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Sample records for cancer trends 1973-1995

  1. Skin Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trends Behavior Rates What CDC Is Doing Skin Cancer Prevention Progress Report The Burning Truth Initiative A Base Tan Is Not a Safe Tan Tanned Skin Is Not Healthy Skin Controlled Tanning Is Not Safe Tanning Guidelines for School ... Melanoma Surveillance in the U.S. Related Links ...

  2. Water quality's determination at the Mino River during 1973-1995. Prediction analysis for 2010; Estudio de la calidad del agua del rio Mino durante el periodo 1973-1995. Analisis predictivo a 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De las Heras, A.; Medgar, M. J.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the water quality at the Mino river (Galicia), which belongs to the North river basin, as well as the problems associated to the contaminant contributions originated due to population changes, industrial development and agriculture and live-sock activities during a 23 years period (1973-1995). Similarly, the prediction of such changes till the year 2010 is also realized. The 26 analyzed parameters were obtained from the Database of the COCA-MOPU (Water Quality Control Web), and they were statistically analyzed by means of the hierarchical cluster analysis, principal complements multi variance analysis and the predictor technique for temporal series. Four different factors were identified: alkalinity, physical water characteristics, salinity and organic burden, with an accumulated variance of 60.2%. The predictive analysis adjusted to the ARIMA model, shows the tendency to rise of variables defining alkalinity, salinity and organic matter, if present conditions are maintained. (Author) 17 refs.

  3. Arsenic | Cancer Trends Progress Report

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    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  4. Nitrate | Cancer Trends Progress Report

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    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  6. Ovarian Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  7. Methodology for Characterizing Trends | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  8. Alcohol Consumption | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  9. HPV Immunization | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  10. Financial Burden of Cancer Care | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  11. Financial Burden of Cancer Care - Life After Cancer Summary Table | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  12. Trends of lung cancer mortality in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano Ponce, E C; Tovar Guzman, V; Meneses Gonzalez, F; Rascon Pacheco, R A; Hernandez Avila, M

    1997-01-01

    Lung cancer (LC) is one of the most important public health problems in the world; 1,035,000 annual deaths are estimated each year and more than 80% of these are attributed to tobacco. The trend of lung cancer mortality in Mexico City from 1979 - 1993 was determined, as was the rate ratio of lung cancer mortality in 31 states in Mexico, taking Mexico City as a reference by means of a Poisson model. A strong linear regression model was used to evaluate the rate, where the dependent variable was LC mortality rate and the independent variable the year observed. In 15 years, 73,807 deaths from LC were reported, with an increase in mortality from 5.01 - 7.25 per 100,000 inhabitants. Mortality increases significantly after 60 years of age (B not equal to 0), ptax on cigarettes should be increased, smoking restricted in squares and public spaces, and the risks should be announced on cigarette packages, among other measures. With respect to other emergent risk factors, the sources of industrial pollution and toxic emissions should be regulated.

  13. Tobacco Company Marketing Expenditures | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  14. Diet, Physical Activity, and Weight | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. Sun-Protective Behavior | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  16. Temporal trend of mortality from major cancers in Xuanwei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hualiang; Ning, Bofu; Li, Jihua; Zhao, Guangqiang; Huang, Yunchao; Tian, Linwei

    2015-12-01

    Although a number of studies have examined the etiology of lung cancer in Xuanwei County, China, other types of cancer in this county have not been reported systematically. This study aimed to investigate the temporal trend of eight major cancers in Xuanwei County using data from three mortality surveys (1973-1975, 1990-1992, and 2004-2005). The Chinese population in 1990 was used as a standard population to calculate agestandardized mortality rates. Cancers of lung, liver, breast, brain, esophagus, leukemia, rectum, and stomach were identified as the leading cancers in this county in terms of mortality rate. During the three time periods, lung cancer remained as the most common type of cancer. The mortality rates for all other types of cancer were lower than those of the national average, but an increasing trend was observed for all the cancers, particularly from 1990-1992 to 2004-2005. The temporal trend could be partly explained by changes in risk factors, but it also may be due to the improvement in cancer diagnosis and screening. Further epidemiological studies are warranted to systematically examine the underlying reasons for the temporal trend of the major cancers in Xuanwei County.

  17. Time trends in axilla management among early breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondos, Adam; Jansen, Lina; Heil, Jörg;

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined time trends in axilla management among patients with early breast cancer in European clinical settings. Material and methods EUROCANPlatform partners, including population-based and cancer center-specific registries, provided routinely available clinical cancer registry data...... for a comparative study of axillary management trends among patients with first non-metastatic breast cancer who were not selected for neoadjuvant therapy during the last decade. We used an additional short questionnaire to compare clinical care patterns in 2014. Results Patients treated in cancer centers were...... younger than population-based registry populations. Tumor size and lymph node status distributions varied little between settings or over time. In 2003, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) use varied between 26% and 81% for pT1 tumors, and between 2% and 68% for pT2 tumors. By 2010, SLNB use increased to 79...

  18. Trends of cervical cancer in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente B; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to its extraordinarily fast economic and social transition, virtually closed borders before 1940 and, moreover, that 85% of the population has the distinctive genetics of the Inuit, Greenland is a very interesting country to study cervical cancer from a historical perspective. Nev...... with the introduction of screening. The data strongly suggested that the increased burden of cervical cancer in Greenlandic women was real and followed earlier changes in sexual behaviour; these changes were likely a consequence of the tremendous societal changes....

  19. Trends in lung cancer incidence rates, Oklahoma 2005-2010.

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    Dana S Mowls

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and women in the United States. With cigarette smoking causing the majority of cases, patterns in lung cancer are often monitored to understand the impact of anti-tobacco efforts. The purpose of this research was to investigate trends in lung cancer incidence rates for the period 2005-2010 in Oklahoma.Data on Oklahoma's incident cases of lung cancer (2005-2010 were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention WONDER system. Annual percent change (APC was calculated by linear regression to characterize trends in lung cancer incidence rates over time for the overall population, by gender, by age group, and by age group within gender. Rates were considered to increase or decrease if the p-value for trend was <0.05.From 2005 through 2010, lung cancer incidence rates declined from 81.96 to 68.19 per 100,000 population, with an APC of -3.58% (p-value: 0.0220. When subgroups were examined, declines were observed among all males (APC: -4.25%; p-value: 0.0270, males <65 years (APC: -5.32%; p-value: 0.0008, females <65 years (APC: -4.85%; p-value: 0.0044, and persons aged 55-64 years (APC: -6.38%; p-value: 0.0017.Declines in lung cancer incidence rates occurred during 2005-2010 among the overall population and within select demographic groups in Oklahoma. Although trends were stable for several demographic groups, rates of lung cancer incidence were lower in 2010 compared to 2005. Continued evidence-based tobacco control efforts are needed to ensure further reductions in lung cancer incidence rates in the state of Oklahoma.

  20. Current trends in staging rectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdus Samee; Chelliah Ramachandran Selvasekar

    2011-01-01

    Management of rectal cancer has evolved over the years.In this condition preoperative investigations assist in deciding the optimal treatment.The relation of the tumor edge to the circumferential margin (CRM) is an important factor in deciding the need for neoadjuvant treatment and determines the prognosis.Those with threatened or involved margins are offered long course chemoradiation to enable R0 surgical resection.Endoanal ultrasound (EUS) is useful for tumor (T) staging;hence EUS is a useful imaging modality for early rectal cancer.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful for assessing the mesorectum and the mesorectal fascia which has useful prognostic significance and for early identification of local recurrence.Computerized tomography (CT) of the chest,abdomen and pelvis is used to rule out distant metastasis.Identification of the malignant nodes using EUS,CT and MRI is based on the size,morphology and internal characteristics but has drawbacks.Most of the common imaging techniques are suboptimal for imaging following chemoradiation as they struggle to differentiate fibrotic changes and tumor.In this situation,EUS and MRI may provide complementary information to decide further treatment.Functional imaging using positron emission tomography (PET) is useful,particularly PET/CT fusion scans to identify areas of the functionally hot spots.In the current state,imaging has enabled the multidisciplinary team of surgeons,oncologists,radiologists and pathologists to decide on the patient centered management of rectal cancer.In future,functional imaging may play an active role in identifying patients with lymph node metastasis and those with residual and recurrent disease following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

  1. Epigenetic research in cancer epidemiology: trends, opportunities, and challenges.

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    Verma, Mukesh; Rogers, Scott; Divi, Rao L; Schully, Sheri D; Nelson, Stefanie; Joseph Su, L; Ross, Sharon A; Pilch, Susan; Winn, Deborah M; Khoury, Muin J

    2014-02-01

    Epigenetics is emerging as an important field in cancer epidemiology that promises to provide insights into gene regulation and facilitate cancer control throughout the cancer care continuum. Increasingly, investigators are incorporating epigenetic analysis into the studies of etiology and outcomes. To understand current progress and trends in the inclusion of epigenetics in cancer epidemiology, we evaluated the published literature and the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported research grant awards in this field to identify trends in epigenetics research. We present a summary of the epidemiologic studies in NCI's grant portfolio (from January 2005 through December 2012) and in the scientific literature published during the same period, irrespective of support from the NCI. Blood cells and tumor tissue were the most commonly used biospecimens in these studies, although buccal cells, cervical cells, sputum, and stool samples were also used. DNA methylation profiling was the focus of the majority of studies, but several studies also measured microRNA profiles. We illustrate here the current status of epidemiologic studies that are evaluating epigenetic changes in large populations. The incorporation of epigenomic assessments in cancer epidemiology studies has and is likely to continue to provide important insights into the field of cancer research.

  2. The epidemiology of skin cancer and its trend in Iran

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    Saeid Razi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common cancers is skin cancer worldwide. Since incidence and cost of treatment of the cancer are increasing, it is necessary to further investigate to prevent and control this disease. This study aimed to determine skin cancer trend and epidemiology in Iran. Methods: This study was done based on existing data. Data used in this study were obtained from a national registry of cancer cases and the Disease Management Center of Ministry of Health in Iran. All cases registered in the country were included during 2004-2008. Incidence rates were reported based on the direct method and standard population of World Health Organization. Results: Based on the results of this study, the incidence of skin cancer is rising in Iran and the sex ratio was more in men than women in all provinces. The age-standardized incidence rate (ASR of skin cancer was highest in males in Semnan, Isfahan, and Hamedan provinces (34.9, 30.80, and 28.84, respectively. The highest ASRs were seen in females in Semnan, Yazd, and Isfahan provinces (26.7, 24.14, and 18.97, respectively. The lowest ASR in male was observed in Sistan and Baluchestan, and in female in Hormozgan provinces. Conclusions: The incidence of skin cancer is increasing in the country. Therefore, the plan for the control and prevention of this cancer must be a high priority for health policy makers.

  3. Trends in incidence of gallbladder cancer – Indian scenario

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    Nandagudi Srinivasa Murthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nandagudi Srinivasa Murthy1, Dinesh Rajaram1, MS Gautham1, NS Shivraj1, Sreekantaiah Pruthvish1, Preethi Sara George2, Aleyamma Mathew21MS Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore, Karnataka, India; 2Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, IndiaBackground: Reports of increasing incidence rates of gallbladder cancer in several areas in India prompted the analysis of time trends. The present communication reports its geographic and gender distribution and trends in occurrence of this disease over time.Materials and methods: The data published in Cancer Incidence in Five Continents for various Indian registries for different periods and/or publication by the individual registries served as the source material. Mean annual percentage change (MAPC in incidence rates was computed using relative difference between two time periods (earliest and latest, and estimation of annual percent change (EAPC was computed by log-linear regression model.Results: In 1998–2006, incidence rates of gallbladder cancer (age-standardized rate, ASR were high in Delhi and Kamrup ((3.6 and 7.4 and (5.3 and 14.3 per 105 person years in males and females, respectively and lowest in Aurangabad, 0.0 in both genders. The incidence rate revealed an increase in all registries. MAPC in ASR ranged from 1.0% to 8.10%. EAPC for Mumbai, Chennai, and Bangalore for the period 1983–2002 revealed statistically significant increase in crude, age-standardized, and truncated rate (TR (35–64 years incidence rates. The largest EAPC in ASR was in Chennai (almost 6.0% in both genders and smallest in Mumbai (3.5% and 2.1% in males and females, respectively.Conclusions: Statistically significant increase in gallbladder cancer incidence rates has been reported for Mumbai, Chennai, and Bangalore. Further studies are required in identifying factors that may be operative in etiology of cancer of gallbladder.Keywords: gallbladder cancer, trend, Indian scenario, calendar year

  4. Cancer burden trends in Umbria region using a joinpoint regression

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    Giuseppe Michele Masanotti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The analysis of the epidemiological data on cancer is an important tool to control and evaluate the outcomes of primary and secondary prevention, the effectiveness of health care and, in general, all cancer control activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The aim of the this paper is to analyze the cancer mortality in the Umbria region from 1978 to 2009 and incidence from 1994-2008. Sex and site-specific trends for standardized rates were analyzed by "joinpoint regression", using the surveillance epidemiology and end results (SEER software. RESULTS. Applying the jointpoint analyses by sex and cancer site, to incidence spanning from 1994 to 2008 and mortality from 1978 to 2009 for all sites, both in males and females, a significant joinpoint for mortality was found; moreover the trend shape was similar and the joinpoint years were very close. In males standardized rate significantly increased up to 1989 by 1.23% per year and significantly decreased thereafter by -1.31%; among females the mortality rate increased in average of 0.78% (not significant per year till 1988 and afterward significantly decreased by -0.92% per year. Incidence rate showed different trends among sexes. In males was practically constant over the period studied (not significant increase 0.14% per year, in females significantly increased by 1.49% per year up to 2001 and afterward slowly decreased (-0.71% n.s. estimated annual percent change − EAPC. CONCLUSIONS. For all sites combined trends for mortality decreased since late '80s, both in males and females; such behaviour is in line with national and European Union data. This work shows that, even compared to health systems that invest more resources, the Umbria public health system achieved good health outcomes.

  5. Global trends of lung cancer mortality and smoking prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Farhad; Torre, Lindsey A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-08-01

    Lung cancer killed approximately 1,590,000 persons in 2012 and currently is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. There is large variation in mortality rates across the world in both males and females. This variation follows trend of smoking, as tobacco smoking is responsible for the majority of lung cancer cases. In this article, we present estimated worldwide lung cancer mortality rates in 2012 using the World Health Organization (WHO) GLOBOCAN 2012 and changes in the rates during recent decades in select countries using WHO Mortality Database. We also show smoking prevalence and trends globally and at the regional level. By region, the highest lung cancer mortality rates (per 100,000) in 2012 were in Central and Eastern Europe (47.6) and Eastern Asia (44.8) among males and in Northern America (23.5) and Northern Europe (19.1) among females; the lowest rates were in sub-Saharan Africa in both males (4.4) and females (2.2). The highest smoking prevalence among males is generally in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia and Eastern Europe, and among females is in European countries, followed by Oceania and Northern and Southern America. Many countries, notably high-income countries, have seen a considerable decrease in smoking prevalence in both males and females, but in many other countries there has been little decrease or even an increase in smoking prevalence. Consequently, depending on whether or when smoking prevalence has started to decline, the lung cancer mortality trend is a mixture of decreasing, stable, or increasing. Despite major achievements in tobacco control, with current smoking patterns lung cancer will remain a major cause of death worldwide for several decades. The main priority to reduce the burden of lung cancer is to implement or enforce effective tobacco control policies in order to reduce smoking prevalence in all countries and prevent an increase in smoking in sub-Saharan Africa and women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

  6. Trends in adherence to recommended cancer screening: The US population and working cancer survivors

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    Tainya C. Clarke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past decade the United States has seen a decrease in advanced cancer diagnoses. There has also been an increase in the number of cancer survivors returning to work. Cancer screening behaviors among survivors may play an important role in their return-to-work process. Adherence to a post-treatment cancer screening protocol increases early detection of secondary tumors and reduces potentially limiting side-effects. We compared screening trends among all cancer survivors, working survivors, and the general population over the last decade.Methods: Trends in adherence to recommended screening were analyzed by site-specific cancer. We used the Healthy People goals as a measure of desired adherence. We selected participants 18+ years from 1997 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS for years where detailed cancer screening information was available. Using the recommendations of the American Cancer Society as a guide, we assessed adherence to cancer screening across the decade. There were 174,393 participants. Analyses included 7,528 working cancer survivors representing 3.8 million US workers, and 119,374 adults representing more than 100 million working Americans with no cancer history.Results: The US population met the Healthy People 2010 goal for colorectal screening, but declined in all other recommended cancer screening. Cancer survivors met and maintained the HP2010 goal for all, except cervical cancer screening. Survivors had higher screening rates than the general population. Among survivors, white-collar and service occupations had higher screening rates than blue-collar survivors.Conclusions: Cancer survivors report higher screening rates than the general population. Nevertheless, national screening rates are lower than desired, and disparities exist by cancer history and occupation. Understanding existing disparities, and the impact of cancer screening on survivors is crucial as the number of working survivors

  7. Survival trends in gastric cancer patients of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaoZhang; Ling—LingSun; Yan—LiMeng; Guang-YuSong; ]ing-.1ingHu; PingLu; BinJl

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To describe survival trends in patients in Northeast China diagnosed as gastric cancer. METHODS: A review of all inpatient and outpatient records of gastric cancer patients was conducted in the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University. All the gastric cancer patients who satisfied the inclusion criteria from January 1, 1980 through December 31, 2003 were included in the study. The main outcomes were based on median survival and 3-year and 5-year survival rates, by decade of diagnosis. RESULTS: From 1980 through 2003, the median survival for patients with gastric cancer (n = 1604) increased from 33 mo to 49 mo. The decade of diagnosis was not significantly associated with patient survival for gastric cancer (P = 0.084 for overall survival, and P = 0.150 for 5-year survival); however, the survival rate of the 2000s was remarkably higher than that of the 1980s (P = 0.019 for overall survival, and P = 0.027 for 5-year survival).CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference of survival among each period; however, the survival rate of the 2000s was remarkably higher than that of the 1980s.

  8. Current cancer incidence and trends in Yaounde, Cameroon

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    Enow Orock GE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Except for some information on relative frequencies of different cancers in selected areas, the epidemiology of cancer in Cameroon is relatively unknown. Though there is no reliable data on its incidence and pattern, with an estimated 15,000 new cases diagnosed annually and a prevalence of about 25.000 cases throughout the country, cancer is being increasingly recognized as a public health problem in Cameroon. The Yaounde Cancer Registry is a population registry physically located at the General Hospital Yaounde that has been operating since 2004. It collects data from about 20 sources that cover the entire population of Yaounde estimated in 2010 at about 1,299,369. Objectives: The objective of this study was to find out the incidence and trends of cancer in the Yaounde population in the period 2004 – 2006/2010 – 2011. It is hoped that this will enable policy makers, health providers and other stake holders plan appropriate health management policy in this population. Materials and Methods: This report presents the cancer incidence for 5 years, 2004 – 2006/2010 – 2011 in the Yaounde population estimated at 1,299,369. Data of the Yaounde Cancer Registry was reviewed for the period under study using Canreg5 software. Only malignant cases registered during the period under study were used in the analysis while benign and other uncertain tumours were excluded. The 2010 census estimates by the National Institute of Statistics was employed to calculate the incidence, age-standardized and crude rates. Other software like excel, epi info were also used for analysis. Survival studies were not carried out in this study. Results: A total of 4,689 new malignant cases were reported, of which 2,901 (68% were females and 1,788 (32% were males. The incidence showed an average of 358 for men and 580 for women. The average age of cancer patients in Yaounde is 44.8 years. Morphologically confirmed cases accounted for 89% .The annual number of

  9. Esophageal Cancer in Canada: Trends according to Morphology and Anatomical Location

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    Michael C Otterstatter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Esophageal adenocarcinoma has one of the fastest rising incidence rates and one of the lowest survival rates of any cancer type in the Western world. However, in many countries, trends in esophageal cancer differ according to tumour morphology and anatomical location. In Canada, incidence and survival trends for esophageal cancer subtypes are poorly known.

  10. Weight and Physical Activity - Prevention Summary Table | Cancer Trends Progress Report

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    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  11. Recent Trends in Prostate Cancer Incidence by Age, Cancer Stage, and Grade, the United States, 2001–2007

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    Jun Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine prostate cancer trends by demographic and tumor characteristics because a comprehensive examination of recent prostate cancer incidence rates is lacking. Patients and Methods. We described prostate cancer incidence rates and trends using the 2001–2007 National Program of Cancer Registries and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program data (representing over 93% of US population. Because of coding changes in cancer grade, we restricted analysis to 2004–2007. We conducted descriptive and trend analyses using SEER*Stat. Results. The overall prostate cancer incidence rate was stable from 2001 to 2007; however, rates significantly increased among men aged 40–49 years (APC = 3.0 and decreased among men aged 70–79 years (APC = 2.3, and 80 years or older (APC = −4.4. About 42% of localized prostate cancers diagnosed from 2004 to 2007 were poorly differentiated. The incidence of poorly differentiated cancer significantly increased among localized (APC = 8.0 and regional stage (APC = 6.1 prostate cancers during 2004–2007. Conclusions. The recent trend in prostate cancer incidence was stable but varied dramatically by age. Given the large proportion of poorly differentiated disease among localized prostate cancers and its increasing trend in more recent years, continued monitoring of prostate cancer incidence and trends by demographic and tumor characteristics is warranted.

  12. [The frequency of cancer in France: Most recent data and trends].

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    Ribassin-Majed, Laureen; Le-Teuff, Gwénaël; Hill, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    We present and discuss recent data on the frequency of cancer in France and on cancer survival. In the male population, the incidence of prostate and head and neck cancers diminishes rapidly and the incidence of the other common cancers: lung and colorectal diminishes less markedly; cancer mortality decreases for most sites. In the female population, the incidence of breast cancer diminishes rapidly, the incidence of colorectal and uterus cancers diminish less markedly and the incidence of lung cancer increases very fast: the mortality trends are similar. Cancer survival has improved in the last 16 years but some of the improvements are an artifact induced by overdiagnosis.

  13. Trends in cancer incidence in female breast, cervix uteri, corpus uteri, and ovary in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeole, Balkrishna B

    2008-01-01

    Trends in breast, cervix uteri, corpus uteri and ovarian cancers in six population based cancer registries (Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Bhopal, and Barshi) were evaluated over a period of the last two decades. For studying trends we used a model that fits this data is the logarithm of Y=ABx which represents a Linear Regression model. This approach showed a decreasing trend for cancer of the cervix and increasing trends for cancers of breast, ovary and corpus uteri throughout the entire period of observation in most of the registries. The four cancers, breast, cervix, corpus uteri and ovary, constitute more than 50% of total cancers in women. As all these cancers are increasing, to understand their etiology in depth, analytic epidemiology studies should be planned in a near future on a priority basis.

  14. Burden of cancer in Malawi; common types, incidence and trends: National population-based cancer registry

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    Msyamboza Kelias

    2012-03-01

    data on common types and trends of cancer that could be used to focus prevention, treatment and control interventions in the context of limited resources. The problem of under-reporting and misdiagnosis of cancer cases has been highlighted.

  15. Secular trend analysis oflung cancer incidence inSihui city, China between1987 and 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinLinDu; MingHuangHong; QiHongHuang; ZhengErLiao; SuMeiCao; XiaoLin; LiFangZhang; YanHuaLi; ShangHangXie; MengJieYang; JieGuo; ErHongLin; QingLiu

    2015-01-01

    Background:With industrial and economic development in recent decades in South China, cancer incidence may have changed due to the changing lifestyle and environment. However, the trends of lung cancer and the roles of smoking and other environmental risk factors in the development of lung cancer in rural areas of South China remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the lung cancer incidence trends and the possible causes of these trends. Methods:Joinpoint regression analysis and the age–period–cohort (APC) model were used to analyze the lung can‑cer incidence trends in Sihui, Guangdong province, China between 1987 and 2011, and explore the possible causes of these trends. Results:A total of 2,397 lung cancer patients were involved in this study. A 3‑fold increase in the incidence of lung cancer in both sexes was observed over the 25‑year period. Joinpoint regression analysis showed that while the inci‑dence continued to increase steadily in females during the entire period, a sharp acceleration was observed in males starting in 2005. The full APC model was selected to describe age, period, and birth cohort effects on lung cancer inci‑dence trends in Sihui. The age cohorts in both sexes showed a continuously signiifcant increase in the relative risk (RR) of lung cancer, with a peak in the eldest age group (80–84years). The RR of lung cancer showed a lfuctuating curve in both sexes. The birth cohorts identiifed an increased trend in both males and females; however, males had a plateau in the youngest cohorts who were born during 1955–1969. Conclusions:Increasing trends of the incidence of lung cancer in Sihui were dominated by the effects of age and birth cohorts. Social aging, smoking, and environmental changes may play important roles in such trends.

  16. Time trends of incidence of digestive system cancers in changle of China during :1988-2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Tian; Jian-Shun Chen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the incidence of digestive system cancer in Changle of China over a 15-year period.METHODS: The datasets were presented as timeseries of China-standardized annual incidence during 1988-2002. Linear regression model was used to analyze the incidence of stomach, liver, esophagus and colorectal cancers.RESULTS: Linear regression models for the time-series of stomach and esophagus cancer incidences for both men and women were statistically significant (P<0.05);Regression models for liver cancer and for colorectal cancer were statistically significant for men (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: The incidence rates of stomach and esophagus cancers for both men and women had down tendencies. For men, liver cancer had a down trend of the incidence and colorectal cancer had an upward trend of the incidence rate.

  17. Cancer mortality trends in the Umbria region of Italy 1978–2004: a joinpoint regression analysis

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    Petrinelli Anna Maria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present paper was to analyse cancer mortality in the Umbria region, from 1978 to 2004. Mortality trends depend on a number of factors including exposures, health system interventions, and possibly artefact (e.g. classification change, variations of data completeness. Descriptive data on mortality only allow for generation of hypotheses to explain observed trends. Some clues on the respective role of possible mortality determinants may be found comparing mortality with incidence and survival data. Methods Mortality data for the periods 1978–1993 and 1994–2004 were supplied by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT and the Regional Causes of Death Registry (ReNCaM respectively. Sex and site-specific mortality time trends were analysed by the "joinpoint regression" method. Results For all sites combined, in both sexes, the standardised rate was first increasing before the end of the eighties and decreasing thereafter. Gastric cancer mortality showed a different trend by gender; that is the rate constantly decreased over the period among females while, for males, it was first increasing up to 1985 and decreasing thereafter. Liver cancer trend showed a pattern similar to gastric cancer. Large bowel cancer showed a gender specific trend, that is it was increasing among males and stable among females. Also lung cancer mortality varied by gender: it started to decline after 1989 among males but was steadily increasing over the study period among women. A decreasing trend for female breast cancer mortality began in 1994. Prostate cancer mortality trend is the only one showing two significant joinpoints: mortality decreased up to 1990, then it increased up to 1998 and, finally, was decreasing. Conclusion Overall cancer mortality was decreasing in both sexes in Umbria and this favourable trend will probably continue and further improve since population screening against breast, cervix, and large bowel cancers

  18. An updated report on the trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Japan, 1958-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katanoda, Kota; Hori, Megumi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Hattori, Masakazu; Soda, Midori; Ioka, Akiko; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of cancer trends in Japan requires periodic updating. Herein, we present a comprehensive report on the trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Japan using recent population-based data. National cancer mortality data between 1958 and 2013 were obtained from published vital statistics. Cancer incidence data between 1985 and 2010 were obtained from high-quality population-based cancer registries of three prefectures (Yamagata, Fukui and Nagasaki). Joinpoint regression analysis was performed to examine the trends in age-standardized rates of cancer incidence and mortality. All-cancer mortality decreased from the mid-1990s, with an annual percent change of -1.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.4, -1.3). During the most recent 10 years, over 60% of the decrease in cancer mortality was accounted for by a decrease in stomach and liver cancers (63% for males and 66% for females). The long-term increase in female breast cancer mortality, beginning in the 1960s, plateaued in 2008. All-cancer incidence continuously increased, with annual percent changes of 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5, 0.8) between 1985 and 2005, and 1.8% (95% CI: 0.6, 2.9) between 2005 and 2010. During the most recent 10 years, almost half of the increase in cancer incidence was accounted for by an increase in prostate cancer (60%) in males and breast cancer (46%) in females. The cancer registry quality indices also began to increase from ∼2005. Decreases in stomach and liver cancers observed for incidence and mortality reflect the reduced attribution of infection-related factors (i.e. Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis virus). However, it should be noted that cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates began to increase from ∼1990.

  19. Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shanghai Mode Lingerie continually strives to underline its status as a veritable reference on the fashion scene: an opportunity to explore trends, interpret key directions and gain an in-depth overview of lines to follow.

  20. Trend Analysis of Cancer Mortality in the Jinchang Cohort, China, 2001-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Hong Mei; REN Xiao Wei; SHANG Hui; BAI Ya Na; CHENG Ning; DAI Min; ZHENG Tong Zhang; WANG Dennis; LI Hai Yan; HU Xiao Bin; LI Juan Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the baseline data of cancers in the Jinchang Cohort, this paper examined trends in cancer mortality among adults investigated in Jinchang, Gansu province from 2001 to 2010. Methods Mortality data were collected from company departments through administrative documents, death certificates, etc. Trend analyses of cancer mortality were performed on the basis of 925 cancer deaths between 2001 and 2010. Results The crude mortality rate of cancer continuously increased from 161.86 per 100,000 in 2001 to 315.32 per 100,000 in 2010, with an average increase of 7.69%per year in the Jinchang Cohort (16.41%in females compared to 6.04% in males), but the age-standardized mortality rate increased only in females. Thirteen leading cancers accounted for 92.10%of all cancer deaths. The five leading causes of cancer mortality in males were lung, gastric, liver, esophageal, and colorectal cancer, whereas those in females were lung, liver, gastric, breast, and esophageal cancer. Conclusion The overall cancer mortality rate increased from 2001 to 2010 in the Jinchang Cohort, with greater rate of increase in females than in males. Lung, breast, and gastric cancer, in that order, were the leading causes of increased cancer mortality in females.

  1. Trends in cancer incidence in Maputo, Mozambique, 1991-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesaltina Lorenzoni

    Full Text Available Very limited information is available regarding the incidence of cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed changes in cancer patterns from 1991 to 2008 in Maputo (Mozambique.We calculated the rates of incidence of different cancer sites by sex in the 5-year age-group of the population of Maputo city as well as age-standardized rates (ASRs and average annual percentage changes (AAPC.Over the 18-year study period a total of 12,674 cases of cancer (56.9% females were registered with an overall increase in the risk of cancer in both sexes. In males, the most common cancers were those of the prostate, Kaposi sarcoma (KS and the liver. Prostate cancer showed the most dramatic increase over the whole study period (AAPC +11.3%; 95% CI: 9.7-13.0, with an ASR of 61.7 per 105 in 2003-2008. In females, the most frequent cancers were of the uterine cervix, the breast and KS, with the former increasing along the whole study period (AAPC + 4.7%; 95% CI: 3.4-6 with an ASR of 62.0 per 105 in 2003-2008 as well as breast cancer (AAPC +6.5%; 95%CI: 4.3-8.7.Overall, the risk of cancer rose in both sexes during the study period, particularly among cancers associated with westernization of lifestyles (prostate, breast, combined with increasingly rising incidences or limited changes in cancers associated with infection and poverty (uterine cervix, liver. Moreover, the burden of AIDS-associated cancers has shown a marked increase.

  2. Trends in breast cancer in the elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeanette D; Cold, Søren; Holck Nielsen, Mette;

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy among women worldwide and the second most common cause of cancer-related death in developed countries. The aim of the present analysis is to describe trends in incidence, mortality, prevalence, and relative survival in Denmark from 1980 to ...

  3. Gender differences in the trend of colorectal cancer incidence in Singapore, 1968–2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); C.S. Wong (Chia Siong); K.S. Chia (Kee Seng); X. Sim (Xueling); C.S. Tan (Chuen Seng); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); H.M. Verkooijen (Helena)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground and aims Over the past decades, incidence trends of colorectal cancer are sharply increased in Singapore. In this population-based study we describe changes in colorectal cancer incidence in Singapore and explore the reasons behind these changes through age-period cohort (APC

  4. Gender differences in the trend of colorectal cancer incidence in Singapore, 1968-2002.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, IM de; Wong, C.S.; Chia, K.S.; Sim, X.; Tan, C.S.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Verkooijen, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Over the past decades, incidence trends of colorectal cancer are sharply increased in Singapore. In this population-based study we describe changes in colorectal cancer incidence in Singapore and explore the reasons behind these changes through age-period cohort (APC) modeling.

  5. Trends in inequalities in premature cancer mortality by educational level in Colombia, 1998-2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. de Vries (Esther); I. Arroyave (Ivan); C. Pardo (Constanza); C. Wiesner (Carolina); R. Murillo (Raul); D. Forman (David); A. Burdorf (Alex); M. Avendano Pabon (Mauricio)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: There is a paucity of studies on socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality in developing countries. We examined trends in inequalities in cancer mortality by educational attainment in Colombia during a period of epidemiological transition and rapid expansion of health in

  6. Trends in inequalities in premature cancer mortality by educational level in Colombia, 1998-2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. de Vries (Esther); I. Arroyave (Ivan); C. Pardo (Constanza); C. Wiesner (Carolina); R. Murillo (Raul); D. Forman (David); A. Burdorf (Alex); M. Avendano Pabon (Mauricio)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground There is a paucity of studies on socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality in developing countries. We examined trends in inequalities in cancer mortality by educational attainment in Colombia during a period of epidemiological transition and rapid expansion of health ins

  7. Time-space trends in cancer incidence in The Netherlands in 1989–2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Aa, van der Maaike A.; Coebergh, Jan W.W.; Pukkala, Eero

    2008-01-01

    Incidence of cancer may vary within a country and over time because of previous differences in exposure to risk factors or interventions for early detection (screening). This study describes time-space trends of incidence of common cancer sites across the Netherlands during the period 1989–2003 and

  8. Trends in return to work of breast cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roel, H.P.; Koopmans, P.C.; Rhenen, van W.; et al.,

    2011-01-01

    Most women interrupt their work activities during the treatment of cancer. This study investigated return to work (RTW) after treatment of breast cancer in the period from January 2002 to December 2008. ArboNed Occupational Health Service records the sickness absence and RTW data of more than one mi

  9. Colorectal cancer trends in Kerman province, the largest province in Iran, with forecasting until 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roya, Nikbakht; Abbas, Bahrampour

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers. The aim of this study is determination its trends in Kerman province and individual cities separately until year 2016. This analytical and modeling study was based of cancer registry data of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, collected during 2001-2010. Among 20,351 cancer case, 792 were colorectal cancer cases in age group 18-93 years with a mean of 59.4 and standard deviation of 15.1. By applying time series and data trends, incidences were predicted until 2016 for the province and each city, with adjustment for population size. In colorectal cases, 413 (52%) were male, and 379 (48%) were female. The annual increasing rate in Kerman province overall was and can be expected to be 6%, and in the cities of the province Rafsanjan, Bardsir, Bam, Kerman, Baft, Sirjan, Jiroft, Kahnuj and Manujan had an increasing range from 5 to 14% by the year 2016. But in Ravar, Zarand and Shahrbabak reduction in rates of at least 2% could be predicted. The time series showed that the trend of colorectal cancer in female will increase 15% and in male 7% by year 2016. Given the trend of this cancer is increasing so that resources will be consumed in the treatment of the patients, efforts shoudlbe focused on prevention and early diagnosis of the disease. Screening could have an important role leading to improved survival.

  10. Life time risk for development of ten major cancers in India and its trends over the years 1982 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayana L

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background : Understanding cancer magnitude, risk and trends will be of help in cancer control programs. Aim : To study trends in cumulative risk up to 64 years of age as lifetime risk of developing major cancers in India during the years 1982 to 2000. Design : Retrospective. Setting : Secondary sources of cancer-registration data. Materials and Methods : Data on age-specific cancer-incidence rates were collected for patients 0-64 years of age of either sex for 10 major cancer sites from the National Cancer Registry Program (NCRP reports of India from Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Bhopal and Delhi; and Barshi registries for the years 1982 or 1988 to 2000. Statistical Analysis : Cumulative risks computed for lifetime development of cancer. Linear trends were studied using simple linear regressions. Results : The lifetime risk among females for the10 cancer sites ranged from 0.02 to 3.3% and from 0.04 to 2.4% for the years 1982 and 2000 respectively; whereas among males, it ranged from 0.04 to 0.89% and from 0.05 to 0.95% respectively. Significant (P < 0.05 increasing trends were observed for breast, non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL, gallbladder, thyroid and ovary cancers among females; while declining trends were observed for cervix, mouth, stomach, esophagus and tongue cancers. Among males, significant (P < 0.05 increasing trends were observed for NHL and prostate cancer; whereas declining trends were observed for stomach, liver, hypopharynx and tongue cancers. Cancers of mouth and esophagus showed increasing trends (P < 0.05 in some regions and declining trends (P < 0.05 in some other. Conclusion : Significant and higher rates of positive trends in lifetime cancer risks for breast cancer among females and for NHL among both sexes were observed.

  11. Changing Trends of Breast Cancer Survival in Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyam Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in women, with elevated incidence in developing countries. This retrospective study included all 122 patients diagnosed with breast cancer from January 2003 to December 2008 in the Sultanate of Oman. Age at presentation was 47.41 years (SD±12.88, with one-third of patients younger than 40 years. The majority of patients presented with stage III (41.2% and IV (18.2% breast cancer. T size (=.023, skin involvement (=.003, and stage at presentation (=.004 were significantly associated with overall survival. Skin involvement at presentation (=.003, T size (=.09, lymph node status (=.013, and stage (=.003 were strong predictors of relapse-free survival. Patients had a 5-year survival of 78%, compared to 64% of breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1996 and 2002 identified in our previously published study. Thus, despite Omani breast cancer patients continuing to present with advanced breast cancer, survival rates have significantly improved.

  12. Therapies targeting cancer stem cells: Current trends and future challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denisa; L; Dragu; Laura; G; Necula; Coralia; Bleotu; Carmen; C; Diaconu; Mihaela; Chivu-Economescu

    2015-01-01

    Traditional therapies against cancer, chemo- and radiotherapy, have multiple limitations that lead to treatment failure and cancer recurrence. These limitations are related to systemic and local toxicity, while treatment failure and cancer relapse are due to drug resistance and self-renewal, properties of a small population of tumor cells called cancer stem cells(CSCs). These cells are involved in cancer initiation, maintenance, metastasis and recurrence. Therefore, in order to develop efficient treatments that can induce a longlasting clinical response preventing tumor relapse it is important to develop drugs that can specifically target and eliminate CSCs. Recent identification of surface markers and understanding of molecular feature associated with CSC phenotype helped with the design of effective treatments. In this review we discuss targeting surface biomarkers, signaling pathways that regulate CSCs self-renewal and differentiation, drug-efflux pumps involved in apoptosis resistance, microenvironmental signals that sustain CSCs growth, manipulation of mi RNA expression, and induction of CSCs apoptosis and differentiation, with specific aim to hamper CSCs regeneration and cancer relapse. Some of these agents are under evaluation in preclinical and clinical studies, most of them for using in combination with traditional therapies. The combined therapy using conventional anticancer drugs with CSCs-targeting agents, may offer a promising strategy for management and eradication of different types of cancers.

  13. [Breast cancer mortality trends in Mexico, 1980-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vara-Salazar, Elvia; Suárez-López, Leticia; Angeles-Llerenas, Angélica; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer has become an important health risk for women worldwide.The important growth of breast cancer-related deaths within those caused by malign tumors throughout the globe went past the 460 000 in 2008,becoming the deadliest disease worldwide. Demographic changes and lifestyles have modified the population exposure to risk factors of maladies such as cancer, and since 1980 breast cancer mortality has remained on an upward tendency, surpassing cervical cancer in 2006. After analyzing mortality rates along 30 years in Mexican women 25 or more years old, differences by state and age-groups are apparent. Although this cause of death has been associated with a highest regional development, some changes are taking place,since the number of deaths is also growing among women of less-developed regions in the country,as showed in this work. Mexico faces an evident challenge regarding breast cancer. Our country requires to join efforts and implement programs aimed at teaching self-care of health among the population,promoting healthier lifestyles, and reshaping our diagnostic infrastructure to achieve earlier detection and provide proper treatment.

  14. Trends in cancer in the elderly population in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertz, Marianne; Christensen, Kaare; Engholm, Gerda

    2016-01-01

    Background Age is the strongest risk factor for developing cancer. The aim of the present analysis is to give an overview of the trends in cancer incidence, mortality, prevalence, and relative survival in Denmark from 1980 to 2012 focusing on age, comparing persons aged 70 years or more with thos...... among those aged 90 years or more. Conclusion An increase in elderly cancer patients is expected over the coming 20 years due to an increasing elderly population. Healthcare providers need to focus on developing specific strategies for treatment of elderly cancer patients in the future....

  15. Prostate cancer incidence, mortality, and survival trends in the United States: 1981-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Aruna V; Schottenfeld, David

    2002-02-01

    The increased use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in screening for preclinical disease after 1985 is thought to be a major determinant of the changing patterns in prostate cancer incidence; however, the long-term effect of screening on future trends in mortality and survival is uncertain. This article reviews the temporal trends (1981-1998) for prostate cancer incidence, mortality, and survival, and projects prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates for 1999 to 2001. Autoregressive, quadratic, time-series models were used to describe prostate cancer mortality rates in the US population and prostate cancer incidence rates derived from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program. These models were based on data collected from 1979 through 1998, with forecasts produced for 1999 to 2001. Prostate cancer incidence increased steadily from 1981 to 1989, with a steep increase in the early 1990s, followed by a decline. Incidence rates were forecasted to remain stable through the year 2001. Mortality rates decreased steadily and were forecasted to continue to decrease concurrently with increasing 5- and 10-year relative survival rates. The incidence, mortality, and survival trends were comparable in US blacks, who exhibited on average 2-fold higher mortality and 50% higher incidence than whites. Decreasing prostate cancer mortality and increasing relative survival trends in the United States were described after the introduction of PSA screening. However, the exaggerated rate of increase in the early 1990s in prostate cancer incidence was transient and likely a result of increased detection of preclinical disease that was prevalent in the general population.

  16. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality in Barcelona: 1992–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasarín M Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to assess trends in cancer mortality by educational level in Barcelona from 1992 to 2003. Methods The study population comprised Barcelona inhabitants aged 20 years or older. Data on cancer deaths were supplied by the system of information on mortality. Educational level was obtained from the municipal census. Age-standardized rates by educational level were calculated. We also fitted Poisson regression models to estimate the relative index of inequality (RII and the Slope Index of Inequalities (SII. All were calculated for each sex and period (1992–1994, 1995–1997, 1998–2000, and 2001–2003. Results Cancer mortality was higher in men and women with lower educational level throughout the study period. Less-schooled men had higher mortality by stomach, mouth and pharynx, oesophagus, larynx and lung cancer. In women, there were educational inequalities for cervix uteri, liver and colon cancer. Inequalities of overall and specific types of cancer mortality remained stable in Barcelona; although a slight reduction was observed for some cancers. Conclusion This study has identified those cancer types presenting the greatest inequalities between men and women in recent years and shown that in Barcelona there is a stable trend in inequalities in the burden of cancer.

  17. Gastric cancer mortality trends in Spain, 1976-2005, differences by autonomous region and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Navarro Pablo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of oncologic death worldwide. One of the most noteworthy characteristics of this tumor's epidemiology is the marked decline reported in its incidence and mortality in almost every part of the globe in recent decades. This study sought to describe gastric cancer mortality time trends in Spain's regions for both sexes. Methods Mortality data for the period 1976 through 2005 were obtained from the Spanish National Statistics Institute. Cases were identified using the International Classification of Diseases 9th and 10th revision (codes 151 and C16, respectively. Crude and standardized mortality rates were calculated by geographic area, sex, and five-year period. Joinpoint regression analyses were performed to ascertain whether changes in gastric cancer mortality trends had occurred, and to estimate the annual percent change by sex and geographic area. Results Gastric cancer mortality decreased across the study period, with the downward trend being most pronounced in women and in certain regions situated in the interior and north of mainland Spain. Across the study period, there was an overall decrease of 2.90% per annum among men and 3.65% per annum among women. Generally, regions in which the rate of decline was sharpest were those that had initially registered the highest rates. However, the rate of decline was not constant throughout the study period: joinpoint analysis detected a shift in trend for both sexes in the early 1980s. Conclusion Gastric cancer mortality displayed in both sexes a downward trend during the study period, both nationally and regionally. The different trend in rates in the respective geographic areas translated as greater regional homogeneity in gastric cancer mortality by the end of the study period. In contrast, rates in women fell more than did those in men. The increasing differences between the sexes could indicate that some risk factors may be modifying

  18. Trends in corrected lung cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; de Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier; de Moura, Lenildo; Lana, Gustavo C; Azevedo, Gulnar; França, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the trend in cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions before and after correction for underreporting of deaths and redistribution of ill-defined and nonspecific causes. METHODS The study used data of deaths from lung cancer among the population aged from 30 to 69 years, notified to the Mortality Information System between 1996 and 2011, corrected for underreporting of deaths, non-registered sex and age , and causes with ill-defined or garbage codes according to sex, age, and region. Standardized rates were calculated by age for raw and corrected data. An analysis of time trend in lung cancer mortality was carried out using the regression model with autoregressive errors. RESULTS Lung cancer in Brazil presented higher rates among men compared to women, and the South region showed the highest death risk in 1996 and 2011. Mortality showed a trend of reduction for males and increase for women. CONCLUSIONS Lung cancer in Brazil presented different distribution patterns according to sex, with higher rates among men and a reduction in the mortality trend for men and increase for women. PMID:27355467

  19. Trends in lung cancer in elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Charlotte; Schytte, Tine; Holmskov, Karin;

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is an increasing problem in the older patient population due to the improvement in life expectation of the Western population. In this study we examine trends in lung cancer incidence and mortality in Denmark from 1980 to 2012 with special focus on the elderly. Material...... and methods Lung cancer was defined as ICD-10 codes C33-34. Data derived from the NORDCAN database with comparable data on cancer incidence, mortality, prevalence, and relative survival in the Nordic countries, where the Danish data were delivered from the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Cause of Death...... Registry with follow-up for death or emigration until the end of 2013. Results In 2012, about 50% of lung cancers were diagnosed among persons aged 70 years or more. For men and women older than 75 years the incidence rates have been increasing and for those aged 80-84 years, the rates have doubled since...

  20. THE FREQUENCY OF RISK FACTORS ON TRENDS OF PANCREATIC CANCER IN KOSOVO

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The aim: The aim of this paper is to analyze different factors that influence the trends of pancreatic cancer mortality and morbidity of patients treated at the UCCK of Kosovo. Within this study, we have evaluated pancreatic cancer risk factors, durability and lethality regarding Kosovan patients who have been diagnosed and treated within Kosovo. The study in question is that of retrospective research traversing the period of 2011-2015. Materials and methodology: This retrospective research s...

  1. Current trends in cancer vaccines--a bioinformatics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Shanju; Nayanar, Sangeetha K; Balasubramanian, Satheesan

    2013-01-01

    Cancer vaccine development is in the process of becoming reality in future, due to successful phase II/III clinical trials. However, there are still problems due to the specificity of tumor antigens and weakness of tumor associated antigens in eliciting an effective immune response. Computational models to assess the vaccine efficacy have helped to improve and understand what is necessary for personalized treatment. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms of activation of antigen specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, decreased TREG number functionality and antigen cascade, so that overall improvement in vaccine efficacy and disease free survival can be attained. T cell epitomic based in sillico approaches might be very effective for the design and development of novel cancer vaccines.

  2. Trends in gastric cancer mortality and in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Samantha; Ferro, Ana; Bastos, Ana; Castro, Clara; Lunet, Nuno; Peleteiro, Bárbara

    2016-07-01

    Portugal has the highest gastric cancer mortality rates in Western Europe, along with high prevalences of Helicobacter pylori infection. Monitoring their trends is essential to predict the burden of this cancer. We aimed to quantify time trends in gastric cancer mortality in Portugal and in each administrative region, and to compute short-term predictions, as well as to describe the prevalence of H. pylori infection, through a systematic review. Joinpoint analyses were used to identify significant changes in sex-specific trends in gastric cancer age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) and to estimate annual percent changes (APC). The most recent trends were considered to compute estimates up to 2020 by adjusting Poisson regression models. We searched PubMed and IndexRMP to identify studies carried out in Portugal reporting the prevalence of H. pylori. Gastric cancer mortality has been decreasing in Portugal since 1971 in men (from ASMR=55.3/100 000; APC=-2.4, 95% confidence interval: -2.5 to -2.3) and since 1970 in women (from ASMR=28.0/100 000; APC=-2.8, 95% confidence interval: -2.9 to -2.7), although large regional differences were observed. Predicted ASMR for 2015 and 2020 were 18.8/100 000 and 16.7/100 000 for men and 8.5/100 000 and 7.4/100 000 for women, respectively. The prevalence of H. pylori varied from almost 5% at 0.5-2 years to just over 90% at 70 years or more. No consistent variation was observed since the 1990s. The downward trends in mortality rates are expected to remain in the next decades. The high prevalence of H. pylori infection across age groups and studies from different periods shows a large potential for decrease in the burden of gastric cancer in Portugal.

  3. Trends in gynecologic cancer among elderly women in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ør Knudsen, Anja; Schledermann, Doris; Nyvang, Gitte-Bettina;

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this analysis was to describe trends in incidence, mortality, prevalence, and survival in Danish women with gynecologic cancer from 1980-2012 comparing women aged 70 years or more with younger women. Material and methods Gynecologic cancers included were ICD-10 codes C53...... from 631 in 1980 to 773 in 2012. The mortality rates were clearly separated by age groups with much higher mortality rates among the 70+ years-old as compared with younger women. Overall the mortality rates decreased from 1980 to 2012. Conclusion In gynecologic cancer both mortality rates and survival...

  4. [Epidemiologic trend of and strategies for colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, De-Sen

    2009-09-01

    The incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC) show increasing tendency worldwide. It was predicted that the new cases in 2007 would be approximate 1,200,000 and the death cases would be 630,000, a total increase of 27% and 28% and an annual increase of 3.9% and 4.0%, respectively, compared with the figures in 2000. In addition, the incidence of CRC varies regionally and changes over the time. In previously identified high-incidence areas, there are three tendencies: one is to keep rising such as in UK, one is to be stable such as in New Zealand, and the third one is to decrease such as in US and Western Europe. In previously identified low-incidence areas, the incidence of CRC is increasing, such as in Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Hungary, Poland, Israel, and Puerto-Rico, especially in Japan, where the incidence increases the fastest. Similarly, the incidence of CRC is increased by 4.2% annually in Shanghai, China, which is faster than the average increasing rate of the world. Since 1991, the average increase in mortality of CRC is 4.7% every year. The increasing number of female patients and the shift of the tumor location to the right side are also noticed for CRC in recent years. We summarized that CRC is a disease caused by synergism of environment and diet, life style and heredity. It was suggested that CRC can be prevented effectively through developing a regular life style, having proper diet, actively participating in the screening for cancers, and removing the pre-cancer lesions.

  5. Temporal trends in breast cancer presentation in the third world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyanwu Stanley NC

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Third world breast cancer is characterized by late presentation, occurrence at relatively young ages and dismal mortality. This poor outcome has encouraged patients to patronize quacks and alternative healers. Public control measures have targeted mainly public education and provision of screening facilities. Recent reports from the developed world indicate a high association with obesity, tobacco and alcohol, habits which though not currently very popular in the third world are nevertheless increasingly accepted. Methods A prospective study initiated in 1985 for all breast cancer patients attending 4 hospitals located in the Eastern Nigeria heartland where the author practiced. On attendance to hospital detailed epidemiological data including social habits were collected from patients. Results Reports from our first series [1987–97] showed some improvement in terms of earlier presentation compared to a historical control of earlier reports from the sub-region. Reports from the present study showed that this improvement has not been maintained probably as a result of diversion of public health campaign finances to HIV/AIDS. However there is an increasing mean age of presentation due to a higher representation of above 70 years age group and a significant reduction in parity. Alcohol intake and smoking have remained at low levels among the patients. Conclusion There is need to take another look at cancer public health campaign mechanisms in the face of competing demands from HIV. Public control measures should include among others teaching of Breast Self Examination [BSE] to patients, Clinical Breast Examination [CBE] to health workers and opportunistic CBE to all patients. Strenuous efforts should be made to break the vicious cycle of late presentation, poor treatment outcome and reluctance of patients to present to health facilities because of poor outcome.

  6. Time trends in educational inequalities in cancer mortality in Colombia, 1998-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. de Vries (Esther); I. Arroyave (Ivan); C. Pardo (Constanza)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To evaluate trends in premature cancer mortality in Colombia by educational level in three periods: 1998-2002 with low healthcare insurance coverage, 2003-2007 with rapidly increasing coverage and finally 2008-2012 with almost universal coverage (2008-2012). Setting: Colombia

  7. Prostate cancer: trends in incidence, survival and mortality in the Netherlands, 1989-2006.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Karim-Kos, H.E.; Houterman, S.; Verhoeven, R.H.; Schroder, F.H.; Kwast, T.H. van der; Kil, P.J.M.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer occurrence and stage distribution changed dramatically during the end of the 20th century. This study aimed to quantify and explain trends in incidence, stage distribution, survival and mortality in the Netherlands between 1989 and 2006. METHODS: Population-based data fro

  8. Mass screening programmes and trends in cervical cancer in Finland and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aa, van der Maaike A.; Pukkala, Eero; Coebergh, Jan Willem W.; Anttila, Ahti; Siesling, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    With respect to cervical cancer management, Finland and the Netherlands are comparable in relevant characteristics, e.g., fertility rate, age-of-mother at first birth and a national screening programme for several years. The aim of this study is to compare trends in incidence of and mortality from c

  9. Prostate cancer in East Asia:evolving trend over the last decade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Zhu; HongKai Wang; YuanYuan Qu; DingWei Ye

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is now becoming an emerging health priority in East Asia. Most of our current knowledge on Prostate cancer has been generated from studies conducted in Western population; however, there is considerable heterogeneity of Prostate cancer between East and West. In this article, we reviewed epidemiologic trends, risk factors, disease characteristics and management of Prostate cancer in East Asian population over the last decade. Growing evidence from East Asia suggests an important role of genetic and environmental risk factors interactions in the carcinogenesis of Prostate cancer. Exposure to westernized diet and life style and improvement in health care in combination contribute substantially to the increasing epidemic in this region. Diagnostic and treatment guidelines in East Asia are largely based on Western knowledge. Although there is a remarkable improvement in the outcome over the last decade, ample evidence suggests an inneglectable difference in diagnostic accuracy, treatment efficacy and adverse events between different populations. The knowledge from western countries should be calibrated in the Asian setting to provide a better race‑based treatment approach. In this review, we intend to reveal the evolving trend of Prostate cancer in the last decade, in order to gain evidence to improve Prostate cancer prevention and control in East Asia.

  10. Measuring trends in performance across time: providing information to cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Margaret I; McAndrew, Alison; Harth, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Providing relevant, up-to-date information is identified as a quality standard of cancer care. Cancer programs need to be able to evaluate whether they are meeting the standard and to monitor their performance on an ongoing basis. Routine collection of clearly defined data, using reliable and valid measures, provides cancer program leaders with dependable information upon which to make decisions and monitor trends in performance over time. This article describes one cancer centre's experience in using standardized data collection regarding provision of patient information. The Cancer Patient Information Importance-Satisfaction Scale has been administered routinely in an outpatient setting over eight years. The profile we create from the data assists us in making informed decisions about patient education initiatives.

  11. Cancer incidence and mortality trends in Australian adolescents and young adults, 1982–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haggar Fatima A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing incidence and lack of survival improvement in adolescents and young adults (AYAs with cancer have led to increased awareness of the cancer burden in this population. The objective of this study was to describe overall and type-specific cancer incidence and mortality trends among AYAs in Western Australia from 1982–2007. Methods Age–adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for all malignancies combined and for each of the most common diagnostic groups, using five-year age–specific rates. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to derive annual percentage changes (APC for incidence and mortality rates. Results The annual incidence rate for all cancers combined increased in males from 1982 until 2000 (APC = 1.5%, 95%CI: 0.9%; 2.1% and then plateaued, whilst rates for females remained stable across the study period (APC = −0.1%; 95%CI: −0.2%; 0.4% across the study period. For males, significant incidence rate increases were observed for germ cell tumors, lymphoblastic leukemia and thyroid cancer. In females, the incidence of Hodgkin’s lymphoma, colorectal and breast cancers increased. Significant incidence rate reductions were noted for cervical, central nervous system and lung cancers. Mortality rates for all cancers combined decreased from 1982 to 2005 for both males (APC = −2.6%, 95%CI:−3.3%;−2.0% and females (APC = −4.6%, 95%CI:−5.1%;−4.1%. With the exception of bone sarcoma and lung cancer in females, mortality rates for specific cancer types decreased significantly for both sexes during the study period. Conclusions Incidence of certain AYA cancers increased, whilst it decreased for others. Mortality rates decreased for most cancers, with the largest improvement observed for breast carcinomas. Further research is needed to identify the reasons for the increasing incidence of certain cancers.

  12. Trend and forecasting rate of cancer deaths at a public university hospital using univariate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A.; Hassan, Noor I.

    2013-09-01

    Cancer is one of the principal causes of death in Malaysia. This study was performed to determine the pattern of rate of cancer deaths at a public hospital in Malaysia over an 11 year period from year 2001 to 2011, to determine the best fitted model of forecasting the rate of cancer deaths using Univariate Modeling and to forecast the rates for the next two years (2012 to 2013). The medical records of the death of patients with cancer admitted at this Hospital over 11 year's period were reviewed, with a total of 663 cases. The cancers were classified according to 10th Revision International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Data collected include socio-demographic background of patients such as registration number, age, gender, ethnicity, ward and diagnosis. Data entry and analysis was accomplished using SPSS 19.0 and Minitab 16.0. The five Univariate Models used were Naïve with Trend Model, Average Percent Change Model (ACPM), Single Exponential Smoothing, Double Exponential Smoothing and Holt's Method. The overall 11 years rate of cancer deaths showed that at this hospital, Malay patients have the highest percentage (88.10%) compared to other ethnic groups with males (51.30%) higher than females. Lung and breast cancer have the most number of cancer deaths among gender. About 29.60% of the patients who died due to cancer were aged 61 years old and above. The best Univariate Model used for forecasting the rate of cancer deaths is Single Exponential Smoothing Technique with alpha of 0.10. The forecast for the rate of cancer deaths shows a horizontally or flat value. The forecasted mortality trend remains at 6.84% from January 2012 to December 2013. All the government and private sectors and non-governmental organizations need to highlight issues on cancer especially lung and breast cancers to the public through campaigns using mass media, media electronics, posters and pamphlets in the attempt to decrease the rate of cancer deaths in Malaysia.

  13. Cancer mortality trends in two cohorts of elderly people having different life-styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, A; Casiglia, E; Scarpa, R; Sica, E; Biasin, R; Privato, G; Pizziol, A; Pessina, A C

    1999-02-01

    We analyzed cancer mortality trends in 3282 elderly subjects from two general Italian populations with different life-style patterns taking part in the Cardiovascular Study in the Elderly (CASTEL). The aim of the study was to evaluate which predictors were able to influence cancer mortality. Age, gender, tobacco smoking, the presence of respiratory symptoms, increased serum levels of ALT and ALP, and the town of residence were powerful predictors. Subjects living in Chioggia (low income, rural) had significantly greater lung and liver cancer mortality, compared with those living in Castelfranco (industrial). The findings suggest that an incongruous life-style (smoking, alcohol consumption, poor hygienic conditions) may increase cancer mortality despite the favorable environmental conditions typical of rural Mediterranean areas.

  14. Trends in colorectal cancer survival in northern Denmark: 1985-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lene Hjerrild; Nørgaard, Mette; Jepsen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The prognosis for colorectal cancer (CRC) is less favourable in Denmark than in neighbouring countries. To improve cancer treatment in Denmark, a National Cancer Plan was proposed in 2000. We conducted this population-based study to monitor recent trends in CRC survival and mortality...... in four Danish counties. METHOD: We used hospital discharge registry data for the period January 1985-March 2004 in the counties of north Jutland, Ringkjøbing, Viborg and Aarhus. We computed crude survival and used Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to compare mortality over time, adjusted...... for age and gender. A total of 19,515 CRC patients were identified and linked with the Central Office of Civil Registration to ascertain survival through January 2005. Results: From 1985 to 2004, 1-year and 5-year survival improved both for patients with colon and rectal cancer. From 1995-1999 to 2000...

  15. Time trends of cancer mortality among elderly in Italy, 1970–2008: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidoli Ettore

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aging of the Italian population will unavoidably lead to a growing number of persons diagnosed and living with cancer. A comprehensive description of the burden of cancer mortality among Italian elderly (65-84 years of age in the last four decades has not been carried out yet. Cancer mortality rates were used to describe time trends between 1970-2008. Methods Mortality counts, provided by the Italian National Institute of Statistics, were grouped according to data availability: in quinquennia from 1970-74 through 1995-99, and in 2000-03 and 2006-08 groups. Age-standardized rates (world population were computed by calendar periods while annual percent changes (APCs were computed for elderly and middle aged (35-64 years people for the period 1995-2008. Results The number of cancer deaths in elderly nearly doubled between 1970-74 (31,400 deaths/year in men, and 24,000 in women and 2006-08 (63,000 deaths/year in men, and 42,000 in women. Overall cancer mortality rates peaked during the quinquennia 1985-89 and 1990-94 (about 1,500/100,000 in men and 680 in women and declined thereafter. Throughout 1995-2008 cancer mortality rates decreased by -1.6%/year in men and -0.9%/year in women. These decreases were mainly driven by cancers of the stomach, bladder, prostate, and lung (APC = -3.3%, -2.7%, -2.5%, -2.2%, respectively in men, and by cancers of the stomach, bladder, and breast (APC = -3.5%, -1.9%, -1.1%, respectively in women. Conversely, increases in mortality rates between 1995 and 2008 were recorded for lung cancer (APC = +0.6% in women, cutaneous melanoma (APC = +1.7% in men, and pancreatic cancer (APC = +0.6% in men and +0.9% in women. Conclusions Overall favorable trends in cancer mortality were observed among Italian elderly between 1995 and 2008. Early diagnosis, improved efficacy of anti-cancer treatments and management of comorbidities are the most likely explanations of these positive

  16. Historical Trends in the Use of Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Cancers: 1973-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jairam, Vikram [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Therapeutic Radiology, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Roberts, Kenneth B. [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Therapeutic Radiology, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Therapeutic Radiology, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to assess historical trends in the use of radiation therapy (RT) for pediatric cancers over the past 4 decades. Methods: The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database of the 9 original tumor registries (SEER-9) was queried to identify patients aged 0 to 19 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, bone and joint cancer, cancer of the brain and nervous system, Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, soft tissue cancer, Wilms tumor, or retinoblastoma from 1973 to 2008. Patients were grouped into 4-year time epochs. The number and percentage of patients who received RT as part of their initial treatment were calculated per epoch by each diagnosis group from 1973 to 2008. Results: RT use for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and retinoblastoma declined sharply from 57%, 57%, and 30% in 1973 to 1976 to 11%, 15%, and 2%, respectively, in 2005 to 2008. Similarly, smaller declines in RT use were also seen in brain cancer (70%-39%), bone cancer (41%-21%), Wilms tumor (75%-53%), and neuroblastoma (60%-25%). RT use curves for Wilms tumor and neuroblastoma were nonlinear with nadirs in 1993 to 1996 at 39% and 19%, respectively. There were minimal changes in RT use for Hodgkin lymphoma, soft tissue cancer, or acute myeloid leukemia, roughly stable at 72%, 40%, and 11%, respectively. Almost all patients treated with RT were given external beam RT exclusively. However, from 1985 to 2008, treatments involving brachytherapy, radioisotopes, or combination therapy increased in frequency, comprising 1.8%, 4.6%, and 11.9% of RT treatments in brain cancer, soft tissue cancer, and retinoblastoma, respectively. Conclusions: The use of RT is declining over time in 7 of 10 pediatric cancer categories. A limitation of this study is a potential under-ascertainment of RT use in the SEER-9 database including the delayed use of RT.

  17. Tobacco and lung cancer: risks, trends, and outcomes in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Graham W; Cummings, K Michael

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use, primarily associated with cigarette smoking, is the largest preventable cause of cancer mortality, responsible for approximately one-third of all cancer deaths. Approximately 85% of lung cancers result from smoking, with an additional fraction caused by secondhand smoke exposure in nonsmokers. The risk of lung cancer is dose dependent, but can be dramatically reduced with tobacco cessation, especially if the person discontinues smoking early in life. The increase in lung cancer incidence in different countries around in the world parallels changes in cigarette consumption. Lung cancer risks are not reduced by switching to filters or low-tar/low-nicotine cigarettes. In patients with cancer, continued tobacco use after diagnosis is associated with poor therapeutic outcomes including increased treatment-related toxicity, increased risk of second primary cancer, decreased quality of life, and decreased survival. Tobacco cessation in patients with cancer may improve cancer treatment outcomes, but cessation support is often not provided by oncologists. Reducing the health related effects of tobacco requires coordinated efforts to reduce exposure to tobacco, accurately assess tobacco use in clinical settings, and increase access to tobacco cessation support. Lung cancer screening and coordinated international tobacco control efforts offer the promise to dramatically reduce lung cancer mortality in the coming decades.

  18. Incidence and survival trends for childhood cancer in Osaka, Japan, 1973-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Sachiko; Ioka, Akiko; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Noda, Hiroyuki; Ajiki, Wakiko; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2010-03-01

    Mortality for childhood cancer has declined in Osaka, as well as all over Japan, since the 1970s, but whether this decline can be explained by trends of incidence or survival of childhood cancer has not been examined. A total of 5960 malignant tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2001 in children Japan. The time trends for childhood cancer were analyzed over 29 years for incidence and 20 years for survival. Leukemia was the most common among childhood cancer for both sexes and accounted for one-third of all cases. The age-standardized annual incidence rate of all tumors was highest in 1988-1992: 155.1 per million for males and 135.9 for females. Five-year survival for all tumors improved from 50.1% in 1978-1982 to 73.0% in 1993-1997 for males and from 52.3% to 76.3% for females. Thus, the constant decline in mortality in childhood cancer was primarily due to improved survival between the 1970s and 1980s and reduced incidence after the 1990s.

  19. Divergent estrogen receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer trends and etiologic heterogeneity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, William F; Rosenberg, Philip S; Petito, Lucia;

    2013-01-01

    Long-term breast cancer trends in incidence in the United States (US) show rising estrogen receptor (ER)-positive rates and falling ER-negative rates. We hypothesized that these divergent trends reflect etiologic heterogeneity and that comparable trends should be observed in other countries......-period-cohort models to estimate age-specific EAPCs, cohort rate ratios and projections for future time periods (2011-2018). In Denmark, the overall rate of ER-positive cancers rose between 1993 and 2010 by 3.0% per year (95% CI: 2.8-3.3% per year), whereas the overall rate of ER-negative cancers fell by 2.1% per year...... (95% CI: -2.5 to -1.6% per year). The ER-positive rate increased fastest among postmenopausal women and the ER-negative rate decreased fastest among premenopausal women, reflecting that cohorts born after 1944 were at relatively higher risk of ER-positive tumors and lower risk of ER-negative tumors...

  20. Endometrial cancer incidence trends in Europe: underlying determinants and prospects for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Freddie; Dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Moller, Henrik; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2005-05-01

    More than one in 20 female cancers in Europe are of the endometrium. Surveillance of incidence rates is imperative given the rapidly changing profile in the prevalence and distribution of the underlying determinants. This study presents an analysis of observed and age-period-cohort-modeled trends in 13 European countries. There were increasing trends among postmenopausal women in many Northern and Western countries. Denmark and possibly France and Switzerland were exceptions, with decreasing trends in postmenopausal women. In premenopausal and perimenopausal women, declines were observed in Northern and Western Europe, most evidently in Denmark, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, affecting consecutive generations born after 1925. These contrast with the increasing trends regardless of menopausal age in some Southern and Eastern European countries, particularly Slovakia and Slovenia. These observations provide evidence of changes in several established risk factors over time and have implications for possible primary prevention strategies. In postmenopausal women, changes in reproductive behavior and prevalence of overweight and obesity may partially account for the observed increases, as well as hormone replacement therapy use in certain countries. Combined oral contraceptive use may be responsible for the declines observed among women aged oral contraceptive use becomes more widespread in Europe, increases in obesity and decreases in fertility imply that endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women will become a more substantial public health problem in the future.

  1. Cancer trends in Kashmir; common types, site incidence and demographic profiles: National Cancer Registry 2000-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Wani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An assessment of cancer incidence in population is required for prevention, early diagnosis, treatment and resource allocation. This will also guide in the formation of facilities for diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation and follow-up for these patients. The demographic trend of cancer will help to identify common types and etiological factors. Efforts at clinical, research and administrative levels are needed to overcome this problem. Settings and Design: Present retro prospective study was conducted in regional cancer center of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: After permission from ethics committee, a retro prospective study of 1 year duration was undertaken to study the profile of cancer patients and to compare it with other cancer registries in India. Statistical Analysis: Pearson′s Chi-square test and simple linear regression were used. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version-16 (University of Bristol information services (www.bristol.ac.uk/is/learning/resources was used. RESULTS: The overall incidence of cancer in Kashmir is on the increase and common sites of cancer are esophagus and gastroesophageal (GE junction, lung, stomach, colorectal, lymphomas, skin, laryngopharynx, acute leukemias, prostate and brain in males.In females common sites are breast, esophagus and GE junction, ovary, colorectal, stomach, lung, gallbladder, lymphomas, acute leukemias and brain. Conclusion: Cancers of esophagus, stomach and lungs have a high incidence both in men and women in Kashmir. Future studies on sources and types of environmental pollution and exposures in relation to these cancers may improve our understanding of risk factors held responsible for causation of these malignancies in this region. This will help in the allocation of available resources for prevention and treatment strategies.

  2. Trends of cancer incidence and mortality in Cali, Colombia. 50 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Bravo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: The Population-based Cancer Registry of Cali aims to report all new cases in permanent residents within the limits of the city of Cali. Time trends of cancer incidence and mortality are described. The registry has been in continuous operation for 50 years. Methods: Cancer cases reports are obtained actively by visiting all sources of information: hospitals, pathology departments, hematology laboratories, radiotherapy centers, government offices where death certificates are processed and physician’s offices. It is estimated that the reporting is at least 95% complete. Results: Drastic decreases are documented in rates for tumors causally related to infectious agents, especially cancers of the uterine cervix and the stomach. Gradual increases are documented in rates of tumors linked to affluence and the metabolic syndrome, especially cancers of the colon and the female breast. An unexpected increase in the incidence of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland in women is reported. Tobacco-related cancers, especially cancer of the lung, showed marked increase in incidence rates around 1970, apparently the beginning of an epidemic similar to the one reported in Western societies. But the increase in incidence stopped around 1980, resulting from a strong anti-smoking campaign launched in Colombia in the 1970s. Conclusions: The findings have influenced prevention strategies implemented by public health authorities, specially the establishment of a city-wide program to prevent cervix cancer via widespread use of vaginal cytology and anti-smoking campaigns. Also, new population-based cancer registries have been established in other Colombian cities as well as in Ecuador.

  3. Trends of cancer incidence and mortality in Cali, Colombia. 50 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose :The Population-based Cancer Registry of Cali aims to report all new cases in permanent residents within the limits of the city of Cali. Time trends of cancer incidence and mortality are described. The registry has been in continuous operation for 50 years. Methods: Cancer cases reports are obtained actively by visiting all sources of information: hospitals, pathology departments, hematology laboratories, radiotherapy centers, government offices where death certificates are processed and physician’s offices. It is estimated that the reporting is at least 95% complete. Results: Drastic decreases are documented in rates for tumors causally related to infectious agents, especially cancers of the uterine cervix and the stomach. Gradual increases are documented in rates of tumors linked to affluence and the metabolic syndrome, especially cancers of the colon and the female breast. An unexpected increase in the incidence of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland in women is reported. Tobacco-related cancers, especially cancer of the lung, showed marked increase in incidence rates around 1970, apparently the beginning of an epidemic similar to the one reported in Western societies. But the increase in incidence stopped around 1980, resulting from a strong anti-smoking campaign launched in Colombia in the 1970s. Conclusions: The findings have influenced prevention strategies implemented by public health authorities, specially the establishment of a city-wide program to prevent cervix cancer via widespread use of vaginal cytology and anti-smoking campaigns. Also, new population-based cancer registries have been established in other Colombian cities as well as in Ecuador.

  4. International trends in liver cancer incidence, overall and by histologic subtype, 1978-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Jessica L; Braunlin, Megan; Laversanne, Mathieu; Valery, Patricia C; Bray, Freddie; McGlynn, Katherine A

    2016-10-01

    Primary liver cancer, the most common histologic types of which are hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. While rising incidence of liver cancer in low-risk areas and decreasing incidence in some high-risk areas has been reported, trends have not been thoroughly explored by country or by histologic type. We examined liver cancer incidence overall and by histology by calendar time and birth cohort for selected countries between 1978 and 2007. For each successive 5-year period, age-standardized incidence rates were calculated from volumes V-IX of the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents electronic database (CI5plus) and the newly released CI5X (volume X) database. Wide global variations persist in liver cancer incidence. Rates of liver cancer remain highest in Asian countries, specifically Eastern and South-Eastern Asian countries. While rates in most of these high-risk countries have been decreasing in recent years, rates in India and several low-risk countries of Africa, Europe, the Americas, and Oceania have been on the rise. Liver cancer rates by histologic type tend to convey a similar temporal profile. However, in Thailand, France, and Italy, ICC rates have increased while HCC rates have declined. We expect rates in high-risk countries to continue to decrease, as the population seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) continues to decline. In low-risk countries, targeted screening and treatment of the hepatitis C virus (HCV), treatment of diabetes and primary prevention of obesity, will be key in reducing future liver cancer incidence.

  5. Trends in kidney cancer among the elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azawi, Nessn H; Joergensen, Simon Moeller; Jensen, Niels Viggo

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to elucidate incidence, mortality, survival, and prevalence of kidney cancer in elderly persons compared with younger persons in Denmark. Material and methods Cancer of the kidney was defined as ICD-10 code DC 64. Data derived from the NORDCAN database with...... kidney cancer in the elderly is to establish interdisciplinary collaborations between different specialties, such as surgeons, clinical oncologists, and geriatricians to be able to deliver the best possible care in the future.......Background The purpose of this study is to elucidate incidence, mortality, survival, and prevalence of kidney cancer in elderly persons compared with younger persons in Denmark. Material and methods Cancer of the kidney was defined as ICD-10 code DC 64. Data derived from the NORDCAN database...... of patients diagnosed with kidney cancer over the age of 70 years has decreased from 43% in 1980 to 32% in 2012 in men and remained almost constant in women, around 50%. Incidence rates were at least five times higher in men aged 70 years more but there was no particular trend with time. In men aged less than...

  6. Trends in Cancer Screening Rates among Korean Men and Women: Results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), 2004-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Ha; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Choi, Kui Son; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Jin Soo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS) is a continuous nationwide survey implemented by the National Cancer Center in Korea since 2004. The purpose of the present study was to report trends in cancer screening rates for the five major cancers (stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervix uteri) in Korean men and women. Materials and Methods The study used KNCSS data collected between 2004 and 2010. The survey was conducted on Korean men aged 40-74 years and Korean women...

  7. Increasing Trend in Colorectal Cancer Incidence in the Southeast of Iran 2003-2013: A Population Based Cancer Registry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniasadi, Nadieh; Moghtader, Elahe; Khajehkazemi, Razieh; Mohebbi, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Rates based on age-adjusted incidence of colorectal cancers over a 10-year period in Kerman, the biggest province of Iran, were estimated from 2003 to 2013. Data were obtained from the population-based cancer registry unit of Kerman University of Medical Sciences (CR-KMU). Information included age, sex, city, ICD-O and year of registry. Our trend analyses cover 3.91% of the Iranian population. The data set comprised cases diagnosed from 2003 to 2013.The population of over 20 years was interpolated using 2003 and 2010 censuses. Then, truncated age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated. Increase was noted from 2003-2009 to 2010-2013 for 731 cancer cases considered in the analysis. The increases was most prominent in 2009. Totally, the frequency of the cancer was greater in males. Moreover, calculating truncated age-adjusted incidence rate indicated that the most prevalent age of colorectal incidence was in the 50-59 year age group except in 2007-2008 and 2012- 2013, when greatest incidences occurred in people aged 60-69 years. Our data revealed that the incidence rates of colorectal cancer have increased over the past decade in our region of Iran.

  8. Age-specific cancer survival in Estonia: recent trends and data quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innos K

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Kaire Innos,1 Katrin Lang,2 Kersti Pärna,2 Tiiu Aareleid11Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia; 2Department of Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartu, EstoniaBackground: A number of population-based studies have demonstrated lower cancer survival in elderly patients than among middle-aged or younger patients. Also, data quality in cancer registries has been shown to be associated with age. The objective of this study was to examine the recent age-specific cancer survival trends and age-specific quality of cancer data in Estonia.Methods: Using Estonian Cancer Registry data, we calculated relative survival ratios (RSRs for eight common cancers in Estonia in 1995–1999 (cohort method and 2005–2009 (period method for four major age groups (15–54, 55–64, 65–74, and 75–84 years at diagnosis. The main data quality indicators were calculated, and the age-specific effect of missing death certificate initiated (DCI cases on survival was estimated comparing 5-year RSRs computed from the complete data set with those from data set without DCI cases.Results: We observed overall rise in 5-year RSR for all eight cancers over the study period, with a considerable variation by age, with the lowest survival among the oldest patients. The widest age gradient in 5-year RSR was seen for bladder cancer (20% units in 2005–2009, followed by cancers of lung (16% units, kidney (15% units, breast and prostate (13% units, stomach and rectum (11% units, and colon (5% units. All data quality indicators, including proportion of cases with unknown stage showed a similar age-related pattern with the lowest quality in the oldest age group. The effect of missing DCI cases on survival estimates increased by age and was around 3% units for prostate and kidney cancers among the oldest patients.Conclusion: Young or middle-aged patients in Estonia experienced larger survival gain since the late 1990s

  9. Trends in cancer of the urinary bladder and urinary tract in elderly in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thor Knak; Jensen, Niels Viggo; Jørgensen, Simon Møller

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and prevalence of cancers of the urinary bladder and urinary tract in Denmark from 1980 to 2012 with particular focus on elderly patients over age 70 years. Design Cancer of the urinary bladder and urinary...

  10. Trends in the incidence of cervical cancer and severe precancerous lesions in Denmark, 1997-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Munk, Christian; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The incidence of cervical cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), has been decreasing in several developed countries since the onset of organized screening programs; in some countries, however, the incidence of adenocarcinoma has increased among young women. We investigated...... the Danish incidence trends during 1997-2011 when cervical screening coverage was high. Incidences of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) were also assessed, with the latest part of the study period coinciding with introduction of free-of-charge human......, importantly, they decreased significantly during 2009-2012 in women aged ≤20 years. CONCLUSIONS: The Danish screening program has successfully reduced the incidence of cervical cancer, especially of SCC in older women; however, the program has not significantly reduced the incidence in young women...

  11. [Trends and evolutions of French breast cancer research: a bibliometric study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonon, Frédérique; Saghatchian, Mahasti; Nerfie, Alexia; Delaloge, Suzette

    2015-05-01

    This article presents a bibliometric study carried out in order to describe the trends and evolutions of French breast cancer research from 2003 to 2013. The results show an increase in the number of publications, especially international publications coordinated by non-French institutions. The most visible topics, in terms of number of publications by keywords, are related to biology, clinical trials and genetics. Most publications are written by authors affiliated to comprehensive cancer centres, followed by universities, research centres, university hospitals and governmental agencies. The importance of publications by topic varies throughout the years: there has been an increase of the number of publications related to targeted therapies or genomics. The importance of institutions or country affiliation of authors varies with the topics. This study, especially the analysis by keywords, enables the coordinators of research programs to identify the predominant actors and themes.

  12. Testicular cancer trends as 'whistle blowers' of testicular developmental problems in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Jørgensen, N;

    2007-01-01

    in TGCC rates of a population may be 'whistle blowers' of other reproductive health problems. As cancer registries are often of excellent quality - in contrast to registries for congenital abnormalities - health authorities should consider an increase in TGCC as a warning that other reproductive health......Recently a worldwide rise in the incidence of testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) has been repeatedly reported. The changing disease pattern may signal that other testicular problems may also be increasing. We have reviewed recent research progress, in particular evidence gathered in the Nordic....../disorders of sex differentiation and male fertility problems may be symptoms with varying penetration. In spite of their fetal origin, most of the TDS symptoms, including TGCC and poor semen quality, can only be diagnosed in adulthood. Data from a Danish-Finnish research collaboration strongly suggest that trends...

  13. Recent trends in racial and regional disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangmi

    2017-01-01

    Background Although black women experienced greater cervical cancer incidence and mortality rate reduction in recent years, they continue to have higher incidence rates than whites. Great variations also exist among geographic regions of the US, with the South having both the highest incidence and mortality rates compared to other regions. The present study explores the question of whether living in the South is associated with greater racial disparity in cervical cancer incidence and mortality by examining race- and region-specific rates and the trend between 2000 and 2012. Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 Program data was used. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, annual percent changes, and disparity ratios were calculated using SEER*Stat software and Joinpoint regression for four groups: US14-Non-Hispanic White (NHW), US14-Non-Hispanic Black (NHB), South-NHW, and South-NHB, where South included 4 registries from Georgia and Louisiana and US14 were 14 US registries except the four South registries. Results The average age-adjusted cervical cancer incidence rate was the highest among South-NHBs (11.1) and mortality rate was the highest among US14-NHBs (5.4). In 2012, the degree of racial disparities between South-NHBs and South-NHWs was greater in terms of mortality rates (NHB:NHW = 1.80:1.35) than incidence rates (NHB:NHW = 1.45:1.15). While mortality disparity ratios decreased from 2000–2012 for US14-NHB (APC: -1.9(-2.3,-1.4), mortality disparity ratios for South-NHWs (although lower than NHBs) increased compared to US14-NHW. Incidence rates for NHBs continued to increase with increasing age, whereas rates for NHWs decreased after age 40. Mortality rates for NHBs dramatically increased at age 65 compared to a relatively stable trend for NHWs. The increasing racial disparity with increasing age in terms of cervical cancer incidence rates became more pronounced when corrected for hysterectomy prevalence. Conclusions

  14. Modern trends in radioimmunotherapy of cancer. Pre targeting strategies for the treatment of ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcquarrie, S.A.; Xiao, Z.; Mercer, J. R.; Suresh, M. R. [Edmonton Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AL (Canada). Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences; Miller, G. G. [University of Alberta, Noujaim Institute for Pharmaceutical Oncology Research, Edmonton, AL (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    A review of published data on some of the problems associated in treating cancer using radioimmunotherapy is presented. Potential improvements for this type of therapy using pretargeting strategies are discussed and preliminary results on a novel multistep regimen to treat human ovarian cancer are presented. A pretargeting strategy using ovarian cancer are presented. A pretargeting strategy using a biotinylated, anti-CA 125 monoclonal antibody (MAb) to attract biotinylated long-circulating liposomes to the surface of CA 125-expressing ovarian cancer cells, was employed. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluorescent labels were used to establish the biodistribution patterns in NIH:OVCAR-3 (CA-125 positive) and SK-OV-3 (CA-125 negative) human ovarian cancer cells. Shedding kinetics of the pretargeted stage were measured using {sup 125}I labeled MAbs. No significant internalization of the MAb used in the pretargeting step was observed by 4 hrs. The antibody was gradually internalized starting at 6 hrs, and most of the labelled MAb was detected in cytoplasm by 24 hrs. Shedding and exocytosis of the antigen-MAb complex was not significant for up to 6-hours following administration of the iodinated MAb. Biotinylated liposomes were shown to specifically target the biotinylated MAb/streptavidin complex on the cell surface. It has been demonstrated that by a three-step pretargeting approach, biotinylated liposomes can be specifically delivered to cells pretargeted with biotinylated MAb/SAv complex. The slow internalization and shedding properties of the two MAbs are ideal for multistep pretargeting methods. A successful multistep linkage was established with the biotinylated MAb B27.1, streptavidin and biotinylated liposomes to OVCAR-3 cells, but not to SK-OV-3 cells.

  15. THE FREQUENCY OF RISK FACTORS ON TRENDS OF PANCREATIC CANCER IN KOSOVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadani, Naser; Dedushi, Kreshnike; Muçaj, Sefedin; Kabashi, Serbeze; Jerliu, Naim; Hoxhaj, Astrit

    2016-01-01

    The aim: The aim of this paper is to analyze different factors that influence the trends of pancreatic cancer mortality and morbidity of patients treated at the UCCK of Kosovo. Within this study, we have evaluated pancreatic cancer risk factors, durability and lethality regarding Kosovan patients who have been diagnosed and treated within Kosovo. The study in question is that of retrospective research traversing the period of 2011-2015. Materials and methodology: This retrospective research study includes 362 patients recently diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, 2011-2015 at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo in Pristina. The main important factors included in this study are: age, sex and risk factors that altogether have considerable influence in incidence of pancreatic cancer. The imaging diagnostics are performed with the use of 2D ECHO Phillips, MSCT Sensation 64 and 6 and 1.5T MRI Symphony Siemens that are situated in the Radiologic Clinic of UCCK. The statistic data were obtained from NIPH of Kosovo and Agency of Statistics of Kosovo. Results: Out of the total number of the 362 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, the mortality in all age groups was higher at male patients–61.6 % of cases (n=223) with the highest number found at 51–60 years age group. The 38.4 % (n= 139) were female patients with the highest incidence frequency at F 61–70 years age group. The F/M ratio is 1:1.6. The “plane” nicotine users were found at 34 % (n=123) while the joined, nicotine/alcohol addiction was detected at 26 % (n= 94). The 18.5% (n=67) have had established diagnose of the diabetes mellitus tip II and 9.6 % (n=35) have undergone the medical treatment of the gastroduodenal peptic ulcerations. The total number of deaths is 310 (85.6%) and there are only 52 patients (14.4%) still alive. The mortality rate of the pancreatic cancer in Kosovo was 17.2 in 100.000 residents while the morbidity rate was 2.8 in 100.000 residents. Discussion and conclusion: This

  16. Trends in Cancer Screening Rates among Korean Men and Women: Results of the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey, 2004-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Mina; Choi, Kui Son; Park, Boyoung; Lee, Yoon Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Lee, Duk-Hyoung; Kim, Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), a nationwide cross-sectional survey, has been conducted annually since 2004. The current study was conducted to report on the trends in screening rates among Korean men and women, and to evaluate policies regarding cancer screening programs implemented to reduce the burden of cancer. Materials and Methods The current study used KNCSS data. The eligible study population included men aged 40-74 years and women aged 30-74 years with no...

  17. The 5th Conference on Asian Trends in Prostate Cancer Hormone Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Moore, Malcolm A; Chang, Shu-Jen; Cheng, Christopher; Choi, Han Yong; Esuvaranathan, Kesavan; Hinotsu, Shiro; Hong, Sung-Joon; Kim, Choung-Soo; Kim, Wun-Jae; Murai, Masaru; Naito, Seiji; Soebadi, Doddy; Song, Jae-Mann; Umbas, Rainy; Usami, Michiyuki; Xia, Shujie; Yang, Chi-Rei

    2007-01-01

    The Conference on Asian Trends in Prostate Cancer Hormone Therapy is an annual forum for Asian urologists now in its 5th year. The 2006 conference, held in Bali, Indonesia, was attended by 27 leading urologic oncologists from China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan and featured a packed program of presentations and discussions on a wide range of topics such as relationships among clinicians and the newly opened Asia Regional Office for Cancer Control of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC), detection rates of prostate cancer by biopsy in each of the 6 Asian countries, and favored treatment modalities for hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) in each country. The first session of the conference kicked off with a keynote lecture entitled "Activities of the UICC ARO". UICC's new office will be the nerve center for its activities in the Asia region. Along with the Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention (APOCP), UICC aims to shift the focus of attention to cancer control. As such APOCP's long-running publication the APJCP is to be re-launched as the Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Control. Although UICC is primarily concerned with cancer, several risk factors for cancer are common also to other non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and heart disease, and an important strategy is to implement measures to control these various pathologic conditions as a whole. Apart from contributing to an Asian prostate cancer registry the UICC-ARO will provide training courses, working groups, and assistance in collecting and processing data. The keynote lecture was followed by a roundtable discussion on possible ways in which clinicians from each Asian country can work with UICC. A number of suggestions were put forth including better registration, epidemiology research, possible implementation of UICC prostate cancer guidelines, early detection and screening, and roles of diet and phytotherapy. The underlying reasons for the large but

  18. Trend analysis and survival of primary gallbladder cancer in the United States: a 1973-2009 population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rubayat; Simoes, Eduardo J; Schmaltz, Chester; Jackson, Christian S; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2017-03-20

    Primary gallbladder cancer is an aggressive and uncommon cancer with poor outcomes. Our study examines epidemiology, trend, and survival of gallbladder cancer in the United States from 1973 to 2009. We utilized the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database (SEER). Frequency and rate analyses on demographics, stage, and survival were compared among non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, African American, and Asian/Pacific Islanders. A total of 18,124 cases were reported in SEER from 1973 to 2009 comprising 1.4% of all reported gastrointestinal cancers. Gallbladder cancer was more common in females than males (71 vs. 29%, respectively). The age-adjusted incidence rate was 1.4 per 100,000, significantly higher in females than males (1.7 vs. 1.0). Trend analysis showed that the incidence rate has been decreasing over the last three decades for males. However, among females, the incidence rate had decreased from 1973 to mid-90s but has remained stable since then. Trend analysis for stage at diagnosis showed that the proportion of late-stage cases has been increasing significantly since 2001 after a decreasing pattern since 1973. Survival has improved considerably over time, and survival is better in females than males and in Asian/Pacific Islanders than other racial groups. The highest survival was in patients who received both surgery and radiation. Trend analysis revealed a recent increase of the incidence of late-stage gallbladder cancer. Highest survival was associated with receiving both surgery and radiation.

  19. International patterns and trends in testicular cancer incidence, overall and by histologic subtype, 1973-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabert, B; Chen, J; Devesa, S S; Bray, F; McGlynn, K A

    2015-01-01

    Incidence rates of testicular cancer in Northern European and North American countries have been widely reported, whereas rates in other populations, such as Eastern Europe, Central/South America, Asia, and Africa, have been less frequently evaluated. We examined testicular cancer incidence rates overall and by histologic type by calendar time and birth cohort for selected global populations 1973-2007. Age-standardized incidence rates over succeeding 5-year periods were calculated from volumes 4-9 of Cancer Incidence in Five Continents electronic database (CI5plus) and the newly released CI5X (volume 10) database. Annual percent change over the 35-year period was calculated using weighted least squares regression. Age-period-cohort analyses were performed and observed rates and fitted rate ratios presented by birth cohort. Incidence rates of testicular cancer increased between 1973-1977 and 2003-2007 in most populations evaluated worldwide. Of note, incidence rates in Eastern European countries rose rapidly and approached rates in Northern European countries. Rates in Central and South America also increased and are now intermediate to the high rates among men of European ancestry and low rates among men of Asian or African descent. Some heterogeneity in the trends in seminoma and nonseminoma were observed in Denmark, the United Kingdom, and among US whites, particularly in recent generations, with rapid and uniform increases in the incidence of both histologic types in Slovakia. Reasons for the rising incidence rates among European and American populations remain unexplained; however, changing distributions in the prevalence of risk factors for testicular cancer cannot be ruled out.

  20. Testicular cancer trends as 'whistle blowers' of testicular developmental problems in populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N; Main, K M; Leffers, H; Andersson, A-M; Juul, A; Jensen, T K; Toppari, J

    2007-08-01

    Recently a worldwide rise in the incidence of testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) has been repeatedly reported. The changing disease pattern may signal that other testicular problems may also be increasing. We have reviewed recent research progress, in particular evidence gathered in the Nordic countries, which shows strong associations between testicular cancer, undescended testis, hypospadias, poor testicular development and function, and male infertility. These studies have led us to suggest the existence of a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), of which TGCC, undescended testis, hypospadias/disorders of sex differentiation and male fertility problems may be symptoms with varying penetration. In spite of their fetal origin, most of the TDS symptoms, including TGCC and poor semen quality, can only be diagnosed in adulthood. Data from a Danish-Finnish research collaboration strongly suggest that trends in TGCC rates of a population may be 'whistle blowers' of other reproductive health problems. As cancer registries are often of excellent quality - in contrast to registries for congenital abnormalities - health authorities should consider an increase in TGCC as a warning that other reproductive health problems may also be rising.

  1. The Trend of Age-Group Effect on Prognosis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rong-liang; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wei, Wen-jun; Wang, Yu-Long; Ji, Qing-hai

    2016-01-01

    Age has been included in various prognostic scoring systems for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study is to re-examine the relationship between age and prognosis by using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based database. We identified 51,061 DTC patients between 2004 and 2012. Patients were separated into 10-year age groups. Cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models were built to analyze the outcomes and risk factors. Increasing age gradient with a 10-year interval was associated with the trend of higher proportions for male gender, grade III/IV and summary stage of distant metastases. Both CSS and OS continued to worsen with increasing age, being poorest in in the oldest age group (≥71); multivariate analysis confirmed that CSS continued to fall with each age decade, significantly starting at 60 years (HR = 7.5, 95% 1.0–54.1, p = 0.047) compared to the young group (≤20). Similarly, multivariate analysis suggested that OS continued worsening with increasing age, but starting at 40 years (HR = 3.7, 95% 1.4–10.1, p = 0.009) compared to the young group. The current study suggests that an age exceeding 60 years itself represents an unfavorable prognostic factor and high risk for cancer-specific death in DTC. PMID:27272218

  2. Lung Cancer Mortality Trends in China from 1988 to 2013: New Challenges and Opportunities for the Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: As lung cancer has shown a continuously increasing trend in many countries, it is essential to stay abreast of lung cancer mortality information and take informed actions with a theoretical basis derived from appropriate and practical statistical methods. Methods: Age-specific rates were collected by gender and region (urban/rural and analysed with descriptive methods and age-period-cohort models to estimate the trends in lung cancer mortality in China from 1988 to 2013. Results: Descriptive analysis revealed that the age-specific mortality rates of lung cancer in rural residents increased markedly over the last three decades, and there was no obvious increase in urban residents. APC analysis showed that the lung cancer mortality rates significantly increased with age (20–84, rose slightly with the time period, and decreased with the cohort, except for the rural cohorts born during the early years (1909–1928. The trends in the patterns of the period and cohort effects showed marked disparities between the urban and rural residents. Conclusions: Lung cancer mortality remains serious and is likely to continue to rise in China. Some known measures are suggested to be decisive factors in mitigating lung cancer, such as environmental conservation, medical security, and tobacco control, which should be implemented more vigorously over the long term in China, especially in rural areas.

  3. Trends in the demographic and clinicopathological characteristics in Japanese patients with endometrial cancer, 1990–2010

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    Hachisuga T

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Taisei Honda, Rie Urabe, Tomoko Kurita, Seiji Kagami, Toshinori Kawagoe, Naoyuki Toki, Yusuke Matsuura, Toru HachisugaDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Yahatanishi-ku, Kitakyushu, JapanObjective: Over the past 20 years, the incidence of endometrial cancer has increased remarkably in Japan. The number of elderly females has also increased within the population of Japan. We examined the impact of advanced age on the demographic and clinicopathological characteristics in Japanese patients with endometrial cancer.Methods: Data were collected from 319 surgically treated Japanese females with endometrial cancer from the files of the University Hospital of Occupational and Environmental Health, Yahatanishi-ku, Kitakyushu, Japan, between 1990 and 2010. χ2 tests were performed to evaluate the trends in the variables between two decades (A: 116 cases from 1990–2000 and (B: 203 cases in 2001–2010. The histological subtypes were also evaluated based on the immunohistochemical expressions of p53, estrogen receptor, and Ki-67.Results: The mean ages ± standard deviation in the decade A group and the decade B group were 57.5 years ± 9.7 years and 61.0 years ± 11.3 years, respectively (P < 0.02. There was an increase in the proportion of patients aged 70 years or older and of high-risk histological tumors including serous carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, and carcinosarcoma (decade A group and decade B group: 9.5% vs 27.6%, P < 0.001, 10.4% vs 21.6%, P = 0.01, respectively, while the advanced surgical stage (III and IV, obesity (≥25 of body mass index, and nulliparity of the decade A group and decade B group were 23.3% vs 29.1%, P = 0.30, 28.4% vs 33.0%, P = 0.40, and 19.0% vs 21.2%, P = 0.66, respectively. The cancer-specific survival rates in the decade A group and the decade B group were 78.6% and 77.6%, respectively (P = 0.93.Conclusion: The increase in number of elderly

  4. Trends in Cancer Screening Rates among Korean Men and Women: Results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), 2004-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Boyoung; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Yoon Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Seo, Hong Gwan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS) is a nationwide survey conducted annually, since 2004. This study was conducted in order to report on trends in rates of cancer screening for five major cancers-stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervix uteri in Korea. Materials and Methods Data collected by the KNCSS between 2004 and 2011 were used in this study. The eligible study population included cancer-free men who were 40 years old and over, and women who were 30 years o...

  5. Trends of surgical treatment of hilar bile duct cancer: clinical andexperimental perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Qiang Huang; Ning Xin Zhou; Da Dong Wang; Jian Guo Lu; Ming Yi Chen

    2000-01-01

    AIM To summarize the experience of surgical treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma and the results of aseries of experiments.METHODS AND RESULTS Personal perspectives of surgical treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma werebased on the experience of a series of patients with hilar bile duct cancer treated in the General Hospital ofPLA, Beijing from 1986 to 1999. A total of 157 cases were treated surgically, with 106 (67.5%) resections ofthe tumor , 37.6% of the resections was proved to be radical. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year survival rate of theradical resection group was 96.7%, 40.0%, 23.3% and 13.3%, respectively. No patient of the palliativeresection group lived beyond 3 years postoperatively. The recent trends of surgical management of hilar bileduct cancer were discussed. Experiments were carried out for cooperative clinicopathological study toevaluate the perineural space involvement, the neural cell adhesion molecule expression, p16 geneexpression, and the 3-dimensional reconstruction of the bile duct cancer specimens. The pathogeneticrelationship of HBV and HCV with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was evaluated by histochemical and IS-PCR methods. And an inquiry into the possibility of gene therapy was made.CONCLUSION Hilar bile duct cancer rarely runs a “benign” course. It is a regional disease rather than alocal affection and may be related to HBV and HCV infection in China. It possesses the metastasing abilityalong the perineural space by a “jumping” fashion, therefore, in most cases, conventional surgical excision isbound to be unradical in the region of the porta hepatis for anatomical reasons.

  6. Trends in healthcare utilization among older Americans with colorectal cancer: A retrospective database analysis

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    Earle Craig C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analyses of utilization trends (cost drivers allow us to understand changes in colorectal cancer (CRC costs over time, better predict future costs, identify changes in the use of specific types of care (eg, hospice, and provide inputs for cost-effectiveness models. This retrospective cohort study evaluated healthcare resource use among US Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with CRC between 1992 and 2002. Methods Cohorts included patients aged 66+ newly diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the colon (n = 52,371 or rectum (n = 18,619 between 1992 and 2002 and matched patients from the general Medicare population, followed until death or December 31, 2005. Demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated by cancer subsite. Resource use, including the percentage that used each type of resource, number of hospitalizations, and number of hospital and skilled nursing facility days, was evaluated by stage and subsite. The number of office, outpatient, and inpatient visits per person-year was calculated for each cohort, and was described by year of service, subsite, and treatment phase. Hospice use rates in the last year of life were calculated by year of service, stage, and subsite for CRC patients who died of CRC. Results CRC patients (mean age: 77.3 years; 44.9% male used more resources than controls in every category (P Conclusion Use of hospice care among CRC decedents increased substantially over the study period, while other resource use remained generally steady. Our findings may be useful for understanding CRC cost drivers, tracking trends, and forecasting resource needs for CRC patients in the future.

  7. Breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Nordic capitals, 1970-1998. Trends related to mammography screening programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnberg, Sven; Kemetli, Levent; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to relate the time trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality to the introduction of mammography screening in the Nordic capitals. Helsinki offered screening to women aged 50-59 starting in 1986. The other three capitals offered screening to women aged 50...

  8. Trends in incidence and prognosis of the histological subtypes of lung cancer in North America, Australia, New Zealand and Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L.G. Janssen-Heijnen (Maryska); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Since the incidence of the histological subtypes of lung cancer in industrialised countries has changed dramatically over the last two decades, we reviewed trends in the incidence and prognosis in North America, Australia, New Zealand and Europe, according to period of diagno

  9. What Does the Public Know about Preventing Cancer? Results from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Nikki A.; Berkowitz, Zahava; Peipins, Lucy A.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides information about the public's familiarity with cancer prevention strategies and examines the association between this familiarity and actual prevention behavior. Data from interviews with 5,589 adults included in the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) were analyzed. Most respondents were able to cite one or…

  10. Temporal trends in the surgical outcomes of patients with breast cancer

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    Hanagiri Takeshi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of breast cancer has been increasing in Japan over the past three decades, and it is the currently the most common malignancy in Japan. This study investigated the temporal trends of the surgical outcomes in patients with breast cancer. Methods We evaluated 543 consecutive patients who underwent breast-cancer resection between 1980 and 2009. The temporal trends in the surgical outcome and clinicopathological features were evaluated separately for the periods covering 1980 to 1989, 1990 to 1999, and 2000 to 2009. Results The number of patients who underwent resection during these three respective periods were 133, 176, and 234, respectively. All patients were women. The percentage of patients at stages 0 or 1 was 63.2%, 58.5%, and 43.6%, respectively, during the three periods. The mean diameter of tumors in each period was 38, 29, and 30 mm, respectively. The percentage of tumors with positive ER expression was 62.5%, 64.3%, and 69.7%, respectively. In terms of surgical procedures, the use of Halsted’s radical mastectomy decreased during each period: from 40.6% of cases to 8.5% and then to 0.4%, while the proportion of breast-conserving therapies increased, from 0% to 12.5%, and finally to 35.9%. The postoperative 10-year survival rates during the three periods were 75.9%, 83.5%, and 84.9%, respectively. The 10-year survival rates of patients with stage II disease during the three periods were 66.2%, 75.7%, and 90.7%, respectively. The prognosis of stage III disease in the three periods also showed a tendency toward improvement, increasing from 37.8% to 64.2%, and finally to 84.5%. Conclusion The survival of patients with stage II and III disease has improved during the past 30 years. Along with the recent advances in drug therapy, the surgical treatment has become less invasive, often because of drug therapy-related modifications.

  11. Trends in stomach cancer mortality in relation to living conditions in childhood : A study among cohorts born between 1860 and 1939 in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amiri, M.; Kunst, A. E.; Janssen, F.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether secular trends in stomach cancer mortality were correlated with trends in infant mortality rate (IMR) or gross domestic product (GDP). Methods: Data from seven European countries were analyzed. We used Poisson regression to describe mortality trends among birth cohorts of 1865

  12. Global trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality Cáncer de mama en el mundo

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    Peggy L. Porter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the increasing incidence of breast cancer world-wide and the increasing burden of breast cancer deaths experienced by lower-income countries. The causes of increasing incidence have been attributed to changes in the prevalence of reproductive risk factors, lifestyle changes, and genetic and biological differences between ethnic and racial groups. All these factors may contribute, but data linking etiological factors to increased risk in developing countries is lacking. The challenge for lower-income countries is developing effective strategies to reverse the trend of increasing mortality. Down-staging of breast cancer by early detection is a promising long-term strategy for preventing disease-related deaths but it is difficult to make the economic investment required to carry out broad screening programs. Successful strategies for addressing the growing breast cancer burden will therefore take political will, reliable data, public and medical community awareness, and partnerships between community advocates, governments, non-governmental organizations and biotechnology.Se destaca el aumento en la incidencia de cáncer de mama (CaMa en el mundo y la creciente carga de muertes por la enfermedad en países en desarrollo. El aumento en la incidencia se atribuye a cambios en la prevalencia de factores de riesgo reproductivo, estilo de vida, y a diferencias biológicas entre grupos étnicos y raciales. Sin embargo, aún faltan datos que relacionen los factores etiológicos al incremento en el riesgo en países en desarrollo. El desafío es generar estrategias efectivas que reviertan la tendencia en la mortalidad. La detección en etapas más tempranas es una estrategia prometedora de largo plazo pero la inversión necesaria para los programas de tamizaje es muy alta. Las estrategias exitosas para hacer frente a la creciente carga de CaMa deben tener voluntad política, evidencia confiable, reconocimiento de la comunidad p

  13. Recent trends of cancer in Europe: A combined approach of incidence, survival and mortality for 17 cancer sites since the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karim-Kos, Henrike E.; Vries, de Esther; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Lemmens, Valery; Siesling, Sabine; Coebergh, Jan Willem W.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction We present a comprehensive overview of most recent European trends in population-based incidence of, mortality from and relative survival for patients with cancer since the mid 1990s. Methods Data on incidence, mortality and 5-year relative survival from the mid 1990s to early 2000 for

  14. Diverging trends in recent population-based survival rates in oesophageal and gastric cancer.

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    Jesper Lagergren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Survival trends in oesophageal and gastric cancer need to be updated. A nationwide Swedish population-based study in 1961-2009 was based on registry data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Relative survival rate, i.e. the ratio of the observed to the expected survival, adjusted for age, sex, and calendar period, and presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI, was the main outcome measure. The expected survival was calculated using the corresponding Swedish general population with no exclusions. The relative survival rates in oesophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma have improved since the 1990s (p for trend <0.001, but not in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma or gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma. The relative 5-year survival rates during the two recent periods 1990-1999 and 2000-2008 were 12.5% (95%CI 10.1%-14.9% and 10.3% (95%CI 8.5-12.0% for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 12.5% (95%CI 10.1%-14.9% and 14.6% (95%CI 12.6-16.6% for oesophageal adenocarcinoma, 11.1% (95%CI 9.6%-12.6% and 14.3% (95%CI 12.3-16.3% for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, and 20.2% (95%CI 19.2%-21.1% and 19.0% (95%CI 17.7-20.2% for gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma. The 3-year survival in tumour stage III in 2004-2008 was about 25% for all four tumour types. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The survival in oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma is increasing, but the lack of such increase in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma is a concern.

  15. Recent trends in breast cancer incidence in US white women by county-level urban/rural and poverty status

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    Keegan Theresa HM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unprecedented declines in invasive breast cancer rates occurred in the United States between 2001 and 2004, particularly for estrogen receptor-positive tumors among non-Hispanic white women over 50 years. To understand the broader public health import of these reductions among previously unstudied populations, we utilized the largest available US cancer registry resource to describe age-adjusted invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence trends for non-Hispanic white women aged 50 to 74 years overall and by county-level rural/urban and poverty status. Methods We obtained invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence data for the years 1997 to 2004 from 29 population-based cancer registries participating in the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries resource. Annual age-adjusted rates were examined overall and by rural/urban and poverty of patients' counties of residence at diagnosis. Joinpoint regression was used to assess trends by annual quarter of diagnosis. Results Between 2001 and 2004, overall invasive breast cancer incidence fell 13.2%, with greater reductions among women living in urban (-13.8% versus rural (-7.5% and low- (-13.0% or middle- (-13.8% versus high- (-9.6% poverty counties. Most incidence rates peaked around 1999 then declined after second quarter 2002, although in rural counties, rates decreased monotonically after 1999. Similar but more attenuated patterns were seen for in situ cancers. Conclusion Breast cancer rates fell more substantially in urban and low-poverty, affluent counties than in rural or high-poverty counties. These patterns likely reflect a major influence of reductions in hormone therapy use after July 2002 but cannot exclude possible effects due to screening patterns, particularly among rural populations where hormone therapy use was probably less prevalent.

  16. Prostate cancer in Denmark 1978-2009 - trends in incidence and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, Malene; Brasso, Klaus; Martinussen, Nick;

    2013-01-01

    calendar periods (1978-2007) and a two-year calendar period (2008-2009). Trends in incidence rates were estimated for specific age groups, birth cohorts, and clinical stage. Results. The age-standardised incidence rate of PC increased from 29.2 per 100 000 person-years in 1978-1982 to 76.2 per 100 000...... person-years in 2008-2009. The incidence increase began primarily in the mid-1990s. The corresponding mortality rates of PC remained largely unchanged during the entire study period; around 19 per 100 000 person-years. The incidence increase was most pronounced among men aged 60 + years. A clear pattern...... 15 years. Material and methods. From the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and Register of Causes of Death, we obtained information on all cases of PC and all deaths in Denmark during 1978-2009. Age-standardised (World Standard Population) incidence and mortality rates were computed for five-year...

  17. Pneumonia after Major Cancer Surgery: Temporal Trends and Patterns of Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Q. Trinh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. Pneumonia is a leading cause of postoperative complication. Objective. To examine trends, factors, and mortality of postoperative pneumonia following major cancer surgery (MCS. Methods. From 1999 to 2009, patients undergoing major forms of MCS were identified using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS, a Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP subset, resulting in weighted 2,508,916 patients. Measurements. Determinants were examined using logistic regression analysis adjusted for clustering using generalized estimating equations. Results. From 1999 to 2009, 87,867 patients experienced pneumonia following MCS and prevalence increased by 29.7%. The estimated annual percent change (EAPC of mortality after MCS was −2.4% (95% CI: −2.9 to −2.0, P<0.001; the EAPC of mortality associated with pneumonia after MCS was −2.2% (95% CI: −3.6 to 0.9, P=0.01. Characteristics associated with higher odds of pneumonia included older age, male, comorbidities, nonprivate insurance, lower income, hospital volume, urban, Northeast region, and nonteaching status. Pneumonia conferred a 6.3-fold higher odd of mortality. Conclusions. Increasing prevalence of pneumonia after MCS, associated with stable mortality rates, may result from either increased diagnosis or more stringent coding. We identified characteristics associated with pneumonia after MCS which could help identify at-risk patients in order to reduce pneumonia after MCS, as it greatly increases the odds of mortality.

  18. Trends in testicular cancer incidence in the Nordic countries with a special focus on the recent decrease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune; Møller, Henrik; Pukkala, Eero

    Testicular cancer is the most frequent malignancy among young men, and there have been steady increases in its incidence in most western countries for many decades. Recently, a decrease was seen in some countries, including Denmark. Here, we report recent trends in testicular cancer incidence...... in the Nordic countries. We address the hypothesis that the causal factors for testicular cancer in Denmark are related to birth cohort and that non-seminoma and seminoma tumours have a common aetiology. An overall increase in testicular cancer incidence was found in the Nordic countries, corresponding...... and non-seminoma tumours. This descriptive study confirms the hypothesis that birth cohort has a major influence on the incidence pattern of testicular tumours and suggests that seminoma and non-seminoma have common aetiological factors....

  19. Validating the use of Medicare Australia billing data to examine trends in skin cancer [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshini Perera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Epidemiological data surrounding non-melanomatous skin cancer (NMSC is highly variable, in part due to the lack of government cancer registries. Several studies employ the use of Medical Australia (MA rebate data in assessing such trends, the validity of which has not been studied in the past. Conversely, melanoma skin cancer is a notifiable disease, and thus, MA and cancer registry data is readily available. The aim of the current study is to assess the use of MA for epidemiological measures for skin cancers, by using melanoma as a disease sample.   Methods:  Following ethics approval, data from MA and Victorian Cancer Registry (VCR from 2004-2008 were extracted. Incidence of MA and VCR unique melanoma cases were compared and stratified by age and local government area (LGA. Regression and a paired-samples t-test were performed.   Results: During the study period; 15,150 and 13,886 unique melanoma patients were identified through VCR and MA data sources respectively. An outlier in the >80­ year age group was noted between MA and VCR data. When stratified by age, significant correlation between MA and VCR was observed for all patients (gradient 0.91, R²= 0.936 and following exclusion of >80 patients (gradient 0.96, R²= 0.995. When stratified by LGA, a high degree of observation was observed for all patients (gradient 0.94, R²= 0.977 and following exclusion of >80 patients (gradient 0.996, R²= 0.975.   Conclusion: Despite the inclusion of outlier data groups, acceptable correlation between MA and VCR melanoma data was observed, suggesting that MA may be suitable for assessing epidemiological trends. Such principals may be used to validate the use of MA data for similar calculations assessing NMSC trends.

  20. Colorectal cancer mortality trends inSerbia during1991-2010:an age-period-cohort analysis anda joinpoint regression analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MilenaIlic; IrenaIlic

    2016-01-01

    Background:For both men and women worldwide, colorectal cancer is among the leading causes of cancer-related death. This study aimed to assess the mortality trends of colorectal cancer in Serbia between 1991 and 2010, prior to the introduction of population-based screening. Methods:Joinpoint regression analysis was used to estimate average annual percent change (AAPC) with the cor-responding 95% conifdence interval (CI). Furthermore, age-period-cohort analysis was performed to examine the effects of birth cohort and calendar period on the observed temporal trends. Results:We observed a signiifcantly increased trend in colorectal cancer mortality in Serbia during the study period (AAPC=1.6%, 95% CI 1.3%–1.8%). Colorectal cancer showed an increased mortality trend in both men (AAPC=2.0%, 95% CI 1.7%–2.2%) and women (AAPC=1.0%, 95% CI 0.6%–1.4%). The temporal trend of colorectal cancer mortality was signiifcantly affected by birth cohort (P Conclusions:We found that colorectal cancer mortality in Serbia increased considerably over the past two decades. Mortality increased particularly in men, but the trends were different according to age group and subsite. In Serbia, interventions to reduce colorectal cancer burden, especially the implementation of a national screening program, as well as treatment improvements and measures to encourage the adoption of a healthy lifestyle, are needed.

  1. Breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Nordic capitals, 1970-1998. Trends related to mammography screening programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toernberg, Sven; Kemetli, Levent [Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Cancer Screening Unit, Oncologic Centre; Lynge, Elsebeth; Olsen, Anne Helene [Univ. of Copenhagen, (Denmark). Inst. of Public Health; Hofvind, Solveig; Wang, Hege [The Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Anttila, Ahti [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Hakama, Matti [Univ. of Tampere (Finland). School of Public Health; Nystroem, Lennarth [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Public Health and Clinical Medicine

    2006-07-15

    The aim of the present study was to relate the time trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality to the introduction of mammography screening in the Nordic capitals. Helsinki offered screening to women aged 50-59 starting in 1986. The other three capitals offered screening to women aged 50-69 starting in 1989 in Stockholm, 1991 in Copenhagen, and 1996 in Oslo. Prevalence peaks in breast cancer incidence depended on the age groups covered by the screening, the length of the implementation of screening, and the extent of background opportunistic screening. No mortality reduction following the introduction of screening was visible after seven to 12 years of screening in any of the three capitals where significant effects of the screening on the breast cancer mortality had already been demonstrated by using other analytical methods for the evaluation. No visible effect on mortality reduction was expected in Oslo due to too short an observation period. The study showed that the population-based breast cancer mortality trend is too crude a measure to detect the effect of screening on breast cancer mortality during the first years after the start of a programme.

  2. Breast cancer incidence and survival: registry-based studies of long-term trends and determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W.J. Louwman (Marieke)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among women in the Netherlands, and it is the most important cause of cancer death. Between age 35 and 55 about 20% of all deaths among women is due to breast cancer.1 The age-standardised incidence rate is among the highest in

  3. Trends and variations in breast and colorectal cancer incidence from 1995 to 2011: a comparative study between Texas Cancer Registry and National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheyu; Zhang, Yefei; Franzin, Luisa; Cormier, Janice N; Chan, Wenyaw; Xu, Hua; Du, Xianglin L

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have examined the cancer incidence trends in the state of Texas, and no study has ever been conducted to compare the temporal trends of breast and colorectal cancer incidence in Texas with those of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) in the United States. This study aimed to conduct a parallel comparison between the Texas Cancer Registry and the National Cancer Institute's SEER on cancer incidence from 1995 to 2011. A total of 951,899 breast and colorectal cancer patients were included. Age-adjusted breast cancer incidence was 134.74 per 100,000 in Texas and 131.78 per 100,000 in SEER in 1995-2011, whereas age-adjusted colorectal cancer incidence was 50.52 per 100,000 in Texas and 49.44 per 100,000 in SEER. Breast cancer incidence increased from 1995 to 2001, decreased from 2002 to 2006, and then remained relatively stable from 2007 to 2011. For colorectal cancer, the incidence increased in 1995-1997, and then decreased continuously from 1998 to 2011 in Texas and SEER areas. Incidence rates and relative risks by age, gender and ethnicity were identical between Texas and SEER.

  4. Trends in incidence of head and neck cancer in the northern territory, Australia, between 2007 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, Rama; Singh, Jagtar; Baxi, Siddhartha; Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Thomas, Mahiban

    2014-01-01

    Incidence trends of head and neck cancer (HNC) have implications for screening strategies, disease management, guiding health policy making, and are needed to further oral cancer research. This paper aims to describe trends in age-adjusted HNC incidence rates focusing on changes across calendar period between 2007 and 2010 in Australian Northern Territory. Age-adjusted incidence rates of HNC were calculated for 2007- 2010 using Northern Territory population based data assembled by Department of Health, Northern Territory Government of Australia. Changes in the HNC rate ratio (RR) and Estimated Annual Percentage Change (EAPC) between 2007-2008, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 were calculated. A total of 171 HNC patients were recorded by the Northern Territory Department of Health during the time period between 2007 and 2010, out of which, 135 were males (78.9% of male HNC patients) and 36 were females (21.1% of female HNC patients). In conclusion, HNC incidence rate has decreased in the Northern Territory Australian males but remains unchanged in Australian females. High incidences of HNC may be associated with the high smoking rate and high alcohol consumption in the Northern Territory. Continued monitoring of trends in HNC incidence rates is crucial to inform Northern Territory based cancer prevention strategies.

  5. Trends in the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Denmark 1978-2007: Rapid incidence increase among young Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Johansen, Fatima; Jensen, Allan; Mortensen, Lone;

    2010-01-01

    -adjusted according to the World standard population were calculated based on combined data from the two registries. For both genders, a high increase in both BCC and SCC incidence was observed over time. Between 1978 and 2007, the age-adjusted BCC incidence increased from 27.1 to 96.6 cases per 100,000 person......Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Caucasian populations worldwide, and incidence rates are increasing. However, NMSC data are not routinely collected by cancer registries, but Denmark has extensive registration of NMSC in two nationwide population-based registries. We...... percentage change in BCC incidence among persons below 40 years was significantly higher compared to older persons, especially for women. These trends may lead to an alarming NMSC incidence increase over time as population ages and will have major implications for future healthcare services. Our findings...

  6. The decline in stomach cancer mortality: exploration of future trends in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Amiri (Masoud); F. Janssen (Fanny); A.E. Kunst (Anton)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMortality from stomach cancer has fallen steadily during the past decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the implication of a possible continuation of the decline in stomach cancer mortality until the year 2030. Annual rates of decline in stomach cancer mortality from 1980 to 2005 w

  7. The decline in stomach cancer mortality: exploration of future trends in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amiri, M.; Janssen, F.; Kunst, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Mortality from stomach cancer has fallen steadily during the past decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the implication of a possible continuation of the decline in stomach cancer mortality until the year 2030. Annual rates of decline in stomach cancer mortality from 1980 to 2005 were determin

  8. The decline in stomach cancer mortality : exploration of future trends in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amiri, Masoud; Janssen, Fanny; Kunst, Anton E.

    2011-01-01

    Mortality from stomach cancer has fallen steadily during the past decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the implication of a possible continuation of the decline in stomach cancer mortality until the year 2030. Annual rates of decline in stomach cancer mortality from 1980 to 2005 were determin

  9. The decline in stomach cancer mortality: exploration of future trends in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Amiri (Masoud); F. Janssen (Fanny); A.E. Kunst (Anton)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMortality from stomach cancer has fallen steadily during the past decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the implication of a possible continuation of the decline in stomach cancer mortality until the year 2030. Annual rates of decline in stomach cancer mortality from 1980 to 2005 w

  10. Age-dependent Characteristics in Women with Breast Cancer: Mastectomy and Reconstructive Trends at an Urban Academic Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodby, Katherine A; Robinson, Emilie; Danielson, Kirstie K; Quinn, Karina P; Antony, Anuja K

    2016-03-01

    Breast reconstruction is an important aspect of treatment after breast cancer. Postmastectomy reconstruction bears a significant impact on a woman's postsurgical confidence, sexuality, and overall well-being. Previous studies have inferred that women under age 40 years have unique characteristics that distinguish them from an older cohort. Identifying age-dependent trends will assist with counseling women on mastectomy and reconstruction. To identify age-dependent trends, 100 consecutive women were sampled from a prospectively maintained breast reconstruction database at an urban academic institution from June 2010 through June 2013. Women were placed into two cohorts breast cancer. Younger women typically present with more aggressive features requiring oncologic treatment including chemotherapy and radiation. Mastectomy and reconstructive choices also demonstrate age-dependent characteristics. Women in younger age groups are more likely to pursue risk-reduction procedures and implant-based strategies, whereas older women had a higher propensity for abdominal-based autologous reconstruction. In addition, preferential reconstructive strategies correlate with age-dependent archetypical features of the breast (higher profile implants in younger patients; autologous reconstruction on affected side mimicking natural ptosis, and contralateral mastopexy in older patients). These trends seem to be consistent with each increasing year of age. Age-related preferences and expectations, age-dependent body habitus and breast shape, and lifetime risk play a role in the choices pursued for mastectomy and reconstruction.

  11. On the rising trends of incidence and prognosis for breast cancer patients diagnosed 1975-2004: a long-term population-based study in southeastern Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwman, W.J.; Voogd, A.C.; Dijck, J.A.A.M. van; Nieuwenhuijzen, G.A.P; Ribot, J.; Pruijt, J.F.M.; Coebergh, J.W.W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Much progress has been made in the early diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. We have assessed the changing burden of this disease, by means of a comprehensive description of trends in incidence, survival, and mortality. METHODS: Data on breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1975

  12. Autophagy in 5-Fluorouracil Therapy in Gastrointestinal Cancer: Trends and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Cheng Tang; Yi-Li Feng; Xiao Liang; Xiu-Jun Cai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based combination therapies are standard treatments for gastrointestinal cancer, where the modulation of autophagy is becoming increasingly important in offering effective treatment for patients in clinical practice.This review focuses on the role of autophagy in 5-FU-induced tumor suppression and cancer therapy in the digestive system.Data Sources: All articles published in English from 1996 to date those assess the synergistic effect ofautophagy and 5-FU in gastrointestinal cancer therapy were identified through a systematic online search by use of PubMed.The search terms were "autophagy" and "5-FU" and ("colorectal cancer" or"hepatocellular carcinoma" or"pancreatic adenocarcinoma" or"esophageal cancer" or"gallbladder carcinoma" or "gastric cancer").Study Selection: Critical reviews on relevant aspects and original articles reporting in vitro and/or in vivo results regarding the efficiency ofautophagy and 5-FU in gastrointestinal cancer therapy were reviewed, analyzed, and summarized.The exclusion criteria for the articles were as follows: (1) new materials (e.g., nanomaterial)-induced autophagy;(2) clinical and experimental studies on diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers in digestive system cancers;and (3) immunogenic cell death for anticancer chemotherapy.Results: Most cell and animal experiments showed inhibition ofautophagy by either pharmacological approaches or via genetic silencing of autophagy regulatory gene, resulting in a promotion of 5-FU-induced cancer cells death.Meanwhile, autophagy also plays a pro-death role and may mediate cell death in certain cancer cells where apoptosis is defective or difficult to induce.The dual role of autophagy complicates the use of autophagy inhibitor or inducer in cancer chemotherapy and generates inconsistency to an extent in clinic trials.Conclusion: Autophagy might be a therapeutic target that sensitizes the 5-FU treatment in gastrointestinal cancer.

  13. Highlights of recent developments and trends in cancer nanotechnology research--view from NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, L C; Farrell, D; Grodzinski, P

    2014-01-01

    Although the incidence of cancer and cancer related deaths in the United States has decreased over the past two decades due to improvements in early detection and treatment, cancer still is responsible for a quarter of the deaths in this country. There is much room for improvement on the standard treatments currently available and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has recognized the potential for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in this area. The NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer was formed in 2004 to support multidisciplinary researchers in the application of nanotechnology to cancer diagnosis and treatment. The researchers in the Alliance have been productive in generating innovative solutions to some of the central issues of cancer treatment including how to detect tumors earlier, how to target cancer cells specifically, and how to improve the therapeutic index of existing chemotherapies and radiotherapy treatments. Highly creative ideas are being pursued where novelty in nanomaterial development enables new modalities of detection or therapy. This review highlights some of the innovative materials approaches being pursued by researchers funded by the NCI Alliance. Their discoveries to improve the functionality of nanoparticles for medical applications includes the generation of new platforms, improvements in the manufacturing of nanoparticles and determining the underlying reasons for the movement of nanoparticles in the blood.

  14. Mortality trends and risk of dying from breast cancer in the 32 states and 7 socioeconomic regions of Mexico, 2002-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Jesús Sánchez-Barriga

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine mortality trends from breast cancer in Mexico nationwide, by state, by socioeconomic region, and to establish an association between education, state of residence, and socioeconomic region with mortality from breast cancer in 2002–2011.Methods. Records of mortality associated with breast cancer were obtained. Rates of mortality nationwide, by state, and by socioeconomic region were calculated. The strength of association between states where women resided, socioeconomi...

  15. Trends in the Quality of Treatment for Patients With Intact Cervical Cancer in the United States, 1999 Through 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Grace L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jiang, Jing [Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Giordano, Sharon H. [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Meyer, Larissa A. [Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Medicine (LAM), The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Eifel, Patricia J., E-mail: peifel@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: High-quality treatment for intact cervical cancer requires external radiation therapy, brachytherapy, and chemotherapy, carefully sequenced and completed without delays. We sought to determine how frequently current treatment meets quality benchmarks and whether new technologies have influenced patterns of care. Methods and Materials: By searching diagnosis and procedure claims in MarketScan, an employment-based health care claims database, we identified 1508 patients with nonmetastatic, intact cervical cancer treated from 1999 to 2011, who were <65 years of age and received >10 fractions of radiation. Treatments received were identified using procedure codes and compared with 3 quality benchmarks: receipt of brachytherapy, receipt of chemotherapy, and radiation treatment duration not exceeding 63 days. The Cochran-Armitage test was used to evaluate temporal trends. Results: Seventy-eight percent of patients (n=1182) received brachytherapy, with brachytherapy receipt stable over time (Cochran-Armitage P{sub trend}=.15). Among patients who received brachytherapy, 66% had high–dose rate and 34% had low–dose rate treatment, although use of high–dose rate brachytherapy steadily increased to 75% by 2011 (P{sub trend}<.001). Eighteen percent of patients (n=278) received intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and IMRT receipt increased to 37% by 2011 (P{sub trend}<.001). Only 2.5% of patients (n=38) received IMRT in the setting of brachytherapy omission. Overall, 79% of patients (n=1185) received chemotherapy, and chemotherapy receipt increased to 84% by 2011 (P{sub trend}<.001). Median radiation treatment duration was 56 days (interquartile range, 47-65 days); however, duration exceeded 63 days in 36% of patients (n=543). Although 98% of patients received at least 1 benchmark treatment, only 44% received treatment that met all 3 benchmarks. With more stringent indicators (brachytherapy, ≥4 chemotherapy cycles, and duration not exceeding 56

  16. Trends in prostate cancer in elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads Hvid; Dysager, Lars; Gerke, Oke;

    2016-01-01

    Backgound The purpose of the study is to elucidate the epidemiology of elderly patients with prostate cancer in Denmark and identify the differences between younger (<70 years) and elderly (≥70 years) patients. Material and methods Prostate cancer was defined as ICD-10 code C61. Data were derived...

  17. Projected impact of the trend toward delayed childbearing on breast cancer incidence in the Saarland/FRG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, H; Stegmaier, C

    1990-01-01

    The potential impact of the trend toward delayed childbearing or nulliparity on future breast cancer incidence is quantitatively assessed for the Saarland/FRG. Distribution of age at first birth is estimated from vital statistics for seven five-year birth cohorts from 1936-40 to 1966-70. Estimates of the relative risks associated with age at first birth or nulliparity are based on median results of 23 controlled epidemiologic studies conducted in Europe and North America. Compared to the birth cohorts around 1940, a steady increase in incidence up to about +15% is projected for the younger cohorts indicating a substantial public health impact. Using data of the population based cancer registry of the Saarland, the cumulative incidence of breast cancer up to age 50 is calculated as 1.52% for the 1936-40 birth cohort and is projected to rise to 1.75% in the 1966-70 cohort. Similar changes in fertility patterns have been observed in other parts of the FRG. Given the continuing rise in mortality from breast cancer in the FRG this stresses the need for more effective screening procedures.

  18. Trends in net survival from breast cancer in six European Latin countries: results from the SUDCAN population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Roche, Laurent; Buzzoni, Carlotta; di Costanzo, Francesco; Molinié, Florence; Caldarella, Adele

    2017-01-01

    Survival from breast cancer (BC) is influenced by the timeliness of diagnosis and appropriateness of treatment, and may constitute a measure of the global effectiveness of a healthcare system. As the healthcare systems of several European Latin countries have some similarities, the search for differences in cancer survival may provide interesting information on the efficacy of these systems. The SUDCAN study is a collaboration between the Group for Epidemiology and Cancer Registration in Latin language countries (GRELL) and EUROCARE. BC data from six countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and Switzerland) were extracted from the EUROCARE-5 database. First, we focus on 1- and 5-year age-standardized net survival (NS) from BC by country over the 2000-2004 period. Then, trends in NS over the 1989-2004 period and changes in the pattern of cancer excess mortality rate (EMR) up to 5 years after diagnosis were examined using a multivariate EMR model. There were little differences in age-standardized NS from BC. Over the 2000-2004 period, the 5-year survival ranged between 82 (Spain, Belgium, and Portugal) and 86% (France). There was an increase in age-standardized survival between 1989 and 2004 at 1 year as well as at 5 years. This increase was observed at all ages and in all countries. There was a decrease in the cancer EMR both immediately after diagnosis and by the second and third year of follow-up. There were only minor differences in survival from BC between European Latin countries. The general improvement in NS is presumably because of advances in early cancer diagnosis and improvements in treatment.

  19. Asian trends in primar y androgen depletion therapy on prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideyuki Akaza

    2013-01-01

    hTere are notable differences in the incidence and mortality rates for prostate cancer between Asia and Western countries. It is also recognized that there are differences in thinking with regard to treatment options. Recently it is also the case that opinions have been reported concerning the differences between Asian and Western patients with regard to their reaction to androgen depletion therapy (ADT). Given that ADT is a method of treatment that focuses on the elimination of testosterone, an inevitable symptom of its administration is testosterone losing syndrome. It is for this reason that in Western countries ADT has only been recommended in cases of advanced or metastatic cancer. On the other hand, in Asia, ADT is used in relatively many cases, including non-metastatic localized cancer and invasive localized cancer. To date, however, there has been little substantive discussion concerning this difference in utilization of ADT. ADT-related drugs for prostate cancer and the development of new drugs for castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) have been actively tested in recent years. It could be the case that analyzing the differences in concepts about ADT between Asia and the West could contribute to the effective use of ADT-related drugs and also help to build new treatment strategies for prostate cancer.

  20. Trends in Lung Cancer Incidence Rates by Histological Type in 1975–2008: A Population-Based Study in Osaka, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuaki Lee Kinoshita

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Monitoring trends in lung cancer incidence and mortality is important for the evaluation of cancer control activities. We investigated recent trends in age-standardized incidence rates by histological type of lung cancer in Osaka, Japan. Methods: Cancer incidence data for 1975–2008 were obtained from the Osaka Cancer Registry. Lung cancer mortality data with population data in Osaka during 1975–2012 were obtained from vital statistics. We examined trends in age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for all histological types and age-standardized incidence rates by histological type and age group using a joinpoint regression model. Results: The age-standardized incidence rate of lung cancer levelled off or slightly increased from 1975–2008, with an annual percentage change of 0.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1%–0.4% for males and 1.1% (95% CI, 0.9%–1.3% for females, and the mortality rate decreased by 0.9% (95% CI, 1.2%–0.7% for males and 0.5% (95% CI, 0.8%–0.3% for females. The incidence rates of squamous cell carcinoma (SQC and small cell carcinoma (SMC significantly decreased for both genders, whereas that of adenocarcinoma (ADC significantly increased among almost all age groups in both genders. Conclusions: The incidence rates of SQC and SMC decreased with the decline in smoking prevalence, which probably explains the change in trends in the incidence rates of lung cancer from the mid-1980s. However, the reason for the increase in ADC remains unclear. Therefore, trends in incidence rates of lung cancer should be carefully monitored, especially for ADC, and the associations between ADC and its possible risk factors should be studied.

  1. Colon cancer trends in Norway and Denmark by socio-economic group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Larsen, Inger Kristin

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Norway has experienced an unprecedented rapid and so far unexplained increase in colon cancer incidence. Norwegian rates passed Danish rates for men in 1985 and for women in 1990. This study aimed to unravel clues to the development in colon cancer incidence by investigating changes over time...... in incidence by socio-economic group. METHODS: Persons participating in the 1970 censuses in Norway and Denmark were aged 55-75 years in 1971-1980 (called pre-crossing period) and in 1991-2000 (called post-crossing period), respectively. Country, sex, age and socio-economic group-specific colon cancer...

  2. Time trends of esophageal cancer mortality in Linzhou city during the period 1988-2010 and a Bayesian approach projection for 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Zheng; Zhang, Fang; Quan, Pei-Liang; Lu, Jian-Bang; Liu, Zhi-Cai; Sun, Xi-Bin

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, decreasing trends in esophageal cancer mortality have been observed across China. We here describe esophageal cancer mortality trends in Linzhou city, a high-incidence region of esophageal cancer in China, during 1988-2010 and make a esophageal cancer mortality projection in the period 2011-2020 using a Bayesian approach. Age standardized mortality rates were estimated by direct standardization to the World population structure in 1985. A Bayesian age-period-cohort (BAPC) analysis was carried out in order to investigate the effect of the age, period and birth cohort on esophageal cancer mortality in Linzhou during 1988-2010 and to estimate future trends for the period 2011-2020. Age-adjusted rates for men and women decreased from 1988 to 2005 and changed little thereafter. Risk increased from 30 years of age until the very elderly. Period effects showed little variation in risk throughout 1988-2010. In contrast, a cohort effect showed risk decreased greatly in later cohorts. Forecasting, based on BAPC modeling, resulted in a increasing burden of mortality and a decreasing age standardized mortality rate of esophageal cancer in Linzhou city. The decrease of esophageal cancer mortality risk since the 1930 cohort could be attributable to the improvements of social- economic environment and lifestyle. The standardized mortality rates of esophageal cancer should decrease continually. The effect of aging on the population could explain the increase in esophageal mortality projected for 2020.

  3. Trends in upper gastro-intestinal cancer among the elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønnemann, Katrine R; Mortensen, Michael B; Krogh, Merete

    2016-01-01

    Background Upper gastro-intestinal cancer (UGIC) includes malignancies in esophagus, stomach and small intestine, and represents some of the most frequent malignancies worldwide. The aim of the present analysis was to describe incidence, mortality and survival in UGIC patients in Denmark from 1980...... to 2012 according to differences in age and time periods.Material and methods UGIC was defined as ICD-10 codes C15-C17. Data derived from the NORDCAN database with comparable data on cancer incidence mortality, prevalence and relative survival in the Nordic countries, where the Danish data were delivered...... from the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Cause of Death Registry with follow-up for death or emigration until the end of 2013.Results The proportion of male patients over the age of 70 years diagnosed with esophageal cancer was constant over time (around 42%) but increased in females to 49...

  4. Systemic therapy in muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer: current trends and future promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B; Trump, Donald L

    2016-09-01

    Bladder urothelial cancers remain an important urologic cancer with limited treatment options in the locally advanced and metastatic setting. While neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced muscle-invasive cancers has shown overall survival benefit, clinical uptake in practice have lagged behind. Controversies surrounding adjuvant chemotherapy use are also ongoing. Systemic therapies for metastatic bladder cancer have largely used platinum-based therapies without effective standard second-line therapy options for those who fail, although vinflunine is approved in Europe as a second-line therapy based on a Phase III trial, and most recently, atezolizumab, a checkpoint inhibitor, was approved by the US FDA. Given increasing recognition of mutational signatures expressed in urothelial carcinomas, several promising agents with use of VEGF-targeted therapies, HER2-directed agents and immunotherapies with PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies in various settings are discussed herein.

  5. Use of a multistage model to predict time trends in smoking induced lung cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Swartz, J B

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aims were to use a mathematical model to predict the time course of smoking induced lung cancer, and to investigate to what extent the most recent increases in lung cancer mortality are due to cigarette smoking. DESIGN--A mathematical model was developed and solved by simulation to construct detailed smoking histories of the US white male population given available prevalence data by age and cohort. A multistage carcinogenesis model was used to predict the time course of ...

  6. Autophagy in 5-Fluorouracil Therapy in Gastrointestinal Cancer: Trends and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-Cheng Tang; Yi-Li Feng; Xiao Liang; Xiu-Jun Cai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based combination therapies are standard treatments for gastrointestinal cancer, where the modulation of autophagy is becoming increasingly important in offering effective treatment for patients in clinical practice. This review focuses on the role of autophagy in 5-FU-induced tumor suppression and cancer therapy in the digestive system. Data Sources: All articles published in English from 1996 to date those assess the synergistic effect of autophagy and 5-...

  7. Multistate models for comparing trends in hospitalizations among young adult survivors of colorectal cancer and matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutradhar Rinku

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past years, the incidence of colorectal cancer has been increasing among young adults. A large percentage of these patients live at least 5 years after diagnosis, but it is unknown whether their rate of hospitalizations after this 5-year mark is comparable to the general population. Methods This is a population-based cohort consisting of 917 young adult survivors diagnosed with colorectal cancer in Ontario from 1992–1999 and 4585 matched cancer-free controls. A multistate model is presented to reflect and compare trends in the hospitalization process among survivors and their matched controls. Results Analyses under a multistate model indicate that the risk of a subsequent hospital admission increases as the number of prior hospitalizations increases. Among patients who are yet to experience a hospitalization, the rate of admission is 3.47 times higher for YAS than controls (95% CI (2.79, 4.31. However, among patients that have experienced one and two hospitalizations, the relative rate of a subsequent admission decreases to 3.03 (95% CI (2.01, 4.56 and 1.90 (95% CI (1.19, 3.03, respectively. Conclusions Young adult survivors of colorectal cancer have an increased risk of experiencing hospitalizations compared to cancer-free controls. However this relative risk decreases as the number of prior hospitalizations increases. The multistate approach is able to use information on the timing of hospitalizations and answer questions that standard Poisson and Negative Binomial models are unable to address.

  8. Trends in net survival from kidney cancer in six European Latin countries: results from the SUDCAN population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangone, Lucia; Bossard, Nadine; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Pezzarossi, Annamaria; Roncaglia, Francesca; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Kidney cancer is a frequent malignant disease. To date, there is no evidence on the effectiveness of early detection and, in most cases, surgery represents the only standard treatment. So far, there is no standardized therapy for localized and locally advanced renal tumors; however, the recent introduction of target therapy has significantly improved the prognosis of metastatic disease. Therefore, survival differences in Europe are deemed to involve differences in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The aim of the SUDCAN collaborative study was to compare the net survival from kidney cancer between six European Latin countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and Switzerland) and provide trends in net survival and dynamics of excess mortality rates up to 5 years after diagnosis. The data were extracted from the EUROCARE-5 database. First, net survival was studied over the 2000-2004 period using the Pohar-Perme estimator. For trend analysis, the study period was specific to each country. The results are reported from 1992 to 2004 in France, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland, and from 2000 to 2004 in Belgium and Portugal. These analyses were carried out using a flexible excess rate modeling strategy. In 2000-2004, the 5-year net survival ranged between 59% (Spain) and 67% (France and Italy) in men and between 60% (Spain) and 73% (Portugal) in women. There was an increase in the age-standardized net survival between 1992 and 2004 at 1 year, as well as at 5 years, in all age groups and countries. Irrespective of the year of diagnosis, the excess mortality rate decreased with time elapsed since diagnosis. There are some differences in survival from kidney cancer between European Latin countries, but a considerable improvement was observed in most countries.

  9. Trends in breast cancer mortality in Sweden before and after implementation of mammography screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Haukka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Incidence-based mortality modelling comparing the risk of breast cancer death in screened and unscreened women in nine Swedish counties has suggested a 39% risk reduction in women 40 to 69 years old after introduction of mammography screening in the 1980s and 1990s. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated changes in breast cancer mortality in the same nine Swedish counties using a model approach based on official Swedish breast cancer mortality statistics, robust to effects of over-diagnosis and treatment changes. Using mortality data from the NordCan database from 1974 until 2003, we estimated the change in breast cancer mortality before and after introduction of mammography screening in at least the 13 years that followed screening start. RESULTS: Breast mortality decreased by 16% (95% CI: 9 to 22% in women 40 to 69, and by 11% (95% CI: 2 to 20% in women 40 to 79 years of age. DISCUSSION: Without individual data it is impossible to completely separate the effects of improved treatment and health service organisation from that of screening, which would bias our results in favour of screening. There will also be some contamination of post-screening mortality from breast cancer diagnosed prior to screening, beyond our attempts to adjust for delayed benefit. This would bias against screening. However, our estimates from publicly available data suggest considerably lower benefits than estimates based on comparison of screened versus non-screened women.

  10. Skin cancer in skin of color: an update on current facts, trends, and misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battie, Claire; Gohara, Mona; Verschoore, Michèle; Roberts, Wendy

    2013-02-01

    For many fair-skinned individuals around the world, skin cancer is the leading malignancy. Although skin cancer comprises only 1% to 2% of all malignancies in those with darker complexions, the mortality rates in this subgroup are substantially higher when compared with their Caucasian counterparts. This discrepancy is largely as a result of delayed detection/treatment, and a false perception among patient and physician that brown skin confers complete protection against skin cancer. Recent studies show that 65% of surveyed African Americans never wore sunscreen, despite living in sunny climates, and that more than 60% of minority respondents erroneously believed that they were not at risk for skin cancer. Dark skin offers some protection from ultraviolet (UV) light. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in skin of color, a phenomenon that is accentuated by mixed heritage. Ethnicity does not confer skin type anymore. People of color do experience sunburn, and from a biological point of view, all skin types appear to be sensitive to UV-induced DNA damage, with an inverse relationship between skin color and sensitivity to UV light. Our population is changing rapidly, and within the next few decades minority populations will become the majority. It is therefore imperative to educate both physicians and patients on the perceived immunity against cutaneous malignancies, the need for sun protection, and the clinical signs of skin cancer in non-Caucasian people, so that future unnecessary mortality can be avoided.

  11. A quantitative assessment of changing trends in internet usage for cancer information.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The internet is an important source of healthcare information. To date, assessment of its use as a source of oncologic information has been restricted to retrospective surveys. METHODS: The cancer-related searches of approximately 361,916,185 people in the United States and the United Kingdom were examined. Data were collected from two separate 100-day periods in 2008 and 2010. RESULTS: In 2008, there were 97,531 searches. The majority of searches related to basic cancer information (18,700, 19%), followed by treatment (8404, 9%) and diagnosis (6460, 7%). This compares with 179,025 searches in 2010 representing an increase of 183%. In 2008 breast cancer accounted for 21,102 (21%) individual searches, increasing to 85,825 searches in 2010. In 2010 a total of 0.2% (321) of searches focused on litigation, with those searching for breast cancer information most likely to research this topic (P=0.000). CONCLUSION: Use of the internet as a source of oncological information is increasing rapidly. These searches represent the most sensitive information relating to cancer, including prognosis and litigation. It is imperative now that efforts are made to ensure the reliability and comprehensiveness of this information.

  12. Recent trends of cancer mortality in Romanian adults: mortality is still increasing, although young adults do better than the middle-aged and elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereanu, Carmen; Baili, Paolo; Berrino, Franco; Micheli, Andrea; Furtunescu, Florentina L; Minca, Dana G; Sant, Milena

    2013-05-01

    We analysed the mortality trends (1986-2009) for all cancers combined and selected cancers in adult Romanians by three age groups (15-49, 50-69 and older than 70 years of age) in comparison with 11 other European countries. We extracted mortality data from the WHO database and grouped the countries into four regions: central and eastern Europe (Romania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary), Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), western and northern Europe (Austria, the Netherlands and Finland), and southern Europe (Croatia and Slovenia). Mortality rates were age-standardized against the standard European population. Significant changes in mortality trends were identified by Joinpoint regression and annual percentage changes (APCs) were calculated for periods with uniform trends. Cancer mortality in Romania was among the lowest in Europe in 1986, but was higher than most countries by 2009. Despite the declining mortality (APC) in younger Romanians for all cancers combined (men-1.5% from 1997, women-1.2% 1997-2004 and -3.8% 2004-2009), male lung cancer (-2.8% from 1997), female breast (-3.5% from 1999) and cervical (-5.4% from 2004) cancers, mortality has increased in middle-aged and elderly patients for most cancers analysed. The exception was declining stomach cancer mortality in most Romanians, except elderly men. For most cancers analysed, mortality declined in the Baltic countries in young and middle-aged patients, and in western and northern countries for all ages. Lung cancer mortality in women increased in all countries except Latvia. We urge immediate steps to reverse the alarming increase in cancer mortality among middle-aged and elderly Romanians.

  13. Magnitude and time trends of the life-time risk of developing cancer in Saarland, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, H; Stegmaier, C; Ziegler, H

    1990-01-01

    The probability of developing cancer within defined age-intervals or during life-time was assessed for the population of Saarland, Germany in 1970-1972 and 1980-1985 based on life-tables and age-specific cancer incidence rates. As a result of increasing life expectancy and, for some forms of cancer, increasing age-specific incidence rates, the probability at birth of eventually developing a malignant neoplasm (ICD-9 140-208) increased from 24.12% in 1970-1972 to 32.35% in 1980-1985 in men, and from 24.76 to 29.72%, respectively, in women. Comparable calculations are presented and discussed for all of the most common malignancies in women and men. The relation to common measures of descriptive epidemiology, mainly the cumulative rate and the cumulative risk, is numerically illustrated.

  14. Trends in cancer of the head and neck in the elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jørgen; Grau Eriksen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    of 70 years were analyzed. This included cancer of the oral cavity defined as ICD-codes C00.3-4, C02-04, C05.0, C06; oropharynx as C01, C05.1-9, C09-10; and larynx as C32 recorded in the NORDCAN database. Additional data from the DAHANCA database was added to assess differences in compliance...... to treatment between younger and older patient groups. Results HNSCC was predominant in younger patients. Only 17% were older than 70 years. The median age was 60 years. Generally, incidence rates rose for cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx between 1980 and 2012 and stabilized for laryngeal cancer...

  15. Testicular cancer trends as 'whistle blowers' of testicular developmental problems in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N

    2007-01-01

    Recently a worldwide rise in the incidence of testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) has been repeatedly reported. The changing disease pattern may signal that other testicular problems may also be increasing. We have reviewed recent research progress, in particular evidence gathered in the Nordic...... countries, which shows strong associations between testicular cancer, undescended testis, hypospadias, poor testicular development and function, and male infertility. These studies have led us to suggest the existence of a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), of which TGCC, undescended testis, hypospadias...... in TGCC rates of a population may be 'whistle blowers' of other reproductive health problems. As cancer registries are often of excellent quality - in contrast to registries for congenital abnormalities - health authorities should consider an increase in TGCC as a warning that other reproductive health...

  16. Imaging and intervention in prostate cancer: Current perspectives and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the commonest malignancy in men that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Screening by digital rectal examination (DRE and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA is used despite its limitations. Gray-scale transrectal ultrasound (TRUS, used to guide multiple random prostatic biopsies, misses up to 20% cancers and frequently underestimates the grade of malignancy. Increasing the number of biopsy cores marginally increases the yield. Evolving techniques of real-time ultrasound elastography (RTE and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS are being investigated to better detect and improve the yield by allowing "targeted" biopsies. Last decade has witnessed rapid developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for improved management of prostate cancer. In addition to the anatomical information, it is capable of providing functional information through diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE MRI. Multi-parametric MRI has the potential to exclude a significant cancer in majority of cases. Inclusion of MRI before prostatic biopsy can reduce the invasiveness of the procedure by limiting the number of cores needed to make a diagnosis and support watchful waiting in others. It is made possible by targeted biopsies as opposed to random. With the availability of minimally invasive therapeutic modalities like high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU and interstitial laser therapy, detecting early cancer is even more relevant today. [18F]--fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 FDG PET/CT has no role in the initial evaluation of prostate cancer. Choline PET has been recently found to be more useful. Fluoride-PET has a higher sensitivity and resolution than a conventional radionuclide bone scan in detecting skeletal metastases.

  17. Lung cancer trends: smoking, obesity, and sex assessed in the Staten Island University’s lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Shilpi Gupta,1 Samer Hassan,1 Vijaya R Bhatt,2 Houssein Abdul Sater,1 Asma Dilawari31Hematology-Oncology, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY, USA; 2Hematology-Oncology, Nebraska Medical Ctr, Omaha, NE, USA; 3Hematology-Oncology, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, Olney, Maryland, USAIntroduction: The incidence of lung cancer in the United States decreased by 1.8% from 1991 to 2005 while it increased by 0.5% in females. We assessed whether nonsmokers afflicted with lung cancer at Staten Island University Hospital are disproportionately female in comparison to national averages. We also evaluated different factors including race, histology, and body mass index (BMI in correlation with smoking history.Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted from 2005 to 2011 on 857 patients. Patients were divided into two groups according to their smoking status: current or ever-smokers, and former or never-smokers. A chi-square test for categorical data and multivariate logistic regression analyses was used to study the relation between BMI and the other clinical and demographic data.Results: Forty-nine percent of patients were men and 51% were women with a mean age at diagnosis of 67.8 years. Current smokers were most common (50.2% followed by ever-smokers (18.2%, former smokers (15.8% and never-smokers (15.6%. Forty eight percent had stage IV lung cancer upon presentation. Never-smokers with lung cancer were 24 times more likely to be females. However, the proportion of female former smokers (31.6% was lower than the proportion of male former smokers (68.4% (P=0.001. There was no significant association between American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC stage, sex, race, and histological type in the two smoking groups. Current/ever-smokers tended to be younger at age of diagnosis (P=0.0003. BMI was lower in the current/ever-smokers (26.8 kg/m2 versus former/never-smokers (28.8 in males (P=0.0005. BMI was significantly higher in

  18. Trends in colorectal cancer in the elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brændegaard Winther, Stine; Baatrup, Gunnar; Pfeiffer, Per;

    2016-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a disease of the older population. The current demographic ageing leads to more elderly patients and is expected to further increase the number of patients with CRC. The objective of the present paper is to outline incidence, mortality and prevalence from 198...

  19. Trends in hematological cancer in the elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocias, Lukas F; Larsen, Thomas S; Vestergaard, Hanne;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of hematological malignancies is expected to increase as the Danish population ages within the next few decades. Despite this, data on the course of hematological cancers among the oldest patients are sparse with many intervention studies focusing on younger age groups. The...

  20. Trends in Mortality from Ischemic Heart Disease, Stroke, and Stomach Cancer: from past to future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Amiri (Masoud)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe common occurrence of chronic diseases – such as ischemic heart diseases (IHD, stroke, and stomach cancer in most populations and the attendant mortality, loss of independence, impaired quality of life, and social and economic costs are compelling reasons for public health concern. A

  1. ORGAN-SPARING SURGERY FOR RECTAL CANCER: EVOLUTION, CURRENT TRENDS, AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Tamrazov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main stages of the development of sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer. An historical look at this issue from the standpoint of research of past years in our country and abroad, as well as analysis of current sphincter-preserving surgery and future directions in this area.

  2. Time trends in the treatment and prognosis of resectable pancreatic cancer in a large tertiary referral centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barugola, Giuliano; Partelli, Stefano; Crippa, Stefano; Butturini, Giovanni; Salvia, Roberto; Sartori, Nora; Bassi, Claudio; Falconi, Massimo; Pederzoli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Mortality in pancreatic cancer has remained unchanged over the last 20–30 years. The aim of the present study was to analyse survival trends in a selected population of patients submitted to resection for pancreatic cancer at a single institution. Methods Included were 544 patients who underwent pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer between 1990 and 2009. Patients were categorized into two subgroups according to the decade in which resection was performed (1990–1999 and 2000–2009). Predictors of survival were analysed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Totals of 114 (21%) and 430 (79%) resections were carried out during the periods 1990–1999 and 2000–2009, respectively (P < 0.0001). Hospital length of stay (16 days versus 10 days; P < 0.001) and postoperative mortality (3% versus 1%; P = 0.160) decreased over time. Median disease-specific survival significantly increased from 16 months in the first period to 29 months in the second period (P < 0.001). Following multivariate analysis, poorly differentiated tumour [hazard ratio (HR) 3.1, P < 0.001], lymph node metastases (HR = 1.9, P < 0.001), macroscopically positive margin (R2) resection (HR = 3.2, P < 0.0001), no adjuvant therapy (HR = 1.6, P < 0.001) and resection performed in the period 1990–1999 (HR = 2.18, P < 0.001) were significant independent predictors of a poor outcome. Conclusions Longterm survival after surgery for pancreatic cancer significantly improved over the period under study. Better patient selection and the routine use of adjuvant therapy may account for this improvement. PMID:23490217

  3. Breast cancer screening in Italy: evaluating key performance indicators for time trends and activity volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Livia; Castagno, Roberta; Giorgi, Daniela; Piccinelli, Cristiano; Ventura, Leonardo; Segnan, Nereo; Zappa, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Together with the National centre for screening monitoring (ONS), GISMa supports annual collection of data on national breast screening activities. Aggregated data on implementation and performance are gathered through a standardized form to calculate process and impact indicators. Analyzed data belong to 153 local programmes in the period 2006-2011 (2006-2012 for participation rate only). During the whole period, Italian crude participation rate exceeded GISMa's acceptable standard (50%), even though a higher participation in northern and central Italy compared to southern Italy and Islands was observed. Time trend analysis of diagnostic indicators confirmed in 2011 an adequate quality of breast screening performance, especially at subsequent screening. Recall rate at initial screening did not reach the acceptable standard (performance was achieved at subsequent screening. The same trend was followed by the overall detection rate and positive predictive value. They both showed a progressive reduction (from 6.2‰ in 2006 to 4.5‰ in 2011 for DR and from 8.0% in 2006 to 5.2% in 2011 for PPV, respectively) at initial screening and a good, stable trend at subsequent screening. Activity volume analysis shows that in programmes with greater activity (test/year ≥10,000) RR at both initial and subsequent screening has a better performance. This is also true for DR and PPV where programmes with high volumes of activity do better, especially when compared with those that interpret fewer than 5,000 mammograms per year. In spite of a few limits, these results are reassuring, and they reward the efforts made by screening professionals. It is therefore important to continue to monitor screening indicators and suggest, test, and evaluate new strategies for continuous improvement.

  4. Regional trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality in Denmark prior to mammographic screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, A H; Andersen, K W; Madsen, Mette;

    1994-01-01

    To provide a basis for the evaluation of mammographic screening programmes in Denmark, a study was undertaken of the regional differences in breast cancer incidence and mortality. All 16 regions were followed for the 20 year period, 1970-89, before the start of the first population...... among women below age 60. The mortality was more stable, changing only from 24 to 28 (per 100,000 standardised WSP), but a significant increase occurred in the late 1980s. The study showed regional differences in both incidence and mortality of breast cancer in Denmark. Both the incidence......-based mammographic screening programme in the Copenhagen municipality in 1991. Multiplicative Poisson models were used for the analysis. In general, the incidence increased during this period from 55 to 70 [per 100,000 standardised world standard population (WSP)], and the analysis shows this to be most pronounced...

  5. Time trends of human papillomavirus types in invasive cervical cancer, from 1940 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, Laia; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Tous, Sara; Quint, Wim; Vallejos, Carlos; Shin, Hai-Rim; Bravo, Luis E; Alonso, Patricia; Lima, Marcus A; Guimerà, Núria; Klaustermeier, Joellen; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio; Kasamatsu, Elena; Tatti, Silvio A; Felix, Ana; Molina, Carla; Velasco, Julio; Lloveras, Belen; Clavero, Omar; Lerma, Enrique; Laco, Jan; Bravo, Ignacio G; Guarch, Rosa; Pelayo, Adela; Ordi, Jaume; Andújar, Miguel; Sanchez, Gloria I; Castellsagué, Xavier; Muñoz, Nubia; Bosch, F Xavier

    2014-07-01

    Contribution over time of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in human cancers has been poorly documented. Such data is fundamental to measure current HPV vaccines impact in the years to come. We estimated the HPV type-specific distribution in a large international series of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) over 70 years prior to vaccination. Paraffin embedded ICC cases diagnosed between 1940 and 2007 were retrieved from eleven countries in Central-South America, Asia and Europe. Included countries reported to have low-medium cervical cancer screening uptake. Information on age at and year of diagnosis was collected from medical records. After histological confirmation, HPV DNA detection was performed by SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 (version1). Logistic regression models were used for estimating the adjusted relative contributions (RC) of HPV16 and of HPV18 over time. Among 4,771 HPV DNA positive ICC cases, HPV16 and HPV18 were the two most common HPVs in all the decades with no statistically significant variations of their adjusted-RC from 1940-59 to 2000-07 (HPV16-from 61.5 to 62.1%, and HPV18-from 6.9 to 7.2%). As well, the RC of other HPV types did not varied over time. In the stratified analysis by histology, HPV16 adjusted-RC significantly increased across decades in adenocarcinomas. Regarding age, cases associated to either HPV16, 18 or 45 were younger than those with other HPV types in all the evaluated decades. The observed stability on the HPV type distribution predicts a high and stable impact of HPV vaccination in reducing the cervical cancer burden in future vaccinated generations.

  6. Disentangling the roles of mammographic screening and HRT in recent breast cancer incidence trends in italy by analyses based on calendar time and time since screening activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Falcini, Fabio; Cortesi, Laura; De Lisi, Vincenzo; Ferretti, Stefano; Tumino, Rosario; Russo, Antonio; Paci, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the roles of screening activation and hormone replacement therapy discontinuation on the recent declining breast cancer incidence trends in Italy. We analyzed 41,358 invasive female breast cancers incident during 1991-2004 in six Italian population-based cancer registries. Overall and age-specific incidence trends were evaluated using Joinpoint analysis. In addition to calendar years, data were analyzed on a years-since-screening-activation basis. Annual percentage change of standardized rates was computed. There were statistically significant increasing trends for women 40-44 and 45-49 years that did not change after screening activation. On the contrary, for women 50-69 years old and for those 70+ years, the increasing trends flattened around 2 years after screening activation. The prevalence of hormone replacement therapy use in Italy is and was rather low. In conclusion, the recent tendency toward stabilization observed in Italy for female breast cancer incidence rates in women aged 50 years or more follows the introduction of mammographic screening.

  7. Antitumoral Activity of Snake Venom Proteins: New Trends in Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A. Calderon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than half a century, cytotoxic agents have been investigated as a possible treatment for cancer. Research on animal venoms has revealed their high toxicity on tissues and cell cultures, both normal and tumoral. Snake venoms show the highest cytotoxic potential, since ophidian accidents cause a large amount of tissue damage, suggesting a promising utilization of these venoms or their components as antitumoral agents. Over the last few years, we have studied the effects of snake venoms and their isolated enzymes on tumor cell cultures. Some in vivo assays showed antineoplastic activity against induced tumors in mice. In human beings, both the crude venom and isolated enzymes revealed antitumor activities in preliminary assays, with measurable clinical responses in the advanced treatment phase. These enzymes include metalloproteases (MP, disintegrins, L-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs, C-type lectins, and phospholipases A2 (PLA2s. Their mechanisms of action include direct toxic action (PLA2s, free radical generation (LAAOs, apoptosis induction (PLA2s, MP, and LAAOs, and antiangiogenesis (disintegrins and lectins. Higher cytotoxic and cytostatic activities upon tumor cells than normal cells suggest the possibility for clinical applications. Further studies should be conducted to ensure the efficacy and safety of different snake venom compounds for cancer drug development.

  8. Recent trends in targeted therapy of cancer using graphene oxide-modified multifunctional nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanian, Nazanin; Eskandani, Morteza; Barar, Jaleh; Omidi, Yadollah

    2017-03-01

    Rapid progresses in nanotechnology fields have led us to use a number of advanced nanomaterials (NMs) for engineering smart multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs)/nanosystems (NSs) for targeted diagnosis and therapy of various diseases including different types of malignancies. For the effective therapy of any type of solid tumor, the treatment modality should ideally solely target the aberrant cancerous cells/tissue with no/trivial impacts on the healthy cells. One approach to achieve such unprecedented impacts can be fulfilled through the use of seamless multimodal NPs/NSs with photoacoustic properties that can be achieved using advanced NMs such as graphene oxide (GO). It is considered as one of the most promising materials that have been used in the development of various NPs/NSs. GO-based targeted NSs can be engineered as programmable drug delivery systems (DDSs) to perform on-demand chemotherapy combined with photonic energy for photothermal therapy (PTT) or photodynamic therapy (PDT). In the current review, we provide important insights on the GO-based NSs and discuss their potentials for the photodynamic/photothermal ablation of cancer in combination with anticancer agents.

  9. Time trends of thyroid cancer incidence in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidenreich, W F [GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute for Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Bogdanova, T I [Ukrainian Research Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 254114 Kiev (Ukraine); Biryukov, A G [Ukrainian Research Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 254114 Kiev (Ukraine); Tronko, N D [Ukrainian Research Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 254114 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2004-09-01

    The rate of childhood thyroid cancer incidence observed in northern Ukraine during the period 1986-1998 is described as a function of time-since-exposure, age-at-exposure, and sex. Conclusions are drawn for the excess absolute risk per dose: after a minimal latency period of about three years it shows a linear increase with time-since-exposure for at least nine years. It is roughly constant in age-at-exposure, up to 15 years. For girls exposed very young it is about a factor 2 larger than for boys. For children exposed at age 16-18 this ratio increases to about 5. The thyroids of young children are not more sensitive to radiation dose than those of older ones in absolute risk in northern Ukraine in the currently used data set. As the background is increasing with age, a constant absolute risk gives a decreasing relative risk.

  10. Incidence and trends of cardiovascular mortality after common cancers in young adults:Analysis of surveillance, epidemiology and end-results program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadeer G Al-Kindi; Guilherme H Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe the incidence of cardiovascular mortality(CVM) in survivors of major cancers and identify its trends over the past two decades. METHODS: We used the surveillance, epidemiology and end-results 19 registry to identify young adults(20-49 years), diagnosed with the following major primary cancers: Lung, breast, liver/intrahepatic bile duct, pancreas, prostate, colorectal, and ovarian from 1990 through 2012 and identified the cumulative incidence of CVM after adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: We identified a total of 301923 cancers(breast 173748, lung 38938, colorectal 31722, prostate 22848, ovary 16065, liver 9444, pancreas 9158). A total of 2297(0.8%) of patients had incident CVM. Lung(10-year cumulative CVM 2.4%) and liver(1.73%) cancers had the highest incidence of CVM, while breast(0.6%) and prostate(1.2%) had the lowest CVM mortality, even after multiple adjustments(P < 0.001). Overall, there was a significant improvement in CVM since 1990 [2005-2012 vs 1990-1994, adjusted HR 0.63(0.54-0.72), P < 0.001]. This was driven by improvements in CVM in lung cancers(P = 0.02), breast(P < 0.001), and a trend in ovarian cancer(P = 0.097).There was no statistically significant improvement in CVM among survivors of colorectal, pancreatic, liver, or prostate cancers.CONCLUSION: The risk of CVM differs among different cancers, and is highest among survivors of lung and liver cancers. The incidence of CVM has decreased over the past 2 decades mainly among survivors of lung and breast cancers.

  11. Outcomes and trends of prostate biopsy for prostate cancer in Chinese men from 2003 to 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Na

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA screening is growing in popularity in China, but its impact on biopsy characteristics and outcomes are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to characterize prostate biopsy outcomes and trends in Chinese men over a 10-year period, since the increasing use of PSA tests. METHODS: All men (n = 1,650 who underwent prostate biopsy for PCa at Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China from 2003-2011 were evaluated. Demographic and clinical information was collected for each patient, including age, digital rectal examination (DRE, transrectal ultrasound (prostate volume and nodule, total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA levels and free PSA ratio (fPSA/tPSA prior to biopsy. Prostate biopsy was performed using six cores before October 2007 or ten cores thereafter. Logistic regression and multivariate analysis were used to evaluate our data. RESULTS: The overall positive rate of prostate biopsy for PCa was 47% and the rate decreased significantly over the years from 74% in 2003 to 33% in 2011 (P-trend = 0.004. Age at diagnosis was slightly increased (P-trend = 0.04 while fPSA/tPSA was significantly decreased (P-trend = 1.11×10-5. A statistically significant trend was not observed for tPSA levels, prostate volume, or proportion of positive nodule. The model including multiple demographic and clinical variables (i.e., age, DRE, tPSA, fPSA/tPSA and transrectal ultrasound results (AUC = 0.93 statistically outperformed models that included only PSA (AUC = 0.85 or fPSA/tPSA (AUC = 0.66 to predict PCa risks (P<0.05. Similar results were observed in a subgroup of men whose tPSA levels were lower than 20 ng/mL (AUC = 0.87, vs. AUC of tPSA  = 0.62, P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Detection rates of PCa and high-grade PCa among men that underwent prostate biopsy at the institution has decreased significantly in the past 10 years, likely due to increasing use of PSA tests. Predictive performance of

  12. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer Symptoms Symptoms of cancer ... tumor Obesity Pancreatic cancer Prostate cancer Stomach cancer Testicular cancer Throat or larynx cancer Thyroid cancer Patient Instructions ...

  13. Bibliography of NASA-related publications on wind turbine technology 1973-1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, David A.

    1995-04-01

    A major program of research and development projects on wind turbines for generating electricity was conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center from 1973 to 1988. Most of these projects were sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as a major element of its Federal Wind Energy Program. One other large-scale wind turbine project was sponsored by the Bureau of Reclamation of the Department of Interior (DOI). The peak years for wind energy work at Lewis were 1979-80, when almost 100 engineers, technicians, and administrative personnel were involved. From 1988 their conclusion in 1995, NASA wind energy activities have been directed toward the transfer of technology to commercial and academic organizations. Wind energy activities at NASA can be divided into two broad categories which are closely related and often overlapping: (1) Designing, building, and testing a series of 12 large-scale, experimental, horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT's); and (2) conducting supporting research and technology (SR&T) projects. The purpose of this bibliography is to assist those active in the field of wind energy in locating the technical information they need on wind power planning, wind loads, turbine design and analysis, fabrication and installation, laboratory and field testing, and operations and maintenance. This bibliography contains approximately 620 citations of publications by over 520 authors and co-authors. Sources are: (1) NASA reports authored by government grantee, and contractor personnel, (2) papers presented by attendees at NASA-sponsored workshops and conferences, (3) papers presented by NASA personnel at outside workshops and conferences, and (4) outside publications related to research performed at NASA/ DOE wind turbine sites.

  14. Perfusion computed tomography in colorectal cancer: Protocols, clinical applications and emerging trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Yao Wu; Prasanna Ghimire

    2009-01-01

    Perfusion computed tomography (CT) has emerged as a novel functional imaging technique with gradually increasing importance in the management of colorectal cancer (CRC). By providing the functional tumor microvasculature, it also helps the assessment of therapeutic response of anti-angiogenic drugs as it may reflect tumor angiogenesis. Perfusion CT has been applied in clinical practice to delineate inflammatory or neoplastic lymph nodes irrespective of their size,identify micro-metastases and to predict metastases in advance of their development. It is of increasing significance for preoperative adjuvant therapies and avoidance of unnecessary interventions. Despite controversies regarding the techniques employed, its validity and reproducibility, it can be advantageous in the management of CRCs in which the prognosis is dependent on preoperative staging. With recent advances in the perfusion CT techniques, and incorporation to other modalities like positron emission tomography, perfusion CT will be a novel tool in the overall management of CRCs. This article aims at reviewing the existing clinical applications and recent advances of perfusion CT with a reference to future development in the management of CRCs.

  15. Trend of cancer risk of Chinese inhabitants to dioxins due to changes in dietary patterns: 1980-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Ling, Zaili; Zhao, Yuan; Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin

    2016-02-01

    Food ingestion is a major route for human exposure and body burden to dioxins. We estimated the potential influence of changes in dietary patterns in Chinese population on human health risk to 2,3,7,8-TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) over the last three decades. We performed multiple modeling scenario investigations to discriminate the contribution of 2,3,7,8-TCDD emissions and changes in dietary patterns to the cancer risks (CR) to dioxins. Results showed that changes in dietary patterns, featured by decreasing consumption of total grain (including all unprocessed grains) and vegetables and increasing intake of animal-derived foodstuffs, caused increasing CR from 7.3 × 10-8 in 1980 to 1.1 × 10-7 in 2009. Varying dietary patterns contributed 17% to the CR of Chinese population in 2009 under the fixed emission in 1980. The CR to 2,3,7,8-TCDD in urban and eastern China residents was higher considerably than those who lived in rural area and western China, attributable to higher emissions, household income, and greater intake of animal-derived foodstuffs in urban and eastern China inhabitants. On the other hand, more rapid increasing trend of the CR was found in rural residents due to their more rapid increase in the consumption of fat-dominated foods as compared with urban residents.

  16. Mortality trends and risk of dying from breast cancer in the 32 states and 7 socioeconomic regions of Mexico, 2002-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Sánchez-Barriga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine mortality trends from breast cancer in Mexico nationwide, by state, by socioeconomic region, and to establish an association between education, state of residence, and socioeconomic region with mortality from breast cancer in 2002–2011.Methods. Records of mortality associated with breast cancer were obtained. Rates of mortality nationwide, by state, and by socioeconomic region were calculated. The strength of association between states where women resided, socioeconomic regions, and education with mortality from breast cancer was determined.Results. Women who completed elementary school had a higher risk of dying from breast cancer than people with more education [relative risk (RR 2.58, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.49–2.67]. Mexico City had the strongest association with dying from breast cancer as state and as socioeconomic region 7 [Mexico City: RR 3.47, CI95% 2.7-4.46 (2002 and RR 3.33, CI95% 2.66-4.15 (2011 and region 7: RR 3.72, CI 95%: 3.15-4.38 (2002 and RR 2.87, CI 95%: 2.51-3.28 (2011].Conclusions. In Mexico, the raw mortality rates per 100 000 women who died from breast cancer increased. Mortality was higher in women who had elementary school than in those with more education. The strongest association was in Mexico City as state and as region 7. 

  17. Trends in the incidence of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining cancers in people living with AIDS: a population-based study from São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Luana F; Latorre, Maria do Rosário DO; Gutierrez, Eliana B; Heumann, Christian; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz; Froeschl, Guenter

    2017-01-01

    People living with AIDS are at increased risk of developing certain cancers. Since the introduction of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs) has decreased in high-income countries. The objective of this study was to analyse trends in ADCs and non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) in HIV-positive people with a diagnosis of AIDS, in comparison to the general population, in São Paulo, Brazil. A probabilistic record linkage between the 'Population-based Cancer Registry of São Paulo' and the AIDS notification database (SINAN) was conducted. Cancer trends were assessed by annual per cent change (APC). In people with AIDS, 2074 cancers were diagnosed. Among men with AIDS, the most frequent cancer was Kaposi's sarcoma (469; 31.1%), followed by non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; 304; 20.1%). A decline was seen for ADCs (APC = -14.1%). All NADCs have increased (APC = 7.4%/year) significantly since the mid-2000s driven by the significant upward trends of anal (APC = 24.6%/year) and lung cancers (APC = 15.9%/year). In contrast, in men from the general population, decreasing trends were observed for these cancers. For women with AIDS, the most frequent cancer was cervical (114; 20.2%), followed by NHL (96; 17.0%). Significant declining trends were seen for both ADCs (APC = -15.6%/year) and all NADCs (APC = -15.8%/year), a comparable pattern to that found for the general female population. Trends in cancers among people with AIDS in São Paulo showed similar patterns to those found in developed countries. Although ADCs have significantly decreased, probably due to the introduction of HAART, NADCs in men have shown an opposite upward trend.

  18. European trends in the frequency of original research in acne vulgaris, rosacea, dermatitis, psoriasis, skin cancer, and skin infections, 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young M; Garcha, Jaspreet K; Wu, Jashin J

    2015-04-16

    We analyzed trends in the frequency of original publications into common dermatologic topics in two premier European journals, the British Journal of Dermatology and the Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. Most notably, we found that psoriasis publications peaked around the mid-to-late 1980's as well as demonstrated an upward trend since the 21st century. Skin cancer research witnessed a gradual increase in the frequency of publications since 1970. These findings were consistent with a prior study analyzing trends in two American dermatology journals. We attempted to analyze these results from a historical perspective as well as provide an outlook on the future of research into these common dermatologic topics.

  19. The long-term spatial-temporal trends and burden of esophageal cancer in one high-risk area: A population-registered study in Feicheng, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiubin; Zhao, Deli; Liu, Yi; Liu, Yunxia; Yuan, Zhongshang; Wang, Jialin; Xue, Fuzhong

    2017-01-01

    Background Feicheng County is a high-risk area for esophageal cancer in Shandong province, China. It is important to determine the long-term spatio-temporal trends in epidemiological characteristics and the burden of esophageal cancer, especially since the implementation of the national esophageal cancer screening program for early detection and treatment in 2005. Methods The data collected in Feicheng County from 2001 to 2012 was extracted from the whole-population cancer registry system. The incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALY) and changing trends in esophageal cancer according to age and sex were calculated and described. Results The incidence rate of esophageal cancer in Feicheng was consistently high, and increased significantly for male, but not for female from 2001 to 2012, according to the joinpoint regression analysis. The highest and lowest yearly crude incidence rates were 160.78 and 95.97 per 100000 for males, and 81.36 and 52.17 per 100000 for females. The highest and lowest crude yearly mortality rates were 122.26 and 94.40 per 100000 for males, and 60.75 and 49.35 per 100000for females. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was the main pathology type and the tumor location changed significantly from 2001 to 2012. Overall, the DALY remained roughly stable and was estimated as 11.50 for males and 4.90 for females per 1000 people. The burden was mainly caused by premature death. There is an obvious spatial pattern in the distribution of incidence density and burden. Conclusion Esophageal cancer remains a public health issue in Feicheng County with a high incidence, mortality and disease burden. The incidence and burden have obvious spatial heterogeneity, and further studies should be conducted to identify geographical risk factors for precise local prevention and control measures. PMID:28267769

  20. Trends in the epidemiology of larynx and lung cancer in south-east England, 1985–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Coupland, VH; Chapman, P; Linklater, KM; Sehgal, A; Møller, H; Davies, EA

    2008-01-01

    We analysed data on 8987 larynx and 174060 lung cancer patients diagnosed between 1985 and 2004, of which 17.3% of larynx and 35.5% of lung cancers were in females. The age-standardised rates for each cancer declined in both sexes, but since the 1990s, the rates in females over 70 years of age have been diverging.

  1. Predicting Cancer Information Seeking Behaviors of Smokers, Former Smokers and Nonsmokers Using the 2012 Health Information National Trends Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suekyung

    2013-01-01

    Cancer can be one of the most serious diseases that can result in a costly reduction in the quality of life. Among a number of cancer risk factors, tobacco use has been identified as the leading preventable cause of deaths. Prior research has suggested that cancer information seeking may be a pre-step to adopt health protective behaviors that can…

  2. Treatment strategies for oesophageal cancer - time-trends and long term outcome data from a large tertiary referral centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Maria C

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives Treatment options for oesophageal cancer have changed considerably over the last decades with the introduction of multimodal treatment concepts dominating the progress in the field. However, it remains unclear in how far the documented scientific progress influenced and changed the daily routine practice. Since most patients with oesophageal cancer generally suffer from reduced overall health conditions it is uncertain how high the proportion of aggressive treatments is and whether outcomes are improved substantially. In order to gain insight into this we performed a retrospective analysis of patients treated at a larger tertiary referral centre over time course of 25 years. Patients and methods Data of all patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and adenocarcinoma (AC of the oesophagus, treated between 1983 and 2007 in the department of radiation oncology of the LMU, were obtained. The primary endpoint of the data collection was overall survival (calculated from the date of diagnosis until death or last follow up. Changes in basic clinical characteristics, treatment approach and the effect on survival were analysed after dividing the cohort into five subsequent time periods (I-V with 5 years each. In a second analysis any pattern of change regarding the use of radio(chemotherapy (R(CT with and without surgery was determined. Results In total, 503 patients with SCC (78.5% and AC (18.9% of the oesophagus were identified. The average age was 60 years (range 35-91 years. 56.5% of the patients were diagnose with advanced UICC stages III-IV. R(CT was applied to 353 (70.2% patients; R(CT+ surgery was performed in 134 (26.6% patients, 63.8% of all received chemotherapy (platinum-based 5.8%, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU12.1%, 42.3% 5-FU and mitomycin C (MMC. The median follow-up period was 4.3 years. The median overall survival was 21.4 months. Over the time, patients were older, the formal tumour stage was more

  3. Trends of stomach cancer mortality in Eastern Asia in 1950-2004: comparative study of Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore using age, period and cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Ma, Enbo; Tanaka, Hideo; Ioka, Akiko; Nakahara, Toshitaka; Takahashi, Hideto

    2012-02-15

    To characterize the temporal trends of stomach cancer mortality in Eastern Asia and to better interpret the causes of the trends, we performed age, period and cohort analysis (APC analysis) on the mortality rates in Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore during 1950-2004, as well as the rates in the US as a control population. For the APC analysis, Holford's approach was used to avoid the identification problem. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) decreased consistently in all four areas during the observation period in both males and females. Japan had the highest ASMR in both sexes, followed by Singapore, Hong Kong and the US, but the differences in ASMR among the four areas diminished with time. The results of APC analysis suggested that the decreasing mortality rates in Eastern Asia were caused by the combination of decreasing cohort effect since the end of the 1800s and decreasing period effect from the 1950s. The US showed similar results, but its decreases in the period and cohort effect preceded those of Eastern Asia. Possible causes for the decrease in the cohort effect include improvement in the socioeconomic conditions during childhood and a decrease in the prevalence of H. pylori infection, while possible causes for the decrease in the period effect include a decrease in dietary salt intake and improvements in cancer detection and treatment. These findings may help us to predict future changes in the mortality rates of stomach cancer.

  4. The Role of Proteomics in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Women's Cancers: Current Trends in Technology and Future Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Kyoung Yim Breuer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological and scientific innovations over the last decade have greatly contributed to improved diagnostics, predictive models, and prognosis among cancers affecting women. In fact, an explosion of information in these areas has almost assured future generations that outcomes in cancer will continue to improve. Herein we discuss the current status of breast, cervical, and ovarian cancers as it relates to screening, disease diagnosis, and treatment options. Among the differences in these cancers, it is striking that breast cancer has multiple predictive tests based upon tumor biomarkers and sophisticated, individualized options for prescription therapeutics while ovarian cancer lacks these tools. In addition, cervical cancer leads the way in innovative, cancer-preventative vaccines and multiple screening options to prevent disease progression. For each of these malignancies, emerging proteomic technologies based upon mass spectrometry, stable isotope labeling with amino acids, high-throughput ELISA, tissue or protein microarray techniques, and click chemistry in the pursuit of activity-based profiling can pioneer the next generation of discovery. We will discuss six of the latest techniques to understand proteomics in cancer and highlight research utilizing these techniques with the goal of improvement in the management of women's cancers.

  5. Temporal Trends in Geographical Variation in Breast Cancer Mortality in China, 1973–2005: An Analysis of Nationwide Surveys on Cause of Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changfa Xia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To describe geographical variation in breast cancer mortality over time, we analysed breast cancer mortality data from three retrospective national surveys on causes of death in recent decades in China. We first calculated the age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR for each of the 31 provinces in mainland China stratified by survey period (1973–1975, 1990–1992 and 2004–2005. To test whether the geographical variation in breast cancer mortality changed over time, we then estimated the rate ratio (RR for the aggregated data for seven regions and three economic zones using generalized linear models. Finally, we examined the correlation between mortality rate and several macro-economic measures at the provincial level. We found that the overall ASMR increased from 2.98 per 100,000 in 1973–1975 to 3.08 per 100,000 in 1990–1992, and to 3.85 per 100,000 in 2004–2005. Geographical variation in breast cancer mortality also increased significantly over time at the regional level (p = 0.002 but not at the economic zone (p = 0.089 level, with RR being generally lower for Western China (Northwest and Southwest and higher in Northeast China over the three survey periods. These temporal and spatial trends in breast cancer mortality were found to be correlated with per capita gross domestic product, number of hospitals and health centres’ beds per 10,000 population and number of practicing doctors per 10,000 population, and average number of live births for women aged 15–64. It may be necessary to target public health policies in China to address the widening geographic variation in breast cancer mortality, and to take steps to ensure that the ease of access and the quality of cancer care across the country is improved for all residents.

  6. Temporal Trends in Geographical Variation in Breast Cancer Mortality in China, 1973–2005: An Analysis of Nationwide Surveys on Cause of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Changfa; Kahn, Clare; Wang, Jinfeng; Liao, Yilan; Chen, Wanqing; Yu, Xue Qin

    2016-01-01

    To describe geographical variation in breast cancer mortality over time, we analysed breast cancer mortality data from three retrospective national surveys on causes of death in recent decades in China. We first calculated the age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for each of the 31 provinces in mainland China stratified by survey period (1973–1975, 1990–1992 and 2004–2005). To test whether the geographical variation in breast cancer mortality changed over time, we then estimated the rate ratio (RR) for the aggregated data for seven regions and three economic zones using generalized linear models. Finally, we examined the correlation between mortality rate and several macro-economic measures at the provincial level. We found that the overall ASMR increased from 2.98 per 100,000 in 1973–1975 to 3.08 per 100,000 in 1990–1992, and to 3.85 per 100,000 in 2004–2005. Geographical variation in breast cancer mortality also increased significantly over time at the regional level (p = 0.002) but not at the economic zone (p = 0.089) level, with RR being generally lower for Western China (Northwest and Southwest) and higher in Northeast China over the three survey periods. These temporal and spatial trends in breast cancer mortality were found to be correlated with per capita gross domestic product, number of hospitals and health centres’ beds per 10,000 population and number of practicing doctors per 10,000 population, and average number of live births for women aged 15–64. It may be necessary to target public health policies in China to address the widening geographic variation in breast cancer mortality, and to take steps to ensure that the ease of access and the quality of cancer care across the country is improved for all residents. PMID:27690073

  7. Cancer Stem Cells Accountability in Progression of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: The Most Recent Trends!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samapika Routray

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs play a major role in local recurrence and metastatic spread in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC. Evidence suggests that cancer stem cells are resistant to conventional therapy. So the emerging concepts of the role of cancer stem cells in the pathobiology of HNSCC should be understood carefully to be able to create new paradigms in treatment plans.

  8. Incidence Patterns and Trends of non-Central Nervous System Solid Tumours in Children and Adolescents. A Collaborative Study of the Spanish Population Based Cancer Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrañaga, Nerea; Sanchez, Mª José; Ardanaz, Eva; Felipe, Saray; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Ramos, María; Carulla, Marià; Chirlaque, Mª Dolores; Argüelles, Marcial V.; Martos, Carmen; Mateo, Antonio; Peris-Bonet, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe incidence patterns and trends in children (0-14 years) and adolescents (15-19 age-range) with solid tumours, except those of central nervous system (CNS), in Spain. Methods: Cases were drawn from eleven Spanish population-based cancer registries. Incidence was estimated for the period 1983-2007 and trends were evaluated using Joinpoint regression analysis. Results: The studied tumour groups accounted for 36% of total childhood cancers and 47.6% of those diagnosed in adolescence with annual rates per million of 53.5 and 89.3 respectively. In children 0 to 14 years of age, Neuroblastoma (NB) was the commonest (7.8%) followed by Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) (6.3%), bone tumours (BT) (6.2%) and renal tumours (RT) (4.5%). NB was the most frequently diagnosed tumour before the 5th birthday, while STS and BT were the commonest at 5-9 years of age, and BT and Carcinoma and other epithelial tumours (COET) at 10-14. COET presented the highest incidence in adolescents, followed by germ-cell tumours (GCT), BT and STS. These four diagnostic groups accounted for 94% of total non-CNS solid tumours, in adolescents. Overall incidence rates increased significantly in children up to 1996 with an annual percentage change (APC) of 2.6% (95%CI: 1.7; 3.6). NB and COET showed significant time trend (APCs: 1.4% and 3.8% respectively) while other tumour groups such as RT, STS, BT or GCT had no significant changes over time. A significant increase was present in NB under the age of 5 and in BT and STS in children aged 10-14 years. In adolescents there were significant increases for all tumours combined (APC=2.7; 95%CI: 1.8-3.6) and for STS, GCT and COET (APCs: 3.2%, 4.4% and 3.5% respectively), while other tumour groups such as hepatic tumours, BT or thyroid carcinomas showed a decreasing trend or no increase. Conclusions: Overall, the incidence of the studied cancers in children increased along the period 1983-1996 with no posterior significant rise, while the incidence

  9. An investigation of the apparent breast cancer epidemic in France: screening and incidence trends in birth cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Jørn

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Official descriptive data from France showed a strong increase in breast-cancer incidence between 1980 to 2005 without a corresponding change in breast-cancer mortality. This study quantifies the part of incidence increase due to secular changes in risk factor exposure and in overdiagnosis due to organised or opportunistic screening. Overdiagnosis was defined as non progressive tumours diagnosed as cancer at histology or progressive cancer that would remain asymptomatic until time of death for another cause. Methods Comparison between age-matched cohorts from 1980 to 2005. All women residing in France and born 1911-1915, 1926-1930 and 1941-1945 are included. Sources are official data sets and published French reports on screening by mammography, age and time specific breast-cancer incidence and mortality, hormone replacement therapy, alcohol and obesity. Outcome measures include breast-cancer incidence differences adjusted for changes in risk factor distributions between pairs of age-matched cohorts who had experienced different levels of screening intensity. Results There was an 8-fold increase in the number of mammography machines operating in France between 1980 and 2000. Opportunistic and organised screening increased over time. In comparison to age-matched cohorts born 15 years earlier, recent cohorts had adjusted incidence proportion over 11 years that were 76% higher [95% confidence limits (CL 67%, 85%] for women aged 50 to 64 years and 23% higher [95% CL 15%, 31%] for women aged 65 to 79 years. Given that mortality did not change correspondingly, this increase in adjusted 11 year incidence proportion was considered as an estimate of overdiagnosis. Conclusions Breast cancer may be overdiagnosed because screening increases diagnosis of slowly progressing non-life threatening cancer and increases misdiagnosis among women without progressive cancer. We suggest that these effects could largely explain the reported

  10. Do changes in lymph node status distribution explain trends in survival of breast cancer patients in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Klaus; Vaeth, Michael; Rootzén, Helle;

    2006-01-01

    We studied the impact on survival of changes in breast cancer patients' distribution by lymph node status at the time of diagnosis. Our study included breast cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 1994 in Denmark, where the treatment schemes for breast cancer patients were fairly stable, and wher...... distribution explained half of the improvement in 5-year relative survival, and seem to be the single most important cause behind the improved survival of breast cancer patients in Denmark.......We studied the impact on survival of changes in breast cancer patients' distribution by lymph node status at the time of diagnosis. Our study included breast cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 1994 in Denmark, where the treatment schemes for breast cancer patients were fairly stable, and where...... mammography screening was limited. We measured lymph node status by the proportion of positive lymph nodes of all excised lymph nodes, as assessed by a pathologist. This measure was available for two-thirds of the breast cancer patients. The outcome was 5-year relative survival. Changes in lymph node status...

  11. Trends in incidence and prognosis in female breast cancer since 1955 : registry-based studies in south-east Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.W. Nab (Henk)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIndirect evidence forms the basis of our knowledge of the natural history of human breast cancer. It is assumed that breast cancer starts by subtle molecular changes within a cell, called the induction phase, leading to the creation of a malignant cell. This phase is followed by multipli

  12. Survival after Abdominoperineal and Sphincter-Preserving Resection in Nonmetastatic Rectal Cancer: A Population-Based Time-Trend and Propensity Score-Matched SEER Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Warschkow

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Abdominoperineal resection (APR has been associated with impaired survival in nonmetastatic rectal cancer patients. It is unclear whether this adverse outcome is due to the surgical procedure itself or is a consequence of tumor-related characteristics. Study Design. Patients were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. The impact of APR compared to coloanal anastomosis (CAA on survival was assessed by Cox regression and propensity-score matching. Results. In 36,488 patients with rectal cancer resection, the APR rate declined from 31.8% in 1998 to 19.2% in 2011, with a significant trend change in 2004 at 21.6% (P<0.001. To minimize a potential time-trend bias, survival analysis was limited to patients diagnosed after 2004. APR was associated with an increased risk of cancer-specific mortality after unadjusted analysis (HR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.28–2.03, P<0.01 and multivariable adjustment (HR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.10–1.76, P<0.01. After optimal adjustment of highly biased patient characteristics by propensity-score matching, APR was not identified as a risk factor for cancer-specific mortality (HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.56–1.29, P=0.456. Conclusions. The current propensity score-adjusted analysis provides evidence that worse oncological outcomes in patients undergoing APR compared to CAA are caused by different patient characteristics and not by the surgical procedure itself.

  13. Age Effects and Temporal Trends in HPV-Related and HPV-Unrelated Oral Cancer in the United States: A Multistage Carcinogenesis Modeling Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F Brouwer

    Full Text Available Differences in prognosis in HPV-positive and HPV-negative oral (oropharyngeal and oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs and increasing incidence of HPV-related cancers have spurred interest in demographic and temporal trends in OSCC incidence. We leverage multistage clonal expansion (MSCE models coupled with age-period-cohort (APC epidemiological models to analyze OSCC data in the SEER cancer registry (1973-2012. MSCE models are based on the initiation-promotion-malignant conversion paradigm in carcinogenesis and allow for interpretation of trends in terms of biological mechanisms. APC models seek to differentiate between the temporal effects of age, period, and birth cohort on cancer risk. Previous studies have looked at the effect of period and cohort on tumor initiation, and we extend this to compare model fits of period and cohort effects on each of tumor initiation, promotion, and malignant conversion rates. HPV-related, HPV-unrelated except oral tongue, and HPV-unrelated oral tongue sites are best described by placing period and cohort effects on the initiation rate. HPV-related and non-oral-tongue HPV-unrelated cancers have similar promotion rates, suggesting similar tumorigenesis dynamics once initiated. Estimates of promotion rates at oral tongue sites are lower, corresponding to a longer sojourn time; this finding is consistent with the hypothesis of an etiology distinct from HPV or alcohol and tobacco use. Finally, for the three subsite groups, men have higher initiation rates than women of the same race, and black people have higher promotion than white people of the same sex. These differences explain part of the racial and sex differences in OSCC incidence.

  14. Survival after Abdominoperineal and Sphincter-Preserving Resection in Nonmetastatic Rectal Cancer: A Population-Based Time-Trend and Propensity Score-Matched SEER Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschkow, Rene; Ebinger, Sabrina M.; Brunner, Walter; Schmied, Bruno M.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Abdominoperineal resection (APR) has been associated with impaired survival in nonmetastatic rectal cancer patients. It is unclear whether this adverse outcome is due to the surgical procedure itself or is a consequence of tumor-related characteristics. Study Design. Patients were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. The impact of APR compared to coloanal anastomosis (CAA) on survival was assessed by Cox regression and propensity-score matching. Results. In 36,488 patients with rectal cancer resection, the APR rate declined from 31.8% in 1998 to 19.2% in 2011, with a significant trend change in 2004 at 21.6% (P < 0.001). To minimize a potential time-trend bias, survival analysis was limited to patients diagnosed after 2004. APR was associated with an increased risk of cancer-specific mortality after unadjusted analysis (HR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.28–2.03, P < 0.01) and multivariable adjustment (HR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.10–1.76, P < 0.01). After optimal adjustment of highly biased patient characteristics by propensity-score matching, APR was not identified as a risk factor for cancer-specific mortality (HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.56–1.29, P = 0.456). Conclusions. The current propensity score-adjusted analysis provides evidence that worse oncological outcomes in patients undergoing APR compared to CAA are caused by different patient characteristics and not by the surgical procedure itself. PMID:28197206

  15. Trends in incidence of anal cancer and high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in Denmark, 1978-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the incidences of anal cancer and high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN2/3) over time in Danish women and men. Describing the burden of anal cancer and AIN may be valuable in future evaluations of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. We included all......-associated histological types levelled out or even declined during the 30 years of observation. In women, the increase in HPV-associated cancers was more pronounced among those under 60 years of age. Our findings indicate that vaccines against HPV might play an important role in the prevention of anal cancer and its...... cases of AIN2/3 during the study period. The average annual percentage change of 5% between 1998 and 2008 represents a steep increase in the incidence of AIN in both genders. Furthermore, the incidence rate of HPV-associated anal cancers increased significantly, whereas that of non-HPV...

  16. Trend analysis of cancer mortality in China between 1989 and 2008%1989-2008年中国恶性肿瘤死亡趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾红梅; 郑荣寿; 张思维; 赵平; 赫捷; 陈万青

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in China.The study aimed to examine the temporal trend of cancer mortality rate during 1989-2008 in urban and rural areas of China.Methods The mortality data of all cancers from 1989 to 2008 from National Cancer Registry database were sorted and checked.Age standardized mortality rates were calculated by the direct methods using the China population of 1982 and World Segi's population.Joinpoint regression was performed to obtain the annual percentage changes (APC) in mortality rates.The top ten cancer sites were calculated and analyzed.The mortality rates were compared with statistics of the United States.Results From 1989 to 2008,the trend of crude cancer mortality increased with an annual percentage change (APC) of 1.0%. After age standardization,the mortality rate was significantly decreased,with an APC of-1.2%.In urban areas,lung cancer was the most common cancer of death,whereas in rural areas,stomach cancer and esophageal cancer remained top cancers of death.Especially,in both urban and rural areas,the mortality of lung cancer was on increase.The mortality rates of stomach and esophageal cancers showed a decrease in urban areas.Compared with the cancer mortality rates of the United States,the Chinese cancer mortality rate in males remained highest.The decreasing trend of cancer mortality in females of China was le~ obvious than that of the United States.Conclusions The crude mortality rates of cancer in China show an increase whereas the age standardized mortality raters has declined between 1989 and 2008.Cancer is still a major public health issue threatening people's life in China.Effective intervention for cancer control and prevention is needed in the future.%目的 探讨中国恶性肿瘤死亡水平及其变化趋势,为我国肿瘤防治研究以及效果评价提供参考依据.方法 根据中国肿瘤登记中心1989-2008年登记资料,按性别、地区划分,计算1989-2008年恶性肿

  17. Decreasing trend in prostate cancer with high serum prostate-specific antigen levels detected at first prostate-specific antigen-based population screening in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhide Kitagawa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the recent trends in prostate-specific antigen (PSA distribution in men in Japan, we analyzed the PSA distributions of men undergoing PSA-based population screening. We summarized the annual individual data of PSA-based population screening in Kanazawa, Japan, from 2000 to 2011, and analyzed baseline serum PSA values of the participants at the first population screening. Serum PSA distributions were estimated in all participants and those excluding prostate cancer patients according to age. From 2000 to 2011, 19 620 men participated aged 54-69 years old in this screening program. Mean baseline serum PSA level of all participants at the first screening was 2.64 ng ml−1 in 2000, and gradually decreased to approximately 1.30 ng ml−1 in 2006. That of participants excluding prostate cancer patients was 1.46 ng ml−1 in 2000, and there was no remarkable change during the study period. The 95 th percentiles in the participants excluding prostate cancer patients detected at the first population screening of men aged 54-59, 60-64, and 65-69 years old were 2.90, 3.60, and 4.50 ng ml−1 , respectively. After the commencement of population screening, the proportion of prostate cancer patients with high serum PSA levels decreased. However, there were no changes in serum PSA levels in men without prostate cancer. Age-specific PSA reference level of men without prostate cancer in Japan was similar to that in China and Korea.

  18. Trends in complementary/alternative medicine use by breast cancer survivors: Comparing survey data from 1998 and 2005

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    Zick Suzanna M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM by women with breast cancer is often said to be increasing, yet few data exist to confirm this commonly held belief. The purpose of this paper is to compare overall patterns of CAM use, as well as use of specific products and therapies at two different points in time (1998 vs 2005 by women diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods Surveys were mailed to women randomly selected from the Ontario Cancer Registry (Canada in the spring of 1998 (n = 557 and again in the spring of 2005(n = 877. Results The response rates were 76.3% in 1998 and 63% in 2005. In 1998, 66.7% of women reported using either a CAM product/therapy or seeing a CAM therapist at some time in their lives as compared with 81.9% in 2005 (p = 0.0002. Increases were seen in both use of CAM products/therapies (62% in 1998 vs. 70.6% in 2005 and visits to CAM practitioners (39.4% of respondents in 1998 vs 57.4% of respondents in 2005. Women in 2005 reported that 41% used CAM for treating their breast cancer. The most commonly used products and practitioners for treating breast cancer as reported in 2005 were green tea, vitamin E, flaxseed, vitamin C, massage therapists and dietitians/nutritionists. Conclusion CAM use (both self-medication with products and visits to CAM practitioners increased significantly from 1998 to 2005. Now that more than 80% of all women with breast cancer report using CAM (41% in a specific attempt to management their breast cancer, CAM use can no longer be regarded as an "alternative" or unusual approach to managing breast cancer.

  19. Urban-rural difference in the trend of colo-rectal cancer mortality with special reference to the subsites of colon cancer in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, K; Hirose, K; Nakagawa, N; Kuroishi, T; Tominaga, S

    1985-08-01

    In order to study the effect of urbanization on the epidemiological features of colo-rectal cancer in Japan, the age-adjusted death rates (AADRs) for right-sided (cecum, ascending and transverse) colon, left-sided (descending and sigmoid) colon and rectum cancers during three periods, 1969-71, 1974-76 and 1979-81, were compared among five areas with different population sizes; ten metropolitan cities (greater than 1,000,000), large cities (1,000,000-150,000), medium-sized cities (150,000-50,000), small cities (less than 50,000) and counties. The AADR for left-sided colon cancer has been increasing in recent years, especially in males, and was higher in urban areas than in rural areas, which may imply that the recent increase in the incidence of left-sided colon cancer is associated with an urbanization of the life styles of Japanese people. In Japan, the daily consumption of carbohydrate has been decreasing, but that of total fat has been increasing in recent years, and the ratio of fat/carbohydrate consumption as an energy source was strongly correlated with the AADRs for left-sided colon cancer among the five areas in the three periods. From this correlation analysis, it was suggested that urbanization of life style, namely, the recent westernization of eating habits of Japanese people might be associated with the recent increase of the AADRs for colon cancer, especially of left-sided colon cancer, in Japan.

  20. Tendencias del cáncer de mama en América Latina y el Caribe Breast cancer trends in Latin America and the Caribbean

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    Rafael Lozano-Ascencio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la magnitud y distribución espaciotemporal del cáncer de mama (CaMa en América Latina y el Caribe (LAC de 1979 a 2005. El CaMa destaca como la causa de muerte más importante por tumores malignos en las mujeres latinoamericanas, incluso por arriba del cáncer cervicouterino. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Revisión y organización de las estadísticas nacionales e internacionales (registros, estudios publicados y bases de datos sobre incidencia y mortalidad. Elaboración de estimadores básicos, razones de mortalidad para cada país y análisis de tendencias. RESULTADOS: Aun con el rezago de información presente en la región, se observa un incremento de la incidencia y la mortalidad por CaMa. La razón de muertes/casos en los países de LAC muestra problemas de acceso a la detección y tratamiento. CONCLUSIONES: El reto es mejorar los sistemas de información y la infraestructura diagnóstica para la detección oportuna y el tratamiento adecuado con la finalidad de detener la tendencia ascendente de la mortalidad prematura.Breast cancer is currently the most significant cause of death from malignancies in Latin American women, including cervical cancer. OBJECTIVE: Describe the magnitude and spatial-temporal distribution of breast cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC from 1979-2005. MATERIAL AND METHODS: National and international incidence and mortality statistics were reviewed and organized (registries, databases, and published literature, basic estimators and mortality ratios for each country were calculated and trends were analyzed. RESULTS: Despite substantial data gaps in incidence for many countries, an increase in incidence and mortality is observed in LAC countries. Deaths/cases ratios illustrate problems in access to detection and treatment and the greatest gaps are observed in poorer countries. CONCLUSIONS: A regional effort is needed to improve information systems related to cancer in general and breast cancer

  1. Trends in outpatient breast cancer surgery among Medicare feefor-service patients in the United States from 1993 to 2002%Trends in outpatient breast cancer surgery among Medicare fee-for-service patients in the United States from 1993 to 2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Bian; Michael T. Halpern

    2011-01-01

    The practice of outpatient breast cancer surgery has been controversial in the United States. This study aimed to update time trends and geographic variation in outpatient breast cancer surgery among elderiy Medicare fee-for-service women in the United States. Using the 1993-2002 linked Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare claims data and the Area Resource Files, we identified 2 study samples, including the women whose breast cancers were the first-ever-diagnosed cancer at age 65 years or older from 9 regions continuously covered by the SEER registries since 1993. The first sample included the women receiving unilateral mastectomy for stage 0-IV cancer; the second included the women receiving the breast-conserving surgery with lymph node dissection (BCS/LND) for stage 0-11 cancer. The proportions of patients receiving outpatient surgery increased from 3.2% to 19.4% for mastectomy and from 48.9% to 77.8% for BCS/LND from 1993 to 2002. We observed substantial geographic variation in the average proportion of the patients receiving outpatient surgery in the studied areas across the 10-year period, ranging from 3.9% in Connecticut to 27.2% in Utah for mastectomy and from 54.7% in Hawaii to 78.1% in Seattle, Washington, for BCS/LND. As the popularity of outpatient breast cancer surgery continues to grow, more evidence-based analyses related to quality and outcomes of outpatient breast cancer surgery among various populations are needed in order to facilitate the public debates about state and federal mandated health benefit legislations.

  2. Trends in head and neck cancer incidence in Denmark, 1978-2007: Focus on human papillomavirus associated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Maria; Nielsen, Ann; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk;

    2011-01-01

    and the overall incidence increased throughout the period. Significantly increasing incidence rates were notably seen for tumors in the oral cavity (2.2% per year), tonsils (4.8% per year), oropharynx (3.5% per year) and hypopharynx (4.4% per year). A significantly decreasing incidence of lip cancer was observed...... among men (-5.0% per year). Cancers at HPV-associated sites (n = 3650) showed strongly increasing incidence rates, primarily in individuals years. In contrast, HNCs at sites not related to HPV infection showed a significant decrease (in men) or virtually no change in incidence (in women). Our...

  3. Non-AIDS defining cancers in the D:A:D Study--time trends and predictors of survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe W; Bower, Mark; Reiss, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    Non-AIDS defining cancers (NADC) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive individuals. Using data from a large international cohort of HIV-positive individuals, we described the incidence of NADC from 2004-2010, and described subsequent mortality and predictors of these....

  4. Spatiotemporal Trends in Oral Cancer Mortality and Potential Risks Associated with Heavy Metal Content in Taiwan Soil

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    Tsun-Kuo Chang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Central and Eastern Taiwan have alarmingly high oral cancer (OC mortality rates, however, the effect of lifestyle factors such as betel chewing cannot fully explain the observed high-risk. Elevated concentrations of heavy metals in the soil reflect somewhat the levels of exposure to the human body, which may promote cancer development in local residents. This study assesses the space-time distribution of OC mortality in Taiwan, and its association with prime factors leading to soil heavy metal content. The current research obtained OC mortality data from the Atlas of Cancer Mortality in Taiwan, 1972–2001, and derived soil heavy metals content data from a nationwide survey carried out by ROCEPA in 1985. The exploratory data analyses showed that OC mortality rates in both genders had high spatial autocorrelation (Moran’s I = 0.6716 and 0.6318 for males and females. Factor analyses revealed three common factors (CFs representing the major pattern of soil pollution in Taiwan. The results for Spatial Lag Models (SLM showed that CF1 (Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn was most spatially related to male OC mortality which implicates that some metals in CF1 might play as promoters in OC etiology.

  5. Trends in the Use of Chemotherapy before and after Radical Cystectomy in Patients with Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Han; Seo, Ho Kyung; Shin, Hee Chul; Chang, Sung Ja; Yun, Sooin; Joo, Jungnam; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Kim, Hyung Suk; Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Jeong, Byong Chang; Jeong, In Gab; Kang, Seok Ho; Hong, Bumsik

    2015-08-01

    We investigated trends in perioperative chemotherapy use, and determined factors associated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) use in Korean patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). We recruited 1,324 patients who had MIBC without nodal invasion or metastases and had undergone radical cystectomies (RC) between 2003 and 2013. The study's cut-off time for AC was three months after surgery, and the study's timespan was divided into three periods based on NAC use, namely, 2003-2005, 2006-2009, and 2010-2013. Complete remission was defined as histologically confirmed T0N0M0 after RC. NAC and AC were administered to 7.3% and 18.1% of the patients, respectively. The median time interval between completing NAC and undergoing RC was 32 days and the mean number of cycles was 3.2. The median time interval between RC and AC was 43 days and the mean number of cycles was 4.1. Gemcitabine and cisplatin were most frequently used in combination for NAC (49.0%) and AC (74.9%). NAC use increased significantly from 4.6% between 2003 and 2005 to 8.4% between 2010 and 2013 (P tumor stage ≤ cT2 bladder cancer were negatively associated with NAC use (P < 0.05). While NAC use has slowly increased over time, it remains an underutilized therapeutic approach in Korean clinical practice.

  6. Time trends in incidence and prognosis of primary liver cancer and liver metastases of unknown origin in a Danish region, 1985-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Rune; Jepsen, Peter; Jacobsen, Jacob;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Changes, over the last 20 years, in the diagnostic procedures and treatment of primary liver cancer (PLC) and liver metastases of unknown origin (LMUO) may have affected the clinical course of both cancers. Few longitudinal studies examined this issue. In a population-based setting, we...... studied changes in the incidence and prognosis of PLC and LMUO over time. METHODS: Between 1985 and 2004, we identified 2675 patients with PLC and LMUO in three Danish counties, with a population of 1.4 million. We computed the standardized incidence rate (SIR), ratio of PLC to LMUO diagnoses, median...... survival, and estimated mortality rate ratio adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidity. RESULTS: The SIR of PLC increased from 3.2 in 1985 to 5.0 in 2003, and the SIR of LMUO increased from 3.7 to 6.4. No increase was noted in the PLC-to-LMUO ratio over time (P=0.1 for trend). From 1985 to 2004, the median...

  7. Molecular approaches towards development of purified natural products and their structurally known derivatives as efficient anti-cancer drugs: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Santu Kumar; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2013-08-15

    Several natural products and their derivatives, either in purified or structurally identified form, exhibit immense pharmacological and biological properties, some of them showing considerable anticancer potential. Although the molecular mechanisms of action of some of these products are yet to be elucidated, extensive research in this area continues to generate new data that are clinically exploitable. Recent advancement in molecular biology, high throughput screening, biomarker identifications, target selection and genomic approaches have enabled us to understand salient interactions of natural products and their derivatives with cancer cells vis-à-vis normal cells. In this review we highlight the recent approaches and application of innovative technologies made to improve quality as well as efficiency of structurally identified natural products and their derivatives, particularly in small molecular forms capable of being used in "targeted therapies" in oncology. These products preferentially involve multiple mechanistic pathways and overcome chemo-resistance in tumor types with cumulative action. We also mention briefly a few physico-chemical features that compare natural products with drugs in recent natural product discovery approaches. We further report here a few purified natural products as examples that provide molecular interventions in cancer therapeutics to give the reader a glimpse of the current trends of approach for discovering useful anticancer drugs.

  8. 苏州市2006/2010年肺癌流行趋势%The trends of lung cancer in Suzhou from 2006 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周靖

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨苏州市肺癌流行特征和变化趋势,为制订有效的预防和控制措施提供依据.方法:采用国际疾病分类法ICD-10对苏州市恶性肿瘤登记报告卡进行编码,用流行病学方法进行统计分析.结果:苏州市2006/2010年肺癌平均发病率为54.76/10万,2010年居恶性肿瘤的第1位,肺癌发病率2010年与2006年相比上升了1.42倍,男女性比值为2.63∶1,80岁组发病率达高峰.结论:肺癌应成为苏州市肿瘤防治工作的重点,控烟以及环境治理工作有待加强.%AIM:To discuss the characteristics and trends of lung cancer epidemic in Suzhou,and provide the basis for formu-lating effective prevention and control measures.METHODS:The international classification of diseases ICD-10 code was trans-ported to coding the malignant tumor registration report card in Suzhou,and epidemiological methods was used to analysis.RE-SULTS:The average incidence of lung cancer in Suzhou was 54.76 per million from 2006 to 2010,and malignant tumor was the top one in 2010,the incidence of lung cancer in 2010 increased by 1.42 times compared with 2006,the ratio of males and females was 2.63∶1,the 80 age groups entering the peak period of inci-dence.CONCLUSION:Lung cancer should be the focus of cancer prevention and control in Suzhou,and tobacco control and environment management work need to be strengthened.

  9. An Analysis on the Trends of Cancer Incidence in Fenghua City%奉化市居民恶性肿瘤发病及趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹云生; 李寿俊; 汪晓敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To learn the epidemic trends of ranrer incidence from 2006 to 2011 in Fenghua city. Methods Data of cancel- incidence during: 2006-2011 were analyzed by descriptive epidemiological methods. Results During the past six years, the reported incidence rate of cancer in Fenghua was 328. 59/100, 000 and the standard incidence rate was 203. 48/100 , 000, which has an increasing of 19.37% and 17.35% respectively. These two incidence rates of the male were 1.53 and 1.41 times higher than those of the female, respectively. Regardless of gender, the incidence increased with age especially in those over 50 years old. Stomach cancel', lung cancel-, liver cancer, colon - rectal cancer and breast cancer ranked the top 5 malignant tumors in the residents. The incidences of cancels were relatively stable except for thyroid cancer, bladder cancel', brain cancer, leukemia and so on, which appealed to be ascending yearly. Conclusion The incidence of cancel- shows an increasing tendency in Fenghua city during the past 6 years. The stomach, lung, liver, colon and breast cancer are located on the top 5 sites. It should be strengthened that effective measures of preventing and controlling cancer%目的 了解奉化市居民恶性肿瘤流行特征及发病趋势.方法 采用描述流行病学方法对2006-2011年恶性肿瘤发病资料进行统计,分析恶性肿瘤的分类构成.结果 6年间,奉化市居民恶性肿瘤年平均报告发病率为328.59/10万,标化平均发病率为203.48/10万.6年间发病率和标化发病率分别上升了19.37%和17.35%,发病呈逐年上升趋势;男性报告发病率和标化率分别是女性的1.53和1.41倍;无论男女,50岁后发病率有大幅上升.居民发病居前5位的恶性肿瘤是胃癌、肺癌、肝癌、肠癌和乳腺癌.甲状腺癌、膀胱癌和脑瘤等癌症的发病率呈上升趋势,其他恶性肿瘤发病则比较稳定.结论 奉化市居民恶性肿瘤的发病呈上升趋势;男性发病率高于女

  10. Pattern of palliative care, pain management and referral trends in patients receiving radiotherapy at a tertiary cancer center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain is a common primary symptom of advanced cancer and metastatic disease, occurring in 50-75% of all patients. Although palliative care and pain management are essential components in oncology practice, studies show that these areas are often inadequately addressed. Materials and Methods: We randomly selected 152 patients receiving palliative radiotherapy (PRT from October 2006 to August 2008, excluding metastatic bone lesions. Patients′ records were studied retrospectively. Results: A median follow-up of 21 weeks was available for 119 males and 33 females with a median age of 55 years. Maximum (60% patients were of head and neck cancers followed by esophagus (14%, lung (10% and others. Dysphagia, growth/ulcer and pain were the chief indications for PRT. Pain was present in 93 (61% cases out of which, 56 (60% were referred to pain clinic. All except one consulted pain clinic with a median pain score of 8 (0-10 point scale. Fifty-three of these 56 patients (96% received opioid-based treatment with adequate pain relief in 33% cases and loss of follow-up in 40% cases. Only five (3% cases were referred to a hospice. Twenty-two (14% cases were considered for radical treatment following excellent response to PRT. Conclusion: In this selective sample, the standard of analgesic treatment was found to be satisfactory. However, there is a lot of scope for improvement regarding referral to pain clinic and later to the hospice. Patients′ follow-up needs to be improved along with future studies evaluating those patients who were considered for further RT till radical dose. Programs to change the patients′ attitude towards palliative care, physicians′ (residents′ training to improve communication skills, and institutional policies may be promising strategies.

  11. Mandibular metastasis of adenocarcinoma from prostate cancer: case report according to epidemiology and current therapeutical trends of the advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Dreyer da Silva de Menezes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer represents the most frequent non-cutaneous neoplasia in males. This type of neoplasia can develop peculiar patterns of evolution, presenting, in many cases, precocious relapses and metastasis. Bone metastasis in the mouth is extremely rare, and represents 1% of all malignant mouth neoplasias. The aim of the present study is to report a clinical case of bone metastasis in the mandibular region associated with a tumoral prostate adenocarcinoma, as well as to discuss connected aspects about diagnosis, prognosis and integrated treatment of this condition.

  12. 肺癌外科手术切口的演变与发展趋势%Evolution and Development Trend of Lung Cancer Surgical Incision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢冬; 陈昶; 姜格宁

    2016-01-01

    微创、安全以及无瘤原则,是影响肺癌外科手术切口选择的最重要因素。近年来,随着微创技术的进步,逐步出现了单操作孔电视辅助胸腔镜手术(video-assisted thoracic surgery, VATS)、单孔VATS、机器人辅助胸腔镜切除术(robotic-assisted thoracoscopic resection, ARTS)、剑突下单孔VATS、双侧同期VATS肺切除术、跨纵隔单侧进胸双侧肺切除术等新兴入路,特别是单孔VATS,目前在国内外开展已呈燎原之势。本文回顾了肺癌手术切口演变趋势,并对近年来,肺癌外科手术切口的发展趋势予以总结。%Minimally invasive, safe and tumor-free are the main principles of the choice of surgical incision in lung cancer surgery. In recent years, with the advances in minimally invasive techniques, single-port video assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), robot-assisted thoracoscopic (ARTS), suboxiphoid single-port VATS, simultaneous bilateral VATS pulmonary resec-tion, are emerging approaches, single-port VATS has become one of the most exciting new developments in minimally invasive thoracic surgery in recent years. hTis paper reviews the evolution and trends of surgical incision in lung cancer surgery.

  13. Trends of Non-Accidental, Cardiovascular, Stroke and Lung Cancer Mortality in Arkansas Are Associated with Ambient PM2.5 Reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Cecile G. Chalbot

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular and stroke mortality rates in Arkansas are among the highest in the USA. The annual trends of stroke and cardiovascular mortality are barely correlated to smoking cessation; while the prevalence of risk factors such as obesity; cholesterol and hypertension increased over the 1979–2007 period. The study determined the effect of chronic exposure to PM2.5 on non-accidental; cardiovascular; stroke and lung cancer mortality in Arkansas over the 2000–2010 period using the World Health Organization’s log-linear health impact model. County chronic exposures to PM2.5 were computed by averaging spatially-resolved gridded concentrations using PM2.5 observations. A spatial uniformity was observed for PM2.5 mass levels indicating that chronic exposures were comparable throughout the state. The reduction of PM2.5 mass levels by 3.0 μg/m3 between 2000 and 2010 explained a significant fraction of the declining mortality. The effect was more pronounced in southern and eastern rural Arkansas as compared to the rest of the state. This study provides evidence that the implementation of air pollution regulations has measurable effects on mortality even in regions with high prevalence of major risk factors such as obesity and smoking. These outcomes are noteworthy as efforts to modify the major risk factors require longer realization times.

  14. Prostate cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Friis, S; Kjaer, S K

    1998-01-01

    To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period.......To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period....

  15. Analysis and prediction of esophageal cancer incidence trend in China%中国食管癌发病趋势分析和预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾红梅; 郑荣寿; 张思维; 邹小农; 李霓; 代珍; 陈万青

    2012-01-01

    Objective Based on the registered esophageal cancer data from 1998 to 2007,to analyze the incidence of esophageal cancer during the period and then to predict its trend between year 2008and 2015.Methods The incidence data of esophageal cancer between 1998 and 2007 were sorted from National Cancer Registry Database.Data from forty selected registries were qualified and recruited in the study,including 86 427 cases in total,covering 446 734 668 person years.Crude incidence rates were calculated by area and gender.The standardized incidence rate was adjusted by World Segi's population composition.JoinPoint software was applied to analyze the 10 years' incidence trend and calculated the annual percentage change,while Age-Period-Cohort Bayesian Model was used to fit the data and predict the incidence between 2008 and 2015.Results Between 1998 and 2007,the crude incidence rates among males and females in urban areas were separately 16.58/100 000 (28 207/170 131 309) and 7.14/100 000( 11 761/164 830 893 ),with standardized rates at 12.06/100 000 and 4.55/100 000,respectively.In rural areas,the crude incidence rates and the standardized rates were separately 51.98/100000(29 303/56 377 236) and 47.18/100 000 among males,and 30.97/100 000 ( 17 156/55 395 230) and 25.30/100 000 among females.During the ten years,the crude incidence trend of esophageal cancer among urban females decreased from 10.29/100 000 (1115/10 838 355) in 1998 to 6.29/100 000(1387/22 057 787)in 2007.However,the crude incidence rate among rural males increased from 47.69/100 000(2062/4 323 628) to 54.80/100 000 (4207/7 677 484) in the same period.And the rate among rural females and urban males did not change obviously.After adjusting population structure,in urban areas,the male incidence rate decreased by 2.1% annually and female incidence rate dropped by 7.5%annually.In rural areas,the female incidence rate fell by 1.3% annually,while the male incidence rate remained the same without significant

  16. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2006, featuring colorectal cancer trends and impact of interventions (risk factors, screening, and treatment) to reduce future rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.K. Edwards (Brenda); E. Ward (Elizabeth); B.A. Kohler (Betsy); C. Eheman (Christie); A. Zauber (Ann); R.N. Anderson (Robert); A. Jemal (Ahmedin); M.J. Schymura (Maria); I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); L.C. Seeff (Laura); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); S.L. Goede (Luuk); L.A.G. Ries (Lynn)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND. The American Cancer Society, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collaborate annually to provide updated information regarding cancer occurrence and

  17. Evolução da mortalidade por neoplasias malignas no Rio Grande do Sul, 1979-1995 Time trends in cancer mortality in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1979-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Curi Hallal

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Foi analisada a mortalidade por câncer no Rio Grande do Sul (RS, entre 1979 e 1995. As variáveis consideradas foram sexo, idade, ano de ocorrência do óbito e causa básica da morte. Para análise da tendência das taxas padronizadas de mortalidade (método direto, população padrão: RS-1996 foi utilizada a regressão linear simples. As localizações mais freqüentes do tumor foram: pulmão, esôfago, próstata, estômago e cólon/reto, nos homens, e mama, colo do útero/útero não especificado, pulmão, cólon/reto e estômago, nas mulheres. A tendência temporal das taxas padronizadas de mortalidade, em cada sexo, do ponto de vista estatístico, foi de estabilidade, bem como por câncer de cólon/reto feminino e de colo do útero/útero não especificado. Verificou-se tendência estatisticamente significativa de crescimento da mortalidade por câncer de pulmão, em ambos os sexos, mama feminina, próstata e cólon/reto masculino; e, da mesma forma, decréscimo por câncer de estômago, para ambos os sexos, e esôfago, para os homens.The aim of this study was to analyze cancer mortality in Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil, during the period from1979 to 1995. Study variables were sex, age, year and underlying cause of death. The simple linear regression technique was used to evaluate the trend of standardized death rates (direct method, using the population of RS in 1996 as the standard. The most frequent sites of tumors in males were lung, esophagus, prostate, stomach and colon/rectum; in females they were breast, cervix of the uterus, lung, colon/rectum and stomach. Standardized death rates presented a stable trend for all malignant neoplasms in both sexes, as did cancer of cervix of the uterus/ non-specified uterus and colon/rectum tumors in females. A significant rising trend was observed in mortality rates due to lung cancer in both sexes, breast cancer in females, prostate and colon/rectum cancer in males. The rates of stomach cancer

  18. Cervical cancer mortality trends in Brazil, 1981-2006 Evolução da mortalidade por câncer do colo do útero no Brasil, 1981-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo e Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe cervical cancer mortality trends in Brazil for the period 1981-2006. Cervical cancer mortality was corrected on the basis of proportional redistribution of the deaths from "malignant neoplasm of uterus, part unspecified". Time trends were evaluated by means of simple linear regression. After correction, cervical cancer ranked second among the leading causes of death from cancer in the female population up to 2005, with a downward trend for the country as a whole, a decline in the State capitals, and a stable trend in the municipalities in the interior. A downward trend was confirmed in the State capitals in all geographic regions of the country. In the municipalities in the interior, there was an increase in the North and Northeast regions, a decline in the Southeast and South, and a stable trend in the Central-West. Although uneven, the decline began to take consistent shape in the country. Even better results could be achieved by investing in the expansion of screening coverage, especially among the populations at greatest risk.Este estudo objetivou descrever a evolução da mortalidade por câncer do colo do útero no Brasil, entre 1981-2006. Foi efetuada correção da mortalidade por esse câncer com base na redistribuição proporcional dos óbitos por câncer do útero, "porção não especificada". A tendência temporal foi avaliada por meio de regressão linear simples. Após correção, as taxas de mortalidade por câncer do colo do útero passaram a ocupar o segundo lugar entre os principais cânceres na população feminina até 2005, com tendência decrescente para o país como um todo, queda nas capitais e estabilidade nos municípios do interior. Confirmou-se tendência decrescente nas capitais em todas as regiões do país. Já nos municípios do interior, houve aumento nas regiões Norte e Nordeste, declínio nas regiões Sudeste e Sul e estabilidade no Centro-oeste. A queda observada, mesmo

  19. 1985 Cancer Facts and Figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Cancer Society, Inc., New York, NY.

    Information and statistical data about cancer are provided in seven categories. They include: (1) basic cancer data (considering how cancer works, trends in diagnosis and treatment, new cancer cases and deaths for 1985, and other areas); (2) major cancer sites (discussing lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, 5-year survival rates/trends…

  20. Impact of Introducing Stereotactic Lung Radiotherapy for Elderly Patients With Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer : A Population-Based Time-Trend Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, David; Visser, Otto; Lagerwaard, Frank J.; Belderbos, Jose; Slotman, Ben J.; Senan, Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with high local control rates. The impact of introducing SBRT in patients 75 years of age or older was studied using a population-based cancer registry. Methods The Amsterdam Cancer Registry wa

  1. Cancer incidence in Gipuzkoa, Spain (1998-2002, and time trends from 1986 Incidencia del cáncer en Guipúzcoa (1998-2002 y tendencias desde 1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Larrañaga

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the cancer incidence in Gipuzkoa (Spain from 1998 to 2002 and describe time trends since 1986. Methods: The annual incidence of cancer in Gipuzkoa from 1998 to 2002 was estimated as a rate per 100,000 inhabitants. Incidence trends for the period 1986-2002 were studied for all cancers and for the main cancer sites using Poisson regression and Joinpoint regression for prostate tumours. Results: On average, one in 3 men and one in 5 women would probably be diagnosed with cancer at some time during their life (0-74 years. Among men, prostate surpassed lung as the most frequent cancer site. Among women, breast cancer represented approximately 30% of all cases of cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancers. There was an annual increase in the incidence of cancer of 1.5% (95% CI, 1.1-1.8 in men and 0.9% (95% CI, 0.5-1.3 in women. The incidence of prostate cancer in men increased over the study period, and especially between 1996 and 1999, with an annual increase of 34.7% (95% CI, 5.9-71.5. The incidence of lung cancer in women presented an annual increase of 5.2% (95% CI, 3.4-7.1. In contrast, the incidence of stomach cancer decreased during the study period. Conclusions: Cancer incidence in Gipuzkoa increased during the study period. This increase was particularly marked in lung cancer and skin melanoma, for which preventive strategies are fundamental.Objetivos: Conocer la incidencia de cáncer en Guipúzcoa entre 1998 y 2002, y su evolución desde 1986. Métodos: Se realizan estimaciones de incidencia anual del cáncer en el período 1998-2002, para Guipúzcoa, en tasas por 100.000 habitantes. Se analiza su evolución entre 1986 y 2002 en el conjunto de localizaciones y en las más frecuentes, mediante el modelo de regresión de Poisson y el modelo de regresión Joinpoint en tumores de próstata. Resultados: Uno de cada 3 varones y una de cada 5 mujeres de Guipúzcoa tienen la probabilidad de desarrollar cáncer a lo largo de

  2. Bloodstream infections in febrile neutropenic patients at a tertiary cancer institute in South India: A timeline of clinical and microbial trends through the years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Govind Babu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Febrile neutropenia (FN is an oncological emergency. The choice of empiric therapy depends on the locally prevalent pathogens and their sensitivities, the sites of infection, and cost. The Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines are being followed for the management of FN in India. Methods: This is a prospective observational study conducted at a tertiary care cancer centre from September 2012 to September 2014. Objectives: The objectives of this study were as follows: (1 To review the pattern of microbial flora, susceptibility pattern, and important clinical variables among bloodstream infections in febrile neutropenic patients with solid tumors and hematological malignancies. (2 As per the institutional protocol to periodically review the antibiotic policy and susceptibility pattern, and compare the findings with an earlier study done in our institute in 2010. This was a prospective study conducted from September 2012 to September 2014. Results: About 379 episodes of FN were documented among 300 patients. About 887 blood cultures were drawn. Of these, 137 (15% isolates were cultured. Isolates having identical antibiograms obtained from a single patient during the same hospitalization were considered as one. Hence, 128 isolates were analyzed. About 74 (58% cultures yielded Gram-negative bacilli, 51 (40% were positive for Gram-positive cocci, and 3 (2% grew fungi. Among Gram-negative organisms, Escherichia coli followed by Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae accounted for 78% of the isolates. Among Gram-positive cocci, Staphylococcus species accounted for 84% of the isolates. We have noted a changing trend in the antibiotic sensitivity pattern over the years. Following the switch in empirical antibiotics, based on the results of the study done in 2010 (when the empirical antibiotics were ceftazidime + amikacin, the sensitivity to cefoperazone-sulbactam has plunged from about 80% to 60%%. Similar reduction in

  3. Trends in PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, William W.

    2000-11-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging is a well established method for obtaining information on the status of certain organs within the human body or in animals. This paper presents an overview of recent trends PET instrumentation. Significant effort is being expended to develop new PET detector modules, especially those capable of measuring depth of interaction. This is aided by recent advances in scintillator and pixellated photodetector technology. The other significant area of effort is development of special purpose PET cameras (such as for imaging breast cancer or small animals) or cameras that have the ability to image in more than one modality (such as PET / SPECT or PET / X-Ray CT).

  4. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  5. Updates on surgical management of advanced gastric cancer: new evidence and trends. Insights from the First International Course on Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery--Varese (Italy), December 2, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausei, Stefano; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Sano, Takeshi; Sasako, Mitsuru; Biondi, Alberto; Morgagni, Paolo; Garofalo, Alfredo; Boni, Luigi; Frattini, Francesco; D'Ugo, Domenico; Preston, Shaun; Marrelli, Daniele; Degiuli, Maurizio; Capella, Carlo; Sacco, Rosario; Ruspi, Laura; De Manzoni, Giovanni; Roviello, Franco; Pinotti, Graziella; Rovera, Francesca; Noh, Sung Hoon; Coit, Daniel; Dionigi, Renzo

    2013-11-01

    Between the Ninth International Gastric Cancer Congress (IGCC) in South-Korea (Seoul, 2011) and the Tenth IGCC in Italy (Verona, 2013), the Insubria University organized the First International Course on Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery (Varese, December 2, 2011), with the patronage of Italian Research Group for Gastric Cancer (IRGGC) and the International Gastric Cancer Association (IGCA). The Course was intended to be a comprehensive update and review on advanced gastric cancer (GC) staging and treatment from well-known international experts. Clinical, research, and educational aspects of the surgeon's role in the era of stage-adapted therapy were discussed. As highlighted in the meeting, in this final document we summarize and thoroughly analyze (with references only for well-acquired randomized control trials) the new and old open problems in surgical management of advanced GC. Between the Ninth (Seoul, 2011) and the Tenth (Verona,2013) International Gastric Cancer Congress, the First International Course on Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery (Varese, December 2, 2011) was organized by the University of Insubria. This congress received the patronage of the International Gastric Cancer Association and the Italian Research Group for Gastric Cancer. The aim was to discuss open issues in surgical management of advanced gastric malignancies. We considered the opinions of several recognized experts in the field from both the Eastern and Western world, focused on definition problems and oncological and technical issues to define the current principles of advanced gastric cancer (GC) surgery.

  6. 上海市与肥胖相关的恶性肿瘤发病趋势分析%Trend Analysis on Obesity-Associated Cancer Incidences in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周峰; 吴春晓; 柯居中; 郑莹; 鲍萍萍; 彭鹏; 龚杨明; 向詠梅; 黄哲宙

    2013-01-01

    To describe the incidence trends of obesity-associated cancers,and to provide basis for cancercontrol-related policy making and prevention program evaluation in Shanghai.[Methods] Incidence rate data from Shanghai cancer registry system were coded by ICD-10 and ICD-O-3 and analyzed.Average annual percentage change (AAPC) and annual percentage change (APC) based on log linear model was adopted to describe the incidence trend.Population attributable risk percent (PARP) was employed to estimate the obesity-associated incidence cases.[Results] Whether over the long-term (1973-2008) or short-term (2002-2008) period,the breast cancer incidence rate of females at age of 50 years old and above was increasing continually and significantly with an AAPC of 2.34% in urban areas during 1973-2008 and an APC of 4.00% in suburb areas during 2002-2008.The incidence rates of endometrial cancer of all females and of the 50 years old and above did not present significant trends of variation.The colorectum cancer presented significant ascending trends,except among the suburb females,for the urban with an AAPC of 2.33% during 1973-2008 and the suburb with an APC of 2.51% during 2002-2008.The kidney cancer showed significant ascending trends for the urban residents with an AAPC of 5.20% during 1973-2008 and the suburb residents with an APC of 7.57% during 2002-2008.During 2002-2008,the esophagus and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma presented significant descending trends,except among the suburb males,for the urban residents with an APC of 10.49% and the suburb residents with an APC of 2.94%.In 2009,the obesity-associated incidence number of the above 5 cancers was 1431,accounting for 11.37% of the total incidence count of the above 5 cancers.The endometrial cancer had the largest proportion of the obesity-associated cancers and covered 23.41% of its total incidence cases.[Conclusion] Multiple strategies including obesity control and screening for high risk populations

  7. Evaluation of secular trend and the existence of cases of clusters of bladder cancer in Goiania: descriptive study population-based; Avaliacao da tendencia temporal e da existencia de casos de clusters de cancer de bexiga em Goiania: estudo descritivo de base populacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Gisele Guimaraes Daflon

    2008-07-01

    More than 20 years after the radiological accident with cesium-137 in the city of Goiania, there is still a feeling in local population that the number of cases of cancer in the city is growing up due to the past radiation exposure and that the number of people contaminated or exposed was higher than the number reported. The present study aims to evaluate the temporal trend and the space-time distribution of bladder cancer cases in Goiania from 1988 and 2003, taking into account that bladder cancer presents the highest risk coefficients per unit of radiation dose among solid cancers. The study population was composed of all incident cases of bladder cancer registered in the Population-Based Cancer Registry of Goiania, between 1988 and 2003.Temporal trend of bladder cancer incidence was analyzed by sex and age groups ( < 60 and {>=} 60 years of age) through polynomial regression using age standardized incidence rates of bladder cancer (world population). SaTscan was used to determine whether statistical significant geographic clusters of high incidence of bladder cancer cases can be located in the city. The results showed a significant increase of bladder cancer incidence rates in males of all ages (p= 0.025) and for age group higher or equal to 60 years old (p=O.022), and a stability in trends for female sex. In the space-time analysis, a cluster was identified, however without statistical significance (p=0.278) and its location has no relationship with the main focuses of contamination of the radiological accident in 1987. We concluded that, despite of the increase of incidence rates in males, this can be explained by the improvement in diagnostic procedures throughout time, being this increase still not perceived in females considering the small number of cases. As chance can not be ruled out as the explanation of the identified cluster, we do not suggest any further detailed investigation in this cluster, as the occurrence of cluster diseases in space can occur

  8. Mortalidade por câncer de mama e câncer de colo do útero em município de porte médio da Região Sudeste do Brasil, 1980-2006 Breast cancer and cervical cancer mortality trends in a medium-sized city in Southern Brazil, 1980-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Duarte Rodrigues

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Analisar a tendência da mortalidade por câncer de mama e câncer de colo do útero em mulheres residentes no Município de Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de 1980 a 2006. Os dados sobre os óbitos foram obtidos do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade; as taxas de mortalidade específicas foram calculadas por idade e padronizadas pela população mundial. Para análise de tendência, foram aplicados modelos de regressão polinomial. O câncer de mama foi a principal causa de óbito entre as neoplasias na população de mulheres residentes no município, enquanto o câncer de colo do útero oscilou entre a segunda e a quarta causa no período do estudo. A análise de tendência mostrou queda da mortalidade por câncer de colo do útero (p = 0,001 e tendência de crescimento na mortalidade por câncer de mama (p = 0,035 ao longo dos anos da série. A mortalidade por câncer de mama e colo do útero no Município de Juiz de Fora sugere um processo de transição epidemiológica em andamento, com tendência crescente na mortalidade por câncer de mama e persistência de taxas elevadas por câncer de colo do útero.The aim of this study was to analyze mortality trends from breast cancer and uterine cervical cancer in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The mortality time series from the Mortality Information System of the Brazilian Ministry of Health was used. Age-related specific mortality rates were calculated and standardized against the world population. Polynomial regression models were applied. Breast cancer was the main cause of cancer-related death for women in Juiz de Fora. Trend analysis using the polynomial regression model showed a decrease in mortality due to uterine cervical cancer (p = 0.001 and an increase in mortality due to breast cancer (p = 0.035 over the course of the time series. The trends in mortality due to breast cancer and cervical cancer in Juiz de Fora suggest an ongoing epidemiological

  9. Trends in childhood disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallapies, Dirk

    2006-09-28

    Child mortality has declined remarkably during the last decades. While neonatal disorders, diarrhoea, pneumonia, and malaria as well as being underweight account for most of the child deaths worldwide, children's health discussions in Europe and the USA focus on other issues such as asthma, neurodevelopmental disorders, male genital malformations, and childhood cancer. There is clear evidence of increasing rates of asthma in various countries during the last decades, although rates in some countries may now have stabilised or even decline as recent UK data indicate. Although an increase in the frequency of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and attention deficit disorder has frequently been discussed, the limited data in this field does not justify such a conclusion. While geographic heterogeneity regarding reproductive outcomes is apparent, global trends have not been identified. Interpretation of the available information on asthma, neurodevelopmental disorders and reproductive outcomes is hampered by inconstant diagnostic criteria over place and time and the lack of good and comprehensive population-based surveillance data, which makes it impossible to ascertain trends in actual disease frequency. Data indicate that developed countries have a gradually increasing incidence in leukaemia with a corresponding drop in the incidence of lymphoma. Increases in brain tumour frequency may be related to the development and wide application of new diagnostic capabilities, rather than a true change in the incidence of malignant disease. With a better prognosis for childhood cancer survival, secondary cancers following chemotherapy appear to be increasing. A wide range of environmental factors is thought to have an impact on children's health. These factors include nutrition (protein, vitamins, antioxidants), lifestyle and behaviour choices such as tobacco and alcohol use, parental health, socio-economic status, choice of living environment (urban versus rural, etc

  10. Population-based study of ovarian cancer in Côte d'Or: prognostic factors and trends in relative survival rates over the last 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altwegg Thierry

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this population-based study was to assess independent prognostic factors in ovarian cancer using relative survival (RS and to investigate changes in RS rates from 1982 to 2005. Methods Data on 748 patients with ovarian cancer were provided by the Côte d'Or gynaecologic cancer registry. The RS was estimated using a generalized linear model with a Poisson error structure. Relative survival and its 95% confidence interval (CI were described at the following specific time points 1, 3 and 5 years. The effect of prognostic factors on survival was assessed with multivariate analyses of RS. Results The median follow-up was 12 years. The RS rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 81%, 55% and 44%, respectively. As compared with the period 1982-1989, an improvement in survival was found for the period 1998-2005: HR = 0.52[0.40-0.67]. Women who lived in urban areas had better RS: HR = 0.82[0.67-0.99]. Patients with epithelial types of ovarian cancer other than mucinous or endometrioid cancer had worse RS than those with serous histology. Age ≥ 70 years was associated with lower survival. Conclusions Period of diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, histology, place of residence and age were independent prognostic factors for survival in ovarian cancer. An improvement in the survival rate was observed after 1998 but a significant improvement was limited to advanced stage cancers.

  11. Tendência de mortalidade do câncer de pulmão, traquéia e brônquios no Brasil, 1980-2003 Lung cancer, cancer of the trachea, and bronchial cancer: mortality trends in Brazil, 1980-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a tendência da mortalidade do câncer de pulmão, traquéia e brônquios por sexo e faixas etárias no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Para essa análise, utilizou-se o banco de dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade de 1980 a 2003. A análise de tendência de mortalidade no Brasil e em estados selecionados foi realizada com o ajuste de modelos e utilização da técnica LOWESS para suavização das taxas. RESULTADOS: No Brasil, a taxa padronizada de mortalidade por câncer de pulmão, traquéia e brônquios passou de 7,21 em 1980 a 9,36 óbitos por 100 mil habitantes em 2003. A análise das taxas de mortalidade específicas mostra redução em homens entre 30 e 49 anos e entre 50 e 59 anos. Entre os homens de 60 a 69 anos ocorreu aumento das taxas entre 1980 até 1995, seguido de declínio. Entre homens acima de 70 anos e entre mulheres em todas as faixas etárias acima de 30 anos, a tendência é de aumento das taxas em todo o período analisado. CONCLUSÕES: a redução das taxas de mortalidade entre homens mais jovens pode ser o resultado das ações nacionais para a redução da prevalência do tabagismo no país nas décadas mais recentes, reduzindo a exposição nas coortes mais jovens. A manutenção de taxas elevadas de mortalidade em populações mais idosas deve-se a experiência do tabagismo passado. Quanto às mulheres, a elevação das taxas segue tendência mundial, também em função do aumento da prevalência do tabagismo entre mulheres nos anos recentes.OBJECTIVE: To describe the mortality trends for lung cancer, cancer of the trachea, and bronchial cancer in relation to gender and age brackets in Brazil. METHODS: Data related to mortality between 1980 and 2003 were collected from the Brazilian Mortality Database. A trend analysis of mortality was carried out, nationwide and in selected states, using the LOWESS technique for rate smoothing and model adjustments. RESULTS: In Brazil, the standardized

  12. Tendências da mortalidade por câncer nas capitais dos estados do Brasil, 1980-2004 Trends of cancer mortality in Brazilian state capitals, 1980-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Marcondes Fonseca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A mortalidade por câncer iniciou declínio nos países desenvolvidos nos anos 90, mas seu comportamento nos países em desenvolvimento é menos conhecido. Estudo anterior abordando a mortalidade por câncer no Brasil mostrou queda na mortalidade pelo conjunto dos cânceres, mas a qualidade dos dados suscitou críticas quanto à validade dos resultados. As informações de mortalidade das capitais dos estados do Brasil são de melhor qualidade que aquelas para o país como um todo, possibilitando análise mais acurada das tendências. MÉTODOS: Os dados de mortalidade e população foram obtidos das bases de dados do Ministério da Saúde e do IBGE. Calcularam-se taxas ajustadas por idade e taxas específicas por idade, para ambos os sexos. Empregou-se regressão linear para avaliar a significância das mudanças de tendência. RESULTADOS: As taxas de mortalidade pelo conjunto dos cânceres declinaram, (-4,6% para os homens e -10,5% para as mulheres. O câncer de estômago mostrou queda de taxas nos dois sexos, assim como o câncer de pulmão entre os homens, enquanto as taxas do câncer de próstata aumentaram. No sexo feminino, “câncer do útero não especificado" apresentou redução e o câncer de pulmão, aumento de taxas. O câncer de mama mostrou-se estável, e o câncer do colo do útero aumentou suas taxas ao final do período. CONCLUSÃO: Conforme já registrado em países desenvolvidos, a mortalidade pelo conjunto dos cânceres nas capitais de estados brasileiros mostrou tendência de queda entre 1980 e 2004, o que se deveu fundamentalmente ao declínio da mortalidade por câncer de estômago.OBJECTIVE: Cancer mortality rates began to decline in developed countries in the 1990s, but their behavior in developing countries is less well-known. An earlier study on cancer mortality in Brazil showed a declining mortality trend for cancer as a whole. however the quality of data results raised some criticism t. The population

  13. Time trend analysis and prediction of liver cancer mortality of residents in Henan Province,1984-2009%河南省居民1984-2009年肝癌死亡率趋势分析及预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜永晓; 马臣; 全培良; 刘曙正; 陆建邦; 陈琼; 孙喜斌

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the trend in mortality of liver cancer between 1984 and 2009, and to predict the mortality trend of liver cancer in the next ten years (2010-2019) in residents in Henan Province. Methods: The complete data of liver cancer deaths and the population data in the corresponding period (1984-2009) in Henan Province were drawn from Henan Provincial Center for Tumor and Health Statistics Database. The period-specific mortality rates and the age-adjusted mortality rates directly standardized to China's population and the world population were calculated. The time trend of mortality was estimated by Joinpoint model. The mortality rates of liver cancer in the next ten years (2010-2019) in Henan Province were predicted by using linear regression model. Results: A total of 53 432 cases dying with liver cancer was reported by vital statistics registry center in Henan Province between 1984 and 2009. For men, the age-standardized mortality (China's population) was 18.54/100 000 between 1984 and 1988 and it was increased to 26.85/100 000 between 2004 and 2009; for women, the age-standardized mortality (China's population) was increased from 8.14/100 000 to 12.96/100 000. The trend parameters estimated by Joinpoint model demonstrated that the age-standardized mortality (China's population) of liver cancer showed an increasing trend in male and female. Predictive model demonstrated that the age-standardized mortality rates (China's population) in male and female during the period of 2010-2014 were 27.90/100 000 and 13.13/100 000, respectively; during the period of 2015-2019, the age-standardized mortality rates (China's population) in male and female were 28.50/100 000 and 13.00/100 000, respectively. Conclusion: The mortality rate of liver cancer in Henan Province was in an increasing trend, 1984-2009. This upward trend will slow down in the next ten years (2010-2019).%目的:探讨河南省居民1984-2009年肝癌死亡率变化趋势,对河南省未来10

  14. 2004-2008年北京市女性乳腺癌发病及死亡变化趋势%The incidence and mortality trends of female breast cancer in Beijing, China: between 2004 and 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雷; 孙婷婷; 王宁

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the incidence and mortality trends of female breast cancer in urban and rural areas of Beijing from 2004 to 2008.Methods The incidence and mortality data of female breast cancer from 2004 to 2008 were sorted from Beijing Cancer Registry Database,including 15 527 new diagnosed cases and 3219 deceased cases in total,covering population 29 351 258 person years; among which 11 065 new cases and 2378 deceased cases were from urban areas,covering 17 877 128 person years and 4462 new diagnosed cases and 841 deceased cases were from rural areas,covering 11 474 130 person years.The incidence cases aged 25 and above were divided into 13 age groups by 5 years.The cases under 49 years ( ≤ 49 ) and over 49 years ( > 49 ) were separately defined as premenopausal group and postmenopausal group.Incidence and mortality rates in each year,age-specific incidence and mortality rates in urban and rural areas in Beijing were calculated.The annual standard incidence and mortality rates were adjusted by world population constitution; and the incidence rates ratio in different years related to the place of residence,urban or rural were calculated.JoinPoint software was applied to analyze the incidence trend and calculated the annual percentage of changing (APC).Results The age of female breast cancer patients in urban Beijing in 2004 was (55.83 ± 13.01 ),while it changed to (56.10 ± 12.80) in 2008,increasing by 0.27 years old.The proportion of the patients who were under 49 years declined from 38.32% (732/1910) in 2004 to 34.02% (894/2628) in 2008.While the average age of the patients in rural areas have improved 0.21 year old,from (52.15 ± 11.33) years old in 2004 to (52.36 ± 11.59) years old in 2008; and the proportion of the patients under 49 years also declined from 45.44% (314/691) in 2004 to 43.40% (454/1046) in 2008.From 2004 to 2008,the incidence and mortality rate of female breast cancer in urban areas of Beijing separately rose from 55

  15. Non-AIDS defining cancers in the D:A:D Study - time trends and predictors of survival : A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, Signe W.; Bower, Mark; Reiss, Peter; Bonnet, Fabrice; Law, Matthew; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Abrams, Donald I.; Grulich, Andrew; Fontas, Eric; Kirk, Ole; Furrer, Hansjakob; Wit, Stephane D.; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens D.; Sabin, Caroline A.; Butcher, D.; Delforge, M.; Fanti, I.; Fontas, E.; Franquet, X.; Geffard, S.; Gras, L.; Helweg-Larsen, J.; Hillebregt, M.; Kamara, D.; Kjær, J.; Krum, E.; Lundgren, J.D.; McManus, H.; Meidahl, P.; Mocroft, A.; Nielsen, J.; Phillips, A.; Powderl, W.; Rickenbach, M.; Rode, R.; Ryom, L.; Sabin, C.A.; Salbøl Brandt, R.; Schmidt Iversen, J.; Shortman, N.; Sjøl, A.; Smith, C.; Torres, F.; Tverland, J.; Wright, S.; Zaheri, S.; de Wolf, F.; Smidt, J.; Ristola, M.; Katlama, C.; Viard, J-P.; Girard, P.-M.; Livrozet, J.M.; Vanhems, P.; Pradier, C.; Dabis, F.; Neau, D.; Rockstroh, J.; Schmidt, R.; Degen, O.; van Lunzen, J.; Stellbrink, H.J.; Staszewski, S.; Bogner, J.; Fätkenheuer, G.; Gargalianos, P.; Kosmidis, J.; Perdios, J.; Xylomenos, G.; Filandras, A.; Karabatsaki, E.; Panos, G.; Sambatakou, H.; Banhegyi, D.; Mulcahy, F.; Burke, M.; Turner, D.; Yust, I.; Hassoun, G.; Pollack, S.; Maayan, S.; Vella, S.; Esposito, R.; Mazeu, I.; Mussini, C.; Arici, C.; Pristera, R.; Gabbuti, A.; Mazzotta, F.; Lichtner, M.; Vullo, V.; Boer, K.; Geerlings, S.E.; Godfried, M.H.; Kuijpers, T.W.; Lange, J.M.A.; Nellen, F.J.B.; Pajkrt, D.; Prins, J.M.; Reiss, P.; Scherpbier, H.J.; Vrouenraets, S.M.E.; Wit, F.W.M.N.; van Vugt, M.; van der Meer, J.T.M.; van der Poll, T.; van der Valk, M.; Chirianni, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Montesarchio, E.; Antonucci, G.; Narciso, P.; Testa, A.; Vlassi, C.; Zaccarelli, M.; Castagna, A.; Gianotti, N.; Lazzarin, A.; Galli, M.; Ridolfo, A.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Rozentale, B.; Zeltina, I.; Chaplinskas, S.; Hemmer, R.; Staub, T.; Reiss, P.; Bruun, J.; Maeland, A.; Ormaasen, V.; Lowe, S.; Oude Lashof, A.; Schreij, G.; Gasiorowski, J.; Knysz, B.; Bakowska, E.; Horban, A.; Flisiak, R.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Boron-Kaczmarska, A.; Parczewski, M.; Pynka, M.; Beniowski, M.; Mularska, E.; Trocha, H.; Jablonowska, E.; Malolepsza, E.; Wojcik, K.; Antunes, F.; Caldeira, L.; Doroana, M.; Mansinho, K.; Maltez, F.; Bravenboer, B.; Pronk, M.J.H.; Duiculescu, D.; Rakhmanova, A.; Zakharova, N.; Buzunova, S.; Jevtovic, D.; Mokráš, M.; Staneková, D.; Tomazic, J.; González-Lahoz, J.; Labarga, P.; Medrano, J.; Soriano, V.; Moreno, S.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Bravo, I.; Clotet, B.; Jou, A.; Paredes, R.; Puig, J.; Tural, C.; Gelinck, L.B.S.; Nouwen, J.L.; Rijnders, B.J.A.; Schurink, C.A.M.; Slobbe, L.; Verbon, A.; de Vries-Sluijs, T.E.M.S.; van der Ende, Marchina E.; van der Feltz, M.; Gatell, J.M.; Miró, J.M.; Domingo, P.; Gutierrez, M.; Mateo, G.; Sambeat, M.A.; Karlsson, A.; Flamholc, L.; Ledergerber, B.; Weber, R.; Cavassini, M.; Francioli, P.; Boffi, E.; Hirschel, B.; Furrer, H.; Battegay, M.; Elzi, L.; Chentsova, N.; Kravchenko, E.; Driessen, G.J.A.; Hartwig, N.G.; Frolov, V.; Kutsyna, G.; Servitskiy, S.; Krasnov, M.; Barton, S.; Johnson, A.M.; Mercey, D.; Johnson, M.A.; Mocroft, A.; Phillips, A.; Murphy, M.; Scullard, G.; Weber, J.; Fisher, M.; Leen, C.; Branger, J.; Åkerlund, B.; Morfeldt, L.; Sundström., A.; Thulin, G.; Karlsson, A.; Koppel, K.; Flamholc, L.; Ho̊kangård, C.; Angarano, G.; Antinori, A.; Armignacco, O.; Castelli, F.; Cauda, R.; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Moroni, M.; Perno, C.F.; Viale, P.L.; Von Schlosser, F.; Ammassari, A.; Andreoni, M.; Antinori, A.; Balotta, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Capobianchi, M.R.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cinque, P.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; De Luca, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Gervasoni, C.; Girardi, E.; Gori, A.; Guaraldi, G.; Lichtner, M.; Lo Caputo, S.; Madeddu, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Marchetti, G.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Murri, R.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Torti, C.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Cicconi, P.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Fanti, I.; Formenti, T.; Galli, L.; Lorenzini, P.; Costantini, A.; Giacometti, A.; Riva, A.; Angarano, G.; Carrisa, C.; Monno, L.; Lazzari, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Borderi, M.; Verucchi, G.; Viale, P.L.; Kauffmann, R.H.; Schippers, E.F.; Castelli, F.; Minardi, C.; Torti, C.; Abeli, C.; Quirino, T.; Manconi, P.E.; Piano, P.; Falasca, K.; Vecchiet, J.; Segala, D.; Sighinolfi, L.; Lo Caputo, S.; Mazzotta, F.; Alessandrini, A.; Cassola, G.; Mazzarello, G.; Piscopo, R.; Viscoli, G.; Belvisi, V.; Mastroianni, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Caramma, I.; Castelli, P.; Chiodera, A.; Alleman, M.A.; Bouwhuis, J.W.; Groeneveld, P.H.P.; Bigoloni, A.; Carenzi, L.; Castagna, A.; Cicconi, P.; Formenti, T.; Galli, A.; Galli, M.; Lazzarin, A.; Moioli, M.C.; Piolini, R.; Puoti, M.; Ridolfo, A.L.; Rizzardini, G.; Rossotti, R.; Salpietro, S.; Spagnuolo, V.; Zucchi, P.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Bisio, L.; Mussini, C.; Gori, A.; Lapadula, G.; Abrescia, N.; Chirianni, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Guida, M.G.; Baldelli, F.; Belfiori, B.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M.A.; Acinapura, R.; Andreoni, M.; Antinori, A.; Capozzi, M.; Cauda, R.; De Luca, A.; Gallo, L.; Libertone, R.; Lichtner, M.; Nicastro, E.; Tebano, G.; Tozzi, V.; Vullo, V.; Zaccarelli, M.; d'Avino, A.; Madeddu, G.; Mura, M.S.; Caramello, P.; Di Perri, G.; Orofino, G.C.; Sciandra, M.; Soetekouw, R.; ten Kate, R.W.; Manfrin, V.; Pellizzer, G.; Bernard, E.; Caissotti, C.; Cua, E.; De Salvador-Guillouet, F.; Dellamonica, P.; Dollet, K.; Durant, J.; Ferrando, S.; Fontas, E.; Mondain-Miton, V.; Naqvi, A.; Perbost, I.; Pillet, S.; Pradier, C.; Prouvost-Keller, B.; Pugliese, P.; Rahelinirina, V.; Roger, P.M.; Barth, J.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H.C.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Cavassini, M.; Cellerai, C.; Dubs, R.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fehr, J.; Flepp, M.; Francioli, P.; Furrer, H.; Fux, C.A.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Hasse, B.; Hirsch, H.H.; Hirschel, B.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Kind, C.; Klimkait, T.; Kovari, H.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez de Tejada, B.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Schultze, D.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Yerly, S.; von Wyl, V.; Arend, S.M.; Jolink, H.; Kroon, F.P.; de Boer, M.G.J.; van Dissel, J.T.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; van den Broek, P.J.; Pogany, K.; den Hollander, J.G.; Kortmann, W.; van Twillert, G.; Leyten, E.M.S.; Vriesendorp, R.; Kootstra, G.J.; ten Napel, C.H.H.; Blok, W.L.; Brinkman, K.; Frissen, P.H.J.; Schouten, W.E.M.; van den Berk, G.E.L.; Brouwer, A.E.; Juttmann, J.R.; van Kasteren, M.E.E.; Lettinga, K.D.; Veenstra, J.; Mulder, J.W.; Smit, P.M.; Weijer, S.; van Gorp, E.C.M.; Verhagen, D.W.M.; van Eeden, A.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E.H.; Sprenger, H.G.; Stek, C.J.; van Assen, S.; Brouwer, A.M.; Dofferhoff, A.S.M.; Keuter, M.; Koopmans, P.P.; de Groot, R.; ter Hofstede, H.J.M.; van der Flier, M.; van der Ven, A.J.A.M.; Arends, J.E.; Ellerbroek, P.M.; Hoepelman, A.I.M.; Jaspers, C.A.J.J.; Maarschalk-Ellerbroek, L.J.; Mudrikova, T.; Oosterheert, J.J.; Peters, E.J.G.; Schneider, M.M.E.; Wassenberg, M.W.M.; van der Hilst, J.C.H.; Bierman, W.F.W.; Claessen, F.A.P.; Danner, S.A.; Perenboom, R.M.; bij de Vaate, E.A.; de Jong, E.V.; de Vocht, J.; van Agtmael, M.A.; Geelen, S.P.M.; Wolfs, T.F.W.; Gisolf, E.H.; Richter, J.P.; van der Berg, C.; Stegeman, A.; van den Berge, M.; Polée, M.B.; van Houte, D.P.F.; van Vonderen, M.G.A.; Duits, A.J.; Winkel, C.; Dabis, F.; Bonnet, F.; Chêne, G.; Dabis, F.; Dupon, M.; Fleury, H.; Lacoste, D.; Malvy, D.; Mercié, P.; Morlat, P.; Neau, D.; Pellegrin, I.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Thiébaut, R.; Titier, K.; Bruyand, M.; Chêne, G.; Dabis, F.; Lawson-Ayayi, S.; Thiébaut, R.; Wittkop, L.; Bernard, N.; Bonnal, F.; Bonnet, F.; Caunègre, L.; Cazanave, C.; Ceccaldi, J.; Chambon, D.; Chossat, I.; Courtaud, K.; Dauchy, F.A.; De Witte, S.; Duffau, P.; Dupon, M.; Dupont, A.; Dutronc, H.; Farbos, S.; Gaboriau, V.; Gemain, M.C.; Gerard, Y.; Greib, C.; Hessamfar, M.; Lacoste, D.; Lafarie-Castet, S.; Lataste, P.; Lazaro, E.; Longy-Boursier, M.; Malvy, D.; Meraud, J.P.; Mercié, P.; Monlun, E.; Morlat, P.; Neau, D.; Ochoa, A.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Pistone, T.; Ragnaud, J.M.; Receveur, M.C.; Roger-Schmeltz, J.; Tchamgoué, S.; Thibaut, P.; Vandenhende, M.A.; Viallard, J.F.; Moreau, J.F.; Pellegrin., I.; Fleury, H.; Lafon, M.E.; Masquelier, B.; Trimoulet, P.; Breilh, D.; Titier, K.; Haramburu, F.; Miremont-Salamé, G.; Blaizeau, M.J.; D'Ivernois, C.; Decoin, M.; Delaune, J.; Delveaux, S.; Hanappier, C.; Leleux, O.; Sicard, X.; Uwamaliya-Nziyumvira, B.; Geffard, S.; Leray, J.; Palmer, G.; Touchard, D.; Baker, D.; Bendall, C.; Bloch, M.; Carr, A.; Cooper, D.; Franic, T.; Law, M.; McManus, H.; Petoumenos, K.; Vale, R.; Wright, S.; Edwards, S.; Hoy, J.; Moore, R.; Nicholson, J.; Roth, N.; Watson, K.; Chuah, J.; Ngieng, M.; Nolan, D.; Skett, J.; Cadafalch, J.; Calvo, G.; Codina, C.; Del Cacho, E.; Domingo, P.; Fuster, M.; Gatell, J.; Mateu, S.; Sambeat, M.A.; Sirera, G.; Torres, F.; Vaqué, A.; Clumeck, N.; De Wit, S.; Delforge, M.; Gennotte, A.F.; Gerard, M.; Kabeya, K.; Konopnicki, D.; Libois, A.; Martin, C.; Necsoi, C.; Payen, M.C.; Semaille, P.; Van Laethem, Y.; Bartsch, G.; El-Sadr, W.M.; Krum, E.; Neaton, J.; Thompson, G.; Wentworth, D.; Luskin-Hawk, R.; Telzak, E.; El-Sadr, W.M.; Abrams, D.I.; Cohn, D.; Markowitz, N.; Arduino, R.; Mushatt, D.; Friedland, G.; Perez, G.; Tedaldi, E.; Fisher, E.; Gordin, F.; Crane, L.R.; Sampson, J.; Baxter, J.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Fischer, A.H.; Grint, D.; Kirk, O.; Kjaer, J.; Kowalska, J.; Lundgren, J.; Mocroft, A.; Nielsen, J.; Peters, L.; Podlekareva, D.; Reekie, J.; Tverland, J.; Elias, C.; Losso, M.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Karpov, I.; Vassilenko, A.; Mitsura, V.M.; Suetnov, O.; Clumeck, N.; De Wit, S.; Delforge, M.; Colebunders, R.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Hadziosmanovic, V.; Kostov, K.; Begovac, J.; Jilich, D.; Machala, L.; Sedlacek, D.; Benfield, T.; Kronborg, G.; Larsen, M.; Nielsen, J.; Gerstoft, J.; Hansen, A.-B.E.; Katzenstein, T.; Skinhøj, P.; Pedersen, C.; Ostergaard, L.; Zilmer, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Non-AIDS defining cancers (NADC) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive individuals. Using data from a large international cohort of HIV-positive individuals, we described the incidence of NADC from 2004-2010, and described subsequent mortality and predictors o

  16. Long-Term Trends in the Prevalence of Cancer and Other Major Diseases Among Flatfish in the Southeastern North Sea as Indicators of Changing Ecosystem Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vethaak, A.D.; Jol, J.G.; Pieters, J.P.F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses and discusses spatial and temporal patterns in the prevalence of major skin diseases (lymphocystis, epidermal hyperplasia/papilloma, ulcers), intestinal parasite Glugea sp., and liver cancer in dab (Limanda limanda) and flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the Dutch section of the No

  17. Incidence trends of colorectal cancer in urban Shanghai,1973-2005%上海市区居民1973-2005年结直肠癌发病趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泓澜; 高玉堂; 郑莹; 张薇; 高立峰; 徐飚; 项永兵

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解1973-2005年上海市区居民结直肠癌发病率的时间变化趋势.方法 结直肠癌发病资料来自上海市肿瘤发病登记处,共采集32 962例结肠癌患者资料和24 662例直肠癌患者资料.根据人口普查资料中性别、年龄构成估算各年人口数,利用世界标准人口,采用直接法计算标化发病率.标化发病率年度变化百分比(APC)估算采用对数线性回归法,并用病例数进行加权.结果 1973-2005年男女性结直肠癌发病率均呈上升趋势,结肠癌的标化发病率分别从6.09/10万和5.70/10万上升至14.70/10万和14.35/10万,APC分别为3.03%(t=14.77,P<0.01)和3.21%(t=22.15,P<0.01).男女性直肠癌标化发病率分别从7.68/10万和6.51/10万上升至11.45/10万和8.28/10万,APC分别为1.34%(t=7.28,P<0.01)和0.93%(t=7.34,P<0.01).女性结直肠癌的APC在85岁~组达到最高,分别为5.86%和2.79%;而男性在80岁~组APC最高,分别为4.64%和2.38%.男女性45岁及以上各年龄组结肠癌的APC大于直肠癌.33年间,男女性结直肠癌的平均发病年龄由57~60岁推迟到66~70岁.结肠癌发病年龄较直肠癌略晚[2003-2005年,男性结肠癌平均发病年龄为(68.61±12.17)岁,男性直肠癌为(66.81±12.62)岁,t=4.90,P<0.01;女性结肠癌为(69.20±12.13)岁,女性直肠癌为(67.75±12.54)岁,t=3.81,P<0.01].结论 上海市区男女性结直肠癌的标化发病率在33年里稳步上升,其中结肠癌上升趋势更加明显,有必要进一步探讨导致这种变化的原因.%Objective To explore the time trends of colorectal cancer incidence rates in urban Shanghai from 1973 to 2005. Methods Data on the incidence rates of colorectal cancer were obtained from a population-based cancer registry in Shanghai. A total of 32 962 colon cancer patients and 24 662 rectal cancer patients were registered. Population estimation were based on periodic censuses, with age-and sex-specific annual estimates derived for the remaining years. The

  18. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses a surgical tool to remove the tumor.Mohs' surgery. Layers of cancer cells are removed one ... usually have not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The medicine may have ...

  19. Current Trends in and Indications for Endoscopy-Assisted Breast Surgery for Breast Cancer: Results from a Six-Year Study Conducted by the Taiwan Endoscopic Breast Surgery Cooperative Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Wen Lai

    Full Text Available Endoscopy-assisted breast surgery (EABS performed through minimal axillary and/or periareolar incisions is a possible alternative to open surgery for certain patients with breast cancer. In this study, we report the early results of an EABS program in Taiwan.The medical records of patients who underwent EABS for breast cancer during the period May 2009 to December 2014 were collected from the Taiwan Endoscopic Breast Surgery Cooperative Group database. Data on clinicopathologic characteristics, type of surgery, method of breast reconstruction, complications and recurrence were analyzed to determine the effectiveness and oncologic safety of EABS in Taiwan.A total of 315 EABS procedures were performed in 292 patients with breast cancer, including 23 (7.8% patients with bilateral disease. The number of breast cancer patients who underwent EABS increased initially from 2009 to 2012 and then stabilized during the period 2012-2014. The most commonly performed EABS was endoscopy-assisted total mastectomy (EATM (85.4% followed by endoscopy-assisted partial mastectomy (EAPM (14.6%. Approximately 74% of the EATM procedures involved breast reconstruction, with the most common types of reconstruction being implant insertion and autologous pedicled TRAM flap surgery. During the six-year study period, there was an increasing trend in the performance of EABS for the management of breast cancer when total mastectomy was indicated. The positive surgical margin rate was 1.9%. Overall, the rate of complications associated with EABS was 15.2% and all were minor and wound-related. During a median follow-up of 26.8 (3.3-68.6 months, there were 3 (1% cases of local recurrence, 1 (0.3% case of distant metastasis and 1 (0.3% death.The preliminary results from the EABS program in Taiwan show that EABS is a safe procedure and results in acceptable cosmetic outcome. These findings could help to promote this under-used surgical technique in the field of breast cancer.

  20. Tendencias en las tasas de incidencia de cáncer colorrectal en Navarra en el periodo 1990-2005 Incidence rate trends for colorectal cancer in Navarre (North of Spain in the 1990-2005 period

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    J. Etxeberria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. En España, se ha observado un aumento de la incidencia de cáncer colorrectal (CCR en ambos sexos en los últimos años, posiblemente debido a las mejoras diagnósticas, a la occidentalización de la dieta y al empeoramiento de los niveles de obesidad entre otros. En este trabajo se han estudiado las tendencias de la incidencia de CCR en las diferentes áreas de salud de Navarra (norte de España durante el período 1990-2005. Métodos. Para cada sexo y área, se obtuvieron las tendencias de las tasas de incidencia y los correspondientes intervalos de confianza mediante modelos de P-splines. Resultados. Se observa una tendencia creciente de la incidencia de CCR en la mayoría de las áreas para ambos sexos, siendo menos pronunciada en las mujeres que en los hombres. En la zona centro de Pamplona (la capital se observa una tendencia decreciente para los hombres durante el período estudiado. Conclusiones. Para cambiar las tendencias crecientes observadas en la mayoría de las áreas de la provincia, la prevención primaria es la mejor estrategia. Sin embargo, adquirir estilos de vida saludables tiene resultados a largo plazo por lo que un programa de detección temprana serviría como estrategia de prevención a más corto plazo.Background. In Spain, an increase in the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC has been observed in both sexes in recent years, probably due to an improved diagnostic, the westernization of dietary habits, and worse obesity levels, among others factors. In this work, CRC incidence rate trends in different health areas in Navarre (northern Spain are studied during the 1990-2005 period. Methods. An estimated incidence trend curve for each health area and the corresponding confidence bands were obtained for each gender using P-spline models. Results. These results show an increasing trend of CRC in most of the areas in both sexes, being less pronounced in women than in men. In the central area of Pamplona (the

  1. Analysis of epidemiological characteristics and trends of colorectal cancer among elderly patients in ten cities and counties in China%中国10个市县老年人大肠癌流行特征与趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷涛; 方罗; 陈万青; 张思维; 应倩; 何兆毅; 雷通海

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the epidemiologic characteristics of colorectal cancer among elderly patient in ten cities and counties in China. Methods The incidence, gender, age, location (city versus county) time distribution and epiderniologic trends of colorectal cancer among elderly patient ( age ≥ 65 years ) from 1988 to 2002 in ten cities and counties in China were analyzed. Results Among a total of 312 330 727 person years registered in the ten cities/counties, 62 793 newly emerging colorectal cancer cases were reported with an incidence of 20. 10/lakh, of which 33 906 cases of elderly patients were reported, the incidence being 113.16/lakh, accounting for 54.00% of all colorectal cancer cases. The incidence of colon cancer and rectal cancer was 49.81/lakh and 63.35/lakh, respectively, accounting for 44.01% and 55.99% of all colorectal cancer, respectively. There were 35 545 death cases of colorectal cancer, the mortality being 11.38/lakh. In elderly patients, there were 22 753 death cases with the mortality of 75.92/lakh, accounting for 64.01% of all death cases of colorectal cancer. The mortality of colon cancer and rectal cancer was 37.09/lakh and 38.86/lakh, respectively. The incidence and mortality in male elderly patients were 30.23% and 27.53% higher than those in female patients, respectively. The incidence of the elderly in urban areas was 457% of the one in rural areas, and the mortality in urban areas 366% of the one in rural areas. An ascending trend was shown in the incidence and mortality in elderly patients of colorectal cancer from 1988 to 2002. Conclusion The elderly have become the high risk group of colorectal cancer. Therefore, social attention shall be paid to the prevention and control of colorectal cancer for the elderly.%目的 分析中国10个市县老年人大肠癌流行特征.方法 描述1988-2002年10个市县老年人(≥65岁)大肠癌发病、死亡的件别、年龄、城乡、时间变化特征与趋势.结果 10个市县肿

  2. Online Marketing Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Horecká, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with online marketing trends. Its main goal is to define the latest online marketing trends, create a website with the free online marketing trends, and analyse their effectiveness. The theoretical part brings a thorough description of the latest online marketing trends. Moreover, it provides an insight into the latest trends in the website development. The chosen online marketing trends defined in the theoretical part are subsequently applied on a newly created website. All...

  3. 中国部分市县肾癌及泌尿系其他恶性肿瘤发病趋势比较研究%Renal cancer incidence trends of cities and counties in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建辉; 李呜; 张思维; 那彦群; 陈万青

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemic characteristics of malignant neoplasm of kidney and other urological malignancies in China. Methods The population-based cancer registration data between 1988 and 2002 were collected from 30 cancer registries in China.The data from 11 registries with continuous record were analyzed using the software Joinpoint Regression Program 3.3.1.The incidences of kidney cancer among 3 different periods(1988-1992,1993-1997 and 1998-2002)were compared. Results The incidence of renal cancer and other urological malignancies was 4.26 ,5.40,6.63 per 100 000 population during 1988-1992,1993-1997 and 1998-2002,respectively.The up-trend of kidney cancer incidence was statistically significant;however it was still lower in China than other parts of the world from 1993 to 1997. Conclusion The incidence of kidney cancer in China showed an upward trend in the past 15 years and more attention is needed.%目的 探讨肾和泌尿系统其他癌的流行病学特征.方法 收集整理中国大陆30个肿瘤登记处1988-2002年15年间肾癌及泌尿系其他恶性肿瘤发病登记的数据资料,选取数据较齐全的北京、天津、上海、武汉、哈尔滨、河北磁县、江苏启东、浙江嘉善、广西扶绥、福建长乐、河南林州等11个登记处的资料,按1988-1992、1993-1997、1998-2002年3个时间段对资料进行整理,比较分析肾癌和泌尿系统其他恶性肿瘤发病率、病死率,采用美国癌症研究所开发的Joinpoint Regression Program 3.3.1统计软件分析其流行趋势.通过对发病率的对数转换线性回归分析计算年度变化百分比.结果 1988-1992、1993-1997、1998-2002年3个时间段肾癌和泌尿系统其他恶性肿瘤的发病率分别为4.26/10万、5.40/10万、6.63/10万,发病率呈现逐年上升趋势,但与世界部分国家和地区比较仍处于较低水平.结论 肾癌虽然不是影响我国居民健康的前几位主要恶性肿瘤,但发病率呈现逐年上升趋势,需引起重视.

  4. Tendencias de la mortalidad por cáncer de mama en México, 1980-2009 Breast cancer mortality trends in Mexico, 1980-2009

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    Elvia de la Vara-Salazar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer de mama ha trascendido como un importante riesgo para la salud de las mujeres a escala mundial. Las muertes por cáncer de mama han tenido un destacado incremento dentro de los tumores malignos a nivel mundial al cobrar más de 460 000 vidas en 2008, convirtiéndolo en el padecimiento con más decesos alrededor del mundo.Los cambios demográficos y en estilos de vida han modificado la exposición de la población al riesgo de enfermedades como el cáncer,y desde 1980la mortalidad porcáncerdemama ha mantenido una tendencia ascendente,ubicándose por encima de las muertes por cáncer cervicouterino desde 2006. Al analizar las tasas de mortalidad en las mujeres mexicanas de 25 años de edad en adelante a lo largo de 30 años, se distinguen diferencias estatales y por grupos de edad. Aun cuando el perfil de esta causa de muerte se ha asociado con un mayor desarrollo regional, en este trabajo se puede observar que están ocurriendo cambios y las muertes también están creciendo en la población de mujeres de regiones y entidades menos desarrolladas.Queda de manifiesto el reto que México enfrenta, y la necesidad de conjuntar esfuerzos e implementar programas para educar a la población hacia el autocuidado de la salud, así como promover estilos de vida saludables, además de mejorar la infraestructura diagnóstica para lograr una detección a tiempo y garantizar un tratamiento adecuado.Breast cancer has become an important health risk for women worldwide.The important growth of breast cancer-related deaths within those caused by malign tumors throughout the globe went past the 460 000 in 2008,becoming the deadliest disease worldwide.Demographic changes and lifestyles have modified the population exposure to risk factors of maladies such as cancer, and since 1980 breast cancer mortality has remained on an upward tendency,surpassing cervical cancer in 2006. After analyzing mortality rates along 30 years in Mexican women 25 or more years

  5. 上海市区1973年至2007年结肠直肠癌的发病趋势%Trend in colorectal cancer incidence in Shanghai urban area, 1973-2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾凯; 吴春晓; 龚杨明; 彭鹏; 鲍萍萍; 向詠梅; 黄哲宙; 郑莹; 仲伟鉴

    2014-01-01

    目的:按照性别、年龄段和发病部位,分析1973年至2007年上海市区结肠直肠癌的发病趋势。方法:数据来源于上海市肿瘤登记报告系统。按照世界标准人口计算结肠直肠癌年龄标化发病率,使用Joinpoint 回归模型计算年度变化百分比(annual percentage change,APC)。结果:直肠癌是最常见的结肠直肠癌亚部位,但直肠癌的构成比从1973年至1977年的66.5%,下降至2003年至2007年的44.4%。远端结肠癌标化发病率的APC 最高(男性为5.3%,女性为4.9%),其次是近端结肠癌(男性为4.1%,女性为4.2%),直肠癌的APC 最低(男性为1.5%,女性为1.1%)。女性远端结肠癌和直肠癌发病率在30~39岁年龄段出现了显著下降的趋势(APC 分别为-3.8%和-2.8%),男性直肠癌发病率在30~39岁年龄段也出现了显著下降趋势(APC 为-1.9%)。结论:1973年至2007年上海市区结肠直肠癌发病总体呈现上升趋势,其中结肠癌发病上升更为显著,而乙状结肠癌和升结肠癌发病增加是结肠癌构成比上升的最主要因素。在低年龄段人群中,开始出现男性直肠癌、女性直肠癌和远端结肠癌发病下降的趋势。%Objective: To demonstrate changing trends in colorectal cancer incidence in accordance with sex, age group, and anatomical location in Shanghai urban area from 1973 to 2007. Methods: Data from Shanghai Cancer Registry were analyzed. Age standardized incidence was calculated according to world standard population. Annual percentage changes (APC) were calculated by the Joinpoint regression model. Results: Rectum was the most common site of cancer among colorectal cancer. But the proportion of rectal cancer decreased from 66.5% in 1973-1977 to 44.4% in 2003-2007. However, the distal colon had the highest APC (5.3% among men and 4.9% among women), followed by the proximal colon (4.1% among men and 4.2% among women); APC was the lowest

  6. AN ANALYSIS OF CHANGING TRENDS IN THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, PATHOLOGICAL AND RECEPTOR EXPRESSION OF BREAST CANCERS TREATED IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA

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    Vidhya Lakshmi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : Carcinoma breast is the commonest malignancy of females all over the world and second leading cause of death due to cancer among females. The incidence of breast carcinoma in India is on the rise. The prognosis of tumors depends upon the size of the tumour at presentation, histological type, grade, marginal clearance and lymph node status. The prevalence of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in Asian countries has been found to be lower than the western world where more than 50% tumours express hormone receptors. The study aims at determining the incidence and prevalence of hormonal receptors and Her-2-neu in various subtypes of breast carcinoma and the distribution of expression among the epidemiological subgroups of patients of different age groups, parity, reproductive status etc. All cases of breast cancers attending the oncology OPD in a tertiary care hospital in South India during a 2 year period (2012-2013 were taken up for our study. The criteria of selection of patients included availability of histopathological diagnosis, hormone receptor studies, Her-2-neu expression status and follow up till the study period. Breast carcinomas tend to occur more frequently in older and post-menopausal females. However the incidence of breast carcinoma in females below 40 is on the rise. Greater awareness regarding self-examination of breast, screening tests like mammogram and ultrasound and fine needle aspiration cytology should be advocated for an early diagnosis and better prognosis. Risk factors of developing carcinoma breast include obesity, diabetes, estrogen exposure and nulliparity. Most tumors belong to Grade III, probably because patients present to the hospital a late stage of cancer. The prevalence of estrogen receptor positivity is 43.3%, progesterone receptor is 30% and Her 2 neu over expression is 56.6%. Hormone receptor status depends on size, histological type and grade of the tumour. In our study we found that there is no

  7. 大连市区1991~2010年大肠癌流行趋势分析%An Analysis on Epidemic Trend of Colorectal Cancer from 1991 to 2010 in Dalian City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉梅; 邵世亮

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the epidemic trend of incidence of colorectal cancer in Dalian from 1991 to 2010,in order to provide scientific basis for prevention and control for colorectal cancer.[Methods] Histological type of colorectal cancer was analyzed based on the collected medical records.Crude rate,age-standardized rate(ASR World),truncated rate,cumulative rate,annual percent change(APC) were calculated.Relative risk(RR) and 95% confidence interval(95%CI) were estimated after the adjustment for age,period and cohort.Trend of age-period-cohort was comprehensively analyzed.[Results] The crude incidence was 29.4/105 in male and 23.3/105 in female.ASR World was 21.7/105 in male and 15.6/105 in female.Truncated rate (35~64 years old) was 26.43/105in male and 22.48/105 in female.Cumulative rate (0~64 years old) was 0.99% in male and 0.84% in female,meanwhile,the cumulative rate(0~74 years old) was 2.85% in male and 1.91% in female.The APC of crude incidence and mortality from 1991 to 2010 was both +7.788% in male and female(P all<0.001).And the APC of ASR World from 1991 to 2010 was +4.603% in male(P<0.001)and +4.498% in female (P<0.001).The risk of colorectal cancer increased in the period of 1996~2000,2001~2005 and 2006~2010,both for male and female(P<0.001).For those whom was born after 1946,the risk of colorectal cancer decreased gradually(P<0.001),and those were over 35 years old,the risk of colorectal cancer increased constantly both for male and female(P<0.001).[Conclusion] The trend of incidence of colorectal cancer in Dalian locates is in a relatively higher position as compared with the other Chinese cancer registration areas.It is imperative to conduct the positive and effective prevention for colorectal cancer.%[目的]分析大连市区1991~2010年大肠癌流行趋势,为大肠癌防治措施的制定提供依据.[方法]根据大肠癌新发病例资料,分析其组织学类型,计算粗发病率、世界人

  8. 2000-2011年广州市城区甲状腺癌的发病趋势分析%Time trends of the incidence of thyroid cancer in urban Guangzhou, 2000-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李科; 林国桢; 周琴; 吴娴波

    2015-01-01

    目的 分析2000-2011年广州市城区甲状腺癌的发病情况及变化趋势.方法 利用广州市肿瘤登记处2000-2011年广州市城区甲状腺癌的发病和人口资料,共计2 957例,覆盖人口45 699 522人年,其中男性649例,覆盖人口23 391 743人年,女性2 308例,覆盖人口22 307 779人年,计算分析不同年度、年龄段的粗发病率、中国人口结构标化发病率(中标发病率)、世界人口构成标化发病率(世标发病率)和发病年度变化百分比(APC),分析各性别和年龄段发病率的变化趋势.结果 2000-2011年广州市城区居民甲状腺癌发病共2 957例,男女发病患者例数比为1∶3.56,世标发病率从2000年的2.99/10万上升到2011年9.13/10万,增加了204.73%,APC为10.5%(P<0.001);男性的世标发病率从2000年的1.32/10万上升到2011年的3.54/10万,增加了169.45%,APC为8.6%(P<0.001);女性世标发病率从2000年的4.73/10万上升到2011年的14.87/10万,增加了214.64%,APC为10.9% (P <0.001).男性和女性甲状腺癌发病年龄有较大差别,女性45~59岁为发病高峰,为19.56/10万,男性发病率则随着年龄增长逐步增加,由15 ~ 19岁的0.74/10万增加到85岁以上组的9.48/10万.20 ~59岁年龄组男、女性APC分别为12.2%、13.4%,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.001).结论 甲状腺癌发病呈逐年上升趋势,20 ~ 59岁年龄组人群是甲状腺癌防治的重点人群.%Objective To investigate the incidence and trends of thyroid cancer in urban areas of Guangzhou,2000-2011.Methods Total of 2 957 new cases with a coverage population of 45 699 522 person-years diagnosed as thyroid cancer in 2000-2011 in urban areas of Guangzhou were extracted from the population-based data base of Guangzhou cancer registry,among which 649 were males and 2 308 were females with a coverage population of 23 391 743 person-years and 22 307 779 person-years,respectively.The crude incidence,Chinese age-adjusted incidence rate and

  9. 山东省1970-2005年恶性肿瘤死亡率变化趋势分析%Time trends on the prevalence of cancer during 1970 - 2005 in Shandong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颢; 刁玉涛; 马吉祥; 徐爱强; 李会庆; 马清; 尹畅; 崔佳; 崔永春

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze time trend of cancer during 1970-2005 in Shandong province so as to develop strategies for control and prevention of cancer at the community level. Methods Data was from 4 retrospective surveys regarding all causes of death during 1970-- 1974, 1985-1989, 1990- 1992 and 2004-2005, in Shandong province. Other than one set of data collected in 1985-1989 by Shandong province itself, the other 3 set of data were from the national surveys, in which the survey-point sampling of choice was based on data of 1970-1974 for assessing its representativeness. The observing indices would include standardized mortality and mortality. A join-point regression model was used to analyze the changing rate of tumor. Results The mortality rate of the entire tumor increased 143.15 percent in 2005 than in 1970. The changing slope of standardized rate of all tumors in the regression model showed that the inter-annual growth rate were 0.54 and 1.24 percent from 1970 to 1984 and from 1985 to 1992. The rate of increase since 1992 had been 0.18 percent. During 2004-2005, the main malignant cancers were lung, stomach, liver, esophageal, coiorectal, leukemia, breast and cervical cancer, in order. Lung cancer rose from the 4th ranking to the first while cervical cancer dropped from the fifth ranking to the 8th place. Esophageal cancer and cervical cancer were decreased annually while gastric cancer was increased in the early days but decreased later on. The rest of the cancers were on the rise year by year. Rates of lung and breast cancers were higher while gastric and esophageal cancers were lower seen in the urban than in rural areas. Conclusion In Shandong province, a marked increase was seen in the mortality rate of tumors in the past 35 years. Evidence showed that the spectrum of death among main malignant tumors had changed which might provide a scientific basis for the development of a community-based prevention and control program on cancer.%目的 分析山东省1970

  10. CANCER

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    N. Kavoussi

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many carcinogenetic elements in industry and it is for this reason that study and research concerning the effect of these materials is carried out on a national and international level. The establishment and growth of cancer are affected by different factors in two main areas:-1 The nature of the human or animal including sex, age, point and method of entry, fat metabolism, place of agglomeration of carcinogenetic material, amount of material absorbed by the body and the immunity of the body.2 The different nature of the carcinogenetic material e.g. physical, chemical quality, degree of solvency in fat and purity of impurity of the element. As the development of cancer is dependent upon so many factors, it is extremely difficult to determine whether a causative element is principle or contributory. Some materials are not carcinogenetic when they are pure but become so when they combine with other elements. All of this creates an industrial health problem in that it is almost impossible to plan an adequate prevention and safety program. The body through its system of immunity protects itself against small amounts of carcinogens but when this amount increases and reaches a certain level the body is not longer able to defend itself. ILO advises an effective protection campaign against cancer based on the Well –equipped laboratories, Well-educated personnel, the establishment of industrial hygiene within factories, the regular control of safety systems, and the implementation of industrial health principles and research programs.

  11. Tendencias e indicadores sociales de la mortalidad por cáncer de mama y cuello uterino: Antioquia, Colombia, 2000-2007 Trends and social indicators of both mortality breast cancer and cervical cancer in Antioquia, Colombia, 2000-2007

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    Armando Baena

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar tasas estandarizadas por edad (TEE de mortalidad por cáncer de mama y cérvix 2000-2007 y explorar indicadores sociales que expliquen la variabilidad de las tasas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Las TEE de mortalidad se estimaron por el método directo y mediante regresión lineal se relacionaron con indicadores sociales por subregión. RESULTADOS: La TEE de cáncer de mama en Antioquia fue 11.3 por 100 000 mujeres-año y para cáncer cervical 9.1. En Medellín, la TEE de cáncer de mama fue 12.5, 1.8 veces la tasa de cáncer cervical. Se observó una disminución del cáncer cervical en Medellín (valor-p=0.03 entre 2000 y 2007, pero no en el resto de Antioquia. La mortalidad de cáncer cervical se relacionó con el porcentaje de miseria (valor-p=0.0003. CONCLUSIONES: La mortalidad por estas neoplasias ha permanecido constante en Antioquia, con una amplia variación de la mortalidad por cáncer cervical por subregión asociada con niveles de pobreza.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the mortality age-standardized rates (ASR for breast and cervical cancer from 2000-2007 and explore social indicators that explain the variability of rates in Antioquia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The ASR was estimated by the direct method and linear regression was used to relate social indicators with rates by subregion. RESULTS: Breast and cervical cancer mortality ASRs in Antioquia were 11.3 and 9.1 per 100 000 woman-years respectively. In Medellin, the breast cancer mortality ASR was 12.5, 1.8 times the rate of cervical cancer. A decrease of cervical cancer ASR between 2000 and 2007 was observed in Medellin (p-value=0.03 but not in the rest of Antioquia. Cervical cancer mortality ASR was related to the percentage of poverty (p-value=0.0003. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality due to these neoplasms has remained constant in Antioquia. The wide variation in mortality from cervical cancer between regions seems to be associated with poverty.

  12. Patterns of Radiotherapy Practice for Patients With Cervical Cancer in Japan, 2003-2005: Changing Trends in the Pattern of Care Process

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    Tomita, Natsuo, E-mail: ntomita@aichi-cc.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Toita, Takafumi [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Kodaira, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Shinoda, Atsunori [Department of Radiology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Uno, Takashi [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Numasaki, Hodaka; Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita (Japan); Mitsumori, Michihide [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: The patterns of care study (PCS) of radiotherapy for cervical cancer in Japan over the last 10 years was reviewed. Methods and Materials: The Japanese PCS working group analyzed data from 1,200 patients (1995-1997, 591 patients; 1999-2001, 324 patients; 2003-2005, 285 patients) with cervical cancer treated with definitive radiotherapy in Japan. Results: Patients in the 2001-2003 survey were significantly younger than those in the 1999-2001 study (p < 0.0001). Histology, performance status, and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage were not significantly different among the three survey periods. Use of combinations of chemotherapy has increased significantly during those periods (1995-1997, 24%; 1999-2001, 33%; 2003-2005, 54%; p < 0.0001). The ratio of patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy has also dramatically increased (1995-1997, 20%; 1999-2001, 54%; 2003-2005, 83%; p < 0.0001). As for external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), the application rate of four-field portals has greatly increased over the three survey periods (1995-1997, 2%; 1999-2001, 7%; 2003-2005, 21%; p < 0.0001). In addition, the use of an appropriate beam energy for EBRT has shown an increase (1995-1997, 67%; 1999-2001, 74%; 2003-2005, 81%; p = 0.064). As for intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT), an iridium source has become increasingly popular (1995-1997, 27%; 1999-2001, 42%; 2003-2005, 84%; p < 0.0001). Among the three surveys, the ratio of patients receiving ICBT (1995-1997, 77%; 1999-2001, 82%; 2003-2005, 78%) has not changed. Although follow-up was inadequate in each survey, no significant survival differences were observed (p = 0.36), and rates of late Grade 3 or higher toxicity were significantly different (p = 0.016). Conclusions: The Japanese PCS has monitored consistent improvements over the past 10 years in the application of chemotherapy, timing of chemotherapy, and EBRT methods. However, there is still room for improvement, especially in the clinical

  13. Renovación historiográfica en el Uruguay de la dictadura y de la reinstitucionalización democrática (1973-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubillaga, Carlos

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The author provides an overview of the historical research done in Uruguay in the period from the eve of the military coup of June, 1973 to the present a period of the systematic renewal in this area of scholarship. Over these 25 years there have been significant changes in theoretical criteria, research interests, patterns of cooperation among historians, diffusions of their work, and professionalism in the field.

    Se ofrece un panorama de la situación historiográfica en Uruguay desde los prolegómenos del golpe de Estado (junio de 1973 hasta la actualidad, advirtiendo la renovación sistemática operada en este campo del conocimiento. La indagatoria supone develar los cambios registrados en los criterios teóricos, los intereses temáticos, las modalidades de articulación del colectivo de historiadores, la difusibilidad de la producción historiográfica y la profesionalización de la disciplina.

  14. Renovación historiográfica en el Uruguay de la dictadura y de la reinstitucionalización democrática (1973-1995)

    OpenAIRE

    Zubillaga, Carlos

    1997-01-01

    The author provides an overview of the historical research done in Uruguay in the period from the eve of the military coup of June, 1973 to the present a period of the systematic renewal in this area of scholarship. Over these 25 years there have been significant changes in theoretical criteria, research interests, patterns of cooperation among historians, diffusions of their work, and professionalism in the field.

    Se ofrece un panorama de la situación historiográfica en Ur...

  15. Marketing Trends to Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circle, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This article identifies 13 cultural trends that libraries can turn into opportunites to reach patrons. These trends include: Twitter, online reputation management, value added content, mobile marketing, and emotional connection.

  16. Trends In Satellite Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, William A.; Stevens, Grady H.; Stevenson, Steven M.; Lekan, Jack; Arth, Clifford H.; Hollansworth, James E.; Miller, Edward F.

    1988-01-01

    Report assesses trends in satellite communication from present to year 2010. Examines restrictions imposed by limited spectrum resource and technology needs created by trends. Personal communications, orbiting switchboards, and videophones foreseen.

  17. Trend Monitoring and Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-11

    and parties. 4) Business : trending topics that are related to economy, business , career and workspace field 5) World issue: trending topics that are...spread on the web: analyze the web trends ." In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Ubiquitous Information Management and Communication...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 28-03-2013 – 27-03-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Trend Monitoring and Forecasting 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  18. NASA trend analysis procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This publication is primarily intended for use by NASA personnel engaged in managing or implementing trend analysis programs. 'Trend analysis' refers to the observation of current activity in the context of the past in order to infer the expected level of future activity. NASA trend analysis was divided into 5 categories: problem, performance, supportability, programmatic, and reliability. Problem trend analysis uncovers multiple occurrences of historical hardware or software problems or failures in order to focus future corrective action. Performance trend analysis observes changing levels of real-time or historical flight vehicle performance parameters such as temperatures, pressures, and flow rates as compared to specification or 'safe' limits. Supportability trend analysis assesses the adequacy of the spaceflight logistics system; example indicators are repair-turn-around time and parts stockage levels. Programmatic trend analysis uses quantitative indicators to evaluate the 'health' of NASA programs of all types. Finally, reliability trend analysis attempts to evaluate the growth of system reliability based on a decreasing rate of occurrence of hardware problems over time. Procedures for conducting all five types of trend analysis are provided in this publication, prepared through the joint efforts of the NASA Trend Analysis Working Group.

  19. Energy Trends 2012; Energie Trends 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dril, T. (ed.); Gerdes, J. (ed.) [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Marbus, S. (ed.) [Energie-Nederland, Den Haag (Netherlands); Boelhouwer, M. (ed.) [Netbeheer Nederland, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    In Energy Trends 2012, all figures and developments in the field of energy in the Netherlands are presented in conjunction. The book provides information on energy use by consumers and businesses, provides insight into the international energy trade, energy production and development of energy networks [Dutch] In Energie Trends 2012 staan alle cijfers en ontwikkelingen op het gebied van energie in Nederland in samenhang gepresenteerd. Het boek biedt informatie over energiegebruik door consumenten en bedrijven, geeft inzage in de internationale energiehandel en energieproductie en biedt inzicht in de ontwikkeling van de energienetten.

  20. On the Nature of Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackinney-Valentin, Maria

    2010-01-01

    A consolidation of the field Trend Studies through mapping, updating and developing trend theory.......A consolidation of the field Trend Studies through mapping, updating and developing trend theory....

  1. Computer architecture technology trends

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This year's edition of Computer Architecture Technology Trends analyses the trends which are taking place in the architecture of computing systems today. Due to the sheer number of different applications to which computers are being applied, there seems no end to the different adoptions which proliferate. There are, however, some underlying trends which appear. Decision makers should be aware of these trends when specifying architectures, particularly for future applications. This report is fully revised and updated and provides insight in

  2. Time trends and pathological characteristics of thyroid cancer in urban Beijing, 1995-2010%1995-2010年北京城区甲状腺癌发病趋势及病理特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雷; 孙婷婷; 袁延楠; 王宁

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the incidence trends and to access the histological changing patterns of thvroid cancer iu urban areas of Beijing.Methods Total of 4883 new cases diagnosed as thyroid cancer in 1995-2010 in urban areas of Beijing were extracted from the population-based data base of Beijing cancer registry,among which 1185 were males and 3698 were females with a coverage population of 56 143 454 person-years and 54 430 655 person-years,respectively.Incidence,age adjusted incidence,annual percentage change (APC) and gender specific incidence change of different histology patterns during last 16 years were calculate.Results There were 4883 cases diagnosed as thyroid cancer during 1995-2010 with the sex ratio of 1∶3 (1185 males and 3698 females).Incidence rate of thyroid cancer in urban areas of Beijing increased dramatically from 1.55/100 000 (97/6 245 016) in 1995 to 9.90/100 000(768/7 758 759) in 2010 with an increase rate of 538.71%.After adjusted by world population,the standardized incidence rate increased from 1.27/100 000 in 1995 to 6.96/100 000 in 2010 with a 12.12%annual percentage change (APC =12.12%,P < 0.05).Among males,incidence rate increased from 0.85/100 000 (27/3 185 669) to 4.58/100 000 (179/3 912 458) with an increase rate of 438.82%.After adjusted by world population,the standardized incidence rate of males increased from 0.68/100 000 in 1995to 3.19/100 000 in 2010 with an 11.09% annual percentage change (APC =11.09%,P < 0.05).Among females,the incidence rate increased from 2.29/100 000 (70/3 059 347) to 15.31/100 000(589/3 846 301) with an increase rate of 568.56%.After adjusted by world population,the standardized incidence rate of females increased from 1.89/100 000 in 1995 to 10.82/100 000 in 2010 with a 12.48%annual percentage change (APC =12.48%,P <0.05).Incidence rate ranked 18th and 12th in 1995 among males and femalcs,respectively; while it ranked 14th and 5th in 2010 respectively.Among 4883 cases,4594 cases

  3. Lingerie Trend in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This year at the Hong Kong Mode Lingerie,four concept boutiques were built to focus on the major trend directions,indicating four major lingerie trends for the seasons to come and Play,Shabby Chic and Bazar du Luxe.

  4. Trends Shaping Education 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Trends Shaping Education 2010" brings together evidence showing the effects on education of globalisation, social challenges, changes in the workplace, the transformation of childhood, and ICT. To make the content accessible, each trend is presented on a double page, containing an introduction, two charts with brief descriptive text and a set of…

  5. Advanced larynx cancer. Trends and treatment outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    In de laatste 20-30 jaar is er veel veranderd wat betreft de behandeling van patiënten met een voortgeschreden (T3 en T4) larynx carcinoom (strottenhoofdkanker). Tot circa 30 jaar geleden werden patiënten met een voortgeschreden larynx carcinoom vrijwel uitsluitend behandeld met een totale laryngect

  6. Is cancer mortality increasing in France?

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, C.; Jan, P; Doyon, F

    2001-01-01

    Long-term trends in cancer mortality are reported by site. Overall, cancer mortality has been decreasing in France since 1987 in the male population and since 1968 in the female population. Improvement in treatments and diagnosis should lead to persistently declining mortality rates, unless the tobacco epidemic reverses the trend in female mortality. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com

  7. Cancer screening in the United States, 2016: A review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Andrews, Kimberly; Brooks, Durado; DeSantis, Carol E; Fedewa, Stacey A; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Brawley, Otis W; Wender, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Each year the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its guidelines for early cancer detection, data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, we summarize current ACS cancer screening guidelines, including the update of the breast cancer screening guideline, discuss quality issues in colorectal cancer screening and new developments in lung cancer screening, and provide the latest data on utilization of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey.

  8. How Have Cancer Clinical Trial Eligibility Criteria Evolved Over Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Anil; Chakrabarti, Shreya; Sen, Anando; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge reuse of cancer trial designs may benefit from a temporal understanding of the evolution of the target populations of cancer studies over time. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the trends of cancer trial eligibility criteria between 1999 and 2014. The yearly distributions of eligibility concepts for chemicals and drugs, procedures, observations, and medical conditions extracted from free-text eligibility criteria of 32,000 clinical trials for 89 cancer types were analyzed. We identified the concepts that trend upwards or downwards in all or selected cancer types, and the concepts that show anomalous trends for some cancers. Later, concept trends were studied in a disease-specific manner and illustrated for breast cancer. Criteria trends observed in this study are also validated and interpreted using evidence from the existing medical literature. This study contributes a method for concept trend analysis and original knowledge of the trends in cancer clinical trial eligibility criteria.

  9. Healthy food trends -- quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy food trends - goosefoot; Healthy snacks - quinoa; Weight loss - quinoa; Healthy diet - quinoa; Wellness - quinoa ... Quinoa is rich in protein . It has almost twice the amount of protein found in oats, and ...

  10. Health Plans - Trend Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page contains several useful trend and competition indicators. Certain files will be updated monthly while others will be updated quarterly. The files are the...

  11. Healthy food trends -- kale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy food trends - borecole; Healthy snacks - kale; Weight loss - kale; Healthy diet - kale; Wellness - kale ... drugs), you may need to limit vitamin K foods. Vitamin K can affect how these medicines work. ...

  12. 国内分化型甲状腺癌诊疗方向和对策%The trends and strategies in diagnosis and treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明

    2011-01-01

    The incidence and clinical burden of thyroid cancer as well as differentiated thyroid cancer(DTC) is sharply increasing in recent years in China. The raising proportion of the papillary thyroid carcinoma, micro-carcinoma, early stage, unilateral multifocal and bilateral lesions is becoming the significant clinical epidemiologic character. Ultrasonography is helpful to detect more and more subclinical tumors, increase the diagnostic accuracy, also guide to identify the clinical stage(T, N stage) before the operation. Ultrasound combined with needle aspiration will be vast diagnostic majority of DTC in the near future in China. Another so important key point during the diagnosis and treatment of DTC is risk-group definition, which can assist to decide the therapeutic protocol and prognostic judgement. Personalized, functional and multidisciplinary therapy based on the risk definition will be the main trends of DTC treatment. Radioiodine, TSH suppression and target therapy will be gradually accepted by clinician. The next prime missions should focus on the professional communication and training, establishing domestic guideline of DTC.%分化型甲状腺癌已成为我国常见恶性肿瘤之一.乳头状癌构成比上升,早期病人比例增加,微小癌、单侧多发以及双侧病变发生比例增高成为分化型甲状腺癌的重要临床流行病学特征,均将影响临床外科处理方案的制定.超声影像技术的不断发展不仅利于发现更多的分化型甲状腺癌亚临床病灶、提升术前诊断准确性,还有助于介导术前临床分期,这是规范流程的起点和基础.超声影像与针吸技术相结合的诊断方法将成为今后国内切实可行的发展方向.分化型甲状腺癌另一个重要诊疗关键是病人危险分层的评估,基于危险分层评估基础上的个体化、功能性和多学科综合治疗将成为分化型甲状腺癌治疗的主流.放射性同位素内放射、促甲状腺激素(TSH)抑制

  13. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J

    1979-01-01

    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  14. The Latest Fashion Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Twice each year Chinese designers reveal the latest fashion trends. Working together with mills and garment enterprises, riley turn the study and prediction of prevailing styles into the driving force for the fashion industry’s development. Different clothing manufacturers may understand and make use of such trend analysis according to the specific kinds of garments they produce, one of the important elements in today’s garment production.

  15. Trend obchodu pivem

    OpenAIRE

    Kolář, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Thesis The beer trade trends identifies variables which have an impact on the consumption of beer and predicts the trend of trade in beer in the Czech Republic in the globalization context. To achieve the results was used linear econometric model. Using the Method of least squares determined the size and direction of individual variables for beer consumption. Based on the verified model is a model applicated and based on software Gretl is predicted the beer consumption for a period of 3 ye...

  16. Tendência e diferenciais socioeconômicos da mortalidade por câncer de colo de útero no Estado do Paraná (Brasil, 1980-2000 Socioeconomic trends and differentials in mortality due to cervical cancer in the State of Paraná (Brazil, 1980-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erildo Vicente Müller

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir a evolução da mortalidade por câncer de colo de útero no Estado do Paraná entre 1980 e 2000 e analisar seus diferenciais socioeconômicos em cada região. Taxas de mortalidade ajustadas por idade foram calculadas para as 22 regionais de saúde do Estado a cada ano. Análises comparativas avaliaram indicadores socioeconômicos associados com regiões que apresentaram tendência estacionária e crescente de mortalidade. A mortalidade por câncer de colo uterino cresceu no Estado como um todo a uma taxa de 1,68% (IC 1,20-2,17 ao ano. A maior parte das regiões apresentou tendência estacionária de mortalidade por câncer de colo de útero. As regionais com tendência de aumento na mortalidade apresentaram proporção significativamente mais elevada de analfabetismo (pThe scope of this paper is to discuss the evolution of mortality due to cervical cancer in the State of Paraná, Brazil, between 1980 and 2000 and analyze the socioeconomic differentials in each region of the State. Mortality data were gathered from the System for Information on Mortality by age and town of residence. Age-adjusted death rates were calculated for 22 regions of the state in each year. Comparative analysis evaluated socioeconomic indicators associated with regions that showed either stationary or increasing mortality trends. Cervical cancer deaths increased in the state of Paraná, with an annual percentage increase of 1.68% (1.20 to 2.17, 95% confidence interval. Most of the regions presented a stationary trend of cervical cancer deaths. The comparison of regions presenting an increasing trend indicated poorer socioeconomic indices for the former set: regions with an increase in cervical cancer mortality had a significantly higher illiteracy rate (p<0.001, percentage of individuals older than 15 years with less than 4 years schooling (p=0.001, and lower per-capita income (p=0.025 and human development index (p=0.023. An

  17. Demographic trends in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

  18. Wage Sorting Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jesper; Vejlin, Rune Majlund; Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke

    Using a population-wide Danish Matched Employer-Employee panel from 1980-2006, we document a strong trend towards more positive assortative wage sorting. The correlation between worker and firm fixed effects estimated from a log wage regression increases from -0.07 in 1981 to .14 in 2001. The non......Using a population-wide Danish Matched Employer-Employee panel from 1980-2006, we document a strong trend towards more positive assortative wage sorting. The correlation between worker and firm fixed effects estimated from a log wage regression increases from -0.07 in 1981 to .14 in 2001...

  19. Improving trends with pancreatoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, J S

    1976-02-01

    This paer stresses the complete change in outlook associated with pancreatoduodenectomy at the Ellis Fischel State Cancer Hospital since 1963, the year that marks the implementation of step-wise surgical principles espoused by Newton regarding the performance of pancreatoduodenectomy with the minimizing of morbidity and mortality factors. Since 1963 only one hospital death has occurred at Ellis Fishcel State Cancer Hospital after pancreatoduodenectomy and this case was atypical.

  20. A Trend Analysis on the Mortality Rate of Cancer and Potential Years of Life Lost in the Nickel Occupational Population ;in the Decade%镍职业队列人群癌症病死率与潜在减寿年数十年变化趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程治远; 李娟生; 任晓卫; 杨冬华; 晁利利; 周蕾; 赵笑颜; 白亚娜

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the trend of cancer fatality and potential years of life lost which is caused by ma -lignancy in nickel occupational population , probe the damage degree caused by cancers and provide the scientific evidence for as -certaining the core malignancy for early prevention and reducing the medical expenditure of malignancy .Methods The nickel oc-cupational cohort from Jinchuan company were taken as the research object .The research data were from large -scale state -owned enterprises that provided comprehensive medical services for the staff members .The complete medical records of the patients who were definitely diagnosed as cancer according to the ICD -10 from 2001 to 2010 were collected and made statistical analysis and the burden of diseases caused by cancers was determined from mortality rate and potential years of life lost .Results In 2001-2010 , the top-nine kinds of malignant tumors were lung cancer , gastric cancer , breast cancer , esophageal cancer , liver cancer, colorectal cancer, colon cancer, bladder cancer and ovarian cancer involving 3 793 nickel workers in all, account-ing for 85.04%of the whole cancer patients , among which 1 107 suffered from lung cancer , accounting for 24.82%.445 cancer patients died , which made up 11.73%of population with the top -nine cancers.The highest fatality rate occurred in liver cancer patients, up to 32.68%.During the ten years, lung cancer had the largest contribution to PYLL within 2006-2010, up to 724.15 years.But the colorectal cancer had the fastest growth rate , which was 491.83%.Conclusion Lung cancer and gastric cancer are the most jeopardized core malignancy causing death and life lost of nickel occupational population .The health damage from lung cancer , breast cancer and intestinal cancer increases at a very fast speed.Cancer poses a huge threat to the health and living quality of nickel occupational population.%目的:了解镍职业队列人群因癌症所致病

  1. Cancer care in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Tey, J; Baggarley, S; Lee, KM

    2008-01-01

    Singapore is a small country, but it is ideally and centrally located to conveniently serve not only its population but also patients from the surrounding regions. It’s economy is sufficiently strong to maintain highly sophisticated and expensive equipment to manage a high level of healthcare, including oncology services. Cancer incidences in Singapore are on an upward trend based on the report of the Singapore Cancer Registry for the period of 2001-2005. Cancer is the number one cause of dea...

  2. Language Trends 2010 Secondary

    Science.gov (United States)

    CILT, the National Centre for Languages, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Language Trends survey is run jointly each year by CILT, the National Centre for Languages, the Association for Language Learning (ALL) and the Independent Schools Modern Languages Association (ISMLA). In this period of rapid change and policy development, it is vital to have an up to date picture of current issues for languages. Therefore,…

  3. Locker Room Design Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Examines how today's college and university athletic locker rooms have become sophisticated recruiting tools that rival many professional facilities. Locker room design and location and their level of furniture, finishes, and equipment are discussed as is the trend for more environmentally friendly locker rooms. (GR)

  4. Trends in availability management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, P.W.; McCandless, R.J.; Smith, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    This paper explores future directions in the management of nuclear power plant availability. The issue is of great economic interest both to utilities and to their customers. Current trends are discussed, and some that appear to have promise in the future are identified.

  5. Trends in ICT 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, Paul van; Rust, Christa

    2003-01-01

    The study "Trends in ICT 2003" surveyed Dutch managers about important IT aspects. Results of the study are presented in brief. Topics treated are security, privacy, e-commerce, use of intranet, monitoring of employee WWW use, who makes IT decisions, implementation of contingency plans, the cause of

  6. Trends in Nuclear Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Schatz, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Astrophysics is a vibrant field at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics that encompasses research in nuclear physics, astrophysics, astronomy, and computational science. This paper is not a review. It is intended to provide an incomplete personal perspective on current trends in nuclear astrophysics and the specific role of nuclear physics in this field.

  7. Laser Cutting, Development Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting o...... of 3-dimensional shapes.The CO2-laser will also in the near future be the dominating laser source in the market, although the new developments in ND-YAG-lasers opens for new possibilities for this laser type.......In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting...

  8. Automatic trend estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Vamos¸, C˘alin

    2013-01-01

    Our book introduces a method to evaluate the accuracy of trend estimation algorithms under conditions similar to those encountered in real time series processing. This method is based on Monte Carlo experiments with artificial time series numerically generated by an original algorithm. The second part of the book contains several automatic algorithms for trend estimation and time series partitioning. The source codes of the computer programs implementing these original automatic algorithms are given in the appendix and will be freely available on the web. The book contains clear statement of the conditions and the approximations under which the algorithms work, as well as the proper interpretation of their results. We illustrate the functioning of the analyzed algorithms by processing time series from astrophysics, finance, biophysics, and paleoclimatology. The numerical experiment method extensively used in our book is already in common use in computational and statistical physics.

  9. Cancer nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdale Swati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer nanotechnology is the latest trend in cancer therapy. It helps the pharmacist to formulate the product with maximum therapeutic value and minimum or negligible range side effects. Cancer is the disease in which the abnormal cells are quite similar to the normal cell with just minute functional or genetic change. Thus, it is very hard to target the abnormal cells by the conventional method of the drug delivery system. Nanotechnology is probably the only method that can be used for site-specific action without causing the side effects by killing the normal cells. This review article describes the possible way to exploit the nanotechnology to targeted drug therapy in cancer. The various methods used are: systemic delivery systems, passive targeting, active targeting, intracellular delivery, subcellular localization, and nanoparticle drugs. Different cancer detection techniques like carbon nanotubes, nanorods, and biosensors are also available. This review article gives an idea about the possible potential of nanotechnology in drug delivery, drug targeting, and the diagnosis of cancer.

  10. Trends in Technology Use

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Frant

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between the use of technology, working conditions and the health and well-being of workers in Europe. As it is known that characteristics of work organisation may reinforce or impair both positive and negative effects of technology use, the role of these characteristics is also considered in this study. The research will provide an insight into the trends and changes in technology use and working conditions in European count...

  11. Trends in Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Chocholová, Petra

    2010-01-01

    The principal aim of this thesis is to assess the state of the mobile marketing as of the first quarter of 2011 and to discuss various scenarios of the future development. This thesis defines the terms "mobile marketing" and "mobile advertising" and identifies the main players in the industry. It explores the main categories of mobile advertising such as mobile messaging, in-content and mobile internet advertising. Later, it analyzes the latest trends in the industry and describes in detail t...

  12. Trends in Internet Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Panchanathan, Nitin

    2005-01-01

    Internet marketing involves the usage of the Internet to market and sell goods or services. In this thesis we wished to seek answers for the following questions with the help of web, email surveys taking into consideration consumer perspective, company perspective and 3rd party internet marketing agency perspective. Our survey sample was based on a small set of companies, consumers and internet marketing agencies. The survey results helped us in predicting the trends in internet marketing. We...

  13. 河北省食管癌和胃癌高发区居民胃癌发生部位的变化及趋势分析%Analysis of the changing trends of frequency and localization of gastric cancers arising from different sites of the stomach in population of the high incidence area of esophageal and gastric cancers in Hebei province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晨燕; 张祥宏; 薛丽英; 邢凌霄; 王俊灵; 李学民; 米建民; 靳国梁

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨河北省食管癌和胃癌高发区居民胃癌发生部位的变化.方法 回顾性分析1993-2006年河北省食管癌高发区磁县和胃癌高发区赞争县伞部首诊为胃癌的4334例患者的临床资料,比较不同地区、不同年份、不M性别和不同年龄患者贲门、胃体和胃窦部位胃癌的构成比,分析当地胃癌发生部位的变化及趋势.结果 两地伞部旨诊胃癌患者巾,贲门癌占68.0%,明显高于胃体痛(24.2%)和胃窦癌(7.9%;X2=124.396,P<0.0001).1993-2006年间,贲门痛在胃癌中所占的比例呈逐渐增高的趋势.磁县患者中,贲门癌所占的比例为71.2%,明显高于赞皇县(51.2%;X2=109.648,P<0.0001).磁县贲门癌比例逐渐增多的同时,胃体癌比例呈逐渐减少的趋势;而赞争县胃癌构成比的变化主要体现在胃窦癌逐渐减少.性别对胃癌发生部位的变化无明显影响;但不同部位胃癌患者的年龄构成比存在着差异(X2=58.380,P<0.0001),其中<50岁组胃体癌所占的比例在所有年龄组中最高,为34.2%,而贲门癌在61~70岁组中所占的比例最高,为71.6%.结论 贲门是河北省胃癌高发区磁县和食管癌高发区赞皇县居民胃癌发生的主要部位.在流行病学因素不变的条件下,磁县胃癌患者中,贲门痛的构成比将继续上升,胃体癌的构成比将继续下降;而赞皇县患者中,胃窦癌的构成比将继续下降.%Objective To analyze the changing trends of frequency and localization of gastric cancers arising from the gastric cardia,corpus and antrum during the past 14 years in population of the high incidence area of esophageal and gastric carcinoma in Hebei province.China.Methods The clinicopathological data of 4334 cases of gastric carcinomas among the local residents of Cixian and Zanhuang counties,initially diagnosed in our department from 1993 to 2006.were retrospectively analyzed.The proportion of gastric carcinomas arising from the gastric cardia,corpus and

  14. Male Reproductive Disorders and Fertility Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, Niels E; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2016-01-01

    . Caucasians have rates below replacement, while TFRs among African-Americans and Hispanics are higher. We review possible links between TFR and trends in a range of male reproductive problems, including testicular cancer, disorders of sex development, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, low testosterone levels, poor...... evidence suggests that it most often is related to environmental exposures of the fetal testis. However, environmental factors can also affect the adult endocrine system. Based on our review of genetic and environmental factors, we conclude that environmental exposures arising from modern lifestyle, rather...

  15. TREND MECHANISMS IN CONTEMPORARY FASHION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackinney-Valentin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Explores a spatial approach to trend mechanisms that is argued to be more contemporary than the traditional temporal appraoch.......Explores a spatial approach to trend mechanisms that is argued to be more contemporary than the traditional temporal appraoch....

  16. Epidemiology of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katherine D Crew; Alfred I Neugut

    2006-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have fallen dramatically in US and elsewhere over the past several decades. Nonetheless, gastric cancer remains a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Demographic trends differ by tumor location and histology. While there has been a marked decline in distal, intestinal type gastric cancers, the incidence of proximal, diffuse type adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia has been increasing, particularly in the Western countries. Incidence by tumor sub-site also varies widely based on geographic location, race, and socioeconomic status. Distal gastric cancer predominates in developing countries, among blacks, and in lower socioeconomic groups, whereas proximal tumors are more common in developed countries, among whites, and in higher socio-economic classes. Diverging trends in the incidence of gastric cancer by tumor location suggest that they may represent two diseases with different etiologies. The main risk factors for distal gastric cancer include Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and dietary factors, whereas gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity play important roles in the development of proximal stomach cancer. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiology and risk factors of gastric cancer, and to discuss strategies for primary prevention.

  17. Trends in Environmental Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, C J; Moulik, A

    2005-03-31

    This article discusses developments in environmental analytical chemistry that occurred in the years of 2003 and 2004. References were found by searching the ''Science Citation Index and Current Contents''. As in our review of two years ago (A1), techniques are highlighted that represent current trends and state-of-the-art technologies in the sampling, extraction, separation, and detection of trace concentrations, low-part-per-billion and less, of organic, inorganic, and organometallic contaminants in environmental samples. New analytes of interest are also reviewed, the detections of which are made possible by recently developed analytical instruments and methods.

  18. Tourism Equilibrium Price Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohebi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A review of the tourism history shows that tourism as an industry was virtually unknown in Malaysia until the late 1960s. Since then, it has developed and grown into a major industry, making an important contribution to the country's economy. By allocating substantial funds to the promotion of tourism and the provision of the necessary infrastructure, the government has played an important role in the impressive progress of the Malaysian tourism industry. One of the important factors which can attract tourists to Malaysia is the tourism price. Has the price of tourism decreased? To answer this question, it is necessary to obtain the equilibrium prices as well as the yearly trend for Malaysia during the sample period as it will be useful for analysis of the infrastructure situation of the tourism industry in this country. The purpose of the study is to identify equilibrium tourism price trends in Malaysian tourism market. Approach: We use hotel room as representative of tourism market. Quarterly data from 1995-2009 are used and a dynamic model of simultaneous equation is employed. Results: Based on the result during the period of 1995 until 2000, the growth rate of the equilibrium price was greater than consumer price index and producer price index. Conclusion: In the Malaysian tourism market, new infrastructure during this period had not been developed to keep pace with tourist arrivals.

  19. Global trends, needs, issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, R G

    1998-01-01

    Worldwide, Pharmaceutical Plant Management struggles with the competing priorities of lowering costs, rising customer expectations, more demanding government regulations, and the need to reduce cycle times especially in the introduction of new products. All of this takes place in an environment of global competition, regulatory harmonization, mergers and downsizing, and employee insecurity. Employees are expected to do more with less, work with more sophisticated equipment and processes, take more personal responsibility for quality and productivity, work in teams, etc. In summary, we are talking about CHANGE, the speed of which will accelerate in the years to come. This presentation will discuss how some pharmaceutical plants are addressing these challenges. Examples will be given in the areas of validation, process reengineering, risk analysis, role of the quality function and people. It is my contention that most of the global trends today are insufficient to meet the challenges that we face. I hope that this presentation will generate some ideas on what the global trends should be.

  20. No increase in brain cancer rates during period of expanding cell phone use

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a new examination of United States cancer incidence data, investigators at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reported that incidence trends have remained roughly constant for glioma, the main type of brain cancer hypothesized to be related to cell ph

  1. NEW TRENDS IN PERIODONTICS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available New research is demonstrating that a person’s total health is indeed related to their oral health. Elimination of all oral infectio ns, including gingivitis and periodontitis, is important to overall health. The article reviews va rious trends in nonsurgical and surgical therapy that will successfully arrest periodontal inf ections. Opportunities for early diagnosis and prevention will play an increasing role in dental practice in the future as patients understand the importance of oral health to overall health. There is an urgent need to educate the public as to the importance of periodontal health . All of these findings indicate that periodontal disease must be viewed from a whole new perspective, particularly since some form of periodontal disease is present in a large per centage of the population. A prospective approach of prevention and early intervention in trea ting the disease is more important than ever before.

  2. Trends in contemporary mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Strickland, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a wide spectrum of hot topics and current trends in mathematics, including noncommutative algebra via deformation theory,  optimal transportation, nonlinear potential theory, kinetic theory and gas dynamics, geometric numerical integration, finite simple groups of small essential dimension, optimal control problems, extended Dynkin diagrams, spin glasses, aspherical closed manifolds, Boltzmann systems, birational geometry of projective varieties and directed graphs, nonlinear diffusion, geometric constructions of extremal metrics on complex manifolds, and Pell’s equation in polynomials. The book comprises a selection of contributions by leading international mathematicians who were speakers at the "INdAM Day", an initiative dating back to 2004 at which the most recent developments in contemporary mathematics are presented.

  3. Land Cover Trends Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  4. Temperature trend biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venema, Victor; Lindau, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    In an accompanying talk we show that well-homogenized national dataset warm more than temperatures from global collections averaged over the region of common coverage. In this poster we want to present auxiliary work about possible biases in the raw observations and on how well relative statistical homogenization can remove trend biases. There are several possible causes of cooling biases, which have not been studied much. Siting could be an important factor. Urban stations tend to move away from the centre to better locations. Many stations started inside of urban areas and are nowadays more outside. Even for villages the temperature difference between the centre and edge can be 0.5°C. When a city station moves to an airport, which often happened around WWII, this takes the station (largely) out of the urban heat island. During the 20th century the Stevenson screen was established as the dominant thermometer screen. This screen protected the thermometer much better against radiation than earlier designs. Deficits of earlier measurement methods have artificially warmed the temperatures in the 19th century. Newer studies suggest we may have underestimated the size of this bias. Currently we are in a transition to Automatic Weather Stations. The net global effect of this transition is not clear at this moment. Irrigation on average decreases the 2m-temperature by about 1 degree centigrade. At the same time, irrigation has increased significantly during the last century. People preferentially live in irrigated areas and weather stations serve agriculture. Thus it is possible that there is a higher likelihood that weather stations are erected in irrigated areas than elsewhere. In this case irrigation could lead to a spurious cooling trend. In the Parallel Observations Science Team of the International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI-POST) we are studying influence of the introduction of Stevenson screens and Automatic Weather Stations using parallel measurements

  5. TRENDS IN ROMANIAN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjol Florentina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is an industry of the future, having the potential to provide significant revenues, and an industry of 'beauty', because it will protect, preserve and contribute to arranging the environment affected by other human activities. This is why it is very important to know the evolution of this underdeveloped field in our country. This paper is intended as a study on current trends in Romanian tourism without any claim of being an exhaustive research on the industry, describing the main indices of tourist traffic and their influence on Romanian tourism. Nowadays, we witness three main trends in Romanian tourism: sustainability, ecotourism and the increasing presence of cultural tourism. Ecotourism, as a form of tourism, has emerged from people's need to withdraw in nature, to visit and learn about the natural areas which have or have not a national or international protection status. Cultural tourism appears as a type of tourism clearly differentiated from other forms or types of tourism, particularly through motivation. It can be defined as a form of tourist mobility whose primary goal is broadening the horizon of knowledge by uncovering its architectural and artistic heritage and the areas in which it originates. Sustainability for tourism, as for other industries, has three independent aspects: economic, socio-cultural and environmental. Sustainability implies permanence, which means that sustainable tourism requires the optimal use of resources, minimizing the negative economic, socio-cultural and ecological impact, maximizing the benefits upon local communities, national economies and conservation of nature. Regarding statistical data, in what quantity is concerned, there is an increase in Romanian tourism, but in what quality is concerned there is a setback for tourism in the last years. This aspect should make public authorities take concern in improving the infrastructure and the quality of the touristical activity and in diversifying

  6. 2006-2013年江苏省昆山市居民结直肠癌发病与死亡趋势分析%Colorectal cancer temporal trend of incidence and mortality in Kunshan,Jiangsu province,2006-2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文斌; 沈月平; 张婷; 秦威; 仝岚; 邱和泉; 金亦徐; 周杰; 史建国; 罗晓明

    2016-01-01

    目的:结直肠癌是影响居民健康的主要癌症之一,且发病率呈现明显上升趋势。本研究探讨江苏省昆山市2006-2013年结直肠癌发病与死亡趋势。方法江苏省昆山市2006-2013年结直肠癌发病和死亡病例来源于昆山市肿瘤登记报告;计算结直肠癌粗发病(死亡)率与发病(死亡)的年龄标化率(age standardized rate,ASR);使用平均年度变化百分比(annual percent change,APC)及其95%CI,评价结直肠癌发病率和死亡率在年份之间变化趋势。结果江苏省昆山市2006-2013年结直肠癌发病 ASR 在女性人群中呈明显上升趋势,APC=2.3%,95%CI 为0.5%~4.2%;结直肠癌发病率总体变化趋势(APC=0.6%,95% CI 为-0.8%~1.9%)与男性人群(APC=-0.8%,95% CI 为-3.5%~1.5%)差异无统计学意义。昆山市2006-2013年结直肠癌死亡 ASR 在总体(APC =-5.3%,95%CI 为-9.0%~-1.6%)和女性(APC =-9.1%,95%CI 为-16.2%~-2.0%)人群中呈下降趋势,差异有统计学意义;而男性人群中结直肠癌死亡 ASR 的变化差异无统计学意义,APC=-2.1%,95%CI 为-6.2%~2.0%。结论虽然结直肠癌死亡率呈现下降趋势,但是结直肠癌发病数逐年增加。因结直肠癌造成的疾病负担逐年增加,在全人群中开展结直肠癌预防控制十分必要。%OBJECTIVE Colorectal cancer is the major cancer for burden health,and the incidence rate showed a increasing trend.The objective of this study was to explore the colorectal cancer incidence and death rates temporal trend inKunshan,Jiangsu province from 2006 to 2013.METHODS Colorectal cancer incidence and death cases were collectedfrom cancer registry between 2006-2013 in Kunshan city,Jiangsu province.Crude rates and age standardized rate (ASR)were calculated according to sex.Annual percent

  7. Long-Term Mortality Trends Infographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic shows the National Cancer Institute 10-year Mortality Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent of Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Liver & IBD: 2.6*, Soft Tissue inc. Heart: 0.8*, Pancreas: 0.3*, Melanoma: 0.3*, Bladder: 0, Brain & ONS: -0.4, Oral Cavity: -0.5, Esophagus: -0.5*, Kidney: -0.8*, Leukemia: -0.9*, Myeloma: -1.1*, All Sites: -1.8*, Non Hodgkin Lymphoma: -2.3*, Larynx: -2.5*, Lung and Bronchus: -2.6*, Colon and Rectum: -3.9*, Stomach: -3.1*, and Prostate: -3.3*. For Women, Liver & IBD: 1.9*, Corpus & Uterus: 1.0*, Pancreas: 0.4*, Bladder: -0.4*, Kidney: -0.9*, Brain & ONS: -0.9*, Leukemia: -1.1*, Gallbladder: -1.2*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.2*, Cervix: -1.3*, All Sites: -1.4*, Esophagus: -1.5*, Myeloma: -1.6*, Breast: -1.9*, Oral Cavity: -2.0*, Ovary: -2.0*, Stomach: -2.7*, Colon & Rectum: -2.9*, and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -3.1*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011

  8. TRENDS IN CROATIAN HOTEL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmina GRZINIC

    2008-01-01

    Tourism and hotel business is becoming one of the leading industries of the world. Therefore, an increased attention needs to be paid to the study of trends in tourism because they determine the trends in hotel industry. The purpose of the paper is to point out the importance of hotel industry as one of the most important elements of development in tourist economies. The paper aims at introducing the newest trends in modern hotel industry and offering a review of the recent trends of demand a...

  9. A study on incidence trend of prostate cancer and its determinant factors from 2006 to 2014 in Chongqing,China%2006年-2014年重庆市前列腺癌发病趋势及相关因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁贤彬; 吕晓燕; 毛德强; 焦艳

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To understand the incidence trend of prostate cancer and its determinant factors in Chongqing,China.Methods:Prostate cancer cases reported from 2006 to 2014 were collected from the cancer registra-tion in Chongqing.The data were analyzed to calculate the incidence,Chinese standardization incidence,international incidence,annual percent change (APC)of prostate cancer.The difference and predicting of incidence trend of pros-tate cancer was identified by curve estimated exponential distribution regression model.The difference decomposing of the incidence of prostate cancer was used to estimate the contribution of demographic and non -demographic factors. Results:The crude incidence,Chinese standardized and international standardized incidence of prostate cancer in-creased from 2.32 /100 000,2.21 /100 000 and 2.73 /100 000 in 2006 to 10.33 /100 000,5.59 /100 000 and 6.95 /100 000 in 2014 significantly (P <0.05).And its APC was 20.20%,13.31% and 12.86% respectively.The inci-dence of prostate cancer in urban area was higher than it in rural area.The truncated incidence and cumulative rate of prostate cancer increased from 8.14 /100 000 and 0.21% in 2006 to 21.03 /100 000 and 0.55% in 2014 significant-ly (P <0.05).The rising of prostate cancer incidence was influenced by demographic and non -demographic factors. The contribution rate of non -demographic factor (59.87%)was higher than it of demographic factor (40.13%). Conclusion:The incidence of prostate cancer increased in Chongqing.The rising of prostate cancer incidence was in-fluenced by the coordination of demographic and non -demographic factors.%目的:了解重庆市前列腺癌发病趋势变化及决定因素。方法:收集2006年-2014年重庆市肿瘤登记点报告前列腺癌新发病例,统计分析发病率、中标率、世标率、年度变化百分比,采用曲线估计指数分布回归模型进行趋势变化。采用差别分解法计算出人口因素和非人口因素对前列

  10. Breast and cervical cancer risk in India: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Asthana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast and cervical cancers are two major cancers among Indian women. Analysis of trends would help in planning and organization of programs for control of these cancers. Objective: The objective of the following study is to compute risk of breast and cervical cancers using updated data from different cancer registries of India and study of its trends. Materials and Methods: Data on incidence rates of breast and cervical cancers were obtained from six major cancer registries of India for the years 1982-2008 and from the recently initiated cancer registries, North Eastern Registries of India with a total of 21 registries. Annual percent change in incidence and risk in terms of one in number of women likely to develop cancer was estimated for both the cancers in various registries. Results: The annual percentage change in incidence ranged from 0.46 to 2.56 and −1.14 to −3.4 for breast and cervical cancers respectively. Trends were significant for both cancers in the registries of Chennai, Bangalore, Mumbai and Delhi except Barshi and Bhopal. North East region showed decrease in risk for breast and cervical cancers whereas increasing trend was observed in Imphal (West and for cervical cancer in Silchar. Conclusion: North Eastern region recorded decline in the incidence of breast cancer which is contrary to the observation in other registries, which showed increase in breast cancer and decline in cervical cancer incidences.

  11. CLOUD COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian IVANUS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has been a tremendous innovation, through which applications became available online, accessible through an Internet connection and using any computing device (computer, smartphone or tablet. According to one of the most recent studies conducted in 2012 by Everest Group and Cloud Connect, 57% of companies said they already use SaaS application (Software as a Service, and 38% reported using standard tools PaaS (Platform as a Service. However, in the most cases, the users of these solutions highlighted the fact that one of the main obstacles in the development of this technology is the fact that, in cloud, the application is not available without an Internet connection. The new challenge of the cloud system has become now the offline, specifically accessing SaaS applications without being connected to the Internet. This topic is directly related to user productivity within companies as productivity growth is one of the key promises of cloud computing system applications transformation. The aim of this paper is the presentation of some important aspects related to the offline cloud system and regulatory trends in the European Union (EU.

  12. [Population trends and poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, C

    1998-04-01

    Implications of population growth in Ecuador for the quality of life of the poor population are analyzed. It is argued that if the gross national product (GNP) were to grow at a sustained annual rate of 5% or more, demographic trends would not present a significant obstacle to reducing poverty. National economic projections are for growth of only 2.5-3.5% annually. The continuing rapid growth of the poor population despite general slowing of demographic growth, the young age structure, the need for increased formal education to enable the poor to overcome their poverty, and the effect of unemployment on the dependency ratio will tend to hamper improvements in average productivity and per capita GNP. The need for spending on education, health, basic services, and housing will divert funds away from productive investment, generating a direct negative impact on economic growth. Over half of Ecuadorian children suffer from some degree of malnutrition, indicating that food production is inadequate to meet demand. The export-oriented agricultural policy and poor weather have led to a chronic shortage of basic foods. Progressive increase and diversification of agricultural production, along with maintenance of low prices and substantial increases in income levels and agricultural productivity, will be required if the entire population is to be fed adequately. Intense efforts will be needed from all sectors to bring demographic growth into balance with economic and development needs.

  13. Suicide: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rahn K; Patel, Tejas C; Avenido, Jaymie; Patel, Milapkumar; Jaleel, Mohammad; Barker, Narviar C; Khan, Jahanzeb Ali; Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta

    2011-07-01

    Suicide is the act of a human being intentionally causing his or her own death. More than 1 million people commit suicide every year. It is the 13th leading cause of death worldwide, with China, India, and Japan accounting for almost half of all suicides. In less than 50 years, the rate of suicide among Sri Lankans has risen from a modest level to one of the highest in the world (118 per 100,000). Suicide is a major preventable cause of premature death. It is influenced by psychosocial, cultural, and environmental risk factors. The impact of suicide can be devastating for all concerned. It is common in people who are living with chronic mental illness. Individuals with severe clinical depression and alcohol use disorders are at highest risk if untreated. On an interpersonal level, friends and families of suicide victims require social support. On a national level, governments need to recognize the causes of suicide and protect those most vulnerable. If governments commit to defining national responses to prevent suicide, significant progress can be made. On a global scale, research and health organizations can identify global trends and encourage the sharing of information in effective prevention activities. In September 2010, World Suicide Prevention Day, with a theme of "Many faces, many places: suicide prevention across the world," encouraged public awareness worldwide to unite in commitment and action to promote understanding about suicide and removal of stigmatization'. There is compelling evidence that adequate prevention and awareness can reduce suicide rates.

  14. MICROROBOTICS: TRENDS AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royson Donate D’Souza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As time passes by, it lets leak out newer methods, ideas and innovations. Robotic concepts have been traced back to about the 4th century, and today’s concepts have evolved even further, starting from tiny nanobots that could make their way into one’s blood stream, and moving onto giant robotic arms. Microrobotics has also been a major trend in today’s world. As we keep exploring as to how small circuits can actually get, it gives us a greater ability to focus on creating smaller microrobots. The purpose of this paper is to give an outline about the current advancements that have taken place specifically in microrobotics, and cover a variety of fields, including medical applications, insect behavior, microfabrication, micro assembly, positioning and also the microscale challenges that are faced with the fabrication and controlling of microrobots like the energy requirements and locomotion methods. Since the advancements in today’s generation of microrobotics is very rapid, such that a massive amount of ideas have been conceived in a matter of a decade, only a small number of recent ones have been chosen to be a part of this journal.

  15. Nutrition trends in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Y

    2001-01-01

    The National Nutrition Survey (NNS) in Japan has been undertaken annually since 1946. It was originally intended to provide information on the food and nutrient intake of the Japanese people, with a view to acquiring emergency food supplies from other countries when food shortages caused malnutrition in many Japanese. The food balance sheet (FBS) has been drawn up since 1949 to show the food supply available to the Japanese people. The trends and figures shown by both approaches were similar until the mid-1970s. Since then, however, the disparity between the food supply and the intake of foods and nutrients has been getting larger. National food security means that a country has enough food for everyone. This does not mean, however, that every family has enough food, because the food may not be evenly distributed. In fact, marginal deficiencies in iron and calcium are thought to still exist and there is considerable variation among households in energy intake. In Japan, nutrition and diet are now considered to play important roles in the emerging problems of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension etc., because of excessive energy intake and deficiency or excessive intake of certain nutrients.

  16. Cancer screening in the United States, 2013: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines, current issues in cancer screening, and new guidance on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Brooks, Durado; Cokkinides, Vilma; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W

    2013-01-01

    Each year the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its recommendations for early cancer detection, a report on data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, current ACS cancer screening guidelines are summarized, as are updated guidelines on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening with low-dose helical computed tomography. The latest data on the use of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey also are described, as are several issues related to screening coverage under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010.

  17. Which Trend is your Friend?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Ari; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Managed futures funds and commodity trading advisers (CTAs) use heuristics or statistical measures often called “filters” to trade on price trends. Two key statistical measures of trends are “time-series momentum” and “moving-average crossovers.” We show, empirically and theoretically, that these...

  18. Trends in Digital Media 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The world of CALL is changing rapidly, but there are three major trends that can be perceived as significant to language teaching and learning and likely to remain so over the next several years. This paper will discuss these trends--convergence, searchability, and collaboration--and offer examples of interesting websites that illustrate them.…

  19. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  20. Trends in Global Gender Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…

  1. Trends in advanced wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, M.

    1997-01-01

    The paper examines the present trends within wastewater handling and treatment. The trend is towards the extremes, either local low-tech treatment or centralized advanced treatment plants. The composition of the wastewater will change and it will be regarded as a resource. There will be more...

  2. Selected Trends of the Cybercrime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Požár

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution paid particular attention to trends of the cybercrime in future period dedicated to combating negative phenomena in the context of cyberspace. The structure of article concern of definition of cybercrime, its legal classification especially choosing trends of cybercrime in future period.

  3. Trends in Information Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosdick, Howard

    1984-01-01

    Surveys were performed in 1977 and 1982 to determine trends in graduate library and information science instruction in five main course categories: library automation, information storage and retrieval, systems analysis, interactive computer systems, and programing. Results of analyses of school course catalogs are compared and current trends are…

  4. Interior Design Trends in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Don, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Four contributing authors discuss perspectives on current trends in library interior design. Articles include: "Trends in Library Furnishings: A Manufacturer's Perspective" (Andrea Johnson); "Libraries, Architecture, and Light: The Architect's Perspective" (Rick McCarthy); "The Library Administrator's Perspective" (Chadwick Raymond); and "The…

  5. Trends in Philippine Library History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Vicente S.

    This paper divides Philippine library history into three periods, establishing a relationship between historical events and library trends. During the Spanish period, modern library trends were introduced through the establishment of the Sociedad Economica in 1780, but did not influence Philippine library culture until the later part of the 19th…

  6. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  7. Cancer among circumpolar populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, T Kue; Kelly, Janet J; Friborg, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    registries, with direct age-standardization of rates to the world standard population. For comparison, the "world average" rates as reported in the GLOBOCAN database were used. FINDINGS: Age-standardized incidence rates by cancer sites were computed for the 8 Arctic States and 20 of their northern regions......, averaged over the decade 2000-2009. Cancer of the lung and colon/rectum in both sexes are the commonest in most populations. We combined the Inuit from Alaska, Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Greenland into a "Circumpolar Inuit" group and tracked cancer trends over four 5-year periods from 1989 to 2008...

  8. Aging trends -- the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddlecom, A E; Domingo, L J

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a description of the trends in growth of the elderly population in the Philippines and their health, disability, education, work status, income, and family support. The proportion of elderly in the Philippines is much smaller than in other Southeast Asian countries, such as Singapore and Malaysia. The elderly population aged over 65 years increased from 2.7% of total population in 1990 to 3.6% in 1990. The elderly are expected to comprise 7.7% of total population in 2025. The proportion of elderly is small due to the high fertility rate. Life expectancy averages 63.5 years. The aged dependency ratio will double from 5.5 elderly per 100 persons aged 15-64 years in 1990 to 10.5/100 in 2025. A 1984 ASEAN survey found that only 11% of elderly rated their health as bad. The 1990 Census reveals that 3.9% were disabled elderly. Most were deaf, blind, or orthopedically impaired. 16% of elderly in the ASEAN survey reported not seeing a doctor even when they needed to. 54% reported that a doctor was not visited due to the great expense. In 1980, 67% of men and 76% of women aged over 60 years had less than a primary education. The proportion with a secondary education in 2020 is expected to be about 33% for men and 33% for women. 66.5% of men and 28.5% of women aged over 60 years were in the formal labor force in 1990. Women were less likely to receive cash income from current jobs or pensions. 65% of earnings from older rural people was income from agricultural production. 60% of income among urban elderly was from children, and 23% was from pensions. Family support is provided to the elderly in the form of coresidence. In 1988, 68% of elderly aged over 60 years lived with at least one child. Retirement or nursing homes are uncommon. The Philippines Constitution states that families have a duty to care for elderly members.

  9. Contraception - Update and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabe T

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the future, fertility control will focus on the improvement of existing methods (efficacy, side effects, easy use, duration of action, manufacturing process, costs, on new approaches (mode of action and on new targets for contraception. Counselling of women in view of contraceptive choices based on individual risks (e. g. cardiovascular disease, thrombophilia, family risk of breast cancer, sexually transmitted diseases will gain more and more importance. Only a few companies can afford research in contraception such as Bayer-Schering-Pharma, Wyeth-Ayerst, Ortho-McNeil and Organon. Female contraception: Ovulation inhibition: In the future, a focus will be placed on the preselection of patients to minimize their individual risk, new oral contraceptive (OC regimen, OC with new progestins, OC with estradiol or estradiolesters, new ovulation inhibitors with new progestins and new regimens including long cycles and continuous steroidal contraceptives, new contraceptive patches, vaginal rings, spray-on contraceptives, recently identified genes involved in the ovulation process as new targets for ovulation inhibitors. Fertilisation inhibition: New intrauterine systems will comprise: a smaller Mirena intrauterine system releasing levonorgestrel (LNG and new frameless progestin-releasing intrauterine systems (IUS. Various new contraceptive barriers have been introduced. Research is ongoing on substances acting both as spermicides and as microbicides, reducing the risk of sexually transmitted diseases. New implantables and injectables will feature an improved pharmacokinetic profile, decreased side effects and a safer delivery system. Additionally, there are various new approaches in female sterilisation. Immunocontraception for the female will not be available in the near future. Implantation inhibition: Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs are tested for postcoital contraception. New targets are analysed for immunocontraceptives. Male

  10. Dietary changes and colorectal cancer trends in Spain during 1951-2007 Cambios en la dieta y tendencia del cáncer colorrectal en España durante 1951-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Béjar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: analysis of the evolution of colorectal cancer in Spain during the period 1951-2007 and its relationship with diet. Material and methods: calculation of incidence rates, standardized mortality and years of potential life lost (world population andper capita consumption of different foods. Results: red and processed meats, poultry, fish and fruits intake has increased and consumption of vegetables, cereals and legumes has decreased. The incidence of colorectal cancer has steadily increased in both genders, more markedly among men, and across all age groups, in contrast to what has been observed in other countries. Mortality increased during the period 1951-2000, but from that time until 2007 these rates have kept steady in men and fallen in women. The years of potential life lost (YPLL shows a similar distribution to mortality. The correlation coefficients have values close to one for consumption of red meat, poultry, fish, vegetables and fruits and strongly negative values for the consumption of cereals and vegetables with the incidence and mortality in both genders, and the YPLL, but only among men, with weaker correlations for women. Conclusions: in colorectal cancer, a minimal time span of ten-fifteen years is necessary for changes in exposure to risk factors to be able to modify the incidence of this tumour. Therefore, Spanish State and Regional Governments should implement legislative and educational measures in the field of Health Promotion regarding the diet urgently.Objetivos: análisis de la evolución del cáncer colorrectal en España durante el periodo 1951-2007 y su relación con la dieta. Material y métodos: cálculo de tasas de incidencia, mortalidad y años potenciales de vida perdidos ajustadas (población mundial, así como de consumos per capita de distintos alimentos. Resultados: el consumo de carnes rojas y procesadas, pollo, pescado y frutas ha aumentado y el de hortalizas, cereales y legumbres ha descendido

  11. Contraception - Update and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabe T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertility control in the future will focus on the improvement of existing methods (efficacy, side effects, easy use, duration of action, manufacturing process, costs, on new approaches (mode of action bringing additional health benefits, and on new targets for nonhormonal contraception. Counselling of women in view to contraceptive choices based on the individual risk (e. g. cardiovascular disease, thrombophilia, family risk of breast cancer, sexually transmitted diseases will gain more and more importance. Only a few companies can afford research in contraception such as Bayer-Schering-Pharma, and MSD. Female contraception: Ovulation inhibition: preselection of patients to minimize the individual risk. New oral contraceptive (OC regimen, OC with new progestins, OC with estradiol or estradiol esters, new ovulation inhibitors with new progestins and new regimen including long cycles and continuous delivery of steroidal contraceptives, new contraceptive patches, vaginal rings andsprayon contraceptives. Recently identified genes involved in the ovulation process as new targets for ovulation inhibitors. Fertilisation inhibition: new intrauterine systems have been developed: a smaller Mirena intrauterine system releasing levonorgestrel (LNG and a new frameless progestinreleasing intrauterine systems (IUS. Various new contraceptive barriers have been introduced. Research is ongoing on substances acting both as spermicide and as microbicides as a dualprotection method reducing both the risk of unwanted pregnancy and the risk of sexually transmitted diseases. New implantable systems and improved injectables (with improved pharmacokinetic profile, decreased side effects and a safer delivery system have been made available recently. Various new approaches in female sterilisation include non invasive method of tubal occlusion Immunocontraception for the female will not be available in the near future. Implantation inhibition: selective progesterone

  12. New trends for metal complexes with anticancer activity

    OpenAIRE

    Bruijnincx, Pieter C A; Sadler, P. J.

    2008-01-01

    Medicinal inorganic chemistry can exploit the unique properties of metal ions for the design of new drugs. This has, for instance, led to the clinical application of chemotherapeutic agents for cancer treatment, such as cisplatin. The use of cisplatin is, however, severely limited by its toxic side effects. This has spurred chemists to employ different strategies in the development of new metal-based anticancer agents with different mechanisms of action. Recent trends in the field are discuss...

  13. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Andrew R; Nan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is currently the third deadliest cancer in the United States and will claim an estimated 49,190 U.S. lives in 2016. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of this disease, based on nationally published statistics and information presented in peer-reviewed journal articles. Specifically, this review will cover the following topics: descriptive epidemiology (including time and disease trends both in the United States and abroad), risk factors (environmental, genetic, and gene-environment interactions), screening, prevention and control, and treatment. Landmark discoveries in colorectal cancer risk factor research will also be presented. Based on the information reviewed for this report, we suggest that future U.S. public health efforts aim to increase colorectal cancer screening among African American communities, and that future worldwide colorectal cancer epidemiology studies should focus on researching nutrient-gene interactions towards the goal of improving personalized treatment and prevention strategies.

  14. Gallstones and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of gallstone disease in 145 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer was compared with gallstone prevalence in 4,159 subjects randomly selected from a population. The group of patients had a significantly higher prevalence of gallstone disease than the population (odds ratio = 1.......59; 95 percent confidence limits 1.04-2.45), whereas cholecystectomies occurred with equal frequency in the two groups. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more right-sided cancers in patients with gallstones than in patients without. These results, together with available literature, give...... substantial evidence for an association between gallstones and colorectal cancer, an association which is not due to cholecystectomy being a predisposing factor to colorectal cancer. Sporadic findings of an association between cholecystectomy and colorectal cancer can be explained by the above relationship....

  15. Algunos aspectos metodológicos sobre los modelos edad-período-cohorte: aplicación a las tendencias de mortalidad por cáncer Some methodological aspects of age-period-cohort models: Application to cancer mortality trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. González

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Los modelos edad-período-cohorte suelen utilizarse en estudios de epidemiología descriptiva para analizar las tendencias de la incidencia y de la mortalidad para valorar el efecto temporal de la ocurrencia de un evento. La relación lineal exacta existente entre estos tres efectos hace que los parámetros del modelo completo no puedan estimarse, lo que se denomina no identificabilidad. En estas notas se explicarán dos de los métodos más usados para analizar modelos edad-período-cohorte: uno se basa en funciones de penalización y otro en funciones estimables (tendencia lineal y curvaturas o desviaciones. Ambos métodos se ilustrarán con dos ejemplos en el que se analizan la tendencia temporal de la mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón y mama en las mujeres de Cataluña. Estos ejemplos ilustran que los métodos basados en funciones de penalización tienden a atribuir la tendencia a un efecto cohorte exclusivo, por lo que se aconseja utilizar los métodos basados en funciones estimables.Age-period-cohort models are usually used in descriptive epidemiological studies to analyze time trends in incidence or mortality. The exact linear relationship between the three effects of these models has the effect of making the parameters of the full model impossible to estimate, which is called non-identifiability. In these notes two of the most frequently used methods to analyze age-period-cohort models will be explained. One is based on penalty functions and the other on estimable functions (drift and curvatures or deviation from linearity. Both methods will be illustrated with two examples in wich temporal trends of breast and lung cancer mortality in women from Catalonia in Spain will be studied. These examples show how the methods based on penalty functions tend to attribute the trend exclusively to a cohort effect. Consequently, the use of methods based on estimate functions is recommended.

  16. Secular Cycles and Millennial Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Korotayev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper we investigate the relation between secular cycles and millennial trends. The tests we have performed suggest that the structure of millennial trends cannot be adequately understood without secular cycles being taken into consideration. At a certain level of analysis millennial trends turn out to be a virtual byproduct of the demographic cycle mechanisms, which turn out to incorporate certain trend-creating mechanisms. Demographic-political cycle models can serve as a basis for the development and testing of models accounting not only for cycles but also for secular trends. In order to do this, we suggest to alter the basic assumptions of the earlier generations of demographic cycle models (that both the carrying capacity of land and the polity size are constant. The variables such as carrying capacity of land, cultural complexity, and empire sizes are actually not constant, but rather experience long-term trend dynamics in the rise, and the new generation of models needs to account for this fact.

  17. Gender and ethnic differences in incidence and survival of lymphoid neoplasm subtypes in an Asian population: Secular trends of a population-based cancer registry from 1998 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Raymond Boon Tar; Loy, En Yun; Lim, Gek Hsiang; Zheng, Huili; Chow, Khuan Yew; Lim, Soon Thye

    2015-12-01

    Descriptive epidemiology on incidence and survival by lymphoid neoplasm (LN) subtypes using the 2008 World Health Organisation (WHO) classification remained limited in Asia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether gender and ethnic differences in incidence and survival of LN subtypes existed using the Singapore Cancer Registry (SCR) from 1998 to 2012. We derived age standardised incidence rates (ASIRs) by the direct standardisation method and 5-year relative survival (RSR) by the Ederer II method and period approach. Five-year observed survival (OS) was obtained for each ethnicity. Malays had the highest ASIR of total LNs among the three ethnicities for each time period. The largest increase in 5-year RSR subtypes was follicular lymphoma from 43.8% in 1998-2002 to 82.3% in 2008-2012; followed by chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) from 48.1% in 1998-2002 to 77.9% in 2008-2012. Although males had higher incidence than females in each time period, females had greater 5-year RSR for follicular lymphoma (89.8% in 2008-2012 for females vs. 76.6% in 2008-2012 for males) and CLL/SLL (78.7% in 2008-2012 for females vs. 76.7% in 2008-2012 for males). All three ethnicities experienced an overall increase in 5-year OS for mature B-cell lymphoma, with Indians experiencing the greatest increase (37.1% in 1998-2002 to 61.1% in 2008-2012), followed by Malays (30.8% in 1998-2002 to 48.7% in 2008-2012) and then Chinese (36.4% in 1998-2002 to 51.3% in 2008-2012). Our study demonstrated that improved mature B-cell lymphoma survival was not only observed in the West, but also in Singapore.

  18. Current situation and trends in blockade of targeted immune checkpoints in cancer immunotherapy%靶向免疫检查点的肿瘤免疫治疗现状与趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任军; 黄红艳

    2014-01-01

    combination of immunotherapy, including immune checkpoint blockade with chemotherapy, is a new promising trend in anti-tumor immunotherapy.

  19. Association between invasive ovarian cancer susceptibility and 11 best candidate SNPs from breast cancer genome-wide association study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Honglin; Ramus, Susan J; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger;

    2009-01-01

    , three SNPs (rs2107425 in MRPL23, rs7313833 in PTHLH, rs3803662 in TNRC9) were weakly associated with ovarian cancer risk and one SNP (rs4954956 in NXPH2) was associated with serous ovarian cancer in non-Hispanic white subjects (P-trend ....01-1.13, P-trend = 0.02 for all types of ovarian cancer and OR 1.14 95% CI 1.07-1.22, P-trend = 0.00017 for serous ovarian cancer]. In conclusion, we found that rs4954956 was associated with increased ovarian cancer risk, particularly for serous ovarian cancer. However, none of the six confirmed breast...... cancer susceptibility variants we tested was associated with ovarian cancer risk. Further work will be needed to identify the causal variant associated with rs4954956 or elucidate its function....

  20. Tendência da mortalidade por câncer nas capitais e interior do Brasil entre 1980 e 2006 Tendencia de la mortalidad por cáncer en las capitales e interior de Brasil entre 1980 y 2006 Cancer mortality trends in Brazilian state capitals and other municipalities between 1980 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo e Silva

    2011-12-01

    .585.012 originados por cáncer entre 1980 y 2006 fueron obtenidos en el Sistema de Informaciones sobre Mortalidad, y los demográficos, en el Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística. Las tasas de mortalidad general por cáncer y principales tipos fueron corregidas redistribuyendo proporcionalmente 50% de las muertes mal definidas y estandarizándolas por edad según población patrón mundial. Las curvas de tendencia para Brasil y grandes regiones fueron calculadas para capitales y demás municipios según sexo y evaluadas por medio de regresión linear simple. RESULTADOS: Entre los hombres, las tasas de mortalidad para los cánceres de pulmón, próstata y colorrectal fueron ascendentes; declinantes para el de estomago y estables para el de esófago. Entre las mujeres, hubo aumento de la mortalidad por cáncer de mama, pulmón y colorrectal; y disminución de las tasas para los cánceres de cuello uterino y de estomago. La evolución de la mortalidad varió entre las regiones del País, con patrones distintos entre las capitales y demás municipios. CONCLUSIONES: La corrección de las tasas de mortalidad con redistribución de los óbitos mal definidos aumentó la magnitud de la mortalidad general por cáncer en Brasil en cerca de 10% en 1980 y 5% en 2006. En los municipios del interior no se observó tendencia de disminución o estabilidad como en las capitales. Menor alcance de las acciones de prevención y la dificultad de acceso a servicios diagnóstico y tratamiento para cáncer para la población residente fuera de los grandes centros urbanos pueden explicar, en parte, estas diferencias.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the corrected trend of overall cancer mortality and leading sites in the state capitals and other municipalities of Brazil between 1980 and 2006. METHODS: Data on deaths (n = 2,585,012 caused by cancer between 1980 and 2006 were obtained from Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (Mortality Information System, and demographic data were provided by Instituto

  1. TRENDS IN CROATIAN HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina GRZINIC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and hotel business is becoming one of the leading industries of theworld. Therefore, an increased attention needs to be paid to the study oftrends in tourism because they determine the trends in hotel industry. Thepurpose of the paper is to point out the importance of hotel industry as one ofthe most important elements of development in tourist economies. The paperaims at introducing the newest trends in modern hotel industry and offering areview of the recent trends of demand and the directions of hotel industrydevelopment. The importance of hotel industry on both micro and macro, i.e.global level is increasing. Besides a series of theoretical representations andconclusions, this paper brings some concrete data and examples frompractice in hotel management.

  2. Trends in information behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. This paper traces current trends in information behaviour research, both in terms of methods and topics. Results are put into relation to the previous trend analysis by Julien et al. (2011) and Vakkari (2008). Method. Trends derive from a publication analysis taken from information...... behaviour related publication venues between 2012 and 2014. Analysis. Publication titles, authors, years, publication venue, methods and topics were collected and quantitatively analysed. Results. Qualitative methods still dominate information behaviour research. Content analysis and participatory designs...... are gaining terrain. Information seeking is still the major topic of interest. Important newer topics are studies focusing on users’ context and on special needs. Conclusion. Information behaviour research has evolved a great deal over the last years and has taken on new methods and new topics. A discussion...

  3. Trends in information behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke Susanne

    2014-01-01

    behaviour related publication venues between 2012 and 2014. Analysis. Publication titles, authors, years, publication venue, methods and topics were collected and quantitatively analysed. Results. Qualitative methods still dominate information behaviour research. Content analysis and participatory designs......Introduction. This paper traces current trends in information behaviour research, both in terms of methods and topics. Results are put into relation to the previous trend analysis by Julien et al. (2011) and Vakkari (2008). Method. Trends derive from a publication analysis taken from information...... are gaining terrain. Information seeking is still the major topic of interest. Important newer topics are studies focusing on users’ context and on special needs. Conclusion. Information behaviour research has evolved a great deal over the last years and has taken on new methods and new topics. A discussion...

  4. CURRENT TRENDS IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Batinić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hospitality industry is a complex product-service economic activity which besides accommodation, food and beverages offers a variety of complementary and ancillary services in order to meet modern needs, demands and desires of tourists consumers. Contemporary needs, demands and desires of tourists consumers (increased need for security and preservation of health; emphasis on ecology and healthy food; pure nature stay; growing demand for adventure activities and excitement; convention facilities and incentive offerings; visits to towns, big sports, cultural, religious, business events; new travel motivation have led to the emergence of new trends in hospitality offering design. Wellness and spa hotels, boutique hotels, all inclusive hotels, slow-food restaurants, and wine and lounge bars are just some of the main trends, and successful hoteliers and caterers will examine each of the trends and devise development politics in accordance with the new requirements and global market needs.

  5. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the “good environmental status” (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens’s method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the

  6. Emerging trends in ICT security

    CERN Document Server

    Akhgar, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Emerging Trends in ICT Security, an edited volume, discusses the foundations and theoretical aspects of ICT security; covers trends, analytics, assessments and frameworks necessary for performance analysis and evaluation; and gives you the state-of-the-art knowledge needed for successful deployment of security solutions in many environments. Application scenarios provide you with an insider's look at security solutions deployed in real-life scenarios, including but limited to smart devices, biometrics, social media, big data security, and crowd sourcing. Provides a multidisciplinary approach

  7. Nanoparticles in Cancer Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Bakhshayeshkaram

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary field as a combination of engineering, biology and medicine. It manipulates atoms and molecules to create devices at atomic, molecular and supramolecular levels for potential clinical use. Cancer nanotechnology as the latest trend in cancer diagnosis and treatment has provided nanoscale tools like biosensors, dendrimers, quantum dots and magnetic nanoparticles such as iron oxide with unique optical, magnetic and electronic properties. They are 100 to 1,000-fold smaller than cancer cells and may be conjugated with several functional molecules like imaging probes, specific ligands and antibodies. The capability of transferring through leaky blood vessels, passive and active targeting, intracellular delivery and subcellular localization has made them dual-purpose and multifunctional probes in cancer. Conventional imaging techniques such as CT and MRI using nontargeted contrast agents have limitations in early and accurate diagnosis and monitoring of treatment that may be eventually removed through the use of nanostructures' properties."nCancer diagnosis in an early stage, which influences the patient's survival, is possible earlier than ever imaginable. For example in contrast to mammography, which can detect breast cancer when it has at least 1000,000 cells, these new tools can accurately detect the tumor when it has less than 100 cells. "nThis article is a review on applications of nanotechnology, as a rapidly growing field for cancer imaging in medicine contributing to the early detection of cancer cells through available imaging techniques.

  8. Lung Cancer Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Lindsey A; Siegel, Rebecca L; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among both men and women in the United States. It is also the leading cause of cancer death among men and the second leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Lung cancer rates and trends vary substantially by sex, age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geography because of differences in historical smoking patterns. Lung cancer mortality rates in the United States are highest among males, blacks, people of lower socioeconomic status, and in the mid-South (e.g., Kentucky, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Tennessee). Globally, rates are highest in countries where smoking uptake began earliest, such as those in North America and Europe. Although rates are now decreasing in most of these countries (e.g., United States, United Kingdom, Australia), especially in men, they are increasing in countries where smoking uptake occurred later. Low- and middle-income countries now account for more than 50% of lung cancer deaths each year. This chapter reviews lung cancer incidence and mortality patterns in the United States and globally.

  9. Prostate Cancer Susceptibility Polymorphism rs2660753 Is Not Associated with Invasive Ovarian Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amankwah, Ernest K; Kelemen, Linda E; Wang, Qinggang;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We previously reported an association between rs2660753, a prostate cancer susceptibility polymorphism, and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC; OR = 1.2, 95% CI=1.0-1.4, P(trend) = 0.01) that showed a stronger association with the serous histological subtype (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.......0-1.2, P(trend) = 0.11). There was no evidence for statistical heterogeneity in ORs across the studies. CONCLUSIONS: Although rs2660753 is a strong prostate cancer susceptibility polymorphism, the association with another hormonally related cancer, invasive EOC, is not supported by this replication study...

  10. Global Trends in Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Lai, Chun-Chin

    2012-01-01

    The paradigm of human resource development has shifted to workplace learning and performance. Workplace can be an organization, an office, a kitchen, a shop, a farm, a website, even a home. Workplace learning is a dynamic process to solve workplace problems through learning. An identification of global trends of workplace learning can help us to…

  11. CURRENT TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V. Ryabinin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodological bases of researchof international business are stated in the article. The great attention is focused on analysis of main trends in development of international. The comparison of competitiveness to of most used forms ofinternational business, as well as identified the main problems and barriers of theinternational business structures.

  12. CURRENT TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeny V. Ryabinin

    2015-01-01

    The methodological bases of researchof international business are stated in the article. The great attention is focused on analysis of main trends in development of international. The comparison of competitiveness to of most used forms ofinternational business, as well as identified the main problems and barriers of theinternational business structures.

  13. Higher Education Profiles & Trends 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The statute [T.C.A. Section 49-7-202(c)(7)] requires the Tennessee Higher Education Commission to prepare a biennial report for the governor and the general assembly, "commenting upon major developments, trends, new policies, budgets and financial considerations which in the judgment of the commission will be useful to the governor and to the…

  14. Demographic Trends: Impact on Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Sylvia N. Y.; Cheah, Horn Mun

    2010-01-01

    Background: Singapore is experiencing great demographic change. These demographic trends show fewer young people and declining birth rates, greater longevity for ageing generations and an increase in the number of non-Singaporean residents. Statistics also show that more than half of the total population increase in the last decades was…

  15. Modern trends in hypercomplex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kähler, Uwe; Sabadini, Irene; Sommen, Franciscus

    2016-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers presented at the session "Quaternionic and Clifford Analysis" at the 10th ISAAC Congress held in Macau in August 2015. The covered topics represent the state-of-the-art as well as new trends in hypercomplex analysis and its applications.

  16. Millennial Trends in Chinese Fashion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Fashion trends of spring and summer 2000 ※Comfort, Casual & Sporty ※Cherishing the Memory of Past Times ※A Mix of Various Local Cultures ※Architectural Style—Deconstructionism ※The Age of Outer Space—Futurism

  17. Educational Reform: Issues and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Review, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Reviews trends in different countries regarding educational reform at the primary and secondary levels in terms of educational quality, funding, teacher salaries, class size, and decentralization. Suggests that, even in Japan and other industrialized nations, there is movement away from the constraints of a uniform system. (SK)

  18. Cultural trends and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, Kathleen M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Dunne, Patricia E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. Recent findings While historically, eating disorders were conceptualiz

  19. [Moroccan international migration: recent trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaar, M

    1995-01-01

    Recent trends in emigration from Morocco are analyzed. The author describes the policies developed by the Moroccan government regarding emigration and the changing characteristics of the emigrants, as emigrants are becoming younger and are increasingly female. The author concludes that the increasing demand for migrant labor in Europe will result in increased emigration despite the development of restrictive migration policies.

  20. Emerging trends in surface metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lonardo, P.M.; Lucca, D.A.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    Recent advancements and some emerging trends in the methods and instruments used for surface and near surface characterisation are presented, considering the measurement of both topography and physical properties. In particular, surfaces that present difficulties in measurement or require new pro...

  1. New Trends of Going Global

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ In recent days, new trends appeared in state's policy of supporting enterprises in going global. Latest voices on this issue from the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council (SASAC), Ministry of Commerce and People's Bank of China show that on emphasizing the "Going Global" strategy, different departments have the same background.

  2. Economic and Labor Market Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Demetra Smith; Fix, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A number of economic and labor market trends in the United States over the past 30 years affect the well-being of workers and their families. This article describes key changes taking place and the implications for social and economic policies designed to help low-income working families and their children, particularly those families that include…

  3. Trends in Surgical Wound Healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottrup, F.

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of acute and chronic wound pathophysiology has progressed considerably over the past decades. Unfortunately, improvement in clinical practice has not followed suit, although new trends and developments have improved the outcome of wound treatment in many ways. This review focuses...

  4. Offshore Blowouts, Causes and Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holand, P.

    1996-02-01

    The main objective of this doctoral thesis was to establish an improved design basis for offshore installations with respect to blowout risk analyses. The following sub objectives are defined: (1) Establish an offshore blowout database suitable for risk analyses, (2) Compare the blowout risk related to loss of lives with the total offshore risk and risk in other industries, (3) Analyse blowouts with respect to parameters that are important to describe and quantify blowout risk that has been experienced to be able to answer several questions such as under what operations have blowouts occurred, direct causes, frequency of occurrence etc., (4) Analyse blowouts with respect to trends. The research strategy applied includes elements from both survey strategy and case study strategy. The data are systematized in the form of a new database developed from the MARINTEK database. Most blowouts in the analysed period occurred during drilling operations. Shallow gas blowouts were more frequent than deep blowouts and workover blowouts occurred more often than deep development drilling blowouts. Relatively few blowouts occurred during completion, wireline and normal production activities. No significant trend in blowout occurrences as a function of time could be observed, except for completion blowouts that showed a significantly decreasing trend. But there were trends regarding some important parameters for risk analyses, e.g. the ignition probability has decreased and diverter systems have improved. Only 3.5% of the fatalities occurred because of blowouts. 106 refs., 51 figs., 55 tabs.

  5. Six Trends in Library Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Drew

    2001-01-01

    Describes six trends in current library facilities design, whether for new buildings or renovations: self-service and operational efficiency; flexibility and technology integration; green/sustainable buildings that use the natural environment; collaboration between public and school/college libraries; aesthetics; and customizing to the local…

  6. Hot Cup,Hot Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MarkGodfrey

    2004-01-01

    Coffee has become a definite sign of sophistication among China's middle classes. Only a small percentage of Chinese people have turned from tea to coffee,but millions are switching tastes to show they have made it. Coffee chains are expanding fast across China, and global coffee makers are competing toprofit from the trend.

  7. Breast cancer statistics, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Siegel, Rebecca; Bandi, Priti; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 230,480 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,520 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2011. Breast cancer incidence rates were stable among all racial/ethnic groups from 2004 to 2008. Breast cancer death rates have been declining since the early 1990s for all women except American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. Disparities in breast cancer death rates are evident by state, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. While significant declines in mortality rates were observed for 36 states and the District of Columbia over the past 10 years, rates for 14 states remained level. Analyses by county-level poverty rates showed that the decrease in mortality rates began later and was slower among women residing in poor areas. As a result, the highest breast cancer death rates shifted from the affluent areas to the poor areas in the early 1990s. Screening rates continue to be lower in poor women compared with non-poor women, despite much progress in increasing mammography utilization. In 2008, 51.4% of poor women had undergone a screening mammogram in the past 2 years compared with 72.8% of non-poor women. Encouraging patients aged 40 years and older to have annual mammography and a clinical breast examination is the single most important step that clinicians can take to reduce suffering and death from breast cancer. Clinicians should also ensure that patients at high risk of breast cancer are identified and offered appropriate screening and follow-up. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population.

  8. Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In a "been there, done that" modern society, the simple notion that there is more than meets the eye nourishes us as our sense of curiosity is re-awakened, Humans are beginning to contemplate all that is yet to be discovered in mirocosms, under the seas,

  9. The American Cancer Society challenge goal to reduce US cancer mortality by 50% between 1990 and 2015: Results and reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Tim; Wender, Richard C; Jemal, Ahmedin; Baskies, Arnold M; Ward, Elizabeth E; Brawley, Otis W

    2016-09-01

    In 1996, the Board of Directors of the American Cancer Society (ACS) challenged the United States to reduce what looked to be possible peak cancer mortality in 1990 by 50% by the year 2015. This analysis examines the trends in cancer mortality across this 25-year challenge period from 1990 to 2015. In 2015, cancer death rates were 26% lower than in 1990 (32% lower among men and 22% lower among women). The 50% reduction goal was more fully met for the cancer sites for which there was enactment of effective approaches for prevention, early detection, and/or treatment. Among men, mortality rates dropped for lung cancer by 45%, for colorectal cancer by 47%, and for prostate cancer by 53%. Among women, mortality rates dropped for lung cancer by 8%, for colorectal cancer by 44%, and for breast cancer by 39%. Declines in the death rates of all other cancer sites were substantially smaller (13% among men and 17% among women). The major factors that accounted for these favorable trends were progress in tobacco control and improvements in early detection and treatment. As we embark on new national cancer goals, this recent past experience should teach us that curing the cancer problem will require 2 sets of actions: making new discoveries in cancer therapeutics and more completely applying those discoveries in cancer prevention we have already made. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:359-369. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  10. Cancer Snapshots: Facts and statistics for each cancer type or topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapshots provide key information on disease incidence and mortality, NCI funding trends, relevant research activities, and recent scientific advances related to specific types of cancer and on special populations and scientific topics.

  11. Praemaligne lidelser og cancer i mundslimhinden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibel, Jesper; Holmstrup, Palle

    2010-01-01

    . There is no evidence that surgical intervention reduces the risk of malignant transformation. Oral cancer is relatively rare, however, easily detectable and preventable; tobacco and alcohol are by far the most important aetiologic factors. Increasing trends in rates of intraoral cancer are seen in many countries....

  12. Mapping out a search for environmental causes of breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Brody, J G; Rudel, R; Maxwell, N I; Swedis, S R

    1996-01-01

    Geographic patterns and time trends for breast cancer suggest there are preventable causes that may include environmental factors. This article describes the development of new methods used in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study to investigate whether synthetic chemicals in the environment contribute to breast cancer risk.

  13. Using SPC and Trending to Reduce FOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallentine, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs showing the trends and Statistical Process Control (SPC) used by ATK-Thiokol to reduce Foreign Object Debris (FOD). Some of the topics include: 1) Amazing Little Known and Less Used Facts; 2) Critical Nature of Rocket Manufacturing; 3) ATK-Thiokol Foreign Object Debris (FOD) Philosophy; 4) FOD Trending and SPC at ATK-Thiokol Philosophy; 5) Trending and Statistical Process Control (SPC) Basic Philosophy; 6) Trending and Statistical Process Control (SPC); 7) FOD Trending and SPC at ATK-Thiokol Trending; 8) FOD Trending and SPC at ATK-Thiokol Specific Instances; 9) FOD Trending and SPC at ATK-Thiokol Contamination in Air; and 10) FOD Trending and SPC at ATK-Thiokol Nitrogen Dewpoint.

  14. Trends in Mobile Application Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Adrian; Ondrus, Jan

    Major software companies, such as Apple and Google, are disturbing the relatively safe and established actors of the mobile application business. These newcomers have caused significant structural changes by imposing and enforcing their own rules for the future of mobile application development. The implications of these changes do not only concern the mobile network operators and mobile phone manufacturers. This changed environment also brings additional opportunities and constraints for current mobile application developers. Therefore, developers need to assess what their options are and how they can take advantages of these current trends. In this paper, we take a developer’s perspective in order to explore how the structural changes will influence the mobile application development markets. Moreover, we discuss what aspects developers need to take into account in order to position themselves within the current trends.

  15. NRSE technologies and trends workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, W.S.; Lee, T.K.; Jo, D.K.; Jeong, M.W.; Kim, H.W.; Yoon, K.S. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The object of this workshop are to exchange scientific knowledge of exports, to collect the information on the current research trends and policies through the presentations of NRSE technologies and their case studies both at home and aboard. Another objects are to promote the international cooperation in the field of new and renewable energy research, and to provide a chance for taking new technologies to industries for the practical use or for commercialization. Research and development trends in NRSE technologies by major research institutions are investigated to make a comparative review as a reference for the future NRSE projects. Coupled with the government`s`s NRSE development policy, it has played an important role to make an increased public relations with the general public with respect to the development necessity of NRSE. The forum was very useful for an increased exchange of views on NRSE technologies of mutual interest between NRSE lectures and participants. (author)

  16. Employment trends: an international comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. DELL’ARINGA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest in employment trend forecasts has grown significantly in recent years, especially those related to the long term. What is surprising is the large differences in trends that emerge from country to country, even from estimates by international organisations that compare the experiences of various countries. It is unclear if the reasons for such differences lie in differing effects of general phenomena that characterise the experience of all countries, such as technical progress, or rather specific phenomena peculiar to each country. What seems clear, however, is the extrapolative nature of the forecasts. The present note looks at the difficult task of identifying the historical determinants of the evolution of employment in the long run, in order to better understand the way in which forecasts are devised today.

  17. Trends in operations strategy research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Lopes de Sousa Jabbour

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify research approaches in operations strategy research, with regards its content. From a systematic literature review we highlight the main definitions of operations strategy and discussions on competitive priorities and then, present the main focuses of the articles published in reputable journals nationally and internationally. It was identified that studies on the operations strategy followed in general the direction of relating the influence and the alignment of competitive priorities for structural and infrastructure decisions. And there are initiatives of studies, which derive from that, to relate the operations strategy in the context of supply chain, which in future may be an important trend. The results of this article bring insights on research trends in a subject with constant interest from researchers in the field of operations management.

  18. Trends in scientific publications of Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; He, Hui; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important component of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The fast economic growth of mainland China in the past two decades has promoted the use of TCM beyond Chinese-speaking countries. Chinese researchers have published more TCM research studies in CAM-related professional journals, including the American Journal of Chinese Medicine (AJCM), the highest impact journal in Chinese medicine. The consistent increase of the impact factor of the AJCM suggests a growth in TCM popularity. This study analyzed articles published in the AJCM between 2004 and 2011. Our data show that while enthusiasm towards cardiovascular, nervous system and inflammation related research remained high, more herbal investigations and cancer studies were published. Furthermore, a reduction in TCM formulation studies was replaced by increasing botanical single constituent research. Examples of frequently cited studies, including those before 2004, are presented. These data are not only important to the scientific community for recognition of trends in TCM research, but also for providing information to TCM researchers who are targeting potentially highly cited studies.

  19. Cholangiocarcinoma:principles and current trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George N Zografos; Athanasios Farfaras; Flora Zagouri; Dimosthenis Chrysikos; Kostas Karaliotas

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a lethal cancer ofthebiliaryepithelium,originatingfromtheliver(intrahepatic), at the confluence of the right and left hepatic ducts (hilar) or in the extrahepatic bile ducts. It is a rare malignancy associated with poor prognosis. DATA SOURCES: WesearchedthePubMed/MEDLINEdatabase for relevant articles published from 1989 to 2008. The search terms used were related to "cholangiocarcinoma" and its"treatment". Although no language restrictions were imposed initially, for the full-text review and final analysis, our resources only permitted the review of articles published in English. This review deals with the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma, the principles and the current trends. RESULTS:  The risks and prognostic factors, symptoms and differential diagnosis are thoroughly discussed. In addition, the tools of preoperative diagnosis such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, digital image analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography are reviewed. Moreover, the treatment of CCA is discussed. CONCLUSIONS: The only curative treatment available is surgical management. Unfortunately, many patients present with unresectable tumors, the majority of whom die within a year of diagnosis. Surgical treatment involves major resections of the liver, pancreas and bile duct, with considerable mortality and morbidity. However, in selected cases and where indicated, appropriate management with aggressive surgery may achieve a good outcome with a prolonged survival expectancy.

  20. Emerging trends in metalloprotein inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouffet, Matthieu; Cohen, Seth M

    2011-04-14

    Numerous metalloproteins are important therapeutic targets that are gaining increased attention in the medicinal and bioinorganic chemistry communities. This Perspective article describes some emerging trends and recent findings in the area of metalloprotein inhibitor discovery and development. In particular, increasing recognition of the importance of the metal-ligand interactions in these systems calls for more input and consideration from the bioinorganic community to address questions traditionally confined to the medicinal chemistry community.

  1. Wellness Trends Among Battlefield Airmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    significant sleep issues. For both groups, alcohol use has decreased in both frequency per month and frequency of consumption per sitting. Overall tobacco ...frequency per month and frequency of consumption per sitting. Overall tobacco use has remained relatively constant, with SF smoking more and BA using chew...Case Number: 88ABW-2014-3924, 21 Aug 2014 4.8 Tobacco Use In contrast to alcohol consumption trends, tobacco use has remained relatively constant

  2. Global trends in exclusive breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Xiaodong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant and young child feeding is critical for child health and survival. Proportion of infants 0–5 months who are fed exclusively with breast milk is a common indicator used for monitoring and evaluating infant and young child feeding in a given country and region. Despite progress made since 1990, a previous review in 2006 of global and regional trends found improvement to be modest. The current study provides an update in global and regional trends in exclusive breastfeeding from 1995 to 2010, taking advantage of the wealth of data from recent household surveys. Methods Using the global database of infant and young child feeding maintained by the United Nations Children’s Fund, the authors examined estimates from 440 household surveys in 140 countries over the period between 1995 and 2010 and calculated global and regional averages of the rate of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0–5 months for the two time points to assess the trends. Results Trend data suggest the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding among infants younger than six months in developing countries increased from 33% in 1995 to 39% in 2010. The prevalence increased in almost all regions in the developing world, with the biggest improvement seen in West and Central Africa. Conclusions In spite of the well-recognized importance of exclusive breastfeeding, the practice is not widespread in the developing world and increase on the global level is still very modest with much room for improvement. Child nutrition programmes worldwide continue to require investments and commitments to improve infant feeding practices in order to have maximum impact on children’s lives.

  3. Spring Framework 5: Themes & Trends

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Spring Framework 5.0/5.1, scheduled for release in early/late 2017, focuses on several key themes: reactive web applications based on Reactive Streams, comprehensive support for JDK 9 and HTTP/2, as well as the latest API generations in the Enterprise Java ecosystem. This talk presents the overall story in the context of wider industry trends, highlighting Spring’s unique programming model strategy.

  4. Trending analysis of precursor events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Norio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-01-01

    The Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program of United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.NRC) identifies and categorizes operational events at nuclear power plants in terms of the potential for core damage. The ASP analysis has been performed on yearly basis and the results have been published in the annual reports. This paper describes the trends in initiating events and dominant sequences for 459 precursors identified in the ASP Program during the 1969-94 period and also discusses a comparison with dominant sequences predicted in the past Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) studies. These trends were examined for three time periods, 1969-81, 1984-87 and 1988-94. Although the different models had been used in the ASP analyses for these three periods, the distribution of precursors by dominant sequences show similar trends to each other. For example, the sequences involving loss of both main and auxiliary feedwater were identified in many PWR events and those involving loss of both high and low coolant injection were found in many BWR events. Also, it was found that these dominant sequences were comparable to those determined to be dominant in the predictions by the past PRAs. As well, a list of the 459 precursors identified are provided in Appendix, indicating initiating event types, unavailable systems, dominant sequences, conditional core damage probabilities, and so on. (author)

  5. Developmental trends in adaptive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Smeets, Tom; Garner, Sarah R

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that memory is enhanced when information is processed for fitness-related purposes. The main objective of the current experiments was to test developmental trends in the evolutionary foundation of memory using different types of stimuli and paradigms. In Experiment 1, 11-year-olds and adults were presented with neutral, negative, and survival-related DRM word lists. We found a memory benefit for the survival-related words and showed that false memories were more likely to be elicited for the survival-related word lists than for the other lists. Experiment 2 examined developmental trends in the survival processing paradigm using neutral, negative, and survival-related pictures. A survival processing advantage was found for survival-related pictures in adults, for negative pictures in 11/12-year-olds, and for neutral pictures in 7/8-year-olds. In Experiment 3, 11/12-year-olds and adults had to imagine the standard survival scenario or an adapted survival condition (or pleasantness condition) that was designed to reduce the possibilities for elaborative processing. We found superior memory retention for both survival scenarios in children and adults. Collectively, our results evidently show that the survival processing advantage is developmentally invariant and that certain proximate mechanisms (elaboration and distinctiveness) underlie these developmental trends.

  6. Developing a critical view on e-learning reports: Trend watching or trend setting?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Jo; Rusman, Ellen; Van der Klink, Marcel; Tattersall, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Boon, J., Rusman, E., Van der Klink, M., & Tattersall, C. (2005). Developing a critical view on e-learning trend reports: trend watching or trend setting? International Journal of Training and Development, 9(3), 205-211.

  7. Future trends in cancer therapy with particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Amaldi, Ugo

    2004-01-01

    Hadrontherapy is the radiotherapy technique that uses protons, neutrons or carbon ions. Protons and ions, being, heavy charged particles, allow a more conformal treatment than X-rays and thus spare better the surrounding healthy tissues. By now about 35000 patients have been treated worldwide with protons and about 1600 with carbon ions. Since few years protontherapy of deep-seated tumours is booming with two hospital centres running in USA and three under construction. Four centres are treating patients in Japan. The list of constructions going on elsewhere is long: two in China, one, in Germany, one in Korea, one in Switzerland. But the future hopes for a qualitatively different radiotherapy are centred on carbon ions: they have a larger biological effectiveness than X-rays and protons and are particularly suited to treat radio resistant tumours, as indicated by the encouraging results obtained on about 1400 patients in HIMAC (Chiba, Japan) and on about 200 patients at GSI (Darmstadt). Two carbon centres ar...

  8. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  9. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  10. Trends in pharmaceutical targeting of clinical indications: 1930-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinch, Michael S; Merkel, Janie; Umlauf, Sheila

    2014-11-01

    An analysis of FDA-approved new molecular entities (NMEs) reveals trends in therapeutic applications. Four groupings (infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune/inflammatory diseases and cancer) capture more than 60% of NMEs. Infectious diseases are the most targeted indications. Near the turn of the new millennium, the rate of new approvals for infectious diseases decreased. The absolute and relative number of NMEs targeting psychiatric, neurological and pain/itch indications also declined. By contrast, NMEs targeting cancer have risen in the past two decades as have NMEs targeting orphan indications. These results suggest the drug development community has largely been responsive to public health and market needs. However, finite resources might indicate emphasis on some unmet needs could come at the cost of others.

  11. Incidence and trends of cutaneous malignancies in the Netherlands, 1989-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Holterhues (Cynthia); E. de Vries (Esther); M.W.J. Louwman (Marieke); S. Koljenovic (Senada); T.E.C. Nijsten (Tamar)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractEpidemiology of rare cutaneous malignancies in the general population is poorly documented. This descriptive study aimed to estimate the incidence and trends of all skin malignancies between 1989 and 2005. Data on skin tumors were extracted from the Netherlands Cancer registry (except fo

  12. Trends in adult leukemia incidence and survival in Denmark, 1943-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Nielsen, Ove Juul; Johansen, Christoffer

    2009-01-01

    The etiology of leukemia is largely unknown. Ecological data indicating trends in incidence and survival can provide information about changes in risk factors, can reflect underlying changes in diagnostic classification, and can measure therapeutic advances. From the records of the Danish Cancer...

  13. Radiologic imaging in cystic fibrosis: cumulative effective dose and changing trends over 2 decades.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Oisin J

    2012-06-01

    With the increasing life expectancy for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and a known predisposition to certain cancers, cumulative radiation exposure from radiologic imaging is of increasing significance. This study explores the estimated cumulative effective radiation dose over a 17-year period from radiologic procedures and changing trends of imaging modalities over this period.

  14. Increased stomach cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, M; Fossa, S D; Stovall, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal radiotherapy for testicular cancer (TC) increases risk for second stomach cancer, although data on the radiation dose-response relationship are sparse. METHODS: In a cohort of 22,269 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1959-1987, doses to stomach subsites were estimated...... for 92 patients who developed stomach cancer and 180 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of second primary stomach cancer was 1.45% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. The TC survivors who received...... radiotherapy (87 (95%) cases, 151 (84%) controls) had a 5.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-20.7) increased risk of stomach cancer. Risk increased with increasing stomach dose (P-trend

  15. Trends in mortality decrease and economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, G.; Melenberg, B.

    2014-01-01

    The vast literature on extrapolative stochastic mortality models focuses mainly on the extrapolation of past mortality trends and summarizes the trends by one or more latent factors. However, the interpretation of these trends is typically not very clear. On the other hand, explanation methods are t

  16. Trends in food choice and nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2012-01-01

    'Trends' in the way we eat are discussed in this chapter. Three potential trends are taken as points of departure, namely health concerns, convenience, and process characteristics. Some of the evidence provided may not necessarily be evidence of a trend itself, but can be regarded as indicators...

  17. General organic beekeeping data and market trends

    OpenAIRE

    Garibay, Salvador V.

    2011-01-01

    The presentation "General organic beekeeping data and market trends" was part of the workshop "Organic beekeeping and market trends" at the BioFach Congress 2011. The aim of this workshop was to inform and discuss the current situation of production and market trends of organic beekeeping products.

  18. Trend patterns in global sea surface temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, S.M.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2009-01-01

    Isolating long-term trend in sea surface temperature (SST) from El Nino southern oscillation (ENSO) variability is fundamental for climate studies. In the present study, trend-empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, a robust space-time method for extracting trend patterns, is applied...

  19. Evolution of electronic waste toxicity: Trends in innovation and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Wang, Jianbo; Chen, Haiyan; Wang, Bin; Chen, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Rapid innovation in printed circuit board, and the uncertainties surrounding quantification of the human and environmental health impacts of e-waste disposal have made it difficult to confirm the influence of evolving e-waste management strategies and regulatory policies on materials. To assess these influences, we analyzed hazardous chemicals in a market-representative set of Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs, 1996-2010). We used standard leaching tests to characterize hazard potential and USEtox® to project impacts on human health and ecosystem. The results demonstrate that command-and-control regulations have had minimal impacts on WPCBs composition and toxicity risks; whereas technological innovation may have been influenced more by resource conservation, including a declining trend in the use of precious metals such as gold. WPCBs remain classified as hazardous under U.S. and California laws because of excessive toxic metals. Lead poses the most significant risk for cancers; zinc for non-cancer diseases; copper had the largest potential impact on ecosystem quality. Among organics, acenaphthylene, the largest risk for cancers; naphthalene for non-cancer diseases; pyrene has the highest potential for ecotoxicological impacts. These findings support the need for stronger enforcement of international policies and technology innovation to implement the strategy of design-for-the-environment and to encourage recovery, recycling, and reuse of WPCBs.

  20. Cancer statistics in China, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou; Baade, Peter D; Zhang, Siwei; Zeng, Hongmei; Bray, Freddie; Jemal, Ahmedin; Yu, Xue Qin; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    With increasing incidence and mortality, cancer is the leading cause of death in China and is a major public health problem. Because of China's massive population (1.37 billion), previous national incidence and mortality estimates have been limited to small samples of the population using data from the 1990s or based on a specific year. With high-quality data from an additional number of population-based registries now available through the National Central Cancer Registry of China, the authors analyzed data from 72 local, population-based cancer registries (2009-2011), representing 6.5% of the population, to estimate the number of new cases and cancer deaths for 2015. Data from 22 registries were used for trend analyses (2000-2011). The results indicated that an estimated 4292,000 new cancer cases and 2814,000 cancer deaths would occur in China in 2015, with lung cancer being the most common incident cancer and the leading cause of cancer death. Stomach, esophageal, and liver cancers were also commonly diagnosed and were identified as leading causes of cancer death. Residents of rural areas had significantly higher age-standardized (Segi population) incidence and mortality rates for all cancers combined than urban residents (213.6 per 100,000 vs 191.5 per 100,000 for incidence; 149.0 per 100,000 vs 109.5 per 100,000 for mortality, respectively). For all cancers combined, the incidence rates were stable during 2000 through 2011 for males (+0.2% per year; P = .1), whereas they increased significantly (+2.2% per year; P cancer cases and deaths can be prevented through reducing the prevalence of risk factors, while increasing the effectiveness of clinical care delivery, particularly for those living in rural areas and in disadvantaged populations.

  1. GLOBAL TRENDS OF ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan LUCHIAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An alternative investment is an investment product other than the traditional investments of stocks, bonds, cash, or property. The term is a relatively loose one and includes tangible assets such as art, wine, antiques, coins, or stamps and some financial assets such as commodities, hedge funds, venture capital,and others. At the moment it was created a global industry opportunities for making investments in nontraditional form. The aim of this paper consists in demonstrating the possibilities of these investments. For this have been studied related main international markets, a fter then deducted world dominant trends. This article is concerned to present some details of alternative investments global market.

  2. Trends in mask data preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Aki; Pang, Liyong; Su, Bo; Choi, Yohan

    2014-10-01

    Whether for VSB mask writing or for multibeam mask writing, the shapes we need to write on masks are increasingly complex, increasingly curvilinear, and smaller in minimum width and space. The overwhelming trend in mask data preparation (MDP) is the shift from deterministic, rule-based, geometric, context-independent, shape-modulated, rectangular processing to statistical, simulation-based, context-dependent, dose- and shape-modulated any-shape processing. The paper briefly surveys the history of MDP, and explains through a simulation-based study that 50nm line and space is the tipping point where rule-based processing gives away to simulation-based processing.

  3. Current Trends in Sinonasal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Benjamin Y; Senior, Brent A; Castillo, Mauricio

    2015-11-01

    As endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) has evolved since its introduction to the United States, so has technology for imaging the sinonasal cavities. Although imaging is most frequently performed for evaluating chronic sinusitis refractory to medical therapy, its uses have expanded beyond inflammatory sinus disease. Multidetector Computed Tomography is the current workhorse for both diagnosis and preoperative planning in prospective ESS patients, while MR imaging remains a complementary tool for evaluating suspected tumors or intracranial and orbital complications of rhinosinusitis. In this article, the authors review current trends and potential future directions in the use of these modalities for sinus imaging.

  4. Emerging trends in communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hasan, Syed Faraz

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the state of the art in communication networks with the help of illustrative diagrams and recent references published in reputed journals and magazines. The book gives readers a glimpse into the next generation of communication networks. It explores topics that are currently in the research phase and/or are expected to be deployed in recent future such as LTE networks and IPv6 networks. This book is written for students/researchers who wish to come up to date with the recent trends in telecommunications.

  5. Recent trends in extractive metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habashi F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available While pyrometallurgical processes are old technology and were the dominant and logical route used to treat sulfide concentrates they are now challenged by new hydrometallurgical processes. In these new processes there have been attempts in the past few years to avoid using autoclaves in the treatment of concentrates of zinc, copper, and nickel. The situation has been recently reversed and pressure hydrometallurgy is being applied in many operations. An outline of these processes is given and the future trend is discussed.

  6. Digital watermarking techniques and trends

    CERN Document Server

    Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Rosales, Hamurabi Gamboa

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-arts application of digital watermarking in audio, speech, image, video, 3D mesh graph, text, software, natural language, ontology, network stream, relational database, XML, and hardware IPs. It also presents new and recent algorithms in digital watermarking for copyright protection and discusses future trends in the field. Today, the illegal manipulation of genuine digital objects and products represents a considerable problem in the digital world. Offering an effective solution, digital watermarking can be applied to protect intellectual property, as well as fingerprinting, enhance the security and proof-of-authentication through unsecured channels.

  7. Prostate Cancer Susceptibility Polymorphism rs2660753 Is Not Associated with Invasive Ovarian Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amankwah, Ernest K; Kelemen, Linda E; Wang, Qinggang;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We previously reported an association between rs2660753, a prostate cancer susceptibility polymorphism, and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC; OR = 1.2, 95% CI=1.0-1.4, P(trend) = 0.01) that showed a stronger association with the serous histological subtype (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1...

  8. Descriptive Epidemiology of Female Breast Cancer in Tianjin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KexinChen; MinHe; ShufenDong; JifangWang

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe trends in the changes of incidence and mortality of female breast cancer patients in Tianjin, and evaluate the effect of these trends on prevention. METHODS A method of descriptive epidemiology was used to comprehensively study the status of female breast cancer in Tianjin. RESULTS From 1981 to 2000, the incidence rate of breast cancer in Tianjin had been increasing at the speed of 1.8 % annually, whereas the peak of the age-adjusted incidence and mortality rate expressed a mild declining trend. Follow-up study indicated that 3 and 5-year survival rates improved in various degrees. CONCLUSION Early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer are very important to both increasing survival and lowering mortality from breast cancer. Preventive efforts should be promoted for women who are at high risk for breast cancer.

  9. Accrual to Cancer Clinical Trials

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, C

    2016-07-01

    Accrual to cancer clinical trials (CCT) is imperative to safeguard continued improvement in cancer outcomes. A retrospective chart review was performed of patients (n=140) starting a new anti-cancer agent in a north Dublin cancer centre. This review was performed over a four-month period, beginning in November 2015. Only 29% (n=41) had a CCT option. The overall accrual rate to CCT was 5% (n=7), which is comparable to internationally reported figures. The main reasons for failure to recruit to CCT included the lack of a CCT option for cancer type (n=30, 23%), stage (n=25, 19%), and line of treatment (n=23, 17%). Over the last decade, the rate of accrual to CCTs has in fact doubled and the number of trials open to recruitment has tripled. Ongoing governmental and philanthropic support is necessary to continue this trend to further expand CCT patient options with a target accrual rate of 10%.

  10. Cancer screening in the United States, 2015: a review of current American cancer society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Brooks, Durado; Doroshenk, Mary; Fedewa, Stacey; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W; Wender, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Each year, the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its guidelines for early cancer detection along with a report on data and trends in cancer screening rates and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, we summarize current ACS cancer screening guidelines. The latest data on utilization of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) also is described, as are several issues related to screening coverage under the Affordable Care Act, including the expansion of the Medicaid program.

  11. Changing Trends in Modeling Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Munjal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A phenomenal increase in the number of wireless devices has led to the evolution of several interesting and challenging research problems in opportunistic networks. For example, the random waypoint mobility model, an early, popular effort to model mobility, involves generating random movement patterns. Previous research efforts, however, validate that movement patterns are not random; instead, human mobility is predictable to some extent. Since the performance of a routing protocol in an opportunistic network is greatly improved if the movement patterns of mobile users can be somewhat predicted in advance, several research attempts have been made to understand human mobility. The solutions developed use our understanding of movement patterns to predict the future contact probability for mobile nodes. In this work, we summarize the changing trends in modeling human mobility as random movements to the current research efforts that model human walks in a more predictable manner. Mobility patterns significantly affect the performance of a routing protocol. Thus, the changing trend in modeling mobility has led to several changes in developing routing protocols for opportunistic networks. For example, the simplest opportunistic routing protocol forwards a received packet to a randomly selected neighbor. With predictable mobility, however, routing protocols can use the expected contact information between a pair of mobile nodes in making forwarding decisions. In this work, we also describe the previous and current research efforts in developing routing protocols for opportunistic networks.

  12. Trends in mobile satellite communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Klaus G.; Bowles, Mike W.; Milliken, Samuel; Cherrette, Alan R.; Busche, Gregory C.

    1993-01-01

    Ever since the U.S. Federal Communication Commission opened the discussion on spectrum usage for personal handheld communication, the community of satellite manufacturers has been searching for an economically viable and technically feasible satellite mobile communication system. Hughes Aircraft Company and others have joined in providing proposals for such systems, ranging from low to medium to geosynchronous orbits. These proposals make it clear that the trend in mobile satellite communication is toward more sophisticated satellites with a large number of spot beams and onboard processing, providing worldwide interconnectivity. Recent Hughes studies indicate that from a cost standpoint the geosynchronous satellite (GEOS) is most economical, followed by the medium earth orbit satellite (MEOS) and then by the low earth orbit satellite (LEOS). From a system performance standpoint, this evaluation may be in reverse order, depending on how the public will react to speech delay and collision. This paper discusses the trends and various mobile satellite constellations in satellite communication under investigation. It considers the effect of orbital altitude and modulation/multiple access on the link and spacecraft design.

  13. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Cancer Treatment Coping With Cancer en español Cáncer infantil Every cell in the body has a system that controls its growth, interaction with other cells, and even its life span. ... cancer . Different kinds of cancer have different signs, symptoms, ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and ... of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research ...

  15. What Is Thymus Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer What Is Thymus Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... Research and Treatment for Thymus Cancer? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  16. Chinese Anti-Cancer Association as a non-governmental organization undertakes systematic cancer prevention work in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting

    2015-08-01

    Cancer has become the first leading cause of death in the world, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Facing the increasing trend of cancer incidence and mortality, China issued and implemented "three-early (early prevention, early diagnosis and early treatment)" national cancer prevention plan. As the main body and dependence of social governance, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) take over the role of government in the field of cancer prevention and treatment. American Cancer Society (ACS) made a research on cancer NGOs and civil society in cancer control and found that cancer NGOs in developing countries mobilize civil society to work together and advocate governments in their countries to develop policies to address the growing cancer burden. Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), Cancer Council Australia (CCA), and Malaysian cancer NGOs are the representatives of cancer NGOs in promoting cancer control. Selecting Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (CACA) as an example in China, this article is to investigate how NGOs undertake systematic cancer prevention work in China. By conducting real case study, we found that, as a NGO, CACA plays a significant role in intensifying the leading role of government in cancer control, optimizing cancer outcomes, decreasing cancer incidence and mortality rates and improving public health.

  17. Current trends of banking innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Karminskiy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The current stage of the global banking system development takes place in an increasingly competitive environment and unstable financial markets. One of the key factors of bank's successful development is a policy of continuous innovative behavior. Nowadays innovation is a key factor of bankingnstability, competitiveness and sustainable growth.The aim of the article. The main goal of this article is to examine key trends of banking innovations and innovative in Russia. Experience in the development of new banking products, services and technologies in the Russian market is mainly based on international practice. Noteworthy is the fact that Russian banks take over not only the successful practice of new product lines, but also information technology as well as key methodological aspects of bank management and the technological aspects related the business processes.The results of the analysis. Innovative policy in the credit institution must not take place spontaneously. The positive effect of innovation can be achieved only if there is the possibility of managing the innovation process, which is not possible without a clearly highlighted definition and characteristics of banking innovation, which at least would allow distinguishing of innovation and modification. The paper describes the main aspects of the morphology of banking innovation with the detailed classification depended on the variety of attributes from its origin to the direction of action and highlights the major trends of current banking innovation, such as:development of information and cyber technology (and hence the possibility of the emergence of computational complexity and risk prediction models, the development of information security tools,etc.;implementation of customer-oriented model as the best practice;optimization of its own business processes.The article shows a number of real examples of each kind of banking innovation including the innovations in the non

  18. Cancer Fatalism and Preferred Sources of Cancer Information: an Assessment Using 2012 HINTS Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinky, Tassnym H; Faith, Jennifer; Lindly, Olivia; Thorburn, Sheryl

    2016-09-20

    Cancer fatalism is associated with lower participation in cancer screening, nonadherence to cancer screening guidelines, and avoidance of medical care. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between cancer fatalism and health information seeking. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between endorsement of fatalistic beliefs regarding cancer and preferred sources of cancer information. We analyzed data from the Health Information National Trends Survey 4 Cycle 2, which were collected in late 2012 and early 2013 (N = 3630). When weighted, the data are representative of the non-institutionalized US population aged 18 or older. In bivariate and multivariate analyses, we assessed three cancer fatalism beliefs as predictors of preferred use of healthcare provider versus preferred use of the Internet for cancer information. Results indicate the majority of US adults endorse one or more fatalistic beliefs about cancer. Unadjusted results indicate endorsing the fatalistic belief that "there's not much you can do to lower your chances of getting cancer" was significantly associated with lower odds of preferring the Internet (versus healthcare providers) as the source of cancer information (OR: 0.70; CI: 0.50, 0.98). In the adjusted model, however, none of the three cancer fatalism measures were significantly associated with preferred source of cancer information. In conclusion, fatalistic beliefs about cancer are common, and further research is warranted to understand cancer fatalism and whether and how it may impact health information-seeking behaviors.

  19. Global health care leadership development: trends to consider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacPhee M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Maura MacPhee,1 Lilu Chang,2 Diana Lee,3 Wilza Spiri4 1University of British Columbia School of Nursing, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 2Center for Advancement of Nursing Education, Koo Foundation, Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Nethersole School of Nursing, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 4São Paulo State University, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: This paper provides an overview of trends associated with global health care leadership development. Accompanying these trends are propositions based on current available evidence. These testable propositions should be considered when designing, implementing, and evaluating global health care leadership development models and programs. One particular leadership development model, a multilevel identity model, is presented as a potential model to use for leadership development. Other, complementary approaches, such as positive psychology and empowerment strategies, are discussed in relation to leadership identity formation. Specific issues related to global leadership are reviewed, including cultural intelligence and global mindset. An example is given of a nurse leadership development model that has been empirically tested in Canada. Through formal practice–academic–community collaborations, this model has been locally adapted and is being used for nurse leader training in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Brazil. Collaborative work is under way to adapt the model for interprofessional health care leadership development. Keywords: health care leadership, development models, global trends, collective

  20. Terahertz applications: trends and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Thierry; Bouye, Clementine; Cochard, Jacques

    2014-03-01

    The objective of our work [1] was to determine the opportunities and challenges for Terahertz application development for the next years with a focus on systems: for homeland security and for Non Destructive Testing (NDT). Terahertz radiation has unique abilities and has been the subject of extensive research for many years. Proven concepts have emerged for numerous applications including Industrial NDT, Security, Health, Telecommunications, etc. Nevertheless, there has been no widely deployed application and Businesses based on THz technologies are still in their infancy. Some technological, market and industrial barriers are still to be broken. We summarize the final analysis and data: study of the technology trends and major bottlenecks per application segment, main challenges to be addressed in the next years, key opportunities for THz technologies based on market needs and requirements.

  1. Citation Analysis of Library Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosy Jan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Citation analysis of all the journal articles published in the Library Trends from 1994-2007 is carried out. 593 articles are published in the journal during 14 years. Highest number (52 of articles is published in 2004. The Journal contained 15662 references for the study period of which 13783 are p-citations and 1879 are e-citations. Every issue published approx. 11 articles and each article has an average of 23.2 p-references and 3.1 e-citations. It was found that 44.51 % print books are consulted by the authors and 0% e-books are accessed. Authors have consulted 44.04% p-journals as against 11.82% e-journals. Figures shows that 88.14% other web references are used in the articles reference. Female contribution (52.34% accounts more than male contribution (47.66%.

  2. New trends in shape optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Leugering, Günter

    2015-01-01

    This volume reflects “New Trends in Shape Optimization” and is based on a workshop of the same name organized at the Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg in September 2013. During the workshop senior mathematicians and young scientists alike presented their latest findings. The format of the meeting allowed fruitful discussions on challenging open problems, and triggered a number of new and spontaneous collaborations. As such, the idea was born to produce this book, each chapter of which was written by a workshop participant, often with a collaborator. The content of the individual chapters ranges from survey papers to original articles; some focus on the topics discussed at the Workshop, while others involve arguments outside its scope but which are no less relevant for the field today. As such, the book offers readers a balanced introduction to the emerging field of shape optimization.

  3. Conference Trends in Logic XI

    CERN Document Server

    Wansing, Heinrich; Willkommen, Caroline; Recent Trends in Philosophical Logic

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents recent advances in philosophical logic with chapters focusing on non-classical logics, including paraconsistent logics, substructural logics, modal logics of agency and other modal logics. The authors cover themes such as the knowability paradox, tableaux and sequent calculi, natural deduction, definite descriptions, identity, truth, dialetheism, and possible worlds semantics.   The developments presented here focus on challenging problems in the specification of fundamental philosophical notions, as well as presenting new techniques and tools, thereby contributing to the development of the field. Each chapter contains a bibliography, to assist the reader in making connections in the specific areas covered. Thus this work provides both a starting point for further investigations into philosophical logic and an update on advances, techniques and applications in a dynamic field.   The chapters originate from papers presented during the Trends in Logic XI conference at the Ruhr University ...

  4. Occupational Trends and Program Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Rosenthal

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Institutions of higher education that respond to the economic base in their region will remain competitive and be better positioned to obtain public funds and donor support. In addition to mandated program viability standards based on measures such as graduation rate, individual institutions and state coordinating boards can use ten-year occupational trend data to assess future program viability. We used an occupational demand model to determine whether academic programs can meet projected statewide needs for high demand and high growth occupations. For example, computer engineering, the highest growth rate occupation in Alabama, is projected to have 365 annual average job openings, with 93.6% total growth over ten years. But only 46 computer engineering majors graduate annually from all Alabama institutions of higher education. We recommend using an occupational demand model as a planning tool, decision-making tool, and catalyst for collaborative initiatives.

  5. Petroleum 1996 - issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Increasingly, users of the Energy Information Administration`s petroleum data and analytical reports have expressed an interest in a recurring report that takes a broad view of the petroleum sector. What is sought is some perspective on the complex interrelationships that comprise an industry and markets accounting for 40 percent of the energy consumed in the United States and ranging from the drilling rig in the oil field to the pump at the local gasoline station. This report comprehensively examines historical trends, and selectively focuses on major issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to a common theme, in this case, the volatility in petroleum markets.

  6. Recent trends in marital disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T C; Bumpass, L L

    1989-02-01

    The post-1980 decline in the crude divorce rate must be interpreted in the context of the long-term trend and in terms of what we know about composition effects on crude measures-particularly given shifts in age at marriage and the age composition effects of the baby boom. Data from the June 1985 Current Population Survey permit more detailed, exposure-specific measurements as well as the use of separation as the event terminating marriage. Estimates from these data suggest a decline followed by a recovery. Taking into account well-known levels of underreporting, we find that recent rates imply that about two-thirds of all first marriages are likely to end in separation or divorce. We examine the persistence of major differences in marital stability and evaluate the comparative stability of first and second marriages.

  7. Latest Trends in Acoustic Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Caliendo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acoustics-based methods offer a powerful tool for sensing applications. Acoustic sensors can be applied in many fields ranging from materials characterization, structural health monitoring, acoustic imaging, defect characterization, etc., to name just a few. A proper selection of the acoustic wave frequency over a wide spectrum that extends from infrasound (<20 Hz up to ultrasound (in the GHz–band, together with a number of different propagating modes, including bulk longitudinal and shear waves, surface waves, plate modes, etc., allow acoustic tools to be successfully applied to the characterization of gaseous, solid and liquid environments. The purpose of this special issue is to provide an overview of the research trends in acoustic wave sensing through some cases that are representative of specific applications in different sensing fields.

  8. Quality Improvement Practices and Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens J.; Hartz, Ove; Edgeman, Rick L.

    1998-01-01

    professor, as well as key individuals from various industries. In addition to the above activities, Rick will be working with the European Foundation for Quality Management on their "European Master's Programme in Total Quality Management." That program involves a consortium of European universities. Rick......The following article, "Quality Improvement Practices and Trends in Denmark," is the first in a series of papers arranged for and co-authored by Dr. Rick L. Edgeman. Rick is a member of QE's Editorial Board and is on sabbatical from Colorado State University. During the year, Rick and his family...... has begun the process of developing a comparable consortium of American universities for the same purpose-- an activity which is cosponsored by the Education Division of the American Society for Quality (ASQ)....

  9. TAXATION TRENDS IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria GRIGORE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work contains an economic analysis of the tax rates and revenue ratios of the European Union Member States. The paper also includes the structural reform initiatives that have been high on the tax policy agenda in last period. Despite the fairly short span of time, a wide spectrum of tax reforms was implemented or are going to be implemented (the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base, the key reform initiatives including dual income taxes and flat taxes, the elimination of harmful tax competition, the simplification and rationalization of the current VAT rates structure or key elements contributing to the establishment of the VAT anti-fraud strategy within the EU. The main objective of this paper is to present a fairly view of the structure, level and trends of taxation in the European Union over the last ten years.

  10. Recent Inland Water Temperature Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Simon; Healey, Nathan; Lenters, John; O'Reilly, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    We are using thermal infrared satellite data in conjunction with in situ measurements to produce water temperatures for all the large inland water bodies in North America and the rest of the world for potential use as climate indicator. Recent studies have revealed significant warming of inland waters throughout the world. The observed rate of warming is - in many cases - greater than that of the ambient air temperature. These rapid, unprecedented changes in inland water temperatures have profound implications for lake hydrodynamics, productivity, and biotic communities. Scientists are just beginning to understand the global extent, regional patterns, physical mechanisms, and ecological consequences of lake warming. As part of our work we have collected thermal infrared satellite data from those satellite sensors that provide long-term and frequent spaceborne thermal infrared measurements of inland waters including ATSR, AVHRR, and MODIS and used these to examine trends in water surface temperature for approximately 169 of the largest inland water bodies in the world. We are now extending this work to generate temperature time-series of all North American inland water bodies that are sufficiently large to be studied using 1km resolution satellite data for the last 3 decades, approximately 268 lakes. These data are then being related to changes in the surface air temperature and compared with regional trends in water surface temperature derived from CMIP5/IPCC model simulations/projections to better predict future temperature changes. We will discuss the available datasets and processing methodologies together with the patterns they reveal based on recent changes in the global warming, with a particular focus on the inland waters of the southwestern USA.

  11. Penile cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - penis; Squamous cell cancer - penis; Glansectomy; Partial penectomy ... Cancer of the penis is rare. Its exact cause is unknown. However, certain risk factors include: Uncircumcised men who don't keep the ...

  12. Cancer Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... controlled way. Cancer cells keep growing without control. Chemotherapy is drug therapy for cancer. It works by killing the cancer ... It depends on the type and amount of chemotherapy you get and how your body reacts. Some ...

  13. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the head, face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ... cancer is found early. If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. ...

  14. Testicular cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testicular cancer is cancer that starts in the testicles, the male reproductive glands located in the scrotum. ... developing testicular cancer increases if he has: Abnormal testicle development Exposure to certain chemicals Family history of ...

  15. Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths than other female reproductive cancers. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better your chance for recovery. But ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Women with ovarian ...

  16. Cancer Moonshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Moonshot, led by Vice President Joe Biden, will marshal resources across the federal government to speed progress in cancer research and lead to improved cancer prevention, detection, and treatment.

  17. Uterine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, ... the uterus. This type is also called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of uterine cancer include Abnormal vaginal ...

  18. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  19. Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people ... Smoke cigarettes Have a family history of stomach cancer It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in ...

  20. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  1. Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunotherapy is a cancer treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer. It is a type of biological therapy. Biological therapy uses substances ... t yet use immunotherapy as often as other cancer treatments, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. ...

  2. Throat Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food. Surgery to remove cancerous lymph nodes (neck dissection). If throat cancer has spread deep within your ... neck cancers. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015. Freedman ND, et al. Fruit ...

  3. What's New in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Evolving Trends in Breast Surgery: Oncoplastic to Onco-Aesthetic Surgery. Arch Plast Surg . 2016;43(2):222- ... LR, Wilkinson D. The role of general nuclear medicine in breast cancer. J Med Radiat Sci . 2015; ...

  4. Going the distance for certified cancer registrars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Amanda; Kolender, Ellen R

    2009-01-01

    Cancer registry departments are using electronic technology to solve the local and national Certified Tumor Registrar (CTR) shortages. As demand for CTRs continues to increase without an accompanied increase in the supply of qualified personnel, cancer registry departments are looking for new solutions to this growing local and national trend. In order to solve this problem, some cancer registries have started using telecommunication to fill the empty positions within their departments. This is the case at Roper St. Francis Healthcare (RSFH) in Charleston, SC, where Cancer Registry Manager, Ellen Kolender, RHIA, CTR, used telecommuting to fill one full-time and one part-time CTR position.

  5. Evolução da mortalidade por câncer de estômago no Estado do Rio de Janeiro: uma comparação entre a região metropolitana e o interior no período de 1979 a 1986 Temporal trends from stomach cancer mortality in Rio de Janeiro State: a comparison between metropolitan area and interior during 1979 and 1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo Silva Mendonça

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O declínio da mortalidade por câncer de estômago vem sendo verificado em vários países desenvolvidos nos últimos cinqüenta anos. No Estado do Rio de Janeiro, o câncer de estômago foi a segunda causa de óbito por câncer entre homens e a terceira entre mulheres na última década. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a evolução da mortalidade por câncer de estômago no Estado do Rio de Janeiro segundo sexo e procedência no período entre 1979 e 1986. Foi observada uma tendência declinante na mortalidade por câncer de estômago em todo o Estado em ambos os sexos durante o período estudado. Embora os coeficientes encontrados tenham sido, em geral, mais altos no interior do que na região metropolitana, a tendência a queda foi maior na nesta última. Estes achados sugerem que os fatores de risco clássicos para o câncer de estômago devem ter influenciado diferentemente as populações residentes na região metropolitana e no interior. Algumas hipóteses podem ser levantadas, como, por exemplo, a contribuição de uma melhor preservação dos alimentos. Uma maior investigação da associação entre fatores externos e câncer de estômago se faz necessária para explicar as diferentes tendências de mortalidade encontradas no estudo.A decline in stomach cancer mortality has been observed in many countries around the world in the last fifty years. In the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, stomach cancer was the second most frequent cause of death by cancer among males and the third among females during the 1980s. This study presents a simple analysis of trends in stomach cancer mortaliy in Rio de Janeiro State by gender and residence area during the period from 1979 to 1986. The data showed a general decline in stomach cancer mortality for the entire state for both genders during the study period. Although mortality rates were higher in the interior than in the Greater Metropolitan Area, the decline was less marked in the

  6. Evaluation of trends in wheat yield models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Trend terms in models for wheat yield in the U.S. Great Plains for the years 1932 to 1976 are evaluated. The subset of meteorological variables yielding the largest adjusted R(2) is selected using the method of leaps and bounds. Latent root regression is used to eliminate multicollinearities, and generalized ridge regression is used to introduce bias to provide stability in the data matrix. The regression model used provides for two trends in each of two models: a dependent model in which the trend line is piece-wise continuous, and an independent model in which the trend line is discontinuous at the year of the slope change. It was found that the trend lines best describing the wheat yields consisted of combinations of increasing, decreasing, and constant trend: four combinations for the dependent model and seven for the independent model.

  7. Birth rates among male cancer survivors and mortality rates among their offspring : a population-based study from Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Siau-Wei; Liu, Jenny; Juay, Lester; Czene, Kamila; Miao, Hui; Salim, Agus; Verkooijen, Helena M; Hartman, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With improvements in treatment of cancer, more men of fertile age are survivors of cancer. This study evaluates trends in birth rates among male cancer survivors and mortality rates of their offspring. METHODS: From the Swedish Multi-generation Register and Cancer Register, we identified

  8. American families: trends and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davanzo, J; Rahman, M O

    1993-01-01

    Discussion focused on the nature of the roles of the family, a review of the major demographic changes (marriage, cohabitation, nonfamily households, remarriage, fertility, teenage pregnancy, and female employment) affecting the American family in the past decades, and the nature of the impact on women, men, and children. There were four major trends identified: 1) increased proportions of children living in single-parent families due to high rates of divorce and increased childbearing outside of marriage; 2) increased proportions of adults in nontraditional living arrangements; 3) increased female labor force participation during all stages of the life cycle; and 4) decreased proportions of children and increased proportions of older people out of total population due to declining mortality and fertility rates. Family formation arises out of childbearing and childrearing roles, the need for companionship and emotional support, and the opportunities for specialization and trade, and the economies of scale. The costs of family living may include the potential for disagreement, conflict, loss of privacy, and time and money. There were a number of reasons identified for not maintaining traditional families consisting of a married couple with children. The trends were for later age at marriage: 24.4 years in 1992 for women, increased cohabitation (almost 50% cohabiting prior to first marriage in 1985-86), decreased number of married couple households, and increased number of adults in non-family households. The divorce rate has risen over the past 100 years with peaks in the 1970s; the reasons were identified as increased baby boomers and new marriages, increased labor participation of women, and changes in gender roles. The stabilization and slight decline in rates may be due to a natural leveling, the likelihood of greater stability within new marriages, and the aging of the baby boomers. An anticipated increase in divorce rates in the future was also justified

  9. Signal trend identification with fuzzy methods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifman, J.; Tsoukalas, L. H.; Wang, X.; Wei, T. Y. C.

    1999-08-19

    A fuzzy-logic-based methodology for on-line signal trend identification is introduced. Although signal trend identification is complicated by the presence of noise, fuzzy logic can help capture important features of on-line signals and classify incoming power plant signals into increasing, decreasing and steady-state trend categories. In order to verify the methodology, a code named PROTREN is developed and tested using plant data. The results indicate that the code is capable of detecting transients accurately, identifying trends reliably, and not misinterpreting a steady-state signal as a transient one.

  10. Recent Trends and Advances in Sedimentology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttner, Lee J.

    1979-01-01

    Briefly surveys recent trends and developments in sedimentology. Includes Clastic sedimentary petrology, petrology of argillaceous rocks, terrigenous depositional environments, and chemical sedimentology. (MA)

  11. Future trends in international terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins

    1985-12-01

    This survey offers a depressing but conservative view of future trends in terrorism. Terrorism persists. It may double in volume, but the world does not end in terrorist anarchy. Few changes are foreseen in terrorist tactics or targets. Terrorists will escalate their violence, their attacks will become more indiscriminate, we may see political demands based upon threats of food contamination, but terrorists probably will not enter the Armageddon world of mass destruction. Terrorism will become institutionalized as a mode of armed conflict for some, no less legitimate than other modes of conflict. The media will increase its ability to cover terrorist incidents; we will see even more terrorism. The extraordinary security measures taken against terrorism will have become a permanent part of the landscape, of our life style. They will no longer attract comment. That may be the most insidious and perhaps the most worrisome development in the coming years. Terrorism will become an accepted fact of contemporary life--commonplace, ordinary, banal, and therefore somehow tolerable.

  12. [Asthma mortality trends in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas Ramírez, M; Segura Méndez, N H; Martínez-Cairo Cueto, S

    1994-04-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate mortality and morbidity from asthma in Mexico by federative entity (state) of residence, age, and sex during the period between 1960 and 1988. Statistics published by the National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and Information Science were reviewed, as were vital statistics and information from other sources. Data were selected on mortality, hospital admissions, and outpatient visits, as well as population by federative entity, age, and sex. Mortality and morbidity rates were adjusted for age using the direct method. From 1960 to 1987, mortality decreased for both sexes. The groups with the highest asthma mortality were those under 4 years of age and those over 50. From 1960 to the present, the state with the highest mortality was Tlaxcala. Hospitalizations increased from 10 to 140 per 100,000 population for the country as a whole. When both outpatient visits and hospitalizations were considered, the morbidity rates rose from 180 to 203.4 per 100,000 between 1960 and 1970. In 1970, hospital morbidity was higher among males than females. From 1960 up to the 1990s, the highest rates of hospitalization and outpatient visits were registered among those under 4 and those over 60. The states with the highest asthma hospitalization rates were Morelos, Baja California Sur, Nuevo León, Durango, and Tamaulipas. It is concluded that asthma mortality in Mexico is showing a downward trend, while morbidity is increasing considerably, especially among adolescents.

  13. Trend of Complete Hydatidiform Mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Thapa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Complete Hydatidiform mole is one of the most frequent abnormal pregnancies. This review studies the trend of complete mole in Paropakar Maternity and Women's hospital and clinical ability to detect it. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 504 cases of complete hydatidiform mole recorded at Paropakar maternity and women's hospital, Kathmandu, during 2058-2065 B.S. Medical records were reviewed and incidence, clinical presentation and method of diagnosis were studied. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 13,9117 births and 504 complete moles, 12 partial moles, 48 persistent gestational tumours, six choriocarcinoma and four invasive moles recorded in the hospital. The incidence of complete mole was one per 276 births. It was prevalent among women younger than 29 years (80% and among the primigravidae (36.7%. More than 90% women presented in the first half of their pregnancy and vaginal bleeding was the main complaint (68.3%. Suction evacuation, dilation and evacuation followed by sharp curettage and abdominal hysterectomy were performed in 80.6%, 17.6% and 1.2% of the women respectively. Persistent mole and choriocarcinoma developed in 9.5% and 0.4% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Complete mole has the highest incidence. It affects mostly younger women and presents with vaginal bleeding most of the time, usually in the first half of their pregnancy. Keywords: complete hydatidiform mole, gestational trophoblastic disease, persistent gestational tumours.

  14. Recent Trends in Antitrust Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Siragusa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to discuss a selection of the most relevant features of the most recent trends in antitrust enforcement. Firstly, anticompetitive signalling will be addressed: its assessment depends on the kind of information provided. Where such information is of public knowledge or is very well known by the market participants, signalling should not be deemed as anticompetitive. Secondly, the Power Cable case has raised for the first time various problematic issues, such as the possibility to impose parental liability on a purely financial investor, even where the presumed direct infringer would have been able to pay the fine. This appears to be irreconcilable with the objectives for which the case law on parental liability has been elaborated. Thirdly, as to the concept of restriction of competition by object, it is argued that the Intel case does not disavow the principles established in Cartes Bancaires. Indeed, the finding of a violation and the different methodology applied in the first case are only due to its specific factual circumstances. Finally, the nouvelle vague of the case law on the anticompetitive abuse of rights has led to two opposite approaches, one at the EU and the other at the Italian level. The first one, based on the finding of objective circumstances, is perfectly consistent with existing EU case law, while the second, exclusively focused on the exclusionary intent, seems to be in sharp contrast with it. The hope is that the Court of Justice will intervene to resolve this contradiction.

  15. Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Talbert, Robert J.

    2005-10-04

    A process is underway to develop mature, integrated methodologies to address nonproliferation issues. A variety of methodologies (both qualitative and quantitative) are being considered. All have one thing in common, a need for a consistent set of proliferation related data that can be used as a basis for application. One approach to providing a basis for predicting and evaluating future proliferation events is to understand past proliferation events, that is, the different paths that have actually been taken to acquire or attempt to acquire special nuclear material. In order to provide this information, this report describing previous material acquisition activities (obtained from open source material) has been prepared. This report describes how, based on an evaluation of historical trends in nuclear technology development, conclusions can be reached concerning: (1) The length of time it takes to acquire a technology; (2) The length of time it takes for production of special nuclear material to begin; and (3) The type of approaches taken for acquiring the technology. In addition to examining time constants, the report is intended to provide information that could be used to support the use of the different non-proliferation analysis methodologies. Accordingly, each section includes: (1) Technology description; (2) Technology origin; (3) Basic theory; (4) Important components/materials; (5) Technology development; (6) Technological difficulties involved in use; (7) Changes/improvements in technology; (8) Countries that have used/attempted to use the technology; (9) Technology Information; (10) Acquisition approaches; (11) Time constants for technology development; and (12) Required Concurrent Technologies.

  16. Risk of second primary cancers after testicular cancer in East and West Germany: a focus on contralateral testicular cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusner, Carsten; Streller, Brigitte; Stegmaier, Christa; Trocchi, Pietro; Kuss, Oliver; McGlynn, Katherine A; Trabert, Britton; Stang, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer survival rates improved dramatically after cisplatin-based therapy was introduced in the 1970s. However, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are potentially carcinogenic. The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of developing second primary cancers including the risk associated with primary histologic type (seminoma and non-seminoma) among testicular cancer survivors in Germany. We identified 16 990 and 1401 cases of testicular cancer in population-based cancer registries of East Germany (1961-1989 and 1996-2008) and Saarland (a federal state in West Germany; 1970-2008), respectively. We estimated the risk of a second primary cancer using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). To determine trends, we plotted model-based estimated annual SIRs. In East Germany, a total of 301 second primary cancers of any location were observed between 1961 and 1989 (SIR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.7-2.1), and 159 cancers (any location) were observed between 1996 and 2008 (SIR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4-2.0). The SIRs for contralateral testicular cancer were increased in the registries with a range from 6.0 in Saarland to 13.9 in East Germany. The SIR for seminoma, in particular, was higher in East Germany compared to the other registries. We observed constant trends in the model-based SIRs for contralateral testicular cancers. The majority of reported SIRs of other cancer sites including histology-specific risks showed low precisions of estimated effects, likely due to small sample sizes. Testicular cancer patients are at increased risk especially for cancers of the contralateral testis and should receive intensive follow-ups.

  17. Analysis on Incidence Trend and Survival Rate of Primary Liver Cancer in Fusui County of Guangxi,during 1988~1997%广西扶绥县1988~1997年肝癌发病趋势和生存率分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄天壬; 梁锋; 石建基; 梁任祥; 韦忠亮; 唐步坚; 覃燕明

    2001-01-01

    Objective Incidence rate and survival rate of primary livercancer(PLC) during 1988~1997 among residents in Fusui county of Guangxi were analyzed to provided scientistic basis for drawing up programme and evaluating efficiency on proventing and treating PLC.Methods The cases with carcinoma were coded according to the 3-digit rubrics of ninth revision of the Intenational Classification of Diseases(ICD-9). Population of age-groups was estimated with population structure from scesus in 1990. Age-standardized incidence were calculated, using China standard population(1990).Results The incidence and standardized incidence were 51.03/105 and 57.64/105 in Fusui county during 1988~1997,respectively. Age-specific incidences rose as age increased.Sex-specific incidence rates were higher in male than in female .Incidence trend hadn't varied obviously over the ten-year period. Survival rates about 1,2,3 and 5years were 7.56%,0.84%,0.15%and 0.05% in turns.Conclusion Incidence rates of primary liver cancer had still been higher level,not increased and declined evidently. But it increased in Guangxi or in China. That was closely associated with carrying out active prevention of PLC in Fusuxi.%目的 对广西扶绥县1988~1997年肝癌发病率和生存率进行统计分析,为制定肝癌防治规划和评价防治效果提供依据。方法 按国际疾病分类第9次修订版(ICD-9)进行恶性肿瘤3位数目编码。用1990年人口普查资料中的人口构成推算年龄组人口数。用中国标准人口(1990)计算标化发病率。结果 1988~1997年扶绥县肝癌发病率和标化发病率分别为51.03/10万和57.64/10万;肝癌占全部恶性肿瘤的58.71%,居首位;年龄别发病率随年龄的增长而上升;男性发病率显著高于女性,性比值为5.13:1。10年间肝癌发病率的变化不明显。肝癌患者1,2,3和5年生存率分别为7.56%,0.84%,0.15%和0.05%。结论 扶绥县肝癌发病率仍处于较高

  18. Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  19. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Talking about Advanced Cancer Coping with Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer and Caregivers Questions ... Talking About Advanced Cancer Coping With Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer ...

  1. What Is Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment? Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer What Is Thyroid Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... cell) Medullary Anaplastic (an aggressive undifferentiated tumor) Differentiated thyroid cancers Most thyroid cancers are differentiated cancers. The cells ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer ... grade, which refers to how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Grade provides clues about ...

  3. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  4. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer > Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...

  5. What Is Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer What Is Breast Cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... spread, see our section on Cancer Basics . Where breast cancer starts Breast cancers can start from different parts ...

  6. Cancer risk in aluminum reduction plant workers (Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, J.J.; Demers, P.A.; Le, N.D.; Friesen, M.D.; Lorenzi, M.F.; Fang, R.; Gallagher, R.P. [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    A 14-year update to a previously published historical cohort study of aluminum reduction plant workers was conducted. All men with three or more years at an aluminum reduction plant in British Columbia (BC), Canada between the years 1954 and 1997 were included; a total of 6,423 workers. A total of 662 men were diagnosed with cancer, representing a 400% increase from the original study. Standardized mortality and incidence ratios were used to compare the cancer mortality and incidence of the cohort to that of the BC population. Poisson regression was used to examine risk by cumulative exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV) measured as benzene soluble materials (BSM) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The risk for bladder cancer was related to cumulative exposure to CTPV measured as BSM and BaP (p trends < 0.001), and the risk for stomach cancer was related to exposure measured by BaP (p trend BaP < 0.05). The risks for lung cancer (p trend < 0.001), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (p trend < 0.001), and kidney cancer (p trend < 0.01) also increased with increasing exposure, although the overall rates were similar to that of the general population. Analysis of the joint effect of smoking and CTPV exposure on cancer showed the observed dose-response relationships to be independent of smoking.

  7. American Institute for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Cancer By Cancer Site What Is Cancer Foods That Fight Cancer Tools You Can Use Cancer Infographics & Multimedia Studying ... About Cancer By Cancer Site What Is Cancer Foods That Fight Cancer Tools You Can Use Cancer Infographics & Multimedia Studying ...

  8. Top Four Trends in Student Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The modern student information systems (SIS) is a powerful administrative tool with robust functionality. As such, it is essential that school and district administrators consider the top trends in modern student information systems before going forward with system upgrades or new purchases. These trends, described herein, are: (1) Support for…

  9. Common Stochastic Trends in the Current Account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumah, F.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Solow residuals are used as proxies for productivity shocks in many empirical studies.Considering the shortcomings of this approach this paper proposes the common trends approach as an alternative.The common trends econometric technique is utilized here in an attempt to identify and analyze the long

  10. Statistical Trends in Broadcasting. Ninth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair (John) and Co., New York, NY.

    A review of trends in broadcasting and an overall economic profile of the broadcasting industry for 1972, with projections for 1973, are given by a collection of tables and graphs. The first portion presents data on total advertising expenditures and trends, along with information on the gross national product and personal consumption spending.…

  11. Time Trends in Bullying Behavior in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Lenzi, Michela; Gini, Gianluca; Pozzoli, Tiziana; Cavallo, Franco; Santinello, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Given the severity of outcomes associated with involvement in bullying and the resources spent in an effort to reduce its prevalence, it is important to investigate trends in the bullying's occurrence. The main aim of this study was to identify trends from 2002 to 2010 in prevalence of bullying and victimization among Italian…

  12. Key Trends Shaping the Global Logistics Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handfield, Robert; Straube, Frank; Pfohl, Hans-Christian

    A summary from the full study “Trends and Strategies in Logistics and Supply Chain Management. Embracing Global Logistics Complexity to Drive Market Advantage” (2013).......A summary from the full study “Trends and Strategies in Logistics and Supply Chain Management. Embracing Global Logistics Complexity to Drive Market Advantage” (2013)....

  13. Trends Affecting the Roles of Reference Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Alma; McCook, Kathleen de la Pena

    1996-01-01

    Reviews societal and general library trends and their effect on roles of library reference staff. Topics include demographic changes; economic trends; technological developments; shifting paradigms; contextual perceptions; technological competence; human dimensions, including the librarian's role as intermediary; and creativity and innovation.…

  14. REGIONAL TRENDS IN RURAL SULFUR CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents an analysis of trends in atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO,) and particulate sulfate (SO42-) at rural monitoring sites in the Clean Air Act Status and Trends Monitoring Network (CASTNet) from 1990 to 1999. A two-stage approach is used to estimat...

  15. Effectiveness of animation in trend visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, George; Fernandez, Roland; Fisher, Danyel; Lee, Bongshin; Stasko, John

    2008-01-01

    Animation has been used to show trends in multi-dimensional data. This technique has recently gained new prominence for presentations, most notably with Gapminder Trendalyzer. In Trendalyzer, animation together with interesting data and an engaging presenter helps the audience understand the results of an analysis of the data. It is less clear whether trend animation is effective for analysis. This paper proposes two alternative trend visualizations that use static depictions of trends: one which shows traces of all trends overlaid simultaneously in one display and a second that uses a small multiples display to show the trend traces side-by-side. The paper evaluates the three visualizations for both analysis and presentation. Results indicate that trend animation can be challenging to use even for presentations; while it is the fastest technique for presentation and participants find it enjoyable and exciting, it does lead to many participant errors. Animation is the least effective form for analysis; both static depictions of trends are significantly faster than animation, and the small multiples display is more accurate.

  16. Trends in the development of Danish universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Frederik Voetmann; Harboe, Thomas; Horst, Sebastian;

    2015-01-01

    The chapter outlines some important development trends in the way universities, globally as well as nationally in terms of organisation, research, education and teaching.......The chapter outlines some important development trends in the way universities, globally as well as nationally in terms of organisation, research, education and teaching....

  17. Aquaculture: global status and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, John; McAndrew, Brendan; Richards, Randolph; Jauncey, Kim; Telfer, Trevor; Lorenzen, Kai; Little, David; Ross, Lindsay; Handisyde, Neil; Gatward, Iain; Corner, Richard

    2010-09-27

    Aquaculture contributed 43 per cent of aquatic animal food for human consumption in 2007 (e.g. fish, crustaceans and molluscs, but excluding mammals, reptiles and aquatic plants) and is expected to grow further to meet the future demand. It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish and herbivorous and omnivorous pond fish either entirely or partly utilizing natural productivity. The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp and catfish has been driven by globalizing trade and favourable economics of larger scale intensive farming. Most aquaculture systems rely on low/uncosted environmental goods and services, so a critical issue for the future is whether these are brought into company accounts and the consequent effects this would have on production economics. Failing that, increased competition for natural resources will force governments to allocate strategically or leave the market to determine their use depending on activities that can extract the highest value. Further uncertainties include the impact of climate change, future fisheries supplies (for competition and feed supply), practical limits in terms of scale and in the economics of integration and the development and acceptability of new bio-engineering technologies. In the medium term, increased output is likely to require expansion in new environments, further intensification and efficiency gains for more sustainable and cost-effective production. The trend towards enhanced intensive systems with key monocultures remains strong and, at least for the foreseeable future, will be a significant contributor to future supplies. Dependence on external feeds (including fish), water and energy are key issues. Some new species will enter production and policies that support the reduction of resource footprints and improve integration could lead to new developments as well as reversing decline in some more traditional systems.

  18. Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  19. Adherence to Guidelines for Cancer Survivors and Health-Related Quality of Life among Korean Breast Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihan Song

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence on the association between adherence to guidelines for cancer survivors and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. In a cross-sectional study of Korean breast cancer survivors, we examined whether adherence to the guidelines of the American Cancer Society (ACS and World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR for cancer survivors was related to levels of HRQoL, assessed by the Korean version of Core 30 (C30 and Breast cancer module 23 (BR23 of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ. We included a total of 160 women aged 21 to 79 years who had been diagnosed with breast cancer according to American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC stages I to III and had breast cancer surgery at least six months before the interview. Increasing adherence to ACS guidelines was associated with higher scores of social functioning (p for trend = 0.05, whereas increasing adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations was associated with higher scores of arm symptoms (p for trend = 0.01. These associations were limited to those with stage II or III cancer. Diet may be an important factor in relation to quality of life among Korean breast cancer survivors, however our findings warrant further prospective studies to evaluate whether healthy diet improves survivors’ quality of life.

  20. Adherence to Guidelines for Cancer Survivors and Health-Related Quality of Life among Korean Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sihan; Hwang, Eunkyung; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Noh, Dong-Young; Lee, Jung Eun

    2015-12-01

    There is limited evidence on the association between adherence to guidelines for cancer survivors and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In a cross-sectional study of Korean breast cancer survivors, we examined whether adherence to the guidelines of the American Cancer Society (ACS) and World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) for cancer survivors was related to levels of HRQoL, assessed by the Korean version of Core 30 (C30) and Breast cancer module 23 (BR23) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ). We included a total of 160 women aged 21 to 79 years who had been diagnosed with breast cancer according to American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stages I to III and had breast cancer surgery at least six months before the interview. Increasing adherence to ACS guidelines was associated with higher scores of social functioning (p for trend = 0.05), whereas increasing adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations was associated with higher scores of arm symptoms (p for trend = 0.01). These associations were limited to those with stage II or III cancer. Diet may be an important factor in relation to quality of life among Korean breast cancer survivors, however our findings warrant further prospective studies to evaluate whether healthy diet improves survivors' quality of life.

  1. Studying disability trends in aging populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Danan; Gomez-Redondo, Rosa; Dupre, Matthew E

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the current literature on disability trends in aging populations and proposes a framework for studying disability trends built upon existing models of disablement. In addition to considering disablement and its associated factors, our framework also includes factors at population level and the interplays among personal resources and health behaviors, intervention programs, technological advances, and the consequences of disability trends in the context of life course and socio-ecological perspective. The framework is abbreviated FE-BRIT-SE to denote individual-level (F)ixed attributes, including genetic factors, personality, age, sex, and earlier life conditions, and the (E)nvironment; individual (B)ehaviors, (R)esources, (I)nterventions, (T)echnology; and (S)ocioeconomic and (E)cological consequences of disability trends. The overview offers an integrated framework for understanding the disablement process, trends and their complex milieu of causes and consequences.

  2. De-trending of turbulence measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, turbulence is considered as a stationary stochastic process imposed on a given constant mean wind speed. However, measured (raw) turbulence intensities often display the characteristics of a non-stationary process, where the mean wind speed changes slowly with time. The change...... in mean wind speed appears as a trend in the wind speed time series, and often a linear trend is assumed. Wind resource measurements typically include statistics of ten-minute mean and standard deviation, and for such data it is not possible to calculate the trend contribution directly, because...... this requires access to the basic time-series. However, including a suitable modelling of the mean wind speed time variation, it is possible to estimate an approximate (linear) trend correction based on statistical data only. This paper presents such an algorithm for de-trending of turbulence standard deviation...

  3. Trends in mortality decrease and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Geng; Melenberg, Bertrand

    2014-10-01

    The vast literature on extrapolative stochastic mortality models focuses mainly on the extrapolation of past mortality trends and summarizes the trends by one or more latent factors. However, the interpretation of these trends is typically not very clear. On the other hand, explanation methods are trying to link mortality dynamics with observable factors. This serves as an intermediate step between the two methods. We perform a comprehensive analysis on the relationship between the latent trend in mortality dynamics and the trend in economic growth represented by gross domestic product (GDP). Subsequently, the Lee-Carter framework is extended through the introduction of GDP as an additional factor next to the latent factor, which provides a better fit and better interpretable forecasts.

  4. Trend prediction of chaotic time series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Aiguo; Zhao Cai; Li Zhanhuai

    2007-01-01

    To predict the trend of chaotic time series in time series analysis and time series data mining fields, a novel predicting algorithm of chaotic time series trend is presented, and an on-line segmenting algorithm is proposed to convert a time series into a binary string according to ascending or descending trend of each subsequence. The on-line segmenting algorithm is independent of the prior knowledge about time series. The naive Bayesian algorithm is then employed to predict the trend of chaotic time series according to the binary string. The experimental results of three chaotic time series demonstrate that the proposed method predicts the ascending or descending trend of chaotic time series with few error.

  5. Epidemiological studies of cancer in aircrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Gaël P; Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo

    2009-10-01

    Exposure to cosmic ionising radiation, in addition to other specific occupational risks, is of concern to aircrew members. Epidemiological studies provide an objective way to assess the health of this occupational group. We systematically reviewed the epidemiological literature on health of aircrew members since 1990, focusing on cancer as the endpoint of interest. Sixty-five relevant publications were identified and reviewed. Whereas overall cancer incidence and mortality was generally lower than in the comparison population, consistently elevated risks were reported for breast cancer incidence in female aircrew members and for melanoma in both male and female aircrew members. Brain cancer was increased in some studies among pilots. Occasionally trends of increasing cancer mortality or incidence with increasing estimated radiation dose were reported. Ionising radiation is considered to contribute little if at all to the elevated risks for cancers among aircrew, whereas excess ultraviolet radiation is a probable cause of the increased melanoma risk.

  6. Evaluation of endometrial cancer epidemiology in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohîlțea, R E; Furtunescu, F; Dosius, M; Cîrstoiu, M; Radoi, V; Baroș, A; Bohîlțea, L C

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer represents the most frequent gynecological malignant affection in the developed countries, in which the incidence of cervical cancer has significantly decreased due to the rigorous application of screening methods and prophylaxis. According to its frequency, endometrial cancer is situated on the fourth place in the category of women's genital-mammary malignant diseases, after breast, cervical and ovarian cancer in Romania. The incidence and mortality rates due to endometrial cancer have registered an increasing trend worldwide and also in Romania, a significant decrease of the age of appearance for the entire endometrial pathology sphere being noticed. At the national level, the maximum incidence is situated between 60 and 64 years old, the mortality rate of the women under 65 years old being high in Romania. The study evaluates endometrial cancer, from an epidemiologic point of view, at the national level compared to the international statistic data.

  7. Lessons from a clinicopathological study of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. D. Gangadaran

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Epidemiological profile of breast cancer in south India confirms to national trends. BCS and sentinel node biopsy are considered standard of care in breast cancer care however seems unavailable in government funded hospitals in south India. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(12.000: 5325-5328

  8. Cancer incidence, hospital morbidity, and mortality in young adults in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sabrina da Silva; Melo, Leticia Rodrigues; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Koifman, Sergio

    2013-05-01

    There are still relatively few studies in the world on cancer incidence and mortality in young adults. The current study aimed to explore cancer distribution in young adults in Brazil. A descriptive study was conducted on cancer incidence (selected State capitals), hospital morbidity, and mortality (Brazil and selected capitals) in the 20-24-year age strata in 2000-2002, and trends in cancer mortality rates in Brazil in 1980-2008 in the same population. Testicular cancer was the principal anatomical site in young adult males; in young adult women, the main sites were thyroid, uterine cervix, and Hodgkin disease. Brain cancer was the principal cause of death from cancer in both sexes, and time trends in mortality showed an increase in mortality from brain cancer in men and from lymphocytic leukemia in both sexes. As a whole, the results show an epidemiological pattern of cancer in young adults with regional distribution characteristics.

  9. New trends in emerging pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Niels

    2007-12-15

    pathogen and swine may serve as a source of infection in human, a most challenging issue in greater part of the world raising pigs. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infection, either thick borne or caused by consumption of raw milk, is an increasing trend in the industrialized part of the world. Consumer awareness, ethics of food, sustainability in food production, and trust in foods, are of growing importance to the consumer. The reaction of the consumer to new technology, such as nanotechnology, is unpredictable. Many efforts should be devoted to communication of non-biased information to both the food producers as well as the consumer.

  10. Trends in global earthquake loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnst, Isabel; Wenzel, Friedemann; Daniell, James

    2016-04-01

    Based on the CATDAT damage and loss database we analyse global trends of earthquake losses (in current values) and fatalities for the period between 1900 and 2015 from a statistical perspective. For this time period the data are complete for magnitudes above 6. First, we study the basic statistics of losses and find that losses below 10 bl. US satisfy approximately a power law with an exponent of 1.7 for the cumulative distribution. Higher loss values are modelled with the General Pareto Distribution (GPD). The 'transition' between power law and GPD is determined with the Mean Excess Function. We split the data set into a period of pre 1955 and post 1955 loss data as in those periods the exposure is significantly different due to population growth. The Annual Average Loss (AAL) for direct damage for events below 10 bl. US differs by a factor of 6, whereas the incorporation of the extreme loss events increases the AAL from 25 bl. US/yr to 30 bl. US/yr. Annual Average Deaths (AAD) show little (30%) difference for events below 6.000 fatalities and AAD values of 19.000 and 26.000 deaths per year if extreme values are incorporated. With data on the global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) that reflects the annual expenditures (consumption, investment, government spending) and on capital stock we relate losses to the economic capacity of societies and find that GDP (in real terms) grows much faster than losses so that the latter one play a decreasing role given the growing prosperity of mankind. This reasoning does not necessarily apply on a regional scale. Main conclusions of the analysis are that (a) a correct projection of historic loss values to nowadays US values is critical; (b) extreme value analysis is mandatory; (c) growing exposure is reflected in the AAL and AAD results for the periods pre and post 1955 events; (d) scaling loss values with global GDP data indicates that the relative size - from a global perspective - of losses decreases rapidly over time.

  11. Progress against laryngeal cancer in The Netherlands between 1989 and 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Boukje A. C.; Karim-Kos, Henrike E.; Coebergh, Jan Willem; Marres, Henri A. M.; de Vries, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Cancer of the larynx is a frequently occurring head and neck cancer in The Netherlands. The main risk factors are smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of our study was to evaluate the progress against laryngeal cancer by studying trends in incidence, mortality and survival in The Nethe

  12. Epidemiology and prevention of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenfels, Albert B; Maisonneuve, Patrick

    2004-05-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an uncommon tumor, but because the mortality rate approaches 100%, this form of cancer has now become a common cause of cancer mortality. In the United States it is the fourth most frequent cause of cancer mortality; in Japan it ranks as the fifth commonest cause of death from cancer. Smoking is the major known risk factor for pancreatic cancer, accounting for approximately 25-30% of all cases. Some of the time-dependent changes in the frequency of pancreatic cancer can be explained by smoking trends. Aggressive public health measures to control smoking would substantially reduce the burden of pancreatic cancer. Dietary factors are less important for pancreatic cancer than for other digestive tract tumors, but consumption of a diet with adequate quantities of fruits and vegetables, plus control of calories either by dietary measures or by exercise will help to prevent this lethal tumor. There are more than a dozen inherited germline mutations that increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. Of these, hereditary pancreatitis confers the greatest risk, while BRCA2 mutations are the commonest inherited disorder. In addition to germline defects, there are several common polymorphisms in genes that control detoxification of environmental carcinogens that may alter the risk of pancreatic cancer. More research will be needed in this area, to explain and to clarify the interaction between genes and environmental factors.

  13. Innovative trend significance test and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Zekai

    2017-02-01

    Hydro-climatological time series might embed characteristics of past changes concerning climate variability in terms of shifts, cyclic fluctuations, and more significantly in the form of trends. Identification of such features from the available records is one of the prime tasks of hydrologists, climatologists, applied statisticians, or experts in related topics. Although there are different trend identification and significance tests in the literature, they require restrictive assumptions, which may not be existent in the structure of hydro-climatological time series. In this paper, a method is suggested with statistical significance test for trend identification in an innovative manner. This method has non-parametric basis without any restrictive assumption, and its application is rather simple with the concept of sub-series comparisons that are extracted from the main time series. The method provides privilege for selection of sub-temporal half periods for the comparison and, finally, generates trend on objective and quantitative manners. The necessary statistical equations are derived for innovative trend identification and statistical significance test application. The application of the proposed methodology is suggested for three time series from different parts of the world including Southern New Jersey annual temperature, Danube River annual discharge, and Tigris River Diyarbakir meteorology station annual total rainfall records. Each record has significant trend with increasing type in the New Jersey case, whereas in other two cases, decreasing trends exist.

  14. A statistical trend analysis of ozonesonde data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiao, G. C.; Pedrick, J. H.; Allenby, G. M.; Reinsel, G. C.; Mateer, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed statistical analysis of monthly averages of ozonesond readings is performed to assess trends in ozone in the troposphere and the lower to midstratosphere. Regression time series models, which include seasonal and trend factors, are estimated for 13 stations located mainly in the midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. At each station, trend estimates are calculated for 14 'fractional' Umkehr layers covering the altitude range from 0 to 33 km. For the 1970-1982 period, the main findings indicate an overall negative trend in ozonesonde data in the lower stratosphere (15-21 km) of about -0.5 percent per year, and some evidence of a positive trend in the troposphere (0-5 km) of about 0.8 percent per year. An in-depth sensitivity study of the trend estimates is performed with respect to various correction procedures used to normalize ozonesonde readings to Dobson total ozone measurements. The main results indicate that the negative trend findings in the 15- to 21-km altitude region are robust to the normalization procedures considered.

  15. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis, High Risk Individuals, and Individuals With No History of Cancer (Control)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-14

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma; Breastcancer; Leukemia; Melanoma; Sarcoma; Unknown Primary Tumor; Multiple Myeloma; Ovarian Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Vaginal Cancer

  16. Comparative effectiveness in esophagogastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knab, Lawrence M; Belotte, Jim; Munshi, Hidayatullah G; Bentrem, David J

    2015-01-01

    Cancer of the esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) continues to have a dismal prognosis, with the incidence of esophageal cancer increasing in the United States. Although radical resection was initially the primary treatment for this disease process, systemic chemotherapy and radiation have been shown to play a role in prolonging survival in most patient populations. This chapter explores the evidence that guides treatment for esophageal and GEJ cancer today. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy were introduced as treatment modalities for esophageal and GEJ cancers when it became evident that surgical therapy alone provided poor long-term survival rates. A variety of treatment strategies have been explored including preoperative (neoadjuvant) and postoperative (adjuvant) chemotherapy, with and without radiation. The evidence suggests that neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy provides better outcomes compared to surgery alone for esophageal, GEJ, and gastric cancers. Studies indicate a trend towards improved survival when neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is compared to chemotherapy alone. When patients have undergone resection with node-positive disease without receiving neoadjuvant therapy, some form of adjuvant treatment is recommended. This chapter also explores the surgical management of esophageal, GEJ, and gastric cancers including the extent of the gastric lymph node dissection. It also includes a discussion about adherence to national guidelines in terms of gastric cancer treatment and esophageal and gastric lymph node examinations.

  17. Cancer proteomics: developments in technology, clinical use and commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeat, Nai Chien; Lin, Charlotte; Sager, Monica; Lin, Jimmy

    2015-08-01

    In the last two decades, advances in genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic methods have enabled us to identify and classify cancers by their molecular profiles. Many anticipate that a molecular taxonomy of cancer will not only lead to more effective subtyping of cancers but also earlier diagnoses, more informative prognoses and more targeted treatments. This article reviews recent technological developments in the field of proteomics, recent discoveries in proteomic cancer biomarker research and trends in clinical use. Readers are also informed of examples of successful commercialization, and the future of proteomics in cancer diagnostics.

  18. Radiation Dose and Subsequent Risk for Stomach Cancer in Long-term Survivors of Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A., E-mail: kleinerr@mail.nih.gov [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Smith, Susan A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Holowaty, Eric [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hall, Per [Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Pukkala, Eero [Finnish Cancer Registry, Institute for Statistical and Epidemiological Cancer Research, Helsinki (Finland); Vaalavirta, Leila [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Aleman, Berthe M.P. [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaijser, Magnus [Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Michael [Department of Oncology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Storm, Hans [Cancer Prevention and Documentation, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen (Denmark); Joensuu, Heikki [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Lynch, Charles F. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); and others

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the dose–response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested, matched case–control study of 201 cases and 378 controls among 53,547 5-year survivors of cervical cancer diagnosed from 1943 to 1995, from 5 international, population-based cancer registries. We estimated individual radiation doses to the site of the stomach cancer for all cases and to corresponding sites for the matched controls (overall mean stomach tumor dose, 2.56 Gy, range 0.03-46.1 and after parallel opposed pelvic fields, 1.63 Gy, range 0.12-6.3). Results: More than 90% of women received radiation therapy, mostly with external beam therapy in combination with brachytherapy. Stomach cancer risk was nonsignificantly increased (odds ratio 1.27-2.28) for women receiving between 0.5 and 4.9 Gy to the stomach cancer site and significantly increased at doses ≥5 Gy (odds ratio 4.20, 95% confidence interval 1.41-13.4, P{sub trend}=.047) compared with nonirradiated women. A highly significant radiation dose–response relationship was evident when analyses were restricted to the 131 cases (251 controls) whose stomach cancer was located in the middle and lower portions of the stomach (P{sub trend}=.003), whereas there was no indication of increasing risk with increasing dose for 30 cases (57 controls) whose cancer was located in the upper stomach (P{sub trend}=.23). Conclusions: Our findings show for the first time a significant linear dose–response relationship for risk of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer.

  19. Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

  20. TRENDS OF ROMANIAN BANKING NETWORK DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Georgeta PANAIT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, two trends occurred in the banking world: downsizing of personnel, on the one hand and the reduction of retail units held, on the other hand. The first trend was most notable in countries with unstable or weak economy. The effects were seen immediately. Reducing of the operating costs and more applied of the territorial structure and staff was a decision that credit institutions in Romania took relatively late. Worldwide banks began a restructuring otherwise dictated by this time not so economic crises new market trends - increasing access to the internet for the population and use of the internet in a growing proportion of internet banking