between C. albicans isolates were similar to genetic divergence found in other studies performed with isolates from Brazil. This low genetic diversity of isolates can be explained by the geographic proximity of the patients evaluated. It was observed that yeast colonisation was highest in renal transplant recipients and diabetic patients and that C. albicans was the species most frequently isolated.

  4. Analysis of the genetic diversity of Candida isolates obtained from diabetic patients and kidney transplant recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Volmir Pitt; Savi, Daiani Cristina; Aluizio, Rodrigo; Adamoski, Douglas; Kava-Cordeiro, Vanessa; Galli-Terasawa, Lygia V; Glienke, Chirlei

    2016-01-01

    Yeasts of the genus Candida have high genetic variability and are the most common opportunistic pathogenic fungi in humans. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity among 120 isolates of Candida spp. obtained from diabetic patients, kidney transplant recipients and patients without any immune deficiencies from Paraná state, Brazil. The analysis was performed using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and a partial sequence of 28S rDNA. In the phylogenetic analysis, we observed a consistent separation of the species C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis, however with low intraspecific variability. In the analysis of the C. albicans species, two clades were formed. Clade A included the largest number of isolates (91.2%) and the majority of isolates from GenBank (71.4%). The phylogenetic analysis showed low intraspecific genetic diversity, and the genetic polymorphisms between C. albicans isolates were similar to genetic divergence found in other studies performed with isolates from Brazil. This low genetic diversity of isolates can be explained by the geographic proximity of the patients evaluated. It was observed that yeast colonisation was highest in renal transplant recipients and diabetic patients and that C. albicans was the species most frequently isolated. PMID:27276363

  5. Pulsed light for the inactivation of fungal biofilms of clinically important pathogenic Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Mary; Andrade Fernandes, Joao Paulo; Rowan, Neil

    2015-07-01

    Microorganisms are naturally found as biofilm communities more than planktonic free-floating cells; however, planktonic culture remains the current model for microbiological studies, such as disinfection techniques. The presence of fungal biofilms in the clinical setting has a negative impact on patient mortality, as Candida biofilms have proved to be resistant to biocides in numerous in vitro studies; however, there is limited information on the effect of pulsed light on sessile communities. Here we report on the use of pulsed UV light for the effective inactivation of clinically relevant Candida species. Fungal biofilms were grown by use of a CDC reactor on clinically relevant surfaces. Following a maximal 72 h formation period, the densely populated biofilms were exposed to pulsed light at varying fluences to determine biofilm sensitivity to pulsed-light inactivation. The results were then compared to planktonic cell inactivation. High levels of inactivation of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis biofilms were achieved with pulsed light for both 48 and 72 h biofilm structures. The findings suggest that pulsed light has the potential to provide a means of surface decontamination, subsequently reducing the risk of infection to patients. The research described herein deals with an important aspect of disease prevention and public health.

  6. Incidence and Clinical Predictors of Ocular Candidiasis in Patients with Candida Fungemia

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    Ayesha Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence and the predictors of ocular candidiasis among patient with Candida fungemia. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients diagnosed with candidemia at the University of Kansas Medical Center during February 2000–March 2010. Data regarding patients’ demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and ophthalmology examination findings were collected. Results. A total of 283 patients with candidemia were enrolled. The mean age (± standard deviation was 55 ± 18 years; 66% were male. The most commonly isolated Candida species were C. albicans (54%, C. parapsilosis (20%, C. glabrata (13%, and C. tropicalis (8%. Only 144 (51% patients were evaluated by ophthalmology; however, the proportion of patients who were formally evaluated by an ophthalmologist increased during the study period (9%in 2000 up to 73%in 2010; P<0.0001. Evidence of ocular candidiasis was present in 18 (12.5% patients. Visual symptoms were reported by 5 of 18 (28% patients. In multivariable analysis, no predictors of ocular candidiasis were identified. Conclusions. The incidence of ocular candidiasis among patients with fungemia remains elevated. Most patients are asymptomatic and therefore all patients with candidemia should undergo fundoscopic examination to rule out ocular involvement.

  7. Failed Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Caused by Recurrent Candida glabrata Infection with Prior Serratia marcescens Coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedros, John G.; Keenan, Kendra E.; Updike, Wanda S.; Oliver, Marquam R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a 58-year-old insulin-dependent diabetic male patient who initially sustained a proximal humerus fracture from a fall. The fracture fixation failed and then was converted to a humeral hemiarthroplasty, which became infected with Candida glabrata and Serratia marcescens. After these infections were believed to be cured with antibacterial and antifungal treatments and two-stage irrigation and debridement, he underwent conversion to a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Unfortunately, the C. glabrata infection recurred and, nearly 1.5 years after implantation of the reverse total shoulder, he had a resection arthroplasty (removal of all implants and cement). His surgical and pharmacologic treatment concluded with (1) placement of a tobramycin-impregnated cement spacer also loaded with amphotericin B, with no plan for revision arthroplasty (i.e., the spacer was chronically retained), and (2) chronic use of daily oral fluconazole. We located only three reported cases of Candida species causing infection in shoulder arthroplasties (two C. albicans, one C. parapsilosis). To our knowledge, a total shoulder arthroplasty infected with C. glabrata has not been reported, nor has a case of a C. glabrata and S. marcescens periprosthetic coinfection in any joint. In addition, it is well known that S. marcescens infections are uncommon in periprosthetic joint infections. PMID:25431708

  8. Failed Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Caused by Recurrent Candida glabrata Infection with Prior Serratia marcescens Coinfection

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    John G. Skedros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a 58-year-old insulin-dependent diabetic male patient who initially sustained a proximal humerus fracture from a fall. The fracture fixation failed and then was converted to a humeral hemiarthroplasty, which became infected with Candida glabrata and Serratia marcescens. After these infections were believed to be cured with antibacterial and antifungal treatments and two-stage irrigation and debridement, he underwent conversion to a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Unfortunately, the C. glabrata infection recurred and, nearly 1.5 years after implantation of the reverse total shoulder, he had a resection arthroplasty (removal of all implants and cement. His surgical and pharmacologic treatment concluded with (1 placement of a tobramycin-impregnated cement spacer also loaded with amphotericin B, with no plan for revision arthroplasty (i.e., the spacer was chronically retained, and (2 chronic use of daily oral fluconazole. We located only three reported cases of Candida species causing infection in shoulder arthroplasties (two C. albicans, one C. parapsilosis. To our knowledge, a total shoulder arthroplasty infected with C. glabrata has not been reported, nor has a case of a C. glabrata and S. marcescens periprosthetic coinfection in any joint. In addition, it is well known that S. marcescens infections are uncommon in periprosthetic joint infections.

  9. Enzimotipagem de espécies do gênero Candida isoladas da cavidade bucal

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    Candido Regina Celia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas quanto a produção de exoenzimas fosfolipase e proteinase, 79 amostras de Candida isoladas da cavidade bucal de pacientes com lesões bucais características de candidose e indivíduos com boca clinicamente normal, atendidos na Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto USP. Dentre as cepas de C. albicans isoladas de lesões bucais, a fosfolipase e proteinase foram detectadas em, respectivamente, 83,3% e 66,7%. C. tropicalis e C. parapsilosis produziram somente proteinase. Quanto às cepas isoladas de nichos sem lesão, do total de 32 C. albicans, 71,9% apresentaram fosfolipase e 68,7% proteinase. C. tropicalis apresentou apenas a enzima proteinase, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii e Candida spp, não apresentaram nenhuma das exoenzimas. Entre as amostras de C. albicans de ambos os grupos, o enzimotipo 22 (fosfolipase positiva e proteinase fracamente positiva foi prevalente. Enzimotipos diferentes foram detectados em amostras da mesma espécie provenientes de mesmo paciente.

  10. Antimycotic effect of the essential oil of Aloysia triphylla against Candida species obtained from human pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, María de las Mercedes; Carezzano, María Evangelina; Gallucci, Mauro Nicolás; Demo, Mirta Susana

    2011-07-01

    The research of alternative substances to treat infections caused by Candida species is a need. Aromatic plants have the ability to produce secondary metabolites, such as essential oils (EO). The antimicrobial properties of Aloysia triphylla (L'Her.) Britton (cedrón) EO has been previously described. The aims of this work were to determine the antimicrobial activity and the effect on the cell structure of the EO of A. triphylla against Candida sp isolated from human illnesses. The EO was obtained by hydrodistillation of A. triphylla leaves. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was performed with microdilution method and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) was determined. A. triphylla EO's showed antifungal activity against all yeast: C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. guillermondii, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis which were resistant to fluconazol (150 mg/mL). The range of MIC values was from: 35 to 140 microg/mL and the MFC: 1842 to 2300 microg/mL. The time of killing at the MFC against C. albicans (3 x 10(5) UFC/mL) was 140 min. The dates of OD620 and OD260 suggest lysis and loss of absorbing material, respectively. The HROM shows distortion in morphology and shape of the cell, with large vacuoles in the cytoplasm. These studies clearly show that A. triphylla EO is a promising alternative for the treatment of candidiasis.

  11. SCY-078 Is Fungicidal against Candida Species in Time-Kill Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorneaux, Bernard; Angulo, David; Borroto-Esoda, Katyna; Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Peel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT SCY-078 is an orally bioavailable ß-1,3-glucan synthesis inhibitor (GSI) and the first-in-class of structurally novel triterpene antifungals in clinical development for treating candidemia and invasive candidiasis. In vitro susceptibilities by broth microdilution, antifungal carryover, and time-kill dynamics were determined for three reference (ATCC) strains (Candida albicans 90028, Candida parapsilosis 90018, and Candida tropicalis 750), a quality-control (QC) strain (Candida krusei 6258), and four other strains (C. albicans MYA-2732, 64124, and 76485 and Candida glabrata 90030). Caspofungin (CASP), fluconazole (FLC), and voriconazole (VRC) were comparators. For time-kill experiments, SCY-078 and CASP were evaluated at 0.25, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 times the MIC80, and FLU and VRC were evaluated at 4× MIC80. The time to reach 50%, 90%, and 99.9% reduction in the number of CFUs from the starting inoculum was determined. Net change in the number of CFU per milliliter was used to determine 50% and 90% effective concentrations and maximum effect (EC50, EC90, and Emax, respectively). The SCY-078 MIC range was between 0.0625 and 1 μg/ml and generally similar to that of CASP. Antifungal carryover was not observed for SCY-078. SCY-078 was fungicidal against seven isolates at ≥4× MIC (kill of ≥3 log10) and achieved a 1.7-log10 reduction in CFU count/milliliter against C. albicans 90028. CASP behaved similarly against each isolate and achieved a 1.5-log10 reduction in the number of CFU/milliliter against C. albicans 90028. Reductions of 50% in CFU count/milliliter were achieved rapidly (1 to 2.8 h); fungicidal endpoints were reached at 12.1 to 21.8 h at ≥4× MIC. EC90 was reached at ∼5× MIC at each time point to 24 h. The EC50 and EC90 values were generally similar (8 to 24 h). Time-kill behavior of CASP was similar to that of SCY-078. FLC and VRC were fungistatic. Overall, SCY-078 has primarily fungicidal activity against Candida spp. and behaved

  12. [Evaluation of peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) method in the identifi cation of Candida species isolated from blood cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Gonca; Koç, Ayşe Nedret; Atalay, Mustafa Altay

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, increased number of patients who are hospitalized in intensive care units, received immunosuppressive therapy and treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics that can lead an increase in the incidence of systemic candidiasis. In these patients, the most common clinical manifestation is candidemia. Since the identification of Candida species isolated from blood cultures is time consuming by conventional (morphological and biochemical) methods, rapid, reliable and accurate methods are needed. For this purpose novel systems have been developed to identify the agent directly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) method for the identification of Candida species by comparing with the conventional methods. A total of 50 patients who were admitted to Erciyes University Medical Faculty Hospital clinics and followed with prediagnosis of systemic fungal infections whose blood cultures were positive for the yeasts between July 2011 and July 2012 were included in the study. The conventional identification of Candida isolates was performed by considering macroscopic and microscopic morphology, germ tube test, cycloheximide sensitivity, urease activity and carbohydrate assimilation patterns with API 20C AUX (bioMerieux, France) test. PNA FISH method was conducted by the use of a commercial kit namely Yeast Traffic Light(®) PNA FISH (AdvanDx, USA). According to morphological and biochemical characteristics (conventional methods), 19 (38%) out of 50 Candida isolates were identified as C.albicans, 12 (24%) as C.glabrata, five (10%) as C.parapsilosis, five (10%) as C.kefyr, four (8%) as C.krusei, two (4%) as C.guilliermondii, two (4%) as C.tropicalis and one (2%) as C.lusitaniae. On the other hand, 24 (48%) of the isolates were identified as C.albicans/C.parapsilosis (with green fluorescence), 16 (32%) as C.glabrata/C.krusei (with red fluorescence) and one (%2) as C.tropicalis (with yellow

  13. Karyotyping of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata from patients with Candida sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempp-Selb, B; Rimek, D; Kappe, R

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relatedness of Candida strains from patients suffering from Candida septicaemia by typing of Candida isolates from blood cultures and different body sites by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE using a contour-clamped homogenous electric field, CHEF). We studied 17 isolates of Candida albicans and 10 isolates of Candida glabrata from six patients. Four patients suffered from a C. albicans septicaemia, one patient from a C. glabrata septicaemia, and one patient had a mixed septicaemia with C. albicans and C. glabrata. Eight isolates from blood cultures were compared with 19 isolates of other sites (stool six, urine four, genital swab four, tip of central venous catheter three, tracheal secretion one, sputum one). PFGE typing resulted in 10 different patterns, four with C. albicans and six with C. glabrata. Five of the six patients had strains of identical PFGE patterns in the blood and at other sites. Seven isolates of a 58-year-old female with a C. glabrata septicaemia fell into five different PFGE patterns. However, they showed minor differences only, which may be due to chromosomal rearrangements within a single strain. Thus it appears, that the colonizing Candida strains were identical to the circulating strains in the bloodstream in at least five of six patients.

  14. [Antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida species to triazole: application of new CLSI species-specific clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values for characterization of antifungal resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabıçak, Nilgün; Alem, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Testing has newly introduced species-specific clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for fluconazole and voriconazole. When CBPs can not be determined, wild-type minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions are detected and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) provide valuable means for the detection of emerging resistance. The aim of this study is to determine triazole resistance patterns in Candida species by the recently revised CLSI CBPs. A total of 140 Candida strains isolated from blood cultures of patients with invasive candidiasis hospitalized in various intensive care units in Turkey and sent to our reference laboratory between 2011-2012, were included in the study. The isolates were identified by conventional methods, and susceptibility testing was performed against fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole, by the 24-h CLSI broth microdilution (BMD) method. Azole resistance rates for all Candida species were determined using the new species-specific CLSI CBPs and ECVs criteria, when appropriate. The species distribution of the isolates were as follows; C.parapsilosis (n= 31 ), C.tropicalis (n= 26 ), C.glabrata (n= 21), C.albicans (n= 18), C.lusitaniae (n= 16), C.krusei (n= 16), C.kefyr (n= 9), C.guilliermondii (n= 2), and C.dubliniensis (n= 1). According to the newly determined CLSI CBPs for fluconazole and C.albicans, C.parapsilosis, C.tropicalis [susceptible (S), ≤ 2 µg/ml; dose-dependent susceptible (SDD), 4 µg/ml; resistant (R), ≥ 8 µg/ml], and C.glabrata (SDD, ≤ 32 µg/ml; R≥ 64 µg/ml) and for voriconazole and C.albicans, C.parapsilosis, C.tropicalis (S, ≤ 0.12 µg/ml; SDD, 0.25-0.5 µg/ml; R, ≥ 1 µg/ml), and C.krusei (S, ≤ 0.5 µg/ml; SDD, 1 µg/ml; R, ≥ 2 µg/ml), it was found that three of C.albicans, one of C.parapsilosis and one of C.glabrata isolates were resistant to fluconazole, while two of C.albicans and two of C

  15. Aspectos micológicos e suscetibilidade in vitro de leveduras do gênero Candida em pacientes HIV-positivos provenientes do Estado de Mato Grosso Mycological aspects and susceptibility in vitro the yeast of the genus Candida from HIV-positive patients in the State of Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Cometti Favalessa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A candidíase é uma das infecções fúngicas mais frequentes entre os pacientes infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana. O presente estudo objetivou a caracterização das leveduras do gênero Candida de distintas amostras clínicas, provenientes de pacientes HIV - positivos, assim como a determinação do perfil de suscetibilidade in vitro a cinco drogas antifúngicas. MÉTODOS: A caracterização dos isolados de Candida sp foi realizada através da metodologia clássica, testes bioquímicos (zimograma e auxanograma e morfológicos (prova do tubo germinativo e microcultivo em lâmina. Também, foram realizadas a técnica genotípica (PCR e identificação pelo método comercial API 20C AUX (BioMeriéux. Para a determinação do perfil de suscetibilidade in vitro, foram utilizadas cinco drogas antifúngicas (cetoconazol, fluconazol, itraconazol, voriconazol e anfotericina B, através do método comercialmente disponível - Etest. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 105 isolados de leveduras do gênero Candida provenientes de 102 pacientes infectados pelo vírus HIV. Destes, foram caracterizadas 82 (78,1% Candida albicans, 8 (7,6% Candida parapsilosis, 8 (7,6% Candida tropicalis, 4 (3,8% Candida krusei, 2 (1,9% Candida glabrata e 1 (1% Candida guilliermondii. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando o perfil geral de sensibilidade, 60% dos isolados foram suscetíveis a todos os antifúngicos testados, porém as espécies C. tropicalis e C. krusei demonstraram uma tendência a valores mais elevados de CIMs para os azóis do que os encontrados paraC. albicans, sugerindo resistência.INTRODUCTION: Candidiasis is one of the most common fungal infections among patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus. The present study aimed to characterize yeasts of the genus Candida from distinct clinical samples from HIV-positive patients and determine the in vitro susceptibility profile to five antifungal drugs. METHODS: Characterization of

  16. Characterization of In Vitro Resistance Development to the Novel Echinocandin CD101 in Candida Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jeffrey B; Almaguer, Amanda L; Zuill, Douglas E; Bartizal, Ken

    2016-10-01

    CD101 is a novel echinocandin with a long half-life undergoing clinical development for treatment of candidemia/invasive candidiasis and vulvovaginal candidiasis. The potential for and mechanisms underlying the development of resistance to CD101 in Candida species were investigated by using spontaneous resistance and serial passage selection methodologies. Four Candida spp. (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei) were chosen for resistance characterization with CD101, anidulafungin, and caspofungin. The frequency of spontaneous, single-step mutations conferring reduced susceptibility to CD101 at 1× the agar growth inhibition concentration was low across all species, with median frequencies ranging from 1.35 × 10(-8) to 3.86 × 10(-9), similar to ranges generated for anidulafungin and caspofungin. Serial passage of Candida spp. on agar plates containing drug gradients demonstrated a low potential for resistance development, with passage 20 CD101-selected strains possessing increases in MICs equivalent to or lower than those for the majority of strains generated under selection with anidulafungin and caspofungin. A total of 12 fks "hot spot" mutations were identified, typically in strains with the highest MIC shifts. Cross-resistance was broadly observed among the 3 echinocandins evaluated, with no CD101-selected mutants (with or without fks hot spot mutations) exhibiting reduced susceptibility to CD101 but not also to anidulafungin and/or caspofungin. Consistent with currently approved echinocandins, CD101 demonstrates a low potential for resistance development, which could be further enhanced in vivo by the high maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax)/area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) plasma drug exposure achieved with once-weekly dosing of CD101.

  17. Isolation of Vaginal Lactobacilli and Characterization of Anti-Candida Activity.

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    Carola Parolin

    Full Text Available Healthy vaginal microbiota is dominated by Lactobacillus spp., which form a critical line of defence against pathogens, including Candida spp. The present study aims to identify vaginal lactobacilli exerting in vitro activity against Candida spp. and to characterize their antifungal mechanisms of action. Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy premenopausal women. The isolates were taxonomically identified to species level (L. crispatus B1-BC8, L. gasseri BC9-BC14 and L. vaginalis BC15-BC17 by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. All strains produced hydrogen peroxide and lactate. Fungistatic and fungicidal activities against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. lusitaniae were evaluated by broth micro-dilution method. The broadest spectrum of activity was observed for L. crispatus BC1, BC4, BC5 and L. vaginalis BC15, demonstrating fungicidal activity against all isolates of C. albicans and C. lusitaniae. Metabolic profiles of lactobacilli supernatants were studied by 1H-NMR analysis. Metabolome was found to be correlated with both taxonomy and activity score. Exclusion, competition and displacement experiments were carried out to investigate the interference exerted by lactobacilli toward the yeast adhesion to HeLa cells. Most Lactobacillus strains significantly reduced C. albicans adhesion through all mechanisms. In particular, L. crispatus BC2, L. gasseri BC10 and L. gasseri BC11 appeared to be the most active strains in reducing pathogen adhesion, as their effects were mediated by both cells and supernatants. Inhibition of histone deacetylases was hypothesised to support the antifungal activity of vaginal lactobacilli. Our results are prerequisites for the development of new therapeutic agents based on probiotics for prophylaxis and adjuvant therapy of Candida infection.

  18. Isolation of Vaginal Lactobacilli and Characterization of Anti-Candida Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Carola; Marangoni, Antonella; Laghi, Luca; Foschi, Claudio; Ñahui Palomino, Rogers Alberto; Calonghi, Natalia; Cevenini, Roberto; Vitali, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Healthy vaginal microbiota is dominated by Lactobacillus spp., which form a critical line of defence against pathogens, including Candida spp. The present study aims to identify vaginal lactobacilli exerting in vitro activity against Candida spp. and to characterize their antifungal mechanisms of action. Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy premenopausal women. The isolates were taxonomically identified to species level (L. crispatus B1-BC8, L. gasseri BC9-BC14 and L. vaginalis BC15-BC17) by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. All strains produced hydrogen peroxide and lactate. Fungistatic and fungicidal activities against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. lusitaniae were evaluated by broth micro-dilution method. The broadest spectrum of activity was observed for L. crispatus BC1, BC4, BC5 and L. vaginalis BC15, demonstrating fungicidal activity against all isolates of C. albicans and C. lusitaniae. Metabolic profiles of lactobacilli supernatants were studied by 1H-NMR analysis. Metabolome was found to be correlated with both taxonomy and activity score. Exclusion, competition and displacement experiments were carried out to investigate the interference exerted by lactobacilli toward the yeast adhesion to HeLa cells. Most Lactobacillus strains significantly reduced C. albicans adhesion through all mechanisms. In particular, L. crispatus BC2, L. gasseri BC10 and L. gasseri BC11 appeared to be the most active strains in reducing pathogen adhesion, as their effects were mediated by both cells and supernatants. Inhibition of histone deacetylases was hypothesised to support the antifungal activity of vaginal lactobacilli. Our results are prerequisites for the development of new therapeutic agents based on probiotics for prophylaxis and adjuvant therapy of Candida infection.

  19. Characterization of In Vitro Resistance Development to the Novel Echinocandin CD101 in Candida Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaguer, Amanda L.; Zuill, Douglas E.; Bartizal, Ken

    2016-01-01

    CD101 is a novel echinocandin with a long half-life undergoing clinical development for treatment of candidemia/invasive candidiasis and vulvovaginal candidiasis. The potential for and mechanisms underlying the development of resistance to CD101 in Candida species were investigated by using spontaneous resistance and serial passage selection methodologies. Four Candida spp. (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei) were chosen for resistance characterization with CD101, anidulafungin, and caspofungin. The frequency of spontaneous, single-step mutations conferring reduced susceptibility to CD101 at 1× the agar growth inhibition concentration was low across all species, with median frequencies ranging from 1.35 × 10−8 to 3.86 × 10−9, similar to ranges generated for anidulafungin and caspofungin. Serial passage of Candida spp. on agar plates containing drug gradients demonstrated a low potential for resistance development, with passage 20 CD101-selected strains possessing increases in MICs equivalent to or lower than those for the majority of strains generated under selection with anidulafungin and caspofungin. A total of 12 fks “hot spot” mutations were identified, typically in strains with the highest MIC shifts. Cross-resistance was broadly observed among the 3 echinocandins evaluated, with no CD101-selected mutants (with or without fks hot spot mutations) exhibiting reduced susceptibility to CD101 but not also to anidulafungin and/or caspofungin. Consistent with currently approved echinocandins, CD101 demonstrates a low potential for resistance development, which could be further enhanced in vivo by the high maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax)/area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) plasma drug exposure achieved with once-weekly dosing of CD101. PMID:27480852

  20. Application of DNA microarray in the identification of Candida spp. and mutations of ERG11 gene resulting in fluconazole resistance%DNA芯片鉴定念珠菌种和氟康唑耐药基因ERG11突变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永豪; 王克玉; 李颖; 陈腊梅; 苏英; 孙青; 李春阳

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立DNA芯片技术鉴定念珠菌种和氟康唑耐药基因ERG11突变.方法 根据6种常见念珠菌内转录间隔(ITS2)区种特异性序列和白念珠菌ERG11基因中已证实可导致对氟康唑耐药的6种突变序列设计探针,制备DNA芯片,鉴定12条50 bp的念珠菌种特异性序列和ERG11突变序列及34株念珠菌(其中白念珠菌29株,热带念珠菌、光滑念珠菌、都柏林念珠菌、近平滑念珠菌和克柔念珠菌各1株).结果 ①芯片玤确鉴定12条人工合成序列;②正确鉴定34株试验菌株的菌种;③正确鉴定29株白念珠菌ERG11基因中可致耐药的已知突变.敏感性和特异性均为100%.结论 用DNA芯片进行念珠菌菌种鉴定和自念珠菌ERG11突变筛查,结果可靠.%Objective To investigate the performance of DNA microarray in identifying 6 common Candida spp. and validating ERG11 mutations resulting in fluconazolc-resistance in Candida albicans. Methods Oligonucleotide probes were designed and synthesized targeting the species-specific sequence in the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of rDNA of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida dubliniensis, Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei, as well as 6 sequences embracing the following mutations respectively in ERG11 gene leading to fluconazole-resistance, i.c., T541C, A 1090G, C1361T, G1537A, G1547A, and T1559C, then arranged onto a chip. Twelve 50-base-pair oligonucleotides were artificially synthesized based on the above specific sequences, and utilized to hybridize with the DNA microarray. Thirty-lbur Candida strains, including 29 C. albicans, 1 Candida tropicalis, 1 Candida glabrata,1 Candida dubliniensis, 1 Candida parapsilosis and 1 Candida krusei, were detected with microarray. Genomic DNA was extracted from these tested strains and underwent multiple PCR for the amplification of ITS2 region and ERGI 1 gene. Sequencing was performed to analyze the sequence of ERG11 in 29 strains

  1. Intra- and Interlaboratory Agreement in Assessing the In Vitro Activity of Micafungin against Common and Rare Candida Species with the EUCAST, CLSI, and Etest Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meletiadis, J; Geertsen, E; Curfs-Breuker, I; Meis, J F; Mouton, J W

    2016-10-01

    The emergence of resistant strains among common and rare Candida species necessitates continuous monitoring of the in vitro susceptibilities of those isolates. We therefore assessed the in vitro activities of micafungin against 1,099 molecularly identified isolates belonging to 5 common and 20 rare Candida species by the EUCAST, CLSI, and Etest methods, assessing both the intralaboratory agreement and the interlaboratory agreement for two centers. The median micafungin EUCAST MICs were as follows, from the lowest to the highest: for Candida albicans, 0.004 mg/liter; for C. glabrata, 0.016 mg/liter; for C. tropicalis, 0.031 mg/liter; for C. krusei, 0.125 mg/liter; for C. parapsilosis, 2 mg/liter. Among rare Candida species, high MICs were found for C. guilliermondii, C. lipolytica, C. orthopsilosis, C. metapsilosis, and C. fermentati. No resistant isolates were found by the CLSI method, whereas resistance rates of 1 to 2% were found by the EUCAST method. Overall, the EUCAST method resulted in MICs 1 to 2 dilutions higher than those found by the CLSI and Etest methods. The intra- and interlaboratory agreement between methods was >92%, except for the interlaboratory agreement between the EUCAST and CLSI methods (81%), where 17 to 31% of the differences were >2 2-fold dilutions for C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and other rare Candida species and 2 2-fold dilutions. Overall, the CLSI method resulted in lower MICs than the Etest method, with 11% of all isolates demonstrating >2 2-fold-dilution differences (6 to 20% for C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and rare Candida species; 97%), with only 1 to 2% very major errors between the EUCAST method and the other two methods.

  2. The identification of Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of immunocompromised patients with PCR and determination of antifungal resistance genes with RFLP and sequencing analysis

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    Yıldız Yeğenoğlu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate PCRtechnique and antifungal resistance genes with RFLP andsequencing analysis in Candida species isolated fromclinical specimens of immune-compromised patients.Materials and methods: Clinical samples (96 bronchoalveolarlavages, 56 biopsy-abscess, 8 blood specimens,15 peritoneal fluid specimens, 15 pleural fluid, 5 cerebrospinalfluid and 5 pericard fluid specimens from 200 immunosuppressedpatients were studied by conventionaland molecular methods. Antifungal susceptibility testingwas performed by the E-test method. Firstly, fungal DNAwas isolated from specimens, and then the resultantproducts are defined with multiplex PCR. Antifungal resistanceand resistance genes were established by E-testand RFLP analysis.Results: Thirty of 200 samples (15% were culture positive[20 Candida albicans (67%, five Candida parapsilosis(17%, five Candida tropicalis (17%], and 170 ofsamples were found culture negative (85%. PCR with theuniversal primers detected fungal DNA in all 30 culturepositive samples. One strain was determined as resistant;2 strains were dose dependent susceptible and 27 strainswere sensitive to fluconazole by E-test. The resistancegene (ERG11 was detected by BamHI and SalI enzymesrevealed fluconazole resistance in one of C.albicansstrains. The identification was successful in Candida dubliniensis(950 bp and Candida krusei (360 bp with multiplexPCR. D132E and E216D mutations were detected insequencing of ERG 11 gene of this isolate and comparedwith reference gene in GenBank by clustal analysis.Conclusion: The molecular test methods supplies correcttherapy rather early in immunosuppressive patientstherefore it is important for the survival.

  3. Candida famata (Debaryomyces hansenii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibirny, Andriy A.; Voronovsky, Andriy Y.

    Debaryomyces hansenii (teleomorph of asporogenous strains known as Candida famata ) belongs to the group of so named ‘ flavinogenic yeasts ’ capable of riboflavin oversynthesis during starvation for iron. Some strains of C. famata belong to the most flavinogenic organisms known (accumulate 20 mg of riboflavin in 1 ml of the medium) and were used for industrial production of riboflavin in USA for long time. Many strains of D. hansenii are characterized by high salt tolerance and are used for ageing of cheeses whereas some others are able to convert xylose to xylitol, anti-caries sweetener. Transformation system has been developed for D. hansenii. It includes collection of host recipient strains, vectors with complementation and dominant markers and several transformation protocols based on protoplasting and electroporation. Besides, methods of multicopy gene insertion and insertional mutagenesis have been developed and several strong constitutive and regulatable promoters have been cloned. All structural genes of riboflavin synthesis and some regulatory genes involved in this process have been identified. Genome of D. hansenii has been sequenced in the frame of French National program ‘Genolevure’ and is opened for public access

  4. Candida albicans skin abscess Abscesso de pele por Candida albicans

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    Felipe Francisco Tuon

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous candidal abscess is a very rare infection even in immunocompromised patients. Some cases are reported when breakdown in the skin occurs, as bacterial cellulites or abscess, iatrogenic procedures, trauma and parenteral substance abuse. We describe a case of Candida albicans subcutaneous abscess without fungemia, which can be associated with central venous catheter.Abscesso subcutâneo por Candida é infecção muito rara mesmo em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Alguns casos são relatados quando ocorre dano na pele, como celulite bacteriana ou abscesso, procedimentos iatrogênicos, trauma e abuso de substância parenteral. Relatamos caso de abscesso subcutâneo por Candida albicans sem fungemia, que pode estar associado com cateter venoso central.

  5. Thoracic Spondylodiscitis Caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a Superinfection of Pulmonary Tuberculous Granuloma in an Immunocompetent Patient: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnarumma, Pasquale; Tarantino, Roberto; Palmarini, Valeria; De Giacomo, Tiziano; Delfini, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective To describe a very rare case of an immunocompetent man who underwent surgery for thoracic spondylodiscitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that developed as a superinfection of a pulmonary tuberculous granuloma. Methods Posterior decompression and pedicle screw vertebral fixation were followed by T5-T6 anterior somatotomy with implant of an expandable mesh and lateral plating as symptoms worsened. During the anterior approach, an atypical resection of the left lower lobe was also performed. Results A tuberculous granuloma was detected on histology. Ziehl-Neelsen stain confirmed the diagnosis. Culture also detected MRSA. Conclusions Early medical management is the first choice for spondylodiscitis to eradicate the infection and alleviate pain. Immobilization of the affected spine segments can protect the patient from vertebral collapse and from the appearance of neurologic deficits. Surgery is suggested if there are compressive effects on the spinal cord, spinal epidural abscess, vertebral collapse, and deformity. We decided to remove the abscess and to restore the anterior column using an anterior approach. Moreover, in this case, an anterior approach allowed us to identify the etiology of the lesion and to determine the best chemotherapy regimen.

  6. 21 CFR 173.160 - Candida guilliermondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.160 Candida guilliermondii. The food additive Candida... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Candida guilliermondii. 173.160 Section 173.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  7. Evaluation of CLSI M44-A2 Disk Diffusion and Associated Breakpoint Testing of Caspofungin and Micafungin Using a Well-Characterized Panel of Wild-Type and fks Hot Spot Mutant Candida Isolates▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Park, Steven; Brown, Steven; Pfaller, Michael; Perlin, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Disk diffusion testing has recently been standardized by the CLSI, and susceptibility breakpoints have been established for several antifungal compounds. For caspofungin, 5-μg disks are approved, and for micafungin, 10-μg disks are under evaluation. We evaluated the performances of caspofungin and micafungin disk testing using a panel of Candida isolates with and without known FKS echinocandin resistance mechanisms. Disk diffusion and microdilution assays were performed strictly according to CLSI documents M44-A2 and M27-A3. Eighty-nine clinical Candida isolates were included: Candida albicans (20 isolates/10 mutants), C. glabrata (19 isolates/10 mutants), C. dubliniensis (2 isolates/1 mutant), C. krusei (16 isolates/3 mutants), C. parapsilosis (14 isolates/0 mutants), and C. tropicalis (18 isolates/4 mutants). Quality control strains were C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 and C. krusei ATCC 6258. The correlations between zone diameters and MIC results were good for both compounds, with identical susceptibility classifications for 93.3% of the isolates by applying the current CLSI breakpoints. However, the numbers of fks hot spot mutant isolates misclassified as being susceptible (S) (very major errors [VMEs]) were high (61% for caspofungin [S, ≥11 mm] and 93% for micafungin [S, ≥14 mm]). Changing the disk diffusion breakpoint to S at ≥22 mm significantly improved the discrimination. For caspofungin, 1 VME was detected (a C. tropicalis isolate with an F76S substitution) (3.5%), and for micafungin, 10 VMEs were detected, the majority of which were for C. glabrata (8/10). The broadest separation between zone diameter ranges for wild-type (WT) and mutant isolates was seen for caspofungin (6 to 12 mm versus −4 to 7 mm). In conclusion, caspofungin disk diffusion testing with a modified breakpoint led to excellent separation between WT and mutant isolates for all Candida species. PMID:21357293

  8. Genotyping Candida albicans from Candida leukoplakia and non-Candida leukoplakia shows no enrichment of multilocus sequence typing clades but enrichment of ABC genotype C in Candida leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahim, Mohammed H; McManus, Brenda A; Flint, Stephen R; Coleman, David C

    2013-01-01

    Oral leukoplakias are histopathologically-diagnosed as Candida leukoplakia or non-Candida leukoplakia by the presence or absence of hyphae in the superficial epithelium. Candida leukoplakia lesions have significantly increased malignant potential. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species associated with oral leukoplakia and may contribute to malignant transformation of Candida leukoplakia. To date, no detailed population analysis of C. albicans isolates from oral leukoplakia patients has been undertaken. This study investigated whether specific C. albicans genotypes were associated with Candida leukoplakia and non-Candida leukoplakia in a cohort of Irish patients. Patients with histopathologically-defined Candida leukoplakia (n = 31) or non-Candida leukoplakia (n = 47) were screened for Candida species by culture of oral rinse and lesional swab samples. Selected C. albicans isolates from Candida leukoplakia patients (n = 25), non-Candida leukoplakia patients (n = 19) and oral carriage isolates from age and sex matched healthy subjects without leukoplakia (n = 34) were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and ABC genotyping. MLST revealed that the clade distribution of C. albicans from both Candida leukoplakia and non-Candida leukoplakia lesions overlapped with the corresponding clade distributions of oral carriage isolates and global reference isolates from the MLST database indicating no enrichment of leukoplakia-associated clones. Oral leukoplakia isolates were significantly enriched with ABC genotype C (12/44, 27.3%), particularly Candida leukoplakia isolates (9/25, 36%), relative to oral carriage isolates (3/34, 8.8%). Genotype C oral leukoplakia isolates were distributed in MLST clades 1,3,4,5,8,9 and 15, whereas genotype C oral carriage isolates were distributed in MLST clades 4 and 11.

  9. Expansion of the Candida tanzawaensis yeast clade: 16 novel Candida species from basidiocarp-feeding beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sung-Oui; McHugh, Joseph V; Blackwell, Meredith

    2004-11-01

    A major clade of new yeast taxa from the digestive tract of basidiocarp-feeding beetles is recognized based on rRNA gene sequence analyses. Almost 30 % of 650 gut isolates formed a statistically well-supported clade that included Candida tanzawaensis. The yeasts in the clade were isolated from 11 families of beetles, of which Tenebrionidae and Erotylidae were most commonly sampled. Repeated isolation of certain yeasts from the same beetle species at different times and places indicated strong host associations. Sexual reproduction was never observed in the yeasts. Based on comparisons of small- and large-subunit rRNA gene sequences and morphological and physiological traits, the yeasts were placed in Candida ambrosiae and in 16 other undescribed taxa. In this report, the novel species in the genus Candida are described and their relationships with other taxa in the Saccharomycetes are discussed. The novel species and their type strains are as follows: Candida guaymorum (NRRL Y-27568(T)=CBS 9823(T)), Candida bokatorum (NRRL Y-27571(T)=CBS 9824(T)), Candida kunorum (NRRL Y-27580(T)=CBS 9825(T)), Candida terraborum (NRRL Y-27573(T)=CBS 9826(T)), Candida emberorum (NRRL Y-27606(T)=CBS 9827(T)), Candida wounanorum (NRRL Y-27574(T)=CBS 9828(T)), Candida yuchorum (NRRL Y-27569(T)=CBS 9829(T)), Candida chickasaworum (NRRL Y-27566(T)=CBS 9830(T)), Candida choctaworum (NRRL Y-27584(T)=CBS 9831(T)), Candida bolitotheri (NRRL Y-27587(T)=CBS 9832(T)), Candida atakaporum (NRRL Y-27570(T)=CBS 9833(T)), Candida panamericana (NRRL Y-27567(T)=CBS 9834(T)), Candida bribrorum (NRRL Y-27572(T)=CBS 9835(T)), Candida maxii (NRRL Y-27588(T)=CBS 9836(T)), Candida anneliseae (NRRL Y-27563(T)=CBS 9837(T)) and Candida taliae (NRRL Y-27589(T)=CBS 9838(T)).

  10. INCIDENCE OF NON-CANDIDA ALBICANS IN PATIENTS WITH URINARY TRACT INFECTION WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SPECIATIO N AND ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

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    Ragini Ananth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fungal urinary tract infections have become frequent, as a result of increased use of broad spec trum antibiotics, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs and bladder catheters in acut e care settings. The associated risk factors which are seen in cases of candiduria are: antibiotic therapy, female gender, urinary catheterization, surgical procedure and extended hos pitalization. Candiduria has become a potential source of morbidity and mortality if untre ated. We undertook a prospective study to note the incidence of non-Candida albicans in patien ts with urinary tract infection with special reference to speciation, antifungal susceptibility an d the associated risk factors. METHODS: Candida species isolated from urine samples of patient s with urinary tract infection were subjected to speciation using standard yeast identif ication protocol and CHROM agar. Antifungal Susceptibility testing was done by the disc diffusio n method to amphotericin B and fluconazole. Clinical details and risk factors of the patients we re noted down. RESULTS: Among the 60 culture positive cases, six Candida species which wer e isolated are : C.tropicalis (66.66%, C.albicans (13.33%, C.parapsilosis (8.33%, C.glabr ata (6.66%, C.kefyr (3.33% and C.guilliermondii (1.66% The susceptibility pattern s howed, that of the 60 isolates, 40% were resistant to fluconazole. No resistance was seen to amphotericin B. CONCLUSION: Isolation of non-Candida albicans species was more than Candida a lbicans. Candida tropicalis was the predominant isolate. The following risk factors were noted: 43.33 % of the patients had diabetes mellitus, 30%had history of prolonged antib iotics (cephalosporin and aminoglycosides, 16.66% had underlying renal pathol ogy, 3.33% had post –renal transplant status, 1.66% were on steroids, 1.66%had pregnancy a nd 3.33% had no identifiable risk factors.20% patients had an indwelling catheter in them. The antifungal

  11. Multicenter Study of Epidemiological Cutoff Values and Detection of Resistance in Candida spp. to Anidulafungin, Caspofungin, and Micafungin Using the Sensititre YeastOne Colorimetric Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Fernandez, M.; Cantón, E.; Carver, P. L.; Chen, S. C.-A.; Eschenauer, G.; Getsinger, D. L.; Gonzalez, G. M.; Grancini, A.; Hanson, K. E.; Kidd, S. E.; Klinker, K.; Kubin, C. J.; Kus, J. V.; Lockhart, S. R.; Meletiadis, J.; Morris, A. J.; Pelaez, T.; Rodriguez-Iglesias, M.; Sánchez-Reus, F.; Shoham, S.; Wengenack, N. L.; Borrell Solé, N.; Echeverria, J.; Esperalba, J.; Gómez-G. de la Pedrosa, E.; García García, I.; Linares, M. J.; Marco, F.; Merino, P.; Pemán, J.; Pérez del Molino, L.; Roselló Mayans, E.; Rubio Calvo, C.; Ruiz Pérez de Pipaon, M.; Yagüe, G.; Garcia-Effron, G.; Perlin, D. S.; Sanguinetti, M.; Shields, R.; Turnidge, J.

    2015-01-01

    Neither breakpoints (BPs) nor epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) have been established for Candida spp. with anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin when using the Sensititre YeastOne (SYO) broth dilution colorimetric method. In addition, reference caspofungin MICs have so far proven to be unreliable. Candida species wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (for microorganisms in a species/drug combination with no detectable phenotypic resistance) were established for 6,007 Candida albicans, 186 C. dubliniensis, 3,188 C. glabrata complex, 119 C. guilliermondii, 493 C. krusei, 205 C. lusitaniae, 3,136 C. parapsilosis complex, and 1,016 C. tropicalis isolates. SYO MIC data gathered from 38 laboratories in Australia, Canada, Europe, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United States were pooled to statistically define SYO ECVs. ECVs for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin encompassing ≥97.5% of the statistically modeled population were, respectively, 0.12, 0.25, and 0.06 μg/ml for C. albicans, 0.12, 0.25, and 0.03 μg/ml for C. glabrata complex, 4, 2, and 4 μg/ml for C. parapsilosis complex, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.06 μg/ml for C. tropicalis, 0.25, 1, and 0.25 μg/ml for C. krusei, 0.25, 1, and 0.12 μg/ml for C. lusitaniae, 4, 2, and 2 μg/ml for C. guilliermondii, and 0.25, 0.25, and 0.12 μg/ml for C. dubliniensis. Species-specific SYO ECVs for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin correctly classified 72 (88.9%), 74 (91.4%), 76 (93.8%), respectively, of 81 Candida isolates with identified fks mutations. SYO ECVs may aid in detecting non-WT isolates with reduced susceptibility to anidulafungin, micafungin, and especially caspofungin, since testing the susceptibilities of Candida spp. to caspofungin by reference methodologies is not recommended. PMID:26282428

  12. Multicenter study of epidemiological cutoff values and detection of resistance in Candida spp. to anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin using the Sensititre YeastOne colorimetric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Alvarez-Fernandez, M; Cantón, E; Carver, P L; Chen, S C-A; Eschenauer, G; Getsinger, D L; Gonzalez, G M; Govender, N P; Grancini, A; Hanson, K E; Kidd, S E; Klinker, K; Kubin, C J; Kus, J V; Lockhart, S R; Meletiadis, J; Morris, A J; Pelaez, T; Quindós, G; Rodriguez-Iglesias, M; Sánchez-Reus, F; Shoham, S; Wengenack, N L; Borrell Solé, N; Echeverria, J; Esperalba, J; Gómez-G de la Pedrosa, E; García García, I; Linares, M J; Marco, F; Merino, P; Pemán, J; Pérez Del Molino, L; Roselló Mayans, E; Rubio Calvo, C; Ruiz Pérez de Pipaon, M; Yagüe, G; Garcia-Effron, G; Guinea, J; Perlin, D S; Sanguinetti, M; Shields, R; Turnidge, J

    2015-11-01

    Neither breakpoints (BPs) nor epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) have been established for Candida spp. with anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin when using the Sensititre YeastOne (SYO) broth dilution colorimetric method. In addition, reference caspofungin MICs have so far proven to be unreliable. Candida species wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (for microorganisms in a species/drug combination with no detectable phenotypic resistance) were established for 6,007 Candida albicans, 186 C. dubliniensis, 3,188 C. glabrata complex, 119 C. guilliermondii, 493 C. krusei, 205 C. lusitaniae, 3,136 C. parapsilosis complex, and 1,016 C. tropicalis isolates. SYO MIC data gathered from 38 laboratories in Australia, Canada, Europe, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United States were pooled to statistically define SYO ECVs. ECVs for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin encompassing ≥97.5% of the statistically modeled population were, respectively, 0.12, 0.25, and 0.06 μg/ml for C. albicans, 0.12, 0.25, and 0.03 μg/ml for C. glabrata complex, 4, 2, and 4 μg/ml for C. parapsilosis complex, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.06 μg/ml for C. tropicalis, 0.25, 1, and 0.25 μg/ml for C. krusei, 0.25, 1, and 0.12 μg/ml for C. lusitaniae, 4, 2, and 2 μg/ml for C. guilliermondii, and 0.25, 0.25, and 0.12 μg/ml for C. dubliniensis. Species-specific SYO ECVs for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin correctly classified 72 (88.9%), 74 (91.4%), 76 (93.8%), respectively, of 81 Candida isolates with identified fks mutations. SYO ECVs may aid in detecting non-WT isolates with reduced susceptibility to anidulafungin, micafungin, and especially caspofungin, since testing the susceptibilities of Candida spp. to caspofungin by reference methodologies is not recommended.

  13. Candida albicans: adapting to succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadosh, David; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L

    2013-11-13

    In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Lu et al. (2013) report on the redundancy of signaling pathways controlling Candida albicans filamentation and pathogenicity. In the process, they provide important insight into how this normal commensal of humans adapts to different host microenvironments to become a highly successful opportunistic pathogen.

  14. Posterior Titanium Screw Fixation without Debridement of Infected Tissue for the Treatment of Thoracolumbar Spontaneous Pyogenic Spondylodiscitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Nasi, Davide; Nocchi, Niccolo; Di Rienzo, Alessandro; di Somma, Lucia; Colasanti, Roberto; Vaira, Carmela; Benigni, Roberta; Liverotti, Valentina; Scerrati, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose The aim of our study was to analyze the safety and effectiveness of posterior pedicle screw fixation for treatment of pyogenic spondylodiscitis (PSD) without formal debridement of the infected tissue. Overview of Literature Posterior titanium screw fixation without formal debridement of the infected tissue and anterior column reconstruction for the treatment of PSD is still controversial. Methods From March 2008 to June 2013, 18 patients with PSD underwent posterior titanium fixation with or without decompression, according to their neurological deficit. Postero-lateral fusion with allograft transplantation alone or bone graft with both the allogenic bone and the autologous bone was also performed. The outcome was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain and the Frankel grading system for neurological status. Normalization both of C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate was adopted as criterion for discontinuation of antibiotic therapy and infection healing. Segmental instability and fusion were also analyzed. Results At the mean follow-up time of 30.16 months (range, 24–53 months), resolution of spinal infection was achieved in all patients. The mean CRP before surgery was 14.32±7.9 mg/dL, and at the final follow-up, the mean CRP decreased to 0.5±0.33 mg/dL (p <0.005). Follow-up computed tomography scan at 12 months after surgery revealed solid fusion in all patients. The VAS before surgery was 9.16±1.29 and at the final follow-up, it improved to 1.38±2.03, which was statistically significant (p <0.05). Eleven patients out of eighteen (61.11%) with initial neurological impairment had an average improvement of 1.27 grades at the final follow-up documented with the Frankel grading system. Conclusions Posterior screw fixation with titanium instrumentation was safe and effective in terms of stability and restoration of neurological impairment. Fixation also rapidly reduced back pain

  15. Analysis of Candida species causing vulvovaginal candidiasis%外阴阴道念珠菌病的致病菌群分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海萍; 王桂芝; 王君; 臧运书; 葛红芬; 王莹莹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze Candida species causing vulvovaginal candidiasis in Qingdao and surrounding areas.Methods Vaginal discharge specimens were collected from 362 patients with suspected vulvovaginal candidiasis in the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College from May 2011 to November 2011,and subjected to routine fungal culture.The Candida isolates were identified by using Sabouraud dextrose agar,CHROMagar medium,germ tube test with serum,and API 20C AUX Clinical Yeast System.Results Totally,313 (86.46%) Candida strains were isolated from the specimens of 362 patients.Of these Candida strains,275 were identified as Candida albicans,38 as non-albicans Candida species,including 13 Candida glabrata strains,8 Candida parapsilosis strains,7 Candida tropicalis strains,5 Candida krusei strains,1 Candida lusitaniae strain,1 Candida dubliniensis strain,1 Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain,1 Pichia ohmeri strain and 1 Trichosporon mucoides strain.Conclusions As far as vulvovaginal candidiasis is concerned,Candida albicans is still the most prevalent pathogen,and Candida glabrata appears to be the predominant species in pathogenic non-albicans Candida species.%目的 探讨青岛及周边地区外阴阴道念珠菌病致病菌的菌种特征.方法 采用常规念珠菌培养方法鉴定菌种,包括沙氏培养基,血清芽管实验,CHROMagar念珠菌显色培养基及API 20C AUX酵母菌鉴定系统.结果 2011年5~11月共收集362例妇科门诊患者的阴道分泌物,病原学分析显示,念珠菌阳性例数为313例,总感染率为86.46%,菌种构成分布为白念珠菌275株,光滑念珠菌13株,近平滑念珠菌8株,热带念珠菌7株,克柔念珠菌5株,葡萄牙念珠菌1株,都柏林念珠菌1株,粘质红酵母菌1株,奥默毕赤酵母菌1株,粘性丝孢酵母菌1株.结论 白念珠菌仍是外阴阴道念珠菌病的常见致病菌,非白念以光滑念珠菌为主.

  16. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Essential Oil from the Seed of Anethum graveolens L. against Candida spp.

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    Hong Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil produced from the seed of Anethum graveolens L. (Umbelliferae was tested in vitro and in vivo anti-Candida activity. The microbroth dilution method was used in the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, according to M27-A3 of the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI. And then, efficacy evaluation of essential oil in the prophylaxis and treatment of experimental vaginal candidiasis was performed in immunosuppressed mice. The anti-Candida activity was analyzed by microbiological and histological techniques and was compared with that of fluconazole (FCZ. The results showed essential oil was active in vitro against all tested strains, with MICs ranging from 0.312 μL/mL (for C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei to 0.625 μL/mL (for 6 isolated C. albicans strains. Essential oil (2% v/v was highly efficacious in accelerating C. albicans 09-1555 clearance from experimentally infected mice vagina by prophylaxis and therapeutic treatments. In both therapeutic efficacy and prophylaxis studies, the histological findings confirmed the microbiological results. The experimental results revealed that the tested essential oil is effective against vulvovaginal candidiasis in immunosuppressed mice.

  17. Candida species and other yeasts in the oral cavities of type 2 diabetic patients in Cali, Colombia

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    Suárez, Blanca Lynne

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of Candida species and to study factors associated to oral cavity colonization in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods: A total of 107 diabetics were classified into controlled and uncontrolled according to glycosylated hemoglobin values. Each patient was assessed for stimulated salivary flow rates, pH, and an oral rinse to search for yeast. The study also determined the state of oral health via Klein and Palmer CPO indexes for permanent dentition, dental plaque by O’Leary, and a periodontal chart.Results: We found yeasts in 74.8% of the patients. A total of 36 of the 52 subjects with controlled diabetes presented yeasts and 44 in the uncontrolled; no significant differences (p = 0.2 were noted among the presence of yeasts and the control of blood glucose. The largest number of isolates corresponded to C. albicans, followed by C. parapsilosis. Uncontrolled individuals presented a significantly higher percentage of yeast different from C. albicans (p = 0.049. Conclusions: We found a high percentage of Candida colonization and uncontrolled individuals had greater diversity of species. The wide range of CFU/ml found both in patients with oral candidiasis, as well as in those without it did not permit distinguishing between colonization and disease. We only found association between isolation of yeasts and the low rate of salivary flow.

  18. Effect of nikkomycin Z and 50% human serum on the killing activity of high-concentration caspofungin against Candida species using time-kill methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, Judit; Földi, Richárd; Bayegan, Sedigh; Kardos, Gábor; Majoros, László

    2012-02-01

    Caspofungin and nikkomycin Z (NIK) efficacy alone and in combination were tested against seven Candida species showing or not showing paradoxical growth (PG) against caspofungin in time-kill test in RPMI-1640. Selected isolates against caspofungin and NIK were also tested in 50% serum. PG was always eliminated by NIK as well as by serum. In the serum, 1 and 16 μg/ml caspofungin yielded 0.14-4.0 and 0.34-4.0 log CFU decreases from the starting inocula for C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis, respectively. CFU decrease (0.10-2.08 log) at 16 μg/ml, but not at lower caspofungin concentration was noted against C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. One C. parapsilosis isolate was not inhibited even by 16 μg/ml caspofungin. Caspofungin against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis maintained its activity in serum at even 1 μg/ml concentration. PG seems to an in vitro phenomenon, without clinical relevance.

  19. Klinik örneklerde saptanan Candida türlerinin MALDI-TOF MS ile tiplendirilmesi

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    Nida Özcan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Candida species are common nosocomial in­fectious agents. Since they have different antifungal resis­tance profiles, identification up to species level becomes more crucial. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS en­ables rapid and accurate identification of bacteria and fungi up to species level. We aimed to evaluate Candida species identified by MALDI-TOF MS in our laboratory. Methods: Overall 297 strains of Candida spp. were iso­lated from various clinical samples sent to Dicle Univer­sity Hospital Microbiology Laboratory between March 2015 and February 2016. Strains were identified up to the species level by MALDI Biotyper (BrukerDaltonics, USA mass spectrometry. Results: A total of 195 (65.7% yeasts were isolated from intensive care unit (ICU patients, 61 (20.5% yeasts from hospitalized patients other than ICU and 41 (13.8% yeasts from outpatients. The clinical samples consisted of 161 (54.2% urine, 78 (26.3% blood, 34 (11.4% vaginal samples, 10 (3.4% wound, 6 (2.0% respiratory and 8 of other samples (3 pleura, 2 peritoneum, 2 drain and 1 cerebrospinal fluid. Overall, 179 (60.3% C. albicans, 46 (15.5% C. tropicalis, 27 (9.1% C. parapsilosis, 19 (6.4% C. glabrata, 13 (4.4% C. kefyr, 7 (2.3% C. lusitaniae, 3 (1.0% C. krusei, 2 (0.7% C. utilis and 1 (0.3% C. guil­liermondii were isolated. Among all patients; 124 (41.8% were male and 173 (58.2% female. Among 84 patients with invasive samples, 50 (59.5% were male and 34 (40.5% female. Conclusion: Even though Candida albicans is the most frequently (60.3% isolated yeast, other yeast species are not uncommon (39.7% in our hospital. Identification of yeasts to the species level takes several days by conven­tional methods within minutes by mass spectrometry. This period is crucial in the treatment of critically ill patients.

  20. Espondilodiscite cervical espontânea causada por Salmonella typhi em paciente imunocompetente Immunocompetent patient with spontaneous cervical spondylodiscitis caused by Salmonella typhi

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    Asdrubal Falavigna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos um caso de espondilodiscite cervical espontânea por Salmonella typhi. Trata-se de um paciente de 52 anos, hígido previamente, que procurou o serviço de neurocirurgia com queixa de dor na coluna cervical e região escapular. A investigação radiológica com cintilografia óssea e ressonância magnética sugeriram processo inflamatório dos corpos vertebrais de C5-C6 e do disco vertebral interposto. Houve crescimento da Salmonella typhi na hemocultura e no material obtido pela biópsia com agulha de C5 e aumento dos títulos séricos para Salmonella typhi. O tratamento instituído foi imobilização externa com halo-colete e antibioticoterapia com ciprofloxacina. Realizou-se revisão da literatura sobre aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos dessa entidade de incidência incomun, principalmente pelo fato de acometer paciente imunocompetente e se localizar na região cervical da coluna vertebral.We report a case of spontaneous cervical spondylodiscitis caused by Salmonella typhi. A 52-year-old man presented in the neurosurgical service with complaints of pain in the cervical and scapular region. Cervical inflammatory disease was suggested by bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnosis of Salmonella typhi spondylodiscitis was established by blood culture and culture of needle biopsy specimen taken from the C5 vertebra. The agglutinin titers for Salmonella were elevated. Intravenous ciprofloxacin therapy and external immobilization with a halo vest were instituted. A review of literature was performed evaluating the clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this unusual pathology.

  1. Dicty_cDB: SHB735 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CZ283929 |CZ283929.1 cp32e11.f Candida parapsilosis Random Genomic Library Candida parapsilos... 188 4e-80 5 CZ283727 |CZ283727.1 cp31e01.r Candida parapsilosis Random Genomic Library Candida parapsilosis... genomic clone cp31e01, genomic survey sequence. 172 5e-80 6 CZ284282 |CZ284282.1 cp34f03.r Candida parapsilos...is Random Genomic Library Candida parapsilosis genomic clone cp34f03, genomic survey sequence. 172 5e-80 6... CZ288750 |CZ288750.1 cp60a04.f Candida parapsilosis Random Genomic Library Candida parapsilos

  2. Wild-Type MIC Distributions and Epidemiological Cutoff Values for Posaconazole and Voriconazole and Candida spp. as Determined by 24-Hour CLSI Broth Microdilution▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M. A.; Boyken, L.; Hollis, R. J.; Kroeger, J.; Messer, S. A.; Tendolkar, S.; Diekema, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    We tested 16,191 strains of Candida against posaconazole and voriconazole, using the CLSI M27-A3 broth microdilution (BMD) method (24-h incubation), in order to define wild-type (WT) populations and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs). From 2001 to 2009, 8,619 isolates of Candida albicans, 2,415 isolates of C. glabrata, 2,278 isolates of C. parapsilosis, 1,895 isolates of C. tropicalis, 508 isolates of C. krusei, 205 isolates of C. lusitaniae, 177 isolates of C. guilliermondii, and 93 isolates of C. kefyr were obtained from over 100 centers worldwide. The modal MICs (μg/ml) for posaconazole and voriconazole, respectively, were as follows: for C. albicans, 0.016 and 0.007; for C. glabrata, 0.5 and 0.06; for C. parapsilosis, 0.06 and 0.007; for C. tropicalis, 0.03 and 0.015; for C. krusei, 0.25 and 0.12; for C. lusitaniae, 0.03 and 0.007; for C. guilliermondii, 0.12 and 0.03; and for C. kefyr, 0.06 and 0.007. The ECVs (μg/ml [% of isolates that had MICs equal to or less than the ECV]) for posaconazole and voriconazole, respectively, were as follows: 0.06 (98.5) and 0.03 (98.9) for C. albicans, 2 (96.2) and 0.5 (90.4%) for C. glabrata, 0.25 (99.3) and 0.12 (97.9) for C. parapsilosis, 0.12 (97.6) and 0.06 (97.2) for C. tropicalis, 0.5 (99.8) and 0.5 (99.4) for C. krusei, 0.12 (95.6) and 0.03 (96.6) for C. lusitaniae, 0.5 (98.9) and 0.25 (98.3) for C. guilliermondii, and 0.25 (100.0) and 0.015 (100.0) for C. kefyr. In the absence of clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for posaconazole, these WT distributions and ECVs will be useful in surveillance for emergence of reduced susceptibility to posaconazole among Candida spp. Whereas a CBP for susceptibility of ≤1 μg/ml has been established for voriconazole and all species of Candida, it is notable that ECVs for this agent range from 10- to >100-fold lower than the CBP, depending on the species of Candida. The CBP is inadequate in detecting the emergence of voriconazole resistance among most Candida species encountered

  3. The effect of Streptococcus mutans and Candida glabrata on Candida albicans biofilms formed on different surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira-Cenci, T.; Deng, D.M.; Kraneveld, E.A.; Manders, E.M.M.; Del Bel Cury, A.A.; ten Cate, J.M.; Crielaard, W.

    2008-01-01

    Although Candida containing biofilms contribute to the development of oral candidosis, the characteristics of multi-species Candida biofilms and how oral bacteria modulate these biofilms is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions between Candida albicans and either C

  4. Multicenter study of anidulafungin and micafungin MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for eight Candida species and the CLSI M27-A3 broth microdilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M A; Espinel-Ingroff, A; Bustamante, B; Canton, E; Diekema, D J; Fothergill, A; Fuller, J; Gonzalez, G M; Guarro, J; Lass-Flörl, C; Lockhart, S R; Martin-Mazuelos, E; Meis, J F; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L; Pelaez, T; St-Germain, G; Turnidge, J

    2014-01-01

    Since epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) using CLSI MICs from multiple laboratories are not available for Candida spp. and the echinocandins, we established ECVs for anidulafungin and micafungin on the basis of wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (for organisms in a species-drug combination with no detectable acquired resistance mechanisms) for 8,210 Candida albicans, 3,102 C. glabrata, 3,976 C. parapsilosis, 2,042 C. tropicalis, 617 C. krusei, 258 C. lusitaniae, 234 C. guilliermondii, and 131 C. dubliniensis isolates. CLSI broth microdilution MIC data gathered from 15 different laboratories in Canada, Europe, Mexico, Peru, and the United States were aggregated to statistically define ECVs. ECVs encompassing 97.5% of the statistically modeled population for anidulafungin and micafungin were, respectively, 0.12 and 0.03 μg/ml for C. albicans, 0.12 and 0.03 μg/ml for C. glabrata, 8 and 4 μg/ml for C. parapsilosis, 0.12 and 0.06 μg/ml for C. tropicalis, 0.25 and 0.25 μg/ml for C. krusei, 1 and 0.5 μg/ml for C. lusitaniae, 8 and 2 μg/ml for C. guilliermondii, and 0.12 and 0.12 μg/ml for C. dubliniensis. Previously reported single and multicenter ECVs defined in the present study were quite similar or within 1 2-fold dilution of each other. For a collection of 230 WT isolates (no fks mutations) and 51 isolates with fks mutations, the species-specific ECVs for anidulafungin and micafungin correctly classified 47 (92.2%) and 51 (100%) of the fks mutants, respectively, as non-WT strains. These ECVs may aid in detecting non-WT isolates with reduced susceptibility to anidulafungin and micafungin due to fks mutations.

  5. Efeitos da terapia fotodinâmica antimicrobiana em leveduras do gênero Candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Majewski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da terapia fotodinâmica utilizando azul de metileno em cepas de Candida, Foram estudados: 5 C, albicans, 4 C, tropicalis , 4 C, glabrata, 2 C, parapsilosis, 2 C, kefyr, 1 C, stellatoidea, 1 C, krusei e 1 C, lipolytica, Cada cepa foi submetida a quatro condições experimentais: laser e azul de metileno (L+F+, irradiação com laser (L+F-, tratamento com azul de metileno (L-F+ e tratamento com soro fisiológico como grupo de controle (L-F-, Após o tratamento de cada cepa diluições seriadas e plaqueamento em Sabouraud dextrose agar foram realizadas, Os dados de unidades formadoras de colônias por mililitro (CFU/ml foram analisados pelos testes de ANOVA e Tukey (p <0,05, Os resultados sugerem que os grupos tratados com laser (L+F+ e L+F- apresentaram médias de UFC/ml (Log inferiores aos grupos tratados sem laser (L-F- e L-F+, O grupo com a terapia fotodinâmica (L+F+ apresentou uma média de CFU/ml (Log semelhante ao grupo (L+F-, Concluiu-se que as cepas de Candida analisadas foram sensíveis à irradiação do laser de baixa potência na presença ou ausencia do azul de metileno.

  6. Comparison of risk factors for non-albicans candida and candida albicans infections in the intensive care unit%重症监护病房非白色念珠菌和白色念珠菌感染危险因素的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄磊; 赵令玺; 张卫星; 罗华; 陈映群; 张声

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the differences of risk factors for non-albicans candida and candida albicans infections among patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods One hundred and three patients with ICU-acquired candida infections were retrospectively analyzed from February 2003 to April 2009. These patients were divided into non-albicans candida species group and candida albicans group.Multiple risk factors were analyzed between two groups. Results Of these patients, 46 patients (44.7%)had infections of non-albicans candida species and 57 patients (55.3%) had candida albicans infection.Among non-albicans candida species, candida glabrata, candida parapsilosis, candida tropicalis, candida krusei and others candida accounted for 19 patients (18.4%), 13 patients (12.6%), 10 patients (9.7%), 2 patients (1.9%) and 2 patients ( 1.9% ), respectively. Multivariate Logistic regression models revealed that central venous catheter (CVC) insertion time > 2 d (OR = 32.477,95% CI:4.905-215.035,P=0.000),total parenteral nutrition (OR =3.119,95% CI:1.214-8.015,P =0.018) and fluconazole prophylaxis therapy (OR = 5.084,95%CI: 1.319-19.596,P = 0.018) were highly correlated with non-albicans candida species infections. Conclusion CVC insertion time > 2 d, total parenteral nutrition and fluconazole prophylaxis therapy are independent risk factors of non-albicans candida species infections and can be used in empirical antifungal therapy.%目的 研究重症监护病房(ICU)患者非白色念珠菌和白色念珠菌感染危险因素的差异.方法 回顾性分析2003年2月至2009年4月ICU获得性念珠菌感染患者103例,其中非白色念珠菌感染46例,白色念珠菌感染57例,对其多个危险因素进行统计学分析.结果 非白色念珠菌中,光滑念珠菌19例(18.4%),近平滑念珠菌13例(12.6%),热带念珠菌10例(9.7%),克柔念珠菌2例(1.9%),其他念珠菌2例(1.9%).经Logistic多因素回归分析发现,中心静脉导管(CVC)留置>2 d(OR=32

  7. Immune defence against Candida fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B; van der Meer, Jos W M; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; van de Veerdonk, Frank L

    2015-10-01

    The immune response to Candida species is shaped by the commensal character of the fungus. There is a crucial role for discerning between colonization and invasion at mucosal surfaces, with the antifungal host defence mechanisms used during mucosal or systemic infection with Candida species differing substantially. Here, we describe how innate sensing of fungi by pattern recognition receptors and the interplay of immune cells (both myeloid and lymphoid) with non-immune cells, including platelets and epithelial cells, shapes host immunity to Candida species. Furthermore, we discuss emerging data suggesting that both the innate and adaptive immune systems display memory characteristics after encountering Candida species.

  8. Antimicrobial effects of Piper hispidum extract, fractions and chalcones against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G M; Endo, E H; Cortez, D A G; Nakamura, T U; Nakamura, C V; Dias Filho, B P

    2016-09-01

    Three chalcones, 2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone, 2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-tetramethoxychalcone, and 3,2'-dihydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone, were isolated from the leaves of Piper hispidum in a bioguided fractionation of crude extract. The antimicrobial activity of crude extract of P. hispidum leaves was determined against bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. Fractions and chalcones were tested against C. albicans and S. aureus. The checkerboard assay was performed to assess synergic interactions between extract and antifungal drugs, and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay was used to evaluate anti-biofilm effects of extract. The extract was active against yeasts, S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC values between 15.6 and 62.5μg/mL. Synergistic effects of extract associated with fluconazole and nystatin were observed against C. albicans, with fractional inhibitory concentration indices of 0.37 and 0.24, respectively. The extract was also effective against C. albicans and S. aureus biofilm cells at concentrations of 62.5 and 200μg/mL, respectively. Thus, P. hispidum may be a possible source of bioactive substances with antimicrobial properties.

  9. ESTUDO COMPARATIVO DE HEMOCULTURAS E CATETERES POSITIVOS PARA LEVEDURAS DO GÊNERO CANDIDA DE ORIGEM HOSPITALAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Cristina Osorio Cesar Doria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerca de 80% das infecções fúngicas hospitalares são causadas por espécies do gênero Candida, Aproximadamente, 65% das infecções resultam da migração de micro-organismos da microbiota da pele, a partir do sítio de inserção do cateter e ocorrem devido à formação de biofilme. O objetivo do estudo foi realizar a caracterização de leveduras do gênero Candida isoladas de cateter venoso central (CVC e de hemoculturas de pacientes hospitalizados. A metodologia empregada foi a de identificação de amostras de CVC e hemocultura, utilizando CHROMagar®, CANDIFAST® e o método automatizado VITEK® 2 Compact. Para avaliação da formação de biofilme, utilizou-se a Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV. Foram investigadas 18 amostras de pacientes hospitalizados, sendo encontradas 11 cepas de Candida albicans (50%, 02 cepas de C. parapsilosis (9%, 02 cepas de C. tropicalis (9%, 01 cepa de C. glabrata (4,5%, 01 cepa de C. pelliculosa 4,5%, 01 cepa de C. guilliermondii (4,5% e 04 cepas de leveduras não identificadas (18%. Na técnica de MEV, todas as amostras de cateter foram positivas para a formação de biofilme, concluindo-se que sua presença pode influenciar na candidemia hospitalar relacionada ao cateter.

  10. Candida bloodstream infection: data from a teaching hospital in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Infecção na corrente sangüínea por Candida spp. dados de um hospital universitário em Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Rodrigues Chang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Candida bloodstream infection has increased over the past years. In the Center-West region of Brazil, data on candidemia are scarce. This paper reports a retrospective analysis of 96 cases of Candida bloodstream infection at a Brazilian tertiary-care teaching hospital in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, from January 1998 to December 2006. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from medical records and from the hospital's laboratory database. Patients' ages ranged from three days to 92 years, with 53 (55.2% adults and 43 (44.8% children. Of the latter, 25 (58.1% were newborns. The risk conditions most often found were: long period of hospitalization, utilization of venous central catheter, and previous use of antibiotics. Fifty-eight (60.4% patients died during the hospitalization period and eight (13.7% of them died 30 days after the diagnosis of candidemia. Candida albicans (45.8% was the most prevalent species, followed by C. parapsilosis (34.4%, C. tropicalis (14.6% and C. glabrata (5.2%. This is the first report of Candida bloodstream infection in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and it highlights the importance of considering the possibility of invasive Candida infection in patients exposed to risk factors, particularly among neonates and the elderly.RESUMO A incidência de infecções na corrente sangüínea causada por Candida spp. tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil, os dados sobre candidemia são escassos. Realizamos uma análise retrospectiva de casos de infecção na corrente sangüínea por Candida em um hospital terciário de ensino de Mato Grosso do Sul. Noventa e seis episódios diagnosticados de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 2006 foram incluídos no estudo. Os dados demográficos e clínicos foram obtidos de prontuários; os dados laboratoriais provieram de registros do laboratório hospitalar. Dos pacientes, 43 (44,8% eram crianças e 53 (55,2% adultos, com idades

  11. Immune defence against Candida fungal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Kullberg, B.J.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de

    2015-01-01

    The immune response to Candida species is shaped by the commensal character of the fungus. There is a crucial role for discerning between colonization and invasion at mucosal surfaces, with the antifungal host defence mechanisms used during mucosal or systemic infection with Candida species differin

  12. Dicty_cDB: SHB868 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |M26017.1 D.discoideum elongation factor 2 mRNA, complete cds. 482 e-154 2 CZ289188 |CZ289188.1 cp62f05.f Candida parapsilos...is Random Genomic Library Candida parapsilosis genomic clone cp6...2f05, genomic survey sequence. 64 1e-18 4 CZ291650 |CZ291650.1 cp76h06.f Candida parapsilosis Random Genomic Library Candida parapsil...1 cp27c04.f Candida parapsilosis Random Genomic Library Candida parapsilosis geno...s. 64 2e-17 3 AF107291 |AF107291.1 Candida parapsilosis elongation factor 2 (EFT2

  13. Comparison of the Vitek 2 yeast susceptibility system with CLSI microdilution for antifungal susceptibility testing of fluconazole and voriconazole against Candida spp., using new clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Diekema, Daniel J; Procop, Gary W; Rinaldi, Michael G

    2013-09-01

    A commercially available, fully automated yeast susceptibility test system (Vitek 2; bioMérieux, Marcy d'Etoile, France) was compared in 3 different laboratories with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference microdilution (BMD) method by testing 2 quality control strains, 10 reproducibility strains, and 425 isolates of Candida spp. against fluconazole and voriconazole. Reference CLSI BMD MIC endpoints and Vitek 2 MIC endpoints were read after 24 hours and 9.1-27.1 hours incubation, respectively. Excellent essential agreement (within 2 dilutions) between the reference and Vitek 2 MICs was observed for fluconazole (97.9%) and voriconazole (96.7%). Categorical agreement (CA) between the 2 methods was assessed using the new species-specific clinical breakpoints (CBPs): susceptible (S) ≤2 μg/mL, susceptible dose-dependent (SDD) 4 μg/mL, and resistant (R) ≥8 μg/mL for fluconazole and Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis and ≤32 μg/mL (SDD), ≥64 μg/mL (R) for Candida glabrata; S ≤0.12 μg/mL, SDD 0.25-0.5 μg/mL, R ≥1 μg/mL for voriconazole and C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis, and ≤0.5 μg/mL (S), 1 μg/mL (SDD), ≥2 μg/mL (R) for Candida krusei. The epidemiological cutoff value (ECV) of 0.5 μg/mL for voriconazole and C. glabrata was used to differentiate wild-type (WT; MIC ≤ ECV) from non-WT (MIC > ECV) strains of this species. Due to the lack of CBPs for the less common species, the ECVs for fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively, were used for Candida lusitaniae (2 μg/mL and 0.03 μg/mL), Candida dubliniensis (0.5 μg/mL and 0.03 μg/mL), Candida guilliermondii (8 μg/mL and 0.25 μg/mL), and Candida pelliculosa (4 μg/mL and 0.25 μg/mL) to categorize isolates of these species as WT and non-WT. CA between the 2 methods was 96.8% for fluconazole and 96.5% for voriconazole with less than 1% very major errors and 1.3-3.0% major errors. The Vitek 2 yeast susceptibility system

  14. Multi-species biofilm of Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans Candida species on acrylic substrate

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    Apurva K Pathak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In polymicrobial biofilms bacteria extensively interact with Candida species, but the interaction among the different species of the Candida is yet to be completely evaluated. In the present study, the difference in biofilm formation ability of clinical isolates of four species of Candida in both single-species and multi-species combinations on the surface of dental acrylic resin strips was evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The species of Candida, isolated from multiple species oral candidiasis of the neutropenic patients, were used for the experiment. Organisms were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose broth with 8% glucose (SDB. Biofilm production on the acrylic resins strips was determined by crystal violet assay. Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to compare in vitro biofilm formation for the individual species of Candida and its different multi-species combinations. RESULTS: In the present study, differences between the mean values of the biofilm-forming ability of individual species (C. glabrata>C. krusei>C. tropicalis>C. albicans and in its multi-species' combinations (the highest for C. albicans with C. glabrata and the lowest for all the four species combination were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that biofilm-forming ability was found greater for non-Candida albicans Candida species (NCAC than for C. albicans species with intra-species variation. Presence of C. albicans in multi-species biofilms increased, whereas; C. tropicalis decreased the biofilm production with all other NCAC species.

  15. Multilaboratory Study of Epidemiological Cutoff Values for Detection of Resistance in Eight Candida Species to Fluconazole, Posaconazole, and Voriconazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M. A.; Bustamante, B.; Canton, E.; Fothergill, A.; Fuller, J.; Gonzalez, G. M.; Lass-Flörl, C.; Lockhart, S. R.; Martin-Mazuelos, E.; Meis, J. F.; Melhem, M. S. C.; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Pelaez, T.; Szeszs, M. W.; St-Germain, G.; Bonfietti, L. X.; Guarro, J.; Turnidge, J.

    2014-01-01

    Although epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) have been established for Candida spp. and the triazoles, they are based on MIC data from a single laboratory. We have established ECVs for eight Candida species and fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole based on wild-type (WT) MIC distributions for isolates of C. albicans (n = 11,241 isolates), C. glabrata (7,538), C. parapsilosis (6,023), C. tropicalis (3,748), C. krusei (1,073), C. lusitaniae (574), C. guilliermondii (373), and C. dubliniensis (162). The 24-h CLSI broth microdilution MICs were collated from multiple laboratories (in Canada, Brazil, Europe, Mexico, Peru, and the United States). The ECVs for distributions originating from ≥6 laboratories, which included ≥95% of the modeled WT population, for fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole were, respectively, 0.5, 0.06 and 0.03 μg/ml for C. albicans, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.03 μg/ml for C. dubliniensis, 8, 1, and 0.25 μg/ml for C. glabrata, 8, 0.5, and 0.12 μg/ml for C. guilliermondii, 32, 0.5, and 0.25 μg/ml for C. krusei, 1, 0.06, and 0.06 μg/ml for C. lusitaniae, 1, 0.25, and 0.03 μg/ml for C. parapsilosis, and 1, 0.12, and 0.06 μg/ml for C. tropicalis. The low number of MICs (<100) for other less prevalent species (C. famata, C. kefyr, C. orthopsilosis, C. rugosa) precluded ECV definition, but their MIC distributions are documented. Evaluation of our ECVs for some species/agent combinations using published individual MICs for 136 isolates (harboring mutations in or upregulation of ERG11, MDR1, CDR1, or CDR2) and 64 WT isolates indicated that our ECVs may be useful in distinguishing WT from non-WT isolates. PMID:24419346

  16. Biofilm formation and genotyping of Candida haemulonii, Candida pseudohaemulonii, and a proposed new species (Candida auris) isolates from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Bong Joon; Shin, Jong Hee; Kim, Mi-Na; Sung, Heungsup; Lee, Kyungwon; Joo, Min Young; Shin, Myung Geun; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2011-01-01

    Emergence of Candida haemulonii and closely related species at five Korean hospitals has been recently described. We examined biofilm formation by these isolates and assessed their genotypic relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). This study is the first to show that all bloodstream isolates of Candida pseudohaemulonii can form significant biofilms in glucose-containing medium. PFGE of NotI-digested genomic DNA revealed that C. pseudohaemulonii isolates recovered from seven patients in two hospitals shared five patterns, and that 15 isolates of a proposed new species (Candida auris) obtained from patients at three hospitals shared seven patterns, suggesting that some of these isolates may be related to clonal transmission.

  17. In Vitro Anti-Candida Activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi; Muhammad Ali Dabbagh; Zahra Fouladi

    2006-01-01

    Zataria multiflora Boiss known as Avishan Shirazi (in Iran) is one of the valuable Iranian medicinal plants. The aim of study was to evaluate anti-Candida activity of Z. multiflora against different species of Candida in vitro. Anti-Candida activity of the aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic maceration extract of the aerial parts of Z. multiflora Boiss was studied in vitro. Anti-Candida activity against Candida species was done using serial dilutions of extracts in Sabouraud's dextrose agar. Mi...

  18. Beyond Candida albicans: Mechanisms of immunity to non-albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-11-01

    The fungal genus Candida encompasses numerous species that inhabit a variety of hosts, either as commensal microbes and/or pathogens. Candida species are a major cause of fungal infections, yet to date there are no vaccines against Candida or indeed any other fungal pathogen. Our knowledge of immunity to Candida mainly comes from studies on Candida albicans, the most frequent species associated with disease. However, non-albicans Candida (NAC) species also cause disease and their prevalence is increasing. Although research into immunity to NAC species is still at an early stage, it is becoming apparent that immunity to C. albicans differs in important ways from non-albicans species, with important implications for treatment, therapy and predicted demographic susceptibility. This review will discuss the current understanding of immunity to NAC species in the context of immunity to C. albicans, and highlight as-yet unanswered questions.

  19. Suscetibilidade a antifúngicos in vitro de Candida spp. em pacientes do Hospital Universitário Regional de Maringá-PR Antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. in vitro among patients from Regional University Hospital of Maringá-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Oliveira Demitto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: No ambiente hospitalar, são frequentes as infecções por leveduras do gênero Candida spp., o que torna esse assunto um importante alvo de estudos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o perfil de suscetibilidade aos antifúngicos de espécies de Candida de pacientes internados no Hospital Universitário Regional de Maringá-PR (HURM. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: As amostras foram submetidas ao teste de microdiluição em caldo (MD, segundo o documento M27-A3 para determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM, e ao teste de difusão em disco de acordo com o documento M44-A2, ambos do Clinical Laboratory Standarts Institute (CLSI. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: Foram obtidos 91 isolados provenientes de amostras de urina, hemocultura, ponta de cateter, secreção orotraqueal, entre outros, sendo 38 Candida albicans, 23 C. tropicalis, 16 C. gabrata, 10 C. parapsilosis e quatro C. krusei. Dos antifúngicos testados, anfotericina B, voriconazol e anidulafungina foram os mais eficazes. CONCLUSÃO: A comparação entre as metodologias de microdiluição em caldo e disco difusão (DD mostrou boa correlação para fluconazol para a maioria das espécies de Candida spp., sendo possível destacar que a DD é útil para triagem dos principais antifúngicos usados na prática clínica. No entanto, casos de resistência detectados por DD devem ser confirmados por meio do método de MD, evitando, assim, resultados falsos resistentes, melhorando a eficácia e a segurança do tratamento.INTRODUCTION: Due to the ubiquity of nosocomial yeast infections of the genus Candida spp., studies in this area have become increasingly relevant. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antifungal Candida spp. susceptibility profile of hospitalized patients from the Regional University Hospital of Maringá-PR (HURM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The samples were submitted to broth microdilution test (MD according to protocol M27-A3 in order to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and disk

  20. Leveduras do gênero Candida isoladas de sítios anatomicamente distintos de profissionais militares em Cuiabá (MT, Brasil Species of Candida isolated from anatomically distinct sites in military personnel in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Diniz Pereira Leite Júnior

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Alguns fungos são habitantes do organismo humano e podem vir a causar alguma doença, quando há condições propícias para seu desenvolvimento. Infecções por leveduras são comuns e frequentes em pele e mucosas; contudo, espécies emergentes têm alterado o perfil epidemiológico. A habilidade de colonizar diversos sítios anatômicos tem sido associada à patogenicidade do gênero Candida, quando as condições ambientais são particularmente favoráveis. No caso de climas quentes e úmidos, os atritos sofridos pela pele ou as defesas imunitárias debilitadas podem fazer com que as leveduras deixem de ser comensais para se tornarem organismos patógenos. OBJETIVO: Diagnosticar candidíases em profissionais militares e avaliar a frequência dessas infecções nesses indivíduos. MÉTODOS: Os materiais clínicos analisados foram semeados em duplicata nos meios Sabouraud Dextrose-ágar (Difco e Mycosel (Difco. Identificaram-se os agentes etiológicos por meio da observação de tubo germinativo, microcultivo e caracteres fisiológicos, assimilação de fontes de carbono (auxanograma e fermentação de fontes de carbono (zimograma. RESULTADOS: De um total de 197 pacientes estudados, 91 (46,2% apresentaram quadros clínicos de candidíases. A região genitocrural foi considerada a mais acometida (47,7%, seguida pelas regiões interdactilares (mãos e pés, 27,8%. C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata e espécies emergentes, como C. krusei e C. guilliermondii, foram identificadas. CONCLUSÃO: No ambiente de trabalho, o uso de calçados e de uniformes por longos períodos de tempo, associado ao estresse e à sudorese, foi considerado fator predisponente para o desenvolvimento das infecções fúngicas.BACKGROUNDS: Some fungi are natural inhabitants of the human body but may result in disease when conditions are conducive to their development. Yeast infections are common and often occur in the skin and mucous

  1. Isolated Candida infection of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Shweihat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida pneumonia is a rare infection of the lungs, with the majority of cases occurring secondary to hematological dissemination of Candida organisms from a distant site, usually the gastrointestinal tract or skin. We report a case of a 77-year-old male who is life-long smoker with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica, but did not take immunosuppressants for those conditions. Here, we present an extremely rare case of isolated pulmonary parenchymal Candida infection in the form pulmonary nodules without evidence of systemic disease which has only been described in a few previous reports.

  2. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Ariane Bruder-Nascimento; Carlos Henrique Camargo; Alessandro Lia Mondelli; Maria Fátima Sugizaki; Terue Sadatsune; Eduardo Bagagli

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Ca...

  3. Diagnosis of spondylodiscitis on osteosynthesis material in PET-T.D.M. with {sup 18}F-F.D.G.. About one case; Diagnostic de spondylodiscite sur materiel d'osteosynthese en TEP-TDM au 18F-FDG. a propos d'un cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chastan, M.; Guernou, M.; Edet Sanson, A.; Vera, P.; Hitzel, A. [Centre Henri-Becquerel, Rouen, (France); Etienne, M.; Mirlink, N.; Jurici, S. [CHU Charles-Nicolle, Rouen(France)

    2009-05-15

    The objective was to show the interest of the PET-T.D.M. with {sup 18}F-F.D.G. for the diagnosis of spondylodiscitis on osteosynthesis material. Our observation attests that the PET-T.D.M. is interpretable in spite of the presence of the osteosynthesis material. The use of functional imaging with {sup 18}F-F.D.G. could be considered more quickly, since the spondylodiscitis suspicion on osteosynthesis material in order to get a earlier diagnosis. (N.C.)

  4. A Real-Time PCR Assay Based on 5.8S rRNA Gene (5.8S rDNA) for Rapid Detection of Candida from Whole Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Yang, Jing-Xian; Liang, Guo-Wei

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of Candida in bloodstream infections (BSIs) has increased. To date, the identification of Candida in BSIs still mainly relies on blood culture and serological tests, but they have various limitations. Therefore, a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Candida from whole blood is presented. The unique primers/probe system was designed on 5.8S rRNA gene (5.8S rDNA) of Candida genus. The analytical sensitivity was determined by numbers of positive PCRs in 12 repetitions. At the concentration of 10(1) CFU/ml blood, positive PCR rates of 100 % were obtained for C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei. The detection rate for C. glabrata was 75 % at 10(1) CFU/ml blood. The reaction specificity was 100 % when evaluating the assay using DNA samples from clinical isolates and human blood. The maximum CVs of intra-assay and inter-assay for the detection limit were 1.22 and 2.22 %, respectively. To assess the clinical applicability, 328 blood samples from 82 patients were prospectively tested and real-time PCR results were compared with results from blood culture. Diagnostic sensitivity of the PCR was 100 % using as gold standard blood culture, and specificity was 98.4 %. Our data suggest that the developed assay can be used in clinical laboratories as an accurate and rapid screening test for the Candida from whole blood. Although further evaluation is warranted, our assay holds promise for earlier diagnosis of candidemia.

  5. Sternoclavicular joint septic arthritis following paraspinal muscle abscess and septic lumbar spondylodiscitis with epidural abscess in a patient with diabetes: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shioya Nobuki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Septic arthritis of the sternoclavicular joint (SCJ is extremely rare, and usually appears to result from hematogenous spread. Predisposing factors include immunocompromising diseases such as diabetes. Case presentation A 61-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus presented to our emergency department with low back pain, high fever, and a painful mass over his left SCJ. He had received two epidural blocks over the past 2 weeks for severe back and leg pain secondary to lumbar disc herniation. He did not complain of weakness or sensory changes of his lower limbs, and his bladder and bowel function were normal. He had no history of shoulder injection, subclavian vein catheterization, intravenous drug abuse, or focal infection including tooth decay. CT showed an abscess of the left SCJ, with extension into the mediastinum and sternocleidomastoid muscle, and left paraspinal muscle swelling at the level of L2. MRI showed spondylodiscitis of L3-L4 with a contiguous extradural abscess. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from cultures of aspirated pus from his SCJ, and from his urine and blood. The SCJ abscess was incised and drained, and appropriate intravenous antibiotic therapy was administered. Two weeks after admission, the purulent discharge from the left SCJ had completely stopped, and the wound showed improvement. He was transferred to another ward for treatment of the ongoing back pain. Conclusion Diabetic patients with S. aureus bacteremia may be at risk of severe musculoskeletal infections via hematogenous spread.

  6. The evaluation of the clinical, laboratory and the radiological findings of the fifty-five cases diagnosed with tuberculous, Brucellar and pyogenic spondylodiscitis

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    Kadriye Yasar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, the evaluation of the clinical, laboratory and radiological findings belonging to 55 cases that were hospitalized in our clinic to be followed-up and were diagnosed with tuberculous, brucellar and pyogenic spondylodiscitis (SD was aimed. Materials and Methods: The cases with SD were evaluated retrospectively. Hematological, serological, biochemical laboratory tests and imaging technics were used for diagnosis. Results: Of 55 cases aged ranging between 25 to 79, 33 (59% were female. The cases with tuberculous SD (TBSD, brucellar SD (BSD and pyogenic SD (PSD were found in 24 (43%, 12 (21% and in 19 (34% patients.Erytrocyte sedimentation rate, increased C-reactive protein, and leucocytosis were present in 51 (91%, 22 (39% and 8 (14% cases. The number of the cases with history of previous surgery or trauma was 14 (25%. Diagnosis of TBSD was established by acid fast bacilli positiveness and Löwenstein Jensen culture positiveness, in two and seven patients, respectively. While all 12 cases with BSD had positive standard tube aglutination test, only 3 (25% had hemoculture positivity. In PSDs, diagnosis was confirmed with culture positivity in 9 of 19 cases.Of the cases in our study, 89% responded to medical treatment while three required surgery and three died (5.5% and 5.5%, respectively. Conclusion: SD may develop secondary to infections or following spinal surgical procedures and traumas. Also, the importance of endemicity should be kept in mind, beside the helpful diagnostic findings while treatment regulation.

  7. Radiotherapy effect on frequency of Candida spp. and on virulence of C. albicans isolated from the oral cavity of head and neck cancer patients

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    Daniela Dambroso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity and prevalence of yeasts, and the virulence of C. albicans found in the oral cavity during the course of ionizing radiation treatment of patients with head and neck tumor (HNTP. Samples from 21 HNTP and 24 healthy controls were isolated and identified. C. albicans isolated from two patients during radiotherapy were analyzed for virulence factors. Radiotherapy induced a higher level of both yeast colonization (81% vs 33% and non-albicans Candida (NAC colonization (52.4% vs 4.0% in HNTP than the control group. Patients were colonized by 5 different NAC species: C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei and C. kefir. On the other hand, C. albicans colonization was similar in patients and controls (6/21, 28.6% vs 7/24, 29.2%, respectively. Also, of the 11 patients assessed before and during radiotherapy, 5 (45.5% were colonized before the start of treatment and another 5 (45.5% during treatment. All of the latter were colonized by NAC species alone. Moreover, we observed a significant and continuous enhancement of C. albicans virulence as the radiotherapy progressed, in the two patients involved in this test. Thus, it is concluded that radiotherapy is an important predisposing factor for the oral candidiasis, including NAC species. Also, it may facilitate the development of more virulent C. albicans strains. Keywords: Candida. Radiotherapy. Virulence factor. Oral candidiasis.

  8. [The evaluation of relationship between the origin of Candida sp. and the ability of biofilm formation on surface of different biomaterials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciok-Pater, Emilia; Gospodarek, Eugenia; Prazyńska, Małgorzata; Bogiel, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    The increase of fungal infections in recent years is connected with the progress in medicine. The vast usage of biomaterials is an inseparable element of contemporary medicine but it also leads to development of infections. The ability to produce biofilm by those yeasts plays an important role in the pathogenesis of candidiasis. Candida biofilm can form on the surface of plastic materials (silicon, polychloride vinyl, polymethacrylate methyl) used to catheters, drains and dentures production that is why it is a serious problem in case of fungal infections in patients who during the diagnosis and treatment have contact with biomaterials. The aim of the study was the assessment of ability to form biofilm on the surface of different biomaterials (latex silicon, polychloride vinyl, polystyrene, nylon and polymethacrylate methyl). 150 strains of Candida sp. were examined: 85 (56.7%) C. albicans and 65 (43.3%) C. non-albicans. The examined yeasts produced biofilm on the surface of polymethacrylate methyl in 39.3%, latex silicone in 38.7%, polychloride vinyl in 38.0%, polystyrene in 35.3% and nylon in 30.7%. Biofilm was most frequently produced by the strains of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei and C. lusitaniae species.

  9. Comparison of the Etest and a rapid flow cytometry-based method with the reference CLSI broth microdilution protocol M27-A3 for the echinocandin susceptibility testing of Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale-Silva, L A; Pinto, P; Lopes, V; Ramos, H; Pinto, E

    2012-06-01

    Reference broth microdilution protocols for the antifungal susceptibility testing (AST) of yeasts are available, but routine AST relies more on simpler alternatives. In this work, the Etest and a novel flow cytometry (FC) method were compared to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) protocol M27-A3. Caspofungin and anidulafungin were tested against 60 clinical isolates of Candida glabrata, C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis. There were two intermediate susceptibility results and 19 out of 20 tested C. krusei strains were categorized as resistant to caspofungin (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] of 1.0 mg/L). There was a generally excellent essential agreement with the reference method, only interrupted by Etest results for the anidulafungin susceptibility of C. glabrata (80%) and the FC method's results for caspofungin with C. krusei (40%). Categorical agreements were excellent, with the notable exception of the caspofungin-resistant C. krusei, with 19 very major errors for the FC method and 19 minor errors plus one very major error for the Etest (5% and 0% categorical agreements, respectively). Two additional minor errors were registered for the FC method when testing C. parapsilosis with anidulafungin and caspofungin. Overall, these data come to question the suitability of recently approved clinical breakpoints in the case of C. krusei. Further studies including fks mutants are now required.

  10. Dicty_cDB: SHB164 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available niensis strain CBS 7987 translation elongation factor gene, partial cds. 78 1e-44 5 CZ289188 |CZ289188.1 cp62f05.f Candida parapsilos...is Random Genomic Library Candida parapsilosis genomic clone cp62f05, genomic surve... |CZ282959.1 cp27c04.f Candida parapsilosis Random Genomic Library Candida parapsilosis genomic clone cp27c0...ne, partial cds. 70 1e-42 6 AF107291 |AF107291.1 Candida parapsilosis elongation ...factor 2 (EFT2) gene, partial cds. 72 2e-41 7 AY497652 |AY497652.1 Candida parapsilosis strain CBS 604 trans

  11. Candida pneumonia in intensive care unit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnabel, Ronny M; Linssen, Catharina F; Guion, Nele; van Mook, Walther N; Bergmans, Dennis C

    2014-01-01

    It has been questioned if Candida pneumonia exists as a clinical entity. Only histopathology can establish the definite diagnosis. Less invasive diagnostic strategies lack specificity and have been insufficiently validated. Scarcity of this pathomechanism and nonspecific clinical presentation make v

  12. Folsomia candida (Collembola): a "standard" soil arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Michelle T; Hopkin, Steve P

    2005-01-01

    Folsomia candida Willem 1902, a member of the order Collembola (colloquially called springtails), is a common and widespread arthropod that occurs in soils throughout the world. The species is parthenogenetic and is easy to maintain in the laboratory on a diet of granulated dry yeast. F. candida has been used as a "standard" test organism for more than 40 years for estimating the effects of pesticides and environmental pollutants on nontarget soil arthropods. However, it has also been employed as a model for the investigation of numerous other phenomena such as cold tolerance, quality as a prey item, and effects of microarthropod grazing on pathogenic fungi and mycorrhizae of plant roots. In this comprehensive review, aspects of the life history, ecology, and ecotoxicology of F. candida are covered. We focus on the recent literature, especially studies that have examined the effects of soil pollutants on reproduction in F. candida using the protocol published by the International Standards Organization in 1999.

  13. [Candida ciferrii in an immunocompromised patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martos, Pedro; Ruiz-Aragón, Jesús; García-Agudo, Lidia; Saldarreaga, Abel; Lozano, María Carmen; Marín, Pilar

    2004-06-01

    A case of possible infection due to Candida ciferrii in an immunocompromised patient is presented. This fungal species has been rarely reported as cause of human infection. The isolate showed in vitro resistance to fluconazole.

  14. In vitro modification of Candida albicans invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla de Petrino, S E; de Jorrat, M E; Sirena, A; Valdez, J C; Mesón, O

    1986-05-01

    Candida albicans produces germ-tubes (GT) when it is incubated in animal or human serum. This dimorphism is responsible for its invasive ability. The purpose of the present paper is (1) to evaluate the ability of rat peritoneal macrophages to inhibit GT production of ingested Candida albicans, obtained from immunized rats and then activated in vitro with Candida-induced lymphokines; (2) to determinate any possible alteration of phagocytic and candidacidal activities. The phagocytes were obtained from rats immunized with viable C. albicans. Some of them were exposed to Candida-induced lymphokines in order to activate the macrophages in vitro. The monolayers of activated, immune and normal macrophages were infected with a C. albicans suspension during 4 hr. Activated macrophages presented not only the highest phagocytic and candidacidal activities but a noticeable inhibition of GT formation and incremented candidacidal activity.

  15. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both /sup 32/P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis.

  16. Essential Oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle: A Strategy to Combat Fungal Infections Caused by Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciani Gaspar De Toledo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of fungal infections, especially those caused by Candida yeasts, has increased over the last two decades. However, the indicated therapy for fungal control has limitations. Hence, medicinal plants have emerged as an alternative in the search for new antifungal agents as they present compounds, such as essential oils, with important biological effects. Published data demonstrate important pharmacological properties of the essential oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle; these include anti-tumor, anti-nociceptive, and antibacterial activities, and so an investigation of this compound against pathogenic fungi is interesting. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and biological potential of essential oil (EO obtained from the leaves of C. nardus focusing on its antifungal profile against Candida species. Methods: The EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Testing of the antifungal potential against standard and clinical strains was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, time-kill, inhibition of Candida albicans hyphae growth, and inhibition of mature biofilms. Additionally, the cytotoxicity was investigated by the IC50 against HepG-2 (hepatic and MRC-5 (fibroblast cell lines. Results: According to the chemical analysis, the main compounds of the EO were the oxygen-containing monoterpenes: citronellal, geranial, geraniol, citronellol, and neral. The results showed important antifungal potential for all strains tested with MIC values ranging from 250 to 1000 μg/mL, except for two clinical isolates of C. tropicalis (MIC > 1000 μg/mL. The time-kill assay showed that the EO inhibited the growth of the yeast and inhibited hyphal formation of C. albicans strains at concentrations ranging from 15.8 to 1000 μg/mL. Inhibition of mature biofilms of strains of C. albicans, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis occurred

  17. PET-CT manifestation of Candida esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee [Sung-Ae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); O, Joo Hyun [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Candida esophagitis (moniliasis) is the most common infection of the gullet and has generally been attributed to as a complication of immune suppressed state. However, as the current case. Holt found the disease to occur in 3 of his 13 patients without predisposing condition. Predisposing factors other than immune deficient conditions include aplastic anemia, alcoholism and Parkinson's disease and age, diabetes mellitus, and disruption of mucosal integrity. Growing prevalence of Candida esophagitis in recent years is accounted for by an increase in the number of patients with organ transplantation, malignancy and AIDS as well as populrization of endoscopy. Microorganisms that reached the esophagus in oral secretions are rarely cultured from the esophageal surface. Of many species C. albicans is the most common offender although C. tropicalis has also been isolated with high prevalence, particularly in the patients with cancer and disseminated candidiasis. Clinically, the patients with Candida esophagitis seek medical care for esophageal or retrosternal pain, dysphagia or distress. Candida esophagitis may be the extension from oropharyngeal infection but in the majority the esophagus is the sole site of infection. The middle and lower thirds of the esophagus are more typically affected than the upper third. Diagnosis can be indicated by double contrast esophagography or endoscopy and confirmed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain or biopsy. It is to be noted that the more presence of Candida in smear or cultured specimen cannot indict Candida as definitive offender. Differential diagnosis includes herpes simplex infection, cytomegalovirus infection, reflux esophagitis or radiation esophagitis.

  18. The Candida genome database incorporates multiple Candida species: multispecies search and analysis tools with curated gene and protein information for Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Diane O; Arnaud, Martha B; Binkley, Jonathan; Shah, Prachi; Skrzypek, Marek S; Wymore, Farrell; Binkley, Gail; Miyasato, Stuart R; Simison, Matt; Sherlock, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    The Candida Genome Database (CGD, http://www.candidagenome.org/) is an internet-based resource that provides centralized access to genomic sequence data and manually curated functional information about genes and proteins of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans and other Candida species. As the scope of Candida research, and the number of sequenced strains and related species, has grown in recent years, the need for expanded genomic resources has also grown. To answer this need, CGD has expanded beyond storing data solely for C. albicans, now integrating data from multiple species. Herein we describe the incorporation of this multispecies information, which includes curated gene information and the reference sequence for C. glabrata, as well as orthology relationships that interconnect Locus Summary pages, allowing easy navigation between genes of C. albicans and C. glabrata. These orthology relationships are also used to predict GO annotations of their products. We have also added protein information pages that display domains, structural information and physicochemical properties; bibliographic pages highlighting important topic areas in Candida biology; and a laboratory strain lineage page that describes the lineage of commonly used laboratory strains. All of these data are freely available at http://www.candidagenome.org/. We welcome feedback from the research community at candida-curator@lists.stanford.edu.

  19. Four novel yeasts from decaying organic matter: Blastobotrys robertii sp. nov., Candida cretensis sp. nov., Candida scorzettiae sp. nov. and Candida vadensis sp. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.; Kurtzman, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    Four novel yeast species are described, two from decaying mushrooms, viz. Candida cretensis and Candida vadensis, and two from rotten wood, viz. Blastobotrys robertii and Candida scorzettiae. Accession numbers for the CBS and ARS Culture Collections, and GenBank accession numbers for the D1/D2 domai

  20. Estudo comparativo entre a produção de fosfolipases extracelulares e proteinases do gênero Candida isoladas a partir de infecções de cavidade oral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia ANDREOLA

    Full Text Available Resumo Introdução A habilidade da Candida spp. em produzir enzimas proteolíticas, tais como fosfolipase e proteinases, tem um papel importante na patogenicidade destas leveduras. Objetivo Determinar as espécies causadoras das infecções orais por Candida spp., além de investigar a atividade in vitro das fosfolipases e proteinases em isolados clínicos do gênero Candida, provenientes de pacientes com candidíase oral. Material e método Isolados de Candida spp., pertencentes à Coleção de Cultivos Fúngicos do Laboratório de Microbiologia e Patologia Oral do Departamento de Odontologia da Faculdade da Serra Gaúcha, foram analisados. Produção de fosfolipases foi analisada utilizando-se Ágar gema de ovo. Liberação de proteinases foi medida utilizando-se extrato de levedura adicionado à albumina bovina. Resultado Um total de 35 isolados clínicos do gênero Candida foi testado. C. albicans foi a espécie predominante (77%. Os demais isolados identificados foram: C. parapsilosis (20% e C. tropicalis (2%. Ao comparar a atividade de fosfolipase do grupo C. albicans com o grupo Candida não-albicans, foi encontrada diferença significativa (P=0,04. Não foi encontrada diferença significativa entre a C. albicans e a C. não-albicans, para a produção de proteinase. A liberação de proteinase foi significativamente maior quando comparada à produção de fosfolipase para o gênero Candida (P=0,04. Diferença estatisticamente significativa foi encontrada quando a atividade de fosfolipase e proteinase da C. albicans foi comparada à atividade das espécies de C. não-albicans (P=0,02. Conclusão Diferentes quantificações de fosfolipase extracelular e atividade de proteinase têm sido atribuídas aos isolados clínicos de C. albicans quando comparados a outras espécies de Candida.

  1. Prevalência de cândida na flora vaginal de mulheres atendidas num serviço de planejamento familiar Prevalence of candida in the vagina of women attended at a family planning service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Aleixo Neto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a prevalência de Candida sp. e a distribuição de suas espécies na flora vaginal de mulheres numa clínica de planejamento familiar. Método: estudo transversal no qual se avaliaram prospectivamente 72 mulheres não-grávidas, com ou sem queixas específicas, sendo coletadas amostras de secreção vaginal para cultura de leveduras, efetuada a medição do pH vaginal e anotados dados de achados do exame ginecológico. Resultados: leveduras pertencentes ao gênero Candida foram encontradas em 18 casos (25%. A C. albicans foi a espécie mais prevalente (77,8% e conseqüentemente 22,2% foram não-albicans. Entre as não-albicans a espécie mais prevalente foi a C. glabrata (16,7% seguida pela C. parapsilosis (5,6%. Prurido e ardor foram os únicos sintomas relacionados significativamente com a presença de cândida. Foi observado que a C. glabrata, ao contrário da C. albicans, não causa corrimento clinicamente verificável ao exame ginecológico. Não foram verificadas associações de alguns fatores predisponentes (idade, escolaridade e uso de contraceptivos com a presença ou não de cândida. Conclusões: nossos resultados sugerem: a uma alta prevalência de Candida sp. entre as mulheres (25%; b que as espécies não-albicans desempenham um papel importante no meio vaginal; c que prurido e ardor são os sintomas mais comuns na presença de cândida e d que a C. glabrata não costuma causar corrimento vaginal ao exame ginecológico. Finalmente, é importante observar que nossos resultados são consistentes com o que a literatura internacional tem mostrado nos últimos anos.SUMMARY Purpose: to estimate the prevalence of Candida sp. and the distribution of its species in the vagina of women attended at a family planning Service. Methods: a cross-sectional study evaluating prospectively 72 nonpregnant women, with or without specific complaints. Samples were checked for the presence of yeast and vaginal pH. Data obtained

  2. Multilocus sequence typing confirms synonymy but highlights differences between Candida albicans and Candida stellatoidea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, M.D.; Boekhout, T.; Odds, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    We used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to investigate 35 yeast isolates representing the two genome-sequenced strains plus the type strain of Candida albicans, four isolates originally identified as Candida stellatoidea type I and 28 representing type strains of other species now regarded as syn

  3. Improved Detection of Candida sp. fks Hot Spot Mutants by Using the Method of the CLSI M27-A3 Document with the Addition of Bovine Serum Albumin▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Park, Steven; Perlin, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Echinocandins are highly bound to serum proteins, altering their antifungal properties. The addition of 50% human serum to the MIC assay improves the identification of echinocandin-resistant Candida spp. harboring fks hot spot mutations. However, this modification cannot readily be applied to the method of the CLSI M27-A3 document due to safety and standardization difficulties. The aim of this study was to evaluate commercial bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a safe and standardized alternative to human serum. A collection of 28 echinocandin-susceptible strains, 10 Candida parapsilosis sensu lato strains (with naturally reduced echinocandin susceptibility), and 40 FKS hot spot mutants was used in this work. When RPMI 1640 was used for susceptibility testing, wild-type strains and fks mutants showed MIC range overlaps (−2, −1, and −3 2-fold-dilution steps separated these populations for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin, respectively). On the other hand, the addition of BSA to RPMI 1640 differentially increased echinocandin MIC values for these groups of strains, allowing better separation between populations, with no MIC range overlaps for any of the echinocandin drugs tested. Moreover, the use of RPMI-BSA reduced the number of fks hot spot mutant isolates for which MIC values were less than or equal to the upper limit for the wild type (very major errors) from 9, 2, and 7 with RPMI alone to 3, 0, and 3 for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin, respectively. When RPMI-BSA was used to study the susceptibility of C. parapsilosis sensu lato species to echinocandins, the strains behaved as anidulafungin- and micafungin-resistant isolates (MIC, ≥8 μg/ml). These data support the need for a revision of the CLSI protocol for in vitro testing of echinocandin susceptibility in order to identify all or most of the fks hot spot mutants. Also, caspofungin could be used as a surrogate marker of reduced susceptibility to echinocandins. PMID:21383097

  4. Echinocandin Susceptibility Testing of Candida spp. Using EUCAST EDef 7.1 and CLSI M27-A3 Standard Procedures: Analysis of the Influence of Bovine Serum Albumin Supplementation, Storage Time, and Drug Lots▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan-Luis; Park, Steven; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Delmas, Guillaume; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Gomez-Lopez, Alicia; Perlin, David S.

    2011-01-01

    The MICs of echinocandins against Candida isolates with fks mutations are higher than those for wild-type (WT) isolates. However, the MIC ranges for susceptible and mutant populations overlap or are poorly separated. It was recently reported that a greater separation could be achieved in the presence of serum. To more fully explore this possibility, we compared the performances of the reference microdilution methods by using standard and bovine serum albumin (BSA)-supplemented growth medium. Anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin MICs were determined according to EUCAST and CLSI methods and with 50% BSA in the medium for 93 clinical isolates, including Candida albicans (20/10 [number of isolates/number of mutants]), C. glabrata (19/10), C. dubliniensis (2/1), C. krusei (16/3), C. parapsilosis (19), and C. tropicalis (19/4) isolates. Stability of the plates was tested after storage at −80°C for 2 and 6 months, and the performance of two different lots of caspofungin was investigated. The addition of BSA to the medium resulted in higher MICs (1 to 9 2-fold dilution steps) for all isolates and compounds. The increases were greatest for anidulafungin and micafungin and, among WT isolates, for C. parapsilosis. The number of very major errors (VMEs) was reduced (24% [20/84 isolates] versus ≤7% [6/84 isolates]) using BSA-supplemented EUCAST medium but not using BSA-supplemented CLSI medium (6% versus 9%). MIC results were unchanged after 6 months of storage of test plates. The two lots of caspofungin yielded identical results. Addition of BSA to the EUCAST medium increases the ability to differentiate between WT isolates and isolates harboring resistance mutations. PMID:21245440

  5. MDGC-MS analysis of essential oils from Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl. and their antifungal activity against Candida specie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MOBIN

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Protium heptaphyllum is found in the Amazon region, and in various Brazilian states and South American countries. Also Known as almecega, it produces an oil resin used in traditional medicine as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, cicatrizant and expectorant, it is rich in pentacyclic triterpenes and essential oil. The main objective of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of P. heptaphyllumresin (OEPh over different extraction times and to evaluate their antifungal activity against Candida species, obtained from gardeners with onychomycosis, using the disk diffusion method. The OEPh was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by Multidimensional Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (MDGC / MS. Candida species were obtained from lesions on the nails of horticulturist from a community garden in the city of Teresina, Piauí, Brazil. The antifungal activity in concentrations of 1000 µg/L, 500 µg/L and 250 µg/L, PROTOCOL M44-A2 (CLSI 2009 OEPh was tested. The main constituents identified were: l-limonene, α-terpineol, p-cineol, o-cymene and α-phellandrene, however, its composition varies significantly with extraction time. All species, except C. rugosa, were inhibited with halo (≥ 14 mm at 1000 μg / L. C. krusei is naturally resistant to the drug fluconazole, but when tested with OEPh the clinical species (case 9 demonstrated sensitivity in three dilutions (halo ≤ 10 ≥ 14 and the standard strain was inhibited at concentration of 1000 μg/Lg / L (halo 14mm. A similar situation also occurred with the standard strain of C. parapsilosis (halo ≥ 11mm. OEPh has considerable antifungal activity, which merits further investigation for alternative clinical applications, since this species is widely distributed in our community, and it presents good yields, and also has important therapeutic applications.

  6. Candida urinary tract infection and Candida species susceptibilities to antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Kayo; Shigemura, Katsumi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Masato; Arakawa, Soichi

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to review Candida isolation from urine of urinary tract infection (UTI) patients over the recent 3 years at the Kobe University Hospital. We recorded the type of strain, the department where the patient was treated such as the intensive care unit (ICU), and combined isolation of Candida with other microorganisms. We investigated Candida isolation and susceptibilities to antifungal agents and analyzed the risk factors for combined isolation with other microorganisms. The most frequently isolated Candida was Candida albicans, which showed good (100%) susceptibilities to 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and fluconazole (FLCZ) but not to voriconazole (VRCZ), followed by C. glabrata. ICU was the greatest source of Candida-positive samples, and the most relevant underlying diseases of ICU patients were pneumonia followed by renal failure and post liver transplantation status. Combined isolation with other bacteria was seen in 27 cases (42.9%) in 2009, 25 (33.3%) in 2010 and 31 (31.3%) in 2011 and comparatively often seen in non-ICU patients. Other candidas than C. albicans showed significantly decreased susceptibility to FLCZ over these 3 years (P=0.004). One hundred (97.1%) of 103 ICU cases were given antibiotics at the time of Candida isolation, and the most often used antibiotics were cefazolin or meropenem. In conclusion, C. albicans was representatively isolated in Candida UTI and showed good susceptibilities to 5-FC, FLCZ and VRCZ, but other candidas than C. albicans showed significantly decreased susceptibility to FLCZ in the change of these 3 years.

  7. Interlaboratory variability of Caspofungin MICs for Candida spp. Using CLSI and EUCAST methods: should the clinical laboratory be testing this agent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Arendrup, M C; Pfaller, M A; Bonfietti, L X; Bustamante, B; Canton, E; Chryssanthou, E; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Dannaoui, E; Fothergill, A; Fuller, J; Gaustad, P; Gonzalez, G M; Guarro, J; Lass-Flörl, C; Lockhart, S R; Meis, J F; Moore, C B; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L; Pelaez, T; Pukinskas, S R B S; St-Germain, G; Szeszs, M W; Turnidge, J

    2013-12-01

    Although Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) clinical breakpoints (CBPs) are available for interpreting echinocandin MICs for Candida spp., epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) based on collective MIC data from multiple laboratories have not been defined. While collating CLSI caspofungin MICs for 145 to 11,550 Candida isolates from 17 laboratories (Brazil, Canada, Europe, Mexico, Peru, and the United States), we observed an extraordinary amount of modal variability (wide ranges) among laboratories as well as truncated and bimodal MIC distributions. The species-specific modes across different laboratories ranged from 0.016 to 0.5 μg/ml for C. albicans and C. tropicalis, 0.031 to 0.5 μg/ml for C. glabrata, and 0.063 to 1 μg/ml for C. krusei. Variability was also similar among MIC distributions for C. dubliniensis and C. lusitaniae. The exceptions were C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii MIC distributions, where most modes were within one 2-fold dilution of each other. These findings were consistent with available data from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) (403 to 2,556 MICs) for C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis. Although many factors (caspofungin powder source, stock solution solvent, powder storage time length and temperature, and MIC determination testing parameters) were examined as a potential cause of such unprecedented variability, a single specific cause was not identified. Therefore, it seems highly likely that the use of the CLSI species-specific caspofungin CBPs could lead to reporting an excessive number of wild-type (WT) isolates (e.g., C. glabrata and C. krusei) as either non-WT or resistant isolates. Until this problem is resolved, routine testing or reporting of CLSI caspofungin MICs for Candida is not recommended; micafungin or anidulafungin data could be used instead.

  8. Candida fermenticarens—a. new yeast from arboricole lichen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. van der Walt

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Two strains of an undescribed  Candida species were recovered from arboricole lichen collected in the eastern Cape. A description of the new species, Candida fermenticarens, is given.

  9. IDENTIFIKASI SPESIES CANDIDA ALBICANS PADA PENDERITA ANGULAR CHEILITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Mu`min, Mulia Sari

    2012-01-01

    2011 Abstrak Candida albicans merupakan jenis Candida yang menginfeksi semua organ tubuh manusia, dapat ditemukan pada semua golongan umur, baik pada pria maupun wanita. Candida albicans merupakan fungi patogen oportunistik yang paling sering menginfeksi rongga mulut. Fungi ini dapat ditemukan pada seluruh permukaan rongga mulut, yaitu lidah (punggung lidah merupakan tempat yang disukai Candida albicans untuk tumbuh dan berkembang biak), pipi, mukosa palatal, plak gigi, karies gigi, flo...

  10. In vitro activity of Caspofungin combined with Fluconazole on mixed Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesee, Siripen; Angkananuwat, Chayanit; Tancharoensukjit, Sudarat; Muanmai, Somporn; Sirivan, Pattaraporn; Bubphawas, Manita; Tanarerkchai, Nissara

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effect of caspofungin (CAS) combined with fluconazole (FLU) on the biofilm biomass and cultivable viability and microstructure of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata mixed biofilm in vitro.Biofilms were formed in a 96-well microtiter plate for crystal violet assay and colony forming unit (CFU) method and grown on plastic coverslip disks for scanning electron microscopy. MIC50 of CAS and FLU against single Candida spp.and mixed Candida spp.biofilms were evaluated using crystal violet assay. Additional,C. albicans and C. glabrata mixed biofilms were incubated with subinhibitory CAS concentration plus FLU and their percentages of Candida biofilm reduction were calculated. We found that percentages of biofilm reduction were significantly decreased when CAS at 0.25MIC and FLU (0.25 or 0.5MIC) were combined (PCandida glabrata were demonstrated in every group, the total viable cells derived from CAS/FLU combination-treated biofilms at any ratio were not significantly different from positive control. Overall, CAS/FLU combinations appeared to affect the quantity and cell architecture, but number of viable cell, of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata mixed biofilm. This antifungal effect was CAS concentration dependent.

  11. Severe Candida spp. infections: new insights into natural immunity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.W.M. van der; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Joosten, L.A.B.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. are associated with h