WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer statistics review

  1. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  2. Cancer Statistics: Pancreas Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... qnad9A-rfcw?rel=0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Pancreas Cancer Expand All Collapse All Statistics at a ... 5 Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Pancreas Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of ...

  3. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shop With CureSearch Blog Donate Now Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Understanding Children’s Cancer > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses ...

  4. Uterine Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Skin Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  5. Cancer Data and Statistics Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed Cancer Data and Statistics Tools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir United States Cancer Statistics The United States Cancer Statistics (USCS): Incidence and ...

  6. Cancer Statistics: Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a third party. HPF: Did You Know? Endometrial Cancer Endometrial Cancer - Did you know that endometrial cancer ... mfhs0vbvWi8?rel=0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Endometrial Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ...

  7. CDC WONDER: Cancer Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) online databases in WONDER provide cancer incidence and mortality data for the United States for the years since 1999, by...

  8. Key Statistics for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? Next Topic Thyroid cancer risk factors Key statistics for thyroid cancer How common is thyroid cancer? ... remains very low compared with most other cancers. Statistics on survival rates for thyroid cancer are discussed ...

  9. Ovarian Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... population data for older age groups are available. Statistics at a Glance Show More At a Glance ... with ovarian cancer in the United States. Survival Statistics Show More How Many People Survive 5 Years ...

  10. Breast cancer statistics and prediction methodology: a systematic review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Ashutosh Kumar; Gupta, Umesh; Jain, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a menacing cancer, primarily affecting women. Continuous research is going on for detecting breast cancer in the early stage as the possibility of cure in early stages is bright. There are two main objectives of this current study, first establish statistics for breast cancer and second to find methodologies which can be helpful in the early stage detection of the breast cancer based on previous studies. The breast cancer statistics for incidence and mortality of the UK, US, India and Egypt were considered for this study. The finding of this study proved that the overall mortality rates of the UK and US have been improved because of awareness, improved medical technology and screening, but in case of India and Egypt the condition is less positive because of lack of awareness. The methodological findings of this study suggest a combined framework based on data mining and evolutionary algorithms. It provides a strong bridge in improving the classification and detection accuracy of breast cancer data. PMID:26028079

  11. HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC Is Doing Related Links Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home HPV-Associated Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  12. Lung Cancer Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Lindsey A; Siegel, Rebecca L; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among both men and women in the United States. It is also the leading cause of cancer death among men and the second leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Lung cancer rates and trends vary substantially by sex, age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geography because of differences in historical smoking patterns. Lung cancer mortality rates in the United States are highest among males, blacks, people of lower socioeconomic status, and in the mid-South (e.g., Kentucky, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Tennessee). Globally, rates are highest in countries where smoking uptake began earliest, such as those in North America and Europe. Although rates are now decreasing in most of these countries (e.g., United States, United Kingdom, Australia), especially in men, they are increasing in countries where smoking uptake occurred later. Low- and middle-income countries now account for more than 50% of lung cancer deaths each year. This chapter reviews lung cancer incidence and mortality patterns in the United States and globally.

  13. Global cancer statistics, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Lindsey A; Bray, Freddie; Siegel, Rebecca L; Ferlay, Jacques; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-03-01

    Cancer constitutes an enormous burden on society in more and less economically developed countries alike. The occurrence of cancer is increasing because of the growth and aging of the population, as well as an increasing prevalence of established risk factors such as smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, and changing reproductive patterns associated with urbanization and economic development. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, about 14.1 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million deaths occurred in 2012 worldwide. Over the years, the burden has shifted to less developed countries, which currently account for about 57% of cases and 65% of cancer deaths worldwide. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among males in both more and less developed countries, and has surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death among females in more developed countries; breast cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death among females in less developed countries. Other leading causes of cancer death in more developed countries include colorectal cancer among males and females and prostate cancer among males. In less developed countries, liver and stomach cancer among males and cervical cancer among females are also leading causes of cancer death. Although incidence rates for all cancers combined are nearly twice as high in more developed than in less developed countries in both males and females, mortality rates are only 8% to 15% higher in more developed countries. This disparity reflects regional differences in the mix of cancers, which is affected by risk factors and detection practices, and/or the availability of treatment. Risk factors associated with the leading causes of cancer death include tobacco use (lung, colorectal, stomach, and liver cancer), overweight/obesity and physical inactivity (breast and colorectal cancer), and infection (liver, stomach, and cervical cancer). A substantial portion of cancer cases and deaths could be prevented by broadly

  14. Cancer Statistics: Cancer of the Small Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... party. HPF: SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Small Intestine Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ... Or More after Being Diagnosed with Small Intestine Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of patients ...

  15. Cancer Statistics: Cancer of the Stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... third party. HPF: SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Stomach Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ... Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Stomach Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of patients ...

  16. Cancer Statistics: Cancer of the Vulva

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... third party. HPF: SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Vulvar Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ... Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Vulvar Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of patients ...

  17. Cancer Statistics: Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... population data for older age groups are available. Statistics at a Glance Show More At a Glance ... living with leukemia in the United States. Survival Statistics Show More How Many People Survive 5 Years ...

  18. Applied statistics: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, D R

    2007-01-01

    The main phases of applied statistical work are discussed in general terms. The account starts with the clarification of objectives and proceeds through study design, measurement and analysis to interpretation. An attempt is made to extract some general notions.

  19. Cancer and nonextensive statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Gonz'alez, J A; Gonz\\'alez, Jorge A.; Rond\\'on, Irving

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new model of cancer growth based on nonextensive entropy. The evolution equation depends on the nonextensive parameter q. The exponential, the logistic, and the Gompertz growth laws are particular cases of the generalized model. Experimental data of different tumors have been shown to correspond to all these tumor-growth laws. Recently reported studies suggest the existence of tumors that follow a power law behavior. Our model is able to fit also these data for q1, tumor size can be reduced to zero using a traditional constant-intensity therapy.

  20. More Fact Sheets - SEER Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Statistical Fact Sheets are summaries of common cancer types developed to provide an overview of frequently-requested cancer statistics including incidence, mortality, survival, stage, prevalence, and lifetime risk.

  1. Review of Labour Statistics for the United Nations Statistical Commission

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Barham

    2008-01-01

    Describes the Review, whose recommendations will be taken forward by UN Statistical Division and the International Labour OrganisationEarly in 2007, the Office for National Statistics was asked by United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) to carry out a Review of Labour Statistics on behalf of the UK. The Review was carried out during 2007 and was presented at the annual UN Statistics Commission session in February 2008 in New York. The Review was very well received and recommendations in the...

  2. Breast cancer statistics and markers

    OpenAIRE

    Mallika Siva Donepudi; Kasturi Kondapalli; Seelam Jeevan Amos; Pavithra Venkanteshan

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the familiar diseases in women. Incidence and mortality due to cancer, particularly breast cancer has been increasing for last 50 years, even though there is a lacuna in the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages. According to World Health Organization (WHO) 2012 reports, breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women, accounting 23% of all cancer deaths. In Asia, one in every three women faces the risk of breast cancer in their lifetime as per reports of WHO...

  3. Cancer statistics in China, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou; Baade, Peter D; Zhang, Siwei; Zeng, Hongmei; Bray, Freddie; Jemal, Ahmedin; Yu, Xue Qin; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    With increasing incidence and mortality, cancer is the leading cause of death in China and is a major public health problem. Because of China's massive population (1.37 billion), previous national incidence and mortality estimates have been limited to small samples of the population using data from the 1990s or based on a specific year. With high-quality data from an additional number of population-based registries now available through the National Central Cancer Registry of China, the authors analyzed data from 72 local, population-based cancer registries (2009-2011), representing 6.5% of the population, to estimate the number of new cases and cancer deaths for 2015. Data from 22 registries were used for trend analyses (2000-2011). The results indicated that an estimated 4292,000 new cancer cases and 2814,000 cancer deaths would occur in China in 2015, with lung cancer being the most common incident cancer and the leading cause of cancer death. Stomach, esophageal, and liver cancers were also commonly diagnosed and were identified as leading causes of cancer death. Residents of rural areas had significantly higher age-standardized (Segi population) incidence and mortality rates for all cancers combined than urban residents (213.6 per 100,000 vs 191.5 per 100,000 for incidence; 149.0 per 100,000 vs 109.5 per 100,000 for mortality, respectively). For all cancers combined, the incidence rates were stable during 2000 through 2011 for males (+0.2% per year; P = .1), whereas they increased significantly (+2.2% per year; P cancer cases and deaths can be prevented through reducing the prevalence of risk factors, while increasing the effectiveness of clinical care delivery, particularly for those living in rural areas and in disadvantaged populations.

  4. Cancer Statistics: Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... population data for older age groups are available. Statistics at a Glance Show More At a Glance ... their lifetime, based on 2010-2012 data. Survival Statistics Show More How Many People Survive 5 Years ...

  5. Cancer Statistics: Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... population data for older age groups are available. Statistics at a Glance Show More At a Glance ... their lifetime, based on 2010-2012 data. Survival Statistics Show More How Many People Survive 5 Years ...

  6. Review of Charniak's "Statistical Language Learning"

    OpenAIRE

    Magerman, David M.

    1995-01-01

    This article is an in-depth review of Eugene Charniak's book, "Statistical Language Learning". The review evaluates the appropriateness of the book as an introductory text for statistical language learning for a variety of audiences. It also includes an extensive bibliography of articles and papers which might be used as a supplement to this book for learning or teaching statistical language modeling.

  7. Tube problems: worldwide statistics reviewed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EPRI's Steam Generator Strategic Management Project issues an annual report on the progress being made in tackling steam generator problems worldwide, containing a wealth of detailed statistics on the status of operating units and degradation mechanisms encountered. A few highlights are presented from the latest report, issued in October 1993, which covers the period to 31 December 1992. (Author)

  8. Pancreatic Cancer: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabar, Cinthya S; Winter, Jordan M

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer is now the third leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States, yet advances in treatment options have been minimal over the past decade. In this review, we summarize the evaluation and treatments for this disease. We highlight molecular advances that hopefully will soon translate into improved outcomes. PMID:27546841

  9. New Statistical Methodology for Determining Cancer Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of an innovative statistical technique that shows that women living in a broad stretch of the metropolitan northeastern United States, which includes Long Island, are slightly more likely to die from breast cancer than women in other parts of the Northeast.

  10. E-learning statistics: a selective review

    OpenAIRE

    Härdle, Wolfgang Karl; Klinke, Sigbert; Ziegenhagen, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    Modern computing equipment is present at schools and universities at all levels of education. 4 In the statistical sciences computers offer great opportunities to enrich the learning process by the means of e.g. animations, software integration or on-the-fly computations. A personal review of different e-learning platforms for statistics is done in this paper. This review reveals facts that could be taken into account for future e-learning platforms in statistics. One of the most striking dis...

  11. What Are the Key Statistics about Endometrial Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is endometrial cancer? Next Topic Endometrial cancer risk factors Key statistics for endometrial cancer? How common is endometrial cancer? In the United States, cancer of the endometrium is the most common cancer of the female reproductive organs. The American Cancer Society estimates for ...

  12. BRAIN CANCER IMMUNOTHERAPY (REVIEW)

    OpenAIRE

    Yashin К.S.; Medyanik I.А.

    2014-01-01

    The review analyzes Russian and foreign reports concerned with a rapidly developing brain cancer treatment technique — immunotherapy. There has been presented a current view on the basic concept of antitumor immunity, on the problem of immune system interaction with a tumor in general and under the conditions of an immunologically privileged nervous system, shown the theoretical background of efficiency of immunotherapy used against brain cancer (the capability of tumor antigens and activated...

  13. What Are the Key Statistics about Vulvar Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is vulvar cancer? Next Topic What are the risk factors for vulvar cancer? What are the key statistics about vulvar cancer? In the United States, vulvar cancer accounts for about 4% of cancers of the female reproductive organs and 0.6% of all cancers ...

  14. Mathematical and Statistical Modeling in Cancer Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael eHageman Blair

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a major health problem with high mortality rates. In the post-genome era, investigators have access to massive amounts of rapidly accumulating high-throughput data in publicly available databases, some of which are exclusively devoted to housing Cancer data. However, data interpretation efforts have not kept pace with data collection, and gained knowledge is not necessarily translating into better diagnoses and treatments. A fundamental problem is to integrate and interpret data to further our understanding in Cancer Systems Biology. Viewing cancer as a network provides insights into the complex mechanisms underlying the disease. Mathematical and statistical models provide an avenue for cancer network modeling. In this article, we review two widely used modeling paradigms: deterministic metabolic models and statistical graphical models. The strength of these approaches lies in their flexibility and predictive power. Once a model has been validated, it can be used to make predictions and generate hypotheses. We describe a number of diverse applications to Cancer Biology, including, the system-wide effects of drug-treatments, disease prognosis, tumor classification, forecasting treatment outcomes, and survival predictions.

  15. Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

  16. Human cancer databases (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Michalopoulos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is one of the four major non‑communicable diseases (NCD), responsible for ~14.6% of all human deaths. Currently, there are >100 different known types of cancer and >500 genes involved in cancer. Ongoing research efforts have been focused on cancer etiology and therapy. As a result, there is an exponential growth of cancer‑associated data from diverse resources, such as scientific publications, genome‑wide association studies, gene expression experiments, gene‑gene or protein‑protein interaction data, enzymatic assays, epigenomics, immunomics and cytogenetics, stored in relevant repositories. These data are complex and heterogeneous, ranging from unprocessed, unstructured data in the form of raw sequences and polymorphisms to well‑annotated, structured data. Consequently, the storage, mining, retrieval and analysis of these data in an efficient and meaningful manner pose a major challenge to biomedical investigators. In the current review, we present the central, publicly accessible databases that contain data pertinent to cancer, the resources available for delivering and analyzing information from these databases, as well as databases dedicated to specific types of cancer. Examples for this wealth of cancer‑related information and bioinformatic tools have also been provided. PMID:25369839

  17. Statistical physics of crime: A review

    CERN Document Server

    D'Orsogna, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    Containing the spreading of crime in urban societies remains a major challenge. Empirical evidence suggests that, left unchecked, crimes may be recurrent and proliferate. On the other hand, eradicating a culture of crime may be difficult, especially under extreme social circumstances that impair the creation of a shared sense of social responsibility. Although our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the emergence and diffusion of crime is still incomplete, recent research highlights applied mathematics and methods of statistical physics as valuable theoretical resources that may help us better understand criminal activity. We review different approaches aimed at modeling and improving our understanding of crime, focusing on the nucleation of crime hotspots using partial differential equations, self-exciting point process and agent-based modeling, adversarial evolutionary games, and the network science behind the formation of gangs and large-scale organized crime. We emphasize that statistical physics o...

  18. Thyroid Cancer Statistics | Did You Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid cancer represents the 8th most common cancer in the United States. Did you know that this cancer, located at the base of the throat in the thyroid gland, is highly treatable and usually curable?

  19. Statistical physics of crime: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orsogna, Maria R; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    Containing the spread of crime in urban societies remains a major challenge. Empirical evidence suggests that, if left unchecked, crimes may be recurrent and proliferate. On the other hand, eradicating a culture of crime may be difficult, especially under extreme social circumstances that impair the creation of a shared sense of social responsibility. Although our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the emergence and diffusion of crime is still incomplete, recent research highlights applied mathematics and methods of statistical physics as valuable theoretical resources that may help us better understand criminal activity. We review different approaches aimed at modeling and improving our understanding of crime, focusing on the nucleation of crime hotspots using partial differential equations, self-exciting point process and agent-based modeling, adversarial evolutionary games, and the network science behind the formation of gangs and large-scale organized crime. We emphasize that statistical physics of crime can relevantly inform the design of successful crime prevention strategies, as well as improve the accuracy of expectations about how different policing interventions should impact malicious human activity that deviates from social norms. We also outline possible directions for future research, related to the effects of social and coevolving networks and to the hierarchical growth of criminal structures due to self-organization. PMID:25468514

  20. Statistical physics of crime: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orsogna, Maria R; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    Containing the spread of crime in urban societies remains a major challenge. Empirical evidence suggests that, if left unchecked, crimes may be recurrent and proliferate. On the other hand, eradicating a culture of crime may be difficult, especially under extreme social circumstances that impair the creation of a shared sense of social responsibility. Although our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the emergence and diffusion of crime is still incomplete, recent research highlights applied mathematics and methods of statistical physics as valuable theoretical resources that may help us better understand criminal activity. We review different approaches aimed at modeling and improving our understanding of crime, focusing on the nucleation of crime hotspots using partial differential equations, self-exciting point process and agent-based modeling, adversarial evolutionary games, and the network science behind the formation of gangs and large-scale organized crime. We emphasize that statistical physics of crime can relevantly inform the design of successful crime prevention strategies, as well as improve the accuracy of expectations about how different policing interventions should impact malicious human activity that deviates from social norms. We also outline possible directions for future research, related to the effects of social and coevolving networks and to the hierarchical growth of criminal structures due to self-organization.

  1. Human cancer databases (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Michalopoulos, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the four major non-communicable diseases (NCD), responsible for ~14.6% of all human deaths. Currently, there are >100 different known types of cancer and >500 genes involved in cancer. Ongoing research efforts have been focused on cancer etiology and therapy. As a result, there is an exponential growth of cancer-associated data from diverse resources, such as scientific publications, genome-wide association studies, gene expression experiments, gene-gene or protein-protein in...

  2. Cancer Statistics: Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... population data for older age groups are available. Statistics at a Glance Show More At a Glance ... acute lymphocytic leukemia in the United States. Survival Statistics Show More How Many People Survive 5 Years ...

  3. Cancer Statistics: Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... population data for older age groups are available. Statistics at a Glance Show More At a Glance ... their lifetime, based on 2010-2012 data. Survival Statistics Show More How Many People Survive 5 Years ...

  4. Book review: Spatial statistics and geostatistics

    OpenAIRE

    Clift, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    "Spatial Statistics and Geostatistics." Yongwan Chun and Daniel A. Griffith. SAGE. January 2013. --- This book aims to explain and demonstrate techniques in spatial sampling, local statistics, and advanced topics including Bayesian methods, Monte Carlo simulation, error and uncertainty. Spatial Statistics and Geostatistics is highly recommended to researchers in geography, environmental science, health and epidemiology, population and demography, and planning, writes Hamish Clift.

  5. Review of acute cancer beds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2012-01-01

    A review of admissions to cancer services at University Hospital Galway (UHG) was undertaken to assess the appropriateness of hospital usage. All cancer specialty patients admitted from 26-28 May 2009 were reviewed (n = 82). Chi square tests, Exact tests, and One-way ANOVA were utilised to analyse key issues emerging from the data. Fifty (61%) were classified as emergencies. Twenty three (67%) occupied a designated cancer bed with 24 (30%) in outlying non-oncology wards. The mean length of stay was 29.3 days. Possible alternatives to admission were identified for 15 (19%) patients. There was no evidence of discharge planning for 50 (60%) admissions. There is considerable potential to make more appropriate utilisation of UHG for cancer patients, particularly in terms of reducing bed days and length of stay and the proportion of emergency cancer admissions, and further developing integrated systems of discharge planning.

  6. Cancer Immunotherapy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The goals of treating patients with cancer are to cure the disease, prolong survival, and improve quality of life. Immune cells in the tumor microenvironment have an important role in regulating tumor progression. Therefore, stimulating immune reactions to tumors can be an attractive therapeutic and prevention strategy. CONTENT: During immune surveillance, the host provides defense against foreign antigens, while ensuring it limits activation against self antigens. By targeting surface antigens expressed on tumor cells, monoclonal antibodies have demonstrated efficacy as cancer therapeutics. Recent successful antibody-based strategies have focused on enhancing antitumor immune responses by targeting immune cells, irrespective of tumor antigens. The use of antibodies to block pathways inhibiting the endogenous immune response to cancer, known as checkpoint blockade therapy, has stirred up a great deal of excitement among scientists, physicians, and patients alike. Clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of antibodies that block the T cell inhibitory molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4 and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1 have reported success in treating subsets of patients. Adoptive cell transfer (ACT is a highly personalized cancer therapy that involve administration to the cancer-bearing host of immune cells with direct anticancer activity. In addition, the ability to genetically engineer lymphocytes to express conventional T cell receptors or chimeric antigen receptors has further extended the successful application of ACT for cancer treatment. SUMMARY: For cancer treatment, 2011 marked the beginning of a new era. The underlying basis of cancer immunotherapy is to activate a patient’s own T cells so that they can kill their tumors. Reports of amazing recoveries abound, where patients remain cancer-free many years after receiving the therapy. The idea of harnessing immune cells to fight cancer is

  7. Application of statistical cancer atlas for 3D biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Ramkrishnan; Shen, Dinggang; Davatzikos, Christos; Crawford, E. David; Barqawi, Albaha; Werahera, Priya; Kumar, Dinesh; Suri, Jasjit S.

    2008-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in males in the United States and the second leading cause of cancer death. While the exact cause is still under investigation, researchers agree on certain risk factors like age, family history, dietary habits, lifestyle and race. It is also widely accepted that cancer distribution within the prostate is inhomogeneous, i.e. certain regions have a higher likelihood of developing cancer. In this regard extensive work has been done to study the distribution of cancer in order to perform biopsy more effectively. Recently a statistical cancer atlas of the prostate was demonstrated along with an optimal biopsy scheme achieving a high detection rate. In this paper we discuss the complete construction and application of such an atlas that can be used in a clinical setting to effectively target high cancer zones during biopsy. The method consists of integrating intensity statistics in the form of cancer probabilities at every voxel in the image with shape statistics of the prostate in order to quickly warp the atlas onto a subject ultrasound image. While the atlas surface can be registered to a pre-segmented subject prostate surface or instead used to perform segmentation of the capsule via optimization of shape parameters to segment the subject image, the strength of our approach lies in the fast mapping of cancer statistics onto the subject using shape statistics. The shape model was trained from over 38 expert segmented prostate surfaces and the atlas registration accuracy was found to be high suggesting the use of this method to perform biopsy in near real time situations with some optimization.

  8. ANIMAL MODELS OF CANCER: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana M. Navale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. In USA three persons out of five will develop some type of cancer. Beyond these statistics of mortality, the morbidity due to cancer presents a real scary picture. Last 50 years of research has rendered some types of cancer curable, but still the major fear factor associated with this disease is unchanged. Animal models are classified according to the method of induction of cancer in the animal. Spontaneous tumor models are the most primitive models. Although these models show good resemblance to the natural disease in humans, they were not capable of keeping pace with developing experimental therapeutics programs. It has therefore been necessary to take a further step towards artificiality, away from the clinical problem in the search for satisfactory testing method. From this step, the journey of artificially induced tumor models started. It is possible to induce cancer reproducibly in animals by exposing them to various agents and now, by transplanting tumor cells or tissue. The development of Genetically Engineered Animal models has provided a great help in knowing the disease. This article takes a review of present animal models used in anti-cancer drug discovery.

  9. The panacea statistical toolbox of a biomedical peer reviewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaik, Younis

    2015-01-01

    The main role of a peer reviewer is to make judgments on the research articles by asking a number of questions to evaluate the quality of the research article. Statistics is a major part of any biomedical research article, and most reviewers gain their experiences in manuscript reviewing by undertaking it but not through an educational process. Therefore, reviewers of the biomedical journals normally do not have enough knowledge and skills to evaluate the validity of statistical methods used in biomedical research articles submitted for consideration. Hence, inappropriate statistical analysis in medical journals can lead to misleading conclusions and incorrect results. In this paper, the most common basic statistical guidelines are described that might be a road map to the biomedical reviewers. It is not meant for statisticians or medical editors who have special interest and expertise in statistical analysis. PMID:26430447

  10. CliffsNotes Statistics Quick Review

    CERN Document Server

    Voelker, David H; Adams, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Inside the Book: Graphic displays Numerical measures Probability Sampling Principles of testing Univariate inferential tests Bivariate relationships Review questions Resource center Glossary Common mistakes Tables Why CliffsNotes? Go with the name you know and trust Get the information you need-fast! CliffsNotes Quick Review guides give you a clear, concise, easy-to-use review of the basics. Introducing each topic, defining key terms, and carefully walking you through sample problems, this guide helps you grasp and understand the important concepts needed to succeed. Access 500

  11. CRANIOCEREBRAL MISSILE INJURY A STATISTICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI ALIMOHAMMADI

    1986-05-01

    Full Text Available A Statistical report of 912 battle casualtiesadmitted in a special unit of the neurological surgery department during 49 months of the recent war was given. Methods of their evaluation, operative categories, management poli¬cies including techniques of Missile and bullet removal, and their complications were discussed.

  12. Introducing Critical Care Forum's ongoing review of medical statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Whitley, Elise; Ball, Jonathon

    2002-01-01

    Statistics is increasingly used in all fields of medicine but is often poorly understood and incorrectly applied. Critical Care is therefore launching a series of articles aimed at providing a simple introduction or refresher to some of the more commonly used statistical tools and ideas. This series does not aim to be an exhaustive review of medical statistics but rather a starting point to inform readers and stimulate more thought and investigation as to the most appropriate statistical meth...

  13. Exemestane in early breast cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Untch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Untch1, Christian Jackisch21Interdisciplinary Breast Centre, Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, University Charité, Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Gynecology/Obstetrics, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach, GermanyAbstract: The adjuvant treatment of women with endocrine-sensitive early breast cancer has been dominated for the last 40 years by tamoxifen. However, the side-effects associated with this therapy have prompted a search for safer and biochemically more selective endocrine agents and led to the development of the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane. Promising results in advanced disease have paved the way for treating early breast cancer, and AIs are increasingly replacing tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting. Several large, randomized trials with AIs have been completed or are ongoing in women with early-stage breast cancer, documenting the significant impact that these drugs are making on the risk for recurrence of breast cancer. As a result, there is increasing and widespread use of AI therapy for the treatment of early-stage endocrine-responsive breast cancer. This review summarizes the data for exemestane in the adjuvant setting, showing that a switch to exemestane after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen therapy is associated with a statistically significant survival benefit and is regarded as being sensitive by international and national experts.Keywords: early breast cancer, adjuvant setting, endocrine-sensitive, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitor, exemestane, switch, IES 31, NSABP B-33, TEAM

  14. Prostate Cancer Genetics: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Christopher J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, research has focussed on identifying the genetic underpinnings of prostate cancer. It has been recognized that a number of forms of genetic changes coupled with epigenetic and gene expression changes can increase the prediction to develop prostate cancer. This review outlines the role of somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs), structural rearrangements, point mutations, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as well as miRNAs. Identifying relevant genetic changes offers the ability to develop novel biomarkers to allow early and accurate detection of prostate cancer as well as provide risk stratification of patients following their diagnosis. The concept of personalized or individualized medicine has gained significant attention. Therefore, a better understanding of the genetic and metabolic pathways underlying prostate cancer development offers the opportunity to explore new therapeutic interventions with the possibility of offering patient-specific targeted therapy.

  15. Neoadjuvant Therapy in Pancreatic Cancer: Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Moritz Pross; Wellner, Ulrich F.; Kim C Honselmann; Carlo Jung; Steffen Deichmann; Tobias Keck; Dirk Bausch

    2015-01-01

    We performed a literature review for neoadjuvant therapy in pancreatic cancer. We divided the results into resectable disease and local advanced pancreatic cancer. Results Neoadjuvant therapy in pancreatic cancer is safe. But currently no standard guidelines exist in neoadjuvant approaches on pancreatic cancer. For local advanced pancreatic cancer the available data tends to show a positive effect on survival rates for neoadjuvant approaches.

  16. 75 FR 67776 - Comment Request; Review of Productivity Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ...: The scope and amount of detail covered by and published in the productivity datasets. The concepts and... of Labor Statistics Comment Request; Review of Productivity Statistics ACTION: Notice of solicitation... responsible for publishing measures of labor productivity and multifactor productivity for major sectors...

  17. Statistical approach for detecting cancer lesions from prostate ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, A. G.; Premkumar, Saganti B.; Babaian, Richard J.; Pitts, David E.

    1993-07-01

    Sequential digitized cross-sectional ultrasound image planes of several prostates have been studied at the pixel level during the past year. The statistical distribution of gray scale values in terms of simple statistics, sample means and sample standard deviations, have been considered for estimating the differences between cross-sectional image planes of the gland due to the presence of cancer lesions. Based on a variability measure, the results for identifying the presence of cancer lesions in the peripheral zone of the gland for 25 blind test cases were found to be 64% accurate. This accuracy is higher than that obtained by visual photo interpretation of the image data, though not as high as our earlier results were indicating. Axial-view ultrasound image planes of prostate glands were obtained from the apex to the base of the gland at 2 mm intervals. Results for the 25 different prostate glands, which include pathologically confirmed benign and cancer cases, are presented.

  18. Statistical study on cancer patients of cancer research hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total number of malignant neoplasms included on this study 7,787 cases(10.4%) among 74,928 cases for 2 years. On sex, females with 57.6% were much more than males with 42.4%. The highest proportion of cancer 50-59 age group. The most frequent primary site among males was found to be stomach with 36.2%, followed by liver(12.3%), lung(12.2%), esophagus(15.5%) and larynx(4.9%). In females, the first order was uterine cervix with 47.3%, followed most common type of morphology of malignant neoplasms was adenocarcinoma(39.0%) in males an squamous cell carcinoma(56.2%) in females. Among the cancer patients initially diagnosed in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the extent of disease was 4.6% for patient with carcinoma-in-situ, 76.3% for patients with localized involvement, 11.6% for patients with regional involvement and 7.5% for patients with distant involvement. Among,the cancer patients initially treatment in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the method of treatment was 19.0% for surgery, 27.7 for radiotherapy and 24.2% for chemotherapy. Among the cancer patients confirmed by medical records, 11.2% was traced more than 5 years. (Author)

  19. Statistical study on cancer patients of cancer research hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total number of malignant neoplasms included in this study 15,737 cases(11.8%) among 133,251 cases for 3 years. On sex, females with 52.9% were much more than males with 47.1%. The highest proportion of cancer patients by age was 33.7% in males and 28.5% in females, respectivelty for 50-59 age group. The most frequent primary site among males was found to be stomach with 35.5%, followed by liver(14.7%), lung(13.0%), esophagus(5.4%) and colon (3.2%). In females, the first order was uterine cervix with 40.6%, followed by stomach(17.2%), breast(14.4), rectum(3.7%) and lung(3.4%). The most common type of morphology of malignant neoplasms was adenocarcinoma(47.4%) in males an squamous cell carcinoma(58.0%) in females. Among the cancer patients initially diagnosed in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the exent of disease was 2.5% for patient with carcinoma-in-situ, 54.1% for patients with localized involvement, 13.3% for patients with regional involvement and 8.5% for patients with distant involvement. Among the cancer patients initially treatment in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the method of treatment was 23.6% for surgery, 25.3% for radiotherapy and 30.3% for chemotherapy. Among the cancer patients confirmed by medical records, 7.7% was traced more than 5 years. (Author)

  20. Statistical study on cancer patients of Korea cancer centre hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soo Yong; Kim, Kee Hwa; Kang Sung Mok [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    The total number of malignant neoplasms included in this study 53,566 cases(14.1%) among 379,582 patients from 1984 to 1993. On sex, females with 51.3% were much more than males with 48.7%. The highest proportion of cancer patients by age was 35.0% in males and 28.4% in females, respectively for 50-59 age group. The most frequent primary site among males was found to be stomach with 33.2%, followed by liver(15.1%), lung(14.9%), esophagus(5.3%) and larynx(3.3%). In females, the first order was uterine cervix with 37.8%, followed by stomach(16.5%), breast(14.8%), thyroid gland(4.3%) and lung (3.8%). The proportion of malignant neoplasms diagnosed by histology made up 67.0%, whereas 20.2% was diagnosed by clinical investigation(X-ray, CT, MRI etc). Among the cancer patients initially diagnosed in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the extent of disease was 3.7% for patient with carcinoma-in-situ, 58.7% for patients with localized involvement, 18.4% for patients with regional involvement and 11.1% for patients with distant involvement. Among the cancer patients initially treatment in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the method of treatment was 27.5% for surgery, 22.5% for radiotherapy and 30.1% for chemotherapy. The proportion of cancer patients traced to death was only to 3.6%, 1,944 cases. Among them, 72.5% survived for less than 1 year. 17 figs, 7 tabs, 28 refs. (Author).

  1. Statistical study on cancer patients of Korea cancer centre hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total number of malignant neoplasms included in this study 53,566 cases(14.1%) among 379,582 patients from 1984 to 1993. On sex, females with 51.3% were much more than males with 48.7%. The highest proportion of cancer patients by age was 35.0% in males and 28.4% in females, respectively for 50-59 age group. The most frequent primary site among males was found to be stomach with 33.2%, followed by liver(15.1%), lung(14.9%), esophagus(5.3%) and larynx(3.3%). In females, the first order was uterine cervix with 37.8%, followed by stomach(16.5%), breast(14.8%), thyroid gland(4.3%) and lung (3.8%). The proportion of malignant neoplasms diagnosed by histology made up 67.0%, whereas 20.2% was diagnosed by clinical investigation(X-ray, CT, MRI etc). Among the cancer patients initially diagnosed in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the extent of disease was 3.7% for patient with carcinoma-in-situ, 58.7% for patients with localized involvement, 18.4% for patients with regional involvement and 11.1% for patients with distant involvement. Among the cancer patients initially treatment in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the method of treatment was 27.5% for surgery, 22.5% for radiotherapy and 30.1% for chemotherapy. The proportion of cancer patients traced to death was only to 3.6%, 1,944 cases. Among them, 72.5% survived for less than 1 year. 17 figs, 7 tabs, 28 refs. (Author)

  2. Epidemiological review of gastric cancer in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh P Dikshit; Garima Mathur; Sharayu Mhatre; Yeole, B. B.

    2011-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the one of the leading cause of cancer in southern region of India. Its incidence is decreasing worldwide yet on global scale stomach cancer remains one of the most common causes of cancer death. Etiology of gastric cancer includes Helicobacter pylori infection, diet and lifestyle, tobacco, alcohol and genetic susceptibility. In this review, we tried to find the contribution of Indian scientist in understanding the descriptive and observational epidemiology of stomach cancer...

  3. ANIMAL MODELS OF CANCER: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Archana M Navale

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. In USA three persons out of five will develop some type of cancer. Beyond these statistics of mortality, the morbidity due to cancer presents a real scary picture. Last 50 years of research has rendered some types of cancer curable, but still the major fear factor associated with this disease is unchanged. Animal models are classified according to the method of induction of cancer in the animal. Spontaneous tumor models are the most primi...

  4. Statistical reviewers improve reporting in biomedical articles: a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Cobo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although peer review is widely considered to be the most credible way of selecting manuscripts and improving the quality of accepted papers in scientific journals, there is little evidence to support its use. Our aim was to estimate the effects on manuscript quality of either adding a statistical peer reviewer or suggesting the use of checklists such as CONSORT or STARD to clinical reviewers or both. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Interventions were defined as 1 the addition of a statistical reviewer to the clinical peer review process, and 2 suggesting reporting guidelines to reviewers; with "no statistical expert" and "no checklist" as controls. The two interventions were crossed in a 2x2 balanced factorial design including original research articles consecutively selected, between May 2004 and March 2005, by the Medicina Clinica (Barc editorial committee. We randomized manuscripts to minimize differences in terms of baseline quality and type of study (intervention, longitudinal, cross-sectional, others. Sample-size calculations indicated that 100 papers provide an 80% power to test a 55% standardized difference. We specified the main outcome as the increment in quality of papers as measured on the Goodman Scale. Two blinded evaluators rated the quality of manuscripts at initial submission and final post peer review version. Of the 327 manuscripts submitted to the journal, 131 were accepted for further review, and 129 were randomized. Of those, 14 that were lost to follow-up showed no differences in initial quality to the followed-up papers. Hence, 115 were included in the main analysis, with 16 rejected for publication after peer review. 21 (18.3% of the 115 included papers were interventions, 46 (40.0% were longitudinal designs, 28 (24.3% cross-sectional and 20 (17.4% others. The 16 (13.9% rejected papers had a significantly lower initial score on the overall Goodman scale than accepted papers (difference 15.0, 95% CI: 4

  5. Extreme Value Theory and Statistics of Univariate Extremes: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Maria Ivette; Guillou, Armelle

    2015-01-01

    International audience Statistical issues arising in modelling univariate extremes of a random sample have been successfully used in the most diverse fields, such as biometrics, finance, insurance and risk theory. Statistics of univariate extremes (SUE), the subject to be dealt with in this review paper, has recently faced a huge development, partially because rare events can have catastrophic consequences for human activities, through their impact on the natural and constructed environmen...

  6. Dietary Antioxidants and Prostate Cancer: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vance, Terrence M.; Su, Joseph; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer in men in the United States. Several studies have examined the relationship between prostate cancer and antioxidants; however, the results of these studies are inconsistent. This article provides a systematic review of studies on prostate cancer and antioxidant intake from diet and supplements. Tea and coffee appear to offer protection against advanced prostate cancer. Different forms of vitamin E appear to exert different effects on pro...

  7. Statistical challenges for central monitoring in clinical trials: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Koji

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the complexity and costs of clinical trials have increased dramatically, especially in the area of new drug development. Risk-based monitoring (RBM) has been attracting attention as an efficient and effective trial monitoring approach, which can be applied irrespectively of the trial sponsor, i.e., academic institution or pharmaceutical company. In the RBM paradigm, it is expected that a statistical approach to central monitoring can help improve the effectiveness of on-site monitoring by prioritizing and guiding site visits according to central statistical data checks, as evidenced by examples of actual trial datasets. In this review, several statistical methods for central monitoring are presented. It is important to share knowledge about the role and performance capabilities of statistical methodology among clinical trial team members (i.e., sponsors, investigators, data managers, monitors, and biostatisticians) in order to adopt central statistical monitoring for assessing data quality in the actual clinical trial. PMID:26499195

  8. Landslide Susceptibility Statistical Methods: A Critical and Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihir, Monika; Malamud, Bruce; Rossi, Mauro; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility assessment, the subject of this systematic review, is aimed at understanding the spatial probability of slope failures under a set of geomorphological and environmental conditions. It is estimated that about 375 landslides that occur globally each year are fatal, with around 4600 people killed per year. Past studies have brought out the increasing cost of landslide damages which primarily can be attributed to human occupation and increased human activities in the vulnerable environments. Many scientists, to evaluate and reduce landslide risk, have made an effort to efficiently map landslide susceptibility using different statistical methods. In this paper, we do a critical and systematic landslide susceptibility literature review, in terms of the different statistical methods used. For each of a broad set of studies reviewed we note: (i) study geography region and areal extent, (ii) landslide types, (iii) inventory type and temporal period covered, (iv) mapping technique (v) thematic variables used (vi) statistical models, (vii) assessment of model skill, (viii) uncertainty assessment methods, (ix) validation methods. We then pulled out broad trends within our review of landslide susceptibility, particularly regarding the statistical methods. We found that the most common statistical methods used in the study of landslide susceptibility include logistic regression, artificial neural network, discriminant analysis and weight of evidence. Although most of the studies we reviewed assessed the model skill, very few assessed model uncertainty. In terms of geographic extent, the largest number of landslide susceptibility zonations were in Turkey, Korea, Spain, Italy and Malaysia. However, there are also many landslides and fatalities in other localities, particularly India, China, Philippines, Nepal and Indonesia, Guatemala, and Pakistan, where there are much fewer landslide susceptibility studies available in the peer-review literature. This

  9. Biophotons, coherence and photocount statistics: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological samples continuously emit ultra-weak photon emission (UPE, or “biophotons”) which stems from electronic excited states generated chemically during oxidative metabolism and stress. Thus, UPE can potentially serve as a method for non-invasive diagnostics of oxidative processes or, if discovered, also of other processes capable of electron excitation. While the fundamental generating mechanisms of UPE are fairly elucidated together with their approximate ranges of intensities and spectra, the statistical properties of UPE are still a highly challenging topic. Here, we review claims about nontrivial statistical properties of UPE, such as coherence and squeezed states of light. After the introduction to the necessary theory, we categorize the experimental works of all authors to those with solid, conventional interpretation and those with unconventional and even speculative interpretation. The conclusion of our review is twofold; while the phenomenon of UPE from biological systems can be considered experimentally well established, no reliable evidence for the coherence or nonclassicality of UPE has actually been achieved up to now. Furthermore, we propose perspective avenues for the research of statistical properties of biological UPE. - Highlights: • We review statistical properties of biological ultra-weak photon emission. • Claims of coherence and squeezed states are assessed. • Perspective work in statistical properties of biological photon emission is sketched

  10. Biophotons, coherence and photocount statistics: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifra, Michal, E-mail: cifra@ufe.cz [Institute of Photonics and Electronics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Brouder, Christian [Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 6, CNRS UMR7590, Paris (France); Nerudová, Michaela [Institute of Photonics and Electronics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Department of Circuit Theory, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Kučera, Ondřej [Institute of Photonics and Electronics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-08-15

    Biological samples continuously emit ultra-weak photon emission (UPE, or “biophotons”) which stems from electronic excited states generated chemically during oxidative metabolism and stress. Thus, UPE can potentially serve as a method for non-invasive diagnostics of oxidative processes or, if discovered, also of other processes capable of electron excitation. While the fundamental generating mechanisms of UPE are fairly elucidated together with their approximate ranges of intensities and spectra, the statistical properties of UPE are still a highly challenging topic. Here, we review claims about nontrivial statistical properties of UPE, such as coherence and squeezed states of light. After the introduction to the necessary theory, we categorize the experimental works of all authors to those with solid, conventional interpretation and those with unconventional and even speculative interpretation. The conclusion of our review is twofold; while the phenomenon of UPE from biological systems can be considered experimentally well established, no reliable evidence for the coherence or nonclassicality of UPE has actually been achieved up to now. Furthermore, we propose perspective avenues for the research of statistical properties of biological UPE. - Highlights: • We review statistical properties of biological ultra-weak photon emission. • Claims of coherence and squeezed states are assessed. • Perspective work in statistical properties of biological photon emission is sketched.

  11. CRITICAL REVIEW OF PROSTATE CANCER PREDICTIVE TOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrokh F. Shariat; Michael W Kattan; Vickers, Andrew J; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Scardino, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a very complex disease, and the decision-making process requires the clinician to balance clinical benefits, life expectancy, comorbidities, and potential treatment related side effects. Accurate prediction of clinical outcomes may help in the difficult process of making decisions related to prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss attributes of predictive tools and systematically review those available for prostate cancer. Types of tools include probability formulas, lo...

  12. Mammographic screening for breast cancer: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Warwick; Peters, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, BreastScreen Australia celebrated 20 years of mammographic screening for breast cancer in Australia. There has been a reduction in mortality from breast cancer over the last two decades, coincident with mammographic screening. However, there are concerns that mammographic screening may result in overdiagnosis of breast cancer and that the reduction in mortality from breast cancer is the result of better treatment rather than screening. This article reviews the evidence on which mammo...

  13. What Are the Key Statistics about Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer » Detailed Guide » What are ... oropharyngeal cancers? What are the key statistics about oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? The American Cancer Society’s most recent estimates for ...

  14. Biophotons, coherence and photocount statistics: a critical review

    CERN Document Server

    Cifra, Michal; Nerudová, Michaela; Kučera, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Biological samples continuously emit ultra-weak photon emission (UPE, or "biophotons") which stems from electronic excited states generated chemically during oxidative metabolism and stress. Thus, UPE can potentially serve as a method for non-invasive diagnostics of oxidative processes or, if discovered, also of other processes capable of electron excitation. While the fundamental generating mechanisms of UPE are fairly elucidated together with their approximate ranges of intensities and spectra, statistical properties of UPE is still a highly challenging topic. Here we review claims about nontrivial statistical properties of UPE, such as coherence and squeezed states of light. After introduction to the necessary theory, we categorize the experimental works of all authors to those with solid, conventional interpretation and those with unconventional and even speculative interpretation. The conclusion of our review is twofold; while the phenomenon of UPE from biological systems can be considered experimentally...

  15. Statistical analysis of biotissues Mueller matrix images in cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolenko, Sergey; Ivashko, Pavlo; Goudail, François; Gruia, Ion

    2010-11-01

    This work is directed to the investigation of the scope of the technique of laser polarimetry and polarization spectrometry of oncological changes of the human prostate tissue under the conditions of multiple scattering. It was shown that the third statistic moment in the intensity distribution proved to be the most sensitive to pathological changes in orientation structure. Its value in the intensity distribution of polarization image I (0 - 90) of oncologically changed tissue is 21 times higher if compared with the similar statistic parameter of the intensity distribution of the healthy tissue. The results of studies of size linear dichroism prostate gland, as healthy and affected by malignant tumor at different stages of its development was presented. Significant difference in the values of linear dichroism and its spectral dependence in the spectral range λ = 280 - 840 nm as between research facilities, and between biotissues - healthy (or affected by benign tumors) and cancer patients was shown. These results may have diagnostic value for detection and assessment of the development of cancer.

  16. Inferential Statistics from Black Hispanic Breast Cancer Survival Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz M. R. Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we test the statistical probability models for breast cancer survival data for race and ethnicity. Data was collected from breast cancer patients diagnosed in United States during the years 1973–2009. We selected a stratified random sample of Black Hispanic female patients from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER database to derive the statistical probability models. We used three common model building criteria which include Akaike Information Criteria (AIC, Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC, and Deviance Information Criteria (DIC to measure the goodness of fit tests and it was found that Black Hispanic female patients survival data better fit the exponentiated exponential probability model. A novel Bayesian method was used to derive the posterior density function for the model parameters as well as to derive the predictive inference for future response. We specifically focused on Black Hispanic race. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method was used for obtaining the summary results of posterior parameters. Additionally, we reported predictive intervals for future survival times. These findings would be of great significance in treatment planning and healthcare resource allocation.

  17. Statistical design in phase II clinical trials and its application in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Francesco; Di Maio, Massimo; De Maio, Ermelinda; Maione, Paolo; Ottaiano, Alessandro; Pensabene, Matilde; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Alessandra Vernaglia; Signoriello, Giuseppe; Gallo, Ciro

    2003-05-01

    Several statistical designs for phase II studies have been proposed, but they are frequently misunderstood or not applied at all. In this review we describe the major characteristics of the available designs. To investigate the extent to which statistical designs were used in some recent phase II studies, and which designs were the most common, we did a survey of 145 trials involving treatment of breast cancer. Studies selected for the survey were published between 1995 and 1999 in one of seven specific oncology journals (all with impact factor consistently higher than 2). 94 of the studies (64.8%) did not have an identifiable statistical design. However, among the 51 studies with statistical design there was a notable heterogeneity in the type of design applied. We put together a list of factors associated with use of statistical design at univariate analysis. These factors included: referral to a previous phase I study, recent trial start date, private sponsorship, single-agent treatment, and multicentre organisation. Single-agent treatment (OR 2.35; 95% CI 1.01-5.51) and multicentre organisation (OR 3.24; 95% CI 1.47-7.15) were independently predictive of the presence of statistical design. Publication in journals with high impact factors and short intervals between the start of the study and publication were also correlated with statistical design.

  18. A REVIEW ON SKIN CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    S. Ramya Silpa; Chidvila V

    2013-01-01

    Skin cancer can be of 2 types mainly. They are malignant melanoma and non-malignant melanoma. Skin cancer mainly occurs due to exposure of sunlight. Ozone depletion and chemical exposures are other factors involved in precipitating skin cancer. Mutations of p53 gene are involved in UV- induced carcinogenesis. P53 gene acts vital in development of SCC. So, prevention of skin cancer is the main criteria. Regular application of sunscreens could be one of the primary prevention. The purpose of pr...

  19. A review of statistical methods for preprocessing oligonucleotide microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhijin

    2009-12-01

    Microarrays have become an indispensable tool in biomedical research. This powerful technology not only makes it possible to quantify a large number of nucleic acid molecules simultaneously, but also produces data with many sources of noise. A number of preprocessing steps are therefore necessary to convert the raw data, usually in the form of hybridisation images, to measures of biological meaning that can be used in further statistical analysis. Preprocessing of oligonucleotide arrays includes image processing, background adjustment, data normalisation/transformation and sometimes summarisation when multiple probes are used to target one genomic unit. In this article, we review the issues encountered in each preprocessing step and introduce the statistical models and methods in preprocessing.

  20. Development and application of statistical methods for population-based cancer patient survival

    OpenAIRE

    Eloranta, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The overarching aim of this work has been to develop and apply statistical methods for estimating cancer patient survival from population-based register data. Particular focus has been on statistical methods that can be used for presenting cancer survival statistics from administrative health data registers in a manner that is relevant for physicians and patients. Study 1: In this study we clarify and discuss the relative merits of estimates of crude and net cancer patient survival, resp...

  1. A Review of Modeling Bioelectrochemical Systems: Engineering and Statistical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Luo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrochemical systems (BES are promising technologies to convert organic compounds in wastewater to electrical energy through a series of complex physical-chemical, biological and electrochemical processes. Representative BES such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs have been studied and advanced for energy recovery. Substantial experimental and modeling efforts have been made for investigating the processes involved in electricity generation toward the improvement of the BES performance for practical applications. However, there are many parameters that will potentially affect these processes, thereby making the optimization of system performance hard to be achieved. Mathematical models, including engineering models and statistical models, are powerful tools to help understand the interactions among the parameters in BES and perform optimization of BES configuration/operation. This review paper aims to introduce and discuss the recent developments of BES modeling from engineering and statistical aspects, including analysis on the model structure, description of application cases and sensitivity analysis of various parameters. It is expected to serves as a compass for integrating the engineering and statistical modeling strategies to improve model accuracy for BES development.

  2. Applications of the Poly-K Statistical Test to Life-Time Cancer Bioassay Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Hoel, David

    2009-01-01

    The statistical analysis of cancer bioassay data has historically depended on the pathological determination of the experimental animal's cause of death. The poly-k statistical test has provided a method of statistical analysis of animal bioassay data without the need for cause of death information. The test has been shown to have good statistical properties in the typical 2-year cancer bioassay. However, while the poly-k test has been applied to chronic lifetime animal studies, it has not be...

  3. ORAL CANCER ITS ETIOLOGY & CONCERNS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is the largest group of cancer that categorizes into the head and neck region and worldwide health problem. Exact cause of oral cancer is unknown. Risk factors for cancer could be varied including Iron deficiency anemi a, are alcohol, tobacco, immunologic susceptibility, gene mutations, epithelial cell growth, suppressor proteins and disease of chemotherapy, such as in cases of lymphoma and leukemia. Role of viruses have also been reported in the etiology. Dietary factor s such as high fat and low fiber may play a role in carcinogenesis in some sites. High incidence of alcoholism is relevant because alcohol intake has been related to an increase risk of developing oral cancer. Other signaling factors have also been propose d to have a role. The paper presents a review on oral cancer, its causes & concern.

  4. Epidemiological review of gastric cancer in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Rajesh P; Mathur, Garima; Mhatre, Sharayu; Yeole, B B

    2011-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the one of the leading cause of cancer in southern region of India. Its incidence is decreasing worldwide yet on global scale stomach cancer remains one of the most common causes of cancer death. Etiology of gastric cancer includes Helicobacter pylori infection, diet and lifestyle, tobacco, alcohol and genetic susceptibility. In this review, we tried to find the contribution of Indian scientist in understanding the descriptive and observational epidemiology of stomach cancer. PubMed was used as a search platform using key words such as "stomach cancer, treatment, clinical characteristics, stomach cancer outcome, epidemiology, etiological factor and their corresponding Mesh terms were used in combination with Boolean operators OR, AND". Most of the reported studies on gastric cancer from India are case report or case series and few are case-control studies. Indian studies on this topic are limited and have observed H. pylori infection, salted tea, pickled food, rice intake, spicy food, soda (additive of food), tobacco and alcohol as risk factors for gastric cancer. More research is required to understand the etiology, develop suitable screening test, to demarcate high-risk population and to develop and evaluate the effect of primary prevention programs. PMID:21731209

  5. Epidemiological review of gastric cancer in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh P Dikshit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stomach cancer is the one of the leading cause of cancer in southern region of India. Its incidence is decreasing worldwide yet on global scale stomach cancer remains one of the most common causes of cancer death. Etiology of gastric cancer includes Helicobacter pylori infection, diet and lifestyle, tobacco, alcohol and genetic susceptibility. In this review, we tried to find the contribution of Indian scientist in understanding the descriptive and observational epidemiology of stomach cancer. PubMed was used as a search platform using key words such as "stomach cancer, treatment, clinical characteristics, stomach cancer outcome, epidemiology, etiological factor and their corresponding Mesh terms were used in combination with Boolean operators OR, AND". Most of the reported studies on gastric cancer from India are case report or case series and few are case-control studies. Indian studies on this topic are limited and have observed H. pylori infection, salted tea, pickled food, rice intake, spicy food, soda (additive of food, tobacco and alcohol as risk factors for gastric cancer. More research is required to understand the etiology, develop suitable screening test, to demarcate high-risk population and to develop and evaluate the effect of primary prevention programs.

  6. Laparoscopic surgery for endometrial cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauspy, Jan; Jiménez, Waldo; Rosen, Barry; Gotlieb, Walter H; Fung-Kee-Fung, Michael; Plante, Marie

    2010-06-01

    Uterine cancer is the fourth most common cancer in Canadian women, with an estimated 4200 new cases and 790 disease-related deaths in 2008. We investigated the domains that are important for further implementation of minimally invasive surgery for the management of endometrial cancer by performing a literature review to assess the available data on overall and disease-free survival in laparoscopic versus open surgery. We also investigated the influence of patient- related factors, surgical factors, quality of life, and cost implications. Among the 23 articles reviewed, five were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), four were prospective reviews, and 14 were retrospective reviews. The RCTs showed no difference in overall and disease-free survival for patients with endometrial cancer who had undergone laparoscopic hysterectomy compared with open surgery. Morbid obesity is a limiting factor for the feasibility of complete laparoscopic staging. Laparoscopy seems to decrease complications and decrease blood loss. It also shortens hospital stay, with improved short-term quality of life and cosmesis, while yielding similar lymph node counts. Overall, laparoscopy is cost-effective, because the increased operation cost of laparoscopy is offset by the shorter hospital stay and faster return to work. On the basis of currently available data, patients with endometrial cancer should be offered minimally invasive surgery as part of their treatment for endometrial cancer whenever possible.

  7. Systematic review of 3D mammography for breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Robert; Heywang-Köbrunner, Sylvia H; Harvey, Susan C; Edwards, Mary; Shaikh, Javed; Arber, Mick; Glanville, Julie

    2016-06-01

    This review investigated the relative performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) (alone or with full field digital mammography (FFDM) or synthetic digital mammography) compared with FFDM alone for detecting breast cancer lesions in asymptomatic women. A systematic review was carried out according to systematic reviewing principles provided in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Diagnostic Test Accuracy. A protocol was developed a priori. The review was registered with PROSPERO (number CRD42014013949). Searches were undertaken in October 2014. Following selection, five studies were eligible. Higher cancer detection rates were observed when comparing DBT + FFDM with FFDM in two European studies: the summary difference per 1000 screens was 2.43 (95% CI: 1.8 to 3.1). Both European studies found lower false positive rates for individual readers. One found a lower recall rate based on conditional recall. The second study was not designed to compare post-arbitration recall rates between FFDM and DBT + FFDM. One European study presented data on interval cancer rates; sensitivity and specificity for DBT + FFDM were both higher compared to FFDM. One large multicentre US study showed a higher cancer detection rate for DBT + FFDM, while two smaller US studies did not find statistically significant differences. Reductions in recall and false positive rates were observed in the US studies in favour of DBT + FFDM. In comparison to FFDM, DBT, as an adjunct to FFDM, has a higher cancer detection rate, increasing the effectiveness of breast cancer screening. Additional benefits of DBT may also include reduced recalls and, consequently, reduced costs and distress caused to women who would have been recalled. PMID:27212700

  8. Statistical analyses of hydrophobic interactions: A mini-review

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, L R; Rempe, Susan B

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the striking recent progress in solving for hydrophobic interactions between small inert molecules. We discuss several new understandings. Firstly, the _inverse _temperature phenomenology of hydrophobic interactions, _i.e., strengthening of hydrophobic bonds with increasing temperature, is decisively exhibited by hydrophobic interactions between atomic-scale hard sphere solutes in water. Secondly, inclusion of attractive interactions associated with atomic-size hydrophobic reference cases leads to substantial, non-trivial corrections to reference results for purely repulsive solutes. Hydrophobic bonds are _weakened by adding solute dispersion forces to treatment of reference cases. The classic statistical mechanical theory for those corrections is not accurate in this application, but molecular quasi-chemical theory shows promise. Finally, because of the masking roles of excluded volume and attractive interactions, comparisons that do not discriminate the different possibilities face an...

  9. A review of the kinetic statistical strength model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, A.V.

    1996-03-11

    This is a review of the Kinetic-Statistical Strength (KSS) model described in the report ``Models of Material Strength, Fracture and Failure`` by V. Kuropatenko and V. Bychenkov. The models for metals subjected to high strain rates (explosions) are focussed on. Model implementation appears possible in a hydrocode. Applying the model to the shock response of metals will require a data source for the Weibull parameter {alpha}{sub u}, short of measuing the strength of specimens of various sizes. Model validation will require more detail on the experiments successfully calculated by SPRUT. Evaluation of the KSS model is needed against other existing rate-dependent models for metals such as the Steinberg-Lund or MTS model on other shock experiments.

  10. Cost of Lung Cancer: A Methodological Review

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent Molinier; Christophe Combescure; Cristos Chouaid; Jean-Pierre Daures; Bruno Housset; Didier Fabre; Alain Grand; Alain Vergnenegre

    2006-01-01

    Cost of illness (COI) studies estimate the overall economic burden of a specific disease, rather than simply treatment-related costs. While having been criticised for not allowing resource prioritisation, COI studies can provide useful guidance, so long as they adhere to accepted methodology. The aim of this review is to analyse the methods used to evaluate the cost of lung cancer. Because of the increasing incidence and high direct and indirect costs of lung cancer, it is an important diseas...

  11. Prostate cancer: a review of active surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Lund L; Svolgaard N; Poulsen MH

    2014-01-01

    Lars Lund,1,2 Niels Svolgaard,1 Mads Hvid Poulsen1 1Department of Urology, Odense University Hospital, 2Clinical Institute, Southern University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Abstract: The objective of this paper is to review the current recommendations for active surveillance in prostate cancer from the present prospective studies. Worldwide, there are increasing numbers of men with prostate cancer. It is now accepted as standard care that a number of men with favorable-risk disease c...

  12. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Bermúdez-Morales, Víctor Hugo; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Salazar-León, Jonathan; Gómez-Cerón, Claudia; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%-95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development. PMID:23144564

  13. Historical review of the causes of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackadar, Clarke Brian

    2016-02-10

    In the early 1900s, numerous seminal publications reported that high rates of cancer occurred in certain occupations. During this period, work with infectious agents produced only meager results which seemed irrelevant to humans. Then in the 1980s ground breaking evidence began to emerge that a variety of viruses also cause cancer in humans. There is now sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpes virus 8 according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Many other causes of cancer have also been identified by the IARC, which include: Sunlight, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, hormones, alcohol, parasites, fungi, bacteria, salted fish, wood dust, and herbs. The World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research have determined additional causes of cancer, which include beta carotene, red meat, processed meats, low fibre diets, not breast feeding, obesity, increased adult height and sedentary lifestyles. In brief, a historical review of the discoveries of the causes of human cancer is presented with extended discussions of the difficulties encountered in identifying viral causes of cancer. PMID:26862491

  14. Lung cancer during pregnancy: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Mitrou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths in males for decades, has recently become one of commonest causes for women too. As women delay the start of their family, the co-existence of cancer and pregnancy is increasingly observed. Nevertheless, lung cancer during pregnancy remains a rather uncommon condition with less than 70 cases published in recent years. Non-small cell lung carcinoma is the commonest type accounting for about 85% of all cases. Overall survival rates are low. Chemotherapy and/or targeted treatment have been used with poor outcomes. The disease has been also found to affect the products of conception with no short- or long-term consequences for the neonate. This article is referring to a narrative review of lung cancers diagnosed in pregnant women around the world.

  15. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta-Zaragoza O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztacala UNAM, México City, MéxicoAbstract: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%–95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development.Keywords: Cervical cancer, clinical trials, gene therapy, HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, siRNAs

  16. Sleeping well with cancer: a systematic review of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Sheila N; Johnson, Jillian A; Savard, Josee; Gehrman, Philip; Perlis, Michael; Carlson, Linda; Campbell, Tavis

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with cancer are disproportionately affected by sleep disturbance and insomnia relative to the general population. These problems can be a consequence of the psychological, behavioral, and physical effects of a cancer diagnosis and treatment. Insomnia often persists for years and, when combined with already high levels of cancer-related distress, may place cancer survivors at a higher risk of future physical and mental health problems and poorer quality of life. The recommended first-line treatment for insomnia is cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), a non-pharmacological treatment that incorporates cognitive and behavior-change techniques and targets dysfunctional attitudes, beliefs, and habits involving sleep. This article presents a comprehensive review of the literature examining the efficacy of CBT-I on sleep and psychological outcomes in cancer patients and survivors. The search revealed 12 studies (four uncontrolled, eight controlled) that evaluated the effects of CBT-I in cancer patients or survivors. Results suggest that CBT-I is associated with statistically and clinically significant improvements in subjective sleep outcomes in patients with cancer. CBT-I may also improve mood, fatigue, and overall quality of life, and can be successfully delivered through a variety of treatment modalities, making it possible to reach a broader range of patients who may not have access to more traditional programs. Future research in this area should focus on the translation of evidence into clinical practice in order to increase awareness and access to effective insomnia treatment in cancer care.

  17. A Review of Penile Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rando Sous, A.; Pérez-Utrilla Pérez, M.; Aguilera Bazán, A.; Tabernero Gomez, A.; J. Cisneros Ledo; J. De la Peña Barthel

    2009-01-01

    Cancer of the penis is a rare tumour in Europe and mainly affects the elderly patient population. The aim of this paper was to analyse and study the characteristics of this tumour, in our patient population. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study was conducted on penile tumours diagnosed and treated in the Urology Department of the Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, in the last ten years. Results. A total of 34 patients were diagnosed and treated. The mean age at presentation ...

  18. The Obesity Paradox in Cancer: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Hannah; Sperrin, Matthew; Badrick, Ellena; Renehan, Andrew G

    2016-09-01

    There is a common perception that excess adiposity, commonly approximated by body mass index (BMI), is associated with reduced cancer survival. A number of studies have emerged challenging this by demonstrating that overweight and early obese states are associated with improved survival. This finding is termed the "obesity paradox" and is well recognized in the cardio-metabolic literature but less so in oncology. Here, we summarize the epidemiological findings related to the obesity paradox in cancer. Our review highlights that many observations of the obesity paradox in cancer reflect methodological mechanisms including the crudeness of BMI as an obesity measure, confounding, detection bias, reverse causality, and a specific form of the selection bias, known as collider bias. It is imperative for the oncologist to interpret the observation of the obesity paradox against the above methodological framework and avoid the misinterpretation that being obese might be "good" or "protective" for cancer patients.

  19. Matched case-control studies: a review of reported statistical methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niven DJ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Niven1, Luc R Berthiaume2, Gordon H Fick1, Kevin B Laupland11Department of Critical Care Medicine, Peter Lougheed Centre, Calgary, 2Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Case-control studies are a common and efficient means of studying rare diseases or illnesses with long latency periods. Matching of cases and controls is frequently employed to control the effects of known potential confounding variables. The analysis of matched data requires specific statistical methods.Methods: The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of published, peer reviewed matched case-control studies that used statistical methods appropriate for matched data. Using a comprehensive set of search criteria we identified 37 matched case-control studies for detailed analysis.Results: Among these 37 articles, only 16 studies were analyzed with proper statistical techniques (43%. Studies that were properly analyzed were more likely to have included case patients with cancer and cardiovascular disease compared to those that did not use proper statistics (10/16 or 63%, versus 5/21 or 24%, P = 0.02. They were also more likely to have matched multiple controls for each case (14/16 or 88%, versus 13/21 or 62%, P = 0.08. In addition, studies with properly analyzed data were more likely to have been published in a journal with an impact factor listed in the top 100 according to the Journal Citation Reports index (12/16 or 69%, versus 1/21 or 5%, P ≤ 0.0001.Conclusion: The findings of this study raise concern that the majority of matched case-control studies report results that are derived from improper statistical analyses. This may lead to errors in estimating the relationship between a disease and exposure, as well as the incorrect adaptation of emerging medical literature.Keywords: case-control, matched, dependent data, statistics

  20. Diabetes and Thyroid Cancer Risk: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyang-Rong Shih

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic patients have a higher risk of various types of cancer. However, whether diabetes may increase the risk of thyroid cancer has not been extensively studied. This paper reviews and summarizes the current literature studying the relationship between diabetes mellitus and thyroid cancer, and the possible mechanisms linking such an association. Epidemiologic studies showed significant or nonsignificant increases in thyroid cancer risk in diabetic women and nonsignificant increase or no change in thyroid cancer risk in diabetic men. A recent pooled analysis, including 5 prospective studies from the USA, showed that the summary hazard ratio (95% confidence interval for women was 1.19 (0.84–1.69 and was 0.96 (0.65–1.42 for men. Therefore, the results are controversial and the association between diabetes and thyroid cancer is probably weak. Further studies are necessary to confirm their relationship. Proposed mechanisms for such a possible link between diabetes and thyroid cancer include elevated levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, insulin, glucose and triglycerides, insulin resistance, obesity, vitamin D deficiency, and antidiabetic medications such as insulin or sulfonylureas.

  1. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2016: Progress and opportunities in reducing racial disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol E; Siegel, Rebecca L; Sauer, Ann Goding; Miller, Kimberly D; Fedewa, Stacey A; Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-07-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides the estimated number of new cancer cases and deaths for blacks in the United States and the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, screening, and risk factors for cancer. Incidence data are from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries, and mortality data are from the National Center for Health Statistics. Approximately 189,910 new cases of cancer and 69,410 cancer deaths will occur among blacks in 2016. Although blacks continue to have higher cancer death rates than whites, the disparity has narrowed for all cancers combined in men and women and for lung and prostate cancers in men. In contrast, the racial gap in death rates has widened for breast cancer in women and remained level for colorectal cancer in men. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since the early 1990s translates to the avoidance of more than 300,000 deaths among blacks. In men, incidence rates from 2003 to 2012 decreased for all cancers combined (by 2.0% per year) as well as for the top 3 cancer sites (prostate, lung, and colorectal). In women, overall rates during the corresponding time period remained unchanged, reflecting increasing trends in breast cancer combined with decreasing trends in lung and colorectal cancer rates. Five-year relative survival is lower for blacks than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Progress in reducing cancer death rates could be accelerated by ensuring equitable access to prevention, early detection, and high-quality treatment. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:290-308. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26910411

  2. Occupational cancers in leather tanning industries: A short review

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi S; Kesavachandran C; Mahdi Farzana; Pandey Amit

    2007-01-01

    Work in leather tanning involves exposure to a wide range of chemicals. Some of these are carcinogens or suspected carcinogens. Increased risks for a number of cancers have been reported among the tannery workers. In the present review, a detailed account of lung cancer, testicular cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, pancreatic cancer, bladder cancer among tannery workers is mentioned.

  3. Occupational cancers in leather tanning industries: A short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Work in leather tanning involves exposure to a wide range of chemicals. Some of these are carcinogens or suspected carcinogens. Increased risks for a number of cancers have been reported among the tannery workers. In the present review, a detailed account of lung cancer, testicular cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, pancreatic cancer, bladder cancer among tannery workers is mentioned.

  4. Homeopathy and cancer: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Holandino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization states that deaths from cancer are increasing reaching an estimated 12 million deaths by 2030 [1]. In Brazil will be about 480,000 new cases by the end of 2011 [2]. For the treatment of cancer conventional therapies are used, such as chemotherapy[3] and radiotherapy [4] which can cause many adverse reactions. Complementary therapies such as homeopathy can be combined to traditional cancer treatment with the aim of minimizing these adverse reactions, relieving the symptoms of the disease itself and its treatment. Other complementary therapies which can aid in cancer treatment are electrotherapy, acupuncture and electroacupuncture, nutritional supplements, probiotics, phytotherapy, among others[5]. The literature shows the homeopathic medicines can be prescribed using the patient’s physical constitution as one strategy to help cancer patients [6-11]. This work aims to compile the literature review done with in vitro and in vivo models describing the mechanisms of action of homeopathic medicines used to treat different kinds of cancer. The research findings showed that homeopathy can help the patient to come to terms with the disease, after cancer diagnosis which often brings with itself denial, fear and a host of psychological disorders that cause an unbalance in the body. In addition, some works done with in vitro and in vivo models have shown that homeopathic medicines can modulate the immune system, activating macrophages and inducing the release of cytokines. These and other effects may help the body to overcome the cancer. The use of homeopathic therapy as complementary to conventional cancer treatment has promising results and should be further investigated.

  5. A review on metastatic breast cancer in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidreza Alizadeh Otaghvar; Mostafa Hosseini; Adnan Tizmaghz; Ghazaal Shabestanipour; Hamid Noori

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is a disease of early breast cancer that usually occurs several years after the early breast cancer. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Iranian women. According to the new statistics in Iran 6160 breast cancers are diagnosed in the country each year and 1063 cases lead to death. In this paper, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment have been investigated. In this study, case–control clinical trials and open studies with adequate data were collected. Due to t...

  6. Prostate cancer: a review of active surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund L

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lars Lund,1,2 Niels Svolgaard,1 Mads Hvid Poulsen1 1Department of Urology, Odense University Hospital, 2Clinical Institute, Southern University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Abstract: The objective of this paper is to review the current recommendations for active surveillance in prostate cancer from the present prospective studies. Worldwide, there are increasing numbers of men with prostate cancer. It is now accepted as standard care that a number of men with favorable-risk disease can be followed with active surveillance. In 1995, the first prospective studies were initiated to assess the feasibility of active surveillance, in which the decision to intervene was determined by prostate-specific antigen and/or histological progression. The strategy was to provide therapy individualized to the biological behavior of the cancer. Clinical trials assessing active surveillance have usually included patients younger than 70 years of age, although the guidelines have changed over time for Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen, eg, doubling time, thereby changing the indication for active treatment. The present review focuses on patient selection, prospective studies reported in the literature, and future directions. Keywords: active surveillance, prostate cancer, prospective studies, review

  7. Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hayslett, H T

    1991-01-01

    Statistics covers the basic principles of Statistics. The book starts by tackling the importance and the two kinds of statistics; the presentation of sample data; the definition, illustration and explanation of several measures of location; and the measures of variation. The text then discusses elementary probability, the normal distribution and the normal approximation to the binomial. Testing of statistical hypotheses and tests of hypotheses about the theoretical proportion of successes in a binomial population and about the theoretical mean of a normal population are explained. The text the

  8. Statistical Redundancy Testing for Improved Gene Selection in Cancer Classification Using Microarray Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sunil Rao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In gene selection for cancer classifi cation using microarray data, we define an eigenvalue-ratio statistic to measure a gene’s contribution to the joint discriminability when this gene is included into a set of genes. Based on this eigenvalueratio statistic, we define a novel hypothesis testing for gene statistical redundancy and propose two gene selection methods. Simulation studies illustrate the agreement between statistical redundancy testing and gene selection methods. Real data examples show the proposed gene selection methods can select a compact gene subset which can not only be used to build high quality cancer classifiers but also show biological relevance.

  9. Reviewing building construction statistics in Turkey: Stakeholders’ perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yitman, İbrahim; Akiner, Ilknur; Marar, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    Construction is one of the industries of strategic economic importance. Governments using their national institutions are involved in the collection of economic statistics, which indicate the state of their economy in the form of an annual time series. However, the completeness and accuracy of these statistics is frequently questioned by the stakeholders within the sector. Therefore there is an increasing need for accurate, manageable and reliable statistics to enable sound analysis of the co...

  10. Review of robust multivariate statistical methods in high dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filzmoser, Peter; Todorov, Valentin

    2011-10-31

    General ideas of robust statistics, and specifically robust statistical methods for calibration and dimension reduction are discussed. The emphasis is on analyzing high-dimensional data. The discussed methods are applied using the packages chemometrics and rrcov of the statistical software environment R. It is demonstrated how the functions can be applied to real high-dimensional data from chemometrics, and how the results can be interpreted.

  11. Performance of cancer cluster Q-statistics for case-control residential histories

    OpenAIRE

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Ward, Mary H; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2012-01-01

    Few investigations of health event clustering have evaluated residential mobility, though causative exposures for chronic diseases such as cancer often occur long before diagnosis. Recently developed Q-statistics incorporate human mobility into disease cluster investigations by quantifying space- and time-dependent nearest neighbor relationships. Using residential histories from two cancer case-control studies, we created simulated clusters to examine Q-statistic performance. Results suggest ...

  12. Human papillomavirus and gastrointestinal cancer: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchi, Dania; Stracci, Fabrizio; Buonora, Nicola; Masanotti, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Exposure to HPV is very common, and an estimated 65%-100% of sexually active adults are exposed to HPV in their lifetime. The majority of HPV infections are asymptomatic, but there is a 10% chance that individuals will develop a persistent infection and have an increased risk of developing a carcinoma. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has found that the following cancer sites have a strong causal relationship with HPV: cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx, including the base of the tongue and the tonsils. However, studies of the aetiological role of HPV in colorectal and esophageal malignancies have conflicting results. The aim of this review was to organize recent evidence and issues about the association between HPV infection and gastrointestinal tumours with a focus on esophageal, colorectal and anal cancers. The ultimate goal was to highlight possible implications for prognosis and prevention. PMID:27672265

  13. Nutrition in Pancreatic Cancer: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Simone; Krüger, Janine; Aghdassi, Ali A.; Steveling, Antje; Simon, Peter; Lerch, Markus M.; Mayerle, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality in both genders. More than 80% of patients suffer from significant weight loss at diagnosis and over time develop severe cachexia. Early nutritional support is therefore essential. Summary This review evaluates the different nutritional therapies, such as enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition and special nutritional supplements, on nutritional status, quality of life and survival Key Message Due to the high prevalence of malnutrition and the rapid development of anorexia-cachexia-syndrome, early nutritional intervention is crucial and supported by clinical data Practical Implications Enteral nutrition should be preferred over parenteral nutrition. Omega-3 fatty acids and l-carnitine are promising substances for the prevention of severe cachexia, but further randomized controlled trials are needed to establish generally accepted guidelines on nutrition in pancreatic cancer.

  14. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, K A; Potter, J D

    1996-10-01

    In this review of the scientific literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer, results from 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies are summarized. The evidence for a protective effect of greater vegetable and fruit consumption is consistent for cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity and pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon. The types of vegetables or fruit that most often appear to be protective against cancer are raw vegetables, followed by allium vegetables, carrots, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and tomatoes. Substances present in vegetables and fruit that may help protect against cancer, and their mechanisms, are also briefly reviewed; these include dithiolthiones, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol, allium compounds, isoflavones, protease inhibitors, saponins, phytosterols, inositol hexaphosphate, vitamin C, D-limonene, lutein, folic acid, beta carotene, lycopene, selenium, vitamin E, flavonoids, and dietary fiber. Current US vegetable and fruit intake, which averages about 3.4 servings per day, is discussed, as are possible noncancer-related effects of increased vegetable and fruit consumption, including benefits against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, obesity, diverticulosis, and cataracts. Suggestions for dietitians to use in counseling persons toward increasing vegetable and fruit intake are presented.

  15. Sexuality after breast cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Emilee; Emilee, Gilbert; Ussher, J M; Perz, J

    2010-08-01

    It is widely recognised that women's sexuality can be particularly complex after breast cancer, with sexual changes often becoming the most problematic aspect of a woman's life. The impact of such changes can last for many years after successful treatment, and can be associated with serious physical and emotional side-effects. The objective of this paper is to review research on breast cancer and sexuality from the years 1998 to 2010. Research has documented a range of physical changes to a woman's sexuality following breast cancer, including disturbances to sexual functioning, as well as disruptions to sexual arousal, lubrication, orgasm, sexual desire, and sexual pleasure, resulting from chemotherapy, chemically induced menopause, tamoxifen, and breast cancer surgery. Women's intrapsychic experience of changes to sexuality includes a fear of loss of fertility, negative body image, feelings of sexual unattractiveness, loss of femininity, depression and anxiety, as well as alterations to a sense of sexual self. The discursive construction of femininity and sexuality shapes the way women construct and experience their illness and their body - leading many women to try to appear 'normal' to others post-breast surgery. Finally, the quality of a woman's partnered relationship consistently predicts sexual health post-breast cancer - reinforcing the importance of recognising the intersubjective nature of issues surrounding breast cancer and sexuality. It is concluded that analyses of sexuality in the context of breast cancer cannot conceptualise the physical body separately from women's intrapsychic negotiation, her social and relational context, and the discursive constructions of sexuality and femininity: a material-discursive-intrapsychic interaction.

  16. Statistical challenges of quality of life and cancer: new avenues for future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Boyer; K. Baumstarck; P. Michel; M. Boucekine; A. Anota; F. Bonnetain; J. Coste; B. Falissard; A. Guilleux; J.-B. Hardouin; A. Loundou; M. Mercier; M. Mesbah; A. Rouquette; V. Sebille; M.G.E. Verdam; B. Ghattas; F. Guillemin; P. Auquier

    2014-01-01

    The French National Platform of Quality of Life and Cancer and the statistical team of the Mathematical Institute of Luminy undertook a successful first conference addressing the statistical challenges of measuring the quality of life in the field of oncology. More than 15 presentations were made ov

  17. A Review of AGSS: "A Graphical Statistical System"

    OpenAIRE

    P. A. W. Lewis

    1994-01-01

    You can pick up the SIAM News and you will find it full of advertisements for graphical applications packages like Mathematica, GAUSS and MATLAB, and for programming languages like C++, but nothing on APL2 or application packages based on it. Similarly, look at a Statistics Journal like the American Statistician and you will see advertisements for Language S+, a very extensive graphical statistical package, and for Minitab, SAS, etc., but again, nothing remotely smacking of APL2. To any...

  18. Gene therapy in head and neck cancer: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Chisholm, E; Bapat, U.; Chisholm, C; Alusi, G.; Vassaux, G

    2007-01-01

    Gene therapy for cancer is a rapidly evolving field with head and neck squamous cell cancer being one of the more frequently targeted cancer types. The number of clinical trials in the UK is growing and there is already a commercially available agent in China. Various gene therapy strategies along with delivery mechanisms for targeting head and neck cancer are reviewed.

  19. Systematic reviews of anesthesiologic interventions reported as statistically significant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imberger, Georgina; Gluud, Christian; Boylan, John;

    2015-01-01

    be implemented by an anesthesiologist during the perioperative period. We randomly selected 50 meta-analyses that reported a statistically significant dichotomous outcome in their abstract. We applied TSA to these meta-analyses by using 2 main TSA approaches: relative risk reduction 20% and relative risk...... reduction consistent with the conventional 95% confidence limit closest to null. We calculated the power achieved by each included meta-analysis, by using each TSA approach, and we calculated the proportion that maintained statistical significance when allowing for sparse data and repeated updates. RESULTS...

  20. Maps and atlases of cancer mortality: a review of a useful tool to trigger new questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Onofrio, Alberto; Mazzetta, Chiara; Robertson, Chris; Smans, Michel; Boyle, Peter; Boniol, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    In this review we illustrate our view on the epidemiological relevance of geographically mapping cancer mortality. In the first part of this work, after delineating the history of cancer mapping with a view on interpretation of Cancer Mortality Atlases, we briefly illustrate the 'art' of cancer mapping. Later we summarise in a non-mathematical way basic methods of spatial statistics. In the second part of this paper, we employ the 'Atlas of Cancer Mortality in the European Union and the European Economic Area 1993-1997' in order to illustrate spatial aspects of cancer mortality in Europe. In particular, we focus on the cancer related to tobacco and alcohol epidemics and on breast cancer which is of particular interest in cancer mapping. Here we suggest and reiterate two key concepts. The first is that a cancer atlas is not only a visual tool, but it also contain appropriate spatial statistical analyses that quantify the qualitative visual impressions to the readers even though at times revealing fallacy. The second is that a cancer atlas is by no means a book where answers to questions can be found. On the contrary, it ought to be considered as a tool to trigger new questions. PMID:27610196

  1. Statistical challenges of quality of life and cancer: new avenues for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Laurent; Baumstarck, Karine; Michel, Pierre; Boucekine, Mohamed; Anota, Amelie; Bonnetain, Franck; Coste, Joel; Falissard, Bruno; Guilleux, Alice; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Loundou, Anderson; Mercier, Mariette; Mesbah, Mounir; Rouquette, Alexandra; Sebille, Veronique; Verdam, Mathilde G E; Ghattas, Badih; Guillemin, Francis; Auquier, Pascal

    2014-02-01

    Statistical modeling conference on the quality of life measurements of the French National Platform of Quality of Life and Cancer Faculty of Science in Luminy, Marseille, France, 12-13 September 2013 The French National Platform of Quality of Life and Cancer and the statistical team of the Mathematical Institute of Luminy undertook a successful first conference addressing the statistical challenges of measuring the quality of life in the field of oncology. More than 15 presentations were made over a 2-day period by the Faculty of Sciences in Luminy. The conference managed to assemble participants from different disciplines, such as mathematics and statistics, public health, epidemiology and psychology, to debate the key statistical and methodological issues of quality of life measurement and analysis. Three main topics were covered in this conference: the treatment of missing data, the development of item banking and computerised adaptive testing and the detection/understanding of response shift. PMID:24378121

  2. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Letašiová Silvia; Medveďová Alžbeta; Šovčíková Andrea; Dušinská Mária; Volkovová Katarína; Mosoiu Claudia; Bartonová Alena

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment publish...

  3. Sleeping well with cancer: a systematic review of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheila N Garland,1 Jillian A Johnson,2 Josee Savard,3 Philip Gehrman,4 Michael Perlis,4 Linda Carlson,5 Tavis Campbell2 1Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 3School of Psychology, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada; 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 5Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: Individuals with cancer are disproportionately affected by sleep disturbance and insomnia relative to the general population. These problems can be a consequence of the psychological, behavioral, and physical effects of a cancer diagnosis and treatment. Insomnia often persists for years and, when combined with already high levels of cancer-related distress, may place cancer survivors at a higher risk of future physical and mental health problems and poorer quality of life. The recommended first-line treatment for insomnia is cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I, a non-pharmacological treatment that incorporates cognitive and behavior-change techniques and targets dysfunctional attitudes, beliefs, and habits involving sleep. This article presents a comprehensive review of the literature examining the efficacy of CBT-I on sleep and psychological outcomes in cancer patients and survivors. The search revealed 12 studies (four uncontrolled, eight controlled that evaluated the effects of CBT-I in cancer patients or survivors. Results suggest that CBT-I is associated with statistically and clinically significant improvements in subjective sleep outcomes in patients with cancer. CBT-I may also improve mood, fatigue, and overall quality of life, and can be successfully delivered through a variety of treatment modalities, making it possible to reach a broader range of patients who may not have access to more traditional programs. Future

  4. Targeted therapy for esophagogastric cancers: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khattak MA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad A Khattak,1 Hilary L Martin,2 Christos S Karapetis1,31Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide, South Australia; 2Calvary Hospital, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 3Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaAbstract: The incidence of esophagogastric cancers is increasing rapidly in the Western population. Despite better understanding of the biology and intense research in the treatment of these cancers, the long-term survival remains poor both in the locally advanced and metastatic settings. The addition of combined modality strategies has resulted in modest improvement in 5-year survival rates. A number of biologic agents targeting epidermal-derived growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial derived growth factor and its receptor, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR are being currently evaluated in Phase II and III clinical trials. Some of these, like trastuzumab, cetuximab, and bevacizumab, have shown promising results. This review provides a brief overview of the recent developments in biologic agents for the treatment of esophagogastric cancers.Keywords: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, VEGF, trastuzumab, Her2- positive EGC

  5. Cancer prevention in Africa: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busolo, David S; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is an emerging crisis in Africa. Cancer was the seventh leading cause of death in 2004. If not controlled, cancer incidence in Africa is expected to reach 1.28 million cases annually and claim 970,000 lives yearly by 2030. This paper presents a review of the literature on current cancer prevention approaches in Africa, and consists of cancer prevention studies conducted in African countries (e.g. South Africa and Nigeria) from PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL databases. Common female cancers in Africa are breast and cervical cancer while prostate cancer is the most common neoplasm among African males. Other common cancers are liver, colorectal, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Mortality related to these cancers comes as a result of delays in screening and treatment, unfamiliarity with cancer and cancer prevention, inaccessibility and unaffordability of care, and inefficiency of healthcare systems. Cancer prevention efforts are deficient because many governments lack cancer prevention and control policies. Also contributing to the lack of cancer prevention and control policies are low levels of awareness, scarce human and financial resources, and inadequacy of cancer registries. Overall, governments grapple with limited funds and competing healthcare priorities. As cancer continues to increase in Africa, the need for rigorous interdisciplinary research on cancer etiology and monitoring in Africa has never been timelier. Cost-effective cancer prevention programs, coordination of donor funding, advocacy, and education should be aggressively pursued. The call for more collaborative approaches in research and policy is urgently needed.

  6. Statistical interpretations and new findings on Variation in Cancer Risk Among Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Noble, Robert; Kaltz, Oliver; Hochberg, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Tomasetti and Vogelstein (2015a) find that the incidence of a set of cancer types is correlated with the total number of normal stem cell divisions. Here, we separate the effects of standing stem cell number (i.e., organ or tissue size) and per stem cell lifetime replication rate. We show that each has a statistically significant and independent effect on explaining variation in cancer incidence over the 31 cases considered by Tomasetti and Vogelstein. When considering the total number of ste...

  7. Fatigue in cancer: A review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar Narayanan

    2009-01-01

    patient need and understanding may be the right way to battle this ill-understood symptom. This review article examines the etiopathogenesis and management strategies of fatigue in cancer.

  8. Cancer Clusters in Delaware? How One Newspaper Turned Official Statistics into News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor W. Perez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The flagship newspaper for the state of Delaware, the News Journal, has been instrumental in disseminating information from state-generated reports of cancer clusters to its readers over the past 7 years. The stories provide colorful maps of census tracts designated as clusters, often on the front page, and detail the types of elevated cancers found in these tracts and the purported relationship of elevated cancer rates to local industry pollution. Though the News Journal also provided its readers with advice about interpreting these data with caution, it uncritically presented these data. Using the state’s unusual definition and measurement of elevated cancer incidence as cancer clusters, it transformed questionable statistics into an alarming public issue. This article critically examines these news reports and the state-generated reports they utilized.

  9. Cancer Nursing Education: Literature Review and Documentary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Helen; Blunden, Gillian; Hek, Gill

    The knowledge and skills needed by cancer nurses and the content and strategies of England's existing cancer nursing education programs were examined. The study included a comprehensive literature review and an analysis of course documents from selected English National Board-approved post-qualifying cancer nursing and palliative care courses…

  10. Manipulating measurement scales in medical statistical analysis and data mining: A review of methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Marateb; Marjan Mansourian; Peyman Adibi; Dario Farina

    2014-01-01

    Background: selecting the correct statistical test and data mining method depends highly on the measurement scale of data, type of variables, and purpose of the analysis. Different measurement scales are studied in details and statistical comparison, modeling, and data mining methods are studied based upon using several medical examples. We have presented two ordinal-variables clustering examples, as more challenging variable in analysis, using Wisconsin Breast Cancer Data (WBCD). Ordinal-to-...

  11. Arab women's breast cancer screening practices: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Khater, Al-Hareth Al; Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum; Al Kuwari, Mohammed Ghaith; Al-Meer, Nabila; Malik, Mariam; Singh, Rajvir; Jong, Floor Christie-de

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are increasing in the Arab world and the involved women are often diagnosed at advanced stages of breast cancer. This literature review explores factors influencing Arab women's breast cancer screening behavior. Searched databases were: Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL Plus, Google Scholar, Index Medicus for WHO Eastern Mediterranean, and Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. Breast cancer screening participation rates are low. Screening programs are opportunistic and relatively new to the region. Knowledge amongst women and health care providers, professional recommendation, socio-demographic factors, cultural traditions, beliefs, religious, social support, accessibility and perceived effectiveness of screening influence screening behavior.

  12. Adenoviral gene therapy in gastric cancer: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nima Khalighinejad; Hesammodin Hariri; Omid Behnamfar; Arash Yousefi; Amir Momeni

    2008-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. With current therapeutic approaches the prognosis of gastric cancer is very poor, as gastric cancer accounts for the second most common cause of death in cancer related deaths. Gastric cancer like almost all other cancers has a molecular genetic basis which relies on disruption in normal cellular regulatory mechanisms regarding cell growth, apoptosis and cell division. Thus novel therapeutic approaches such as gene therapy promise to become the alternative choice of treatment in gastric cancer. In gene therapy, suicide genes, tumor suppressor genes and anti-angiogenesis genes among many others are introduced to cancer cells via vectors.Some of the vectors widely used in gene therapy are Adenoviral vectors. This review provides an update of the new developments in adenoviral cancer gene therapy including strategies for inducing apoptosis, inhibiting metastasis and targeting the cancer cells.

  13. Orthomolecular oncology review: ascorbic acid and cancer 25 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Michael J; Miranda-Massari, Jorge R; Mora, Edna M; Guzmán, Angelik; Riordan, Neil H; Riordan, Hugh D; Casciari, Joseph J; Jackson, James A; Román-Franco, Angel

    2005-03-01

    The effect of ascorbic acid on cancer has been a subject of great controversy. This is a follow-up review of the 1979 article by Cameron, Pauling, and Leibovitz published in Cancer Research. In this updated version, the authors address general aspects of ascorbic acid and cancer that have been presented before, while reviewing, analyzing, and updating new existing literature on the subject. In addition, they present and discuss their own mechanistic hypothesis on the effect of ascorbic acid on the cancer cell. The objective of this review is to provide an updated scientific basis for the use of ascorbic acid, especially intravenously as adjuvant treatment in pharmacological nutritional oncology. PMID:15695476

  14. Family Adjustment to Childhood Cancer: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kristin A.; Marsland, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    This systematic review integrates qualitative and quantitative research findings regarding family changes in the context of childhood cancer. Twenty-eight quantitative, 42 qualitative, and one mixed-method studies were reviewed. Included studies focused on family functioning, marital quality, and/or parenting in the context of pediatric cancer,…

  15. Occupational risk factors for female breast cancer: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, M S; Labrèche, F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although progress has been made in identifying personal risk factors and in improving treatment for female breast cancer, incidence rates continue to increase. With women now occupying a sizable fraction of the workforce, it is worth inquiring whether there are occupational risk factors for breast cancer. This is a review of occupational studies on female breast cancer. METHODS: Suitable reports and published articles with associations of female breast cancer and occupation were i...

  16. Anal cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia screening: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Leeds, Ira L.; Fang, Sandy H

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the early diagnosis of anal cancer and its precursor lesions through routine screening. A number of risk-stratification strategies as well as screening techniques have been suggested, and currently little consensus exists among national societies. Much of the current clinical rationale for the prevention of anal cancer derives from the similar tumor biology of cervical cancer and the successful use of routine screening to identify cervical cancer and its precursors earl...

  17. Vitamin supplement consumption and breast cancer risk: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Misotti, Alessandro M; Gnagnarella, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer globally, and studies provide contradictory results about the possible effects of vitamin supplementation to reduce cancer risk. Our aim was to conduct a review to better investigate whether vitamin supplements given orally modify breast cancer risk. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive, systematic bibliographic search of the medical literature to identify relevant studies. Case-control, cohort studies, and randomised controll...

  18. Adherence to Diet and Physical Activity Cancer Prevention Guidelines and Cancer Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Lindsay N; Garcia, David O; Harris, Robin B; Oren, Eyal; Roe, Denise J; Jacobs, Elizabeth T

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have reported that adherence to health promotion guidelines for diet, physical activity, and maintenance of healthy body weight may decrease cancer incidence and mortality. A systematic review was performed to examine associations between adherence to established cancer prevention guidelines for diet and physical activity and overall cancer incidence and mortality. PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Reviews databases were searched following the current recommendations of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis Approach (PRISMA). Twelve studies met inclusion criteria for this review. High versus low adherence to established nutrition and physical activity cancer prevention guidelines was consistently and significantly associated with decreases of 10% to 61% in overall cancer incidence and mortality. Consistent significant reductions were also shown for breast cancer incidence (19%-60%), endometrial cancer incidence (23%-60%), and colorectal cancer incidence in both men and women (27%-52%). Findings for lung cancer incidence were equivocal, and no significant relationships were found between adherence and ovarian or prostate cancers. Adhering to cancer prevention guidelines for diet and physical activity is consistently associated with lower risks of overall cancer incidence and mortality, including for some site-specific cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(7); 1018-28. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27340121

  19. Statistical methods for site-specific analysis of cancer among the A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical methods are presented for joint, or simultaneous, analysis of the risks of several types of cancer for the A-bomb survivors. Previous analyses have been made either for all cancers except leukemia together, or have been done separately by cancer type. Either of these approaches has serious limitations, and the aim of joint analysis is to overcome these, while taking advantage of the strengths of each. The primary advantage of joint analysis is that models for risks of various cancer types can have some parameters in common, and others which are type-specific. This serves to overcome difficulties due to the limited data on specific cancer types. It also provides for significant tests comparing both type-specific risks and type-specific effects of modifying factors such as sex and age. These methods are exemplified here by joint analysis of three classes of cancer considered by the BEIR-V committee: (i) respiratory, (ii) digestive, and (iii) other cancers, excluding leukemia and breast cancer. The primary aim is to illustrate the general advantages of joint analyses, but in addition some comparison is made between the results of such joint analyses and the conclusions drawn by BEIR-V committee from separate analyses. (author)

  20. Performance of cancer cluster Q-statistics for case-control residential histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Ward, Mary H.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2012-01-01

    Few investigations of health event clustering have evaluated residential mobility, though causative exposures for chronic diseases such as cancer often occur long before diagnosis. Recently developed Q-statistics incorporate human mobility into disease cluster investigations by quantifying space- and time-dependent nearest neighbor relationships. Using residential histories from two cancer case-control studies, we created simulated clusters to examine Q-statistic performance. Results suggest the intersection of cases with significant clustering over their life course, Qi, with cases who are constituents of significant local clusters at given times, Qit, yielded the best performance, which improved with increasing cluster size. Upon comparison, a larger proportion of true positives were detected with Kulldorf’s spatial scan method if the time of clustering was provided. We recommend using Q-statistics to identify when and where clustering may have occurred, followed by the scan method to localize the candidate clusters. Future work should investigate the generalizability of these findings. PMID:23149326

  1. Breast cancer statistics, 2015: Convergence of incidence rates between black and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol E; Fedewa, Stacey A; Goding Sauer, Ann; Kramer, Joan L; Smith, Robert A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 231,840 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,290 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2015. Breast cancer incidence rates increased among non-Hispanic black (black) and Asian/Pacific Islander women and were stable among non-Hispanic white (white), Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native women from 2008 to 2012. Although white women have historically had higher incidence rates than black women, in 2012, the rates converged. Notably, during 2008 through 2012, incidence rates were significantly higher in black women compared with white women in 7 states, primarily located in the South. From 1989 to 2012, breast cancer death rates decreased by 36%, which translates to 249,000 breast cancer deaths averted in the United States over this period. This decrease in death rates was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. However, the mortality disparity between black and white women nationwide has continued to widen; and, by 2012, death rates were 42% higher in black women than in white women. During 2003 through 2012, breast cancer death rates declined for white women in all 50 states; but, for black women, declines occurred in 27 of 30 states that had sufficient data to analyze trends. In 3 states (Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin), breast cancer death rates in black women were stable during 2003 through 2012. Widening racial disparities in breast cancer mortality are likely to continue, at least in the short term, in view of the increasing trends in breast cancer incidence rates in black women. PMID:26513636

  2. Wavelets in probability and statistics-A review in recent advances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to give a review on recent advances of wavelet in probability and statistics. Many interesting new ideas, new results and new methods are introduced in this review. From many aspects of this paper, probability and statistics researchers may rind many new interesting research topics for further studying on wavelets in stochastic processes. New results, such as K- stationarity, wavelet representation of Karhunen processes,hidden periodicities analysis by wavelet approach, heteroscedasticity in wavelet regression, wavelets and neural networks, etc. are introduced in this paper. Comments, discussions and plentiful references are also involved in this review.``

  3. Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Popescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This review aims to provide practicing clinicians with the most recent knowledge of the biological nature of prostate cancer especially the information regarding neuroendocrine differentiation. Methods: Review of the literature using PubMed search and scientific journal publications. Results: Much progress has been made towards an understanding of the development and progression of prostate cancer. The prostate is a male accessory sex gland which produces a fraction of seminal fluid. The normal human prostate is composed of a stromal compartment (which contains: nerves, fibroblast, smooth muscle cells, macrophages surrounding glandular acins – epithelial cells. Neuroendocrine cells are one of the epithelial populations in the normal prostate and are believed to provide trophic signals trough the secretion of neuropeptides that diffuse and influence surrounding epithelial cells. Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men. In prostate cancer, neuroendocrine cells can stimulate growth of surrounding prostate adenocarcinoma cells (proliferation of neighboring cancer cells in a paracrine manner by secretion of neuroendocrine products. Neuroendocrine prostate cancer is an aggressive variant of prostate cancer that commonly arises in later stages of castration resistant prostate cancer. The detection of neuroendocrine prostate cancer has clinical implications. These patients are often treated with platinum chemotherapy rather than with androgen receptor targeted therapies. Conclusion: This review shows the need to improve our knowledge regarding diagnostic and treatment methods of the Prostate Cancer, especially cancer cells with neuroendocrine phenotype.

  4. Comorbidity and survival after early breast cancer. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Lotte Holm; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Jørgensen, Trine Lembrecht;

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Survival after breast cancer is determined by disease related factors such as stage at diagnosis, patient characteristics, e.g., age, and treatment. AIM: To review evidence published during the last ten years on the effect of comorbidity on survival after early breast cancer. METHODS......: A search in Pubmed with keywords, breast neoplasm, comorbidity, and survival, was performed. A total of 18 studies published between 2000 and August 2010 was included in this review. RESULTS: All 18 studies demonstrated that comorbidity had a significant impact on survival after breast cancer with poorer...... is an important prognostic factor in early breast cancer, irrespective of age and stage of disease....

  5. SEER Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute works to provide information on cancer statistics in an effort to reduce the burden of cancer among the U.S. population.

  6. An epidemiologic review of marijuana and cancer: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hui Jenny; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Tashkin, Donald P; Feng, Bingjian; Straif, Kurt; Hashibe, Mia

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana use is legal in two states and additional states are considering legalization. Approximately 18 million Americans are current marijuana users. There is currently no consensus on whether marijuana use is associated with cancer risk. Our objective is to review the epidemiologic studies on this possible association. We identified 34 epidemiologic studies on upper aerodigestive tract cancers (n = 11), lung cancer (n = 6), testicular cancer (n = 3), childhood cancers (n = 6), all cancers (n = 1), anal cancer (n = 1), penile cancer (n = 1), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 2), malignant primary gliomas (n = 1), bladder cancer (n = 1), and Kaposi sarcoma (n = 1). Studies on head and neck cancer reported increased and decreased risks, possibly because there is no association, or because risks differ by human papillomavirus status or geographic differences. The lung cancer studies largely appear not to support an association with marijuana use, possibly because of the smaller amounts of marijuana regularly smoked compared with tobacco. Three testicular cancer case-control studies reported increased risks with marijuana use [summary ORs, 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-2.23 for higher frequency and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.08-2.09) for ≥10 years]. For other cancer sites, there is still insufficient data to make any conclusions. Considering that marijuana use may change due to legalization, well-designed studies on marijuana use and cancer are warranted. PMID:25587109

  7. Trials of bevacizumab in breast cancer - a safety review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümler, Iben; Nielsen, Dorte Lisbet

    2012-01-01

    for continued gains in therapy efficacy. Areas covered: The authors review Phase III data concerning the safety of bevacizumab in breast cancer, summarize data on efficacy and discuss the risk:benefit ratio of the drug. The data for this review were obtained by searching in the PubMed database. This review...

  8. Systematic review of sleep disorders in cancer patients: can the prevalence of sleep disorders be ascertained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Julie L; Carpenter, Janet S; Manchanda, Shalini; Rand, Kevin L; Skaar, Todd C; Weaver, Michael; Chernyak, Yelena; Zhong, Xin; Igega, Christele; Landis, Carol

    2015-02-01

    Although sleep is vital to all human functioning and poor sleep is a known problem in cancer, it is unclear whether the overall prevalence of the various types of sleep disorders in cancer is known. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to evaluate if the prevalence of sleep disorders could be ascertained from the current body of literature regarding sleep in cancer. This was a critical and systematic review of peer-reviewed, English-language, original articles published from 1980 through 15 October 2013, identified using electronic search engines, a set of key words, and prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Information from 254 full-text, English-language articles was abstracted onto a paper checklist by one reviewer, with a second reviewer randomly verifying 50% (k = 99%). All abstracted data were entered into an electronic database, verified for accuracy, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and frequencies in SPSS (v.20) (North Castle, NY). Studies of sleep and cancer focus on specific types of symptoms of poor sleep, and there are no published prevalence studies that focus on underlying sleep disorders. Challenging the current paradigm of the way sleep is studied in cancer could produce better clinical screening tools for use in oncology clinics leading to better triaging of patients with sleep complaints to sleep specialists, and overall improvement in sleep quality.

  9. Systematic review of sleep disorders in cancer patients: can the prevalence of sleep disorders be ascertained?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although sleep is vital to all human functioning and poor sleep is a known problem in cancer, it is unclear whether the overall prevalence of the various types of sleep disorders in cancer is known. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to evaluate if the prevalence of sleep disorders could be ascertained from the current body of literature regarding sleep in cancer. This was a critical and systematic review of peer-reviewed, English-language, original articles published from 1980 through 15 October 2013, identified using electronic search engines, a set of key words, and prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Information from 254 full-text, English-language articles was abstracted onto a paper checklist by one reviewer, with a second reviewer randomly verifying 50% (k = 99%). All abstracted data were entered into an electronic database, verified for accuracy, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and frequencies in SPSS (v.20) (North Castle, NY). Studies of sleep and cancer focus on specific types of symptoms of poor sleep, and there are no published prevalence studies that focus on underlying sleep disorders. Challenging the current paradigm of the way sleep is studied in cancer could produce better clinical screening tools for use in oncology clinics leading to better triaging of patients with sleep complaints to sleep specialists, and overall improvement in sleep quality

  10. Estadísticas en el cáncer de piel Statistics in skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RE Achenbach

    Full Text Available Se establecen puntos de vista diferentes que influyen, al momento de presentar trabajos de estadística en la esfera del cáncer de la piel, especialmente respecto de las denominadas dermatosis precancerosas, al carcinoma espinocelular y cuál es la más frecuente en el ser humano.A different point of view in the sphere of statistics in skin cancer, specially about squamous cell carcinoma, solar keratosis and the so called precancerous dermatosis. The numerous papers about the issue from AB Ackerman, should be known in order of confident statistics numbers.

  11. New Cancer Prevention and Control Central Institutional Review Board Established | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB) Initiative announced the establishment of the Cancer Prevention and Control (CPC) CIRB January 14, extending the benefits of centralized review to investigators participating in clinical trials sponsored by the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). |

  12. Gene therapy for gastric cancer: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Zhang; Zhan-Kui Liu

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is common in China, and its early diagnosis and treatment are difficult. In recent years great progress has been achieved in gene therapy, and a wide array of gene therapy systems for gastric cancer has been investigated. The present article deals with the general principles of gene therapy and then focuses on how these principles may be applied to gastric cancer.

  13. Statistical Analysis of Tissue Images for Detection and Classification of Cervical Cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Jagtap, Jaidip; Pandey, Kiran; Agarwa, Asha; Panigrahi, Prasanta K; Pradhan, Asima

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the major health threats in women worldwide. The current "gold standard" for detecting cancer of the epithelial tissue is the histopathology analysis of biopsy samples. However it relies on the pathologist's judgment of the disease. We investigate the utility of statistical parameters as a potential tool for detection and discrimination of the stages of dysplasia. Digital images of the tissue slides are captured with the help of a digital camera plugged to a microscope. Statistical data analysis is performed with the help of software to evaluate parameters such as mean, maxima, full width half maxima, skewness, kurtosis etc. for the images. We believe that these parameters can help effectively to improve the diagnosis and further classify normal and abnormal tissue sections. These parameters can be used independently as well as in tandem with other parameters as features in classification algorithms that involve the use of Neural networks or Principal component analysis.

  14. A review of breast cancer awareness among women in India: Cancer literate or awareness deficit?

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, A; Shridhar, K.; Dhillon, PK

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide including India, where advanced stages at diagnosis, and rising incidence and mortality rates, make it essential to understand cancer literacy in women. We conducted a literature review to evaluate the awareness levels of risk factors for breast cancer among Indian women and health professionals. Methods A structured literature search using combined keywords was undertaken on bibliographic databases including MEDL...

  15. Cancer survivorship research: a review of the literature and summary of current NCI-designated cancer center projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, J Phil; Dean, Julie A; Paskett, Electra D

    2011-10-01

    The number of cancer survivors and the amount of cancer survivorship research have grown substantially during the past three decades. This article provides a review of interventional and observational cancer survivorship research efforts as well as a summary of current cancer survivorship research projects being conducted by National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers in an effort to identify areas that need further attention.

  16. Fruit, vegetables, and cancer prevention: a review of the epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, G; Patterson, B; Subar, A

    1992-01-01

    Approximately 200 studies that examined the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and cancers of the lung, colon, breast, cervix, esophagus, oral cavity, stomach, bladder, pancreas, and ovary are reviewed. A statistically significant protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption was found in 128 of 156 dietary studies in which results were expressed in terms of relative risk. For most cancer sites, persons with low fruit and vegetable intake (at least the lower one-fourth of the population) experience about twice the risk of cancer compared with those with high intake, even after control for potentially confounding factors. For lung cancer, significant protection was found in 24 of 25 studies after control for smoking in most instances. Fruits, in particular, were significantly protective in cancers of the esophagus, oral cavity, and larynx, for which 28 of 29 studies were significant. Strong evidence of a protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption was seen in cancers of the pancreas and stomach (26 of 30 studies), as well as in colorectal and bladder cancers (23 of 38 studies). For cancers of the cervix, ovary, and endometrium, a significant protective effect was shown in 11 of 13 studies, and for breast cancer a protective effect was found to be strong and consistent in a meta analysis. It would appear that major public health benefits could be achieved by substantially increasing consumption of these foods.

  17. Open Access!: Review of Online Statistics: An Interactive Multimedia Course of Study by David Lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel L. Tunstall

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available David M. Lane (project leader. Online Statistics Education: An Interactive Multimedia Course of Study (http://onlinestatbook.com/ Also: David M. Lane (primary author and editor, with David Scott, Mikki Hebl, Rudy Guerra, Dan Osherson, and Heidi Zimmer. Introduction to Statistics. Online edition (http://onlinestatbook.com/Online_Statistics_Education.pdf, 694 pp. It is rare that students receive high-quality textbooks for free, but David Lane's Online Statistics: An Interactive Multimedia Course of Study permits precisely that. This review gives an overview of the many features in Lane's online textbook, including the Java Applets, the textbook itself, and the resources available for instructors. A discussion of uses of the site, as well as a comparison of the text to alternative online statistics textbooks, is included.

  18. Cancer-risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy: A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Paul, E-mail: paulg@iastate.ed [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Lazarus, William [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger; Duffield, James [Office of Energy Policy and New Uses, 400 Independence Avenue, SW (Rm. 4059 So. Bldg), United States Department of Agriculture, WA, DC 20250 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the lung cancer mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-section regressions of the mortality rate due to lung cancer against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cancer rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 10 lung cancer deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about $5.7 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated value of statistical life (VSL) benefit is $27.2 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations mandated reduction in specific carcinogenic chemicals or smog components. Second, technologies such as the catalytic converter (CC) and low-particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels.

  19. Cancer-risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy. A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Paul [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Lazarus, William [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger; Duffield, James [Office of Energy Policy and New Uses, 400 Independence Avenue, SW Rm. 4059 So. Bldg, United States Department of Agriculture, WA, DC 20250 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the lung cancer mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-section regressions of the mortality rate due to lung cancer against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cancer rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 10 lung cancer deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about USD 5.7 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated value of statistical life (VSL) benefit is USD 27.2 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations mandated reduction in specific carcinogenic chemicals or smog components. Second, technologies such as the catalytic converter (CC) and low-particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels. (author)

  20. Pancreatic cancer cachexia: a review of mechanisms and therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Carlyn Rose Tan; Laith eJamil; Patrick eYaffee; Richard eTuli; Nick eNissen; Simon eLo; Stephen J Pandol; Andrew Eugene Hendifar

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have gained new insight into the pathophysiology of cachexia associated with pancreatic cancer. Unfortunately, its treatment is complex and remains a challenge. Pancreatic cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by uncompensated adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss in the setting of anorexia that leads to progressive functional impairment. This paper will review the current concepts of pancreatic cancer cachexia, its assessment and pathophysiolog...

  1. Depression in cancer patients: Pathogenesis, implications and treatment (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    SMITH, HAMISH R.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a common comorbidity in cancer cases, affecting >10% of patients. A cancer diagnosis is life-changing, and is a source of considerable psychological and emotional stress. Non-pathological sadness may be a normal response to a cancer diagnosis, however, stress beyond the coping mechanisms of patients may result in major depressive disorder. The current review, in addition to the obvious psychosocial elements of depression, explores its biological mechanisms, including tissue dama...

  2. Review of State Comprehensive Cancer Control Plans for Genomics Content

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. Millikan, DVM, PhD; Tejinder Rakhra-Burris, MA; Erin Shaughnessy Zuiker, MPH; Debra E. Irwin, PhD, MSPH

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The goals of this study were to determine U.S. states with Comprehensive Cancer Control plans that include genomics in some capacity and to review successes with and barriers to implementation of genomics-related cancer control initiatives. Methods This study was conducted in two phases. Phase one included a content analysis of written state Comprehensive Cancer Control plans (n = 30) for terms related to genomics, or genomic components (n = 18). The second phase involved te...

  3. A Review of Cancer Chemotherapy for Pet Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, A. M.; Withrow, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    A review of the principles of cancer chemotherapy for pet animals is presented. The various pharmacological classes of antineoplastic drugs are described with specific references to those drugs that have been widely used in veterinary medicine.

  4. A Review of School Reintegration Programs for Children with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevatt, Frances F.; Heffer, Robert W.; Lowe, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Descriptive articles on school reintegration programs for children with cancer are reviewed to synthesize the information of best practices for program development. Suggestions are given for school psychologists working with chronically ill children. (Author/JDM)

  5. Epidemiological review of laryngeal cancer: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bobdey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laryngeal cancer is one of the 10 leading causes of cancer in Indian men. The association of laryngeal cancer and tobacco smoking is well-established, but the peculiarities such as wide variation of disease distribution and survival, role of tobacco chewing, indoor air pollution, and dietary factors in laryngeal cancer causation needs to be understood. In this study, we review the descriptive and observational epidemiology of laryngeal cancer in India. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Web of science electronic database was searched from January 1995 to December 2013, using the using keywords "laryngeal cancer, laryngeal cancer outcome, epidemiology, etiological factor and their corresponding Mesh terms were used in combination like OR, AND." Two authors independently selected studies published in English and conducted in India. A total of 15 studies were found to be relevant and eligible for this review. Results: In India, laryngeal cancer contributes to approximately 3-6% of all cancers in men. The age-adjusted incidence rate of cancer larynx in males varies widely among registries, highest is 8.18 per 100,000 in Kamprup Urban District and the lowest is 1.26 per 100,000 in Nagaland. The 5-year survival for laryngeal cancer in India is approximately 28%. Indian studies show tobacco, alcohol, long-term exposure to indoor air pollution, spicy food, and nonvegetarian diet as risk factors for laryngeal cancer. Conclusion: There is wide regional variation in the incidence of laryngeal cancer in India. Survival rates of laryngeal carcinoma are much lower as compared to other Asian countries. Studies conducted in India to identify important risk factors of laryngeal cancer are very limited, especially on diet and indoor air pollution. Hence, more research is required for identifying the etiological factors and development of scientifically sound laryngeal cancer prevention programs.

  6. Breast cancer in pregnancy: A brief clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sven

    2016-05-01

    As global wealth increases and demographic changes similar to Europe and North America start affecting other societies, the global breast cancer epidemic will coincide with a delayed maternal age during first and subsequent pregnancies. Breast cancer in pregnancy will continue to increase, and standardized treatment strategies are required to be developed. This study will review current diagnostic and treatment approaches.

  7. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaniselvam Kuppusamy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  8. Nutrition habits, physical activity, and lung cancer: an authoritative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsokera, Alexandra; Kiagia, Maria; Saif, Muhammad W; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Syrigos, Kostas N

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Because of high incidence rates and low survival rates, it is important to study the risk factors that may help prevent the disease from developing. It has been well established that cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for lung cancer. Nonetheless it is likely that there are other modifiable risk factors that would assist in the prevention of lung cancer. Research on factors such as nutrition and physical activity and their influence on lung cancer has been carried out for nearly 3 decades. A systematic review in the MEDLINE database of published studies was conducted, focusing on systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and large prospective studies. The association between physical activity and lung cancer has been conflicting. Among the researched studies, 10 showed an inverse association, whereas 11 reported no association. A meta-analysis that was conducted from 1996 to October 2003 showed that leisure physical activity (LPA) prevents lung cancer. Data from 11 cohort and case-control studies showed an inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer. Evidence from case-control studies suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer, although several more recent studies have presented doubts about these findings. The possible association of physical activity, nutrition, and the risk of lung cancer development remains controversial. Further prospective studies should be conducted to determine the potential influence of these 2 risk factors.

  9. Review of screening for pancreatic cancer in high risk individuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alina Stoita; Ian D Penman; David B Williams

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and is associated with a very poor survival. Ten percent of pancreatic cancers result from genetic susceptibility and/or familial aggregation. Individuals from families with multiple affected first-degree relatives and those with a known cancer-causing genetic mutation have been shown to be at much higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Recent efforts have focused on detecting disease at an earlier stage to improve survival in these high-risk groups. This article reviews high-risk groups, screening methods, and current screening programs and their results.

  10. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and cancer--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Ingrid; Stuhr, Linda E B

    2012-12-01

    Hypoxia is a critical hallmark of solid tumors and involves enhanced cell survival, angiogenesis, glycolytic metabolism, and metastasis. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment has for centuries been used to improve or cure disorders involving hypoxia and ischemia, by enhancing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the plasma and thereby increasing O(2) delivery to the tissue. Studies on HBO and cancer have up to recently focused on whether enhanced oxygen acts as a cancer promoter or not. As oxygen is believed to be required for all the major processes of wound healing, one feared that the effects of HBO would be applicable to cancer tissue as well and promote cancer growth. Furthermore, one also feared that exposing patients who had been treated for cancer, to HBO, would lead to recurrence. Nevertheless, two systematic reviews on HBO and cancer have concluded that the use of HBO in patients with malignancies is considered safe. To supplement the previous reviews, we have summarized the work performed on HBO and cancer in the period 2004-2012. Based on the present as well as previous reviews, there is no evidence indicating that HBO neither acts as a stimulator of tumor growth nor as an enhancer of recurrence. On the other hand, there is evidence that implies that HBO might have tumor-inhibitory effects in certain cancer subtypes, and we thus strongly believe that we need to expand our knowledge on the effect and the mechanisms behind tumor oxygenation.

  11. The prevention, detection and management of cancer treatment-induced cardiotoxicity: a meta-review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The benefits associated with some cancer treatments do not come without risk. A serious side effect of some common cancer treatments is cardiotoxicity. Increased recognition of the public health implications of cancer treatment-induced cardiotoxicity has resulted in a proliferation of systematic reviews in this field to guide practice. Quality appraisal of these reviews is likely to limit the influence of biased conclusions from systematic reviews that have used poor methodology related to clinical decision-making. The aim of this meta-review is to appraise and synthesise evidence from only high quality systematic reviews focused on the prevention, detection or management of cancer treatment-induced cardiotoxicity. Using Cochrane methodology, we searched databases, citations and hand-searched bibliographies. Two reviewers independently appraised reviews and extracted findings. A total of 18 high quality systematic reviews were subsequently analysed, 67 % (n = 12) of these comprised meta-analyses. One systematic review concluded that there is insufficient evidence regarding the utility of cardiac biomarkers for the detection of cardiotoxicity. The following strategies might reduce the risk of cardiotoxicity: 1) The concomitant administration of dexrazoxane with anthracylines; 2) The avoidance of anthracyclines where possible; 3) The continuous administration of anthracyclines (>6 h) rather than bolus dosing; and 4) The administration of anthracycline derivatives such as epirubicin or liposomal-encapsulated doxorubicin instead of doxorubicin. In terms of management, one review focused on medical interventions for treating anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity during or after treatment of childhood cancer. Neither intervention (enalapril and phosphocreatine) was associated with statistically significant improvement in ejection fraction or mortality. This review highlights the lack of high level evidence to guide clinical decision-making with respect to the detection

  12. Some statistical considerations related to the estimation of cancer risk following exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical theory and methodology provide the logical structure for scientific inference about the cancer risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. Although much is known about radiation carcinogenesis, the risk associated with low-level exposures is difficult to assess because it is too small to measure directly. Estimation must therefore depend upon mathematical models which relate observed risks at high exposure levels to risks at lower exposure levels. Extrapolated risk estimates obtained using such models are heavily dependent upon assumptions about the shape of the dose-response relationship, the temporal distribution of risk following exposure, and variation of risk according to variables such as age at exposure, sex, and underlying population cancer rates. Expanded statistical models, which make explicit certain assumed relationships between different data sets, can be used to strengthen inferences by incorporating relevant information from diverse sources. They also allow the uncertainties inherent in information from related data sets to be expressed in estimates which partially depend upon that information. To the extent that informed opinion is based upon a valid assessment of scientific data, the larger context of decision theory, which includes statistical theory, provides a logical framework for the incorporation into public policy decisions of the informational content of expert opinion

  13. Low socioeconomic status is associated with worse survival in children with cancer: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While low socioeconomic status (SES has been associated with inferior cancer outcome among adults, its impact in pediatric oncology is unclear. Our objective was therefore to conduct a systematic review to determine the impact of SES upon outcome in children with cancer. METHODS: We searched Ovid Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL from inception to December 2012. Studies for which survival-related outcomes were reported by socioeconomic subgroups were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently assessed articles and extracted data. Given anticipated heterogeneity, no quantitative meta-analyses were planned a priori. RESULTS: Of 7,737 publications, 527 in ten languages met criteria for full review; 36 studies met final inclusion criteria. In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC, lower SES was uniformly associated with inferior survival, regardless of the measure chosen. The majority of associations were statistically significant. Of 52 associations between socioeconomic variables and outcome among high-income country (HIC children, 38 (73.1% found low SES to be associated with worse survival, 15 of which were statistically significant. Of the remaining 14 (no association or high SES associated with worse survival, only one was statistically significant. Both HIC studies examining the effect of insurance found uninsured status to be statistically associated with inferior survival. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic gradients in which low SES is associated with inferior childhood cancer survival are ubiquitous in LMIC and common in HIC. Future studies should elucidate mechanisms underlying these gradients, allowing the design of interventions mediating socioeconomic effects. Targeting the effect of low SES will allow for further improvements in childhood cancer survival.

  14. HER2 breast cancer therapies: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conleth G Murphy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Conleth G Murphy, Shanu ModiBreast Cancer Medicine Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Amplification of the HER2 gene and/or overexpression of its protein product have been found in up to 25% to 30% of human breast cancers and have been shown to be associated with poorer outcomes compared to ‘HER2 normal’ breast cancer. Research has focused on developing therapies directed to the HER2 receptor and its pathway. These include the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab, which has improved outcomes when used in patients with both advanced and early breast cancer. Lapatinib is a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor which has demonstrated activity in advanced breast cancer and is currently being evaluated in early stage disease. We discuss the therapeutic rationale and clinical trial experience with these agents. Other novel and emerging strategies targeting the HER2 receptor and its pathway are also discussed. These strategies include novel HER2 antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors, antibody–drug conjugates, agents targeting downstream components of the HER2 signaling pathway, and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 inhibitors.Keywords: HER2, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, breast cancer, trastuzumab, lapatinib

  15. Sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer: Review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fouad Kotb

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual activity can affect prostate cancer pathogenesis in a variety of ways; including the proposed high androgen status, risk of sexually transmitted infections and the potential effect of retained carcinogens within the prostatic cells. Methods: PubMed review of all publications concerning sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer was done by two researchers. Results: Few publications could be detected and data were classified as a prostate cancer risk in association with either heterosexual or homosexual activities. Conclusion: Frequent ejaculation seems to be protective from the development of prostate cancer. Multiple sexual partners may be protective from prostate cancer, excluding the risk of sexually transmitted infections. Homosexual men are at a greater risk for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  16. Combined experimental and statistical strategy for mass spectrometry based serum protein profiling for diagnosis of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne Kjærgaard; Vach, Werner; Jørgensen, Per E;

    2008-01-01

    Serum protein profiling by mass spectrometry is a promising method for early detection of cancer. We have implemented a combined strategy based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) and statistical data analysis for serum protein profiling and applied it in a...... and specificity. We conclude that optimized serum sample handling and mass spectrometry data acquisition strategies in combination with statistical analysis provide a viable platform for serum protein profiling in cancer diagnosis....

  17. Depression in cancer patients: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquini Massimo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer patients experience several stressors and emotional upheavals. Fear of death, interruption of life plans, changes in body image and self-esteem, changes in social role and lifestyle are all important issues to be faced. Moreover, Depressive Disorders may impact the course of the disease and compliance. The cost and prevalence, the impairment caused, and the diagnostic and therapeutic uncertainty surrounding depressive symptoms among cancer patients make these conditions a priority for research. In this article we discuss recent data, focusing on detection of Depressive Disorders, biological correlates, treatments and unmet needs of depressed cancer patients.

  18. A review on metastatic breast cancer in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamidreza; Alizadeh; Otaghvar; Mostafa; Hosseini; Adnan; Tizmaghz; Ghazaal; Shabestanipour; Hamid; Noori

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is a disease of early breast cancer that usually occurs several years after the early breast cancer. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Iranian women. According to the new statistics in Iran 6 160 breast cancers are diagnosed in the country each year and 1 063 cases lead to death. In this paper, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment have been investigated. In this study, case-control clinical trials and open studies with adequate data were collected. Due to the higher risk of age group 40-49 years and the advent of advanced breast cancer in Iranian women, the early diagnosis and determination of the exact size of the tumor before surgery is important in choosing a therapy plan. The decision on the therapy of invasive breast cancer depends on several factors such as cancer stage, tumor size and type, pathological and cytological status of the tumor, the patient’s opinion, the presence or absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the cytoplasm of tumor cells and so on.

  19. A review on metastatic breast cancer in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Alizadeh Otaghvar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic breast cancer is a disease of early breast cancer that usually occurs several years after the early breast cancer. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Iranian women. According to the new statistics in Iran 6160 breast cancers are diagnosed in the country each year and 1063 cases lead to death. In this paper, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment have been investigated. In this study, case–control clinical trials and open studies with adequate data were collected. Due to the higher risk of age group 40–49 years and the advent of advanced breast cancer in Iranian women, the early diagnosis and determination of the exact size of the tumor before surgery is important in choosing a therapy plan. The decision on the therapy of invasive breast cancer depends on several factors such as cancer stage, tumor size and type, pathological and cytological status of the tumor, the patient's opinion, the presence or absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the cytoplasm of tumor cells and so on.

  20. Esophageal Cancer in Iran: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Siavosh Nasseri-Moghaddam; Shahryar Semnani; Hajiamin Marjani; Alireza Sadjadi

    2010-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the second and third most common malignancy in Iranian malesand females, respectively, claiming lives of approximately 5800 Iranians each year.Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is presently the most common type accounting forabout 90% of all esophageal cancers in Iran. Recent studies have shown that there isa gradual increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus alongwith gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Thirty-five years ago, the age standardizied rate (...

  1. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta-Zaragoza O; Bermúdez-Morales VH; Pérez-Plasencia C; Salazar-León J; Gómez-Cerón C; Madrid-Marina V

    2012-01-01

    Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztac...

  2. Review: Mitochondrial Defects in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, J.; Honorato, B. (Beatriz); Garcia-Foncillas, J

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondria play important roles in cellular energy metabolism, free radical generation, and apoptosis. Mitochondrial DNA has been proposed to be involved in carcinogenesis because of its high susceptibility to mutations and limited repair mechanisms in comparison to nuclear DNA. Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer type among women in the world and, although exhaustive research has been done on nuclear DNA changes, several studies describe ...

  3. Manipulating measurement scales in medical statistical analysis and data mining: A review of methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Marateb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: selecting the correct statistical test and data mining method depends highly on the measurement scale of data, type of variables, and purpose of the analysis. Different measurement scales are studied in details and statistical comparison, modeling, and data mining methods are studied based upon using several medical examples. We have presented two ordinal-variables clustering examples, as more challenging variable in analysis, using Wisconsin Breast Cancer Data (WBCD. Ordinal-to-Interval scale conversion example: a breast cancer database of nine 10-level ordinal variables for 683 patients was analyzed by two ordinal-scale clustering methods. The performance of the clustering methods was assessed by comparison with the gold standard groups of malignant and benign cases that had been identified by clinical tests. Results: the sensitivity and accuracy of the two clustering methods were 98% and 96%, respectively. Their specificity was comparable. Conclusion: by using appropriate clustering algorithm based on the measurement scale of the variables in the study, high performance is granted. Moreover, descriptive and inferential statistics in addition to modeling approach must be selected based on the scale of the variables.

  4. Estimation of statistical cure from cancer using population-based data

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Sara Elisabete Ferreira de

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Estatística When studying cancer patient survival the interest lies in measure the time until the occurrence of an event, as well as the study of factors associated with the occurrence rates for that event. This is broadly known as survival data and the statistical method for analyzing such data is usually referred to as "survival analysis". In this thesis, standard survival methods, such as the Cox regression model, are recalled and a relative surviv...

  5. Anomalous heat transfer modes of nanofluids: a review based on statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergis, Antonis; Hardalupas, Yannis

    2011-05-19

    This paper contains the results of a concise statistical review analysis of a large amount of publications regarding the anomalous heat transfer modes of nanofluids. The application of nanofluids as coolants is a novel practise with no established physical foundations explaining the observed anomalous heat transfer. As a consequence, traditional methods of performing a literature review may not be adequate in presenting objectively the results representing the bulk of the available literature. The current literature review analysis aims to resolve the problems faced by researchers in the past by employing an unbiased statistical analysis to present and reveal the current trends and general belief of the scientific community regarding the anomalous heat transfer modes of nanofluids. The thermal performance analysis indicated that statistically there exists a variable enhancement for conduction, convection/mixed heat transfer, pool boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux modes. The most popular proposed mechanisms in the literature to explain heat transfer in nanofluids are revealed, as well as possible trends between nanofluid properties and thermal performance. The review also suggests future experimentation to provide more conclusive answers to the control mechanisms and influential parameters of heat transfer in nanofluids.

  6. Anomalous heat transfer modes of nanofluids: a review based on statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergis Antonis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper contains the results of a concise statistical review analysis of a large amount of publications regarding the anomalous heat transfer modes of nanofluids. The application of nanofluids as coolants is a novel practise with no established physical foundations explaining the observed anomalous heat transfer. As a consequence, traditional methods of performing a literature review may not be adequate in presenting objectively the results representing the bulk of the available literature. The current literature review analysis aims to resolve the problems faced by researchers in the past by employing an unbiased statistical analysis to present and reveal the current trends and general belief of the scientific community regarding the anomalous heat transfer modes of nanofluids. The thermal performance analysis indicated that statistically there exists a variable enhancement for conduction, convection/mixed heat transfer, pool boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux modes. The most popular proposed mechanisms in the literature to explain heat transfer in nanofluids are revealed, as well as possible trends between nanofluid properties and thermal performance. The review also suggests future experimentation to provide more conclusive answers to the control mechanisms and influential parameters of heat transfer in nanofluids.

  7. Validity of self-reported family history of cancer: A systematic literature review on selected cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiederling, Jonas; Shams, Ahmad Zia; Haug, Ulrike

    2016-10-01

    Evidence regarding validity of self-reported family history of cancer (FHC) has been reviewed only for breast, colorectal, prostate, ovarian, endometrial and uterine cancer. We aimed to systematically review studies assessing validity of self-reported family history for the remaining cancer sites. We searched the Medline database for relevant studies published by January 2016. We extracted information on the study design and the positive predictive value (PPV) of self-reported FHC, defined as the proportion of reported cancer diagnoses among relatives that was confirmed by a reference standard (as a measure of over-reporting). We also extracted information on sensitivity of self-reported FHC (as a measure of underreporting). Overall, 21 studies were included that provided information on the PPV of self-reported FHC for relevant cancers and four studies also provided information on sensitivity. The PPV was highest (mostly >70%) for pancreatic, lung, thyroid and urinary system cancers and for leukemia and lymphoma, while it was lowest for stomach and liver cancer. Sensitivity was highest (>70%) for pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, brain cancer, melanoma, leukemia and lymphoma. For several cancers, sample sizes were low and the number of studies limited, particularly regarding sensitivity of self-reported FHC. In conclusion, for some cancers (e.g., pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, leukemia, lymphoma) self-reported FHC can be considered sufficiently valid to be useful, for example, in preventive counseling. For several cancers, it is not sufficiently studied or the pattern is inconsistent. This needs to be taken into account when using self-reported information about FHC in clinical practice or epidemiological research. PMID:27222437

  8. A comparison of statistical methods for identifying out-of-date systematic reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porjai Pattanittum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews (SRs can provide accurate and reliable evidence, typically about the effectiveness of health interventions. Evidence is dynamic, and if SRs are out-of-date this information may not be useful; it may even be harmful. This study aimed to compare five statistical methods to identify out-of-date SRs. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of SRs registered in the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group (CPCG, published between 2008 and 2010, were considered for inclusion. For each eligible CPCG review, data were extracted and "3-years previous" meta-analyses were assessed for the need to update, given the data from the most recent 3 years. Each of the five statistical methods was used, with random effects analyses throughout the study. RESULTS: Eighty reviews were included in this study; most were in the area of induction of labour. The numbers of reviews identified as being out-of-date using the Ottawa, recursive cumulative meta-analysis (CMA, and Barrowman methods were 34, 7, and 7 respectively. No reviews were identified as being out-of-date using the simulation-based power method, or the CMA for sufficiency and stability method. The overall agreement among the three discriminating statistical methods was slight (Kappa = 0.14; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.23. The recursive cumulative meta-analysis, Ottawa, and Barrowman methods were practical according to the study criteria. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that three practical statistical methods could be applied to examine the need to update SRs.

  9. Progestin and breast cancer risk: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Marsha; Porter, Nancy; Orekoya, Olubunmi; Hebert, James R; Adams, Swann Arp; Bennett, Charles L; Steck, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review summarizes research on the use of progestin and breast cancer risk. Although mainly used for contraception, progestin can help treat menstrual disorders, and benign breast, uterine, and ovarian diseases. Breast cancer is the leading site of new, non-skin, cancers in females in the United States, and possible factors that may modulate breast cancer risk need to be identified. ProQuest (Ann Arbor, MI) and PubMed-Medline (US National Library of Medicine, Bethesda MD, USA) databases were used to search for epidemiologic studies from 2000 to 2015 that examined the association between progestin and breast cancer. Search terms included epidemiologic studies + progesterone or progestin or progestogen or contraceptive or contraceptive agents + breast cancer or breast neoplasms. A total of six studies were included in the review. Five of the six studies reported no association between progestin-only formulations (including norethindrone oral contraceptives, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, injectable, levonorgestrel system users, implantable and intrauterine devices) and breast cancer risk. Duration of use was examined in a few studies with heterogeneous results. Unlike studies of other oral contraceptives, studies indicate that progestin-only formulations do not increase the risk of breast cancer, although the literature is hampered by small sample sizes. Future research is needed to corroborate these findings, as further understanding of synthetic progesterone may initiate new prescription practices or guidelines for women's health.

  10. Three-dimensional in vitro cancer models: a short review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The re-creation of the tumor microenvironment including tumor–stromal interactions, cell–cell adhesion and cellular signaling is essential in cancer-related studies. Traditional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture and animal models have been proven to be valid in some areas of explaining cancerous cell behavior and interpreting hypotheses of possible mechanisms. However, a well-defined three-dimensional (3D) in vitro cancer model, which mimics tumor structures found in vivo and allows cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions, has gained strong interest for a wide variety of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This communication attempts to provide a representative overview of applying 3D in vitro biological model systems for cancer related studies. The review compares and comments on the differences in using 2D models, animal models and 3D in vitro models for cancer research. Recent technologies to construct and develop 3D in vitro cancer models are summarized in aspects of modeling design, fabrication technique and potential application to biology, pathogenesis study and drug testing. With the help of advanced engineering techniques, the development of a novel complex 3D in vitro cancer model system will provide a better opportunity to understand crucial cancer mechanisms and to develop new clinical therapies. (topical review)

  11. Progestin and breast cancer risk: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Marsha; Porter, Nancy; Orekoya, Olubunmi; Hebert, James R; Adams, Swann Arp; Bennett, Charles L; Steck, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review summarizes research on the use of progestin and breast cancer risk. Although mainly used for contraception, progestin can help treat menstrual disorders, and benign breast, uterine, and ovarian diseases. Breast cancer is the leading site of new, non-skin, cancers in females in the United States, and possible factors that may modulate breast cancer risk need to be identified. ProQuest (Ann Arbor, MI) and PubMed-Medline (US National Library of Medicine, Bethesda MD, USA) databases were used to search for epidemiologic studies from 2000 to 2015 that examined the association between progestin and breast cancer. Search terms included epidemiologic studies + progesterone or progestin or progestogen or contraceptive or contraceptive agents + breast cancer or breast neoplasms. A total of six studies were included in the review. Five of the six studies reported no association between progestin-only formulations (including norethindrone oral contraceptives, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, injectable, levonorgestrel system users, implantable and intrauterine devices) and breast cancer risk. Duration of use was examined in a few studies with heterogeneous results. Unlike studies of other oral contraceptives, studies indicate that progestin-only formulations do not increase the risk of breast cancer, although the literature is hampered by small sample sizes. Future research is needed to corroborate these findings, as further understanding of synthetic progesterone may initiate new prescription practices or guidelines for women's health. PMID:26700034

  12. 78 FR 44136 - Submission for OMB review; 30-day Comment Request: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB review; 30-day Comment Request: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Nanotechnology Platform Partnership Scientific Progress Reports SUMMARY... Institutes of Health (NIH), has submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request for...

  13. The association risk of male subfertility and testicular cancer: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Peng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An association between male subfertility and an increased risk of testicular cancer has been proposed, but conflicting results of research on this topic have rendered this theory equivocal. To more precisely assess the association between subfertility and the risk of testicular cancer, we performed a systematic review of international epidemiologic evidence. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched the Medline database for records from January 1966 to March 2008 complemented with manual searches of the literature and then identified studies that met our inclusion criteria. Study design, sample size, exposure to subfertility and risk estimates of testicular cancer incidence were abstracted. Summary relative risks (RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using the DerSimonian and Laird model. All statistical tests were two-sided. We identified seven case-control studies and two cohort studies published between 1987 and 2005. Analysis of the seven case-control studies that included 4,954 participants revealed an overall statistically significant association between subfertility and increased risk of testicular cancer (summary RR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.22 to 2.31, without heterogeneity between studies (Q = 8.46, P heterogeneity = 0.21, I(2 statistics = 0.29. The association between subfertility and testicular cancer was somewhat stronger in the United States (summary RR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.01 to 3.02 than it was in Europe (summary RR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.22 to 1.92. The source of the control subjects had a statistically significant effect on the magnitude of the association (population-based summary-RR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.11 to 4.17; hospital-based summary--RR = 1.56, 95% CI: 0.93 to 2.61. After excluding possible cryptorchidism, an important confounding factor, we also found a positive association between subfertility and increased risk of testicular cancer (summary RR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.28 to 1.98. These results were consistent between

  14. Esophageal Cancer in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavosh Nasseri-Moghaddam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is the second and third most common malignancy in Iranian malesand females, respectively, claiming lives of approximately 5800 Iranians each year.Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is presently the most common type accounting forabout 90% of all esophageal cancers in Iran. Recent studies have shown that there isa gradual increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus alongwith gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Thirty-five years ago, the age standardizied rate (ASR of esophageal SCC in thecity of Gonbad (Golestan Province, northeast of Iran was found to be one of the highestrates for any single cancer that had been reported worldwide (ASR >100/105/year.Recent studies have shown that the incidence of SCC in Gonbad has declined to lessthan half of what it was in the past. This decline in the incidence of esophageal SCCparallels an improvement in the socioeconomic situation of people living in thisregion. According to recent cancer registry data in Iran there is still an obviousintracountry variability between the incidence of esophageal cancer in the south withan ASR of 3 for males and 2 for females in Kerman and 43 and 36 in the northeasternprovince of Golestan. The reasons for this very high rate of SCC in northeastern Iranhave been the subject of several studies during the past 35 years. According to resultsof these studies the suspected risk factors are: low intake of fruits and vegetables, drinkinghot tea, consumption of opium products and tobacco, H.pyloriinfection in the stomach,using unhealthy drinking water from cisterns and genetic susceptibility. The mainsuspected mutagens are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and N-nitrosocompounds. In order to embark primary and secondary prevention of this fatal cancer,further prospective studies are presently underway in the region. The Golestanesophageal cancer cohort study which follows of 50,000 subjects is on going. We expectsimple and feasible evidence based

  15. Association between alcohol consumption and cancers in the Chinese population--a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is increasing worldwide and is associated with numerous cancers. This systematic review examined the role of alcohol in the incidence of cancer in the Chinese population. METHODS: Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI and VIP were searched to identify relevant studies. Cohort and case-control studies on the effect of alcohol use on cancers in Chinese were included. Study quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Data were independently abstracted by two reviewers. Odds ratios (OR or relative risks (RR were pooled using RevMan 5.0. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the Q test and I-squared statistic. P<.01 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Pooled results from cohort studies indicated that alcohol consumption was not associated with gastric cancer, esophageal cancers (EC or lung cancer. Meta-analysis of case-control studies showed that alcohol consumption was a significant risk factor for five cancers; the pooled ORs were 1.79 (99% CI, 1.47-2.17 EC, 1.40 (99% CI, 1.19-1.64 gastric cancer, 1.56 (99% CI, 1.16-2.09 hepatocellular carcinoma, 1.21 (99% CI, 1.00-1.46 nasopharyngeal cancer and 1.71 (99% CI, 1.20-2.44 oral cancer. Pooled ORs of the case-control studies showed that alcohol consumption was protective for female breast cancer and gallbladder cancer: OR 0.76 (99% CI, 0.60-0.97 and 0.70 (99% CI, 0.49-1.00 respectively. There was no significant correlation between alcohol consumption and lung cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, cancer of the ampulla of Vater, prostate cancer or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Combined results of case-control and cohort studies showed that alcohol consumption was associated with 1.78- and 1.40-fold higher risks of EC and gastric cancer but was not significantly associated with lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Health programs focused on limiting alcohol intake may be important for cancer control in China. Further studies are needed to examine the

  16. Plants vs. cancer: a review on natural phytochemicals in preventing and treating cancers and their druggability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hu; Khor, Tin Oo; Shu, Limin; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Fuentes, Francisco; Lee, Jong-Hun; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2012-12-01

    Cancer remains to be one of the leading causes of death in the United States and around the world. The advent of modern drug-targeted therapies has undeniably improved cancer patients' cares. However, advanced metastasized cancer remains untreatable. Hence, continued searching for a safer and more effective chemoprevention and treatment is clearly needed for the improvement of the efficiency and to lower the treatment cost for cancer care. Cancer chemoprevention with natural phytochemical compounds is an emerging strategy to prevent, impede, delay, or cure cancer. This review summarizes the latest research in cancer chemoprevention and treatment using the bioactive components from natural plants. Relevant molecular mechanisms involved in the pharmacological effects of these phytochemicals are discussed. Pharmaceutical developmental challenges and opportunities in bringing the phytochemicals into the market are also explored. The authors wish to expand this research area not only for their scientific soundness, but also for their potential druggability.

  17. The impact of comorbidity on cancer survival: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søgaard M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mette Søgaard,1 Reimar Wernich Thomsen,1 Kristine Skovgaard Bossen,2 Henrik Toft Sørensen,1 Mette Nørgaard1 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark Background: A number of studies have shown poorer survival among cancer patients with comorbidity. Several mechanisms may underlie this finding. In this review we summarize the current literature on the association between patient comorbidity and cancer prognosis. Prognostic factors examined include tumor biology, diagnosis, treatment, clinical quality, and adherence. Methods: All English-language articles published during 2002–2012 on the association between comorbidity and survival among patients with colon cancer, breast cancer, and lung cancer were identified from PubMed, MEDLINE and Embase. Titles and abstracts were reviewed to identify eligible studies and their main results were then extracted. Results: Our search yielded more than 2,500 articles related to comorbidity and cancer, but few investigated the prognostic impact of comorbidity as a primary aim. Most studies found that cancer patients with comorbidity had poorer survival than those without comorbidity, with 5-year mortality hazard ratios ranging from 1.1 to 5.8. Few studies examined the influence of specific chronic conditions. In general, comorbidity does not appear to be associated with more aggressive types of cancer or other differences in tumor biology. Presence of specific severe comorbidities or psychiatric disorders were found to be associated with delayed cancer diagnosis in some studies, while chronic diseases requiring regular medical visits were associated with earlier cancer detection in others. Another finding was that patients with comorbidity do not receive standard cancer treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy as often as patients without comorbidity, and their chance of

  18. Faecal incontinence following radiotherapy for prostate cancer: A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Yasuko; Høyer, Morten; Lundby, Lilli;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Faecal incontinence (FI) after radiotherapy is a known phenomenon, but has received little attention to date. This article aimed to review current knowledge on faecal incontinence related to radiotherapy for prostate cancer. METHODS: PubMed was searched for English-language articles...... published from January 1966 to December 2009 using the primary keywords 'faecal incontinence', 'prostate cancer' and 'radiotherapy'. Prospective, retrospective and controlled trials reporting FI as a complication of radiotherapy for prostate cancer were included. The retrieved titles and abstracts were...... for this review. The incidence of faecal incontinence following radiotherapy for prostate cancer varied from 1.6% to 58%. The mechanism of faecal incontinence was not entirely clear but it is most likely due to injury to the nerve plexus of the rectal muscular layer. Correlation between rectal dose...

  19. [Palliative care to adolescents with cancer: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedi, Patrícia Pereira; Mello, Débora Faleiros de; Menossi, Maria José; Lima, Regina Aparecida Garcia de

    2009-01-01

    Providing care to adolescents with cancer in the process of death and dying has been a great challenge for health professionals. This challenge is marked by a high emotional burden and specificities of this stage of human development. The purpose of the present study was to review the scientific literature regarding palliative care to adolescents with cancer. This study is a literature review, which data collection was performed using Lilacs, Medline, and PsycInfo, in addition to non-systematic databases. An analysis of the manuscripts revealed three themes: adolescence and its different definitions; the particularities of adolescents with cancer; and palliative care to adolescents with cancer. The study showed there is a scarcity of evidenced-based research defining the panorama of symptoms affecting the quality of life during palliative care and an absence of specific programs in the stage of fast changes that, alone, demand for adaptive efforts.

  20. Pharmacopuncture for Cancer Care: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyeon Cheon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pharmacopuncture, injection to acupoints with pharmacological medication or herbal medicine, is a new acupuncture therapy widely available in Korea and China for cancer-related symptoms. However, the evidence is yet to be clear. Objective. To determine pharmacopuncture’s effectiveness on cancer-related symptoms. Methods. Eleven databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of pharmacopuncture in cancer patients. The Cochrane risk of bias (ROB assessment tool was used for quality assessment. Results. Twenty-two studies involving 2,459 patients were included. Five trials of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV underwent meta-analysis. Pharmacopuncture significantly relieved severity of CINV compared with control group (3 trials, risk ratio (RR 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.14–1.44. The frequency of CINV was also significantly reduced with pharmacopuncture (2 trials, RR 2.47, 95% CI = 2.12–2.89. Seventeen trials studied various symptoms, and in most studies, pharmacopuncture significantly relieved pain, ileus, hiccup, fever, and gastrointestinal symptoms and improved quality of life in various cancer patients. ROB was generally high. Conclusion. It may be suggested with caution that pharmacopuncture may help various symptom relief in cancer patients, but it is hard to draw a firm conclusion due to clinical heterogeneity and high ROB of the included studies, hence warranting further investigation.

  1. Leptomeningeal metastasis in breast cancer – a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Brian J.; Oberheim-Bush, Nancy A.; Kesari, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Background There is limited data on the impact of specific patient characteristics, tumor subtypes or treatment interventions on survival in breast cancer LM. Methods A systematic review was conducted to assess the impact of hormone receptor and HER-2 status on survival in breast cancer LM. A search for clinical studies published between 1/1/2007 and 7/1/2012 and all randomized-controlled trials was performed. Survival data from all studies are reported by study design (prospective trials, re...

  2. Breast cancer survival studies in India: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignasa Sathwara

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Length of survival of cancer patients is an important indicator for knowing the outcome of treatment in any study. Epidemiological features and biological profile of breast cancer appear to be different in developing countries as compared to Western countries. Knowing the factors that influence survival rates among women with breast cancer may help define early detection actions, and improve treatment and care proposals in all the areas of health. Therefore, this study aims to identify, the publications defining the factors influencing survival for women with breast cancer in India. PUBMED database was searched from January 1990 to April 2016, using the key words Breast cancer, breast cancer outcome and Survival and their corresponding Mesh terms were used in combination with Boolean operators like OR, AND. Five year overall survival rate of breast cancer in India ranged from 40-62%. The results from 16 publications showed that survival of breast cancer varies widely depending on number of factors like age, stage at diagnosis, marital status, educational level, hormonal status, clinical extent of disease and treatment. The publications that make up this review present contributing factors that affect the survival rate of women with breast cancer in India. This information on survival studies can pinpoint the lacunae in treatment modalities and can guide us to do basic and translational research so the preventive strategies can be implemented. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3102-3108

  3. Review of Naked Statistics: Stripping the Dread from Data by Charles Wheelan

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    Michael T. Catalano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheelan, Charles. Naked Statistics: Stripping the Dread from Data (New York, NY, W. W. Norton & Company, 2014. 282 pp. ISBN 978-0-393-07195-5 In his review of What Numbers Say and The Numbers Game, Rob Root (Numeracy 3(1: 9 writes “Popular books on quantitative literacy need to be easy to read, reasonably comprehensive in scope, and include examples that are thought-provoking and memorable.” Wheelan’s book certainly meets this description, and should be of interest to both the general public and those with a professional interest in numeracy. A moderately diligent learner can get a decent understanding of basic statistics from the book. Teachers of statistics and quantitative literacy will find a wealth of well-related examples and stories to use in their classes.

  4. Questioning the dichotomy between vegetative state and minimally conscious state: A review of the statistical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia eLiberati

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the enormous consequences that the diagnosis of vegetative state (VS vs. minimally conscious state (MCS may have for the treatment of patients with disorders of consciousness, it is particularly important to empirically legitimate the distinction between these two discrete levels of consciousness. Therefore, the aim of this contribution is to review all the articles reporting statistical evidence concerning the performance of patients in VS vs. patients in MCS, on behavioral or neurophysiological measures. Twenty-three articles matched these inclusion criteria, and comprised behavioral, electroencephalographic (EEG, positron emission tomography (PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI measures. The analysis of these articles yielded 47 different statistical findings. More than half of these findings (n=24 did not reveal any statistically significant difference between VS and MCS. Overall, there was no combination of variables that allowed reliably discriminating between VS and MCS. This pattern of results casts doubt on the empirical validity of the distinction between VS and MCS.

  5. Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer <Review>

    OpenAIRE

    Washio, Masakazu; Sakauchi, Fumio; SONODA, Tomoko; Ikeda, Toshiko; Mori, Mitsuru

    2003-01-01

    The incidence of kidney cancer and resulting mortality has been increasing in recent years. Its incidence is highest in Western and Northern Europe and North America, moderate in Japan, and low elsewhere in Asia. Although the incidence of kidney cancer in Japan is lower than in the other developed countries, there is no doubt that there has been an increasing occurrence of this disease recently in Japan, which may be partly due to the adoption of a Western life style.Obesity/overweight is ass...

  6. Breast Cancer After Treatment of Hodgkin's Lymphoma: General Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improved survival rates among patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma over the past few decades have come with increased incidence of second malignancies. One of the major concerns among female survivors is the significantly elevated risk of breast cancer that appears with extended follow-up. In this review, we include the published literature regarding the risk of breast cancer after irradiation for Hodgkin's lymphoma. We also present the possible long-term surveillance strategies and the optimal time to start screening these women. This could potentially help in early detection of secondary breast cancers and consequently improve outcomes. Furthermore, because of prior radiotherapy, the management of the breast cancer among this unique population has been controversial. We discuss the characteristics of breast cancer that occurs after Hodgkin's lymphoma and also treatment options that could be implemented

  7. Renal cell cancer among African Americans: an epidemiologic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipworth Loren

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Incidence rates for renal cell cancer, which accounts for 85% of kidney cancers, have been rising more rapidly among blacks than whites, almost entirely accounted for by an excess of localized disease. This excess dates back to the 1970s, despite less access among blacks to imaging procedures in the past. In contrast, mortality rates for this cancer have been virtually identical among blacks and whites since the early 1990s, despite the fact that nephrectomy rates, regardless of stage, are lower among blacks than among whites. These observations suggest that renal cell cancer may be a less aggressive tumor in blacks. We have reviewed the epidemiology of renal cell cancer, with emphasis on factors which may potentially play a role in the observed differences in incidence and mortality patterns of renal cell cancer among blacks and whites. To date, the factors most consistently, albeit modestly, associated with increased renal cell cancer risk in epidemiologic studies among whites - obesity, hypertension, cigarette smoking - likely account for less than half of these cancers, and there is virtually no epidemiologic evidence in the literature pertaining to their association with renal cell cancer among blacks. There is a long overdue need for detailed etiologic cohort and case-control studies of renal cell cancer among blacks, as they now represent the population at highest risk in the United States. In particular, investigation of the influence on renal cell cancer development of hypertension and chronic kidney disease, both of which occur substantially more frequently among blacks, is warranted, as well as investigations into the biology and natural history of this cancer among blacks.

  8. A review of cervical cancer research in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaridah, S

    2014-08-01

    Despite cervical cancer being potentially preventable, it is the second most common cancer among women in Malaysia. One hundred and five articles related to Cervical Cancer were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. Fifty seven articles were selected and reviewed for the articles' clinical relevance and future research implications. This article reviews the various aspects of cervical cancer in Malaysia, mainly persistent infection of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV), primary prevention (HPV vaccination), screening method (Pap smear issues), and the attitude and knowledge of various groups of Malaysian women that contributed to the failure to reduce the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. Most of the studies focused on prevention, Pap smear issues, HPV DNA testing, HPV vaccination and various recommendations for prevention of cervical cancer. Secondary prevention by screening is still an important aspect because even with HPV vaccination, screening still plays an important role as vaccination does not cover all high risk HPVs. There is a need to seriously consider a properly organised screening programme, taking into consideration what we already know about the attitude and knowledge of Malaysian women, economic factors and psychosocial issues of the screening method. There is also a large gap in clinical studies on the outcome, management and survival of cervical cancer patients in Malaysia. PMID:25417949

  9. Breast cancer screening in Canada: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organized screening for breast cancer in Canada began in 1988 and has been implemented in all provinces and 2 of the 3 territories. Quality initiatives are promoted through national guidelines which detail best practices in various areas, including achieving quality through a client-service approach, recruitment and capacity, retention, quality of mammography, reporting, communication of results, follow-up and diagnostic workup, and program evaluation; it also offers detailed guidelines for the pathological examination and reporting of breast specimens. The Canadian Breast Cancer Data Base is a national breast cancer screening surveillance system whose objective is to collect information from provincial-screening programs. These data are used to monitor and evaluate the performance of programs and allow comparison with national and international results. A series of standardized performance indicators and targets for the evaluation of performance and quality of organized breast cancer screening programs have been developed from the data base. Although health care is a provincial responsibility in Canada, the collective reporting and comparison of results both nationally and internationally is beneficial in evaluating and refining both screening programs and individual radiologist performance. The results of Canadian performance indicators compare favourably with those of other well-established international screening programs. There are variations in performance indicators across the provinces and territories, but these differences are not extreme. (author)

  10. Cancer statistics for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders, 2016: Converging incidence in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Lindsey A; Sauer, Ann M Goding; Chen, Moon S; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Jemal, Ahmedin; Siegel, Rebecca L

    2016-05-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs). In this report, the American Cancer Society presents AANHPI cancer incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Among AANHPIs in 2016, there will be an estimated 57,740 new cancer cases and 16,910 cancer deaths. While AANHPIs have 30% to 40% lower incidence and mortality rates than non-Hispanic whites for all cancers combined, risk of stomach and liver cancers is double. The male-to-female incidence rate ratio among AANHPIs declined from 1.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.36-1.49) in 1992 to 1.04 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.07) in 2012 because of declining prostate and lung cancer rates in males and increasing breast cancer rates in females. The diversity within the AANHPI population is reflected in the disparate cancer risk by subgroup. For example, the overall incidence rate in Samoan men (526.5 per 100,000) is more than twice that in Asian Indian/Pakistani men (216.8). Variations in cancer rates in AANHPIs are related to differences in behavioral risk factors, use of screening and preventive services, and exposure to cancer-causing infections. Cancer-control strategies include improved use of vaccination and screening; interventions to increase physical activity and reduce excess body weight, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption; and subgroup-level research on burden and risk factors. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:182-202. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26766789

  11. Anal cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia screening: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeds, Ira L; Fang, Sandy H

    2016-01-27

    This review focuses on the early diagnosis of anal cancer and its precursor lesions through routine screening. A number of risk-stratification strategies as well as screening techniques have been suggested, and currently little consensus exists among national societies. Much of the current clinical rationale for the prevention of anal cancer derives from the similar tumor biology of cervical cancer and the successful use of routine screening to identify cervical cancer and its precursors early in the disease process. It is thought that such a strategy of identifying early anal intraepithelial neoplasia will reduce the incidence of invasive anal cancer. The low prevalence of anal cancer in the general population prevents the use of routine screening. However, routine screening of selected populations has been shown to be a more promising strategy. Potential screening modalities include digital anorectal exam, anal Papanicolaou testing, human papilloma virus co-testing, and high-resolution anoscopy. Additional research associating high-grade dysplasia treatment with anal cancer prevention as well as direct comparisons of screening regimens is necessary to develop further anal cancer screening recommendations. PMID:26843912

  12. Review of State Comprehensive Cancer Control Plans for Genomics Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Millikan, DVM, PhD

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The goals of this study were to determine U.S. states with Comprehensive Cancer Control plans that include genomics in some capacity and to review successes with and barriers to implementation of genomics-related cancer control initiatives. Methods This study was conducted in two phases. Phase one included a content analysis of written state Comprehensive Cancer Control plans (n = 30 for terms related to genomics, or “genomic components” (n = 18. The second phase involved telephone interviews with the Comprehensive Cancer Control plan coordinators in states with plans that contained genomic components (n = 16. The interview was designed to gather more detailed information about the genomics-related initiatives within the state’s Comprehensive Cancer Control plan and the successes with and barriers to plan implementation, as defined by each state. Results Eighteen of the 30 Comprehensive Cancer Control plans analyzed contained genomics components. We noted a large variability among these 18 plans in the types of genomics components included. Nine (56% of the 16 states interviewed had begun to implement the genomics components in their plan. Most states emphasized educating health care providers and the public about the role of genomics in cancer control. Many states consider awareness of family history to be an important aspect of their Comprehensive Cancer Control plan. Approximately 67% of states with family history components in their plans had begun to implement these goals. Virtually all states reported they would benefit from additional training in cancer genetics and general public health genomics. Conclusion The number of states incorporating genomics into their Comprehensive Cancer Control plans is increasing. Family history is a public health application of genomics that could be implemented more fully into Comprehensive Cancer Control plans.

  13. A Review of Barriers to Minorities' Participation in Cancer Clinical Trials: Implications for Future Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Ali; Nguyen, Claire; Lee, Yi-Hui; Cooksey-James, Tawna

    2016-04-01

    To enhance nurses' awareness and competencies in practice and research by reporting the common barriers to participation of minorities in cancer clinical trials and discussing facilitators and useful strategies for recruitment. Several databases were searched for articles published in peer reviewed journals. Some of the barriers to minorities' participation in clinical trials were identified within the cultural social-context of cancer patients. The involvement of community networking was suggested as the most effective strategy for the recruitment of minorities in cancer clinical trials. Using culturally sensitive approaches to enhance ethnic minorities' participation is important for advancing cancer care and eliminating health disparities. Awareness of barriers and potential facilitators to the enrollment of ethnic minority cancer patients may contribute to enhancing nurses' competencies of recruiting ethnic minorities in nursing research, playing efficient roles in cancer clinical trials team, and providing culturally competent quality care. PMID:25822567

  14. Statistical Approaches Used to Assess the Equity of Access to Food Outlets: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Lamb

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInequalities in eating behaviours are often linked to the types of food retailers accessible in neighbourhood environments. Numerous studies have aimed to identify if access to healthy and unhealthy food retailers is socioeconomically patterned across neighbourhoods, and thus a potential risk factor for dietary inequalities. Existing reviews have examined differences between methodologies, particularly focussing on neighbourhood and food outlet access measure definitions. However, no review has informatively discussed the suitability of the statistical methodologies employed; a key issue determining the validity of study findings. Our aim was to examine the suitability of statistical approaches adopted in these analyses.MethodsSearches were conducted for articles published from 2000-2014. Eligible studies included objective measures of the neighbourhood food environment and neighbourhood-level socio-economic status, with a statistical analysis of the association between food outlet access and socio-economic status.ResultsFifty-four papers were included. Outlet accessibility was typically defined as the distance to the nearest outlet from the neighbourhood centroid, or as the number of food outlets within a neighbourhood (or buffer. To assess if these measures were linked to neighbourhood disadvantage, common statistical methods included ANOVA, correlation, and Poisson or negative binomial regression. Although all studies involved spatial data, few considered spatial analysis techniques or spatial autocorrelation.ConclusionsWith advances in GIS software, sophisticated measures of neighbourhood outlet accessibility can be considered. However, approaches to statistical analysis often appear less sophisticated. Care should be taken to consider assumptions underlying the analysis and the possibility of spatially correlated residuals which could affect the results.

  15. Fertility Preservation for Cancer Patients: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosin Ajala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the fore-front the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Oncologists must be aware of situations where their treatment will affect fertility in patients who are being treated for cancer and they must also be aware of the pathways available for procedures such as cryopreservation of gametes and/or embryos. Improved cancer care associated with increased cure rates and long term survival, coupled with advances in fertility treatment means that it is now imperative that fertility preservation is considered as part of the care offered to these patients. This can only be approached within a multidisciplinary setting. There are obvious challenges that still remain to be resolved, especially in the area of fertility preservation in prepubertal patients. These include ethical issues, such as valid consent and research in the area of tissue retrieval, cryopreservation, and transplantation.

  16. Metabolic Syndrome Is Associated with Increased Breast Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Bhandari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although individual metabolic risk factors are reported to be associated with breast cancer risk, controversy surrounds risk of breast cancer from metabolic syndrome (MS. We report the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between MS and breast cancer risk in all adult females. Methods. Studies were retrieved by searching four electronic reference databases [PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, Web of Science, and ProQuest through June 30, 2012] and cross-referencing retrieved articles. Eligible for inclusion were longitudinal studies reporting associations between MS and breast cancer risk among females aged 18 years and older. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each study and pooled using random-effects models. Publication bias was assessed quantitatively (Trim and Fill and qualitatively (funnel plots. Heterogeneity was examined using Q and I2 statistics. Results. Representing nine independent cohorts and 97,277 adult females, eight studies met the inclusion criteria. A modest, positive association was observed between MS and breast cancer risk (RR: 1.47, 95% CI, 1.15–1.87; z=3.13; p=0.002; Q=26.28, p=0.001; I2=69.55%. No publication bias was observed. Conclusions. MS is associated with increased breast cancer risk in adult women.

  17. Systematic Review of Studies of Workplace Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Lung Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhuo WANG

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been reported that there was a close relationship between lung cancer risk and environmental tobacco smoke at workplace. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Methods By searching Medline, CENTRAL (the Cochrane central register of controlledtrials, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI and VIP et al, we collected both domestic and overseas published documents on workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk. Random or fixed effect models were applied to conduct systematic review on the study results, the combined odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated as well. Results 22 reports were included into the combined analysis, which indicated that 25% lung cancer risk was increased by exposing to workplace environment tobacco smoke (OR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.13-1.39, P < 0.001. For female the increased risk was 22% (OR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.05-1.42, P=0.011. For male the increased risk was 54%, but it does not reach the statistical significance (OR=1.54, 95%CI: 0.74-3.18, P=0.247. Conclusion Workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor of lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Especially for non-smoking women who expose to workplace environment tobacco smoke have a close relationship with lung cancer.

  18. Transoral robotic surgery and oropharyngeal cancer: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Pádraig; Kjærgaard, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has risen steadily over the past decade due to the increase in cancers associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV). The prognosis for the treatment of this type of cancer with radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy is good. However, because these treatments can have detrimental effects on organ function and quality of life, researchers are looking into transoral robotic surgery (TORS) as a possible alternate therapy. TORS might have a positive effect on postoperative function and quality of life for cancer survivors. The aim of this review is to report on the current situation regarding the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer with TORS, with a focus on the long-term oncologic and functional outcomes of this strategy. The articles cited in this review were selected from the PubMed and MEDLINE database. They contain study results pertaining to TORS implementation, complications, oncologic and functional outcomes, and the implications of HPV-associated cancer. We found that while TORS has some clear advantages and strengths and almost certainly a permanent place in future treatment, further research is necessary to correctly evaluate the role it will play in the complete management of oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:25181669

  19. Far Beyond the Usual Biomarkers in Breast Cancer: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos Pultz, Brunna; da Luz, Felipe Andrés Cordero; de Faria, Paulo Rogério; Oliveira, Ana Paula Lima; de Araújo, Rogério Agenor; Silva, Marcelo José Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Research investigating biomarkers for early detection, prognosis and the prediction of treatment responses in breast cancer is rapidly expanding. However, no validated biomarker currently exists for use in routine clinical practice, and breast cancer detection and management remains dependent on invasive procedures. Histological examination remains the standard for diagnosis, whereas immunohistochemical and genetic tests are utilized for treatment decisions and prognosis determinations. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive review of literature published in PubMed on breast cancer biomarkers between 2009 and 2013. The keywords that were used together were breast cancer, biomarkers, diagnosis, prognosis and drug response. The cited references of the manuscripts included in this review were also screened. We have comprehensively summarized the performance of several biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and predicted drug responses of breast cancer. Finally, we have identified 15 biomarkers that have demonstrated promise in initial studies and several miRNAs. At this point, such biomarkers must be rigorously validated in the clinical setting to be translated into clinically useful tests for the diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of drug responses of breast cancer. PMID:25057307

  20. Palliative sedation in advanced cancer patients: Does it shorten survival time? - A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Barathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with advanced cancer often suffer from multiple refractory symptoms in the terminal phase of their life. Palliative sedation is one of the few ways to relieve this refractory suffering. Objectives: This systematic review investigated the effect of palliative sedation on survival time in terminally ill cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Six electronic databases were searched for both prospective and retrospective studies which evaluated the effect of palliative sedation on survival time. Only those studies which had a comparison group that did not receive palliative sedation were selected for the review. Abstracts of all retrieved studies were screened to include the most relevant studies and only studies which met inclusion criteria were selected. References of all retrieved studies were also screened for relevant studies. Selected studies were assessed for quality and data extraction was done using the structured data extraction form. Results: Eleven studies including four prospective and seven retrospective studies were identified. Mean survival time (MST was measured as the time from last admission until death. A careful analysis of the results of all the 11 studies indicated that MST of sedated and non-sedated group was not statistically different in any of the studies. Conclusion: This systematic review supports the fact that palliative sedation does not shorten survival in terminally ill cancer patients. However, this conclusion needs to be taken with consideration of the methodology, study design, and the population studied of the included studies in this review.

  1. A systematic review of dysgeusia induced by cancer therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovan, Allan J.; Williams, P. Michele; Stevenson-Moore, Peter; Wahlin, Yula B.; Ohrn, Kirsten E. O.; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Brennan, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose was to review relevant scientific papers written since 1989 which focused on the prevalence and management of dysgeusia as an oral side effect of cancer treatment. Our literature search was limited to English language papers published between 1990 and 2008. A total of 30 papers were revi

  2. A systematic review of bisphosphonate osteonecrosis (BON) in cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migliorati, Cesar Augusto; Woo, Sook-Bin; Hewson, Ian; Barasch, Andrei; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Brennan, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    This systematic review aims to examine the prevalence of bisphosphonate osteonecrosis (BON) in the cancer population, prevention and treatment protocols, and quality of life issues. A search of MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE form October 2003 to December 31, 2008 was conducted with the objective of ident

  3. Indoor radon exposure and lung cancer: a review of ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji Young; Lee, Jung-Dong; Joo, So Won; Kang, Dae Ryong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has high mortality and incidence rates. The leading causes of lung cancer are smoking and radon exposure. Indeed, the World Health Organization (WHO) has categorized radon as a carcinogenic substance causing lung cancer. Radon is a natural, radioactive substance; it is an inert gas that mainly exists in soil or rock. The gas decays into radioactive particles called radon progeny that can enter the human body through breathing. Upon entering the body, these radioactive elements release α-rays that affect lung tissue, causing lung cancer upon long-term exposure thereto. Epidemiological studies first outlined a high correlation between the incidence rate of lung cancer and exposure to radon progeny among miners in Europe. Thereafter, data and research on radon exposure and lung cancer incidence in homes have continued to accumulate. Many international studies have reported increases in the risk ratio of lung cancer when indoor radon concentrations inside the home are high. Although research into indoor radon concentrations and lung cancer incidence is actively conducted throughout North America and Europe, similar research is lacking in Korea. Recently, however, studies have begun to accumulate and report important data on indoor radon concentrations across the nation. In this study, we aimed to review domestic and foreign research into indoor radon concentrations and to outline correlations between indoor radon concentrations in homes and lung cancer incidence, as reported in ecological studies thereof. Herein, we noted large differences in radon concentrations between and within individual countries. For Korea, we observed tremendous differences in indoor radon concentrations according to region and year of study, even within the same region. In correlation analysis, lung cancer incidence was not found to be higher in areas with high indoor radon concentrations in Korea. Through our review, we identified a need to implement a greater variety of

  4. Methods to improve rehabilitation of patients following breast cancer surgery: a review of systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loh SY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Siew Yim Loh, Aisya Nadia Musa Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Context: Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer amongst women but it has the highest survival rates amongst all cancer. Rehabilitation therapy of post-treatment effects from cancer and its treatment is needed to improve functioning and quality of life. This review investigated the range of methods for improving physical, psychosocial, occupational, and social wellbeing in women with breast cancer after receiving breast cancer surgery. Method: A search for articles published in English between the years 2009 and 2014 was carried out using The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. Search terms included: ‘breast cancer’, ‘breast carcinoma’, ‘surgery’, ‘mastectomy’, ‘lumpectomy’, ‘breast conservation’, ‘axillary lymph node dissection’, ‘rehabilitation’, 'therapy’, ‘physiotherapy’, ‘occupational therapy’, ‘psychological’, ‘psychosocial’, ‘psychotherapy’, ‘exercise’, ‘physical activity’, ‘cognitive’, ‘occupational’, ‘alternative’, ‘complementary’, and ‘systematic review’. Study selection: Systematic reviews on the effectiveness of rehabilitation methods in improving post-operative physical, and psychological outcomes for breast cancer were selected. Sixteen articles met all the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Data extraction: Included review year, study aim, total number of participants included, and results. Data synthesis: Evidence for exercise rehabilitation is predominantly in the improvement of shoulder mobility and limb strength. Inconclusive results exist for a range of rehabilitation methods (physical, psycho-education, nutritional, alternative-complementary methods for addressing the domains of psychosocial, cognitive, and

  5. Road map for pain management in pancreatic cancer: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoud, Marie José; Kourie, Hampig Raphael; Antoun, Joelle; El Osta, Lana; Ghosn, Marwan

    2016-08-15

    Beside its poor prognosis and its late diagnosis, pancreatic cancer remains one of the most painful malignancies. Optimal management of pain in this cancer represents a real challenge for the oncologist whose objective is to ensure a better quality of life to his patients. We aimed in this paper to review all the treatment modalities incriminated in the management of pain in pancreatic cancer going from painkillers, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and interventional techniques to agents under investigation and alternative medicine. Although specific guidelines and recommendations for pain management in pancreatic cancer are still absent, we present all the possible pain treatments, with a progression from medical multimodal treatment to radiotherapy and chemotherapy then interventional techniques in case of resistance. In addition, alternative methods such as acupuncture and hypnosis can be added at any stage and seems to contribute to pain relief. PMID:27574552

  6. Lung Cancer and Interstitial Lung Diseases: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Archontogeorgis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs represent a heterogeneous group of more than two hundred diseases of either known or unknown etiology with different pathogenesis and prognosis. Lung cancer, which is the major cause of cancer death in the developed countries, is mainly attributed to cigarette smoking and exposure to inhaled carcinogens. Different studies suggest a link between ILDs and lung cancer, through different pathogenetic mechanisms, such as inflammation, coagulation, dysregulated apoptosis, focal hypoxia, activation, and accumulation of myofibroblasts as well as extracellular matrix accumulation. This paper reviews current evidence on the association between lung cancer and interstitial lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis/polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and pneumoconiosis.

  7. Gene Therapy in Oral Cancer: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, M. Sathish; Masthan, K.M.K.; Babu, N. Aravindha; Dash, Kailash Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy is the use of DNA as an agent to treat disease. Gene therapy aims at the insertion of a functional gene into the cells of a patient for the correction of an inborn error of metabolism, to alter or repair an acquired genetic abnormality, and to provide new function to the cell. Many experiments have been done with respect to its application in various diseases.Today, most of the gene therapy studies are aimed at cancer and hereditary diseases which are linked to genetic defects. C...

  8. Breast cancer and irradiation: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer, the most frequent in females, can be induced by many physical and chemical agents. The contribution on ionizing radiation has been clearly demonstrated both by animal experiments on rats and epidemiologic surveys on populations of women submitted to medical exposure or on Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The mean risk per dose unit (rad) is estimated at about 6 per year and per 106 females. It can vary widely with the age at the time of exposure and other internal (mainly hormonal) or external (diet for instance) factors. For radiation protection purposes, breast is a high risk tissue, which explains the high risk factor adopted by ICRP for this tissue

  9. Statistical and Multidimensional Body Composition Parameter Analysis in Young Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topczewska Magdalena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the problem of assessing selected body compo- sition parameters after completion of antitumor therapy and comparing them with the same parameters of healthy children. A high percentage of overweight and obesity, as well as abnormal fat distribution in convalescents with cancer shows a significant adverse effect of therapy on body composition and suggests the need for early intervention in terms of diet and exercise, which would help patients to quickly achieve the proper parameters of body composition. Two main problems will be mentioned during the presented data analysis. Firstly, in each group there was a small number of observations. Because of this, the real differences between examined subgroups may have been omitted. Secondarily, many variables are correlated and are not normally distributed. Therefore, be- side the standard statistical tests to compare two groups, principal component analysis was applied to reduce the dimensions of the attribute space and to attempt to classify two groups of patients.

  10. Psychological aspects of prostate cancer: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, A; Sonavane, S; Mehta, J

    2012-06-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer in men. It is fraught with both physical and psychological symptomatology. Depression, anxiety, stress, fatigue, pain and psychosocial factors all affect the patient with prostate cancer. Impotence, erectile dysfunction, sexual issues and incontinence in these patients complicate matters further. Anxiety may exist both before testing and while awaiting test results. Confusion over choosing from various interventions often adds to anxiety and depression in these patients. Various demographic factors and the developmental stage of the couple affect these psychological symptoms. The caregiver may undergo significant psychological turmoil while caring for a patient diagnosed with prostate cancer, which is addressed. The role of nurses in the management of prostate cancer is discussed. The present review looks at psychological issues in patients with prostate cancer from a clinical perspective, with the aim of highlighting these issues for the clinical urologist dealing with these patients. It also explores the consultation-liaison relationship between psychiatrists, psychologists and urologists as a team for the multimodal management of prostate cancer. PMID:22212706

  11. Review of Animal Models of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Simmons

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer bone metastases are associated with a poor prognosis and are considered incurable. Insight into the formation and growth of prostate cancer bone metastasis is required for development of new imaging and therapeutic strategies to combat this devastating disease. Animal models are indispensable in investigating cancer pathogenesis and evaluating therapeutics. Multiple animal models of prostate cancer bone metastasis have been developed, but few effectively model prostatic neoplasms and osteoblastic bone metastases as they occur in men. This review discusses the animal models that have been developed to investigate prostate cancer bone metastasis, with a focus on canine models and also includes human xenograft and rodent models. Adult dogs spontaneously develop benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer with osteoblastic bone metastases. Large animal models, such as dogs, are needed to develop new molecular imaging tools and effective focal intraprostatic therapy. None of the available models fully reflect the metastatic disease seen in men, although the various models have provided important insight into the metastatic process. As additional models are developed and knowledge from the different models is combined, the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer bone metastasis can be deciphered and targeted for development of novel therapies and molecular diagnostic imaging.

  12. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Results Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine) and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline), which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking), and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Conclusion Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) are well known risk

  13. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letašiová Silvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Results Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline, which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking, and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Conclusion Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline

  14. Panel Reviews Benefits and Harms of CT Scans for Lung Cancer Screening | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    A panel of experts has reviewed the evidence regarding the benefits and harms of screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (CT) and concluded that the technology may benefit some individuals at high risk for lung cancer. But the panel cautioned that many questions remain about the potential harms of screening and how to translate screening into clinical practice. |

  15. Mortality and air pollution: lessons from statistics. [1959 to 1974 data review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1982-01-01

    Cross sectional studies which attempt to link persistent geographic differences in mortality rates with air pollution are reviewed. Some early studies are mentioned and detailed results are given for seven major contemporary studies, two of which are still in the publication process. Differences among the studies are discussed with regard to statistical techniques, trends in the results over time (1959 to 1974), and interpretation and use of the results. The analysis concludes that there are far too many problems with this technique to allow causality to be firmly established, and thus the results should not be used for cost benefit or policy analysis.

  16. A review of statistical methods for testing genetic anticipation: looking for an answer in Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boonstra, Philip S; Gruber, Stephen B; Raymond, Victoria M;

    2010-01-01

    -child pair data, we compare the paired t-test with the parametric conditional maximum likelihood approach of Huang and Vieland [1997] and the nonparametric approach of Rabinowitz and Yang [1999] in terms of Type I error and power under various simulation settings and departures from the modeling assumptions....... We then expand our review to incorporate recently proposed statistical methods that consider family instead of affected pairs as the sampling unit. These prospective censored regression models offer additional flexibility to incorporate unaffected family members, familial correlation and other...

  17. 77 FR 72858 - Toxicological Review of Inorganic Arsenic (Cancer and Noncancer Effects): In Support of Summary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... AGENCY Toxicological Review of Inorganic Arsenic (Cancer and Noncancer Effects): In Support of Summary... toxicological review of inorganic arsenic (cancer and noncancer effects) in support of the IRIS program. SUMMARY... toxicological review of chronic exposure to iAs (cancer and noncancer effects), which EPA intends to post in...

  18. Oral cancer in Libya and development of regional oral cancer registries: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. BenNasir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are three-fold: (1 to summarize the current epidemiological data on oral cancer in Libya as reported in the published literature and as compared to other national oral cancer rates in the region; (2 to present both the history of the early development, and future goals, of population-based oral cancer tumor registries in Libya as they partner with the more established regional and international population-based cancer tumor registries; and, (3 to offer recommendations that will likely be required in the near future if these nascent, population-based Libyan oral cancer registries are to establish themselves as on-going registries for describing the oral cancer disease patterns and risk factors in Libya as well as for prevention and treatment. This comprehensive literature review revealed that the current baseline incidence of oral cancer in Libya is similar to those of other North Africa countries and China, but is relatively low compared to the United Kingdom, the United States, and India. The recently established Libyan National Cancer Registry Program, initiated in 2007, while envisioning five cooperating regional cancer registries, continues to operate at a relatively suboptimal level. Lack of adequate levels of national funding continue to plague its development…and the accompanying quality of service that could be provided to the Libyan people.

  19. Multi-channels statistical and morphological features based mitosis detection in breast cancer histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Humayun; Roux, Ludovic; Racoceanu, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Accurate counting of mitosis in breast cancer histopathology plays a critical role in the grading process. Manual counting of mitosis is tedious and subject to considerable inter- and intra-reader variations. This work aims at improving the accuracy of mitosis detection by selecting the color channels that better capture the statistical and morphological features having mitosis discrimination from other objects. The proposed framework includes comprehensive analysis of first and second order statistical features together with morphological features in selected color channels and a study on balancing the skewed dataset using SMOTE method for increasing the predictive accuracy of mitosis classification. The proposed framework has been evaluated on MITOS data set during an ICPR 2012 contest and ranked second from 17 finalists. The proposed framework achieved 74% detection rate, 70% precision and 72% F-Measure. In future work, we plan to apply our mitosis detection tool to images produced by different types of slide scanners, including multi-spectral and multi-focal microscopy.

  20. BRIEF REVIEW ON DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUE AND NOVEL MOLECULES IN CLINICAL TRIALS FOR TREATMENT OF BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VISHAL KUMAR S. MODI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in both developed and undeveloped countries, and the second most frequent cause of cancer deaths after lung cancer. Although there have been many chemotherapeutic agents like 5-fluorouracil, taxol, tamoxifen, doxorubicin, cisplatin, and camptothecin and hormones are used to treat breast cancer. This review focuses on the causes of breast cancer, latest diagnostic techniques and various molecules under clinical trials for the treatment of breast cancer.

  1. Review of Natural Compounds for Potential Skin Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawona N. Chinembiri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Most anti-cancer drugs are derived from natural resources such as marine, microbial and botanical sources. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer, with a high mortality rate. Various treatments for malignant melanoma are available, but due to the development of multi-drug resistance, current or emerging chemotherapies have a relatively low success rates. This emphasizes the importance of discovering new compounds that are both safe and effective against melanoma. In vitro testing of melanoma cell lines and murine melanoma models offers the opportunity for identifying mechanisms of action of plant derived compounds and extracts. Common anti-melanoma effects of natural compounds include potentiating apoptosis, inhibiting cell proliferation and inhibiting metastasis. There are different mechanisms and pathways responsible for anti-melanoma actions of medicinal compounds such as promotion of caspase activity, inhibition of angiogenesis and inhibition of the effects of tumor promoting proteins such as PI3-K, Bcl-2, STAT3 and MMPs. This review thus aims at providing an overview of anti-cancer compounds, derived from natural sources, that are currently used in cancer chemotherapies, or that have been reported to show anti-melanoma, or anti-skin cancer activities. Phytochemicals that are discussed in this review include flavonoids, carotenoids, terpenoids, vitamins, sulforaphane, some polyphenols and crude plant extracts.

  2. Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: A Review of Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govardhanan Nagaiah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC is an uncommon malignancy of the thyroid. Only 1-2% of thyroid cancers are anaplastic, but the disease contributes to 14–50% of the mortality with a median survival of 3 to 5 months. Most patients diagnosed with this disease are 65 years of age or older. The incidence of anaplastic thyroid cancer is decreasing worldwide. Most patients present with a rapidly growing neck mass, dysphagia, or voice change. We performed a comprehensive literature search using PubMed focusing on the treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancer including historical review of treatment and outcomes and investigations of new agents and approaches. A total of sixteen chart review and retrospective studies and eleven prospective studies and/or clinical trials were reviewed. The current standard therapeutic approach is to consider the disease as systemic at time of diagnosis and pursue combined modality therapy incorporating cytoreductive surgical resection where feasible and/or chemoradiation either concurrently or sequentially. Doxorubicin is the most commonly used agent, with a response rate of 22%. Several new agents are currently under investigation. Referral of patients for participation in clinical trials is needed.

  3. Systematic Review of the Use of Phytochemicals for Management of Pain in Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Harrison

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain in cancer therapy is a common condition and there is a need for new options in therapeutic management. While phytochemicals have been proposed as one pain management solution, knowledge of their utility is limited. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the biomedical literature for the use of phytochemicals for management of cancer therapy pain in human subjects. Of an initial database search of 1,603 abstracts, 32 full-text articles were eligible for further assessment. Only 7 of these articles met all inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The average relative risk of phytochemical versus control was 1.03 [95% CI 0.59 to 2.06]. In other words (although not statistically significant, patients treated with phytochemicals were slightly more likely than patients treated with control to obtain successful management of pain in cancer therapy. We identified a lack of quality research literature on this subject and thus were unable to demonstrate a clear therapeutic benefit for either general or specific use of phytochemicals in the management of cancer pain. This lack of data is especially apparent for psychotropic phytochemicals, such as the Cannabis plant (marijuana. Additional implications of our findings are also explored.

  4. Review article: colitis-associated cancer -- time for new strategies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, F

    2012-02-03

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a feared and potentially life-threatening complication of both ulcerative colitis and Crohn\\'s colitis. Currently, the main preventive strategy is a secondary one, i.e. surveillance colonoscopy usually after 8 years of disease duration, when the risk for neoplasia begins to increase. Despite its widespread acceptance, dysplasia and cancer surveillance is unproven in terms of reducing mortality or morbidity and there is a remarkable lack of uniformity in the manner in which it is practised. In this review article, the pitfalls of dysplasia surveillance are summarized and the need for novel chemopreventive and perhaps pharmabiotic approaches for prevention are highlighted.

  5. Cancer gene therapy targeting angiogenesis: An updated review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Chiu Liu; Zan Shen; Hsiang-Fu Kung; Marie CM Lin

    2006-01-01

    Since the relationship between angiogenesis and tumor growth was established by Folkman in 1971,scientists have made efforts exploring the possibilities in treating cancer by targeting angiogenesis. Inhibition of angiogenesis growth factors and administration of angiogenesis inhibitors are the basics of antiangiogenesis therapy. Transfer of anti-angiogenesis genes has Received attention recently not only because of the advancement of recombinant vectors, but also because of the localized and sustained expression of therapeutic gene product inside the tumor after gene transfer. This review provides the up-to-date information about the strategies and the vectors studied in the field of anti-angiogenesis cancer gene therapy.

  6. [Breast cancer in Sub-Saharan African women: review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Madani; Antoine, Martine; André, Fabrice; Callard, Patrice; Bernaudin, Jean-François; Diallo, Dapa A

    2011-07-01

    Breast cancer is the second most frequent cancer in Sub-Saharan African women with an incidence of 15-53 per 100,000 women. Using PubMed, we reviewed all the articles published on this topic between 1989 and 2009. Breast cancer is usually diagnosed in women younger than in developed countries (mean age: 42-53 years), with later stages (III or IV, i.e. with axillary nodes and distant metastases). Reported tumors are mostly invasive ductal carcinomas with aggressive characteristics: grade III histoprognosis, absence of hormonal receptors or HER2 expression. According to the new breast cancer classification, nearly half of these tumors should be classified as triple negative. However, studies are rare and require confirmation. In conclusion, data on epidemiology and biology of breast cancer in Sub-Saharan African women are still scarce and need more extensive studies. In these countries, the pattern of breast cancer will likely change in the future, according to the evolution of lifestyle namely urbanisation. There is a great need for commitment of research and clinical resources in Sub-Saharan Africa in order to develop specific strategies. PMID:21700549

  7. No difference found in time to publication by statistical significance of trial results: a methodological review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, L; Cooper, E; Hewitt, C; Torgerson, T; Cook, L; Tharmanathan, P; Cockayne, S; Torgerson, D

    2016-01-01

    Objective Time-lag from study completion to publication is a potential source of publication bias in randomised controlled trials. This study sought to update the evidence base by identifying the effect of the statistical significance of research findings on time to publication of trial results. Design Literature searches were carried out in four general medical journals from June 2013 to June 2014 inclusive (BMJ, JAMA, the Lancet and the New England Journal of Medicine). Setting Methodological review of four general medical journals. Participants Original research articles presenting the primary analyses from phase 2, 3 and 4 parallel-group randomised controlled trials were included. Main outcome measures Time from trial completion to publication. Results The median time from trial completion to publication was 431 days (n = 208, interquartile range 278–618). A multivariable adjusted Cox model found no statistically significant difference in time to publication for trials reporting positive or negative results (hazard ratio: 0.86, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.16, p = 0.32). Conclusion In contrast to previous studies, this review did not demonstrate the presence of time-lag bias in time to publication. This may be a result of these articles being published in four high-impact general medical journals that may be more inclined to publish rapidly, whatever the findings. Further research is needed to explore the presence of time-lag bias in lower quality studies and lower impact journals. PMID:27757242

  8. Immunotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amit; Chia, Whay Kuang; Toh, Han Chong

    2016-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and characterized by peritumoral immune infiltrate. Advanced NPC has high lethality. Immunotherapy directed against EBV antigen targets has been previously explored in clinical trials, and is likely to be validated as an important target in NPC as randomized data emerges in the future. Cancer vaccines and adoptive T cell therapy have been explored in the clinic, with the latter showing the greatest success. Recent advances in gene sequencing technology now allow personalized tumor epitope mapping, whilst the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis offers the opportunity to activate adaptive T cell response in vivo. Anti-PD1 antibodies have shown promising activity in early phase clinical trials, and randomized studies against chemotherapy are underway. As immunotherapy is incorporated into standard treatment paradigms, issues of optimal combinations with targeting agents, immune adjuvants, and sequence with chemotherapy and radiation therapy will need to be addressed. Effective strategies to increase tumor antigenicity, improve immunological memory and reduce immune escape, will need to be developed to improve treatment outcomes. Here we present a brief history of the evolution of immunotherapy in NPC, and highlight key concepts relevant to its further development in the clinic. PMID:27121882

  9. Selenium and lung cancer: a systematic review and meta analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Fritz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is a natural health product widely used in the treatment and prevention of lung cancers, but large chemoprevention trials have yielded conflicting results. We conducted a systematic review of selenium for lung cancers, and assessed potential interactions with conventional therapies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Two independent reviewers searched six databases from inception to March 2009 for evidence pertaining to the safety and efficacy of selenium for lung cancers. Pubmed and EMBASE were searched to October 2009 for evidence on interactions with chemo- or radiation-therapy. In the efficacy analysis there were nine reports of five RCTs and two biomarker-based studies, 29 reports of 26 observational studies, and 41 preclinical studies. Fifteen human studies, one case report, and 36 preclinical studies were included in the interactions analysis. Based on available evidence, there appears to be a different chemopreventive effect dependent on baseline selenium status, such that selenium supplementation may reduce risk of lung cancers in populations with lower baseline selenium status (serum<106 ng/mL, but increase risk of lung cancers in those with higher selenium (≥ 121.6 ng/mL. Pooling data from two trials yielded no impact to odds of lung cancer, OR 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.61-1.43; other cancers that were the primary endpoints of these trials, OR 1.51 (95%CI 0.70-3.24; and all-cause-death, OR 0.93 (95%CI 0.79-1.10. In the treatment of lung cancers, selenium may reduce cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and side effects associated with radiation therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Selenium may be effective for lung cancer prevention among individuals with lower selenium status, but at present should not be used as a general strategy for lung cancer prevention. Although promising, more evidence on the ability of selenium to reduce cisplatin and radiation therapy toxicity is required to ensure that therapeutic efficacy is maintained before

  10. Public figure announcements about cancer and opportunities for cancer communication: a review and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Myrick, Jessica Gall; Brown, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Announcements by public figures and celebrities about cancer diagnosis or death represent significant events in public life. But what are the substantive effects of such events, if any? The purpose of this article is to systematically review studies that examined the impact of public figure cancer announcements on cancer-oriented outcomes. Using comprehensive search procedures, we identified k = 19 studies that examined 11 distinct public figures. The most commonly studied public figures were Jade Goody, Kylie Minogue, Nancy Reagan, and Steve Jobs, with the most common cancers studied being breast (53%), cervical (21%), and pancreatic (21%) cancer. Most studies assessed multiple outcome variables, including behavioral outcomes (k = 15), media coverage (k = 10), information seeking (k = 8), cancer incidence (k = 3), and interpersonal communication (k = 2). Results fairly consistently indicated that cancer announcements from public figures had meaningful effects on many, if not most, of these outcome variables. While such events essentially act as naturally occurring interventions, the effects tend to be relatively short term. Gaps in this literature include few contemporary studies of high-profile public figures in the United States and a general lack of theory-based research. Directions for future research as well as implications for cancer communication and prevention are discussed. PMID:23845155

  11. Public figure announcements about cancer and opportunities for cancer communication: a review and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Myrick, Jessica Gall; Brown, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Announcements by public figures and celebrities about cancer diagnosis or death represent significant events in public life. But what are the substantive effects of such events, if any? The purpose of this article is to systematically review studies that examined the impact of public figure cancer announcements on cancer-oriented outcomes. Using comprehensive search procedures, we identified k = 19 studies that examined 11 distinct public figures. The most commonly studied public figures were Jade Goody, Kylie Minogue, Nancy Reagan, and Steve Jobs, with the most common cancers studied being breast (53%), cervical (21%), and pancreatic (21%) cancer. Most studies assessed multiple outcome variables, including behavioral outcomes (k = 15), media coverage (k = 10), information seeking (k = 8), cancer incidence (k = 3), and interpersonal communication (k = 2). Results fairly consistently indicated that cancer announcements from public figures had meaningful effects on many, if not most, of these outcome variables. While such events essentially act as naturally occurring interventions, the effects tend to be relatively short term. Gaps in this literature include few contemporary studies of high-profile public figures in the United States and a general lack of theory-based research. Directions for future research as well as implications for cancer communication and prevention are discussed.

  12. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of cancer: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies was to gain further insight into the effects of adherence to Mediterranean Diet (MD) on overall cancer mortality, incidence of different types of cancer, and cancer mortality risk in cancer survivors. Literature search was performed using the electronic databases PubMed, and EMBASE until 2 July 2015. We included either cohort (for specific tumors only incidence cases were used) or case-control studies. Study specific risk ratios, hazard ratios, and odds ratios (RR/HR/OR) were pooled using a random effect model. The updated review process showed 23 observational studies that were not included in the previous meta-analysis (total number of studies evaluated: 56 observational studies). An overall population of 1,784,404 subjects was included in the present update. The highest adherence score to an MD was significantly associated with a lower risk of all-cause cancer mortality (RR: 0.87, 95% CI 0.81-0.93, I(2) = 84%), colorectal cancer (RR: 0.83, 95% CI 0.76-0.89, I(2) = 56%), breast cancer (RR: 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-0.99, I(2) =15%), gastric cancer (RR: 0.73, 95% CI 0.55-0.97, I(2) = 66%), prostate cancer (RR: 0.96, 95% CI 0.92-1.00, I(2) = 0%), liver cancer (RR: 0.58, 95% CI 0.46-0.73, I(2) = 0%), head and neck cancer (RR: 0.40, 95% CI 0.24-0.66, I(2) = 90%), pancreatic cancer (RR: 0.48, 95% CI 0.35-0.66), and respiratory cancer (RR: 0.10, 95% CI 0.01-0.70). No significant association could be observed for esophageal/ovarian/endometrial/and bladder cancer, respectively. Among cancer survivors, the association between the adherence to the highest MD category and risk of cancer mortality, and cancer recurrence was not statistically significant. The updated meta-analyses confirm a prominent and consistent inverse association provided by adherence to an MD in relation to cancer mortality and risk of several cancer types.

  13. TOPICAL REVIEW: Biological and chemical sensors for cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Elfriede

    2010-11-01

    The great challenge for sensor systems to be accepted as a relevant diagnostic and therapeutic tool for cancer detection is the ability to determine the presence of relevant biomarkers or biomarker patterns comparably to or even better than the traditional analytical systems. Biosensor and chemical sensor technologies are already used for several clinical applications such as blood glucose or blood gas measurements. However, up to now not many sensors have been developed for cancer-related tests because only a few of the biomarkers have shown clinical relevance and the performance of the sensor systems is not always satisfactory. New genomic and proteomic tools are used to detect new molecular signatures and identify which combinations of biomarkers may detect best the presence or risk of cancer or monitor cancer therapies. These molecular signatures include genetic and epigenetic signatures, changes in gene expressions, protein biomarker profiles and other metabolite profile changes. They provide new changes in using different sensor technologies for cancer detection especially when complex biomarker patterns have to be analyzed. To address requirements for this complex analysis, there have been recent efforts to develop sensor arrays and new solutions (e.g. lab on a chip) in which sampling, preparation, high-throughput analysis and reporting are integrated. The ability of parallelization, miniaturization and the degree of automation are the focus of new developments and will be supported by nanotechnology approaches. This review recaps some scientific considerations about cancer diagnosis and cancer-related biomarkers, relevant biosensor and chemical sensor technologies, their application as cancer sensors and consideration about future challenges.

  14. Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, M A; Yao, X; Loblaw, A; Finelli, A

    2016-09-01

    A systematic review was conducted to investigate the use of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MPMRI) followed by targeted biopsy in the diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer (CSPC) and to compare it with transrectal ultrasound-guided (TRUS-guided) systematic biopsy in patients with an elevated risk of prostate cancer who are either biopsy-naive or who have a previous negative TRUS-guided biopsy. MEDLINE, PubMed and EMBASE (1997 to April 2014), the Cochrane Library and six relevant conferences were searched to find eligible studies. Search terms indicative of 'prostate cancer' and 'magnetic resonance imaging' with their alternatives were used. Twelve systematic reviews, 52 full texts and 28 abstracts met the preplanned study selection criteria; data from 15 articles were extracted. In patients with an elevated risk of prostate cancer who were biopsy-naive, MPMRI followed by targeted biopsy could detect 2-13% of CSPC patients whom TRUS-guided systematic biopsy missed; TRUS-guided systematic biopsy could detect 0-7% of CSPC patients whom MPMRI followed by targeted biopsy missed. In patients with an elevated risk of prostate cancer who had a previous negative TRUS-guided biopsy, MPMRI followed by targeted biopsy detected more CSPC patients than repeated TRUS-guided systematic biopsy in all four studies, with a total of 516 patients, but only one study reached a statistically significant difference. In patients with an elevated risk of prostate cancer who are biopsy-naive, there is insufficient evidence for MPMRI followed by targeted biopsy to be considered the standard of care. In patients who had a prior negative TRUS-guided systematic biopsy and show a growing risk of having CSPC, MPMRI followed by targeted biopsy may be helpful to detect more CSPC cases as opposed to a repeat TRUS-guided systematic biopsy. PMID:27256655

  15. Resveratrol: A review of preclinical studies for human cancer prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for novel and effective cancer chemopreventive agents has led to the identification of various naturally occurring compounds one of which is resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a phytoalexin derived from the skin of grapes and other fruits. Resveratrol is known to have potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and to inhibit platelet aggregation and the growth of a variety of cancer cells. Its potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities have been demonstrated in all three stages of carcinogenesis (initiation, promotion, and progression), in both chemically and UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice, as well as in various murine models of human cancers. Evidence from numerous in vitro and in vivo studies has confirmed its ability to modulate various targets and signaling pathways. This review discusses the current preclinical and mechanistic data available and assesses resveratrol's anticancer effects to support its potential as an anticancer agent in human populations

  16. Palliative radiotherapy in head and neck cancers: Evidence based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talapatra Kaustav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN is one of the commonest cancers seen in India, constituting up to 25% of their overall cancer burden. Advanced SCCHN is a bad disease with a poor prognosis and patients usually die of uncontrolled loco-regional disease. Curative intent management of loco-regionally advanced SCCHN has become more evidence-based with active clinical research in the form of large prospective randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. However, little has been written about palliative radiotherapy (PRT in head and neck cancers. It is widely recognized that PRT provides effective palliation and improved quality-of-life in advanced incurable malignancies. It is in this context that this study proposes to review the existing literature on palliative radiotherapy in advanced incurable SCCHN to help formulate consensus guidelines and recommendations.

  17. Carcinogenetic mechanisms of endocrine disruptors in female cancers (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pup, Lino; Mantovani, Alberto; Cavaliere, Carla; Facchini, Gaetano; Luce, Amalia; Sperlongano, Pasquale; Caraglia, Michele; Berretta, Massimiliano

    2016-08-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are pollutants that alter the endocrine system and are involved in carcinogenesis. EDs have multiple and complex levels of action. They can affect the synthesis, release and transport of natural hormones. In target tissues, EDs can reduce or increase the effects of natural hormones on their receptors and change signaling cascades. When ED exposure happens at critical periods of life, from embryo to puberty, they can act at doses considered safe for an adult. Furthermore, their epigenetic effects can also influence the cancer risk of future generations. The cancer mechanisms of known EDs are hereby reviewed, There are thousands of newly introduced substances whose potential endocrine-disrupting and cancer effects are completely unknown. Although there are still gaps in our knowledge, these data support the urgent need for health and environmental policies aimed at protecting the public and in particular, the developing fetus and women of reproductive age. PMID:27349723

  18. Carcinogenetic mechanisms of endocrine disruptors in female cancers (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pup, Lino; Mantovani, Alberto; Cavaliere, Carla; Facchini, Gaetano; Luce, Amalia; Sperlongano, Pasquale; Caraglia, Michele; Berretta, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are pollutants that alter the endocrine system and are involved in carcinogenesis. EDs have multiple and complex levels of action. They can affect the synthesis, release and transport of natural hormones. In target tissues, EDs can reduce or increase the effects of natural hormones on their receptors and change signaling cascades. When ED exposure happens at critical periods of life, from embryo to puberty, they can act at doses considered safe for an adult. Furthermore, their epigenetic effects can also influence the cancer risk of future generations. The cancer mechanisms of known EDs are hereby reviewed, There are thousands of newly introduced substances whose potential endocrine-disrupting and cancer effects are completely unknown. Although there are still gaps in our knowledge, these data support the urgent need for health and environmental policies aimed at protecting the public and in particular, the developing fetus and women of reproductive age. PMID:27349723

  19. Supervised exercise reduces cancer-related fatigue: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Meneses-Echávez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Question: Does supervised physical activity reduce cancer-related fatigue? Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised trials. Participants: People diagnosed with any type of cancer, without restriction to a particular stage of diagnosis or treatment. Intervention: Supervised physical activity interventions (eg, aerobic, resistance and stretching exercise, defined as any planned or structured body movement causing an increase in energy expenditure, designed to maintain or enhance health-related outcomes, and performed with systematic frequency, intensity and duration. Outcome measures: The primary outcome measure was fatigue. Secondary outcomes were physical and functional wellbeing assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Fatigue Scale, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, Piper Fatigue Scale, Schwartz Cancer Fatigue Scale and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. Methodological quality, including risk of bias of the studies, was evaluated using the PEDro Scale. Results: Eleven studies involving 1530 participants were included in the review. The assessment of quality showed a mean score of 6.5 (SD 1.1, indicating a low overall risk of bias. The pooled effect on fatigue, calculated as a standardised mean difference (SMD using a random-effects model, was –1.69 (95% CI –2.99 to –0.39. Beneficial reductions in fatigue were also found with combined aerobic and resistance training with supervision (SMD = –0.41, 95% CI –0.70 to –0.13 and with combined aerobic, resistance and stretching training with supervision (SMD = –0.67, 95% CI –1.17 to –0.17. Conclusion: Supervised physical activity interventions reduce cancer-related fatigue. These findings suggest that combined aerobic and resistance exercise regimens with or without stretching should be included as part of rehabilitation programs for people who have been diagnosed with cancer

  20. Domestic incense use and lung cancer in Asia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Wei Jie; Lan, Qing

    2016-03-01

    While there is strong evidence for the association between household air pollution and lung cancer among non-smoking women, the association between domestic incense use and lung cancer risk has been inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review of PubMed articles authored between 1969 and August 25, 2015 before performing a manual review of each study, and found a total of seven published studies on this topic. Most of the studies are case-control in design and did not further stratify by sex and smoking status. Of the seven studies, three reported positive associations, three reported null associations and one study found a negative association between incense use and lung cancer. Only one study reported estimates for non-smoking women. Future studies should be larger in sample size, stratify by both sex and smoking status in their analyses, and collect more detailed information on incense use in order to facilitate the understanding of the association between domestic incense use and lung cancer risk among non-smoking women in Asia.

  1. Capecitabine for locally advanced and metastatic colorectal cancer: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Koukourakis, Georgios V; Zacharias, Georgios; Tsalafoutas, John; Theodoridis, Dimitrios; Kouloulias, Vassilios

    2010-01-01

    Capecitabine (Xeloda®) is an oral fluoropyrimidine which is produced as a pro-drug of fluorouracil, and shows improved tolerability and intratumor drug concentrations following its tumor-specific conversion to the active drug. We have searched the Pubmed and Cochrane databases from 1980 to 2009 with the purpose of reviewing all available information on Capecitabine, focusing on its clinical effectiveness against colorectal cancer. Special attention has been paid to trials that compared Capeci...

  2. Expressive writing interventions in cancer patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Erin L; Fox, Rina S; Malcarne, Vanessa L

    2014-01-01

    Decades of research have suggested that expressive writing produces physical and psychological benefits in controlled laboratory experiments among healthy college students. This work has been extended to clinical and medical populations, including cancer patients. Although expressive writing could be a promising and inexpensive intervention for this population, the effects have not been systematically examined in oncology samples. A systematic review using PRISMA guidelines was conducted for experimental trials of cancer patients who participated in an expressive writing intervention. PsycINFO and PubMed/Medline were searched for peer-reviewed studies. Thirteen articles met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Although the majority of the intervention effects were null, there were several main effects for expressive writing on sleep, pain, and general physical and psychological symptoms. Several moderators were identified, suggesting that expressive writing may be more or less beneficial based on individual characteristics such as social constraints. The reviewed studies were limited due to representativeness of the samples, performance, detection and patient-reported outcomes biases, and heterogeneity of the intervention protocol and writing prompts. Future studies with rigorous designs are needed to determine whether expressive writing is therapeutically effective in cancer patients.

  3. Trichloroethylene and Cancer: Systematic and Quantitative Review of Epidemiologic Evidence for Identifying Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Siegel Scott

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a meta-analysis focusing on studies with high potential for trichloroethylene (TCE exposure to provide quantitative evaluations of the evidence for associations between TCE exposure and kidney, liver, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL cancers. A systematic review documenting essential design features, exposure assessment approaches, statistical analyses, and potential sources of confounding and bias identified twenty-four cohort and case-control studies on TCE and the three cancers of interest with high potential for exposure, including five recently published case-control studies of kidney cancer or NHL. Fixed- and random-effects models were fitted to the data on overall exposure and on the highest exposure group. Sensitivity analyses examined the influence of individual studies and of alternative risk estimate selections. For overall TCE exposure and kidney cancer, the summary relative risk (RRm estimate from the random effects model was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.43, with a higher RRm for the highest exposure groups (1.58, 95% CI: 1.28, 1.96. The RRm estimates were not overly sensitive to alternative risk estimate selections or to removal of an individual study. There was no apparent heterogeneity or publication bias. For NHL, RRm estimates for overall exposure and for the highest exposure group, respectively, were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.42 and 1.43 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.82 and, for liver cancer, 1.29 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.56 and 1.28 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.77. Our findings provide strong support for a causal association between TCE exposure and kidney cancer. The support is strong but less robust for NHL, where issues of study heterogeneity, potential publication bias, and weaker exposure-response results contribute uncertainty, and more limited for liver cancer, where only cohort studies with small numbers of cases were available.

  4. Cancer Information Seeking and Cancer-Related Health Outcomes: A Scoping Review of the Health Information National Trends Survey Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfall, Lisa T; Friedman, Daniela B

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death among adults in the United States. Only 54% of U.S. adults reported seeking cancer information in 2014. Cancer information seeking has been positively associated with cancer-related health outcomes such as screening adherence. We conducted a scoping review of studies that used data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) in order to examine cancer information seeking in depth and the relationship between cancer information seeking and cancer-related health outcomes. We searched five databases and the HINTS website. The search yielded a total of 274 article titles. After review of 114 de-duplicated titles, 66 abstracts, and 50 articles, 22 studies met inclusion criteria. Cancer information seeking was the outcome in only four studies. The other 18 studies focused on a cancer-related health outcome. Cancer beliefs, health knowledge, and information seeking experience were positive predictors of cancer information seeking. Cancer-related awareness, knowledge, beliefs, preventive behaviors, and screening adherence were higher among cancer information seekers. Results from this review can inform other research study designs and primary data collection focused on specific cancer sites or aimed at populations not represented or underrepresented in the HINTS data (e.g., minority populations, those with lower socioeconomic status). PMID:27466828

  5. Breast cancer pain management - A review of current & novel therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aanchal Satija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers amongst women in the world. Unfortunately, even after adequate treatment, some patients experience severe pain either due to disease progression or due to treatment related side effects. The persistent pain causes a negative physical and psychosocial impact on patients′ lives. Current rational pain management is patient-centred and requires a thorough psychological assessment. Usually adequate analgesia is achieved by adopting the WHO′s three step analgesic ladder. As the disease progresses, the pain experienced by the patient also increases. This necessitates the administration of opioids and adjuvant analgesics to the breast cancer patients experiencing severe pain. However, opioid use is associated with intolerable side effects like constipation, nausea, vomiting, fear of dependence, and tolerance. Concomitant medications are required to combat these unacceptable side effects. Adjuvant analgesics need to be added to provide adequate and satisfactory analgesia. These factors worsen the psychological state of patients and deteriorate their quality of life. Hence, there is a need to develop therapeutic modalities to provide adequate analgesia with minimum side effects. This review article focuses on the current treatments available for cancer pain management, their limitations, and novel targets and non-pharmacological measures under investigation which have the potential to produce a radical change in pain management measures for the breast cancer patients.

  6. Does contemporary canine diet cause cancer? ; A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph B Gentzel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent discoveries have discerned the presence of advanced glycation end products (AGEs and their impact on chronic diseases that include cancer in dogs. AGEs are closely allied with chronic systemic inflammation (metaflammation. These two occurrences are observed in many cancers in both humans and dogs. AGEs are exogenous and endogenous. Exogenous AGEs occur from, among other causes, ingestion of food that is affected by the Maillard reaction in its preparation. The result is an accumulation of AGEs and progressive metaflammation that is linked with many cancers in both humans and dogs. Aspects of AGE ingestion and formation are reviewed in association with the contemporary canine diet that is primarily a kibbled meal based diet. Anovel canine diet paradigm is offered as one that diminishes the AGE/ metaflammation axis. This is proposed to be less carcinogenic than the current canine diet in use by much of the civilized world. The proposed paradigm is a unique approach that offers opportunities to be tested for AGE and metaflammation accumulation that results in diminished prevalence and incidence of cancer in dogs. The paradigm diet is suggested as a prevention, treatment, and recovery aide from cancer

  7. Role of radiation therapy in lung cancer management - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J-G; Shao, H-J; Jiang, F-E; Huang, Y-D

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Furthermore, more than 50% of lung cancer patients are found affected by distant metastases at the time of diagnosis. On the other hand, 20% of these patients are without regional spread and are good candidates for surgical operation. The remaining 30% represent an intermediate group whose tumors have metastasized up to regional lymph nodes. These remain 30% are the most appropriate candidates for radiation therapy. These patients are also called as "locally advanced lung cancer" or stage III lung cancer patients. In these patients strategy of combination therapy viz. radiation therapy in combination with chemotherapy is also tried by various groups in the recent past for this better management. However, long-term survival is still poor with a 5-year survival in 5-25% of patients. During the last decades, there has been a development in radiation strategies. The present review article focuses on different approaches to optimize radiotherapy for these patients. PMID:27466995

  8. Review article: anorexia and cachexia in gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockenga, J; Valentini, L

    2005-10-01

    In patients with gastrointestinal malignancies, i.e. cancers of the stomach, colon, liver, biliary tract or pancreas, progressive undernutrition can be regularly observed during the course of illness. Undernutrition significantly affects the patients' quality of life, morbidity and survival. Pathogenetically, two different causes are relevant in the development of undernutrition in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. One cause is reduced nutritional intake. This condition is referred to as anorexia and can be worsened by the side effects of cancer therapy. The other cause is the release of endogenous transmitters and/or other products of the tumour leading to the cachexia syndrome, which is characterized by loss of body weight, negative nitrogen balance and fatigue. Cancer anorexia and cancer cachexia may have synergistic negative effects in affecting the patients' status. In this review, current nutritional support strategies with respect to different clinically relevant situations are described. An algorithm of the treatment strategies, including dietetic counselling, oral supplements, enteral and parenteral nutritional support is given. One focus is the approach of nutrition-focused patient care, which shows promising results. In addition, the possibilities of pharmacological intervention are discussed. PMID:16181298

  9. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) for cancer chemoprevention: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Prasan R

    2015-04-01

    Cancer is one of the most feared diseases globally and there has been a sustained rise in its incidence in both developing and developed countries. Despite the growing therapeutic options for patients with cancer, their efficacy is time-limited and non-curative. Hence to overcome these drawbacks, an incessant screening for superior and safer drugs has been ongoing for numerous decades, resulting in the detection of anti-cancer properties of several phytochemicals. Chemoprevention using readily available natural substances from vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices is one of the significantly important approaches for cancer prevention in the present era. Among the spices, Crocus sativus L. (saffron; fān hóng huā) has generated interest because pharmacological experiments have established numerous beneficial properties including radical scavenging, anti-mutagenic and immuno-modulating effects. The more powerful components of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients. This review provides a brief insight into the anticancer properties of saffron and its components.

  10. What implementation interventions increase cancer screening rates? a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lent Barbara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. As part of a larger agenda to create an implementation guideline, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate interventions designed to increase the rate of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (CRC screening. The interventions considered were: client reminders, client incentives, mass media, small media, group education, one-on-one education, reduction in structural barriers, reduction in out-of-pocket costs, provider assessment and feedback interventions, and provider incentives. Our primary outcome, screening completion, was calculated as the overall median post-intervention absolute percentage point (PP change in completed screening tests. Methods Our first step was to conduct an iterative scoping review in the research area. This yielded three relevant high-quality systematic reviews. Serving as our evidentiary foundation, we conducted a formal update. Randomized controlled trials and cluster randomized controlled trials, published between 2004 and 2010, were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHinfo. Results The update yielded 66 studies new eligible studies with 74 comparisons. The new studies ranged considerably in quality. Client reminders, small media, and provider audit and feedback appear to be effective interventions to increase the uptake of screening for three cancers. One-on-one education and reduction of structural barriers also appears effective, but their roles with CRC and cervical screening, respectively, are less established. More study is required to assess client incentives, mass media, group education, reduction of out-of-pocket costs, and provider incentive interventions. Conclusion The new evidence generally aligns with the evidence and conclusions from the original systematic

  11. Functional polymorphisms in the matrix metalloproteinase genes and their association with bladder cancer risk and recurrence: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Edyta; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Reszka, Edyta

    2014-08-01

    Molecular pathogenesis of muscle invasive bladder cancer and non-muscle invasive bladder cancer is incompletely elucidated. It is believed that matrix metalloproteinases, which are involved in the processes of uncontrolled extracellular matrix substrates degradation and participate in modulating the activity of a variety of non-matrix proteins, can contribute to carcinogenesis. Polymorphisms in the MMP genes associated with unique genomic changes in bladder cancer patients are still being investigated to discover direct links with pathophysiological mechanisms. Because of the functional polymorphisms in the MMP genes, which have a proven or likely effect on their protein expression, they could possibly affect the tumor process. The current mini-review synthesizes findings regarding the association of genetic polymorphisms in the MMP genes with bladder cancer risk and recurrence in patients. We discuss the current views on the feasibility of genetic polymorphisms in the MMP1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9 and 12 genes as a risk, and prognostic markers for patients with bladder cancer. The majority of the research described in the present mini-review proves that the genetic polymorphism in the MMP1 (rs1799750) is the most widely studied, and suggests that the rare genotype, 2G2G, of that gene might show increased susceptibility for bladder cancer, especially among smokers. However, existing statistically significant associations between the genetic polymorphisms in the MMP genes and bladder cancer risk have not been clearly shown, and further studies are necessary in order to positively confirm them or dispel potential false hopes. PMID:24635493

  12. A Review of Three Simple Plant Models and Corresponding Statistical Tools for Basic Research in Homeopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucietta Betti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review three simple plant models (wheat seed germination, wheat seedling growth, and infected tobacco plants that we set up during a series of experiments carried out from 1991 to 2009 in order to study the effects of homeopathic treatments. We will also describe the set of statistical tools applied in the different models. The homeopathic treatment used in our experiments was arsenic trioxide (As2O3 diluted in a decimal scale and dynamized. Since the most significant results were achieved with the 45th decimal potency, both for As2O3 (As 45x and water (W 45x, we here report a brief summary of these results. The statistical analysis was performed by using parametric and nonparametric tests, and Poisson distribution had an essential role when dealing with germination experiments. Finally, we will describe some results related to the changes in variability, which seems to be one of the targets of homeopathic treatment effect.

  13. Statistical Models of Fracture Relevant to Nuclear-Grade Graphite: Review and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Bratton, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear-grade (low-impurity) graphite needed for the fuel element and moderator material for next-generation (Gen IV) reactors displays large scatter in strength and a nonlinear stress-strain response from damage accumulation. This response can be characterized as quasi-brittle. In this expanded review, relevant statistical failure models for various brittle and quasi-brittle material systems are discussed with regard to strength distribution, size effect, multiaxial strength, and damage accumulation. This includes descriptions of the Weibull, Batdorf, and Burchell models as well as models that describe the strength response of composite materials, which involves distributed damage. Results from lattice simulations are included for a physics-based description of material breakdown. Consideration is given to the predicted transition between brittle and quasi-brittle damage behavior versus the density of damage (level of disorder) within the material system. The literature indicates that weakest-link-based failure modeling approaches appear to be reasonably robust in that they can be applied to materials that display distributed damage, provided that the level of disorder in the material is not too large. The Weibull distribution is argued to be the most appropriate statistical distribution to model the stochastic-strength response of graphite.

  14. Oil pipeline performance review 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998 : Technical/statistical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a summary of the pipeline performance and reportable pipeline failures of liquid hydrocarbon pipelines in Canada, for the years 1995 through 1998. The year 1994 was the last one for which the Oil Pipeline Performance Review (OPPR) was published on an annual basis. The OPPR will continue to be published until such time as the Pipeline Risk Assesment Sub-Committee (PRASC) has obtained enough pipeline failure data to be aggregated into a meaningful report. The shifts in the mix of reporting pipeline companies is apparent in the data presented, comparing the volumes transported and the traffic volume during the previous ten-year period. Another table presents a summary of the failures which occurred during the period under consideration, 1995-1998, allowing for a comparison with the data for the previous ten-year period. From the current perspective and from an historical context, this document provides a statistical review of the performance of the pipelines, covering refined petroleum product pipelines, clean oil pipelines and High Vapour Pressure (HVP) pipelines downstream of battery limits. Classified as reportable are spills of 1.5 cubic metre or more of liquid hydrocarbons, any amount of HVP material, any incident involving an injury, a death, a fire, or an explosion. For those companies that responded to the survey, the major items, including number of failures and volumes released are accurate. Samples of the forms used for collecting the information are provided within the document. 6 tabs., 1 fig

  15. A systematic literature review on reviews and meta-analyses of biologically based CAM-practices for cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Lunde, Anita; Johannessen, Helle

    2010-01-01

    for the improvement of quality of life. Breast cancer was the most common single type of cancer reviewed (8 reviews), all focused on the relief of side effects, primarily by supplements containing soy/plant hormones. The use of these supplements should be discouraged due to a risk for progression of breast cancer......Purpose To provide an overview and evaluate the evidence of biologically based CAM-practices for cancer patients. Methods Pubmed, Social Science Citation Index, AMED and the Cochrane library were systematically searched for reviews on effects of biologically based CAM-practices, including herbal...... remedies, vitamins and other dietary supplements, for cancer or cancer related symptoms published 2000-2008. All studies were assessed according to the SIGN hierarchy of evidence. Results A total of 78 reviews/meta-analyses were identified. Of these, 32 were evaluated as high-quality, whereas 46 had low...

  16. Histological review of skin cancers in African Albinos: a 10-year retrospective review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skin cancer is rare among Africans and albinism is an established risk for skin cancer in this population. Ultraviolet radiation is highest at the equator and African albinos living close to the equator have the highest risk of developing skin cancers. This was a retrospective study that involved histological review of all specimens with skin cancers from African albinos submitted to The Regional Dermatology Training Center in Moshi, Tanzania from 2002 to 2011. A total of 134 biopsies from 86 patients with a male to female ratio of 1:1 were reviewed. Head and neck was the commonest (n = 75, 56.0%) site affected by skin cancers. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was more common than basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with a ratio of 1.2:1. Only one Acral lentiginous melanoma was reported. Majority (55.6%) of SCC were well differentiated while nodular BCC (75%) was the most common type of BCC. Squamous cell carcinoma is more common than basal cell carcinoma in African albinos

  17. Multimodality management of resectable gastric cancer: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helen; Shum; Lakshmi; Rajdev

    2014-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the stomach carries a poor prognosis and is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide. It is recommended that surgical resection with a D1 or a modified D2 gastrectomy(with at least 15 lymph nodes removed for examination), be performed in the United States, though D2 lymphadenectomies should be performed at experienced centers. A D2 lymphadenectomy is the recommended procedure in Asia. Although surgical resection is considered the definitive treatment, rates of recurrences are high, necessitating the need for neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. This review article aims to outline and summarize some of the pivotal trials that have defined optimal treatment options for non-metastatic non-cardia gastric cancer. Some of the most notable trials include the INT-0116 trial, which established a benefit in concurrent chemoradiation and adjuvant chemotherapy. This was again confirmed in the ARTIST trial, especially in patients with nodal involvement. Later, the Medical Research Council Adjuvant Gastric Infusional Chemotherapy trial provided evidence for the use of perioperative chemotherapy. Targeted agents such as ramucirumab and trastuzumab are also being investigated for use in locally advanced gastric cancers after demonstrating a benefit in the metastatic setting. Given the poor response rate of this difficult disease to various treatment modalities, numerous studies are currently ongoing in an attempt to define a more effective therapy, some of which are briefly introduced in this review as well.

  18. Cancer in indigenous people in Latin America and the Caribbean: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Suzanne P; Forman, David; Piñeros, Marion; Fernández, Sdenka M; de Oliveira Santos, Marceli; Bray, Freddie

    2014-02-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death in Latin America but there have been few assessments of the cancer burden for the 10% of the population who are indigenous. Evidence from other world regions suggests cancer survival is poorer for indigenous people than for others due to a greater incidence of case-fatal cancers, later stage at diagnosis, and less cancer treatment. A status report on the cancer profile of indigenous people in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is therefore clearly warranted. We undertook a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature in academic databases, and considered evidence from cancer registries from 1980, to assess cancer epidemiology among indigenous people in LAC. We identified 35 peer-reviewed articles pertaining to cancer in indigenous people. Rates of cervical cancer in parts of Brazil, Ecuador, and Guyana, stomach cancer rates in regions of Chile and gallbladder rates in Chile and Bolivia, were higher for indigenous compared to others. Breast cancer rates were lower in Ecuador, Brazil, and Chile. Six cancer registries in Brazil provided incidence data but no other reports of incidence, mortality, or survival were identified. There was a paucity of data surrounding the cancer burden of indigenous people in LAC. In view of predicted increases in cancer rates in ensuing decades, and the disparities in burden already experienced by indigenous people in the region, it is imperative that cancer profiles are obtained and cancer control measures identified and prioritized.

  19. Gynaecological cancers coexisting with pregnancy – a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubach, Maryna

    2016-01-01

    The coexistence of malignant tumour and pregnancy is a state of simultaneous occurrence of two completely contradictory philosophical and biological phenomena – the development of a new life and a life-threatening terminal illness. Finally, a physician – in fact the whole team of doctors – is facing the fight for two lives: of the mother and her unborn child. The incidence of malignant disease in pregnancy is 0.05 to 0.1%. This condition is a major challenge for physicians because there are no randomised studies that could be the basis to choose the therapeutic methods – the medical knowledge merely comes from case reports, registries, and observational studies. The following cancers most often coexist with pregnancy: gynaecological neoplasm (especially cervical and ovarian cancer), breast cancer, lymphatic system neoplasm, and melanoma. Formerly, the diagnosis was clearly the necessity of abortion. Today – although unskilled doctors still propose the only therapeutic option – termination of pregnancy is not the only solution. The past few years have seen the updating of reports and guidelines for the management of pregnant women with cancer. This paper is a review and summary of the information from these publications.

  20. Coffee and gastric cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botelho Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We systematically reviewed the literature on the association between coffee consumption and gastric cancer and performed a meta-analysis of the results. Published cohort and case-control studies were identified in PubMed and reference lists. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool effects from 23 studies, and heterogeneity was explored by stratification and meta-regression. The odds ratio (OR for the overall association between coffee and gastric cancer (highest vs. lowest category of exposure was 0.97 (95%CI: 0.86-1.09, similar for cohort (OR = 1.02; 95%CI: 0.76-1.37 and case-control studies (population-based: OR = 0.90; 95%CI: 0.70-1.15; hospital-based: OR = 0.97; 95%CI: 0.83-1.13. The OR was 1.26 (95%CI: 1.02-1.57 when considering five studies conducted in the USA, 0.97 (95%CI: 0.82-1.14 for the five Japanese studies, 0.98 (95%CI: 0.81-1.17 for the six studies from Europe, and 0.64 (95%CI: 0.47-0.86 for the two studies from South America. In this meta-analysis we found no adverse effect of coffee associated with gastric cancer. Knowledge on the level of exposure to different coffee constituents may provide a deeper understanding of this reassuring result and the real role of coffee on cancer risk.

  1. Coffee and gastric cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Francisco; Lunet, Nuno; Barros, Henrique

    2006-05-01

    We systematically reviewed the literature on the association between coffee consumption and gastric cancer and performed a meta-analysis of the results. Published cohort and case-control studies were identified in PubMed and reference lists. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool effects from 23 studies, and heterogeneity was explored by stratification and meta-regression. The odds ratio (OR) for the overall association between coffee and gastric cancer (highest vs. lowest category of exposure) was 0.97 (95%CI: 0.86-1.09), similar for cohort (OR = 1.02; 95%CI: 0.76-1.37) and case-control studies (population-based: OR = 0.90; 95%CI: 0.70-1.15; hospital-based: OR = 0.97; 95%CI: 0.83-1.13). The OR was 1.26 (95%CI: 1.02-1.57) when considering five studies conducted in the USA, 0.97 (95%CI: 0.82-1.14) for the five Japanese studies, 0.98 (95%CI: 0.81-1.17) for the six studies from Europe, and 0.64 (95%CI: 0.47-0.86) for the two studies from South America. In this meta-analysis we found no adverse effect of coffee associated with gastric cancer. Knowledge on the level of exposure to different coffee constituents may provide a deeper understanding of this reassuring result and the real role of coffee on cancer risk. PMID:16680342

  2. Coffee and gastric cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Botelho

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We systematically reviewed the literature on the association between coffee consumption and gastric cancer and performed a meta-analysis of the results. Published cohort and case-control studies were identified in PubMed and reference lists. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool effects from 23 studies, and heterogeneity was explored by stratification and meta-regression. The odds ratio (OR for the overall association between coffee and gastric cancer (highest vs. lowest category of exposure was 0.97 (95%CI: 0.86-1.09, similar for cohort (OR = 1.02; 95%CI: 0.76-1.37 and case-control studies (population-based: OR = 0.90; 95%CI: 0.70-1.15; hospital-based: OR = 0.97; 95%CI: 0.83-1.13. The OR was 1.26 (95%CI: 1.02-1.57 when considering five studies conducted in the USA, 0.97 (95%CI: 0.82-1.14 for the five Japanese studies, 0.98 (95%CI: 0.81-1.17 for the six studies from Europe, and 0.64 (95%CI: 0.47-0.86 for the two studies from South America. In this meta-analysis we found no adverse effect of coffee associated with gastric cancer. Knowledge on the level of exposure to different coffee constituents may provide a deeper understanding of this reassuring result and the real role of coffee on cancer risk.

  3. Positive psychological functioning in breast cancer: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas-Grau, Anna; Vives, Jaume; Font, Antoni; Ochoa, Cristian

    2016-06-01

    This integrative review aimed to analyze the research into positive psychological functioning after breast cancer, and to integrate the most relevant findings relating to sociodemographic, medical and psychosocial factors. Relevant outcomes were identified from electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, CINAHL, and Wiley Online Library) up to July 2015. A Google search was performed to identify unindexed literature. Dissertations and theses were searched on Proquest Dissertations and Theses, DIALNET and TDX. Selection criteria included empirical studies assessing relationships between breast cancer and positive functioning, without restrictions on type of participants. In total, 134 studies met the inclusion criteria. The sociodemographic, medical, and psychosocial characteristics associated with well-being, posttraumatic growth, finding benefit and meaning were being young, undergoing chemotherapy, and having social support. The last two of these characteristics were time-oriented. The culture of the different samples and positive dispositional characteristics like optimism had an influence on the women's coping styles. Socioeconomic status and level of education were also associated with positive psychological functioning. The perceived impact of breast cancer on patient, as well as the perceived support from significant others can result in better functioning in women with breast cancer. The results highlight that oncology health professionals should take into account not only the individual and medical characteristics, but also the stage of the oncological process and the psychosocial environment of patients in order to promote their positive functioning. PMID:27113230

  4. Sentinel node biopsy for ipsilateral breast cancer recurrence: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, G; Jacquemyn, Y; Tjalma, W

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review published reports on the feasability, results, and reliability of sentinel node biopsy in cases of ipsilateral recurrent breast cancer. A Medline search on publications from January 1999 to December 2007 and cross-references in published articles were looked for. We identified 16 reports on sentinel node biopsy in recurrent breast cancer, including a total of 287 patients. In 210/287 (73.2%) a sentinel node was identified, 77/210 (37.7%) had had previous axillary lymph node dissection and 131 (62.3%) a previous sentinel node procedure. Aberrant lymphatic drainage, other than the ipsilateral axilla was noted in 68/210 (32.4%). Of these 16/68 (23.6%) were located in the contralateral axilla. Of the removed contralateral axillary sentinel nodes 8/17 (47.1%) were invaded by cancer. We conclude that sentinel node biopsy in cases of recurrent ipsilateral breast cancer is feasible. In about one out of three cases drainage to the contralateral axilla with invasion in almost half the cases takes place. The therapeutical consequences of these findings need further study. PMID:19115679

  5. Early prediction of lung cancer recurrence after stereotactic radiotherapy using second order texture statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattonen, Sarah A.; Palma, David A.; Haasbeek, Cornelis J. A.; Senan, Suresh; Ward, Aaron D.

    2014-03-01

    Benign radiation-induced lung injury is a common finding following stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for lung cancer, and is often difficult to differentiate from a recurring tumour due to the ablative doses and highly conformal treatment with SABR. Current approaches to treatment response assessment have shown limited ability to predict recurrence within 6 months of treatment. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the accuracy of second order texture statistics for prediction of eventual recurrence based on computed tomography (CT) images acquired within 6 months of treatment, and compare with the performance of first order appearance and lesion size measures. Consolidative and ground-glass opacity (GGO) regions were manually delineated on post-SABR CT images. Automatic consolidation expansion was also investigated to act as a surrogate for GGO position. The top features for prediction of recurrence were all texture features within the GGO and included energy, entropy, correlation, inertia, and first order texture (standard deviation of density). These predicted recurrence with 2-fold cross validation (CV) accuracies of 70-77% at 2- 5 months post-SABR, with energy, entropy, and first order texture having leave-one-out CV accuracies greater than 80%. Our results also suggest that automatic expansion of the consolidation region could eliminate the need for manual delineation, and produced reproducible results when compared to manually delineated GGO. If validated on a larger data set, this could lead to a clinically useful computer-aided diagnosis system for prediction of recurrence within 6 months of SABR and allow for early salvage therapy for patients with recurrence.

  6. A review of the relationship between alcohol and oral cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reidy, J

    2011-10-01

    This paper aims to review the current literature regarding the association between alcohol consumption and oral cancer. The authors have discussed the constituents of alcohol-containing beverages, the metabolism of ethanol and its effect on the oral microflora. The local and systemic carcinogenic effects of alcohol have been detailed. The beneficial effects of alcohol consumption on general health have also been considered. A possible relationship between alcohol-containing mouthrinses and oral cancer has been suggested in the literature. The authors conclude that this relationship has not yet been firmly established. However, the use of alcohol-containing mouthrinses in high-risk populations should be restricted, pending the outcome of further research.

  7. Palliative and hospice care in gynecologic cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Acevedo, Micael; Lowery, William J; Lowery, Ashlei W; Lee, Paula S; Havrilesky, Laura J

    2013-10-01

    Despite the increasing availability of palliative care, oncology providers often misunderstand and underutilize these resources. The goals of palliative care are relief of suffering and provision of the best possible quality of life for both the patient and her family, regardless of where she is in the natural history of her disease. Lack of understanding and awareness of the services provided by palliative care physicians underlie barriers to referral. Oncologic providers spend a significant amount of time palliating the symptoms of cancer and its treatment; involvement of specialty palliative care providers can assist in managing the complex patient. Patients with gynecologic malignancies remain an ideal population for palliative care intervention. This review of the literature explores the current state of palliative care in the treatment of gynecologic cancers and its implications for the quality and cost of this treatment.

  8. Towards Laser Driven Hadron Cancer Radiotherapy: A Review of Progress

    CERN Document Server

    Ledingham, K W D; Shikazono, N; Ma, C-M

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for about sixty years that proton and heavy ion therapy is a very powerful radiation procedure for treating tumours. It has an innate ability to irradiate tumours with greater doses and spatial selectivity compared with electron and photon therapy and hence is a tissue sparing procedure. For more than twenty years powerful lasers have generated high energy beams of protons and heavy ions and hence it has been frequently speculated that lasers could be used as an alternative to RF accelerators to produce the particle beams necessary for cancer therapy. The present paper reviews the progress made towards laser driven hadron cancer therapy and what has still to be accomplished to realise its inherent enormous potential.

  9. BMI, Diet and Female Reproductive Factors as Risks for Thyroid Cancer: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Peterson; De, Prithwish; Robert Nuttall

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence rates have been increasing worldwide but the reason behind this is unclear. Both the increasing use of diagnostic technologies allowing the detection of thyroid cancer and a true increase in thyroid cancer incidence have been proposed. This review assesses the role of body mass index (BMI), diet, and reproductive factors on the thyroid cancer trend. METHODS: Epidemiologic studies of the selected risk factors up to June 2010 were reviewed and critically ass...

  10. Use of noninsulin anti diabetics for prevention and treatment of cancer- narrative review article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf Raana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence shows that cancer and diabetes are major causes of death in the world. Type2 diabetes increases the risk of cancer-specific mortality. This review relates diabetic therapies, diabetes and cancer.All published papers in this field were searched, looking into such databases as Science Direct, ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed and Scopus.In cancer patients, metformin improves patient outcome and reduces cancer risk. Sulfonylureas may increase risk of cancer, but decreased risk of cancer is associated with thiazolidinediones in type 2 diabetic subjects. Metformin lowers circulating insulin and it may be important for treatment of hyperinsulinemia-associated cancers, such as colon and breast cancer.However, laboratory investigations and large-scale population based studies are required for further investigation of association of cancer-preventive, anti-cancer and cancer-mortality of noninsulin antidiabetics.

  11. Diabetes and Cancer: a Review of Current Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska, J; Krajewski, W; Bolanowski, M; Kręcicki, T; Zatoński, T

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), one of the most common life-threatening illnesses worldwide, is a group of metabolic diseases, characterized by sustained hyperglycemia. The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus among adults reached 387 millions in 2014 and is still rising. It is suggested there is a strong association between diabetes mellitus (especially type 2 diabetes mellitus) and carcinogenesis. The possible biological links between diabetes mellitus and cancer comprise hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and fat-induced chronic inflammation. Although, the strongest association refers to pancreas and liver, there are many other organs involved in carcinogenesis in diabetic patients including breast, endometrium, bladder and kidney.Recent studies suggest that there is also association between cancer incidence and anti-diabetic medications. It was observed that some medications decrease the risk of carcinogenesis and some increase that risk. The majority of studies concern metformin, a drug of choice in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and its anti-neoplastic and tumor-suppressing activity. The positive effect of metformin was found in numerous researches investigating breast, pancreas, liver, colon, ovaries and prostate tumors.Because a variety of studies have suggested that diabetes mellitus and cancer are frequently coexisting diseases, recently published studies try to explain the influence of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic medications on carcinogenesis in different organs.We present the review of the latest studies investigating the association between both diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic medications and cancer incidence and prognosis.Particularly we highlight the problem of concomitant head and neck cancers in diabetics, rarely analysed and often omitted in studies. PMID:27219686

  12. A review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework is done to create awareness of the strategic planning and energy policies of Ghana’s energy sector that will serve as an informative tool for both local and foreign investors, help in national decision-making for the efficient development and utilization of energy resources. The review of Ghana’s energy sector policy is to answer the question, what has been done so far? And what is the way forward? The future research in Ghana cannot progress without consulting the past. In order to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all, Ghana has begun expanding her economy with the growing Ghanaian population as a way to meet the SDG (1, which seeks to end poverty and improve well-being. There are a number of intervention strategies by Ghana’s Energy sector which provides new, high-quality, and cost-competitive energy services to poor people and communities, thus alleviating poverty. Ghana’s Energy sector has initiated the National Electrification Scheme, a Self-Help Electrification Program, a National Off-grid Rural Electrification Program, and a Renewable Energy Development Program (REDP. The REDP aims to: assess the availability of renewable energy resources, examine the technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness of promising renewable energy technologies, ensure the efficient production and use of the Ghana’s renewable energy resources, and develop an information base that facilitates the establishment of a planning framework for the rational development and the use of the Ghana’s renewable energy resources.

  13. The statistical research relatating to the treatment of cancer and the boundary of radiological therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is based on the record of researching the patients with cancer in the Chun-nam National University Hospital from September 1985 to December 1988. The results are the as follows ; 1. Among the total O.P.D. 921, 028, the patients of Therapeutic Radiology (Opening the Therapeutic Radiology in September) are classified into 27, 159 (2.95%), (186 in 1985, 2,388 in 1986, 10,511 in 1987, and 14,074 in 1988) 2. Among the 4,925 cancer patients, cervix and uterus cancer patients are 1, 138(23.10%), stomach cancer patients are 592(12.02%), brain and thyroid cancer patients are 565(11.47%), liver cancer patients are 400(8 .12%), lung cancer patients are 355 (7.20%) and sexual ratio appeared 1 : 1.13. Therefore, female patients are a slightly more than the male patients. 3. The age distribution of cancer was that of 45∼54 ages are 1,244(25.26%), 55∼64 ages are 1,119(22.72%) and 35∼44 ages are 773(15.70%) and the half of all the cancer patients are 45∼64 ages. 4. Among the 2,519 cancer patients, 742(29.46%) are in the uterus system, 620 (24.62%) are in the brain and thyroid part, 402(15.96%) are in the lungs. Therefore, these three kinds of cancer consist of 70%. 5. The occupational distribution of 3,067 cancer patients(87∼88 year) house wives are 636(20.73%), orderly farmers are 622(20.28%) public service personnells are 193(6.29%), salarymen are 162 (5.28%) and businessmen are 159 (5.18%)

  14. Body composition changes in females treated for breast cancer: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheean, Patricia M; Hoskins, Kent; Stolley, Melinda

    2012-10-01

    Body composition changes cannot be precisely captured using body weight or body mass index measures. Therefore, the primary purpose of this review was to characterize the patterns of body composition change in females treated for breast cancer including only studies that utilize imaging technologies to quantify adipose tissue and lean body mass (LBM). We reviewed PubMed for studies published between 1971 and 2012 involving females diagnosed with breast cancer where computed axial tomography , dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or magnetic resonance imaging were employed for body composition assessment. Of the initial 440 studies, 106 papers were evaluated and 36 papers met all eligibility criteria (15 observational and 21 intervention trials). Results of these studies revealed that body weight did not consistently increase. Importantly, studies also showed that body weight did not accurately depict changes in lean or adipose tissues. Further findings included that sarcopenic obesity as a consequence of breast cancer treatment was not definitive, as menopausal status may be a substantial moderator of body composition. Overall, the behavioral interventions did not exhibit consistent or profound effects on body composition outcomes; approximately half showed favorable influence on adiposity while the effects on LBM were not apparent. The use of tamoxifen had a clear negative impact on body composition. The majority of studies were conducted in predominantly white survivors, highlighting the need for trials in minority populations. Collectively, these studies were limited by age, race, and/or menopause status matched control groups, overall size, and statistical power. Very few studies simultaneously collected diet and exercise data-two potential factors that impact body composition. Future breast cancer trials should prioritize precise body composition methodologies to elucidate how these changes impact recurrence, prognosis, and mortality, and to provide clinicians

  15. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Debora; Raggi, Alberto; Ferri, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insomnia is a common sleep disorder in patients with breast cancer and studies show a higher frequency than in the general population but it appears to be understudied and the treatment seems to be a neglected problem. There is a growing body of evidence about the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in breast cancer survivors (BCS). The aim of this review is to examine the best available scientific evidence related to CBT-I and insomnia in patients with breast cancer and to assess the effect of CBT-I on their psychosocial functioning, sleep, quality of life, and mood. Methods: Empirical articles published in peer-reviewed journals from the earliest reports available until August 2015 were considered. The research on PubMed generated 18 papers, three of which did not meet the inclusion criteria. Another paper was retrieved by screening the reference list of the previously selected papers. Results: A total of 16 studies were found that evaluated the effects of CBT-I in breast cancer patients. CBT-I appears to be an effective therapy for insomnia in BCS, improving mood, general and physical fatigue, and global and cognitive dimensions of quality of life. CBT-I may also reduce menopausal symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweat problems, frequency of medicated nights, level of depression, and anxiety. Conclusions: CBT-I seems to be an eligible intervention for improving sleep in BCS. Improvements concerning insomnia and sleep quality are durable (usually up to 12 months) and statistically significant. PMID:27536265

  16. A relationship between quality-of-life and head and neck cancer: A systemic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkar, Sujal Mitul; Shah, Mihir N.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to identify the literature and to assess the association between quality-of-life (QoL) and head and neck cancer (HNC) related outcomes systemically. Materials and Methods: The full articles published in English language bio-medical journals between 1992 and December 2014 were searched using Medline database. The keywords used for searching the articles include the combination of “health-related of QoL,” “QoL,” “HNC.” The search limited only to the observational studies using questionnaires European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ C 30 and EORTC QLQ H and N 35. Purely psychological studies were excluded. Results: A total of 5055 articles were retrieved, and 16 articles were selected for this review. Of 16 observational studies, 13 (81.25%) were prospective cohort studies while remaining 3 (18.75%) were cross-sectional studies. The main findings of the studies revealed that the treatment of HNC had a statistically significant influence on QoL. Others associated factors like age, female sex, duration of treatment, advance tumor, and site of the tumor has also the impact on QoL on patients suffering from HNC. Conclusion: This review provides evidence for a positive relationship between cancer-related outcomes and QoL. Assessment of QoL in relation to HNC with proper methodology and validated instruments is lacking hence there is a need for further evidence to support the relation between cancer and QoL. PMID:26981509

  17. Statistical Classification of Soft Solder Alloys by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Review of Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdunek, R.; Nowak, M.; Pliński, E.

    2016-02-01

    This paper reviews machine-learning methods that are nowadays the most frequently used for the supervised classification of spectral signals in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). We analyze and compare various statistical classification methods, such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), support vector machine (SVM), naive Bayes method, probabilistic neural networks (PNN), and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) method. The theoretical considerations are supported with experiments conducted for real soft-solder-alloy spectra obtained using LIBS. We consider two decision problems: binary and multiclass classification. The former is used to distinguish overheated soft solders from their normal versions. The latter aims to assign a testing sample to a given group of materials. The measurements are obtained for several laser-energy values, projection masks, and numbers of laser shots. Using cross-validation, we evaluate the above classification methods in terms of their usefulness in solving both classification problems.

  18. Gynecomastia in Patients with Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Fagerlund

    Full Text Available Gynecomastia and/or mastodynia is a common medical problem in patients receiving antiandrogen (bicalutamide or flutamide treatment for prostate cancer; up to 70% of these patients result to be affected; furthermore, this can jeopardise patients' quality of life.To systematically review the quality of evidence of the current literature regarding treatment options for bicalutamide-induced gynecomastia, including efficacy, safety and patients' quality of life.The PubMed, Medline, Scopus, The Cochrane Library and SveMed+ databases were systematically searched between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014. All searches were undertaken between January and February 2015. The search phrase used was:"gynecomastia AND treatment AND prostate cancer". Two reviewers assessed 762 titles and abstracts identified. The search and review process was done in accordance with the PRISMA statement. The PICOS (patients, intervention, comparator, outcomes and study design process was used to specify inclusion criteria. Quality of evidence was rated according to GRADE.Primary outcomes were: treatment effects, number of complications and side effects. Secondary outcome was: Quality of Life.Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria and are analysed in this review. Five studies reported pharmacological intervention with tamoxifen and/or anastrozole, either as prophylactic or therapeutic treatment. Four studies reported radiotherapy as prophylactic and/or therapeutic treatment. Two studies compared pharmacological treatment to radiotherapy. Most of the studies were randomized with varying risk of bias. According to GRADE, quality of evidence was moderate to high.Bicalutamide-induced gynecomastia and/or mastodynia can effectively be managed by oral tamoxifen (10-20 mg daily or radiotherapy without relevant side effects. Prophylaxis or therapeutic treatment with tamoxifen results to be more effective than radiotherapy.

  19. Biofield therapies and cancer-related symptoms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonella, Silvia; Garrino, Lorenza; Dimonte, Valerio

    2014-10-01

    Patients with cancer can experience several treatment-related symptoms, and conventional care focuses primarily on cure and survival without a holistic approach to disease. Subsequently, an increasing number of patients are accustomed to complementary modalities to improve well-being. Biofield therapies (BTs) are complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities based on the philosophy that humans have an energetic dimension. Physical and psychological symptoms may cause imbalance, and BTs are believed to balance disturbance in the energy field. This article provides a study review of the main BTs (i.e., therapeutic touch, healing touch, and Reiki) in the treatment of cancer-related symptoms. Although BTs are among the most ancient healing practices, data on their effectiveness are poor and additional multicenter research with larger samples are necessary. BTs may eventually become an autonomous field of nursing activity and allow professionals to build a relationship with the patient, thereby improving motivation. The idea that this method can be self-managed and may effectively reduce pain for patients with cancer can improve satisfaction challenges experienced by the current healthcare system.

  20. Role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in cancer cervix: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramita Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT represents a promising modality apart from or radiotherapy as initial treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. The primary objectives of NACT in the treatment of cervical cancer include improvement in tumor characteristics, to allow avoidance of radiotherapy, to prolong disease-free and overall survival, and facilitation of fertility-sparing surgery. Though several studies have shown promising results of NACT on tumor response, downstaging, decrease in local recurrence, improved progression free survival, yet its role is controversial and plenty of study results are waiting to establish its efficacy. After reviewing the available literatures in the internet, and focusing the light of our continuous 3 years experience, we have made an effort to find out the relevance of NACT in cancer cervix. NACT is feasible and produces impressive responses in cervical carcinoma, as has been demonstrated by several phase II and phase III trials. Some meta-analysis suggested that NACT followed by surgery improves overall survival compared with nonstandard radiotherapy alone.

  1. Biofield therapies and cancer-related symptoms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonella, Silvia; Garrino, Lorenza; Dimonte, Valerio

    2014-10-01

    Patients with cancer can experience several treatment-related symptoms, and conventional care focuses primarily on cure and survival without a holistic approach to disease. Subsequently, an increasing number of patients are accustomed to complementary modalities to improve well-being. Biofield therapies (BTs) are complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities based on the philosophy that humans have an energetic dimension. Physical and psychological symptoms may cause imbalance, and BTs are believed to balance disturbance in the energy field. This article provides a study review of the main BTs (i.e., therapeutic touch, healing touch, and Reiki) in the treatment of cancer-related symptoms. Although BTs are among the most ancient healing practices, data on their effectiveness are poor and additional multicenter research with larger samples are necessary. BTs may eventually become an autonomous field of nursing activity and allow professionals to build a relationship with the patient, thereby improving motivation. The idea that this method can be self-managed and may effectively reduce pain for patients with cancer can improve satisfaction challenges experienced by the current healthcare system. PMID:25253110

  2. Facilitation of school re-entry and peer acceptance of children with cancer: a review and meta-analysis of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, A S; Schmiegelow, K; Brok, J; Johansen, C; Thorsteinsson, T; Simovska, V; Larsen, H B

    2016-01-01

    Increased survival rates from childhood cancer call for efforts to reintegrate children with cancer back into their academic and social environments. The aims of this study were to: (1) review and analyse the existing literature on school re-entry interventions for children with cancer; and (2) discuss the importance of peer involvement in the treatment. Relevant databases were searched using equivalent search algorithms and six studies were selected that target children with cancer and/or their classmates. Two authors independently reviewed the literature for data extraction. The articles were reviewed using the PRISMA model for reporting reviews. Statistical calculations for the meta-analyses were done using Review Manager 5.2. The meta-analyses showed significant effects of school re-entry programmes in terms of enhancing academic achievement in children with cancer (P = 0.008) and lowering their levels of depression (P = 0.05). Increased knowledge among classmates was associated with less fear and a more positive attitude towards the child with cancer. Due to limited numbers of patients, lack of control groups, and the diversity of intervention strategies used in previous studies, there is a need for intervention programmes exploring the optimal path for the reintegration of children with cancer into the education system and into their peer groups.

  3. The role of chronic inflammation in the development of gastrointestinal cancers: reviewing cancer prevention with natural anti-inflammatory intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jae; Park, Jong-Min; Han, Young Min; Gil, Hong Kwon; Kim, Jinhyung; Chang, Ji Young; Jeong, Migyeong; Go, Eun-Jin; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators alter the local environment of tumors, known as the tumor microenvironment. Mechanistically, chronic inflammation induces DNA damage, but understanding this hazard may help in the search for new chemopreventive agents for gastrointestinal (GI) cancer which attenuate inflammation. In the clinic, GI cancer still remains a major cause of cancer-associated mortality, chemoprevention with anti-inflammatory agents is thought to be a realistic approach to reduce GI cancer. Proton pump inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor necrosis factor-alpha, anti-sense targeted smad7 and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents have been investigated for their potential to prevent inflammation-based GI cancer. Besides these, a wide variety of natural products have also shown potential for the prevention of GI cancer. In this review, the authors will provide insights to explain the mechanistic connection between inflammation and GI cancer, as well as describe a feasible cancer prevention strategy based on anti-inflammatory treatments.

  4. Population cancer risks associated with coal mining: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiley D Jenkins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coal is produced across 25 states and provides 42% of US energy. With production expected to increase 7.6% by 2035, proximate populations remain at risk of exposure to carcinogenic coal products such as silica dust and organic compounds. It is unclear if population exposure is associated with increased risk, or even which cancers have been studied in this regard. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of English-language manuscripts published since 1980 to determine if coal mining exposure was associated with increased cancer risk (incidence and mortality. RESULTS: Of 34 studies identified, 27 studied coal mining as an occupational exposure (coal miner cohort or as a retrospective risk factor but only seven explored health effects in surrounding populations. Overall, risk assessments were reported for 20 cancer site categories, but their results and frequency varied considerably. Incidence and mortality risk assessments were: negative (no increase for 12 sites; positive for 1 site; and discordant for 7 sites (e.g. lung, gastric. However, 10 sites had only a single study reporting incidence risk (4 sites had none, and 11 sites had only a single study reporting mortality risk (2 sites had none. The ecological study data were particularly meager, reporting assessments for only 9 sites. While mortality assessments were reported for each, 6 had only a single report and only 2 sites had reported incidence assessments. CONCLUSIONS: The reported assessments are too meager, and at times contradictory, to make definitive conclusions about population cancer risk due to coal mining. However, the preponderance of this and other data support many of Hill's criteria for causation. The paucity of data regarding population exposure and risk, the widespread geographical extent of coal mining activity, and the continuing importance of coal for US energy, warrant further studies of population exposure and risk.

  5. 78 FR 26029 - Toxicological Review of Methanol (Non-Cancer): In Support of Summary Information on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... AGENCY Toxicological Review of Methanol (Non-Cancer): In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated... public comment period and peer review on the draft non-cancer toxicological review of methanol. SUMMARY... titled ``Toxicological Review of Methanol (Non-Cancer): In Support of Summary Information on...

  6. 76 FR 36534 - Toxicological Review of Methanol (Non-Cancer): In Support of Summary Information on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... AGENCY Toxicological Review of Methanol (Non-Cancer): In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated... external peer review draft human health assessment titled ``Toxicological Review of Methanol (Non- Cancer... to the draft Toxicological Review of Methanol (Non-Cancer) and announcing a 14-day public...

  7. A Review of Statistical Techniques for 2x2 and RxC Categorical Data Tables In SPSS

    OpenAIRE

    Bal, Cengiz; Er, Fikret; Harun SONMEZ

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a review of statistical techniques for RxC categorical data tables is explained in detail. The emphasis is given to the association of techniques and their corresponding data considerations. Some suggestions to how to handle specific categorical data tables in SPSS and common mistakes in the interpretation of the SPSS outputs are shown.

  8. Modeling cancer growth and its treatment by means of statistical mechanics entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khordad, R.; Rastegar Sedehi, H. R.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we have modeled cancer growth and its treatment based on nonextensive entropies. To this end, five nonextensive entropies are employed to model the cancer growth. The used entropies are Tsallis, Rényi, Landsberg-Vedral, Abe and Escort. First, we have proposed the growth of cancer tumor as a function of time for all the entropies with different nonextensive parameter q. When the time passes, the entropies show a bounded growth for cancer tumor size. The speed of tumor size growth is different for all the entropies. The Tsallis and Escort ones have highest and lowest speed, respectively. For q>1, the Escort entropy cannot predict a bounded growth for cancer tumor size. Then, we have investigated the cancer tumor treatment by adding a cell-kill function to the evolution equation. For q1, a cell-kill term is a suitable case. According to the results, it is found that the nonextensive parameter q, type of entropy, and cell-kill function are important factors for modeling the cancer growth and its treatment.

  9. Modeling cancer growth and its treatment by means of statistical mechanics entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khordad, R.; Rastegar Sedehi, H. R.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we have modeled cancer growth and its treatment based on nonextensive entropies. To this end, five nonextensive entropies are employed to model the cancer growth. The used entropies are Tsallis, Rényi, Landsberg-Vedral, Abe and Escort. First, we have proposed the growth of cancer tumor as a function of time for all the entropies with different nonextensive parameter q. When the time passes, the entropies show a bounded growth for cancer tumor size. The speed of tumor size growth is different for all the entropies. The Tsallis and Escort ones have highest and lowest speed, respectively. For q>1, the Escort entropy cannot predict a bounded growth for cancer tumor size. Then, we have investigated the cancer tumor treatment by adding a cell-kill function to the evolution equation. For qcancer tumor size to zero for all the entropies. But, for q>1, a cell-kill term is a suitable case. According to the results, it is found that the nonextensive parameter q, type of entropy, and cell-kill function are important factors for modeling the cancer growth and its treatment.

  10. Music-based interventions in palliative cancer care: a review of quantitative studies and neurobiological literature

    OpenAIRE

    Archie, Patrick; Bruera, Eduardo; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to review quantitative literature pertaining to studies of music-based interventions in palliative cancer care and to review the neurobiological literature that may bare relevance to the findings from these studies. Methods A narrative review was performed, with particular emphasis on RCTs, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews. The Cochrane Library, Ovid, PubMed, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, and ProQuest were searched for the subject headings music, music therapy, cancer, ...

  11. A review of probabilistic and statistical issues in quantitative risk analysis for radioactive waste repositories: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a technical review of literature relating to the key probabilistic and statistical issues arising in quantitative policy analysis concerned with the assessment of risk and its statutory regulation. The literature review focuses mainly on work commissioned by HMIP and Nirex, but also discusses related work from other sources, including regulatory guidelines. Topics reviewed include the appropriate treatment of uncertainty, the role of models and parameters in structuring, quantifying and probing uncertainties and the logical and numerical bases for performing risk calculations and sensitivity analysis. (Author)

  12. Yoga & cancer interventions: a review of the clinical significance of patient reported outcomes for cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culos-Reed, S Nicole; Mackenzie, Michael J; Sohl, Stephanie J; Jesse, Michelle T; Zahavich, Ashley N Ross; Danhauer, Suzanne C

    2012-01-01

    Limited research suggests yoga may be a viable gentle physical activity option with a variety of health-related quality of life, psychosocial and symptom management benefits. The purpose of this review was to determine the clinical significance of patient-reported outcomes from yoga interventions conducted with cancer survivors. A total of 25 published yoga intervention studies for cancer survivors from 2004-2011 had patient-reported outcomes, including quality of life, psychosocial or symptom measures. Thirteen of these studies met the necessary criteria to assess clinical significance. Clinical significance for each of the outcomes of interest was examined based on 1 standard error of the measurement, 0.5 standard deviation, and relative comparative effect sizes and their respective confidence intervals. This review describes in detail these patient-reported outcomes, how they were obtained, their relative clinical significance and implications for both clinical and research settings. Overall, clinically significant changes in patient-reported outcomes suggest that yoga interventions hold promise for improving cancer survivors' well-being. This research overview provides new directions for examining how clinical significance can provide a unique context for describing changes in patient-reported outcomes from yoga interventions. Researchers are encouraged to employ indices of clinical significance in the interpretation and discussion of results from yoga studies. PMID:23125870

  13. Yoga & Cancer Interventions: A Review of the Clinical Significance of Patient Reported Outcomes for Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nicole Culos-Reed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited research suggests yoga may be a viable gentle physical activity option with a variety of health-related quality of life, psychosocial and symptom management benefits. The purpose of this review was to determine the clinical significance of patient-reported outcomes from yoga interventions conducted with cancer survivors. A total of 25 published yoga intervention studies for cancer survivors from 2004–2011 had patient-reported outcomes, including quality of life, psychosocial or symptom measures. Thirteen of these studies met the necessary criteria to assess clinical significance. Clinical significance for each of the outcomes of interest was examined based on 1 standard error of the measurement, 0.5 standard deviation, and relative comparative effect sizes and their respective confidence intervals. This review describes in detail these patient-reported outcomes, how they were obtained, their relative clinical significance and implications for both clinical and research settings. Overall, clinically significant changes in patient-reported outcomes suggest that yoga interventions hold promise for improving cancer survivors' well-being. This research overview provides new directions for examining how clinical significance can provide a unique context for describing changes in patient-reported outcomes from yoga interventions. Researchers are encouraged to employ indices of clinical significance in the interpretation and discussion of results from yoga studies.

  14. The impact of organisational external peer review on colorectal cancer treatment and survival in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilsdonk, M. J.; van Dijk, B. A. C.; Otter, R.; Siesling, S.; van Harten, W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Organisational external peer review was introduced in 1994 in the Netherlands to improve multidisciplinary cancer care. We examined the clinical impact of this programme on colorectal cancer care. Methods: Patients with primary colorectal cancer were included from 23 participating hospit

  15. Prognostic significance of detection of microscopic peritoneal disease in colorectal cancer: a systematic review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, Helen M

    2013-06-01

    Free intraperitoneal tumour cells are an independent indicator of poor prognosis, and are encorporated in current staging systems in upper gastrointestinal cancers, but not colorectal cancer. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the role and prognostic significance of positive peritoneal lavage in colorectal cancer.

  16. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Tuinman, Marrit A

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether

  17. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    2015-01-01

    There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether body ima

  18. A Review of Current Machine Learning Methods Used for Cancer Recurrence Modeling and Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemphill, Geralyn M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-27

    Cancer has been characterized as a heterogeneous disease consisting of many different subtypes. The early diagnosis and prognosis of a cancer type has become a necessity in cancer research. A major challenge in cancer management is the classification of patients into appropriate risk groups for better treatment and follow-up. Such risk assessment is critically important in order to optimize the patient’s health and the use of medical resources, as well as to avoid cancer recurrence. This paper focuses on the application of machine learning methods for predicting the likelihood of a recurrence of cancer. It is not meant to be an extensive review of the literature on the subject of machine learning techniques for cancer recurrence modeling. Other recent papers have performed such a review, and I will rely heavily on the results and outcomes from these papers. The electronic databases that were used for this review include PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar. Query terms used include “cancer recurrence modeling”, “cancer recurrence and machine learning”, “cancer recurrence modeling and machine learning”, and “machine learning for cancer recurrence and prediction”. The most recent and most applicable papers to the topic of this review have been included in the references. It also includes a list of modeling and classification methods to predict cancer recurrence.

  19. Dietary isoflavone intake is not statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Morimoto, Yukiko; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Park, Song-Yi; Ettienne, Reynolette; Matsuno, Rayna K.; Long, Camonia; Steffen, Alana D.; Brian E Henderson; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loïc; Wilkens, Lynne R.

    2014-01-01

    Given high soy intake and low incidence rates in Asian countries, isoflavones, substances with an estrogen-like structure occurring principally in soybeans, are postulated to be cancer-protective. We examined the association of dietary isoflavone intake with breast cancer risk in 84,450 women (896 in situ and 3,873 invasive cases) who were part of the Multiethnic Cohort (Japanese Americans, whites, Latinos, African Americans, and Native Hawaiians) with wide ranges of soy intake. The absolute ...

  20. Efficient Cancer Classification using Fast Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (FANFIS based on Statistical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Ananda Kumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in number of cancer is detected throughout the world. This leads to the requirement of developing a new technique which can detect the occurrence the cancer. This will help in better diagnosis in order to reduce the cancer patients. This paper aim at finding the smallest set of genes that can ensure highly accurate classification of cancer from micro array data by using supervised machine learning algorithms. The significance of finding the minimum subset is three fold: a The computational burden and noise arising from irrelevant genes are much reduced; b the cost for cancer testing is reduced significantly as it simplifies the gene expression tests to include only a very small number of genes rather than thousands of genes; c it calls for more investigation into the probable biological relationship between these small numbers of genes and cancer development and treatment. The proposed method involves two steps. In the first step, some important genes are chosen with the help of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA ranking scheme. In the second step, the classification capability is tested for all simple combinations of those important genes using a better classifier. The proposed method uses Fast Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (FANFIS as a classification model. This classification model uses Modified Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for learning phase. The experimental results suggest that the proposed method results in better accuracy and also it takes lesser time for classification when compared to the conventional techniques.

  1. Enhanced statistical tests for GWAS in admixed populations: assessment using African Americans from CARe and a Breast Cancer Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Pasaniuc

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available While genome-wide association studies (GWAS have primarily examined populations of European ancestry, more recent studies often involve additional populations, including admixed populations such as African Americans and Latinos. In admixed populations, linkage disequilibrium (LD exists both at a fine scale in ancestral populations and at a coarse scale (admixture-LD due to chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry. Disease association statistics in admixed populations have previously considered SNP association (LD mapping or admixture association (mapping by admixture-LD, but not both. Here, we introduce a new statistical framework for combining SNP and admixture association in case-control studies, as well as methods for local ancestry-aware imputation. We illustrate the gain in statistical power achieved by these methods by analyzing data of 6,209 unrelated African Americans from the CARe project genotyped on the Affymetrix 6.0 chip, in conjunction with both simulated and real phenotypes, as well as by analyzing the FGFR2 locus using breast cancer GWAS data from 5,761 African-American women. We show that, at typed SNPs, our method yields an 8% increase in statistical power for finding disease risk loci compared to the power achieved by standard methods in case-control studies. At imputed SNPs, we observe an 11% increase in statistical power for mapping disease loci when our local ancestry-aware imputation framework and the new scoring statistic are jointly employed. Finally, we show that our method increases statistical power in regions harboring the causal SNP in the case when the causal SNP is untyped and cannot be imputed. Our methods and our publicly available software are broadly applicable to GWAS in admixed populations.

  2. Teaching Statistics in APA-Accredited Doctoral Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology: A Syllabi Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ord, Anna S.; Ripley, Jennifer S.; Hook, Joshua; Erspamer, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Although statistical methods and research design are crucial areas of competency for psychologists, few studies explore how statistics are taught across doctoral programs in psychology in the United States. The present study examined 153 American Psychological Association-accredited doctoral programs in clinical and counseling psychology and aimed…

  3. Adenoviral gene therapy in gastric cancer: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Khalighinejad, Nima; Hariri, Hesammodin; Behnamfar, Omid; Yousefi, Arash; Momeni, Amir

    2008-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. With current therapeutic approaches the prognosis of gastric cancer is very poor, as gastric cancer accounts for the second most common cause of death in cancer related deaths. Gastric cancer like almost all other cancers has a molecular genetic basis which relies on disruption in normal cellular regulatory mechanisms regarding cell growth, apoptosis and cell division. Thus novel therapeutic approaches such as gene therapy promi...

  4. Robotic surgery: review of prostate and bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, William; Lee, Hak J; Ahlering, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery has become to replace many of the open procedures in urology because of the obvious benefits in perioperative morbidity. However, because of the technical challenges and steep learning curve, the adoption of laparoscopy has been limited to only highly skilled laparoscopic surgeons. The introduction of the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, Calif) has offered significant technical advantages over laparoscopic surgery. Because of the wide acceptance of robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy over the past decade, it has paved the way for urologists to tackle other complex operations, such as a radical cystectomy to decrease the morbidity of the operation. The goal of this article was to review the history and discuss the application and current status of the robot in both prostate and bladder cancer management. We present our technique of performing a robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy and the application of the robust prostate experience to robotic cystectomy. PMID:23528721

  5. BOOK REVIEW: New Directions in Statistical Physics: Econophysics, Bioinformatics, and Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassberger, P.

    2004-10-01

    , many former Institutes for Statistical Physics are now renamed as Institutes for Complex Systems Science, manifesting thereby the claim that studying the complexity of the world surrounding us is a legitimate branch of physics: after the science of the infinitely large and the science of the infinitely small, it is now the science of the infinitely complex. The present book tries to give an overview of these developments. No volume of 360 pages can of course give a complete and balanced account. Therefore it is necessary to pick out representative problems, and to illustrate with them how concepts and methods from statistical physics can be made useful in circumstances which their creators never had in mind. This is essentially the goal that the book tries to attain, as also stated on its back cover: `This book provides a unique insight into the latest breakthroughs in a consistent manner, at a level accessible to undergraduates, yet with enough attention to the theory and computation to satisfy the professional researcher.' Measured against these high goals, the book has failed. The articles are of very uneven quality. The only paper written manifestly for undergraduates is the one on first passage problems by Ding and Rangarajan. Others, like the articles on protein folding by Hansmann, on clustering by Steinbach et al, and on thermal convection by Rogers et al should still be very useful for students, but, for example, the excellent article by Y-K Yu on sequence alignment is written mainly for specialists. While the above articles (and several other ones) are indeed well written and of sufficiently broad interest to be included in such a volume, I cannot say this of all the papers. Some seem more the outcome of a PhD thesis (Thomakos on predicting the direction of a time series, Jirsa on variability of timing), rather than a review of a more substantial piece of work. Others (for example Aspnes et al on the variability of stock markets) are extremely technical, and

  6. [Rational approach of antibioprophylaxis: systematic review in ENT cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, M; Blayau, C; Fulgencio, J-P; Baujat, B; Arlet, G; Bonnet, F; Quesnel, C

    2013-05-01

    In head and neck cancer surgery antibiotic prophylaxis is effective in reducing the incidence of surgical site infections (SSI). However, controversies between antibiotic prophylaxis and curative antibiotic therapy exist, particularly when complex and decaying surgeries are performed in risky underlying conditions, with a risk of persisting salivary effusion in the postoperative period, or in the case of reconstruction with myo-cutaneous flaps. We have performed a systematic review of the literature according to PRISMA recommendations to answer the following questions: indications for antibiotic prophylaxis and curative antibiotic therapy, optimal duration, and choice of antibiotics for prophylaxis in head and neck cancer surgery. Literature analysis allows to conclude that patients undergoing Altemeier classes 2 and 3 surgical procedures should receive perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis restricted to the first 24 postoperative hours. No benefit has been shown with its extension beyond these 24 hours. The most adapted combinations of antibiotics in this setting are "amoxicillin+clavulanic acid" and "clindamycin+gentamicin". However, the level of evidence regarding the most decaying surgeries with high risk of SSI is low, making it necessary to perform new high-powered randomized trials in these patients. Eventually, it should be noted that antibiotic prophylaxis should be an integral part of SSI preventive measures, including application of hygiene measures, and postoperative monitoring of SSI clinical signs. PMID:23566591

  7. Review: US Spelling Colorectal cancer models for novel drug discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovko, Daniel; Kedrin, Dmitriy; Yilmaz, Omer H.; Roper, Jatin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite increased screening rates and advances in targeted therapy, colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality. CRC models that recapitulate key features of human disease are essential to the development of novel and effective therapeutics. Classic methods of modeling CRC such as human cell lines and xenograft mice, while useful for many applications, carry significant limitations. Recently developed in vitro and in vivo models overcome some of these deficiencies and thus can be utilized to better model CRC for mechanistic and translational research. Areas Covered The authors review established models of in vitro cell culture and describe advances in organoid culture for studying normal and malignant intestine. They also discuss key features of classic xenograft models and describe other approaches for in vivo CRC research, including patient-derived xenograft, carcinogen-induced, orthotopic transplantation, and transgenic mouse models. We also describe mouse models of metastatic CRC. Expert opinion No single model is optimal for drug discovery in CRC. Genetically engineered models overcome many limitations of xenograft models. Three-dimensional organoids can be efficiently derived from both normal and malignant tissue for large-scale in vitro and in vivo (transplantation) studies, and are thus a significant advance in CRC drug discovery. PMID:26295972

  8. Information processing in bacteria: memory, computation, and statistical physics: a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ganhui; Tu, Yuhai

    2016-05-01

    preserving information, it does not reveal the underlying mechanism that leads to the observed input-output relationship, nor does it tell us much about which information is important for the organism and how biological systems use information to carry out specific functions. To do that, we need to develop models of the biological machineries, e.g. biochemical networks and neural networks, to understand the dynamics of biological information processes. This is a much more difficult task. It requires deep knowledge of the underlying biological network—the main players (nodes) and their interactions (links)—in sufficient detail to build a model with predictive power, as well as quantitative input-output measurements of the system under different perturbations (both genetic variations and different external conditions) to test the model predictions to guide further development of the model. Due to the recent growth of biological knowledge thanks in part to high throughput methods (sequencing, gene expression microarray, etc) and development of quantitative in vivo techniques such as various florescence technology, these requirements are starting to be realized in different biological systems. The possible close interaction between quantitative experimentation and theoretical modeling has made systems biology an attractive field for physicists interested in quantitative biology. In this review, we describe some of the recent work in developing a quantitative predictive model of bacterial chemotaxis, which can be considered as the hydrogen atom of systems biology. Using statistical physics approaches, such as the Ising model and Langevin equation, we study how bacteria, such as E. coli, sense and amplify external signals, how they keep a working memory of the stimuli, and how they use these data to compute the chemical gradient. In particular, we will describe how E. coli cells avoid cross-talk in a heterogeneous receptor cluster to keep a ligand-specific memory. We will also

  9. Immunotherapy in prostate cancer: review of the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, E M; Vera-Badillo, F E; Perez-Valderrama, B; Matos-Pita, A S; Duran, I

    2015-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common male malignancy in the Western world. Once it metastasizes, it is incurable. The current gold standard for metastatic disease is the combined docetaxel/prednisone regimen. Prostate cancer shows several characteristics that make it a suitable candidate for immunotherapy, as recently exemplified by the approval of sipuleucel-T, the first vaccine to treat any malignancy. Here, we review different tumor-associated antigen immunotherapy strategies currently being investigated, from a humanized radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (J-591) that targets radiation into tumor cells, moving on to vaccines and through to immunomodulator agents such as anti-CPLA-4 and anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies that activate T-cell responses via immune checkpoint inhibition. We explore different opinions on the best approach to integrate immunotherapy into existing standard therapies, such as androgen-deprivation therapy, radiotherapy or chemotherapy, and review different combination sequences, patient types and time points during the course of the disease to achieve a lasting immune response. We present data from recent phase III clinical trials that call for a change in trial endpoint design with immunotherapy agents, from the traditional tumor progression to overall survival and how such trials should include immune response measurements as secondary or intermediate endpoints to help identify patient clinical benefit in the earlier phases of treatment. Finally, we join in the recent questioning on the validity of RECIST criteria to measure response to immunotherapeutic agents, as initial increases in the size of tumors/lymph nodes, which are part of a normal immune response, could be categorized as disease progression under RECIST.

  10. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor - Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor - Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on how many people survive this type of ...

  11. Isoflavones and Prostate Cancer: A Review of Some Critical Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Yi Zhang; Jie Cui; Ye Zhang; Zhen-Long Wang; Tie Chong; Zi-Ming Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this review is to discuss some critical issues of isoflavones protective against the development of prostate cancer (PCa).Data Sources: Data cited in this review were obtained primarily from PubMed and Embase from 1975 to 2015.Study Selection: Articles were selected with the search terms "isoflavone", "Phytoestrogen", "soy", "genistin", and "PCa".Results: Isoflavones do not play an important role on prostate-specific antigen levels reduction in PCa patients or healthy men.The effect ofisoflavones on sex hormone levels and PCa risk may be determined by equol converting bacteria in the intestine, specific polymorphic variation and concentrations of isoflavones.The intake of various types of phytoestrogens with lower concentrations in the daily diet may produce synergistic effects against PCa.Moreover, prostate tissue may concentrate isoflavones to potentially anti-carcinogenic levels.In addition, it is noteworthy that isoflavones may act as an agonist in PCa.Conclusions: Isoflavones play a protective role against the development of PCa.However, careful consideration should be given when isoflavones are used in the prevention and treatment of PCa.

  12. Managing cancer-related fatigue in men with prostate cancer: a systematic review of non-pharmacological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, David; Lopez, Violeta; Aromataris, Edoardo

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize the best available evidence informing the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for managing cancer-related fatigue in men treated for prostate cancer. This review considered experimental studies that included men with prostate cancer (regardless of staging, previous treatment or comorbidities), aged 18 years and over who were undergoing any treatment, or had completed any treatment for prostate cancer within the previous 12 months. Three interventions were identified for the management of cancer-related fatigue in men with prostate cancer. Evidence from five studies including 447 participants demonstrates the effectiveness of physical activity, both aerobic and resistance exercise, and from three studies including 153 participants suggesting the benefits of psychosocial interventions including education and cognitive behavioural therapy. Health professionals require knowledge of a range of effective interventions aimed at reducing cancer-related fatigue in men with prostate cancer and should incorporate those interventions into their patient management. Although physical activity appears to show the greatest benefit, other non-pharmacological interventions such as education and cognitive behavioural therapy have demonstrated benefit and should also be considered as a strategy in treating this debilitating side effect of cancer and its treatment. PMID:24237792

  13. 76 FR 21736 - Draft Toxicological Review of Methanol (Non-Cancer) in Support of Summary Information on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... AGENCY Draft Toxicological Review of Methanol (Non-Cancer) in Support of Summary Information on the... Review of Methanol (Non-Cancer): In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information... the draft IRIS Methanol Toxicological Review (Non-Cancer) for public comment while continuing to...

  14. Second primary cancers after radiation for prostate cancer: a review of data from planning studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of planning studies was undertaken to evaluate estimated risks of radiation induced second primary cancers (RISPC) associated with different prostate radiotherapy techniques for localised prostate cancer. A total of 83 publications were identified which employed a variety of methods to estimate RISPC risk. Of these, the 16 planning studies which specifically addressed absolute or relative second cancer risk using dose–response models were selected for inclusion within this review. There are uncertainties and limitations related to all the different methods for estimating RISPC risk. Whether or not dose models include the effects of the primary radiation beam, as well as out-of-field regions, influences estimated risks. Regarding the impact of IMRT compared to 3D-CRT, at equivalent energies, several studies suggest an increase in risk related to increased leakage contributing to out-of-field RISPC risk, although in absolute terms this increase in risk may be very small. IMRT also results in increased low dose normal tissue irradiation, but the extent to which this has been estimated to contribute to RISPC risk is variable, and may also be very small. IMRT is often delivered using 6MV photons while conventional radiotherapy often requires higher energies to achieve adequate tissue penetration, and so comparisons between IMRT and older techniques should not be restricted to equivalent energies. Proton and brachytherapy planning studies suggest very low RISPC risks associated with these techniques. Until there is sufficient clinical evidence regarding RISPC risks associated with modern irradiation techniques, the data produced from planning studies is relevant when considering which patients to irradiate, and which technique to employ

  15. Nutrition and cancer: Review of epidemiological studies and clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Demosthenes Panagiotakos; Georgia Georgiou; Niki Kontou

    2010-01-01

    Risk factors of cancer include unhealthy dietary habits, physical inactivity, smoking, various genetic and environmental factors. Cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases with increased incidence; moreover, 80% of gastrointestinal, breast and prostate cancers are attributed to unhealthy eating habits. Many surveys have investigated the role of diet in cancer prevention. Here we summarized current knowledge about dietary factors associated with cancer incidence. There ...

  16. Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Takahiro Tanaka; Mayu Tanaka; Takuji Tanaka

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important adv...

  17. Review of the Burden of Esophageal Cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti-Azrin, Ab Hamid; Wan-Nor-Asyikeen, Wan Adnan; Norsa'adah, Bachok

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the top leading causes of cancer-related deaths in Malaysia. To date, neither the prevalence nor incidence of esophageal cancer nationally have been recorded. Esophageal cancer remains a major and lethal health problem even if it is not common in Malaysia. The late presentation of esophageal cancer makes it a difficult and challenging medical problem. Therefore, more governmental and non-governmental organizations of Malaysia should emphasize primary and secondary prevention strategies. PMID:27644604

  18. A review of the infection-associated cancers in North African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Wafaa Mohamed; Anwar, Wagida A; Attaleb, Mohammed; Mazini, Loubna; Försti, Asta; Trimbitas, Roxana-Delia; Khyatti, Meriem

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is typically classified as a leading non-communicable disease; however, infectious agents, such as Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human papilloma virus (HPV), contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of various cancers. Less developed countries, including countries of the North African (NA) region, endure the highest burden of infection-related cancers. The five most common infection-associated cancers in NA in order of incidence are bladder cancer, cervical cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This review aims to outline the epidemiologic pattern of infection-associated cancers in five NA countries (namely: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt) highlighting the similarities and differences across the region. The present study employed an initial literature review of peer-reviewed articles selected from PubMed, ScienceDirect and World Health Organization (WHO) databases based on key word searches without restriction on publication dates. Original research articles and reports written in French, as well as data from institutional reports and regional meeting abstracts were also included in this extensive review. Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco were selected to be the focus of this review. PMID:27512409

  19. A review of the infection-associated cancers in North African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Wafaa Mohamed; Anwar, Wagida A; Attaleb, Mohammed; Mazini, Loubna; Försti, Asta; Trimbitas, Roxana-Delia; Khyatti, Meriem

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is typically classified as a leading non-communicable disease; however, infectious agents, such as Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human papilloma virus (HPV), contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of various cancers. Less developed countries, including countries of the North African (NA) region, endure the highest burden of infection-related cancers. The five most common infection-associated cancers in NA in order of incidence are bladder cancer, cervical cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This review aims to outline the epidemiologic pattern of infection-associated cancers in five NA countries (namely: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt) highlighting the similarities and differences across the region. The present study employed an initial literature review of peer-reviewed articles selected from PubMed, ScienceDirect and World Health Organization (WHO) databases based on key word searches without restriction on publication dates. Original research articles and reports written in French, as well as data from institutional reports and regional meeting abstracts were also included in this extensive review. Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco were selected to be the focus of this review.

  20. Information processing in bacteria: memory, computation, and statistical physics: a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ganhui; Tu, Yuhai

    2016-05-01

    preserving information, it does not reveal the underlying mechanism that leads to the observed input-output relationship, nor does it tell us much about which information is important for the organism and how biological systems use information to carry out specific functions. To do that, we need to develop models of the biological machineries, e.g. biochemical networks and neural networks, to understand the dynamics of biological information processes. This is a much more difficult task. It requires deep knowledge of the underlying biological network—the main players (nodes) and their interactions (links)—in sufficient detail to build a model with predictive power, as well as quantitative input-output measurements of the system under different perturbations (both genetic variations and different external conditions) to test the model predictions to guide further development of the model. Due to the recent growth of biological knowledge thanks in part to high throughput methods (sequencing, gene expression microarray, etc) and development of quantitative in vivo techniques such as various florescence technology, these requirements are starting to be realized in different biological systems. The possible close interaction between quantitative experimentation and theoretical modeling has made systems biology an attractive field for physicists interested in quantitative biology. In this review, we describe some of the recent work in developing a quantitative predictive model of bacterial chemotaxis, which can be considered as the hydrogen atom of systems biology. Using statistical physics approaches, such as the Ising model and Langevin equation, we study how bacteria, such as E. coli, sense and amplify external signals, how they keep a working memory of the stimuli, and how they use these data to compute the chemical gradient. In particular, we will describe how E. coli cells avoid cross-talk in a heterogeneous receptor cluster to keep a ligand-specific memory. We will also

  1. Information processing in bacteria: memory, computation, and statistical physics: a key issues review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ganhui; Tu, Yuhai

    2016-05-01

    preserving information, it does not reveal the underlying mechanism that leads to the observed input-output relationship, nor does it tell us much about which information is important for the organism and how biological systems use information to carry out specific functions. To do that, we need to develop models of the biological machineries, e.g. biochemical networks and neural networks, to understand the dynamics of biological information processes. This is a much more difficult task. It requires deep knowledge of the underlying biological network-the main players (nodes) and their interactions (links)-in sufficient detail to build a model with predictive power, as well as quantitative input-output measurements of the system under different perturbations (both genetic variations and different external conditions) to test the model predictions to guide further development of the model. Due to the recent growth of biological knowledge thanks in part to high throughput methods (sequencing, gene expression microarray, etc) and development of quantitative in vivo techniques such as various florescence technology, these requirements are starting to be realized in different biological systems. The possible close interaction between quantitative experimentation and theoretical modeling has made systems biology an attractive field for physicists interested in quantitative biology. In this review, we describe some of the recent work in developing a quantitative predictive model of bacterial chemotaxis, which can be considered as the hydrogen atom of systems biology. Using statistical physics approaches, such as the Ising model and Langevin equation, we study how bacteria, such as E. coli, sense and amplify external signals, how they keep a working memory of the stimuli, and how they use these data to compute the chemical gradient. In particular, we will describe how E. coli cells avoid cross-talk in a heterogeneous receptor cluster to keep a ligand-specific memory. We will also

  2. Oral Alterations in children with cancer. Literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cortes-Ramírez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Existe poca información para el odontólogo sobre tumores malignos y complicaciones por su evolución natural como secundaria al tratamiento a pesar de ser el cáncer en niños el 3% de todos los cánceres. El objetivo es hacer una revisión sucinta de las neoplasias más frecuentes en niños, identificarlas y conocer las alteraciones orales con mayor incidencia secundarias tanto a la patología como el efecto secundario del tratamiento. Realizamos una revisión analizando los diferentes tipos de neoplasias malignas que puede presentarse en esta etapa de vida, las cuales se dividen en hematológicos: leucemias y linfomas y tumores sólidos. La leucemia más frecuente es la linfoblastica aguda (LLA, después la Mieloide Aguda, y Granulocítica. Los linfomas se desarrollan del sistema linfático, se dividen en Hodgkin y no Hodgkin. El cáncer se ha convertido en una enfermedad crónica. Ello favorece un nuevo grupo de pacientes que logran supervivencia suficiente para que puedan producirse efectos secundarios por las terapias utilizadas, fármacos, dosis y las características de cada niño. Las complicaciones orales aparecen en un 40%, las más frecuentes: mucositis, infección oportunista, xerostomía, hemorragias, enfermedad periodontal, alteraciones del desarrollo de dientes y maxilar. Aunque el cáncer esté localizado fuera del área maxilofacial, la quimioterapia es agresiva en un organismo en desarrollo. Los efectos secundarios de la radioterapia son generales y específicos de la zona a irradiar, órganos y tejidos circundantes. Ultimamente, los avances en diagnóstico y tratamiento aumentaron la supervivencia del 20% al 80%, con tratamientos a largo plazo. Abstract: There is little information for the dentists about malign tumors and their complications both because of their natural evolution as secondary to their treatment, despite the children cancer is the 3% of all the cancer cases. The objective is to make a concise review

  3. Gender and ICT in the Netherlands : review of statistics and literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oost, van Ellen

    2002-01-01

    This literature review aims to contribute towards the building of a knowledge base for the European SIGIS project. It will primarily focus on the review of Dutch studies related to the inclusion of women in the information society. The second objective is to support the Dutch casestudies. For this r

  4. Reviewer statistics of Journal of Palaeogeography of year 2012-2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The development of Journal of Palaeogeography depends on support from scholars and specialists.Names of scholars and specialists as reviewers for Journal of Palaeogeography in year 2012-2013 are listed below(numbers in the brackets are reviewing times).Great gratitude is extended to them!

  5. Statistical Inference under Latent Class Models, with Application to Risk Assessment in Cancer Survivorship Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huijing

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by a cancer survivorship program, this PhD thesis aims to develop methodology for risk assessment, classification, and prediction. We formulate the primary data collected from a cohort with two underlying categories, the at-risk and not-at-risk classes, using latent class models, and we conduct both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. We begin with a maximum pseudo-likelihood estimator (pseudo-MLE) as an alternative to the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) under a mixture Po...

  6. Statistical models for predicting number of involved nodes in breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Dwivedi, Sada Nand; Deo, Suryanarayana; Shukla, Rakesh; Kopras, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians need to predict the number of involved nodes in breast cancer patients in order to ascertain severity, prognosis, and design subsequent treatment. The distribution of involved nodes often displays over-dispersion—a larger variability than expected. Until now, the negative binomial model has been used to describe this distribution assuming that over-dispersion is only due to unobserved heterogeneity. The distribution of involved nodes contains a large proportion of excess zeros (neg...

  7. Nutrition and cancer: Review of epidemiological studies and clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demosthenes Panagiotakos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors of cancer include unhealthy dietary habits, physical inactivity, smoking, various genetic and environmental factors. Cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases with increased incidence; moreover, 80% of gastrointestinal, breast and prostate cancers are attributed to unhealthy eating habits. Many surveys have investigated the role of diet in cancer prevention. Here we summarized current knowledge about dietary factors associated with cancer incidence. There is a strong correlation of the protective effect of fruits and vegetables with colon cancer and the negative effect of red meat and the protective effect of milk on colorectal cancer. High alcohol consumption is related to higher incidence of mouth and esophageal cancers, with hot drinks playing a role in mouth or even gastrointestinal cancers. High fat consumption seems to play a negative role in colorectal cancer, where sugar and salt might be negatively related to stomach cancer. Beyond nutrition, physical inactivity and body fat seems to play an important role in cancer, where there are strong evidence that the first protects against colorectal cancer and the second increases the incidence of breast cancer after menopause. Data for the role of micronutrients, vitamins and minerals lead to the suggestion that dietary supplements should be avoided and all nutritional needs should be covered through a well balanced diet.

  8. Screening for cancer: when to stop?: A practical guide and review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soung, Michael C

    2015-03-01

    Deciding when to stop cancer screening in older adults is a complex challenge that involves multiple factors: individual health status and life expectancy; risks and benefits of screening, which vary with age and comorbidity; and individual preferences and values. This article examines current cancer screening practices and reviews the risks and benefits of cancer screening for colorectal, breast, lung, prostate, and cervical cancer, particularly in older individuals and those with multiple comorbidities. Tools for estimating life expectancy are reviewed, and a practical framework is presented to guide discussions on when the harms of screening likely outweigh the benefits.

  9. Maximum information entropy principle and the interpretation of probabilities in statistical mechanics - a short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuić, Domagoj

    2016-05-01

    In this paper an alternative approach to statistical mechanics based on the maximum information entropy principle (MaxEnt) is examined, specifically its close relation with the Gibbs method of ensembles. It is shown that the MaxEnt formalism is the logical extension of the Gibbs formalism of equilibrium statistical mechanics that is entirely independent of the frequentist interpretation of probabilities only as factual (i.e. experimentally verifiable) properties of the real world. Furthermore, we show that, consistently with the law of large numbers, the relative frequencies of the ensemble of systems prepared under identical conditions (i.e. identical constraints) actually correspond to the MaxEnt probabilites in the limit of a large number of systems in the ensemble. This result implies that the probabilities in statistical mechanics can be interpreted, independently of the frequency interpretation, on the basis of the maximum information entropy principle.

  10. Systematic review and meta-analysis of glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ellen T.; Delzell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This systematic review and meta-analysis rigorously examines the relationship between glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancer (LHC) including NHL, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), multiple myeloma (MM), and leukemia. Meta-relative risks (meta-RRs) were positive and marginally statistically significant for the association between any versus no use of glyphosate and risk of NHL (meta-RR = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0–1.6, based on six studies) and MM (meta-RR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0–1.9; four studies). Associations were statistically null for HL (meta-RR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.7–1.6; two studies), leukemia (meta-RR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6–1.5; three studies), and NHL subtypes except B-cell lymphoma (two studies each). Bias and confounding may account for observed associations. Meta-analysis is constrained by few studies and a crude exposure metric, while the overall body of literature is methodologically limited and findings are not strong or consistent. Thus, a causal relationship has not been established between glyphosate exposure and risk of any type of LHC. PMID:27015139

  11. Systematic review and meta-analysis of glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ellen T; Delzell, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis rigorously examines the relationship between glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancer (LHC) including NHL, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), multiple myeloma (MM), and leukemia. Meta-relative risks (meta-RRs) were positive and marginally statistically significant for the association between any versus no use of glyphosate and risk of NHL (meta-RR = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-1.6, based on six studies) and MM (meta-RR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0-1.9; four studies). Associations were statistically null for HL (meta-RR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.7-1.6; two studies), leukemia (meta-RR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6-1.5; three studies), and NHL subtypes except B-cell lymphoma (two studies each). Bias and confounding may account for observed associations. Meta-analysis is constrained by few studies and a crude exposure metric, while the overall body of literature is methodologically limited and findings are not strong or consistent. Thus, a causal relationship has not been established between glyphosate exposure and risk of any type of LHC. PMID:27015139

  12. Application of wavelet techniques for cancer diagnosis using ultrasound images: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshan, Vidya K; Mookiah, Muthu Rama Krishnan; Acharya, U Rajendra; Chandran, Vinod; Molinari, Filippo; Fujita, Hamido; Ng, Kwan Hoong

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasound is an important and low cost imaging modality used to study the internal organs of human body and blood flow through blood vessels. It uses high frequency sound waves to acquire images of internal organs. It is used to screen normal, benign and malignant tissues of various organs. Healthy and malignant tissues generate different echoes for ultrasound. Hence, it provides useful information about the potential tumor tissues that can be analyzed for diagnostic purposes before therapeutic procedures. Ultrasound images are affected with speckle noise due to an air gap between the transducer probe and the body. The challenge is to design and develop robust image preprocessing, segmentation and feature extraction algorithms to locate the tumor region and to extract subtle information from isolated tumor region for diagnosis. This information can be revealed using a scale space technique such as the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). It decomposes an image into images at different scales using low pass and high pass filters. These filters help to identify the detail or sudden changes in intensity in the image. These changes are reflected in the wavelet coefficients. Various texture, statistical and image based features can be extracted from these coefficients. The extracted features are subjected to statistical analysis to identify the significant features to discriminate normal and malignant ultrasound images using supervised classifiers. This paper presents a review of wavelet techniques used for preprocessing, segmentation and feature extraction of breast, thyroid, ovarian and prostate cancer using ultrasound images.

  13. Systematic review and meta-analysis of glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ellen T; Delzell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis rigorously examines the relationship between glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancer (LHC) including NHL, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), multiple myeloma (MM), and leukemia. Meta-relative risks (meta-RRs) were positive and marginally statistically significant for the association between any versus no use of glyphosate and risk of NHL (meta-RR = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-1.6, based on six studies) and MM (meta-RR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0-1.9; four studies). Associations were statistically null for HL (meta-RR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.7-1.6; two studies), leukemia (meta-RR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6-1.5; three studies), and NHL subtypes except B-cell lymphoma (two studies each). Bias and confounding may account for observed associations. Meta-analysis is constrained by few studies and a crude exposure metric, while the overall body of literature is methodologically limited and findings are not strong or consistent. Thus, a causal relationship has not been established between glyphosate exposure and risk of any type of LHC.

  14. Geographic access to mammography and its relationship to breast cancer screening and stage at diagnosis: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Gates, Jenna A.; Ersek, Jennifer L.; Eberth, Jan M.; Adams, Swann A.; Pruitt, Sandi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A review was conducted to summarize the current evidence and gaps in the literature on geographic access to mammography and its relationship to breast cancer-related outcomes. Methods Ovid Medline and PubMed were searched for articles published between January 1, 2000 and April 1, 2013 using Medical Subject Headings and key terms representing geographic accessibility and breast cancer-related outcomes. Due to a paucity of breast cancer treatment and mortality outcomes meeting the criteria (N=6), outcomes were restricted to breast cancer screening and stage at diagnosis. Studies included one or more of the following types of geographic accessibility measures: capacity, density, distance and travel time. Study findings were grouped by outcome and type of geographic measure. Results Twenty-one articles met inclusion criteria. Fourteen articles included stage at diagnosis as an outcome, five included mammography utilization, and two included both. Geographic measures of mammography accessibility varied widely across studies. Findings also varied, but most articles found either increased geographic access to mammography associated with increased utilization and decreased late-stage at diagnosis or no statistically significant association. Conclusion The gaps and methodologic heterogeneity in the literature to date limit definitive conclusions about an underlying association between geographic mammography access and breast cancer-related outcomes. Future studies should focus on the development and application of more precise and consistent measures of geographic access to mammography. PMID:26219677

  15. Riesz transforms in statistical signal processing and their applications to speckle metrology: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Shun; Ma, Ning;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a high-dimensional statistical signal processing is revisited with the aim of introducing the concept of vector signal representation derived from the Riesz transforms, which are the natural extension and generalization of the one-dimensional Hilbert transform. Under the new concep...

  16. Application of an Online Reference for Reviewing Basic Statistical Principles of Operating Room Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Masursky, Danielle; Wachtel, Ruth E.; Nussmeier, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    Operating room (OR) management differs from clinical anesthesia in that statistical literacy is needed daily to make good decisions. Two of the authors teach a course in operations research for surgical services to anesthesiologists, anesthesia residents, OR nursing directors, hospital administration students, and analysts to provide them with the…

  17. The relation between endometriosis and ovarian cancer - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Lene Nyhøj; Hartwell, Dorthe; Heidemann, Christian Hamilton;

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is known to harbor characteristics substantiating that it is a possible precursor of ovarian cancer.......Endometriosis is known to harbor characteristics substantiating that it is a possible precursor of ovarian cancer....

  18. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Palaniselvam Kuppusamy; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Gaanty Pragas Maniam; Solachuddin Jauhari Arief Ichwan; Ilavenil Soundharrajan; Natanamurugaraj Govindan

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment o...

  19. An integrative review of guidelines for anal cancer screening in HIV-infected persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jessica S; Holstad, Marcia M; Thomas, Tami; Bruner, Deborah Watkins

    2014-07-01

    HIV-infected individuals are 28 times more likely than the general population to be diagnosed with anal cancer. An integrative review of recommendations and guidelines for anal cancer screening was performed to provide a succinct guide to inform healthcare clinicians. The review excluded studies that were of non-HIV populations, redundant articles or publications, non-English manuscripts, or nonclinical trials. The review found no formal national or international guidelines exist for routine screening of anal cancer for HIV-infected individuals. To date, no randomized control trial provides strong evidence supporting efficaciousness and effectiveness of an anal cancer screening program. The screening recommendations from seven international-, national-, and state-based reports were reviewed and synthesized in this review. These guidelines suggest anal cancer screening, albeit unproven, may be beneficial at decreasing the incidence of anal cancer. This review highlights the paucity of screening-related research and is an area of need to provide clear direction and to define standard of care for anal cancer screening in HIV-infected persons.

  20. A systematic review of bevacizumab efficacy in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümler, Iben; Christiansen, Ole Grummedal; Nielsen, Dorte Lisbet

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Angiogenesis is a key component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for the treatment of cancer. We systematically describe phase II and III clinical trials of bevacizumab for the treatment of breast cancer. METHODS...

  1. Endometriosis-Associated Ovarian Cancer: A Review of Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Wing Ng

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is classically defined as the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside of the endometrial lining and uterine musculature. With an estimated frequency of 5%–10% among women of reproductive age, endometriosis is a common gynecologic disorder. While in itself a benign lesion, endometriosis shares several characteristics with invasive cancer, has been shown to undergo malignant transformation, and has been associated with an increased risk of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC. Numerous epidemiologic studies have shown an increased risk of EOC among women with endometriosis. This is particularly true for women with endometrioid and clear cell ovarian carcinoma. However, the carcinogenic pathways by which endometriosis associated ovarian carcinoma (EAOC develops remain poorly understood. Current molecular studies have sought to link endometriosis with EAOC through pathways related to oxidative stress, inflammation and hyperestrogenism. In addition, numerous studies have sought to identify an intermediary lesion between endometriosis and EAOC that may allow for the identification of endometriosis at greatest risk for malignant transformation or for the prevention of malignant transformation of this common gynecologic disorder. The objective of the current article is to review the current data regarding the molecular events associated with EAOC development from endometriosis, with a primary focus on malignancies of the endometrioid and clear cell histologic sub-types.

  2. Prolactin and breast cancer: The need to avoid undertreatment of serious psychiatric illnesses in breast cancer patients: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froes Brandao, Denise; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Goss, Paul E

    2016-01-15

    Hyperprolactinemia, defined as a sustained elevation of prolactin (PRL) levels greater than 530 mIU/L in women and greater than 424 mIU/L in men, has been implicated for a long time in breast cancer etiology and prognosis. Elevated PRL values (approximately 2-3 times higher than the reference values) are a common adverse effect of antipsychotic medications, especially with first-generation drugs, and most antipsychotics carry a standard warning regarding PRL elevations on their US product labels. These associations foster undertreatment of serious psychiatric illnesses in both otherwise healthy patients and cancer patients. This review assesses both the preclinical and clinical evidence that has led to the hypothesis of PRL's role in breast cancer risk or breast cancer progression. It is concluded that taken together, the published data are unconvincing and insufficient to deprive cancer patients in general and breast cancer patients specifically of potentially effective antipsychotic or antidepressant medications for serious psychiatric indications. We thus call on revised medication guidelines to avoid the existing undertreatment of serious psychiatric illnesses among cancer patients based on an unproven contraindication to psychiatric medications. Cancer 2016;122:184-188. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  3. Prolactin and breast cancer: The need to avoid undertreatment of serious psychiatric illnesses in breast cancer patients: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froes Brandao, Denise; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Goss, Paul E

    2016-01-15

    Hyperprolactinemia, defined as a sustained elevation of prolactin (PRL) levels greater than 530 mIU/L in women and greater than 424 mIU/L in men, has been implicated for a long time in breast cancer etiology and prognosis. Elevated PRL values (approximately 2-3 times higher than the reference values) are a common adverse effect of antipsychotic medications, especially with first-generation drugs, and most antipsychotics carry a standard warning regarding PRL elevations on their US product labels. These associations foster undertreatment of serious psychiatric illnesses in both otherwise healthy patients and cancer patients. This review assesses both the preclinical and clinical evidence that has led to the hypothesis of PRL's role in breast cancer risk or breast cancer progression. It is concluded that taken together, the published data are unconvincing and insufficient to deprive cancer patients in general and breast cancer patients specifically of potentially effective antipsychotic or antidepressant medications for serious psychiatric indications. We thus call on revised medication guidelines to avoid the existing undertreatment of serious psychiatric illnesses among cancer patients based on an unproven contraindication to psychiatric medications. Cancer 2016;122:184-188. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:26457577

  4. Reviewing risks and benefits of low-dose computed tomography screening for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Ishveen; Chopra, Avijeet; Bias, Thomas K

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the third most common cancer among men and women and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality. Diagnosis at an early stage has been suggested crucial for improving survival in individuals at high-risk of lung cancer. One potential facilitator to early diagnosis is low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). The United States Preventive Services Task Force guidelines call for annual LDCT screening for individuals at high-risk of lung cancer. This recommendation was based on the effectiveness of LDCT in early diagnosis of lung cancer, as indicated by the findings from the National Lung Screening Trial conducted in 2011. Although lung cancer accounts for more than a quarter of all cancer deaths in the United States and LDCT screening shows promising results regarding early lung cancer diagnosis, screening for lung cancer remains controversial. There is uncertainty about risks, cost-effectiveness, adequacy of evidence, and application of screening in a clinical setting. This narrative review provides an overview of risks and benefits of LDCT screening for lung cancer. Further, this review discusses the potential for implementation of LDCT in clinical setting. PMID:26680693

  5. Oral cancer: Etiology and risk factors: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy in the world. Oral cancer is of major concern in Southeast Asia primarily because of the prevalent oral habits of betel quid chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Despite recent advances in cancer diagnoses and therapies, the 5.year survival rate of oral cancer patients has remained at a dismal 50% in the last few decades. This paper is an overview of the various etiological agents and risk factors implicated in the development of oral cancer.

  6. Statistics for proteomics: a review of tools for analyzing experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urfer, Wolfgang; Grzegorczyk, Marco; Jung, Klaus

    2006-09-01

    Most proteomics experiments make use of 'high throughput' technologies such as 2-DE, MS or protein arrays to measure simultaneously the expression levels of thousands of proteins. Such experiments yield large, high-dimensional data sets which usually reflect not only the biological but also technical and experimental factors. Statistical tools are essential for evaluating these data and preventing false conclusions. Here, an overview is given of some typical statistical tools for proteomics experiments. In particular, we present methods for data preprocessing (e.g. calibration, missing values estimation and outlier detection), comparison of protein expression in different groups (e.g. detection of differentially expressed proteins or classification of new observations) as well as the detection of dependencies between proteins (e.g. protein clusters or networks). We also discuss questions of sample size planning for some of these methods. PMID:17031797

  7. A review of statistical methods for testing genetic anticipation: looking for an answer in Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boonstra, Philip S; Gruber, Stephen B; Raymond, Victoria M;

    2010-01-01

    to a recently proposed random effects model which includes extended pedigree data and unaffected family members [Larsen et al., 2009]. A naive use of the paired t-test is biased for the simple reason that age of onset has to be less than the age at ascertainment (interview) for both affected parent and child......Anticipation, manifested through decreasing age of onset or increased severity in successive generations, has been noted in several genetic diseases. Statistical methods for genetic anticipation range from a simple use of the paired t-test for age of onset restricted to affected parent-child pairs...... to incorporate recently proposed statistical methods that consider family instead of affected pairs as the sampling unit. These prospective censored regression models offer additional flexibility to incorporate unaffected family members, familial correlation and other covariates into the analysis. An expanded...

  8. Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Tanaka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy.

  9. Does a central review platform improve the quality of radiotherapy for rectal cancer? Results of a national quality assurance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Quality assurance (QA) for radiation treatment has become a priority since poorly delivered radiotherapy can negatively influence patient outcome. Within a national project we evaluated the feasibility of a central review platform and its role in improving uniformity of clinical target volume (CTV) delineation in daily practice. Material and methods: All Belgian radiotherapy departments were invited to participate and were asked to upload CTVs for rectal cancer treatment onto a secured server. These were centrally reviewed and feedback was given per e-mail. For each five consecutive patients per centre, the overlap parameter dice coefficient (DC) and the volumetric parameters volumetric ratio (RV) and commonly contoured volume (VCC) were calculated. Results: Twenty departments submitted 1224 eligible cases of which 909 were modified (74.3%). There was a significant increase in RV and VCC between the first ten patients per centre and the others. This was not seen for DC. Statistical analysis did not show a further significant improvement in delineation over the entire review period. Conclusion: Central review was feasible and increased the uniformity in CTV delineation in the first ten rectal cancer patients per centre. The observations in this study can be used to optimize future QA initiatives

  10. Review on adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer - why do treatment guidelines differ so much?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Laurids Ø; Qvortrup, Camilla; Pfeiffer, Per;

    2015-01-01

    /oxaliplatin. METHODS: A review of the literature was made identifying 24 randomized controlled trials on adjuvant treatment of rectal cancer based on about 10 000 patients. The trials were subdivided into a number of clinically relevant subgroups. RESULTS: As regards patients treated with preoperative (chemo...... of adjuvant chemotherapy and if adjuvant colon cancer studies are considered transferrable to rectal cancer patients regardless of the molecular differences....

  11. Alternate Service Delivery Models in Cancer Genetic Counseling: A Mini-Review

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Adam Hudson; Rahm, Alanna Kulchak; Williams, Janet L.

    2016-01-01

    Demand for cancer genetic counseling has grown rapidly in recent years as germline genomic information has become increasingly incorporated into cancer care, and the field has entered the public consciousness through high-profile celebrity publications. Increased demand and existing variability in the availability of trained cancer genetics clinicians place a priority on developing and evaluating alternate service delivery models for genetic counseling. This mini-review summarizes the state o...

  12. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Risk of Breast Cancer in Korean Women: A Quantitative Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Jong-Myon; Kim, Eun Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The epidemiological characteristics of breast cancer incidence by age group in Korean women are unique. This systematic review aimed to investigate the association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and breast cancer risk in Korean women. Methods: We searched electronic databases such as KoreaMed, KMbase, KISS, and RISS4U as well as PubMed for publications on Korean breast cancer patients. We also conducted manual searching based on references and citations in potential pap...

  13. Cancer-Related Stress and Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Chandwani, Kavita D.; Ryan, Julie L.; Peppone, Luke J.; Janelsins, Michelle M.; Sprod, Lisa K.; Katie Devine; Lara Trevino; Jennifer Gewandter; Morrow, Gary R.; Mustian, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    A cancer diagnosis elicits strong psychophysiological reactions that characterize stress. Stress is experienced by all patients but is usually not discussed during patient-healthcare professional interaction; thus underdiagnosed, very few are referred to support services. The prevalence of CAM use in patients with history of cancer is growing. The purpose of the paper is to review the aspects of cancer-related stress and interventions of commonly used complementary and alternative techniques/...

  14. Distant metastasis from oral cancer: A review and molecular biologic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Soussan

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been estimated to be the sixth most common cancer worldwide. The distant metastasis plays a critical role in the management and prognosis in oral cancer patients. Regarding the distant metastasis from the oral cancer, the hypopharynx is the most common primary site, followed by the base of tongue and anterior tongue. The present review article analyzes the characteristics of the distant metastases from the oral cavity from 1937 to 2015. PMID:27583211

  15. Distant metastasis from oral cancer: A review and molecular biologic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Soussan

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been estimated to be the sixth most common cancer worldwide. The distant metastasis plays a critical role in the management and prognosis in oral cancer patients. Regarding the distant metastasis from the oral cancer, the hypopharynx is the most common primary site, followed by the base of tongue and anterior tongue. The present review article analyzes the characteristics of the distant metastases from the oral cavity from 1937 to 2015.

  16. Asbestos and colon cancer: a weight-of-the-evidence review.

    OpenAIRE

    Gamble, J F

    1994-01-01

    What is the evidence that exposure to asbestos causes colon cancer? This weight-of-evidence review considers epidemiologic evidence from cohort studies of asbestos-exposed workers, case-control studies of colon cancer, animal bioassays, and other corroborative evidence. The major evidence for a causal association at high exposure is a combined colorectal standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 1.5 for asbestos cohorts where the lung cancer SMR was greater than twofold. However, misdiagnosis may...

  17. Influence of psychological coping on survival and recurrence in people with cancer: systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Petticrew, M.; Bell, R; Hunter, D.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarise the evidence on the effect of psychological coping styles (including fighting spirit, helplessness/hopelessness, denial, and avoidance) on survival and recurrence in patients with cancer. DESIGN: Systematic review of published and unpublished prospective observational studies. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Survival from or recurrence of cancer. RESULTS: 26 studies investigated the association between psychological coping styles and survival from cancer, and 11 studies invest...

  18. Dendritic cell based tumor vaccination in prostate and renal cell cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Draube

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than 200 clinical trials have been performed using dendritic cells (DC as cellular adjuvants in cancer. Yet the key question whether there is a link between immune and clinical response remains unanswered. Prostate and renal cell cancer (RCC have been extensively studied for DC-based immunotherapeutic interventions and were therefore chosen to address the above question by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data was obtained after a systematic literature search from clinical trials that enrolled at least 6 patients. Individual patient data meta-analysis was performed by means of conditional logistic regression grouped by study. Twenty nine trials involving a total of 906 patients were identified in prostate cancer (17 and RCC (12. Objective response rates were 7.7% in prostate cancer and 12.7% in RCC. The combined percentages of objective responses and stable diseases (SD amounted to a clinical benefit rate (CBR of 54% in prostate cancer and 48% in RCC. Meta-analysis of individual patient data (n = 403 revealed the cellular immune response to have a significant influence on CBR, both in prostate cancer (OR 10.6, 95% CI 2.5-44.1 and in RCC (OR 8.4, 95% CI 1.3-53.0. Furthermore, DC dose was found to have a significant influence on CBR in both entities. Finally, for the larger cohort of prostate cancer patients, an influence of DC maturity and DC subtype (density enriched versus monocyte derived DC as well as access to draining lymph nodes on clinical outcome could be demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As a 'proof of principle' a statistically significant effect of DC-mediated cellular immune response and of DC dose on CBR could be demonstrated. Further findings concerning vaccine composition, quality control, and the effect of DC maturation status are relevant for the immunological development of DC-based vaccines.

  19. Systematic review of the epidemiology literature on formaldehyde and cancers of the upper respiratory tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: EPA is currently drafting a Toxicological Review of formaldehyde. As part of the comprehensive evaluation of potential hazards associated with exposure to formaldehyde, the potential hazards for cancers of the upper respiratory tract are being evaluated. We are aware ...

  20. Systematic review of the epidemiology literature on formaldehyde and lymphohematopoietic cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: EPA is currently drafting a Toxicological Review of formaldehyde. As part of the comprehensive evaluation of potential hazards associated with exposure to formaldehyde, the potential hazards for lymphohematopoietic cancers are being evaluated. We are aware of multiple...

  1. Statistics-Based Prediction Analysis for Head and Neck Cancer Tumor Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Azimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current radiation therapy planning systems, which are based on pre-treatment Computer Tomography (CT images, assume that the tumor geometry does not change during the course of treatment. However, tumor geometry is shown to be changing over time. We propose a methodology to monitor and predict daily size changes of head and neck cancer tumors during the entire radiation therapy period. Using collected patients' CT scan data, MATLAB routines are developed to quantify the progressive geometric changes occurring in patients during radiation therapy. Regression analysis is implemented to develop predictive models for tumor size changes through entire period. The generated models are validated using leave-one-out cross validation. The proposed method will increase the accuracy of therapy and improve patient's safety and quality of life by reducing the number of harmful unnecessary CT scans.

  2. 76 FR 2398 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; California Health Interview Survey Cancer Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; California Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Module (CHIS-CCM) 2011 (NCI) SUMMARY: Under the provisions of Section 3507(a)(1)(D) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the National Cancer Institute (NCI),...

  3. Cancer and Intellectual Disability: A Review of Some Key Contextual Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, James; Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Research into the health of people with intellectual disabilities has increasingly focused on the occurrence of cancer in this population. Information on the incidence and prevalence of cancer is reviewed in both institutional and community settings. Examples of environmental causation are considered including "Helicobacter pylori."…

  4. Systematic review of outcomes after intersphincteric resection for low rectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, S T

    2012-05-01

    For a select group of patients proctectomy with intersphincteric resection (ISR) for low rectal cancer may be a viable alternative to abdominoperineal resection, with good oncological outcomes while preserving sphincter function. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the current evidence regarding oncological outcomes, morbidity and mortality, and functional outcomes after ISR for low rectal cancer.

  5. 76 FR 41805 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) (NCI) SUMMARY: Under the provisions of Section 3507(a)(1)(D) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the...

  6. Cancer in the Family: Review of the Psychosocial Perspectives of Patients and Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitschke, Diane B.

    2008-01-01

    As advances in cancer care have led to more treatment options and longer survival for cancer patients, a focus on quality of life for patients and their families has gained importance. This review provides a discussion of stress and coping theory, documents the relevance of this topic area for social work practice, and illuminates the results of a…

  7. Pancreatic cancer in type 1 and young-onset diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, R J; Roddam, A W; Beral, V

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the risk of pancreatic cancer in people with type I and young-onset diabetes. In three cohort and six case–control studies, the relative risk for pancreatic cancer in people with (vs without) diabetes was 2.00 (95% confidence interval 1.37–3.01) based on 39 cases with diabetes.

  8. Economic analyses of breast cancer control in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, S.G.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To support the development of global strategies against breast cancer, this study reviews available economic evidence on breast cancer control in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: A systematic article search was conducted through electronic scientific databases, and stud

  9. Quality of life of survivors of testicular germ cell cancer : a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, J; Hoekstra, HJ; Sleijfer, DT; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM

    2004-01-01

    Goals of work. Testicular cancer (TC) affects young men in the prime of life. The excellent prognosis and an increasing incidence have led to a growing number of testicular cancer survivors (TCSs). The aim of this review was to summarize and discuss research findings on the quality of life (QOL) of

  10. A systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of cancer in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Reider, Nadia; Cohen, Jeffrey;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of cancer incidence and prevalence in multiple sclerosis (MS) have produced conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and prevalence of cancer in persons with MS and review the quality of included studies. METHODS: We searched the PUBMED, SCOPUS, Web of Knowledge...

  11. Clinical review: surgical management of locally advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Courtney, D

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent and locally advanced colorectal cancers frequently require en bloc resection of involved organs to achieve negative margins. The aim of this review is to evaluate the most current literature related to the surgical management of locally advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer.

  12. Book Review of "The Molecular Biology of Cancer" by Stella Pelengaris, Michael Khan (Editors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Christian

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here, a review of "The Molecular Biology of Cancer" (Stella Pelengaris and Michael Khan [Editors] is given. The detailed description of the book is provided here: Pelengaris S, Khan M (Eds: The Molecular Biology of Cancer; Blackwell Publishing, Oxford (U.K.; 2006. 531 pages, 214 illustrations, ISBN 9-78140-511-814-9, £31.99.

  13. The impact of parental cancer on children and the family : a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A; Huizinga, GA; van der Graaf, WTA; Hoekstra, HJ; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM

    2004-01-01

    Objective. Children of cancer patients may go through a distressing time. The aim of this review was to survey present knowledge on the impact of parental cancer on children and the family. Design. Studies published between January 1980 and March 2004 addressing emotional, social, behavioural, cogni

  14. Microsurgical techniques for the treatment of breast cancer-related lymphedema: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penha, T.R.; Ijsbrandy, C.; Hendrix, N.A.; Heuts, E.M.; Voogd, A.C.; Meyenfeldt, M.F. von; Hulst, R.R. van der

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Upper limb lymphedema is one of the most underestimated and debilitating complications of breast cancer treatment. The aim of this review is to summarize the recent literature for evidence of the effectiveness of lymphatic microsurgery for the treatment of breast cancer-related lymphedem

  15. Review and statistical analysis of the ultrasonic velocity method for estimating the porosity fraction in polycrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review and statistical analysis of the ultrasonic velocity method for estimating the porosity fraction in polycrystalline materials is presented. Initially, a semi-empirical model is developed showing the origin of the linear relationship between ultrasonic velocity and porosity fraction. Then, from a compilation of data produced by many researchers, scatter plots of velocity versus percent porosity data are shown for Al2O3, MgO, porcelain-based ceramics, PZT, SiC, Si3N4, steel, tungsten, UO2,(U0.30Pu0.70)C, and YBa2Cu3O(7-x). Linear regression analysis produced predicted slope, intercept, correlation coefficient, level of significance, and confidence interval statistics for the data. Velocity values predicted from regression analysis for fully-dense materials are in good agreement with those calculated from elastic properties

  16. Review and statistical analysis of the use of ultrasonic velocity for estimating the porosity fraction in polycrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review and statistical analysis of the ultrasonic velocity method for estimating the porosity fraction in polycrystalline materials is presented. Initially, a semiempirical model is developed showing the origin of the linear relationship between ultrasonic velocity and porosity fraction. Then, from a compilation of data produced by many researchers, scatter plots of velocity versus percent porosity data are shown for Al2O3, MgO, porcelain-based ceramics, PZT, SiC, Si3N4, steel, tungsten, UO2,(U0.30Pu0.70)C, and YBa2Cu3O(7-x). Linear regression analysis produces predicted slope, intercept, correlation coefficient, level of significance, and confidence interval statistics for the data. Velocity values predicted from regression analysis of fully-dense materials are in good agreement with those calculated from elastic properties. 47 refs

  17. Aromatherapy as an Adjuvant Treatment in Cancer Care — A Descriptive Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Boehm, Katja; Büssing, Arndt; Ostermann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Claims of benefits of aromatherapy for cancer patients include reduced anxiety levels and relief of emotional stress, pain, muscular tension and fatigue. The objective of this paper is to provide an updated descriptive, systematic review of evidence from pre-clinical and clinical trials assessing the benefits and safety of aromatherapy for cancer patients. Literature databases such as Medline (via Ovid), the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, Cochrane Central were searched from their in...

  18. The Health Economics of Bladder Cancer: A Comprehensive Review of the Published Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Botteman, Marc F; Pashos, Chris L; Alberto Redaelli; Benjamin Laskin; Robert Hauser

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to conduct a critical systematic review of the available literature on the clinical and economic burden of bladder cancer in developed countries, with a focus on the cost effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing that burden. Forty-four economic studies were included in the review. Because of long- term survival and the need for lifelong routine monitoring and treatment, the cost per patient of bladder cancer from diagnosis to death is the highest of all cance...

  19. Body composition changes in females treated for breast cancer: a review of the evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sheean, Patricia M.; Hoskins, Kent; Stolley, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Body composition changes cannot be precisely captured using body weight or body mass index measures. Therefore, the primary purpose of this review was to characterize the patterns of body composition change in females treated for breast cancer including only studies that utilize imaging technologies to quantify adipose tissue and lean body mass (LBM). We reviewed PubMed for studies published between 1971–2012 involving females diagnosed with breast cancer where computed axial tomography (CAT)...

  20. Management of biochemical recurrence after primary treatment of prostate cancer: A systematic review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Punnen, S; Cooperberg, MR; D'Amico, AV; Karakiewicz, PI; Moul, JW; Scher, HI; Schlomm, T; Freedland, SJ

    2013-01-01

    Context Despite excellent cancer control with the treatment of localized prostate cancer (PCa), some men will experience a recurrence of disease. The optimal management of recurrent disease remains uncertain. Objective To systematically review recent literature regarding management of biochemical recurrence after primary treatment for localized PCa. Evidence acquisition A comprehensive systematic review of the literature was performed from 2000 to 2012 to identify articles pertaining to manag...

  1. Molecular genetic, diagnosis, prevention and gene therapy in prostatic cancer: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noori Daloii MR

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "nThe prostate is a small gland located below the bladder and upper part of the urethra. In developed countries prostate cancer is the second common cancer (after skin cancer, and also the second leading cause of cancer death (after lung cancer among men. The several studies have been shown prostate cancer familial aggregation. The main reason for this aggregation is inheritance included genes. The family history is an important risk factor for developing the disease. The genes AR, CYP17, SRD5A2, HSD3B1 and HSD3B2 are all intimately involved in androgen metabolism and cell proliferation in the prostate. Each shows intraspecific polymorphism and variation among racial-ethnic groups that is associated with the risk of prostate cancer. Some of genes expressed in the prostate are in association with the production of seminal fluid and also with prostate cancer. Epigenetic modifications, specifically DNA hypermethylation, are believed to play an important role in the down-regulation of genes important for protection against prostate cancer. In prostate cancer numerous molecular and genetic aberrations have been described. It is now well established that cancer cells exhibit a number of genetic defects in apoptotic pathways. In this review article, the most recent data in molecular genetic, prevention and especially gene therapy in prostate cancer are introduced.

  2. Menopausal hormone therapy in cancer survivors: A narrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhle, Carol L; Kapoor, Ekta; Sood, Richa; Thielen, Jacqueline M; Jatoi, Aminah; Faubion, Stephanie S

    2016-10-01

    Decision making regarding the use of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) for the treatment of bothersome menopausal symptoms in a cancer survivor can be complex, and includes assessment of its impact on disease-free or overall survival. Estrogen receptors are present in several cancer types, but this does not always result in estrogen-mediated tumor proliferation and adverse cancer-related outcomes. Estrogen may even be protective against certain cancers. Menopausal hormone therapy is associated with an increased risk of recurrence and mortality after diagnosis of some cancer types, but not others. We provide a narrative review of the medical literature regarding the risk of cancer recurrence and associated mortality with initiation of MHT after the diagnosis of breast, gynecologic, lung, colorectal, hematologic cancers, and melanoma. Menopausal hormone therapy may be considered for management of bothersome menopausal symptoms in women with some cancer types (e.g., colorectal and hematologic cancer, localized melanoma, and most cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancers), while nonhormonal treatment options may be preferred for others (e.g., breast cancer). In women with other cancer types, recommendations are less straightforward, and the use of MHT must be individualized. PMID:27621244

  3. Plants Against Cancer: A Review on Natural Phytochemicals in Preventing and Treating Cancers and Their Druggability

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hu; Khor, Tin Oo; Shu, Limin; Su, Zhengyuen; Fuentes, Francisco; Lee, Jong-Hun; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2012-01-01

    Cancer remains to be one of the leading causes of death in the United States and around the world. The advent of modern drug-targeted therapies has undeniably improved cancer patients’ cares. However, advanced metastasized cancer remains untreatable. Hence, continued searching for a safer and more effective chemoprevention and treatment is clearly needed for the improvement of the efficiency and to lower the treatment cost for cancer care. Cancer chemoprevention with natural phytochemical com...

  4. Molecular mechanisms of tamoxifen-associated endometrial cancer (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Rong; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena; Clarke, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen has been prescribed to millions of females for breast cancer prevention or treatment. However, tamoxifen is known to significantly enhance the risk of developing endometrial lesions, including hyperplasia, polyps, carcinomas, and sarcoma. Notably, tamoxifen-associated endometrial cancer often has a poor clinical outcome. Understanding the molecular mechanism of tamoxifen-induced endometrial cancer is essential for developing strategies that minimize tamoxifen’s effects on the endome...

  5. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) for cancer chemoprevention: A mini review

    OpenAIRE

    Prasan R Bhandari

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most feared diseases globally and there has been a sustained rise in its incidence in both developing and developed countries. Despite the growing therapeutic options for patients with cancer, their efficacy is time-limited and non-curative. Hence to overcome these drawbacks, an incessant screening for superior and safer drugs has been ongoing for numerous decades, resulting in the detection of anti-cancer properties of several phytochemicals. Chemoprevention using readil...

  6. HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer - a Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Hafiz Muhammad; Sultana, Sabira; Ahmed, Saeed; Akhtar, Naheed; Tariq, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of among all cancers with increased incidence, high mortality rate, and high economic and social costs. The the most common type of cancer among females worldwide, breast cancer is actually the uncontrolled proliferation of cells which attain malignancy. Recently it has shown that breast cancer contributes 11% among all types of cancer diagnosed globally on an annual basis and it is one of the leading causes of death among women. The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) is a receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 normally involved in the proliferation and division of breast cells. In some abnormal cases the HER2 gene does not work correctly and makes too many copies of itself. HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancers constitute an aggressive type of breast cancer and tend to grow faster and are more likely to spread. However, therapies that specifically target HER2, such as Herceptin® (traztuzumab), are very effective. HER2 targeted therapies, has significantly improved the therapeutic outcome for patients with HER2 positive breast cancer. PMID:27221828

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for ... Cancer What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview– ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  9. Expert systems and the CPI product substitution review: A needs analysis for the US Bureau of Labor Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrowood, L.F.; Tonn, B.E.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents recommendations relative to the use of expert systems and machine learning techniques by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to substantially automate product substitution decisions associated with the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Thirteen commercially available, PC-based expert system shells have received in-depth evaluations. Various machine learning techniques were also reviewed. Two recommendations are given: (1) BLS should use the expert system shell LEVEL5 OBJECT and establish a software development methodology for expert systems; and (2) BLS should undertake a small study to evaluate the potential of machine learning techniques to create and maintain the approximately 350 ELI-specific knowledge bases to be used in CPI product substitution review.

  10. Translocation of particles deposited in the respiratory system: a systematic review and statistical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nakane, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies have demonstrated that ambient particulate matter poses consistent risks for respiratory and cardiovascular disorders. The translocation of inhaled particles is one hypothesis that could explain such systemic effects. The objectives of this study were to conduct a systematic review of previous reports on particle translocation from the respiratory system and to discuss factors important for translocation. A PubMed search was conducted in August 2011 for the period...

  11. Spectrum of early lung cancer presentation in low-dose screening CT: a pictorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampinelli, Cristiano; Calloni, Sonia Francesca; Minotti, Marta; Bellomi, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The typical presentation of early stage lung cancers on low-dose CT screening are non-calcified pulmonary nodules. However, there is a wide spectrum of unusual focal abnormalities that can be early presentations of lung cancer. These abnormalities include, for example, cancers associated with 'cystic airspaces' or scar-like cancers. The detection of lung cancer with low-dose CT can be affected by the absence of intravenous contrast medium. As a consequence, endobronchial and central lesions can be difficult to recognize, raising the potential for missed cancers. Focal lesions arising within pre-existing lung disease, such as lung fibrosis or apical scars, can also be early lung cancer manifestations and deserve particular consideration as recognition of these lesions may be hindered by the underlying disease. Furthermore, the unpredictable growth rate of lung cancer, which ranges from indolent to aggressive cancers, necessitates attention to the wide spectrum of progression in lung cancer appearance on serial low-dose CT scans. In this pictorial review we discuss the spectrum of early lung cancer presentation in low-dose CT screening, highlighting typical as well as unusual radiological features and the varied growth rates of early lung cancer. Teaching Points • There is a wide spectrum of early presentations of lung cancer on LDCT. • Low radiation dose and the absence of contrast medium injection can affect lung cancer detection. • Lung cancer growth shows various behaviours, ranging from indolent to aggressive cancers. • Familiarity with LDCT technique can improve CT screening effectiveness and avoid missed diagnosis. PMID:27188380

  12. Two decades of external peer review of cancer care in general hospitals; the Dutch experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilsdonk, Melvin J; Siesling, Sabine; Otter, Rene; van Harten, Wim H

    2016-03-01

    External peer review was introduced in general hospitals in the Netherlands in 1994 to assess and improve the multidisciplinary team approach in cancer care. This paper aims to explore the value, perceived impact, and (future) role of external peer review in cancer care. Semistructured interviews were held with clinicians, oncology nurses, and managers from fifteen general hospitals that participated in three rounds of peer review over a period of 16 years. Interviewees reflected on the goals and expectations, experiences, perceived impact, and future role of external peer review. Transcriptions of the interviews were coded to discover recurrent themes. Improving clinical care and organization were the main motives for participation. Positive impact was perceived on multiple aspects of care such as shared responsibilities, internal prioritization of cancer care, improved communication, and a clear structure and position of cancer care within general hospitals. Establishing a direct relationship between the external peer review and organizational or clinical impact proved to be difficult. Criticism was raised on the content of the program being too theoretical and organization-focussed after three rounds. According to most stakeholders, external peer review can improve multidisciplinary team work in cancer care; however, the acceptance is threatened by a perceived disbalance between effort and visible clinical impact. Leaner and more clinically focused programs are needed to keep repeated peer reviews challenging and worthwhile. PMID:26714788

  13. A systematic review of quality of life instruments in long-term breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopra Ishveen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, representing 16% of all female cancers. According to the American Cancer Society, long-term cancer survival is defined as more than five years of survivorship since diagnosis, with approximately 2.5 million breast cancer survivors (BCS in 2006. The long-term effects from breast cancer and its treatment have been shown to have positive and negative effects on both recovery and survivors' quality of life (QoL. The purpose of the study was to identify QoL instruments that have been validated in long-term BCS and to review the studies that have used the QoL instruments in this population. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted from January 1990 to October 2010 using electronic databases. Instruments validated and used in BCS were included in the review. In addition, QoL studies in long-term BCS using the validated instruments were reviewed. The search was limited to studies in English language. Studies of BCS of less than five years after initial diagnosis, any clinical or review studies were excluded. Results The review identified a total of 12 instruments (10 disease-specific, 2 condition-specific validated in long-term BCS. According to the QoL framework proposed by Ferrell and colleagues, three instruments (Quality of Life-Cancer Survivors, Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors Scale, and Quality of Life Index-Cancer Version evaluated all four domains (physical, psychological, social, and spiritual of QoL. A review of the psychometric evaluation showed that Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors Scale has acceptable reliability, validity, and responsiveness in long-term BCS compared to other disease-specific instruments. The review also yielded 19 studies that used these QoL instruments. The study results indicated that age-group, ethnicity, and type of treatment influenced different aspects of QoL. Conclusions There is a significant impact of breast

  14. A STATISTICAL REVIEW OF DWPF LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS GENERATED DURING THE PROCESSING OF BATCHES 300 THROUGH 356

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T

    2006-08-31

    In this report, the Statistical Consulting Section (SCS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provides summaries and comparisons of composition measurements for glass samples that were generated during the processing of batches 300 through 356 at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). These analyses, which include measurements of samples from the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) as well as samples of glass standards, were provided to SCS by the DWPF Laboratory (DWPF Lab) of Waste Laboratory Services. The comparisons made by SCS were extensive given that these data allowed for contrasts between preparation methods and between the two spectrometers that are currently in use at the DWPF Lab. In addition to general comparisons, specific questions that were posed in the Technical Task Request (TTR) behind this effort were addressed in this report.

  15. Could mining be protective against prostate cancer? A study and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girschik, J.; Glass, D.; Ambrosini, G.L.; Fritschi, L. [Western Australian Institute of Medical Research, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in Western men and one in three Australian men develops the cancer before the age of 75. Currently, only increasing age, race and family history have been well established as risk factors. A growing number of studies have investigated occupation in relation to prostate cancer but, like other risk factors, no associations have been confirmed. Mining employs a significant proportion of the work force in Western Australia. The aims of this study were to describe the characteristics of miners in the Western Australian Prostate Health Study, investigate mining as a risk factor for prostate cancer, conduct a systematic search of the literature for studies that have investigated mining as an occupational risk factor for prostate cancer and compare and contrast their methodologies and results. Data were obtained from a population-based case-control study conducted from 1 January 2001 to 20 August 2002 at The University of Western Australia. After controlling for age, family history and military service in Vietnam, miners had a statistically significantly reduced risk of prostate cancer (adjusted OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.75). The systematic literature search of studies examining mining and prostate cancer found a reasonably consistent trend of a decreased risk of prostate cancer among miners. None of the published articles discussed their results regarding mining and prostate cancer in detail, and a biological mechanism to support these results has not previously been suggested.

  16. A Systematic Review of Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Pacific Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Josephine; Souares, Y; Hoy, D;

    2014-01-01

    is substantial, with age standardized incidence rates ranging from 8.2 to 50.7 and age standardized mortality rate from 2.7 to 23.9 per 100,000 women per year. The HPV genotype distribution suggests that 70-80% of these cancers could be preventable by the currently available bi- or quadrivalent HPV vaccines......This study provides the first systematic literature review of cervical cancer incidence and mortality as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype prevalence among women with cervical cancer in the Pacific Island countries and territories. The cervical cancer burden in the Pacific Region...

  17. Recent changes in bacteremia in patients with cancer: a systematic review of epidemiology and antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montassier, E; Batard, E; Gastinne, T; Potel, G; de La Cochetière, M F

    2013-07-01

    Bacteremia remains a major cause of life-threatening complication in patients with cancer. Significant changes in the spectrum of microorganisms isolated from blood culture have been reported in cancer patients over the past years. The aim of our systematic review was to inventory the recent trends in epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of microorganisms causing bacteremia in cancer patients. Data for this review was identified by searches of Medline, Scopus and Cochrane Library for indexed articles and abstracts published in English since 2008. The principal search terms were: "antimicrobial resistance", "bacteremia", "bacterial epidemiology", "bloodstream infection", "cancer patients", "carbapenem resistance", "Escherichia coli resistance", "extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing E. coli", "febrile neutropenia", "fluoroquinolone resistance", "neutropenic cancer patient", "vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus", and "multidrug resistance". Boolean operators (NOT, AND, OR) were also used in succession to narrow and widen the search. Altogether, 27 articles were selected to be analyzed in the review. We found that Gram-negative bacteria were the most frequent pathogen isolated, particularly in studies with minimal use of antibiotic prophylaxis. Another important trend is the extensive emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains associated with increased risk of morbidity, mortality and cost. This increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance has been reported in Gram-negative bacteria as well as in Gram-positive bacteria. This exhaustive review, reporting the recent findings in epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of bacteremia in cancer patients, highlights the necessity of local continuous surveillance of bacteremia and stringent enforcement of antibiotic stewardship programs in cancer patients. PMID:23354675

  18. An integrative review of South African cancer nursing research published from 2002–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Maree

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This integrative review aimed to quantify the publication output of South African cancer nursing research conducted between 2002 and 2012 and to identify key trends relevant to cancer nurse researchers.Objectives: To describe the publication output of cancer nursing research in terms of the journals of publication, authors, focus, participants and methods used, to explore whether the published work was funded and to assess the quality of the studies published.Methods: An integrative review was conducted using the key words South Africa in combination with cancer nursing and oncology nursing to search the databases Pubmed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Sabinet, Web of Science, Medline and OvidSP. A data extraction sheet was developed to document the required information from each paper and all publications were reviewed independently by the authors.Results: A total of 181 publications for potential inclusion were identified and 26 papers were included in this review. Cervical cancer, specifically the prevention of this disease, was the most popular diagnostic focus and theme of investigation. Most of the studies were descriptive and none of the studies met the criteria of the highest quality.Conclusion: Nursing added to the body of knowledge regarding the primary and secondary prevention of cancer. There is a need for work on both men and women diagnosed withthe most common cancers, as well as the family and care giver. There is also a need for multidisciplinary work using complex interventions focusing on symptom management to improve patient outcomes.

  19. Complementary and alternative medicine for cancer pain: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yanju; Kong, Xiangying; Yang, Liping; Liu, Rui; Shi, Zhan; Li, Weidong; Hua, Baojin; Hou, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective. Now with more and more published systematic reviews of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) on adult cancer pain, it is necessary to use the methods of overview of systematic review to summarize available evidence, appraise the evidence level, and give suggestions to future research and practice. Methods. A comprehensive search (the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and ISI Web of Knowledge) was conducted to identify all systematic reviews or meta-analyses of CAM on adult cancer pain. And the evidence levels were evaluated using GRADE approach. Results. 27 systematic reviews were included. Based on available evidence, we could find that psychoeducational interventions, music interventions, acupuncture plus drug therapy, Chinese herbal medicine plus cancer therapy, compound kushen injection, reflexology, lycopene, TENS, qigong, cupping, cannabis, Reiki, homeopathy (Traumeel), and creative arts therapies might have beneficial effects on adult cancer pain. No benefits were found for acupuncture (versus drug therapy or shame acupuncture), and the results were inconsistent for massage therapy, transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS), and Viscum album L plus cancer treatment. However, the evidence levels for these interventions were low or moderate due to high risk of bias and/or small sample size of primary studies. Conclusion. CAM may be beneficial for alleviating cancer pain, but the evidence levels were found to be low or moderate. Future large and rigor randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm the benefits of CAM on adult cancer pain. PMID:24817897

  20. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Cancer Pain: An Overview of Systematic Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanju Bao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Now with more and more published systematic reviews of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM on adult cancer pain, it is necessary to use the methods of overview of systematic review to summarize available evidence, appraise the evidence level, and give suggestions to future research and practice. Methods. A comprehensive search (the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and ISI Web of Knowledge was conducted to identify all systematic reviews or meta-analyses of CAM on adult cancer pain. And the evidence levels were evaluated using GRADE approach. Results. 27 systematic reviews were included. Based on available evidence, we could find that psychoeducational interventions, music interventions, acupuncture plus drug therapy, Chinese herbal medicine plus cancer therapy, compound kushen injection, reflexology, lycopene, TENS, qigong, cupping, cannabis, Reiki, homeopathy (Traumeel, and creative arts therapies might have beneficial effects on adult cancer pain. No benefits were found for acupuncture (versus drug therapy or shame acupuncture, and the results were inconsistent for massage therapy, transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS, and Viscum album L plus cancer treatment. However, the evidence levels for these interventions were low or moderate due to high risk of bias and/or small sample size of primary studies. Conclusion. CAM may be beneficial for alleviating cancer pain, but the evidence levels were found to be low or moderate. Future large and rigor randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm the benefits of CAM on adult cancer pain.

  1. Leininger's Ethnonursing Research Methodology and Studies of Cancer Survivors: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farren, Arlene T

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the findings of a literature review regarding the use of Leininger's ethnonursing research methodology (ENRM) in studies addressing adult cancer survivors. It is important to learn about differences and similarities among cancer survivors' experiences so that patient-centered, culturally congruent care can be provided. A review of the literature was conducted using databases such as CINAHL and MEDLINE. Search terms included variations on ENRM and cancer survivors. The results were a small number of published studies that used the ENRM examining breast cancer survivors' perceptions and experiences. A review instrument was developed to estimate study quality based on established criteria. The studies are critiqued in relation to the theory-based methodology, evaluation criteria for qualitative research, and study findings are summarized. The author concludes that although there is a paucity of research using ENRM with adult cancer survivors, the preliminary findings of the included studies contribute to what is known about breast cancer survivors. Implications for research include recommendations to increase the use of ENRM to discover the universal and diverse experiences of care practices in adult cancer survivors and use the evidence to develop patient-centered, culturally congruent, quality care for cancer survivors.

  2. NCORP’s First Year Reviewed | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    By the numbers, the first year of NCI’s Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) has made progress in clinical trials for prevention, control, health-related quality of life, comparative effectiveness and screening; accrual to NCI National Clinical Trials Network treatment and imaging trials; and in new areas of emphasis in cancer care delivery research and cancer disparities research. |

  3. Spouses of Cancer Patients: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Merle A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses impact on the spouse when his or her partner is being treated for cancer. Defines the disease, outlines treatment effects, and describes issues affecting psychological and marital adjustment of spouses. Offers implications for counselors who work with spouses of cancer patients. (Author/NB)

  4. Does ovarian stimulation for IVF increase gynaecological cancer risk? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Li, Yanping; Zhang, Qiong; Wang, Yonggang

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ovarian stimulation for IVF increases the risk of gynaecological cancer, including ovarian, endometrial, cervical and breast cancers, as an independent risk factor. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. Clinical trials that examined the association between ovarian stimulation for IVF and gynaecologic cancers were included. The outcomes of interest were incidence rate of gynaecologic cancers. Twelve cohort studies with 178,396 women exposed to IVF were included; 10 studies were used to analyse ovarian (167,640 women) and breast (151,702 women) cancers, and six studies were identified in the analysis of endometrial (116,672 women) and cervical cancer (114,799 women). Among these studies, 175 ovarian, 48 endometrial, 502 cervical and 866 cases of breast cancer were reported. The meta-analysis found no significant association between ovarian stimulation for IVF and increased ovarian, endometrial, cervical and breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85 to 1.32; OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.63; OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.60; OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.76, respectively). Ovarian stimulation for IVF, therefore, does not increase the gynaecologic cancer risk, whether hormone-dependent endometrial and breast cancer or non-hormone-dependent ovarian and cervical cancer. PMID:26003452

  5. A Systematic Review of Statistical Methods Used to Test for Reliability of Medical Instruments Measuring Continuous Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafdzah Zaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Reliability measures precision or the extent to which test results can be replicated. This is the first ever systematic review to identify statistical methods used to measure reliability of equipment measuring continuous variables. This studyalso aims to highlight the inappropriate statistical method used in the reliability analysis and its implication in the medical practice.   Materials and Methods: In 2010, five electronic databases were searched between 2007 and 2009 to look for reliability studies. A total of 5,795 titles were initially identified. Only 282 titles were potentially related, and finally 42 fitted the inclusion criteria. Results: The Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC is the most popular method with 25 (60% studies having used this method followed by the comparing means (8 or 19%. Out of 25 studies using the ICC, only 7 (28% reported the confidence intervals and types of ICC used. Most studies (71% also tested the agreement of instruments. Conclusion: This study finds that the Intra-class Correlation Coefficient is the most popular method used to assess the reliability of medical instruments measuring continuous outcomes. There are also inappropriate applications and interpretations of statistical methods in some studies. It is important for medical researchers to be aware of this issue, and be able to correctly perform analysis in reliability studies.

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW: Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of the zero-range process and related models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M. R.; Hanney, T.

    2005-05-01

    We review recent progress on the zero-range process, a model of interacting particles which hop between the sites of a lattice with rates that depend on the occupancy of the departure site. We discuss several applications which have stimulated interest in the model such as shaken granular gases and network dynamics; we also discuss how the model may be used as a coarse-grained description of driven phase-separating systems. A useful property of the zero-range process is that the steady state has a factorized form. We show how this form enables one to analyse in detail condensation transitions, wherein a finite fraction of particles accumulate at a single site. We review condensation transitions in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems and also summarize recent progress in understanding the dynamics of condensation. We then turn to several generalizations which also, under certain specified conditions, share the property of a factorized steady state. These include several species of particles; hop rates which depend on both the departure and the destination sites; continuous masses; parallel discrete-time updating; non-conservation of particles and sites.

  7. Elderly cancer patients' psychopathology: a systematic review: aging and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Gennimata, Vassiliki; Mystakidou, Kyriaki

    2015-01-01

    This review of the literature on elderly cancer patients and their psychiatric disorders was undertaken to determine the extent of the problem. It consists of articles with elderly cancer patients. Keyword terms included "cancer", "elderly", "aging", "geriatric", "psychiatric disorders", "psychiatric symptoms", "psychological problems", "aged >60 years", "sucidal ideation, geriatric, cancer", "suicide geriatric cancer". We conducted searches on the following databases: PubMed; PsychINFO (1980-2013); finally, 102 publications were suitable for the current review. Depression in elderly cancer patients is the most common disorder in elderly cancer patients associated with disability, morbidity and mortality. Anxiety disorders may be less frequent in geriatric patients; however, it seemed to be a major problem in late life. Psychiatric disorders are common in geriatric patients with cancer especially at advanced stages of the disease. In addition, health care professionals can help provide treatment and emotional support. Future research should aim to provide data about the real prevalence and severity of psychiatric disorders in elderly patients with cancer, for the improvement of patients' quality of life and their caregivers.

  8. 78 FR 19496 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request; The National Cancer Institute (NCI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request; The National Cancer Institute (NCI) SmokefreeTXT Program Evaluation SUMMARY: Under the provisions of Section... submitted ] to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve the...

  9. Systematic review of cytokines and growth factors for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, Judith E.; von Bultzingslowen, Inger; Logan, Richard M.; Bowen, Joanne; Al-Azri, Abdul Rahman; Everaus, Hele; Gerber, Erich; Garcia Gomez, Jess; Pettersson, Bo G.; Soga, Yoshihiko; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Epstein, Joel B.; Elad, Sharon; Lalla, Rajesh V.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project was to review the literature and define clinical practice guidelines for the use of cytokines and growth factor agents for the prevention or treatment of oral mucositis induced by cancer chemotherapy or radiotherapy. A systematic review was conducted by the Mucositis Study Gr

  10. Systematic review of amifostine for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Sarri, Triantafyllia; Bowen, Joanne; Di Palma, Mario; Kouloulias, Vassilios E.; Niscola, Pasquale; Riesenbeck, Dorothea; Stokman, Monique; Tissing, Wim; Yeoh, Eric; Elad, Sharon; Lalla, Rajesh V.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the available literature from 1966 until December 31, 2010 and define clinical practice guidelines for the use of amifostine for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis in cancer patients. A systematic review was conducted by the Mucositis Study Group of th

  11. A systematic review of oral fungal infections in patients receiving cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalla, Rajesh V.; Latortue, Marie C.; Hong, Catherine H.; Ariyawardana, Anura; D'Amato-Palumbo, Sandra; Fischer, Dena J.; Martof, Andrew; Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Patton, Lauren L.; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Brennan, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this systematic review were to determine, in patients receiving cancer therapy, the prevalence of clinical oral fungal infection and fungal colonization, to determine the impact on quality of life and cost of care, and to review current management strategies for oral fungal infections. T

  12. Viscum album L. extracts in breast and gynaecological cancers: a systematic review of clinical and preclinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kienle Gunver S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viscum album L. extracts (VAE, European mistletoe are a widely used medicinal plant extract in gynaecological and breast-cancer treatment. Methods Systematic review to evaluate clinical studies and preclinical research on the therapeutic effectiveness and biological effects of VAE on gynaecological and breast cancer. Search of databases, reference lists and expert consultations. Criteria-based assessment of methodological study quality. Results 19 randomized (RCT, 16 non-randomized (non-RCT controlled studies, and 11 single-arm cohort studies were identified that investigated VAE treatment of breast or gynaecological cancer. They included 2420, 6399 and 1130 patients respectively. 8 RCTs and 8 non-RCTs were embedded in the same large epidemiological cohort study. 9 RCTs and 13 non-RCTs assessed survival; 12 reported a statistically significant benefit, the others either a trend or no difference. 3 RCTs and 6 non-RCTs assessed tumour behaviour (remission or time to relapse; 3 reported statistically significant benefit, the others either a trend, no difference or mixed results. Quality of life (QoL and tolerability of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery was assessed in 15 RCTs and 9 non-RCTs. 21 reported a statistically significant positive result, the others either a trend, no difference, or mixed results. Methodological quality of the studies differed substantially; some had major limitations, especially RCTs on survival and tumour behaviour had very small sample sizes. Some recent studies, however, especially on QoL were reasonably well conducted. Single-arm cohort studies investigated tumour behaviour, QoL, pharmacokinetics and safety of VAE. Tumour remission was observed after high dosage and local application. VAE application was well tolerated. 34 animal experiments investigated VAE and isolated or recombinant compounds in various breast and gynaecological cancer models in mice and rats. VAE showed increase of survival

  13. Particle production in Ultra-relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions : A Statistical-Thermal Model Review

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, S K

    2013-01-01

    The current status of various thermal and statistical descriptions of particle production in the ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions experiments is presented in detail. We discuss the formulation of various types of thermal models of a hot and dense hadron gas (HG) and the methods incorporated in implementing the interactions between hadrons. We first obtain the parametrizations of center-of-mass energy ($\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$) in terms of temperature ($T$) and baryon chemical potential ($\\mu_B$) obtained by analyzing the particle ratios at the freeze-out over a broad energy range from the lowest Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) energy to the highest Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) energies. The results of various thermal models together with the experimental results for the various ratios of particles are then compared. We have derived some new universal conditions emerging at the chemical freeze-out of HG fireball which demonstrate the independence with respect to the energy as well as the structu...

  14. A review on thyroid cancer during pregnancy: Multitasking is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Hussein; Al Lahloubi, Nasr; Rashad, Noha

    2016-07-01

    Thyroid cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed during pregnancy after breast cancer. The goal of management is to control malignancy and prevent maternal and fetal complications as a result of maternal hypothyroidism. The role of female sex hormones as an etiologic factor was investigated, with no clear association. Pregnancy can cause an increase in size of a previously existed thyroid nodule through the structural similarity between TSH and BHCG, and the normally expressed estrogen receptors on thyroid gland cells. Effect of pregnancy on development and prognosis of differentiated thyroid malignancies (papillary and follicular) has also been studied. The prognosis of thyroid cancer is not worse in patients diagnosed during pregnancy or those who got pregnant after curative treatment. Termination of pregnancy is not indicated at all, surgery can be delayed till after delivery except in rapidly growing aggressive tumors. While radioactive iodine ablation is absolutely contra-indicated, the new systemic therapies are not well studied during pregnancy. However, almost all these new agents are classified as FDA category C or D and are better to be avoided. The effect of pregnancy on other types of thyroid cancer (medullary and anaplastic thyroid tumors) is not well studied because of very low incidence with pregnancy. The endocrinological management of thyroid cancer during pregnancy is of utmost importance. The hypothyroidism after total thyroidectomy can cause fetal hypothyroidism. Therefore, the management of thyroid cancer related to pregnancy needs a multidisciplinary team. PMID:27408758

  15. Cervical cancer: The preventive role of HPV vaccine (review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Behtash

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common gynecologic cancer. A steady 70% annual decline in mortality from cervical cancers has been observed since the mid 20th century after the introduction of widespread papanicolaou cytological screening. But also cervical cancer continues to be an important world health problem for women. Cervical cancer is one of the best- understood neoplasm given its well known viral cause of persistent infection with high risk human papillomavirus (HPV. To date, two manufacturers have developed HPV vaccines composed of noninfectious, recombinant HPV viral-like particles (VLPs. This article presents current advances and perspectives on HPV vaccines.The vaccine is administered by intramuscular injection, and the recommended schedule is a 3-dose series with the second and third doses administered 2 and 6 months after the first dose. The recommended age for vaccination of females is 11-12 years. Vaccine can be administered as young as age 9 years. Catch-up vaccination is recommended for females aged 13--26 years who have not been previously vaccinated. Vaccination is not a substitute for routine cervical cancer screening, and vaccinated females should have cervical cancer screening as recommended.

  16. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation for resectable and borderline pancreatic cancer: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC) is arguably the most fatal of malignancies. Given the 37,000 cases diagnosed annually in the United States, it represents 2% of all cancer cases but 6% of all cancer deaths. It represents the fourth leading cause of cancer death, behind lung, colorectal, and breast cancer, despite the fact that each of these cancers has at least fourfold the incidence of PC. Two thirds of patients present with locally advanced or metastatic disease at presentation. For those patients who undergo surgery, 5-year survival ranges from 15%-20%. Cure is rare, including in patients with resected cancer in whom disease recurs in 80% of patients within 2 years of diagnosis. Improved pre-operative imaging, combined with neoadjuvant therapy, holds many potential advantages over traditional surgical approaches towards pancreatic cancer. Improvements in computerized tomography (CT) optimized for pancreas imaging and the use of EUS allow for more accurate staging. This, in turn leads to better prediction of positive margins and the presence of lymphadenopathy. We present evidence that positive margins at surgery result in worsened survival. The neoadjuvant approach also allows for earlier treatment of microscopic metastatic disease, which would otherwise remain unchecked until recovery from surgery. Furthermore, chemotherapy and radiation may be more effective in the setting of an uninterrupted vasculature. Finally, delaying surgery helps select those patients whose tumor biology is less aggressive, possibly resulting in better survival in those patients going to the operating room.(author)

  17. Review article about nutrition and primary prevention of oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atena Shiva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a worldwide problem that is caused by a variety of different factors increasing over a number of years. Oral cancer is a very prevalent disease and one of the most 10 common causes of death. It is important that the risk factors can be controlled. Selecting the correct health behaviors and preventing exposure to convinced environmental risk factors can help to prevent the expansion of cancer. Scientists guess that as many as 30-40 percent of all cancer-related deaths are caused by human behaviors such as smoking, consumption of alcohol, poor diet quality and physical inactivity. This result explains the tendency in the following behaviors that can influence the possibility of getting cancer, especially oral cancer in addition to providing information and classes about healthy eating habits and a subsequent healthy lifestyle at home. In fact, a diet rich in fresh fruits, whole grains and vegetables can decrease the risk of the oral cancer because of certain compounds such as vitamin C, E, carotenoids and lycopene. Moreover, limit consumption of meat, particularly processed meat, and replace it with vegetable proteins and fish (rich of omega 3 are helpful and effective.

  18. Complementary and alternative medicine in cancer pain management: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life (QoL encompasses the physical, psychosocial, social and spiritual dimensions of life lived by a person. Cancer pain is one of the physical component has tremendous impact on the QoL of the patient. Cancer pain is multifaceted and complex to understand and managing cancer pain involves a tool box full of pharmacological and non pharmacological interventions but still there are 50-70% of cancer patients who suffer from uncontrolled pain and they fear pain more than death. Aggressive surgeries, radiotherapy and chemotherapy focus more on prolonging the survival of the patient failing to realize that the QoL lived also matters equally. This paper reviews complementary and alternative therapy approaches for cancer pain and its impact in improving the QoL of cancer patients.

  19. North American extreme temperature events and related large scale meteorological patterns: a review of statistical methods, dynamics, modeling, and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotjahn, Richard; Black, Robert; Leung, Ruby; Wehner, Michael F.; Barlow, Mathew; Bosilovich, Mike; Gershunov, Alexander; Gutowski, William J.; Gyakum, John R.; Katz, Richard W.; Lee, Yun-Young; Lim, Young-Kwon; Prabhat

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to review statistical methods, dynamics, modeling efforts, and trends related to temperature extremes, with a focus upon extreme events of short duration that affect parts of North America. These events are associated with large scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs). The statistics, dynamics, and modeling sections of this paper are written to be autonomous and so can be read separately. Methods to define extreme events statistics and to identify and connect LSMPs to extreme temperature events are presented. Recent advances in statistical techniques connect LSMPs to extreme temperatures through appropriately defined covariates that supplement more straightforward analyses. Various LSMPs, ranging from synoptic to planetary scale structures, are associated with extreme temperature events. Current knowledge about the synoptics and the dynamical mechanisms leading to the associated LSMPs is incomplete. Systematic studies of: the physics of LSMP life cycles, comprehensive model assessment of LSMP-extreme temperature event linkages, and LSMP properties are needed. Generally, climate models capture observed properties of heat waves and cold air outbreaks with some fidelity. However they overestimate warm wave frequency and underestimate cold air outbreak frequency, and underestimate the collective influence of low-frequency modes on temperature extremes. Modeling studies have identified the impact of large-scale circulation anomalies and land-atmosphere interactions on changes in extreme temperatures. However, few studies have examined changes in LSMPs to more specifically understand the role of LSMPs on past and future extreme temperature changes. Even though LSMPs are resolvable by global and regional climate models, they are not necessarily well simulated. The paper concludes with unresolved issues and research questions.

  20. Cancer risk with folic acid supplements: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wien, Tale Norbye; Pike, Eva; Wisløff, Torbjørn; Staff, Annetine; Smeland, Sigbjørn; Klemp, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore if there is an increased cancer risk associated with folic acid supplements given orally. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled studies of folic acid supplementation in humans reporting cancer incidence and/or cancer mortality. Studies on folic acid fortification of foods were not included. Data sources Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and Centre of Reviews and Dissemination, clinical trial registries and hand-searching of key journals. Results From 4104 potential references, 19 studies contributed data to our meta-analyses, including 12 randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Meta-analysis of the 10 RCTs reporting overall cancer incidence (N=38 233) gave an RR of developing cancer in patients randomised to folic acid supplements of 1.07 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.14) compared to controls. Overall cancer incidence was not reported in the seven observational studies. Meta-analyses of six RCTs reporting prostate cancer incidence showed an RR of prostate cancer of 1.24 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.49) for the men receiving folic acid compared to controls. No significant difference in cancer incidence was shown between groups receiving folic acid and placebo/control group, for any other cancer type. Total cancer mortality was reported in six RCTs, and a meta-analysis of these did not show any significant difference in cancer mortality in folic acid supplemented groups compared to controls (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.30). None of the observational studies addressed mortality. Conclusions A meta-analysis of 10 RCTs showed a borderline significant increase in frequency of overall cancer in the folic acid group compared to controls. Overall cancer incidence was not reported in the seven observational studies. Prostate cancer was the only cancer type found to be increased after folic acid supplementation (meta-analyses of six RCTs). Prospective studies of cancer development in populations where food is fortified with folic acid could indicate whether

  1. The diagnostic value of monoclonal gastric cancer 7 antigen: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zongyue; Fu, Sheng; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Liuyang; Zhang, Hailong; Tang, Xi; Yang, Xiaorong; Zeng, Zhaofang

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the clinical characteristic and the diagnostic role of MG7-Ag in detecting gastric cancer (GC) through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Relevant manuscripts aiming at the application of serum MG7-Ag level in GC diagnosis were searched in PubMed, Embase, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP, and Wan Fang Data independently,which were published between January 1, 1980 and February 28, 2013. The pooled sensitivity, specificity,positive diagnostic likelihood ratio (DLR+), negative diagnostic likelihood ratio (DLR-), diagnostic odds ratio,and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic(AUC) were used to evaluate the value of serum MG7-Ag in diagnosis of GC by using the Meta-DiSc and STATA 11.0 statistical software. 410 manuscripts were retrieved, and 7 manuscripts of high quality including 652 patients were of high quality in this meta-analysis. Overall,the pooled sensitivity, specificity, DLR+, DLR-, and AUC were 0.73 (95 % CI 0.63-0.82), 0.91 (95 % CI 0.84-0.94), 8.59 (95 % CI 5.62-13.11), 0.29 (95 % CI 0.21-0.42), and 0.92 (95 % CI 0.89-0.94), respectively. MG7-Ag is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of GC.However, more studies are needed to confirm the standard criteria. PMID:23797567

  2. Systematic Review of the Relationship between Acute and Late Gastrointestinal Toxicity after Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sean Peach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A small but meaningful percentage of men who are treated with external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer will develop late gastrointestinal toxicity. While numerous strategies to prevent gastrointestinal injury have been studied, clinical trials concentrating on late toxicity have been difficult to carry out. Identification of subjects at high risk for late gastrointestinal injury could allow toxicity prevention trials to be performed using reasonable sample sizes. Acute radiation therapy toxicity has been shown to predict late toxicity in several organ systems. Late toxicities may occur as a consequential effect of acute injury. In this systematic review of published reports, we found that late gastrointestinal toxicity following prostate radiotherapy seems to be statistically and potentially causally related to acute gastrointestinal morbidity as a consequential effect. We submit that acute gastrointestinal toxicity may be used to identify at-risk patients who may benefit from additional attention for medical interventions and close follow-up to prevent late toxicity. Acute gastrointestinal toxicity could also be explored as a surrogate endpoint for late effects in prospective trials.

  3. Sperm cryopreservation and reproductive outcome in male cancer patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Stefania; Paffoni, Alessio; Filippi, Francesca; Busnelli, Andrea; Vegetti, Walter; Somigliana, Edgardo

    2016-07-01

    This systematic review of the literature reports on the use and effectiveness of sperm banking programmes for cancer patients. Thirty studies with 11798 patients were included. The aggregated rate of use of cryopreserved semen was 8% (95% CI 8 to 9%). A statistically significant correlation emerged between the mean and median duration of follow-up and the rate of use (R(2) = 0.46; P = 0.03). The rate of patients discarding their frozen sample was reported in 11 studies. The aggregated rate was 16% (95% CI 15 to 17%). The rate of patients who used their frozen semen and achieved parenthood was reported in 19 papers. The aggregated rate was 49% (95% CI 44 to 53%). The rate of patients achieving parenthood with the use of frozen sperm is low and, from an economical perspective, the effectiveness of programmes of sperm banking might therefore be questioned. On the other hand, the low rate of patients discarding their frozen samples and the correlation between rate of use and duration of follow-up suggest that the calculated 8% rate of use may be an under-estimation and that cumulative rate of use may be substantially higher. Specific studies are, however, required to clarify this issue. PMID:27156003

  4. Pelvic fractures following irradiation of endometrial and vaginal cancers - a case series and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charts of patients with endometrial and vaginal cancers irradiated between 1991 and 1995 were reviewed. All patients were treated with megavoltage machines, energy ranging from cobalt to 25 MV photons. We treated 336 patients, with a median follow-up duration of 28.9 months (range 0-73.3). Sixteen patients had symptomatic pelvic fractures. The 5-year actuarial incidence of symptomatic pelvic fracture was 2.1 %. All patients had pain as the first symptom. The median time of onset was 11 months (range 4-46). Imaging studies of 37.5% (6/16) were initially interpreted to be recurrent malignancy. All patients were managed conservatively and nine patients showed radiological evidence of healing over a median time of 13 months (range 2- 34). Six patients had specific drug treatment including provera, premarin, calcium supplements, or pamidronate. Of these, five healed. For the ten patients who did not have any specific treatment, only four showed signs of healing at the time of last follow-up. There was a trend toward earlier healing, with specific drug treatment (P = 0.11). Fractures can easily be mistaken for metastatic lesions (37.5% in this series) which might be treated with further irradiation. Although not statistically significant, there was a trend towards early healing with drug therapy. More studies are required to generate quantitative data for dose-response relationships and to evaluate the effect of drug therapy on the healing of such fractures. (author)

  5. Sperm cryopreservation and reproductive outcome in male cancer patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Stefania; Paffoni, Alessio; Filippi, Francesca; Busnelli, Andrea; Vegetti, Walter; Somigliana, Edgardo

    2016-07-01

    This systematic review of the literature reports on the use and effectiveness of sperm banking programmes for cancer patients. Thirty studies with 11798 patients were included. The aggregated rate of use of cryopreserved semen was 8% (95% CI 8 to 9%). A statistically significant correlation emerged between the mean and median duration of follow-up and the rate of use (R(2) = 0.46; P = 0.03). The rate of patients discarding their frozen sample was reported in 11 studies. The aggregated rate was 16% (95% CI 15 to 17%). The rate of patients who used their frozen semen and achieved parenthood was reported in 19 papers. The aggregated rate was 49% (95% CI 44 to 53%). The rate of patients achieving parenthood with the use of frozen sperm is low and, from an economical perspective, the effectiveness of programmes of sperm banking might therefore be questioned. On the other hand, the low rate of patients discarding their frozen samples and the correlation between rate of use and duration of follow-up suggest that the calculated 8% rate of use may be an under-estimation and that cumulative rate of use may be substantially higher. Specific studies are, however, required to clarify this issue.

  6. Effect of Metformin Use on Survival in Resectable Pancreatic Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambe, Chenwi M; Mahipal, Amit; Fulp, Jimmy; Chen, Lu; Malafa, Mokenge P

    2016-01-01

    Observational studies have demonstrated that metformin use in diabetic patients is associated with reduced cancer incidence and mortality. Here, we aimed to determine whether metformin use was associated with improved survival in patients with resected pancreatic cancer. All patients with diabetes who underwent resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma between 12/1/1986 and 4/30/2013 at our institution were categorized by metformin use. Survival analysis was done using the Kaplan-Meier method, with log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards multivariable regression models. For analyses of our data and the only other published study, we used Meta-Analysis version 2.2. We identified 44 pancreatic cancer patients with diabetes who underwent resection of the primary tumor (19 with ongoing metformin use, 25 never used metformin). There were no significant differences in major clinical and demographic characteristics between metformin and non-metformin users. Metformin users had a better median survival than nonusers, but the difference was not statistically significant (35.3 versus 20.2 months; P = 0.3875). The estimated 2-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates for non-metformin users were 42%, 28%, and 14%, respectively. Metformin users fared better with corresponding rates of 68%, 34%, and 34%, respectively. In our literature review, which included 111 patients from the two studies (46 metformin users and 65 non-users), overall hazard ratio was 0.668 (95% CI 0.397-1.125), with P = 0.129. Metformin use was associated with improved survival outcomes in patients with resected pancreatic cancer, but the difference was not statistically significant. The potential benefit of metformin should be investigated in adequately powered prospective studies.

  7. A Review of the Statistical and Quantitative Methods Used to Study Alcohol-Attributable Crime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Fitterer

    Full Text Available Modelling the relationship between alcohol consumption and crime generates new knowledge for crime prevention strategies. Advances in data, particularly data with spatial and temporal attributes, have led to a growing suite of applied methods for modelling. In support of alcohol and crime researchers we synthesized and critiqued existing methods of spatially and quantitatively modelling the effects of alcohol exposure on crime to aid method selection, and identify new opportunities for analysis strategies. We searched the alcohol-crime literature from 1950 to January 2014. Analyses that statistically evaluated or mapped the association between alcohol and crime were included. For modelling purposes, crime data were most often derived from generalized police reports, aggregated to large spatial units such as census tracts or postal codes, and standardized by residential population data. Sixty-eight of the 90 selected studies included geospatial data of which 48 used cross-sectional datasets. Regression was the prominent modelling choice (n = 78 though dependent on data many variations existed. There are opportunities to improve information for alcohol-attributable crime prevention by using alternative population data to standardize crime rates, sourcing crime information from non-traditional platforms (social media, increasing the number of panel studies, and conducting analysis at the local level (neighbourhood, block, or point. Due to the spatio-temporal advances in crime data, we expect a continued uptake of flexible Bayesian hierarchical modelling, a greater inclusion of spatial-temporal point pattern analysis, and shift toward prospective (forecast modelling over small areas (e.g., blocks.

  8. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Cancer Pain: An Overview of Systematic Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Yanju Bao; Xiangying Kong; Liping Yang; Rui Liu; Zhan Shi; Weidong Li; Baojin Hua; Wei Hou

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective. Now with more and more published systematic reviews of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) on adult cancer pain, it is necessary to use the methods of overview of systematic review to summarize available evidence, appraise the evidence level, and give suggestions to future research and practice. Methods. A comprehensive search (the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and ISI Web of Knowledge) was conducted to identify all systematic reviews or meta-analyses of...

  9. Virus and Cervical Cancer: Role and implication: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyani Raju

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is one of the leading cancers in women worldwide especially in developing countries. Various etiological factors are described, of which Human papiloma virus (HPV is proved by various molecular epidemiological studies to play a major role. However many co-factors are required and thought to facilitate the action of HPV in cervical carcinogenesis. Here the role of various viruses in cervical cancer and its implication in screening and diagnosis of cervical cancer is highlighted. In-depth knowledge of role of different viruses helps in better screening methods and probably in target therapy / development of an appropriate vaccine. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(3.000: 220-30

  10. Submission Form for Peer-Reviewed Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have information about a peer-reviewd cancer risk prediction model that you would like to be considered for inclusion on this list, submit as much information as possible through the form on this page.

  11. A Current Review of Targeted Therapeutics for Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M. Campos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Difficult to detect, ovarian cancer typically presents at an advanced stage. Significant progress has been achieved in the treatment of ovarian cancer with therapeutics focused on DNA replication or cell division. However, despite sensitivity to induction chemotherapy the majority of patients will develop recurrent disease. Conventional agents for recurrent disease offer little in terms of long-term responses. Various targeted therapeutics have been explored in the management of ovarian cancer. These include monoclonal antibodies to epidermal growth factor receptors, small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies directed at the vascular endothelial growth factor (bevacizumab, and the small tyrosine kinase inhibitors that target the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. Recently, several other agents have come forth as potential therapeutic agents in the management of ovarian cancer. These include monoclonal antibodies to the folate receptor, triple angiokinase inhibitors, PARP inhibitors, aurora kinase inhibitors, inhibitors of the Hedgehog pathway, folate receptor antagonists, and MTOR inhibitors.

  12. Effectiveness of acupuncture and related therapies for palliative care of cancer: overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinyin; Chung, Vincent C H; Hui, Edwin P; Ziea, Eric T C; Ng, Bacon F L; Ho, Robin S T; Tsoi, Kelvin K F; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wu, Justin C Y

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture and related therapies such as moxibustion and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation are often used to manage cancer-related symptoms, but their effectiveness and safety are controversial. We conducted this overview to summarise the evidence on acupuncture for palliative care of cancer. Our systematic review synthesised the results from clinical trials of patients with any type of cancer. The methodological quality of the 23 systematic reviews in this overview, assessed using the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews Instrument, was found to be satisfactory. There is evidence for the therapeutic effects of acupuncture for the management of cancer-related fatigue, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and leucopenia in patients with cancer. There is conflicting evidence regarding the treatment of cancer-related pain, hot flashes and hiccups, and improving patients' quality of life. The available evidence is currently insufficient to support or refute the potential of acupuncture and related therapies in the management of xerostomia, dyspnea and lymphedema and in the improvement of psychological well-being. No serious adverse effects were reported in any study. Because acupuncture appears to be relatively safe, it could be considered as a complementary form of palliative care for cancer, especially for clinical problems for which conventional care options are limited.

  13. Effectiveness of acupuncture and related therapies for palliative care of cancer: overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinyin; Chung, Vincent C H; Hui, Edwin P; Ziea, Eric T C; Ng, Bacon F L; Ho, Robin S T; Tsoi, Kelvin K F; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wu, Justin C Y

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture and related therapies such as moxibustion and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation are often used to manage cancer-related symptoms, but their effectiveness and safety are controversial. We conducted this overview to summarise the evidence on acupuncture for palliative care of cancer. Our systematic review synthesised the results from clinical trials of patients with any type of cancer. The methodological quality of the 23 systematic reviews in this overview, assessed using the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews Instrument, was found to be satisfactory. There is evidence for the therapeutic effects of acupuncture for the management of cancer-related fatigue, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and leucopenia in patients with cancer. There is conflicting evidence regarding the treatment of cancer-related pain, hot flashes and hiccups, and improving patients' quality of life. The available evidence is currently insufficient to support or refute the potential of acupuncture and related therapies in the management of xerostomia, dyspnea and lymphedema and in the improvement of psychological well-being. No serious adverse effects were reported in any study. Because acupuncture appears to be relatively safe, it could be considered as a complementary form of palliative care for cancer, especially for clinical problems for which conventional care options are limited. PMID:26608664

  14. Review of salt consumption and stomach cancer risk:Epidemiological and biological evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qin Wang; Paul D Terry; Hong Yan

    2009-01-01

    Stomach cancer is still the fourth most common cancer; thus, it remains an important public health burden worldwide, especially in developing countries. The remarkable geographic variations in the rates of stomach cancer indicate that dietary factors, including a range of food groups to which salt and/or nitrates have been added, may affect stomach cancer risk. In this paper, we review the results from ecologic, case-control and cohort studies on the relationship between salt or salted foods and stomach cancer risk. The majority of ecological studies indicated that the average salt intake in each population was closely correlated with gastric cancer mortality. Most casecontrol studies showed similar results, indicating a moderate to high increase in risk for the highest level of salt or salted food consumption. The overall results from cohort studies are not totally consistent, but are suggestive of a moderate direct association. Since salt intake has been correlated with Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori) infection, it is possible that these two factors may synergize to promote the development of stomach cancer. Additionally, salt may also cause stomach cancer through directly damaging gastric mucus, improving temporary epithelial proliferation and the incidence of endogenous mutations, and inducing hypergastrinemia that leads to eventual parietal cell loss and progression to gastric cancer. Based on the considerable evidence from ecological, case-control and cohort studies worldwide and the mechanistic plausibility, limitation on salt and salted food consumption is a practical strategy for preventing gastric cancer.

  15. A systematic meta-review of manipulative and body-based CAM for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anita; Johannessen, Helle

    were assessed according to the SIGN hierarchy of evidence. Results: Five reviews were identified: two at evidence level A, one at level B and two at level D. The reviews covered massage, and massage combined with aromatherapy. All reviews conclude on positive effects of massage for cancer related...... stress and anxiety, although level-A reviews conclude cautiously. Tentative conclusions on antidepressant and pain reductive effects are offered. There is no evidence that aromatherapy enhances the effects of massage. One review recommends massage as a safe complement to conventional treatment, while...

  16. Epidemiology of mouth cancer in 1989: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, P; Macfarlane, G J; Maisonneuve, P; Zheng, T; Scully, C.; Tedesco, B

    1990-01-01

    The oral cavity and pharynx combined is the sixth commonest site of cancer in both sexes. In many countries the mortality rate is increasing among younger men born since approximately 1910-1920. A causal role in the aetiology of mouth cancer has been established for tobacco use, both smoking and chewing, separately and in conjunction with betel-quid chewing; with alcohol consumption and, less certainly, with other factors such as poor oral hygiene, nutritional factors and certain occupational...

  17. Role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in cancer cervix: A brief review

    OpenAIRE

    Aramita Saha; Anindya Mukherjee

    2013-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) represents a promising modality apart from or radiotherapy as initial treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. The primary objectives of NACT in the treatment of cervical cancer include improvement in tumor characteristics, to allow avoidance of radiotherapy, to prolong disease-free and overall survival, and facilitation of fertility-sparing surgery. Though several studies have shown promising results of NACT on tumor response, downstaging, decrease in lo...

  18. Overcoming docetaxel resistance in prostate cancer: a perspective review

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Clara

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer has been historically challenging, with few therapeutic successes. Docetaxel was the first cytotoxic therapy associated with a survival benefit in castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Toxicity is typical of other cytotoxic agents, with myelosuppression being the dose-limiting toxicity and neurotoxicity also a notable side effect for some patients. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of men with castrate-resistant prostate cance...

  19. Review of Natural Compounds for Potential Skin Cancer Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chinembiri, Tawona N; Du Plessis, Lissinda H.; Minja Gerber; Hamman, Josias H.; Jeanetta du Plessis

    2014-01-01

    Most anti-cancer drugs are derived from natural resources such as marine, microbial and botanical sources. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer, with a high mortality rate. Various treatments for malignant melanoma are available, but due to the development of multi-drug resistance, current or emerging chemotherapies have a relatively low success rates. This emphasizes the importance of discovering new compounds that are both safe and effective against melano...

  20. Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema and Resistance Exercise: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nicole L

    2016-09-01

    Nelson, NL. Breast cancer-related lymphedema and resistance exercise: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2656-2665, 2016-Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is characterized by the accumulation of fluid in the interstitial tissues in the arm, shoulder, neck, or torso and attributed to the damage of lymph nodes during breast cancer treatments involving radiation and axillary node dissection. Resistance exercise training (RET) has recently shown promise in the management of BCRL. The aims of this review were twofold: (a) To summarize the results of recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of resistance exercise in those with, or at risk for, BCRL. (b) To determine whether breast cancer survivors can perform RET at sufficient intensities to elicit gains in strength without causing BCRL flare-up or incidence. A search was performed on the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, and Science Direct, up to July 10, 2015, using the following keywords: breast cancer-related lymphedema, strength training, resistance training, systematic review, and breast cancer. Manual searches of references were also conducted for additional relevant studies. A total of 6 RCTs, involving 805 breast cancer survivors, met the inclusion criteria and corresponded to the aims of this review. The methodological quality of included RCTs was good, with a mean score 6.8 on the 10-point PEDro scale. The results of this review indicate that breast cancer survivors can perform RET at high-enough intensities to elicit strength gains without triggering changes to lymphedema status. There is strong evidence indicating that RET produces significant gains in muscular strength without provoking BCRL. PMID:26840439

  1. A Statistical Review on States Relating to Operation of Radiotherapy Equipment in Seoul National University Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the states of operation of radiotherapy facilities in the period from 1979 to 1992 and to get the base for efficient operation and maintenance of the radiotherapy facilities. Data on the records of annual number of patients operated by each facility; span of suspension of operation, the cost and span of repairing, and parts of oui-of-order in the period from 1979 to 1992 were analyzed. We made a comparative analysis of average annual number of patients, annual span of the suspension of operation, annual cost ratio of repair, span of repairing per break down, and total number of broken parts. We could get following annual number of patients(day), span of the suspension of span (%)(day). annual cost ratio for repair(%), span of repairing per break down(Min-Max, day), and number of broken parts from this analysis. 1. Cobalt unit (Picker C-9) : 10,389(43), 0.4(0.83) 0.07, 1hr-2, 3 2. Linac(Clinac 6/100) : 11,492(50), 4.0(9.57), 0.98, 1hr-30, 12 3. Linac(Clinac 18) : 9.115(44), 12.7(30.5), 3.54, 1hr-108. 41 4. Simulator(Picker Ther-X) : 2,017(9), 0.51(1.3), 0.24, 1hr-2, 7 5. RTP(Capentec Cap-plan) : 528(2), 0.4(0.93), - hrs, - The conclusion obtained from statistical analysis above are as follows. 1. The rate of operation of Cobalt unit(99.6%) was higher that of Linear Accelerators (87.3%). The rates operation of Simulator and RTP computer were very close to that of Cobalt unit. 2. In order to raise up the working ratio of accelerator. it is desirable that we keep our engineer to learn a sufficient technical skill and the equipment agent to stock sufficient spare parts. 3. In order to maintain Linear Accelerator efficiently, it is desirable to have annually 2.3% of the purchase price of equipment for repairing.

  2. A review of scientific papers about head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head and neck cancer is one of the 10 most frequent cancers worldwide, with an estimated 500000 new cases diagnosed annually. Treatment of head and neck cancers require a multidisciplinary approach due their complexity and the functional and esthetic alterations that cancer can cause. The interest of the scientific community in a specific subject can be evaluated by analyzing of the number and the quality of published papers on the topic. The information obtained from PubMed (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez) has been used as a tool in various publications to aid the evaluation of the scientific interest in specific research areas The aim of this work is to evaluate, using PubMed, the scientific interest in studies of head and neck cancer treatments such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery. The searches were performed on PubMed for publications from the period of 1949 to 2008 using the search terms 'head and neck cancer' and 'surgery' or 'radiotherapy' or 'chemotherapy'. The number of publications per year was determined in each search. The percentage of publications was also calculated for each subject in each year. An interest factor in a subject (IFS) was also determined. The number of publications was higher for surgery than chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The calculated 1964 IFS for surgery was 14.79, 12.74 for radiotherapy, and 19.58 for chemotherapy. The 1995 IFS for surgery was 1.99, 2.09 for radiotherapy, and 2.08 for chemotherapy. The relation obtained for 1995 was maintained in the subsequent years. There are more publications related to surgical treatment for head and neck cancer when compared with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Moreover, in the recent years there has an increased interest in treatments utilizing chemotherapy, or this associated to radiotherapy. (author)

  3. Cancer Survivors in the United States: A Review of the Literature and a Call to Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Valdivieso, Ann M. Kujawa, Tisha Jones, Laurence H. Baker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of cancer survivors in the U.S. has increased from 3 million in 1971, when the National Cancer Act was enacted, to over 12 million today. Over 70% of children affected by cancer survive more than 10 years, and most are cured. Most cancer survivors are adults, with two-thirds of them 65 years of age or older and two-thirds alive at five years. The most common cancer diagnoses among survivors include breast, prostate and colorectal cancers. This review was conducted to better appreciate the challenges associated with cancer survivors and the opportunities healthcare providers have in making a difference for these patients.Methods: Comprehensive review of literature based on PubMed searches on topics related to cancer survivorship, and associated physical, cognitive, socio-economic, sexual/behavioral and legal issues.Results: At least 50% of cancer survivors suffer from late treatment-related side effects, often including physical, psychosocial, cognitive and sexual abnormalities, as well as concerns regarding recurrence and/or the development of new malignancies. Many are chronic in nature and some are severe and even life-threatening. Survivors also face issues involving lack of appropriate health maintenance counseling, increased unemployment rate and workplace discrimination.Conclusions: Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer will lead to more survivors and better quality of life. However, tools to recognize potentially serious long-lasting side effects of cancer therapy earlier in order to treat and/or prevent them must be developed. It is incumbent upon our health care delivery systems to make meeting these patients' needs a priority.

  4. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk: a review of southern European studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Federica; Rossi, Marta; Pelucchi, Claudio; Levi, Fabio; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    High intakes of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancer at several sites. Evidence has been derived mainly from case-control studies. We reviewed the relationship between consumption of vegetables and fruit and the risk of several common cancers in a network of Italian and Swiss case-control studies including over 10,000 cases of fourteen different cancers and about 17,000 controls. Data were suggestive of a protective role of vegetable intake on the risk of several common epithelial cancers. OR for the highest compared with the lowest levels of consumption ranged from 0.2 (larynx, oral cavity and pharynx) to 0.9 (prostate). Inverse associations were found for both raw and cooked vegetables, although for upper digestive tract cancers the former were somewhat stronger. Similar inverse associations were found for cruciferous vegetables. Frequent consumption of allium vegetables was also associated with reduced risk of several cancers. Fruit was a favourable correlate of the risk of several cancers, particularly of the upper digestive tract, with associations generally weaker than those reported for vegetables. A reduced risk of cancers of the digestive tract and larynx was found for high consumption of citrus fruit. Suggestive protections against several forms of cancer, mainly digestive tract cancers, were found for high consumption of apples and tomatoes. High intakes of fibres, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins were inversely related to various forms of cancer. In conclusion, data from our series of case-control studies suggested a favourable role of high intakes of fruit and vegetables in the risk of many common cancers, particularly of the digestive tract. This adds evidence to the indication that aspects of the Mediterranean diet may have a favourable impact not only on CVD, but also on several common (epithelial) cancers, particularly of the digestive tract.

  5. A systematic review of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S.B.; Pedersen, A.M.L.; Vissink, A.;

    2010-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to assess the literature for prevalence, severity, and impact on quality of life of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies. The electronic databases of MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE were searched for articles published in English since...... the 1989 NIH Development Consensus Conference on the Oral Complications of Cancer Therapies until 2008 inclusive. Two independent reviewers extracted information regarding study design, study population, interventions, outcome measures, results and conclusions for each article. The inclusion criteria were...... met by 184 articles covering salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by conventional, 3D conformal radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients, cancer chemotherapy, total body irradiation/hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, radioactive iodine...

  6. Theobroma cacao: Review of the Extraction, Isolation, and Bioassay of Its Potential Anti-cancer Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Hin, Taufiq Yap Yun; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2016-02-01

    Plants have been a good source of therapeutic agents for thousands of years; an impressive number of modern drugs used for treating human diseases are derived from natural sources. The Theobroma cacao tree, or cocoa, has recently garnered increasing attention and become the subject of research due to its antioxidant properties, which are related to potential anti-cancer effects. In the past few years, identifying and developing active compounds or extracts from the cocoa bean that might exert anti-cancer effects have become an important area of health- and biomedicine-related research. This review provides an updated overview of T. cacao in terms of its potential anti-cancer compounds and their extraction, in vitro bioassay, purification, and identification. This article also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques described and reviews the processes for future perspectives of analytical methods from the viewpoint of anti-cancer compound discovery. PMID:27019680

  7. [Evidence-Based Review of Laryngeal Cancer Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, S

    2016-04-01

    Surgical treatment of laryngeal cancer has been established for decades. In addition to total laryngectomy, which was first performed in 1873, a large number of organ preservation surgical techniques, like open partial laryngectomy, transoral laser microsurgery and transoral robotic surgery, have been developed. Studies on laryngeal cancer surgery are mainly retrospective case series and cohort studies. The evolution of chemoradiation protocols and their analysis in prospective randomized trials have led to an increasing acceptance of non-surgical treatment procedures. In addition to an improvement of prognosis, in recent years the preservation of function and maintenance of life quality after primary therapy of laryngeal cancer has increasingly become the focus of therapy planning. Significant late toxicity after chemoradiation has been identified as an important issue. This leads to a reassessment of surgical concepts and initiation of studies on laryngeal cancer surgery which was additionally stimulated by the advent of transoral robotic surgery in the U.S.. Improving the evidence base in laryngeal cancer surgery by successful establishment of surgical trials should be the future goal. PMID:27128401

  8. Secondhand smoke exposure and risk of lung cancer in Japan: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Megumi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Wakai, Kenji; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Katanoda, Kota

    2016-01-01

    Objective Systematic evaluation of the association between secondhand smoke exposure and lung cancer in Japan has yet to be conducted. Here, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between secondhand smoke and lung cancer in Japanese non-smokers. Methods Relevant studies were collected from the MEDLINE and Ichushi Web databases using a combination of search terms and Medical Subject Headings. Eligible studies were identified, and relative risks or odds ratios were extracted to calculate pooled risk estimates. This procedure was performed independently by at least two authors. Stratified analyses were carried out according to study design, publication year, and whether or not potential confounding variables were accounted for. The presence of publication bias was assessed via funnel plots. Results We identified four cohort studies and five case-control studies. Quantitative synthesis was conducted only for secondhand smoke exposure in the home during adulthood. Of the 12 populations included in meta-analysis, positive secondhand smoke exposure-lung cancer associations were observed in 11, whereas an inverse association was found in the remaining 1. The pooled relative risk of lung cancer associated with secondhand smoke exposure was 1.28 (95% confidence interval: 1.10–1.48). We found no evidence of publication bias, and a significant association remained even when potentially missing studies were included (pooled relative risk: 1.26; 95% confidence interval: 1.09–1.46). The results were stable across different subgroup analyses, including by study design, publication year, and when adjusting for confounding variables. Conclusions Secondhand smoke exposure in the home during adulthood results in a statistically significant increase in the risk of lung cancer. PMID:27511987

  9. Cost-utility analyses of drug therapies in breast cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerich, Virginie; Saing, Sopany; Gamper, Eva Maria; Kemmler, Georg; Daval, Franck; Pivot, Xavier; Holzner, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    The economic evaluation (EE) of health care products has become a necessity. Their quality must be high in order to trust the results and make informed decisions. While cost-utility analyses (CUAs) should be preferred to cost-effectiveness analyses in the oncology area, the quality of breast cancer (BC)-related CUA has been given little attention so far. Thus, firstly, a systematic review of published CUA related to drug therapies for BC, gene expression profiling, and HER2 status testing was performed. Secondly, the quality of selected CUA was assessed and the factors associated with a high-quality CUA identified. The systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE/EMBASE, and Cochrane to identify published CUA between 2000 and 2014. After screening and data extraction, the quality of each selected CUA was assessed by two independent reviewers, using the checklist proposed by Drummond et al. The analysis of factors associated with a high-quality CUA (defined as a Drummond score ≥7) was performed using a two-step approach. Our systematic review was based on 140 CUAs and showed a wide variety of methodological approaches, including differences in the perspective adopted, the time horizon, measurement of cost and effectiveness, and more specially health-state utility values (HSUVs). The median Drummond score was 7 [range 3-10]. Only one in two of the CUA (n = 74) had a Drummond score ≥7, synonymous of "high quality." The statistically significant predictors of a high-quality CUA were article with "gene expression profiling" topic (p = 0.001), consulting or pharmaceutical company as main location of first author (p = 0.004), and articles with both incremental cost-utility ratio and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio as outcomes of EE (p = 0.02). Our systematic review identified only 140 CUAs published over the past 15 years with one in two of high quality. It showed a wide variety of methodological approaches, especially focused on HSUVs. A

  10. Cost-utility analyses of drug therapies in breast cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerich, Virginie; Saing, Sopany; Gamper, Eva Maria; Kemmler, Georg; Daval, Franck; Pivot, Xavier; Holzner, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    The economic evaluation (EE) of health care products has become a necessity. Their quality must be high in order to trust the results and make informed decisions. While cost-utility analyses (CUAs) should be preferred to cost-effectiveness analyses in the oncology area, the quality of breast cancer (BC)-related CUA has been given little attention so far. Thus, firstly, a systematic review of published CUA related to drug therapies for BC, gene expression profiling, and HER2 status testing was performed. Secondly, the quality of selected CUA was assessed and the factors associated with a high-quality CUA identified. The systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE/EMBASE, and Cochrane to identify published CUA between 2000 and 2014. After screening and data extraction, the quality of each selected CUA was assessed by two independent reviewers, using the checklist proposed by Drummond et al. The analysis of factors associated with a high-quality CUA (defined as a Drummond score ≥7) was performed using a two-step approach. Our systematic review was based on 140 CUAs and showed a wide variety of methodological approaches, including differences in the perspective adopted, the time horizon, measurement of cost and effectiveness, and more specially health-state utility values (HSUVs). The median Drummond score was 7 [range 3-10]. Only one in two of the CUA (n = 74) had a Drummond score ≥7, synonymous of "high quality." The statistically significant predictors of a high-quality CUA were article with "gene expression profiling" topic (p = 0.001), consulting or pharmaceutical company as main location of first author (p = 0.004), and articles with both incremental cost-utility ratio and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio as outcomes of EE (p = 0.02). Our systematic review identified only 140 CUAs published over the past 15 years with one in two of high quality. It showed a wide variety of methodological approaches, especially focused on HSUVs. A

  11. Status and prognosis of lymph node metastasis in patients with cardia cancer – A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okholm, Cecilie; Svendsen, Lars Bo; Achiam, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    . Therefore, the optimal treatment of cardia cancer remains controversial. A systematic review of English publications dealing with adenocarcinoma of the cardia was conducted to elucidate patterns of nodal spread and prognostic implications. METHODS: A systematic literature search based on PRISMA guidelines...... identifying relevant studies describing lymph node metastasis and the associated prognosis. Lymph node stations were classified according to the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association guidelines. RESULTS: The highest incidence of metastasis is seen in the nearest regional lymph nodes, station no. 1...

  12. A systematic review of tests for lymph node status in primary endometrial cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zamora Javier; Mann Christopher H; Selman Tara J; Khan Khalid S

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The lymph node status of a patient is a key determinate in staging, prognosis and adjuvant treatment of endometrial cancer. Despite this, the potential additional morbidity associated with lymphadenectomy makes its role controversial. This study systematically reviews the accuracy literature on sentinel node biopsy; ultra sound scanning, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computer tomography (CT) for determining lymph node status in endometrial cancer. Methods Relevant a...

  13. A systematic review of tests for lymph node status in primary endometrial cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Selman, Tara J; Mann, Christopher H; Zamora, Javier; Khan, Khalid S

    2008-01-01

    Background The lymph node status of a patient is a key determinate in staging, prognosis and adjuvant treatment of endometrial cancer. Despite this, the potential additional morbidity associated with lymphadenectomy makes its role controversial. This study systematically reviews the accuracy literature on sentinel node biopsy; ultra sound scanning, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computer tomography (CT) for determining lymph node status in endometrial cancer. Methods Relevant articles w...

  14. Screening for Emotional Distress in Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review of Assessment Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Vodermaier, Andrea; Linden, Wolfgang; Siu, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Screening for emotional distress is becoming increasingly common in cancer care. This systematic review examines the psychometric properties of the existing tools used to screen patients for emotional distress, with the goal of encouraging screening programs to use standardized tools that have strong psychometrics. Systematic searches of MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases for English-language studies in cancer patients were performed using a uniform set of key words (eg, depression, anxiety, scre...

  15. Systematic Review of Psychosocial Morbidities among Bereaved Parents of Children with Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Abby R.; Baker, K. Scott; Syrjala, Karen; Wolfe, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this review was to comprehensively summarize existing studies utilizing validated instruments to measure psychosocial outcomes among bereaved parents of children with cancer. This population has increased risks of anxiety, depression, prolonged grief, and poor quality of life. Parental morbidity is associated with psychiatric co-morbidities, prior loss, economic hardship, duration and intensity of child’s cancer-therapy, perceptions of medical care, child’s quality of life, p...

  16. Use of magnetic resonance imaging in detection of breast cancer recurrence: a systematic review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinn, Edel Marie

    2012-09-01

    Diagnosis of breast cancer recurrence can be difficult as a result of the presence of scar tissue in the breast. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be superior to traditional imaging in diagnosis of recurrence because of its ability to differentiate malignancy from scarring. Current guidelines on investigation of suspected breast cancer recurrence recommend MRI when other investigations have equivocal findings. We performed the first systematic review on this topic.

  17. Endometriosis and ovarian cancer risk: A systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Menelaos eZafrakas; Grigorios eGrimbizis; Anna eTimologou; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2014-01-01

    Background: A possible etiological association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer has been repeatedly reported in the literature. Objective: Our aim was to evaluate published epidemiological data on this issue. Review Methods: We conducted an extensive search of the literature in MEDLINE, of articles ever published until February 2014, using the key-words endometriosis and ovarian and one of the following terms in the title: cancer or malignancy or malignant or tumor or tumour or neopla...

  18. Risk prediction models for colorectal cancer in people with symptoms: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Tom G. S.; Cubiella, Joaquín; Griffin, Simon J; Walter, Fiona M.; Usher-Smith, Juliet A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in Europe and the United States. Detecting the disease at an early stage improves outcomes. Risk prediction models which combine multiple risk factors and symptoms have the potential to improve timely diagnosis. The aim of this review is to systematically identify and compare the performance of models that predict the risk of primary CRC among symptomatic individuals. Methods We searched Medline and EMBASE ...

  19. Effectiveness of the World Health Organization Cancer Pain Relief Guidelines: an integrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson CL

    2016-01-01

    Cathy L Carlson School of Nursing, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL, USA Abstract: Inadequate cancer pain relief has been documented extensively across historical records. In response, in 1986, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed guidelines for cancer pain treatment. The purpose of this paper is to disseminate the results of a comprehensive, integrative review of studies that evaluate the effectiveness of the WHO guidelines. Studies were included if they: 1) identified pati...

  20. A Review on the Relationship between SGLT2 Inhibitors and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hao-Wen Lin; Chin-Hsiao Tseng

    2014-01-01

    Risk of increasing breast and bladder cancer remains a safety issue of SGLT2 (sodium glucose cotransporter type 2) inhibitors, a novel class of antidiabetic agent. We reviewed related papers published before January 29, 2014, through Pubmed search. Dapagliflozin and canagliflozin are the first two approved SGLT2 inhibitors for diabetes therapy. Although preclinical animal toxicology did not suggest a cancer risk of dapagliflozin and overall tumor did not increase, excess numbers of female bre...

  1. Coffee consumption vs. cancer risk - a review of scientific data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Coffee and its impact on health continue to be the topic of much heated debate. Until recently, coffee consumption has been believed to be associated with adverse effects, mainly cardiovascular problems. However, the vast majority of contemporary sources not only emphasize a lack of detrimental effect, but also suggest a beneficial effect of coffee intake. According to the current state of knowledge, coffee consumption is not associated with the majority of cancers although the results of studies on bladder and lung cancer remain conflicting. In case of colorectal, liver and breast cancers, coffee drinking may even have a protective effect. Coffee contains numerous compounds, potentially beneficial as well as harmful. The former include polyphenols which inhibit harmful oxidation processes in the body, while the latter include acrylamide, whose high intake in daily diet may have carcinogenic action. The impact of coffee on the human body is associated also with other factors, e.g. the rate of metabolism and other individual features.

  2. Quality of life in cancer survivors: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Knob Pinto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at identifying factors related to the quality of life of cancer survivors. The databases PubMed, LILACS and SciELO were used, being quality of life, survival and neoplasms the main keywords entered. Sixty-eight articles were found and ten that approached aspects related to quality of life of cancer survivors were selected. The results analysis was performed in stages. Several factors were identified and grouped into physical (chewing, pain and others, psychological (disease conception, social, financial (high cost of treatment and miscellaneous (age, treatment performance among others. It is believed that the analysis of the different areas that comprise the quality of life of patients can assist health professionals in the implementation of assistance practices that consider the multidimensionality of cancer survival.

  3. Molecular Biomarkers of Colorectal Cancer: A Review of Published Articles From Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geramizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Context Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide (the third most common cancer in the world and is especially more common in Western countries; however, its incidence has been increased significantly during the last few years in Eastern countries such as Iran and considered as one of the five common cancers in this country. According to molecular pathways, numerous biomarkers have been identified for colorectal cancers which help patients’ management. Evidence aquisition In this study, we tried to review published articles about the molecular biomarkers of colorectal cancer from Iran. We searched medical databases such as google scholar, Scopus, PubMed, Magiran, SID and Iran Medex for keywords of “colon cancer, KRAS, BRAF, mismatch repair gene, Microsatellite instability, molecular genetics, molecular pathogenesis, biomarker and Iran” to find studies published about colorectal cancers from Iran regarding molecular biomarkers. Conclusion This study showed that molecular biomarkers in colorectal cancer of Iranian patients are not so different from Western population.

  4. Cancer-Related Stress and Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita D. Chandwani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A cancer diagnosis elicits strong psychophysiological reactions that characterize stress. Stress is experienced by all patients but is usually not discussed during patient-healthcare professional interaction; thus underdiagnosed, very few are referred to support services. The prevalence of CAM use in patients with history of cancer is growing. The purpose of the paper is to review the aspects of cancer-related stress and interventions of commonly used complementary and alternative techniques/products for amelioration of cancer-related stress. Feasibility of intervention of several CAM techniques and products commonly used by cancer patients and survivors has been established in some cancer populations. Efficacy of some CAM techniques and products in reducing stress has been documented as well as stress-related symptoms in patients with cancer such as mindfulness-based stress reduction, yoga, Tai Chi Chuan, acupuncture, energy-based techniques, and physical activity. Much of the research limitations include small study samples and variety of intervention length and content. Efficacy and safety of many CAM techniques and some herbs and vitamin B and D supplements need to be confirmed in further studies using scientific methodology. Several complementary and alternative medicine therapies could be integrated into standard cancer care to ameliorate cancer-related stress.

  5. Cancer-related stress and complementary and alternative medicine: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandwani, Kavita D; Ryan, Julie L; Peppone, Luke J; Janelsins, Michelle M; Sprod, Lisa K; Devine, Katie; Trevino, Lara; Gewandter, Jennifer; Morrow, Gary R; Mustian, Karen M

    2012-01-01

    A cancer diagnosis elicits strong psychophysiological reactions that characterize stress. Stress is experienced by all patients but is usually not discussed during patient-healthcare professional interaction; thus underdiagnosed, very few are referred to support services. The prevalence of CAM use in patients with history of cancer is growing. The purpose of the paper is to review the aspects of cancer-related stress and interventions of commonly used complementary and alternative techniques/products for amelioration of cancer-related stress. Feasibility of intervention of several CAM techniques and products commonly used by cancer patients and survivors has been established in some cancer populations. Efficacy of some CAM techniques and products in reducing stress has been documented as well as stress-related symptoms in patients with cancer such as mindfulness-based stress reduction, yoga, Tai Chi Chuan, acupuncture, energy-based techniques, and physical activity. Much of the research limitations include small study samples and variety of intervention length and content. Efficacy and safety of many CAM techniques and some herbs and vitamin B and D supplements need to be confirmed in further studies using scientific methodology. Several complementary and alternative medicine therapies could be integrated into standard cancer care to ameliorate cancer-related stress.

  6. Coping with a diagnosis of breast cancer-literature review and implications for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azri, Mohammed; Al-Awisi, Huda; Al-Moundhri, Mansour

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Women are at an increased risk of developing both physical and psychological morbidity after diagnosis; however, many use different strategies to cope with the disease. The aim of this article is to review the available literature on the impact of breast cancer diagnoses and the strategies used by women to cope with this disease. The implications of these emerging findings are extrapolated within the context of health services provided in developing countries. Electronic databases were used to search the relevant literature. The findings showed that women who were diagnosed with breast cancer are at risk of developing several psychological morbidities such as depression, anxiety, fatigue, negative thoughts, suicidal thoughts, fear of dying, sense of aloneness, sexual and body images problems, as well as an overall decrease in the quality of life. Several strategies are used by women with breast cancer to cope with the disease, including positive cognitive restructuring, wishful thinking, emotional expression, disease acceptance, increased religious practice, family and social support, and yoga and exercise. Breast cancer diagnoses have been associated with several devastating psychological consequences; however, many women have used different coping strategies to adjust their lives accordingly. Healthcare professionals in developing countries, who work with women with breast cancer, should be aware of the different coping mechanisms that women use when diagnosed with cancer. Integrating a coping strategy into the treatment regimen would constitute an important milestone in the palliative care of patients with breast cancer. PMID:19686231

  7. Nutrition and cancer: A review of the evidence for an anti-cancer diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donaldson Michael S

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been estimated that 30–40 percent of all cancers can be prevented by lifestyle and dietary measures alone. Obesity, nutrient sparse foods such as concentrated sugars and refined flour products that contribute to impaired glucose metabolism (which leads to diabetes, low fiber intake, consumption of red meat, and imbalance of omega 3 and omega 6 fats all contribute to excess cancer risk. Intake of flax seed, especially its lignan fraction, and abundant portions of fruits and vegetables will lower cancer risk. Allium and cruciferous vegetables are especially beneficial, with broccoli sprouts being the densest source of sulforophane. Protective elements in a cancer prevention diet include selenium, folic acid, vitamin B-12, vitamin D, chlorophyll, and antioxidants such as the carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, cryptoxanthin. Ascorbic acid has limited benefits orally, but could be very beneficial intravenously. Supplementary use of oral digestive enzymes and probiotics also has merit as anticancer dietary measures. When a diet is compiled according to the guidelines here it is likely that there would be at least a 60–70 percent decrease in breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers, and even a 40–50 percent decrease in lung cancer, along with similar reductions in cancers at other sites. Such a diet would be conducive to preventing cancer and would favor recovery from cancer as well.

  8. Occupational cancers with chemical exposure and their prevention in Korea: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Kyung-Taek

    2013-01-01

    The usage and types of chemicals being developed, with diversified new exposure of workers, are of natural concern to occupational disease. In Korea, with industrialization, application of many chemicals has increased. A large proportion of mortality and disease is due to cancer, and the causal hazardous agents include chemical agents, like heavy metals and so on. Due to the long latency period with malignancies and the fact they are usually found after workers' retirement, it is suggested that management policies must be established to prevent occupational cancers occurring among workers in Korea. To give a general description about the efforts to prevent the occupational cancer with exposure to chemicals, articles on the trends of occupational cancers were reviewed and summarized with related research and efforts for prevention in Korea. It is important to improve the understanding of occupational cancer and help to maintain sustainable and appropriate measures to guarantee workers safety and health. PMID:23886117

  9. CD24 as a Molecular Marker in Ovarian Cancer: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic cancer, with a mortality rate of > 60%. Cancer stem cell (CSC hypothesis offers an attractive explanation of chemoresistance, metastasis, etc., associated with the disease. However, there are still controversy and limitation in defining the CSC markers. CD24 is a mucin-type glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked glycoprotein, expressed on the surface of cells, which serves as a normal receptor for P-selectin and is found involved in molecular adhesion and metastatic tumor spread. Expression rate of CD24 has been associated with progression of various cancers and poor survival rates. In this review, the function of CD24 in ovarian cancer, especially in ovarian CSC system, was discussed in an effort to broaden the interpretation of potential mechanism.

  10. Systematic review: primary and secondary prevention of gastrointestinal cancers with antioxidant supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements prevent gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory. AIM: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in preventing gastrointestinal cancers. METHODS: Using the Cochrane Collaboration methodology, we reviewed.......5%) but significantly increased mortality in a fixed-effect model meta-analysis (RR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.07). CONCLUSIONS: We could not find evidence that the studied antioxidant supplements prevented gastrointestinal cancers. On the contrary, they seem to increase overall mortality Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/15...... the randomized trials comparing antioxidant supplements with placebo or no intervention on the occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers. We searched electronic databases and reference lists until October, 2007. Our outcome measures were gastrointestinal cancers, overall mortality and adverse events. Outcomes were...

  11. A balanced review of the status T cell-based therapy against cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent commentary stirred intense controversy over the status of anti-cancer immunotherapy. The commentary suggested moving beyond current anti-cancer vaccines since active-specific immunization failed to match expectations toward a more aggressive approach involving the adoptive transfer of in vitro expanded tumor antigen-specific T cells. Although the same authors clarified their position in response to others' rebuttal more discussion needs to be devoted to the current status of T cell-based anti-cancer therapy. The accompanying publications review the status of adoptive transfer of cancer vaccines on one hand and active-specific immunization on the other. Hopefully, reading these articles will offer a balanced view of the current status of antigen-specific ant-cancer therapies and suggest future strategies to foster unified efforts to complement either approach with the other according to specific biological principles.

  12. Distance as a Barrier to Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment: Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroggi, Massimo; Biasini, Claudia; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Fornari, Fabio; Cavanna, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The burden of travel from a patient's residence to health care providers is an important issue that can influence access to diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Although several studies have shown that the travel burden can result in delays in diagnosis and treatment of many common cancers, its role appears underestimated in the treatment of patients in clinical practice. Therefore, we performed a review of the published data on the role of travel burden influencing four items: delay of diagnosis, adequate treatment of cancer, outcome, and quality of life of cancer patients. Forty-seven studies published up to December 2014 were initially identified. Twenty studies were excluded because they did not regard specifically the four items of our review. Twenty-seven studies formed the basis of our study and involved 716,153 patients. The associations between travel burden and (a) cancer stage at diagnosis (12 studies), (b) appropriate treatment (8 studies), (c) outcome (4 studies), and (d) quality of life (1 study) are reported. In addition, in two studies, the relation between travel burden and compliance with treatment was examined. The results of our review show that increasing travel requirements are associated with more advanced disease at diagnosis, inappropriate treatment, a worse prognosis, and a worse quality of life. These results suggest that clinical oncologists should remember the specific travel burden problem for cancer patients, who often need health care services every week or every month for many years.

  13. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) and brain cancer in adults and children: review and comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, J. G.; van Wijngaarden, E.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic and experimental research on the potential carcinogenic effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) has now been conducted for over two decades. Cancer epidemiology studies in relation to EMF have focused primarily on brain cancer and leukemia, both from residential sources of exposure in children and adults and from occupational exposure in adult men. Because genotoxic effects of EMF have not been shown, most recent laboratory research has attempted to show biological effects that could be related to cancer promotion. In this report, we briefly review residential and occupational EMF studies on brain cancer. We also provide a general review of experimental studies as they relate both to the biological plausibility of an EMF-brain cancer relation and to the insufficiency of such research to help guide exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies. We conclude from our review that no recent research, either epidemiologic or experimental, has emerged to provide reasonable support for a causal role of EMF on brain cancer. PMID:11550314

  14. Distance as a Barrier to Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment: Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroggi, Massimo; Biasini, Claudia; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Fornari, Fabio; Cavanna, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The burden of travel from a patient's residence to health care providers is an important issue that can influence access to diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Although several studies have shown that the travel burden can result in delays in diagnosis and treatment of many common cancers, its role appears underestimated in the treatment of patients in clinical practice. Therefore, we performed a review of the published data on the role of travel burden influencing four items: delay of diagnosis, adequate treatment of cancer, outcome, and quality of life of cancer patients. Forty-seven studies published up to December 2014 were initially identified. Twenty studies were excluded because they did not regard specifically the four items of our review. Twenty-seven studies formed the basis of our study and involved 716,153 patients. The associations between travel burden and (a) cancer stage at diagnosis (12 studies), (b) appropriate treatment (8 studies), (c) outcome (4 studies), and (d) quality of life (1 study) are reported. In addition, in two studies, the relation between travel burden and compliance with treatment was examined. The results of our review show that increasing travel requirements are associated with more advanced disease at diagnosis, inappropriate treatment, a worse prognosis, and a worse quality of life. These results suggest that clinical oncologists should remember the specific travel burden problem for cancer patients, who often need health care services every week or every month for many years. PMID:26512045

  15. Strategies to improve adherence to treatment in adolescents and young adults with cancer: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson EG

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Eden G Robertson,1,2 Claire E Wakefield,1,2 Kate H Marshall,2 Ursula M Sansom-Daly1–3 1Discipline of Paediatrics, School of Women's and Children's Health, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia; 2Behavioural Sciences Unit, Kids Cancer Centre, Sydney Children's Hospital, 3Sydney Youth Cancer Service, Prince of Wales/Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia Purpose: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs with cancer have higher rates of nonadherence to treatment relative to younger and older cancer patients. Efforts to improve adherence in this population are therefore increasing. This review aimed: 1 to synthesize recommendations and strategies used to improve treatment adherence in AYAs with cancer, and 2 to summarize the available evidence supporting the efficacy of adherence-promoting strategies for AYAs with cancer.Methods: We conducted a systematic review with two stages: 1 a narrative stage, to analyze expert recommendations, and 2 an evaluative stage, to summarize quantitative evidence for interventions. Four electronic databases were searched for studies involving AYAs, aged 10–39 years, with cancer, published from 2005 to 2015. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines were used to ensure quality of the review. The Delphi list was used to assess study quality.Results: Nine articles were identified in the narrative stage of the review. For the evaluative stage, out of 113 screened abstracts, only one eligible intervention was identified. Common themes of adherence-promoting strategies were grouped into five domains: developmental, communication, educational, psychological well-being, and logistical/management strategies. Strategies to address developmental stage and to improve communication were the most highly recommended to improve adherence. Few strategies focused on the role of the patient in adherence. One

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  17. How the risk of liver cancer changes after alcohol cessation: A review and meta-analysis of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heckley Gawain A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that drinking alcohol raises the risk of liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma. However, it has not been sufficiently established as to whether or not drinking cessation subsequently reduces the risk of liver cancer and if it does reduce the risk how long it takes for this heightened risk to fall to that of never drinkers. This question is important for effective policy design and evaluation, to establish causality and for motivational treatments. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis using the current available evidence and a specific form of Generalised Least Squares is performed to assess how the risk of liver cancer changes with time for former drinkers. Results Four studies are found to have quantified the effect of drinking cessation on the risk of liver cancer. The meta-analysis suggests that the risk of liver cancer does indeed fall after cessation by 6-7% a year, but there remains a large uncertainty around this estimate both statistically and in its interpretation. As an illustration it is estimated that a time period of 23 years is required after drinking cessation, with a correspondingly large 95% confidence interval of 14 to 70 years, for the risk of liver cancer to be equal to that of never drinkers. Conclusion This is a relatively under researched area and this is reflected in the uncertainty of the findings. It is our view that it is not possible to extrapolate the results found here to the general population. Too few studies have addressed this question and of the studies that have, all have significant limitations. The key issue amongst the relevant studies is that it appears that current drinkers, abstainers and former drinkers are not composed of, or effectively adjusted to be, similar populations making inferences about risk changes impossible. This is a very difficult area to study effectively, but it is an important topic. More work is required to reduce both statistical

  18. Pharmacogenomics in lung cancer chemotherapy: a review of what the oncologist should know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antonio, Chiara; Milano, Annalisa; Righini, Riccardo; Onesti, Concetta Elisa; Bassanelli, Maria; Falcone, Rosa; Paris, Ida; Lauro, Salvatore; Marchetti, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death around the world; the addition of chemotherapy to treatment of this disease has been shown to significantly increase progression-free survival and overall survival. Despite newer chemotherapies, it is important to personalize the care (treatment and dose) upon each single patient's susceptibility for controlling and reducing adverse side-effects, at best. The present review describes the current status of pharmacogenomics studies regarding germline DNA variants that may alter response and tolerability to chemotherapeutic agents used to treat lung cancer, including perspective studies.

  19. Association between prostate cancer and schistosomiasis in young patients: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Bacelar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This case report refers to a 47-year old patient with prostate cancer associated with schistosomiasis mansoni, who was submitted to radical prostatectomy. This is the third report published in the literature with respect to this association, and up to the present time it is still not known whether a cause and effect relationship exists between the two pathologies. The association between schistosomiasis and cancer has been well-documented in bladder cancer; however, there are no data yet proving the association of this disease with prostatic neoplasia. In this report, a third documented case of prostatic adenocarcinoma and schistosomiasis mansoni is described and a literature review is performed.

  20. Penile cancer: about ten cases at the University Hospital of Rabat, review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Slaoui, Amine; Jabbour, Youness; El Ghazoui, Anouar; Karmouni, Tarik; Elkhader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdelatif; Attaya, Ahmed Ibn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to report the status of penile cancer sites in the urology department at the University Hospital of Rabat and evaluate long-term results of surgical treatment of this cancer. Patients and Methods: Between 1989 and 2015, 10 patients were treated for penile cancer. 10 cases were retrospectively reviewed and the following data were recorded: mode of revelation, seat, staging, TNM stage, treatment, evolution and survival. The mean age of patients was 58,1 years (48-81 yea...