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Sample records for cancer series estrogen

  1. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Estrogen-alone hormone therapy does not increase the risk ...

  2. Selectively targeting estrogen receptors for cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shanle, Erin K.; Xu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens regulate growth and development through the action of two distinct estrogen receptors (ERs), ER alpha and ER beta, which mediate proliferation and differentiation of cells. For decades, ER alpha mediated estrogen signaling has been therapeutically targeted to treat breast cancer, most nota

  3. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANKINSON SUSAN E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  4. Estrogen biosynthesis and action in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia eThalhammer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is still the deadliest of all gynecologic malignancies in women worldwide. This is attributed to two main features of these tumors, namely, i a diagnosis at an advanced tumor stage, and, ii the rapid onset of resistance to standard chemotherapy after an initial successful therapy with platin- and taxol-derivatives. Therefore, novel targets for an early diagnosis and better treatment options for these tumors are urgently needed. Epidemiological data show that induction and biology of ovarian cancer is related to life-time estrogen exposure. Also experimental data reveal that ovarian cancer cells share a number of estrogen regulated pathways with other hormone-dependent cancers, e.g. breast and endometrial cancer. However, ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease and the subtypes are quite different with respect to mutations, origins, behaviours, markers and prognosis and respond differently to standard chemotherapy. Therefore, a characterization of ovarian cancer subtypes may lead to better treatment options for the various subtypes and in particular for the most frequently observed high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. For this intention, further studies on estrogen-related pathways and estrogen formation in ovarian cancer cells are warranted. The review gives an overview on ovarian cancer subtypes and explains the role of estrogen in ovarian cancer. Furthermore, enzymes active to synthesize and metabolize estrogens are described and strategies to target these pathways are discussed.

  5. Estrogen Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    fat and low vegetables , in particular low in cruciferous , and obesity may increase estrogen metabolism towards 16a hydroxylation. This preferential...and Prostate Cancer Risk PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Paola C. Muti, M.D., M.S. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: State University of New York Amherst, New York...DATES COVERED October 1999 Annual (I Oct 98 - 30 Sep 99) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Estrogen Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Risk DAMD17-98-l

  6. Estrogenic activity of natural and synthetic estrogens in human breast cancer cells in culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Zava, D T; Blen, M; Duwe, G

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the estrogenic activity of various environmental pollutants (xenobiotics), in particular the xenoestrogen o,p-DDT, and compared their effects with those of endogenous estrogens, phytoestrogens, and mycoestrogens on estrogen receptor binding capacity, induction of estrogen end products, and activation of cell proliferation in estrogen-sensitive human breast cancer cells in monolayer culture. We also quantified the levels of phytoestrogens in extracts of some common foods, herbs...

  7. Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallal, Cher M; Stone, Roslyn A; Cauley, Jane A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Circulating estrogens are associated with increased breast cancer risk, yet the role of estrogen metabolites in breast carcinogenesis remains unclear. This combined analysis of 5 published studies evaluates urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 16a-hydroxyestrone (16a-OHE1......), and their ratio (2:16a-OHE1) in relation to breast cancer risk. ¿Methods: Primary data on 726 premenopausal women (183 invasive breast cancer cases and 543 controls) and 1,108 postmenopausal women (385 invasive breast cancer cases and 723 controls) were analyzed. Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured using...... premenopausal 2:16a-OHE1 was suggestive of reduced breast cancer risk overall (study-adjusted ORIIIvsI=0.80; 95% CI: 0.49-1.32) and for estrogen receptor negative (ER-) subtype (ORIIIvsI=0.33; 95% CI: 0.13-0.84). Among postmenopausal women, 2:16a-OHE1 was unrelated to breast cancer risk (study-adjusted ORIIIvs...

  8. Physiological and pharmacological effects of estrogens in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, G; Heuson, J C

    1979-12-19

    Focus here is on the mechanism of action of both estrogens and antiestrogens at the tumor cell levels in breast cancer. The interactions of estrogens and their antagonists are emphasized and analyzed in terms of current and potential clinical applications to breast cancer treatment. This review deals with these interrelationships at the molecular levels, not just with general aspects of endocrine interrelationships. The article is divided into 8 main parts: 1) an introduction, which reviews historical understanding of receptor technology and significances; 2) main properties of estrogens and estrogen receptors; 3) the influence of estrogens and antiestrogens on growth of experimental mammary tumor systems; 4) the suppression of or administration of estrogens for treatment of advanced human breast cancer; 5) estrogen receptivity of mammary tumors; 6) progress in treatment of advanced breast cancer derived from studies on the mode of action of estrogens; 7) the prognostic significance of estrogens and estrogenic receptivity (the estriol theory); and 8) concluding remarks on the future paths of receptor research.

  9. Urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites and subsequent risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliassen, A Heather; Spiegelman, Donna; Xu, Xia; Keefer, Larry K; Veenstra, Timothy D; Barbieri, Robert L; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E; Ziegler, Regina G

    2012-02-01

    Endogenous estrogens and estrogen metabolism are hypothesized to be associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk but evidence is limited. We examined 15 urinary estrogens/estrogen metabolites and breast cancer risk among premenopausal women in a case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). From 1996 to 1999, urine was collected from 18,521 women during the mid-luteal menstrual phase. Breast cancer cases (N = 247) diagnosed between collection and June 2005 were matched to two controls each (N = 485). Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and adjusted for creatinine level. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multivariate conditional logistic regression. Higher urinary estrone and estradiol levels were strongly significantly associated with lower risk (top vs. bottom quartile RR: estrone = 0.52; 95% CI, 0.30-0.88; estradiol = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.30-0.86). Generally inverse, although nonsignificant, patterns also were observed with 2- and 4-hydroxylation pathway estrogen metabolites. Inverse associations generally were not observed with 16-pathway estrogen metabolites and a significant positive association was observed with 17-epiestriol (top vs. bottom quartile RR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.08-2.81; P(trend) = 0.01). In addition, there was a significant increased risk with higher 16-pathway/parent estrogen metabolite ratio (comparable RR = 1.61; 95% CI, 0.99-2.62; P(trend) = 0.04). Other pathway ratios were not significantly associated with risk except parent estrogen metabolites/non-parent estrogen metabolites (comparable RR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35-0.96; P(trend) = 0.03). These data suggest that most mid-luteal urinary estrogen metabolite concentrations are not positively associated with breast cancer risk among premenopausal women. The inverse associations with parent estrogen metabolites and the parent estrogen metabolite/non-parent estrogen metabolite ratio

  10. Estrogen receptors and cell proliferation in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, D R; Fanelli, M A

    1997-10-01

    Most of the actions of estrogens on the normal and abnormal mammary cells are mediated via estrogen receptors (ERs), including control of cell proliferation; however, there are also alternative pathways of estrogen action not involving ERs. Estrogens control several genes and proteins that induce the cells to enter the cell cycle (protooncogenes, growth factors); estrogens also act on proteins directly involved in the control of the cell cycle (cyclins), and moreover, estrogens stimulate the response of negative cell cycle regulators (p53, BRCA1). The next challenge for researchers is elucidating the integration of the interrelationships of the complex pathways involved in the control of cell proliferation. This brief review focuses on the mechanisms of estrogen action to control cell proliferation and the clinical implications in breast cancer. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997;8:313-321). (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  11. Mouse models of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakur Mohibi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy and second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women. Despite advances in genetic and biochemical analyses, the incidence of breast cancer and its associated mortality remain very high. About 60 - 70% of breast cancers are Estrogen Receptor alpha (ER-α positive and are dependent on estrogen for growth. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs have therefore provided an effective targeted therapy to treat ER-α positive breast cancer patients. Unfortunately, development of resistance to endocrine therapy is frequent and leads to cancer recurrence. Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the development of ER-α positive tumors and their resistance to ER antagonists is currently limited due to lack of experimental models of ER-α positive breast cancer. In most mouse models of breast cancer, the tumors that form are typically ER-negative and independent of estrogen for their growth. However, in recent years more attention has been given to develop mouse models that develop different subtypes of breast cancers, including ER-positive tumors. In this review, we discuss the currently available mouse models that develop ER-α positive mammary tumors and their potential use to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of ER-α positive breast cancer development and endocrine resistance.

  12. Glyphosate induces human breast cancer cells growth via estrogen receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongprakaisang, Siriporn; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Suriyo, Tawit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2013-09-01

    Glyphosate is an active ingredient of the most widely used herbicide and it is believed to be less toxic than other pesticides. However, several recent studies showed its potential adverse health effects to humans as it may be an endocrine disruptor. This study focuses on the effects of pure glyphosate on estrogen receptors (ERs) mediated transcriptional activity and their expressions. Glyphosate exerted proliferative effects only in human hormone-dependent breast cancer, T47D cells, but not in hormone-independent breast cancer, MDA-MB231 cells, at 10⁻¹² to 10⁻⁶M in estrogen withdrawal condition. The proliferative concentrations of glyphosate that induced the activation of estrogen response element (ERE) transcription activity were 5-13 fold of control in T47D-KBluc cells and this activation was inhibited by an estrogen antagonist, ICI 182780, indicating that the estrogenic activity of glyphosate was mediated via ERs. Furthermore, glyphosate also altered both ERα and β expression. These results indicated that low and environmentally relevant concentrations of glyphosate possessed estrogenic activity. Glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used for soybean cultivation, and our results also found that there was an additive estrogenic effect between glyphosate and genistein, a phytoestrogen in soybeans. However, these additive effects of glyphosate contamination in soybeans need further animal study.

  13. The T61 human breast cancer xenograft: an experimental model of estrogen therapy of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, N; Spang-Thomsen, M; Cullen, K

    1996-01-01

    Endocrine therapy is one of the principal treatment modalities of breast cancer, both in an adjuvant setting and in advanced disease. The T61 breast cancer xenograft described here provides an experimental model of the effects of estrogen treatment at a molecular level. T61 is an estrogen recepto...

  14. Bioassays for estrogenic activity: development and validation of estrogen receptor (ERalpha/ERbeta) and breast cancer proliferation bioassays to measure serum estrogenic activity in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Lee, L; Gong, Y; Shen, P; Wong, S P; Wise, Stephen D; Yong, E L

    2009-02-01

    Standard estrogenic prodrugs such as estradiol valerate (E2V) and increasingly popular phytoestrogen formulations are commonly prescribed to improve menopausal health. These drugs are metabolized to numerous bioactive compounds, known or unknown, which may exert combinatorial estrogenic effects in vivo. The aim of this study is to develop and validate estrogen receptor (ER) alpha/ERbeta reporter gene and MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation bioassays to quantify serum estrogenic activities in a clinical trial setting. We measured changes in serum estrogenicity following ingestion of E2V and compared this to mass spectrometric measurements of its bioactive metabolites, estrone and 17beta-stradiol. ERalpha bioactivity of the 192 serum samples correlated well (R = 79%) with 17beta-estradiol levels, and adding estrone improved R to 0.83 (likelihood ratio test, P estrogenic activity and that these assays suggest that the Epimedium formulation tested is unlikely to exert significant estrogenic effects in humans.

  15. RIME proteomics of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive D’Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors play an important role in transcriptional regulation of diverse cellular processes and is also relevant in diseases such as cancer. In breast cancer, the nuclear receptors – estrogen receptor (ER and progesterone receptor (PR are classical markers of the disease and are used to classify breast cancer subtypes. Using a recently developed affinity purification MS technique (RIME [1], we investigate the protein interactors of ER and PR in breast cancer cell lines upon stimulation by the ligands – estrogen and progesterone. The data is deposited at proteomeXchange (PXD002104 and is part of a publication [2] that explains the link between the two nuclear receptors and potential consequences of this in breast cancer. In this manuscript, we describe the methodology used and provide details on experimental procedures, analysis methods and analysis of raw data. The purpose of this article is to enable reproducibility of the data and provide technical recommendations on performing RIME in hormonal contexts.

  16. [THE ROLE OF ESTROGENS IN THE CARCINOGENESIS OF LUNG CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikova, E; Uchikov, A; Dimitrakova, E; Uchikov, P

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from lung cancer has dramatically increased in women as compared to men over the past few years. Historically, smoking has been considered the major risk factor for lung cancer regardless of gender. Several recent lines of evidence implicate gender differences in the observed differences in prevalence and histologic type which cannot be explained based on the carcinogenic action of nicotine. Several recent studies underscore the importance of reproductive and hormonal factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer Lung cancer morbidity and mortality in Bulgaria was 16.2/100000 women and 14.6/ 100000 women, resp. Lung cancer morbidity in Europe was 39/100000 women. Lung cancer is extremely sensitive to estrogens. The latter act directly or as effect modifiers for the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Further research examining the relationship between serum estrogen levels and the estrogen receptor expression in normal and tumor lung tissue samples can help elucidate the importance of reproductive and hormonal (exogenous and endogenous) factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer.

  17. Membrane Estrogen and HER-2 Receptors in Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    H.R. Nusbaum, N. Razon , R. Kris, I. Lax, H. Soreq, N. Whittle, M.D. Waterfield, A. Ullrich and J. Schlessinger (1985). Amplification, enhanced...estrogen (41) are both known mito - antibodies and then immunoblotting with anti-ER antibod- gens for breast cancer cells. To assess the potential contri

  18. Estrogen Receptor Mutants/Variants in Human Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Recherche Louis- Charles Simard, Montreal, Canada. Four nor- mal human breast tissues from reduction mammoplasties of pre- menopausal women were obtained...to hormone resistance. Cancer Res 1990; 50: 6208-17. 22. Karnik PS, Kulkarni S, Lui XP, Budd GT, Bukowski RM. Estrogen receptor mutations in

  19. Estrogen and its signaling pathway in non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruitong Xu; Yongqian Shu

    2009-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world. It is a highly lethal disease in women and men, and new treatments are urgently needed. Several studies have implicated a role of estrogens and estrogen receptors in lung cancer progression. This review will investigate the biological significance of estrogens in lung cancer cells, the expression and molecular mechanisms of estrogen receptors(ER α and ER β, elucidate the prognostic significance of estrogens and their receptors in lung carcinomas and provide new options for patients afflicted with lung malignancies.

  20. Estrogen, Progesterone and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Shuk-Mei

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian carcinoma (OCa continues to be the leading cause of death due to gynecologic malignancies and the vast majority of OCa is derived from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE and its cystic derivatives. Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that steroid hormones, primarily estrogens and progesterone, are implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, it has proved difficult to fully understand their mechanisms of action on the tumorigenic process. New convincing data have indicated that estrogens favor neoplastic transformation of the OSE while progesterone offers protection against OCa development. Specifically, estrogens, particularly those present in ovulatory follicles, are both genotoxic and mitogenic to OSE cells. In contrast, pregnancy-equivalent levels progesterone are highly effective as apoptosis inducers for OSE and OCa cells. In this regard, high-dose progestin may exert an exfoliation effect and rid an aged OSE of pre-malignant cells. A limited number of clinical studies has demonstrated efficacies of antiestrogens, aromatase inhibitors, and progestins alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of OCa. As a result of increased life expectancy in most countries, the number of women taking hormone replacement therapies (HRT continues to grow. Thus, knowledge of the mechanism of action of steroid hormones on the OSE and OCa is of paramount significance to HRT risk assessment and to the development of novel therapies for the prevention and treatment of OCa.

  1. Estrogen Negatively Regulates the Pro-apoptotic Function of Mixed Lineage Kinase 3 in Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rangasamy, Velusamy; Mishra, Rajakishore; Mehrotra, Suneet; Sondarva, Gautam; Ray, Rajarshi S.; Rao, Arundhati; Chatterjee,Malay; Rana, Basabi; Rana, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen stimulates growth and inhibits apoptosis of breast cancer cells via genomic and non-genomic actions. However, the detailed mechanism by which estrogen inhibits the pro-apoptotic pathways that might impede the normal homeostasis and action of chemotherapeutic drugs in breast cancer cells is not well understood. Here, we report a negative regulation of a pro-apoptotic kinase, Mixed Lineage Kinase 3 (MLK3) by 17β-estradiol (E2) that hinders cytotoxic drug-induced cell death in estrogen ...

  2. Alternative Dosing of Exemestane Before Surgery in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage 0-II Estrogen Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-17

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; Postmenopausal; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  3. Tannic Acid Preferentially Targets Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Booth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research efforts investigating the potential of natural compounds in the fight against cancer are growing. Tannic acid (TA belongs to the class of hydrolysable tannins and is found in numerous plants and foods. TA is a potent collagen cross-linking agent; the purpose of this study was to generate TA-cross-linked beads and assess the effects on breast cancer cell growth. Collagen beads were stable at body temperature following crosslinking. Exposure to collagen beads with higher levels of TA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in normal and cancer cells. TA-induced apoptosis involved activation of caspase 3/7 and caspase 9 but not caspase 8. Breast cancer cells expressing the estrogen receptor were more susceptible to the effects of TA. Taken together the results suggest that TA has the potential to become an anti-ER+ breast cancer treatment or preventative agent.

  4. Estrogen signalling and the DNA damage response in hormone dependent breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Elizabeth Caldon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen is necessary for the normal growth and development of breast tissue, but high levels of estrogen are a major risk factor for breast cancer. One mechanism by which estrogen could contribute to breast cancer is via the induction of DNA damage. This perspective discusses the mechanisms by which estrogen alters the DNA damage response (DDR and DNA repair through the regulation of key effector proteins including ATM, ATR, CHK1, BRCA1 and p53 and the feedback on estrogen receptor signalling from these proteins. We put forward the hypothesis that estrogen receptor signalling converges to suppress effective DNA repair and apoptosis in favour of proliferation. This is important in hormone-dependent breast cancer as it will affect processing of estrogen-induced DNA damage, as well as other genotoxic insults. DDR and DNA repair proteins are frequently mutated or altered in estrogen responsive breast cancer which will further change the processing of DNA damage. Finally the action of estrogen signalling on DNA damage is also relevant to the therapeutic setting as the suppression of a DNA damage response by estrogen has the potential to alter the response of cancers to anti-hormone treatment or chemotherapy that induces DNA damage.

  5. Aerobic Exercise, Estrogens, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    include early age at menarche, late age at menopause and first childbirth, nulliparity, family history of breast cancer, benign breast disease, and non...et al. (24), a four-cycle intervention consisting of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in combination with a caloric restrictive diet resulted in...vigorous exercise intervention independent of diet restriction and weight loss. We specifically sought to determine if the exercise intervention would

  6. Importance of Estrogenic Signaling and Its Mediated Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kin-Mang Lau; Ka-Fai To

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) treatment was first established by Huggins and Hodges in 1941, primarily described as androgen deprivation via interference of testicular androgen production. The disease remains incurable with relapse of hormone-refractory cancer after treatments. Epidemiological and clinical studies disclosed the importance of estrogens in PCa. Discovery of estrogen receptor ERβ prompted direct estrogenic actions, in conjunction with ERα, on PCa cells. Mechanistically, ERs upon ligand ...

  7. Hispolon inhibits the growth of estrogen receptor positive human breast cancer cells through modulation of estrogen receptor alpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Eun Hyang; Jang, Soon Young; Cho, In-Hye [Department of Pharmacy, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Darong [Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Science, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Bom; Park, Min-Ju [Department of Pharmacy, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Ho, E-mail: jonghokim@khu.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacy, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-07

    Human estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a nuclear transcription factor that is a major therapeutic target in breast cancer. The transcriptional activity of ERα is regulated by certain estrogen-receptor modulators. Hispolon, isolated from Phellinus linteus, a traditional medicinal mushroom called Sanghwang in Korea, has been used to treat various pathologies, such as inflammation, gastroenteric disorders, lymphatic diseases, and cancers. In this latter context, Hispolon has been reported to exhibit therapeutic efficacy against various cancer cells, including melanoma, leukemia, hepatocarcinoma, bladder cancer, and gastric cancer cells. However, ERα regulation by Hispolon has not been reported. In this study, we investigated the effects of Hispolon on the growth of breast cancer cells. We found that Hispolon decreased expression of ERα at both mRNA and the protein levels in MCF7 and T47D human breast cancer cells. Luciferase reporter assays showed that Hispolon decreased the transcriptional activity of ERα. Hispolon treatment also inhibited expression of the ERα target gene pS2. We propose that Hispolon, an anticancer drug extracted from natural sources, inhibits cell growth through modulation of ERα in estrogen-positive breast cancer cells and is a candidate for use in human breast cancer chemotherapy. - Highlights: • Hispolon decreased ERα expression at both mRNA and protein levels. • Hispolon decreased ERα transcriptional activity. • Hispolon treatment inhibited expression of ERα target gene pS2. • Shikonin is a candidate chemotherapeutic target in the treatment of human breast cancer.

  8. Estrogen-Mediated Upregulation of Noxa Is Associated with Cell Cycle Progression in Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Noxa is a Bcl-2-homology domain (BH3)-only protein reported to be a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family. Estrogen has been well documented to stimulate cell growth and inhibit apoptosis in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cells. Intriguingly, recent reports have shown that 17β-estradiol (E2) induces Noxa expression, although the mechanisms underlying E2-mediated induction of Noxa and its functional significance are unknown. Using MCF7 human breast cancer cells as an experimen...

  9. Estrogen receptor beta participate in the regulation of metabolizm of extracellular matrix in estrogen alpha negative breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Kuźmicki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The biology of breast cancer is closely releted to sex steroid hormones. Estrogen receptor beta is overexpressed in around 70% breast cancer cases, referrd to as "ER positive". Estrogens bind to estrogen receptor and stimulate the transcription of genes involved in control of cell proliferation. Moreover, estrogens may induce growth factors and components of extracellular matrix and interact with them in a complex manner. Extracellular matrix and integrins play an important role in cell functions and their aberrant expressions are implicated in breast cancer development, invasion and metastasis. ER beta is certainly associated with more differentiated tumors, while evidence of role of ER beta is controversial. The highly invasive breast cancer ER beta negative cell line MDA-MB 231 can be the model of exam the role of ER beta in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the role of activation of ER beta on the metabolism of the extracellular matrix and the expression of beta-1 integrin in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB 231. The cells were exposed on the estradiol, tamoxifen, raloxifen and genisteina in dose dependent concentrations. To determine the relative rate of collagen syntesis we measured the time-dependent reduction of collagen-bound radioactivity after pulse-chase labeling with [3 H] prolina by Peterkofsky methods. The expression of beta-1 integrin was determine by Western blot analysis. The activity of MMP2 and 9 were measured using gelatin zymography with an image analysis system. Our data suggest on the role of estrogen receptor beta on the metabolism of extracellular matrix in the breast cancer line MDA - MB 231. Estradiol and SERMs regulate the expression of ECM proteins: collagen, integrins and enhance activity of metaloproteinases 2 and 9.

  10. Estrogen receptor beta participate in the regulation of metabolizm of extracellular matrix in estrogen alpha negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leśniewska, Monika; Miltyk, Wojciech; Swiatecka, Jolanta; Tomaszewska, Małgorzata; Kuźmicki, Mariusz; Pałka, Jerzy; Wołczyński, Sławomir

    2009-01-01

    The biology of breast cancer is closely releted to sex steroid hormones. Estrogen receptor beta is overexpressed in around 70% breast cancer cases, referrd to as "ER positive". Estrogens bind to estrogen receptor and stimulate the transcription of genes involved in control of cell proliferation. Moreover, estrogens may induce growth factors and components of extracellular matrix and interact with them in a complex manner. Extracellular matrix and integrins play an important role in cell functions and their aberrant expressions are implicated in breast cancer development, invasion and metastasis. ER beta is certainly associated with more differentiated tumors, while evidence of role of ER beta is controversial. The highly invasive breast cancer ER beta negative cell line MDA-MB 231 can be the model of exam the role of ER beta in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the role of activation of ER beta on the metabolism of the extracellular matrix and the expression of beta-1 integrin in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB 231. The cells were exposed on the estradiol, tamoxifen, raloxifen and genisteina in dose dependent concentrations. To determine the relative rate of collagen syntesis we measured the time-dependent reduction of collagen-bound radioactivity after pulse-chase labeling with [3 H] prolina by Peterkofsky methods. The expression of beta-1 integrin was determine by Western blot analysis. The activity of MMP2 and 9 were measured using gelatin zymography with an image analysis system. Our data suggest on the role of estrogen receptor beta on the metabolism of extracellular matrix in the breast cancer line MDA - MB 231. Estradiol and SERMs regulate the expression of ECM proteins: collagen, integrins and enhance activity of metaloproteinases 2 and 9.

  11. Genes dysregulated to different extent or oppositely in estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianxiao Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Directly comparing gene expression profiles of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+ and estrogen receptor-negative (ER- breast cancers cannot determine whether differentially expressed genes between these two subtypes result from dysregulated expression in ER+ cancer or ER- cancer versus normal controls, and thus would miss critical information for elucidating the transcriptomic difference between the two subtypes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using microarray datasets from TCGA, we classified the genes dysregulated in both ER+ and ER- cancers versus normal controls into two classes: (i genes dysregulated in the same direction but to a different extent, and (ii genes dysregulated to opposite directions, and then validated the two classes in RNA-sequencing datasets of independent cohorts. We showed that the genes dysregulated to a larger extent in ER+ cancers than in ER- cancers enriched in glycerophospholipid and polysaccharide metabolic processes, while the genes dysregulated to a larger extent in ER- cancers than in ER+ cancers enriched in cell proliferation. Phosphorylase kinase and enzymes of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchor biosynthesis were upregulated to a larger extent in ER+ cancers than in ER- cancers, whereas glycogen synthase and phospholipase A2 were downregulated to a larger extent in ER+ cancers than in ER- cancers. We also found that the genes oppositely dysregulated in the two subtypes significantly enriched with known cancer genes and tended to closely collaborate with the cancer genes. Furthermore, we showed the possibility that these oppositely dysregulated genes could contribute to carcinogenesis of ER+ and ER- cancers through rewiring different subpathways. CONCLUSIONS: GPI-anchor biosynthesis and glycogenolysis were elevated and hydrolysis of phospholipids was depleted to a larger extent in ER+ cancers than in ER- cancers. Our findings indicate that the genes oppositely dysregulated in the two subtypes are potential

  12. Is There a Role for Base Excision Repair in Estrogen/Estrogen Receptor-Driven Breast Cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fatah, Tarek M.A.; Perry, Christina; Arora, Arvind; Thompson, Nicola; Doherty, Rachel; Moseley, Paul M.; Green, Andrew R.; Chan, Stephen Y.T.; Ellis, Ian O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Estrogen and estrogen metabolite-induced reactive oxygen species generation can promote oxidative DNA base damage. If unrepaired, base damaging lesions could accelerate mutagenesis, leading to a “mutator phenotype” characterized by aggressive behavior in estrogen-estrogen receptor (ER)-driven breast cancer. To test this hypothesis, we investigated 1406 ER+ early-stage breast cancers with 20 years' long-term clinical follow-up data for DNA polymerase β (pol β), flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), AP endonuclease 1 (APE1), X-ray cross-complementation group 1 protein (XRCC1), single-strand monofunctional uracil glycosylase-1 (SMUG1), poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3 related (ATR), ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), Chk1, Chk2, p53, breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1), and topoisomerase 2 (TOPO2) expression. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate a DNA repair prognostic index and correlated to clinicopathological variables and survival outcomes. Key base excision repair (BER) proteins, including XRCC1, APE1, SMUG1, and FEN1, were independently associated with poor breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) (ps≤0.01). Multivariate Cox model stratified patients into four distinct prognostic sub-groups with worsening BCSS (ps<0.01). In addition, compared with prognostic sub-group 1, sub-groups 2, 3, and 4 manifest increasing tumor size, grade, mitosis, pleomorphism, differentiation, lymphovascular invasion, high Ki67, loss of Bcl-2, luminal B phenotype (ps≤0.01), and poor survival, including in patients who received tamoxifen adjuvant therapy (p<0.00001). Our observation supports the hypothesis that BER-directed stratification could inform appropriate therapies in estrogen-ER-driven breast cancers. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 2262–2268. PMID:25111287

  13. Selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs) in the cyclopentadienylrhenium tricarbonyl series: synthesis and biological behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top, Siden; Vessières, Anne; Pigeon, Pascal; Rager, Marie-Noëlle; Huché, Michel; Salomon, Emmanuel; Cabestaing, Claude; Vaissermann, Jacqueline; Jaouen, Gérard

    2004-08-06

    A series of organometallic antiestrogens based on the OH-tamoxifen (OH-Tam) skeleton and bearing the (eta(5)-C(5)H(4))Re(I)(CO)(3) unit has been prepared by using McMurry coupling for the purpose of studying their biological behaviour. The cyclopentadienylrhenium tricarbonyl moiety is indeed stable in biological media, compact, lipophilic and easy to handle. Furthermore, this study allowed us to select the best candidates for subsequent use as radiopharmaceuticals either for imaging or therapy by using appropriate radionucleides, namely (99m)Tc and (188)Re. In these molecules the beta-phenyl group of OH-Tam has been replaced by the (eta(5)-C(5)H(4))Re(CO)(3) moiety, and the length of the dimethylamino side chain --O(CH(2))(n)N(CH(3))(2) was varied (n=2, 3, 4, 5 and 8). The compounds 7 a-7 e were obtained as mixtures of their Z and E isomers, which could be separated by semipreparative HPLC. Unlike their ferrocene homologues, the compounds do not isomerise in solution. Structural identification was carried out with NMR spectroscopy by using the HMBC and NOE techniques and was confirmed by the X-ray structural determination of (E)-7 a (n=2). These molecules were more lipophilic than OH-Tam (log P(o/w)=4.5-6.3) and they were all reasonably well recognized by the two forms of the estrogen receptor (ERalpha and ERbeta). For example, (Z)-7 b (n=3) has high relative binding affinity (RBA) values of 31 % for ERalpha and 16.8 % for ERbeta. The antiproliferative effects of two pairs of isomers, (Z)- and (E)-7 b (n=3) and (Z)- and (E)-7 d (n=5), were studied at a molarity of 1 microM on two breast-cancer cell lines, MCF7 (ERalpha positive) and MDA-MB231 (ERalpha negative). These molecules had an antiproliferative effect on MCF7 cells slightly higher than that of OH-Tam and no effect on MDA-MB231 cells. Thus, the antiproliferative effect observed on the MCF7 cells seemed essentially to be linked to an antiestrogenic effect. Molecular modelling studies have allowed us to

  14. An Estrogen Model: The Relationship between Body Mass Index, Menopausal Status, Estrogen Replacement Therapy, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda E. Green

    2012-01-01

    (kg/m2 for premenopausal women and an increase in the relative risk of 4% per unit increase in BMI for postmenopausal women who are not HRT users. When comparing postmenopausal women who use estrogen-only HRT to postmenopausal women who do not use HRT, the model predicts an increased risk of breast cancer associated with use of estrogen that diminishes with increasing BMI, with a relative risk of 1.6 for women with BMI of 18, 1.2 for women with BMI of 25, and 1.0 for women with BMI≥30. Model predictions agree with data from five major epidemiological studies.

  15. Estrogens increase the expression of fibulin-1, an extracellular matrix protein secreted by human ovarian cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clinton, GM; Rougeot, C; Derancourt, J; Roger, P; Defrenne, A; Godyna, S; Argraves, WS; Rochefort, H

    1996-01-01

    Ovarian cancers have a high ability to invade the peritoneal cavity and some are stimulated by estrogens, In an attempt to understand the mode of action of estrogens on these cancer cells and to develop new markers, we have characterized estrogen-regulated proteins, This study,vas aimed at identifyi

  16. Estrogen and Progesterone hormone receptor expression in oral cavity cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegner, Thorsten; Teriete, Peter; Hoefert, Sebastian; Krimmel, Michael; Munz, Adelheid; Reinert, Siegmar

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in younger patients. The hypothesis that tumors could be hormonally induced during pregnancy or in young female patients without the well-known risk factors alcohol or tobacco abuse seems to be plausible. Material and Methods Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) expression were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n=5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n=11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=35), and OSCC specimen. OSCCs were stratified in a young female (n=7) study cohort and older patients (n=46). In the young female study cohort three patients (n=3/7) developed OSCC during or shortly after pregnancy. Breast cancer tissues were used as positive control for ERα and PR expression. Results ERα expression was found in four oral precursor lesions (squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=4/35, 11%) and in five OSCC specimen (n=5/46, 11%). The five ERα positive OSCC samples were older male patients. All patients within the young female study cohort were negatively stained for both ERα and PR. Conclusions ER expression could be regarded as a seldom risk factor for OSCC. PR expression seems to be not relevant for the development of OSCC. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, hormone receptor. PMID:27475696

  17. Common soil of smoking-associated and hormone-related cancers: estrogen deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Suba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of non-smoker, non-drinker elderly postmenopausal female patients among smokingassociated oral cancer cases raised the plausible idea: estrogen deficiency maybe a cancer risk factor. On the other hand, the extremely rare cases of young women with oral cancer regularly exhibited hormonal disorders, such as irregular menstrual cycles and infertility. Furthermore, in the history of middle-aged female, oral cancer cases a primary ovarian failure or complete hysterectomy was a conspicuously frequent finding suggestive of an estrogen deficient milieu. There were many striking contradictions concerning the associations of female sexual steroids and cancer risk as well. Until now, breast and endometrial cancers were regarded as typically estrogen-induced tumors, particularly in postmenopausal cases. However, unexplained beneficial anti-cancer effects of hormonereplacement therapy were reported against cancers at several sites, even tumors of the highly hormone-responsive organs. Re-evaluation of results of the experimental and epidemiological studies, which endeavored to justify the carcinogenic capacity of estrogen, exhibited many shortcomings and controversies. The new findings both on smoking associated and on hormone related cancers added up to the same conversion; not estrogen but rather its deficiency might provoke cancer initiation. Thorough review of the literary data justified that the exquisite regulatory capacity of estrogen and its surveillance on growth, development, differentiation, and metabolism are indispensable, whereas an estrogen-deficient milieu may induce a breakdown in gene-regulation. Recognition of the anticancer capacity of estrogen may provide new insights into the etiology of malignancies and leads to new strategies for cancer prevention and cure.

  18. Anti-estrogenic mechanism of unliganded progesterone receptor isoform B in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ze-Yi; Zheng, Si-Min; Bay, Boon-Huat; Aw, Swee-Eng; C-L Lin, Valerie

    2008-07-01

    Over half of breast cancer cases are estrogen-dependent and strategies to combat estrogen-dependent breast cancer have been to either block the activation of estrogen receptor (ER) or diminish the supply of estrogens. Our previous work documented that estrogen-independent expression of progesterone receptor (PR) in MCF-7 cells markedly disrupted the effects of estrogen. In this study, we have developed an adenovirus-mediated gene delivery system to study the specific involvement of PR isoform A (PR-A) and PR-B in the anti-estrogenic effect and its mechanism of action. The results revealed that PR-B, but not PR-A, exhibited distinct anti-estrogenic effect on E2-induced cell growth, gene expression, and ER-ERE interaction in a ligand-independent manner. The anti-estrogenic effect of PR-B was also associated with heightened metabolism and increased cellular uptake of estradiol-17 beta (E2). We have also found that the B-upstream segment of PR-B alone was able to inhibit E2-induced ER-ERE interaction and cellular uptake of E2. Although PR-A alone did not affect E2-induced ER activity, it antagonized the anti-estrogenic effect of PR-B in a concentration-dependent manner. The findings suggest an important mechanism of maintaining a favorable level of ER activity by PR-A and PR-B in estrogen target cells for optimal growth and differentiation. The potential anti-estrogenic mechanism of PR-B may be exploited for breast cancer therapy.

  19. Integration of Nuclear- and Extranuclear-Initiated Estrogen Receptor Signaling in Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madak Erdogan, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    Estrogenic hormones exert their effects through binding to Estrogen Receptors (ERs), which work in concert with coregulators and extranuclear signaling pathways to control gene expression in normal as well as cancerous states, including breast tumors. In this thesis, we have used multiple genome-wide analysis tools to elucidate various ways that…

  20. Current medical treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Franco; Lumachi; Davide; A; Santeufemia; Stefano; MM; Basso

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 80% of breast cancers(BC) are estrogen receptor(ER)-positive and thus endocrine therapy(ET) should be considered complementary to surgery in the majority of patients. The advantages of oophorectomy, adrenalectomy and hypophysectomy in women with advanced BC have been demonstrated many years ago, and currently ET consist of(1) ovarian function suppression(OFS), usually obtained using gonadotropinreleasing hormone agonists(Gn RHa);(2) selective estrogen receptor modulators or down-regulators(SERMs or SERDs); and(3) aromatase inhibitors(AIs), or a combination of two or more drugs. For patients aged less than 50 years and ER+ BC, there is no conclusive evidence that the combination of OFS and SERMs(i.e., tamoxifen) or chemotherapy is superior to OFS alone. Tamoxifen users exhibit a reduced risk of BC, both invasive and in situ, especially during the first 5 years of therapy, and extending the treatment to 10 years further reduced the risk of recurrences. SERDs(i.e., fulvestrant) are especially useful in the neoadjuvant treatment of advanced BC, alone or in combination with either cytotoxic agents or AIs. There are two types of AIs: type Ⅰ are permanent steroidal inhibitors of aromatase, while type Ⅱ are reversible nonsteroidal inhibitors. Several studies demonstrated the superiority of the third-generation AIs(i.e., anastrozole and letrozole) compared with tamoxifen, and adjuvant therapy with AIs reduces the recurrence risk especially in patients with advanced BC. Unfortunately, some cancers are or became ET-resistant, and thus other drugs have been suggested in combination with SERMs or AIs, including cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors(palbociclib) and mammalian target of rapamycin(m TOR) inhibitors, such as everolimus. Further studies are required to confirm their real usefulness.

  1. Estrogen receptor alpha polymorphisms and postmenopausal breast cancer risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladd, AM Gonzalez-Zuloet; Vasquez, A.A.; Rivadeneira, F.; Siemes, C.; Hofman, A.; Stricker, B.H.; Pols, H.A.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Duijn, C.M. van

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) is a mediator of estrogen response in the breast. The most studied variants in this gene are the PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms, which have been associated to lower sensitivity to estrogen. We evaluated whether these polymorphisms were associated with bre

  2. Estrogen receptor α polymorphisms and postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. González-Zuloeta Ladd (Angela); A.A. Vásquez (Arias); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); C. Siemes (Claire); A. Hofman (Albert); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) is a mediator of estrogen response in the breast. The most studied variants in this gene are the PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms, which have been associated to lower sensitivity to estrogen. We evaluated whether these polymorphisms were associa

  3. Glycone-rich Soy Isoflavone Extracts Promote Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer Cell Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kailee A; Vemuri, Sravan; Alsahafi, Sameerh; Castillo, Rudy; Cheriyath, Venugopalan

    2016-01-01

    Due to the association of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with breast cancer risk, estrogenically active soy isoflavones are considered as an HRT alternative to alleviate menopausal symptoms. However, several recent reports challenged the health benefits of soy isoflavones and associated them with breast cancer promotion. While glyconic isoflavones are the major constituents of soybean seeds, due to their low cell permeability, they are considered to be biologically inactive. The glyconic isoflavones may exert their effects on membrane-bound estrogen receptors or could be converted to aglycones by extracellular β-glucosidases. Therefore, we hypothesized that despite their low cell permeability, soybean cultivars with high glyconic isoflavones may promote breast cancer cell growth. To test this, composition and estrogenic activity of isoflavones from 54 commercial soybean cultivars were determined. Soybean seeds produced in identical climate and growth conditions were used to minimize the effects of extraneous factors on isoflavone profile and concentrations. The glyconic daidzin concentration negatively correlated with genistin and with other aglycones. Relative to control, isoflavone extracts from 51 cultivars were estrogenic and promoted the growth of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer cell line MCF-7 from 1.14 to 4.59 folds and other three cultivars slightly reduced the growth. Among these, extracts from three cultivars were highly estrogenic and promoted MCF-7 cell growth by 2.59-4.64 folds (Psoy isoflavone extracts may exert estrogenic effects and promote ER+ breast cancer growth.

  4. Membrane Estrogen Receptor Alpha Targeting and its Association with SHC in Regulating Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Hormonal Steroids and Hormones and Cancer: Adaptive hypersensitivity to estrogen: mechanism for superiority of aromatase inhibitors over selective estrogen... progestin on breast cancer and mammography in healthy postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trial. JAMA, 289: 3243-3253, 2003. 2...Migliaccio A, Auricchio F 1999 Non-tran- hormone receptors and tyrosine kinase oncogene prod- scriptional action of oestradiol and progestin triggers ucts

  5. Bioluminescence imaging of estrogen receptor activity during breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantaggiato, Cristina; Dell'Omo, Giulia; Ramachandran, Balaji; Manni, Isabella; Radaelli, Enrico; Scanziani, Eugenio; Piaggio, Giulia; Maggi, Adriana; Ciana, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ER) are known to play an important regulatory role in mammary gland development as well as in its neoplastic transformation. Although several studies highlighted the contribution of ER signaling in the breast transformation, little is known about the dynamics of ER state of activity during carcinogenesis due to the lack of appropriate models for measuring the extent of receptor signaling in time, in the same animal. To this aim, we have developed a reporter mouse model for the non-invasive in vivo imaging of ER activity: the ERE-Luc reporter mouse. ERE-Luc is a transgenic mouse generated with a firefly luciferase (Luc) reporter gene driven by a minimal promoter containing an estrogen responsive element (ERE). This model allows to measure receptor signaling in longitudinal studies by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Here, we have induced sporadic mammary cancers by treating systemically ERE-Luc reporter mice with DMBA (9,10-dimethyl 1,2-benzanthracene) and measured receptor signaling by in vivo imaging in individual animals from early stage until a clinically palpable tumor appeared in the mouse breast. We showed that DMBA administration induces an increase of bioluminescence in the whole abdominal area 6 h after treatment, the signal rapidly disappears. Several weeks later, strong bioluminescence is observed in the area corresponding to the mammary glands. In vivo and ex vivo imaging analysis demonstrated that this bioluminescent signal is localized in the breast area undergoing neoplastic transformation. We conclude that this non-invasive assay is a novel relevant tool to identify the activation of the ER signaling prior the morphological detection of the neoplastic transformation.

  6. Breast cancer incidence by estrogen receptor status in Denmark from 1996 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, J; Stahlberg, C; Jensen, M-B;

    2012-01-01

    During the past 50 years, breast cancer incidence has increased by 2-3 % annually. Despite many years of testing for estrogen receptors (ER), evidence is scarce on breast cancer incidence by ER status. The aim of this paper was to investigate the increase in breast cancer incidence by ER status...

  7. Importance of Estrogenic Signaling and Its Mediated Receptors in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kin-Mang; To, Ka-Fai

    2016-08-31

    Prostate cancer (PCa) treatment was first established by Huggins and Hodges in 1941, primarily described as androgen deprivation via interference of testicular androgen production. The disease remains incurable with relapse of hormone-refractory cancer after treatments. Epidemiological and clinical studies disclosed the importance of estrogens in PCa. Discovery of estrogen receptor ERβ prompted direct estrogenic actions, in conjunction with ERα, on PCa cells. Mechanistically, ERs upon ligand binding transactivate target genes at consensus genomic sites via interactions with various transcriptional co-regulators to mold estrogenic signaling. With animal models, Noble revealed estrogen dependencies of PCa, providing insight into potential uses of antiestrogens in the treatment. Subsequently, various clinical trials were conducted and molecular and functional consequences of antiestrogen treatment in PCa were delineated. Besides, estrogens can also trigger rapid non-genomic signaling responses initiated at the plasma membrane, at least partially via an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR30. Activation of GPR30 significantly inhibited in vitro and in vivo PCa cell growth and the underlying mechanism was elucidated. Currently, molecular networks of estrogenic and antiestrogenic signaling via ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in PCa have not been fully deciphered. This crucial information could be beneficial to further developments of effective estrogen- and antiestrogen-based therapy for PCa patients.

  8. Importance of Estrogenic Signaling and Its Mediated Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin-Mang Lau

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa treatment was first established by Huggins and Hodges in 1941, primarily described as androgen deprivation via interference of testicular androgen production. The disease remains incurable with relapse of hormone-refractory cancer after treatments. Epidemiological and clinical studies disclosed the importance of estrogens in PCa. Discovery of estrogen receptor ERβ prompted direct estrogenic actions, in conjunction with ERα, on PCa cells. Mechanistically, ERs upon ligand binding transactivate target genes at consensus genomic sites via interactions with various transcriptional co-regulators to mold estrogenic signaling. With animal models, Noble revealed estrogen dependencies of PCa, providing insight into potential uses of antiestrogens in the treatment. Subsequently, various clinical trials were conducted and molecular and functional consequences of antiestrogen treatment in PCa were delineated. Besides, estrogens can also trigger rapid non-genomic signaling responses initiated at the plasma membrane, at least partially via an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR30. Activation of GPR30 significantly inhibited in vitro and in vivo PCa cell growth and the underlying mechanism was elucidated. Currently, molecular networks of estrogenic and antiestrogenic signaling via ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in PCa have not been fully deciphered. This crucial information could be beneficial to further developments of effective estrogen- and antiestrogen-based therapy for PCa patients.

  9. Effect of estrogen withdrawal on energy-rich phosphates and prediction of estrogen dependence monitored by in vivo 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy of four human breast cancer xenografts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C A; Kristjansen, P E; Brünner, N

    1995-01-01

    The effect of estrogen withdrawal on energy metabolism was studied in four human breast cancer xenografts: the estrogen-dependent MCF-7 and ZR75-1 and the estrogen-independent ZR75/LCC-3 and MDA-MB-231. The tumors were grown in ovariectomized nude mice with a s.c. implanted estrogen pellet. After...

  10. FLT PET in Measuring Treatment Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  11. Requirement for estrogen receptor alpha in a mouse model for human papillomavirus-associated cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sang-Hyuk; Wiedmeyer, Kerri; Shai, Anny; Korach, Kenneth S; Lambert, Paul F

    2008-12-01

    The majority of human cervical cancers are associated with the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV), which encode the potent E6 and E7 oncogenes. On prolonged treatment with physiologic levels of exogenous estrogen, K14E7 transgenic mice expressing HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein in their squamous epithelia succumb to uterine cervical cancer. Furthermore, prolonged withdrawal of exogenous estrogen results in complete or partial regression of tumors in this mouse model. In the current study, we investigated whether estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) is required for the development of cervical cancer in K14E7 transgenic mice. We show that exogenous estrogen fails to promote either dysplasia or cervical cancer in K14E7/ERalpha-/- mice despite the continued presence of the presumed cervical cancer precursor cell type, reserve cells, and evidence for E7 expression therein. We also observed that cervical cancers in our mouse models are strictly associated with atypical squamous metaplasia (ASM), which is believed to be the precursor for cervical cancer in women. Consistently, E7 and exogenous estrogen failed to promote ASM in the absence of ERalpha. We conclude that ERalpha plays a crucial role at an early stage of cervical carcinogenesis in this mouse model.

  12. Putative Biomarkers and Targets of Estrogen Receptor Negative Human Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W. Byers

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a progressive and potentially fatal disease that affects women of all ages. Like all progressive diseases, early and reliable diagnosis is the key for successful treatment and annihilation. Biomarkers serve as indicators of pathological, physiological, or pharmacological processes. Her2/neu, CA15.3, estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and cytokeratins are biomarkers that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy selection. The structural and functional complexity of protein biomarkers and the heterogeneity of the breast cancer pathology present challenges to the scientific community. Here we review estrogen receptor-related putative breast cancer biomarkers, including those of putative breast cancer stem cells, a minor population of estrogen receptor negative tumor cells that retain the stem cell property of self renewal. We also review a few promising cytoskeleton targets for ER alpha negative breast cancer.

  13. Molecular conservation of estrogen-response associated with cell cycle regulation, hormonal carcinogenesis and cancer in zebrafish and human cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindarajan Kunde R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The zebrafish is recognized as a versatile cancer and drug screening model. However, it is not known whether the estrogen-responsive genes and signaling pathways that are involved in estrogen-dependent carcinogenesis and human cancer are operating in zebrafish. In order to determine the potential of zebrafish model for estrogen-related cancer research, we investigated the molecular conservation of estrogen responses operating in both zebrafish and human cancer cell lines. Methods Microarray experiment was performed on zebrafish exposed to estrogen (17β-estradiol; a classified carcinogen and an anti-estrogen (ICI 182,780. Zebrafish estrogen-responsive genes sensitive to both estrogen and anti-estrogen were identified and validated using real-time PCR. Human homolog mapping and knowledge-based data mining were performed on zebrafish estrogen responsive genes followed by estrogen receptor binding site analysis and comparative transcriptome analysis with estrogen-responsive human cancer cell lines (MCF7, T47D and Ishikawa. Results Our transcriptome analysis captured multiple estrogen-responsive genes and signaling pathways that increased cell proliferation, promoted DNA damage and genome instability, and decreased tumor suppressing effects, suggesting a common mechanism for estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. Comparative analysis revealed a core set of conserved estrogen-responsive genes that demonstrate enrichment of estrogen receptor binding sites and cell cycle signaling pathways. Knowledge-based and network analysis led us to propose that the mechanism involving estrogen-activated estrogen receptor mediated down-regulation of human homolog HES1 followed by up-regulation cell cycle-related genes (human homologs E2F4, CDK2, CCNA, CCNB, CCNE, is highly conserved, and this mechanism may involve novel crosstalk with basal AHR. We also identified mitotic roles of polo-like kinase as a conserved signaling pathway with multiple entry

  14. Benzothiepin-derived molecular scaffolds for estrogen receptor modulators: synthesis and antagonistic effects in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegan, Mary J; Barrett, Irene; Zimmermann, Jochen; Knox, Andrew J S; Zisterer, Daniela M; Lloyd, David G

    2007-10-01

    A series of novel benzothiepin-derived compounds are described as potent selective modulators of the human estrogen receptor (SERMs). The objective of the study is to evaluate the antiproliferative effects of the compounds on human MCF-7 breast tumor cells. These heterocyclic compounds contain the traditional triarylethylene arrangement exemplified by tamoxifen, conformationally restrained through the incorporation of the benzothiepin ring system. The compounds demonstrated potency at nanomolar concentrations in antiproliferative assays against an MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line with low cytotoxicity. The compounds exhibited low nanomolar binding affinity for the estrogen receptor (ER) with some specificity for ERbeta, and also demonstrate potent antiestrogenic properties in the human uterine Ishikawa cell line. The effect of a number of functional group substitutions on the ER binding properties of the benzothiepin molecular scaffold is explored through a brief computational structure-activity relationship investigation with molecular simulation.

  15. TFAP2C controls hormone response in breast cancer cells through multiple pathways of estrogen signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodfield, George W; Horan, Annamarie D; Chen, Yizhen; Weigel, Ronald J

    2007-09-15

    Breast cancers expressing estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) are associated with a favorable biology and are more likely to respond to hormonal therapy. In addition to ERalpha, other pathways of estrogen response have been identified including ERbeta and GPR30, a membrane receptor for estrogen, and the key mechanisms regulating expression of ERs and hormone response remain controversial. Herein, we show that TFAP2C is the key regulator of hormone responsiveness in breast carcinoma cells through the control of multiple pathways of estrogen signaling. TFAP2C regulates the expression of ERalpha directly by binding to the ERalpha promoter and indirectly via regulation of FoxM1. In so doing, TFAP2C controls the expression of ERalpha target genes, including pS2, MYB, and RERG. Furthermore, TFAP2C controlled the expression of GPR30. In distinct contrast, TFAP2A, a related factor expressed in breast cancer, was not involved in estrogen-mediated pathways but regulated expression of genes controlling cell cycle arrest and apoptosis including p21(CIP1) and IGFBP-3. Knockdown of TFAP2C abrogated the mitogenic response to estrogen exposure and decreased hormone-responsive tumor growth of breast cancer xenografts. We conclude that TFAP2C is a central control gene of hormone response and is a novel therapeutic target in the design of new drug treatments for breast cancer.

  16. Chronic oxidative stress causes estrogen-independent aggressive phenotype, and epigenetic inactivation of estrogen receptor alpha in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingaiah, Prathap Kumar S; Ponnusamy, Logeswari; Singh, Kamaleshwar P

    2015-08-01

    The role of chronic oxidative stress in the development and aggressive growth of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer is well known; however, the mechanistic understanding is not clear. Estrogen-independent growth is one of the features of aggressive subtype of breast cancer. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of oxidative stress on estrogen sensitivity and expression of nuclear estrogen receptors in ER-positive breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cells chronically exposed to hydrogen peroxide were used as a cell model in this study, and their growth in response to 17-β estradiol was evaluated by cell viability, cell cycle, and cell migration analysis. Results were further confirmed at molecular level by analysis of gene expressions at transcript and protein levels. Histone H3 modifications, expression of epigenetic regulatory genes, and the effect of DNA demethylation were also analyzed. Loss of growth in response to estrogen with a decrease in ERα expression was observed in MCF-7 cells adapted to chronic oxidative stress. Increases in mtTFA and NRF1 in these cells further suggested the role of mitochondria-dependent redox-sensitive growth signaling as an alternative pathway to estrogen-dependent growth. Changes in expression of epigenetic regulatory genes, levels of histone H3 modifications as well as significant restorations of both ERα expression and estrogen response by 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine further confirmed the epigenetic basis for estrogen-independent growth in these cells. In conclusion, results of this study suggest that chronic oxidative stress can convert estrogen-dependent nonaggressive breast cancer cells into estrogen-independent aggressive form potentially by epigenetic mechanism.

  17. Estrogen and prostate cancer: an eclipsed truth in an androgen-dominated scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruba, Giuseppe

    2007-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the commonest non-skin cancer in men. Incidence and mortality rates of this tumor vary strikingly throughout the world. Although several factors have been implicated to explain this remarkable variation, lifestyle and dietary factors may play a dominant role, with sex hormones behaving as intermediaries between exogenous factors and molecular targets in development and progression of prostate cancer. Human prostate cancer is generally considered a paradigm of androgen-dependent tumor; however, estrogen role in both normal and malignant prostate appears to be equally important. The association between plasma androgens and prostate cancer remains contradictory and mostly not compatible with the androgen hypothesis. Similar evidence apply to estrogens, although the ratio of androgen to estrogen in plasma declines with age. Apart from methodological problems, a major issue is to what extent circulating hormones can be considered representative of their intraprostatic levels. Both nontumoral and malignant human prostate tissues and cells are endowed with key enzymes of steroid metabolism, including 17betahydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17betaHSD), 5beta-reductase, 3alpha/3betaHSD, and aromatase. A divergent expression and/or activity of these enzymes may eventually lead to a differential prostate accumulation of steroid derivatives having distinct biological activities, as it occurs for hydroxylated estrogens in the human breast. Locally produced or metabolically transformed estrogens may differently affect proliferative activity of prostate cancer cells. Aberrant aromatase expression and activity has been reported in prostate tumor tissues and cells, implying that androgen aromatization to estrogens may play a role in prostate carcinogenesis or tumor progression. Interestingly, many genes encoding for steroid enzymes are polymorphic, although only a few studies have supported their relation with risk of prostate cancer. In animal model systems

  18. Aromatase expression increases the survival and malignancy of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keya De Mukhopadhyay

    Full Text Available In postmenopausal women, local estrogen produced by adipose stromal cells in the breast is believed to support estrogen receptor alpha (ERα positive breast cancer cell survival and growth. This raises the question of how the ERα positive metastatic breast cancer cells survive after they enter blood and lymph circulation, where estrogen level is very low in postmenopausal women. In this study, we show that the aromatase expression increased when ERα positive breast cancer cells were cultured in suspension. Furthermore, treatment with the aromatase substrate, testosterone, inhibited suspension culture-induced apoptosis whereas an aromatase inhibitor attenuated the effect of testosterone suggesting that suspended circulating ERα positive breast cancer cells may up-regulate intracrine estrogen activity for survival. Consistent with this notion, a moderate level of ectopic aromatase expression rendered a non-tumorigenic ERα positive breast cancer cell line not only tumorigenic but also metastatic in female nude mice without exogenous estrogen supplementation. The increased malignant phenotype was confirmed to be due to aromatase expression as the growth of orthotopic tumors regressed with systemic administration of an aromatase inhibitor. Thus, our study provides experimental evidence that aromatase plays an important role in the survival of metastatic ERα breast cancer cells by suppressing anoikis.

  19. Fulvestrant radiosensitizes human estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing, E-mail: wangstella5@163.com [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong Univeristy, Wenhua Xi Road 107, Shandong Province (China); Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, Shandong Province (China); Yang, Qifeng, E-mail: qifengy@gmail.com [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong Univeristy, Wenhua Xi Road 107, Shandong Province (China); Haffty, Bruce G., E-mail: hafftybg@umdnj.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, NB (United States); Li, Xiaoyan, E-mail: xiaoyanli1219@gmail.com [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, Shandong Province (China); Moran, Meena S., E-mail: meena.moran@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2013-02-08

    Highlights: ► Fulvestrant radiosensitizes MCF-7 cells. ► Fulvestrant increases G1 arrest and decreases S phase in MCF-7 cells. ► Fulvestrant down-regulates DNA-PKcs and RAD51 in MCF-7 cells. -- Abstract: The optimal sequencing for hormonal therapy and radiation are yet to be determined. We utilized fulvestrant, which is showing promise as an alternative to other agents in the clinical setting of hormonal therapy, to assess the cellular effects of concomitant anti-estrogen therapy (fulvestrant) with radiation (F + RT). This study was conducted to assess the effects of fulvestrant alone vs. F + RT on hormone-receptor positive breast cancer to determine if any positive or negative combined effects exist. The effects of F + RT on human breast cancer cells were assessed using MCF-7 clonogenic and tetrazolium salt colorimetric (MTT) assays. The assays were irradiated with a dose of 0, 2, 4, 6 Gy ± fulvestrant. The effects of F + RT vs. single adjuvant treatment alone on cell-cycle distribution were assessed using flow cytometry; relative expression of repair proteins (Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs, Rad51) was assessed using Western Blot analysis. Cell growth for radiation alone vs. F + RT was 0.885 ± 0.013 vs. 0.622 ± 0.029 @2 Gy, 0.599 ± 0.045 vs. 0.475 ± 0.054 @4 Gy, and 0.472 ± 0.021 vs. 0.380 ± 0.018 @6 Gy RT (p = 0.003). While irradiation alone induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, the combination of F + RT induced cell redistribution in the G1 phase and produced a significant decrease in the proportion of cells in G2 phase arrest and in the S phase in breast cancer cells (p < 0.01). Furthermore, levels of repair proteins DNA-PKcs and Rad51 were significantly decreased in the cells treated with F + RT compared with irradiation alone. F + RT leads to a decrease in the surviving fraction, increased cell cycle arrest, down regulating of nonhomologous repair protein DNA-PKcs and homologous recombination repair protein RAD51. Thus, our findings suggest that F + RT

  20. Emerging potential of parenteral estrogen as androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Imran Ali Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT is a key management strategy for prostate cancer (PC, achieved commonly by administration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist (LHRHa, ADT markedly suppresses both male and female sex hormones which results in "castration syndrome", a constellation of adverse events such as muscle weakness, impairment of glucose and lipid metabolism, impotence, osteoporosis, and fractures. Recent evidence suggests that estrogen, in the parenteral form, may emerge as an alternative to LHRHa as it offers potential benefits of arresting PC growth as well as avoiding some of the estrogen deficiency related toxicities of LHRHa by maintaining endogenous levels of estrogen.

  1. Kaempferol inhibits cancer cell growth by antagonizing estrogen-related receptor α and γ activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Gao, Minghui; Wang, Junjian

    2013-11-01

    Kaempferol is a dietary flavonoid that can function as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). Estrogen-related receptors alpha and gamma (ERRα and ERRγ) are orphan nuclear receptors that play important roles in mitochondrial biogenesis and cancer development. We have shown that kaempferol can functionally antagonize the activities of ERRs based on both response element reporter systems and target gene analysis. Kaempferol modulation of mitochondrial function and suppression cancer cell growth has been confirmed. These findings suggest that kaempferol may exert their anti-cancer activities through antagonizing ERRs activities.

  2. The direct effect of estrogen on cell viability and apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian; Liu, Min; Ding, Qianshan; Ji, Xiang; Hao, Yarong; Wu, Xiaomin; Xiong, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiology researches indicated that gastric cancer is a male-predominant disease; both expression level of estrogen and expression pattern of estrogen receptors (ERs) influence its carcinogenesis. But the direct effect of estrogen on gastric cancer cells is still unclear. This study aimed to explore the direct effect of β-estradiol (E2) on gastric cancer cells. SGC7901 and BGC823 were treated with a serial of concentrations of E2. The survival rates of both the cell lines were significantly reduced, and the reduction of viability was due to apoptosis triggered by E2 treatment. Caspase 3 was activated in response to the increasing E2 concentration in both SGC7901 and BGC823. Cleaved Caspase 3 fragments were detected, and the expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were reduced. Apoptosis was further confirmed by flow cytometry. The expression level of PEG10, an androgen receptor target gene, was reduced during E2 treatment. Both ERα and ERβ were expressed in these cell lines, and the result of bioinformatics analysis of gastric cancer from GEO datasets indicated that the expression levels of both ERα and ERβ were significantly higher in noncancerous gastric tissues than in gastric cancer tissues. Our research indicated that estrogen can reduce cell viability and promote apoptosis in gastric cancer cells directly; ERs expression level is associated with gastric cancer. Our research will help to understand the mechanism of gender disparity in gastric cancer.

  3. Fusarin C acts like an estrogenic agonist and stimulates breast cancer cells in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Teis; Hansen, Frederik Teilfeldt; Purup, Stig;

    2011-01-01

    Fusarin C is a mycotoxin produced by several Fusarium species and has been associated with esophageal cancer due to its carcinogenic effects. Here, we report that fusarin C stimulates growth of the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. This suggests that fusarin C can act as an estrogenic agonist...

  4. A genome-wide association scan on estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Li (Jingmei); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); H. Darabi (Hatef); G. Rosin (Gustaf); U. Hannelius (Ulf); T. Heikinen (Tuomas); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); C. Blomqvist (Carl); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); A.M. Dunning (Alison); S. Ahmed (Shahana); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); R.A. Oldenburg (Rogier); L. Alfredsson (Lars); A. Palotie (Aarno); L. Peltonen-Palotie (Leena); A. Irwanto (Astrid); H.Q. Low (Hui); G.H.K. Teoh (Garrett); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); J. Kere (Juha); M. D'Amato (Mauro); D.F. Easton (Douglas); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); J. Liu (Jianjun); K. Czene (Kamila); A.S. Hall (Alistair)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and may be characterized on the basis of whether estrogen receptors (ER) are expressed in the tumour cells. ER status of breast cancer is important clinically, and is used both as a prognostic indicator and treatment predictor. In th

  5. An estrogen-associated dietary pattern and breast cancer risk in the Swedish Mammography Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly R; Bergkvist, Leif; Wolk, Alicja

    2015-11-01

    High endogenous hormone levels have been associated with breast cancer and dietary factors have the potential to influence breast cancer risk through effects on hormone levels. Dietary patterns derived from reduced rank regression provide a way to identify food groups correlated with hormones and subsequently examine food patterns that may be associated with breast cancer risk. We investigated whether a dietary pattern previously correlated with estradiol and estrone sulfate was associated with breast cancer in the prospective Swedish Mammography Cohort. Among 37,004 primarily postmenopausal women diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During 15 years of follow-up 1,603 cases of breast cancer were identified. A higher estrogen dietary pattern score was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Women in the highest quartile of estrogen pattern score had a 29% (95% CI = 1.08-1.55) increased risk of breast cancer compared to women in the lowest quartile (p(trend) = 0.006). When the association was examined by estrogen-receptor status, it was only significant for those with estrogen-receptor-positive tumors; however, in the competing risk analysis there were no significant differences in the effect estimates by receptor subtype (p(heterogeneity) = 0.65). Our findings suggest that a dietary pattern associated with higher estrogen levels may increase breast cancer risk. However, whether the influence of this dietary pattern is through a direct effect on estrogen levels deserves further study.

  6. Wedelolactone induces growth of breast cancer cells by stimulation of estrogen receptor signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehybova, Tereza; Smarda, Jan; Daniel, Lukas; Brezovsky, Jan; Benes, Petr

    2015-08-01

    Wedelolactone, a plant coumestan, was shown to act as anti-cancer agent for breast and prostate carcinomas in vitro and in vivo targeting multiple cellular proteins including androgen receptors, 5-lipoxygenase and topoisomerase IIα. It is cytotoxic to breast, prostate, pituitary and myeloma cancer cell lines in vitro at μM concentrations. In this study, however, a novel biological activity of nM dose of wedelolactone was demonstrated. Wedelolactone acts as agonist of estrogen receptors (ER) α and β as demonstrated by transactivation of estrogen response element (ERE) in cells transiently expressing either ERα or ERβ and by molecular docking of this coumestan into ligand binding pocket of both ERα and ERβ. In breast cancer cells, wedelolactone stimulates growth of estrogen receptor-positive cells, expression of estrogen-responsive genes and activates rapid non-genomic estrogen signalling. All these effects can be inhibited by pretreatment with pure ER antagonist ICI 182,780 and they are not observed in ER-negative breast cancer cells. We conclude that wedelolactone acts as phytoestrogen in breast cancer cells by stimulating ER genomic and non-genomic signalling pathways.

  7. Induction of Hsp22 (HspB8) by estrogen and the metalloestrogen cadmium in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiankui; Fontaine, Jean-Marc; Bartl, Ingrid; Behnam, Babak; Welsh, Michael J; Benndorf, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Estrogen (E2) plays a critical role in the etiology and progression of human breast cancer. The estrogenic response is complex and not completely understood, including in terms of the involved responsive genes. Here we show that Hsp22 (synonyms: HspB8, E2lG1, H11), a member of the small heat shock protein (sHSP) superfamily, was induced by E2 in estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells, resulting in an elevated Hsp22 protein level, whereas it was not induced in estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. This induction was prevented by the pure anti-estrogen ICI182780 (faslodex, fulvestrant), whereas tamoxifen, a substance with mixed estrogenic and antiestrogenic properties, had no major inhibitory effect on this induction, nor did it induce Hsp22 on its own. Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant with estrogenic properties (metalloestrogen) that has been implicated in breast cancer. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with Cd also resulted in induction of Hsp22, and this induction was also inhibited by ICI182780. In live MCF-7 cells, Hsp22 interacted at the level of dimers with Hsp27, a related sHSP, as was shown by quantitative fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements. In cytosolic extracts of MCF-7 cells, most of the E2- and Cd-induced Hsp22 was incorporated into high-molecular mass complexes. In part, Hsp22 and Hsp27 were components of distinct populations of these complexes. Finally, candidate elements in the Hsp22 promoter were identified by sequence analysis that could account for the induction of Hsp22 by E2 and Cd. Taken together, Hsp22 induction represents a new aspect of the estrogenic response with potential significance for the biology of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells.

  8. Estrogen-mediated upregulation of Noxa is associated with cell cycle progression in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wensheng; Swetzig, Wendy M; Medisetty, Rajesh; Das, Gokul M

    2011-01-01

    Noxa is a Bcl-2-homology domain (BH3)-only protein reported to be a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family. Estrogen has been well documented to stimulate cell growth and inhibit apoptosis in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cells. Intriguingly, recent reports have shown that 17β-estradiol (E2) induces Noxa expression, although the mechanisms underlying E2-mediated induction of Noxa and its functional significance are unknown. Using MCF7 human breast cancer cells as an experimental model, we show that Noxa is upregulated by E2 via p53-independent processes that involve c-Myc and ERα. Experiments using small interfering ribonucleic acids (siRNA) to specifically knock down p53, c-Myc, and ERα demonstrated that c-Myc and ERα, but not p53, are involved in the transcriptional upregulation of Noxa following E2 treatment. Furthermore, while E2 promoted the recruitment of c-Myc and ERα to the NOXA promoter in chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, E2 did not induce p53 recruitment. Interestingly, E2-mediated upregulation of Noxa was not associated with apoptosis. However, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Noxa resulted in cell cycle arrest in G(0)/G(1)-phase and significantly delayed the G(1)-to-S-phase transition following E2 treatment, indicating that Noxa expression is required for cell cycle progression in ER-positive breast cancer cells.

  9. Estrogen-mediated upregulation of Noxa is associated with cell cycle progression in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensheng Liu

    Full Text Available Noxa is a Bcl-2-homology domain (BH3-only protein reported to be a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family. Estrogen has been well documented to stimulate cell growth and inhibit apoptosis in estrogen receptor (ER-positive breast cancer cells. Intriguingly, recent reports have shown that 17β-estradiol (E2 induces Noxa expression, although the mechanisms underlying E2-mediated induction of Noxa and its functional significance are unknown. Using MCF7 human breast cancer cells as an experimental model, we show that Noxa is upregulated by E2 via p53-independent processes that involve c-Myc and ERα. Experiments using small interfering ribonucleic acids (siRNA to specifically knock down p53, c-Myc, and ERα demonstrated that c-Myc and ERα, but not p53, are involved in the transcriptional upregulation of Noxa following E2 treatment. Furthermore, while E2 promoted the recruitment of c-Myc and ERα to the NOXA promoter in chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays, E2 did not induce p53 recruitment. Interestingly, E2-mediated upregulation of Noxa was not associated with apoptosis. However, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Noxa resulted in cell cycle arrest in G(0/G(1-phase and significantly delayed the G(1-to-S-phase transition following E2 treatment, indicating that Noxa expression is required for cell cycle progression in ER-positive breast cancer cells.

  10. Soy isoflavones, estrogen therapy, and breast cancer risk: analysis and commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Charles E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There has been considerable investigation of the potential for soyfoods to reduce risk of cancer, and in particular cancer of the breast. Most interest in this relationship is because soyfoods are essentially a unique dietary source of isoflavones, compounds which bind to estrogen receptors and exhibit weak estrogen-like effects under certain experimental conditions. In recent years the relationship between soyfoods and breast cancer has become controversial because of concerns – based mostly on in vitro and rodent data – that isoflavones may stimulate the growth of existing estrogen-sensitive breast tumors. This controversy carries considerable public health significance because of the increasing popularity of soyfoods and the commercial availability of isoflavone supplements. In this analysis and commentary we attempt to outline current concerns regarding the estrogen-like effects of isoflavones in the breast focusing primarily on the clinical trial data and place these concerns in the context of recent evidence regarding estrogen therapy use in postmenopausal women. Overall, there is little clinical evidence to suggest that isoflavones will increase breast cancer risk in healthy women or worsen the prognosis of breast cancer patients. Although relatively limited research has been conducted, and the clinical trials often involved small numbers of subjects, there is no evidence that isoflavone intake increases breast tissue density in pre- or postmenopausal women or increases breast cell proliferation in postmenopausal women with or without a history of breast cancer. The epidemiologic data are generally consistent with the clinical data, showing no indication of increased risk. Furthermore, these clinical and epidemiologic data are consistent with what appears to be a low overall breast cancer risk associated with pharmacologic unopposed estrogen exposure in postmenopausal women. While more research is required to definitively

  11. Expression of estrogen receptor β in human colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Qun Xie; Jie-Ping Yu; He-Sheng Luo

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the expression of estrogen receptor (ER)β in Chinese colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients.METHODS: Erβ expression in CRC was investigated by immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 40 CRCs, 10 colonic adenomas,and 10 normal colon mucosa biopsies. The percentage of positive cells was recorded, mRNA expression of Erα and Erβ in 12 CRC tissues and paired normal colon tissues were detected by RT-PCR.RESULTS: Positive ER immunoreactivity was present in part of normal epithelium of biopsy (2/10), adenomas (3/10),and the sections of CRC tissue, most of them were nuclear positive. In CRCs, nuclear Erβ immunoreactivity was detected in over 10% of the cancer cells in 57.5% of the cases and was always associated with cytoplasmic immunoreactivity.There was no statistical significance between Erβ positive and negative groups in regard to depth of invasion and nodal metastases. Of the 12 CRC tissues and paired normal colon tissues, the expression rate of Erα mRNA in CRC tissue and corresponding normal colon tissue was 25% and 16.6%,respectively. Erβ mRNA was expressed in 83.3% CRC tissue and 91.7% paired normal colon tissue, respectively. Therewas no significant difference in Erβ mRNA level between CRC tissues and paired normal colon tissues.CONCLUSION: A large number of CRCs are positive for Erβ, which can also be detected in normal colonic epithelia.There is a different localization of Erβ immunoreactivity among normal colon mucosae, adenomas and CRCs. Erαand Erβ mRNA can be detected both in CRC tissue and in corresponding normal colon tissue. A post-transcriptional mechanism may account for the decrease of Erβ protein expression in CRC tissues.

  12. Selective Human Estrogen Receptor Partial Agonists (ShERPAs) for Tamoxifen-Resistant Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Rui; Patel, Hitisha K; Gutgesell, Lauren M; Zhao, Jiong; Delgado-Rivera, Loruhama; Pham, Thao N D; Zhao, Huiping; Carlson, Kathryn; Martin, Teresa; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Moore, Terry W; Tonetti, Debra A; Thatcher, Gregory R J

    2016-01-14

    Almost 70% of breast cancers are estrogen receptor α (ERα) positive. Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), represents the standard of care for many patients; however, 30-50% develop resistance, underlining the need for alternative therapeutics. Paradoxically, agonists at ERα such as estradiol (E2) have demonstrated clinical efficacy in patients with heavily treated breast cancer, although side effects in gynecological tissues are unacceptable. A drug that selectively mimics the actions of E2 in breast cancer therapy but minimizes estrogenic effects in other tissues is a novel, therapeutic alternative. We hypothesized that a selective human estrogen receptor partial agonist (ShERPA) at ERα would provide such an agent. Novel benzothiophene derivatives with nanomolar potency in breast cancer cell cultures were designed. Several showed partial agonist activity, with potency of 0.8-76 nM, mimicking E2 in inhibiting growth of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cell lines. Three ShERPAs were tested and validated in xenograft models of endocrine-independent and tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer, and in contrast to E2, ShERPAs did not cause significant uterine growth.

  13. CITED2 modulates estrogen receptor transcriptional activity in breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Wen Min; Doucet, Michele; Huang, David; Weber, Kristy L.; Kominsky, Scott L., E-mail: kominsc@jhmi.edu

    2013-07-26

    Highlights: •The effects of elevated CITED2 on ER function in breast cancer cells are examined. •CITED2 enhances cell growth in the absence of estrogen and presence of tamoxifen. •CITED2 functions as a transcriptional co-activator of ER in breast cancer cells. -- Abstract: Cbp/p300-interacting transactivator with Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain 2 (CITED2) is a member of the CITED family of non-DNA binding transcriptional co-activators of the p300/CBP-mediated transcription complex. Previously, we identified CITED2 as being overexpressed in human breast tumors relative to normal mammary epithelium. Upon further investigation within the estrogen receptor (ER)-positive subset of these breast tumor samples, we found that CITED2 mRNA expression was elevated in those associated with poor survival. In light of this observation, we investigated the effect of elevated CITED2 levels on ER function. While ectopic overexpression of CITED2 in three ER-positive breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, and CAMA-1) did not alter cell proliferation in complete media, growth was markedly enhanced in the absence of exogenous estrogen. Correspondingly, cells overexpressing CITED2 demonstrated reduced sensitivity to the growth inhibitory effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator, 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Subsequent studies revealed that basal ER transcriptional activity was elevated in CITED2-overexpressing cells and was further increased upon the addition of estrogen. Similarly, basal and estrogen-induced expression of the ER-regulated genes trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) and progesterone receptor (PGR) was higher in cells overexpressing CITED2. Concordant with this observation, ChIP analysis revealed higher basal levels of CITED2 localized to the TFF-1 and PGR promoters in cells with ectopic overexpression of CITED2, and these levels were elevated further in response to estrogen stimulation. Taken together, these data indicate that CITED2 functions as a transcriptional co

  14. Involvement of Human Estrogen Related Receptor Alpha 1 (hERR 1) in Breast Cancer and Hormonally Insensitive Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    Coutts, A., and Watson , P. The pathophysiological role of estrogen receptor variants in human breast cancer, J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 65: 175-80, 1998...breast cancer, Clin Cancer Res. 6: 512-8, 2000. 37. Leygue, E., Dotzlaw, H., Watson , P. H., and Murphy, L. C. Altered estrogen receptor alpha and beta...amphiregulin and CRIPTO in human normal and malignant breast tissues, Int J Cancer. 65: 51-6, 1996. 124. Depowski, P. L., Brien, T. P., Sheehan, C. E

  15. Estrogen increases Nrf2 activity through activation of the PI3K pathway in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Juanjuan, E-mail: jwu32@emory.edu [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, Suite 4211 WMB, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Williams, Devin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310 (United States); Walter, Grant A. [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, Suite 4211 WMB, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Thompson, Winston E. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310 (United States); Sidell, Neil [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, Suite 4211 WMB, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The actions of the transcription factor Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in breast cancer have been shown to include both pro-oncogenic and anti-oncogenic activities which is influenced, at least in part, by the hormonal environment. However, direct regulation of Nrf2 by steroid hormones (estrogen and progesterone) has received only scant attention. Nrf2 is known to be regulated by its cytosolic binding protein, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), and by a Keap1-independent mechanism involving a series of phosphorylation steps mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β). Here, we report that estrogen (E2) increases Nrf2 activity in MCF7 breast cancer cells through activation of the PI3K/GSK3β pathway. Utilizing antioxidant response element (ARE)-containing luciferase reporter constructs as read-outs for Nrf2 activity, our data indicated that E2 increased ARE activity >14-fold and enhanced the action of the Nrf2 activators, tertiary butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) and sulforaphane (Sul) 4 to 9 fold compared with cells treated with tBHQ or Sul as single agents. This activity was shown to be an estrogen receptor-mediated phenomenon and was antagonized by progesterone. In addition to its action on the reporter constructs, mRNA and protein levels of heme oxygenase 1, an endogenous target gene of Nrf2, was markedly upregulated by E2 both alone and in combination with tBHQ. Importantly, E2-induced Nrf2 activation was completely suppressed by the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and Wortmannin while the GSK3β inhibitor CT99021 upregulated Nrf2 activity. Confirmation that E2 was, at least partly, acting through the PI3K/GSK3β pathway was indicated by our finding that E2 increased the phosphorylation status of both GSK3β and Akt, a well-characterized downstream target of PI3K. Together, these results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which E2 can regulate Nrf2 activity in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer

  16. Autocrine regulation of cell proliferation by estrogen receptor-alpha in estrogen receptor-alpha-positive breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zhongzong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen receptor-α (ERα is essential for mammary gland development and is a major oncogene in breast cancer. Since ERα is not colocalized with the cell proliferation marker Ki-67 in the normal mammary glands and the majority of primary breast tumors, it is generally believed that paracrine regulation is involved in ERα mediated cell proliferation. In the paracrine model, ERα-positive cells don't proliferate but will release some paracrine growth factors to stimulate the neighboring cells to proliferate. In a subpopulation of cancer cells in some primary breast tumors, however, ERα does colocalize with the cell proliferation marker Ki-67, suggesting an autocrine regulation by ERα in some primary breast tumors. Methods Colocalization of ERα with Ki-67 in ERα-positive breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, and ZR75-1 was evaluated by immunofluorescent staining. Cell cycle phase dependent expression of ERα was determined by co-immunofluorescent staining of ERα and the major cyclins (D, E, A, B, and by flow cytometry analysis of ERαhigh cells. To further confirm the autocrine action of ERα, MCF-7 cells were growth arrested by ICI182780 treatment, followed by treatment with EGFR inhibitor, before estrogen stimulation and analyses for colocalization of Ki-67 and ERα and cell cycle progression. Results Colocalization of ERα with Ki-67 was present in all three ERα-positive breast cancer cell lines. Unlike that in the normal mammary glands and the majority of primary breast tumors, ERα is highly expressed throughout the cell cycle in MCF-7 cells. Without E2 stimulation, MCF-7 cells released from ICI182780 treatment remain at G1 phase. E2 stimulation of ICI182780 treated cells, however, promotes the expression and colocalization of ERα and Ki-67 as well as the cell cycle progressing through the S and G2/M phases. Inhibition of EGFR signaling does not inhibit the autocrine action of ERα. Conclusion Our data indicate

  17. A Transcriptional Fingerprint of Estrogen in Human Breast Cancer Predicts Patient Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Yu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen signaling plays an essential role in breast cancer progression, and estrogen receptor (ER status has long been a marker of hormone responsiveness. However, ER status alone has been an incomplete predictor of endocrine therapy, as some ER+ tumors, nevertheless, have poor prognosis. Here we sought to use expression profiling of ER+ breast cancer cells to screen for a robust estrogen-regulated gene signature that may serve as a better indicator of cancer outcome. We identified 532 estrogen-induced genes and further developed a 73-gene signature that best separated a training set of 286 primary breast carcinomas into prognostic subtypes by stepwise cross-validation. Notably, this signature predicts clinical outcome in over 10 patient cohorts as well as their respective ER+ subcohorts. Further, this signature separates patients who have received endocrine therapy into two prognostic subgroups, suggesting its specificity as a measure of estrogen signaling, and thus hormone sensitivity. The 73-gene signature also provides additional predictive value for patient survival, independent of other clinical parameters, and outperforms other previously reported molecular outcome signatures. Taken together, these data demonstrate the power of using cell culture systems to screen for robust gene signatures of clinical relevance.

  18. Tamoxifen Citrate or Z-Endoxifen Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic, Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-23

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  19. Global identification of genes regulated by estrogen signaling and demethylation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putnik, Milica, E-mail: milica.putnik@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge S-14183 (Sweden); Zhao, Chunyan, E-mail: chunyan.zhao@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge S-14183 (Sweden); Gustafsson, Jan-Ake, E-mail: jan-ake.gustafsson@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge S-14183 (Sweden); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, Science and Engineering Research Center Bldg, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5056 (United States); Dahlman-Wright, Karin, E-mail: karin.dahlman-wright@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge S-14183 (Sweden)

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estrogen signaling and demethylation can both control gene expression in breast cancers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cross-talk between these mechanisms is investigated in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 137 genes are influenced by both 17{beta}-estradiol and demethylating agent 5-aza-2 Prime -deoxycytidine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A set of genes is identified as targets of both estrogen signaling and demethylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is no direct molecular interplay of mediators of estrogen and epigenetic signaling. -- Abstract: Estrogen signaling and epigenetic modifications, in particular DNA methylation, are involved in regulation of gene expression in breast cancers. Here we investigated a potential regulatory cross-talk between these two pathways by identifying their common target genes and exploring underlying molecular mechanisms in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Gene expression profiling revealed that the expression of approximately 140 genes was influenced by both 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) and a demethylating agent 5-aza-2 Prime -deoxycytidine (DAC). Gene ontology (GO) analysis suggests that these genes are involved in intracellular signaling cascades, regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Based on previously reported association with breast cancer, estrogen signaling and/or DNA methylation, CpG island prediction and GO analysis, we selected six genes (BTG3, FHL2, PMAIP1, BTG2, CDKN1A and TGFB2) for further analysis. Tamoxifen reverses the effect of E2 on the expression of all selected genes, suggesting that they are direct targets of estrogen receptor. Furthermore, DAC treatment reactivates the expression of all selected genes in a dose-dependent manner. Promoter CpG island methylation status analysis revealed that only the promoters of BTG3 and FHL2 genes are methylated, with DAC inducing demethylation, suggesting DNA methylation directs repression of

  20. Estrogen stimulates the proliferation of human endometrial cancer cells by stabilizing nucleophosmin/B23 (NPM/B23).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Angel; Lin, Chiao-Yun; Tsai, Chia-Lung; Hsueh, Swei; Lin, Ying-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Tao; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Wang, Hsin-Shih

    2013-02-01

    Unopposed estrogen exposure is an important factor in the tumorigenesis of endometrial cancer. Nucleophosmin/B23 (NPM/B23), a phosphoprotein that has pleiotropic functions in cells, plays an important role in various cancers. However, the regulatory role of NPM/B23 in estrogen signaling in endometrial cancer has not been explored. Here, we report that NPM/B23 was required for estrogen-induced endometrial proliferation, and the increase in NPM/B23 was estrogen receptor α-dependent. Furthermore, estrogen increased NPM/B23 protein levels by repressing its ubiquitination and subsequently stabilizing the protein. The overexpression of the alternate reading frame (ARF) suppressed the estrogen-induced increase in the NPM/B23 protein levels, indicating that ARF inhibited the observed estrogen-mediated NPM/B23 stabilization. Our results suggest that one of the effects of estrogen on endometrial proliferation is the suppression of the NPM/B23-ARF interaction and the subsequent increase in NPM/B23 protein levels. This novel characterization of NPM/B23 in estrogen-mediated cell proliferation may extend our understanding of the tumorigenesis of steroid hormone-related cancers.

  1. Estrogen receptor positive breast cancers and their association with environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannel Sylvio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies to assess risk factors for breast cancer often do not differentiate between different types of breast cancers. We applied a general linear model to determine whether data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program on annual county level age-adjusted incidence rates of breast cancer with and without estrogen receptors (ER+ and ER- were associated with environmental pollutants. Results Our final model explained approximately 38% of the variation in the rate of ER+ breast cancer. In contrast, we were only able to explain 14% of the variation in the rate of ER- breast cancer with the same set of environmental variables. Only ER+ breast cancers were positively associated with the EPA's estimated risk of cancer based on toxic air emissions and the proportion of agricultural land in a county. Meteorological variables, including short wave radiation, temperature, precipitation, and water vapor pressure, were also significantly associated with the rate of ER+ breast cancer, after controlling for age, race, premature mortality from heart disease, and unemployment rate. Conclusions Our findings were consistent with what we expected, given the fact that many of the commonly used pesticides and air pollutants included in the EPA cancer risk score are classified as endocrine disruptors and ER+ breast cancers respond more strongly to estrogen than ER- breast cancers. The findings of this study suggest that ER+ and ER- breast cancers have different risk factors, which should be taken into consideration in future studies that seek to understand environmental risk factors for breast cancer.

  2. Estrogen withdrawal, increased breast cancer risk and the KRAS-variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Terri P; Jung, Song-Yi; Kerin, Michael J; Salzman, David W; Nallur, Sunitha; Nemec, Antonio A; Dookwah, Michelle; Sadofsky, Jackie; Paranjape, Trupti; Kelly, Olivia; Chan, Elcie; Miller, Nicola; Sweeney, Karl J; Zelterman, Daniel; Sweasy, Joann; Pilarski, Robert; Telesca, Donatello; Slack, Frank J; Weidhaas, Joanne B

    2015-01-01

    The KRAS-variant is a biologically functional, microRNA binding site variant, which predicts increased cancer risk especially for women. Because external exposures, such as chemotherapy, differentially impact the effect of this mutation, we evaluated the association of estrogen exposures, breast cancer (BC) risk and tumor biology in women with the KRAS-variant. Women with BC (n = 1712), the subset with the KRAS-variant (n = 286) and KRAS-variant unaffected controls (n = 80) were evaluated, and hormonal exposures, KRAS-variant status, and pathology were compared. The impact of estrogen withdrawal on transformation of isogenic normal breast cell lines with or without the KRAS-variant was studied. Finally, the association and presentation characteristics of the KRAS-variant and multiple primary breast cancer (MPBC) were evaluated. KRAS-variant BC patients were more likely to have ovarian removal pre-BC diagnosis than non-variant BC patients (p = 0.033). In addition, KRAS-variant BC patients also appeared to have a lower estrogen state than KRAS-variant unaffected controls, with a lower BMI (P < 0.001). Finally, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) discontinuation in KRAS-variant patients was associated with a diagnosis of triple negative BC (P < 0.001). Biologically confirming our clinical findings, acute estrogen withdrawal led to oncogenic transformation in KRAS-variant positive isogenic cell lines. Finally, KRAS-variant BC patients had greater than an 11-fold increased risk of presenting with MPBC compared to non-variant patients (45.39% vs 6.78%, OR 11.44 [3.42–37.87], P < 0.001). Thus, estrogen withdrawal and a low estrogen state appear to increase BC risk and to predict aggressive tumor biology in women with the KRAS-variant, who are also significantly more likely to present with multiple primary breast cancer. PMID:25961464

  3. c-Src modulates estrogen-induced stress and apoptosis in estrogen-deprived breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ping; Griffith, Obi L; Agboke, Fadeke; Anur, Pavana; Zou, Xiaojun; McDaniel, Russell E; Creswell, Karen; Kim, Sung Hoon; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Gray, Joe W; Jordan, V Craig

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of antiestrogen resistance in breast cancer is an important clinical phenomenon affecting long-term survival in this disease. Identifying factors that convey cell survival in this setting may guide improvements in treatment. Estrogen (E2) can induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells that have been selected for survival after E2 deprivation for long periods (MCF-7:5C cells), but the mechanisms underlying E2-induced stress in this setting have not been elucidated. Here, we report that the c-Src kinase functions as a key adapter protein for the estrogen receptor (ER, ESR1) in its activation of stress responses induced by E2 in MCF-7:5C cells. E2 elevated phosphorylation of c-Src which was blocked by 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT), suggesting that E2 activated c-Src through the ER. We found that E2 activated the sensors of the unfolded protein response (UPR), IRE1α (ERN1) and PERK kinase (EIF2AK3), the latter of which phosphorylates eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α (eIF2α). E2 also dramatically increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and up-regulated expression of heme oxygenase HO-1 (HMOX1), an indicator of oxidative stress, along with the central energy sensor kinase AMPK (PRKAA2). Pharmacological or RNAi-mediated inhibition of c-Src abolished the phosphorylation of eIF2α and AMPK, blocked E2-induced ROS production, and inhibited E2-induced apoptosis. Together, our results establish that c-Src kinase mediates stresses generated by E2 in long-term E2-deprived cells that trigger apoptosis. This work offers a mechanistic rationale for a new approach in the treatment of endocrine-resistant breast cancer. PMID:23704208

  4. Modulation of estrogen receptor-beta isoforms by phytoestrogens in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Vera; Miodini, Patrizia; Di Fronzo, Giovanni; Daidone, Maria Grazia

    2006-05-01

    High consumption of phytoestrogen-rich food correlates with reduced incidence of breast cancer. However, the effect of phytoestrogens on growth of pre-existing breast tumors presents concerns when planning the use of phytoestrogens as chemoprevention st rategy. Genistein, the active phytoestrogen in soy, displays weak estrogenic activity mediated by estrogen receptor (ER) with a preferential binding for the ER-beta species. However, no information is at present available on the interaction between phytoestrogens and the various isoforms generated by alternative splicing. In two human breast cancer cell lines, T47D and BT20, which express variable levels of ER-beta, the effect of genistein and quercetin was evaluated singly and in comparison with 17beta-estradiol, on mRNA expression of estrogen receptor-beta (ER-beta) isoforms evaluated by a triple primer RT-PCR assay. In T47D cells estradiol caused a 6-fold up-regulation of total ER-beta, and modified the relative expression pattern of the various isoforms, up-regulating the beta2 and down-regulating the beta5 isoform. Genistein up-regulated ER-beta2 and ER-beta1 in T47D cells, and after treatment the ER-beta2 isoform became prevalent, while in BT20 cells it almost doubled the percent contribution of ER-beta1 and ER-beta2 to total ER-beta. Quercetin did not alter the total levels nor the percent distribution of ER-beta isoforms in either cell line. Genistein, through the modulation of ER-beta isoform RNA expression inhibited estrogen-promoted cell growth, without interfering on estrogen-regulated transcription. ER-beta and its ER-beta mRNA isoforms may be involved in a self-limiting mechanism of estrogenic stimulation promoted either by the natural hormone or by weaker estrogen agonists like genistein.

  5. Alternate estrogen receptors promote invasion of inflammatory breast cancer cells via non-genomic signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazufumi Ohshiro

    Full Text Available Although Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC is a rare and an aggressive type of locally advanced breast cancer with a generally worst prognosis, little work has been done in identifying the status of non-genomic signaling in the invasiveness of IBC. The present study was performed to explore the status of non-genomic signaling as affected by various estrogenic and anti-estrogenic agents in IBC cell lines SUM149 and SUM190. We have identified the presence of estrogen receptor α (ERα variant, ERα36 in SUM149 and SUM190 cells. This variant as well as ERβ was present in a substantial concentration in IBC cells. The treatment with estradiol (E2, anti-estrogenic agents 4-hydroxytamoxifen and ICI 182780, ERβ specific ligand DPN and GPR30 agonist G1 led to a rapid activation of p-ERK1/2, suggesting the involvement of ERα36, ERβ and GPR30 in the non-genomic signaling pathway in these cells. We also found a substantial increase in the cell migration and invasiveness of SUM149 cells upon the treatment with these ligands. Both basal and ligand-induced migration and invasiveness of SUM149 cells were drastically reduced in the presence of MEK inhibitor U0126, implicating that the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 by MEK is involved in the observed motility and invasiveness of IBC cells. We also provide evidence for the upregulation of p-ERK1/2 through immunostaining in IBC patient samples. These findings suggest a role of non-genomic signaling through the activation of p-ERK1/2 in the hormonal dependence of IBC by a combination of estrogen receptors. These findings only explain the failure of traditional anti-estrogen therapies in ER-positive IBC which induces the non-genomic signaling, but also opens newer avenues for design of modified therapies targeting these estrogen receptors.

  6. Prognostic Value of Estrogen Receptor alpha and Progesterone Receptor Conversion in Distant Breast Cancer Metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagel, Laurien D. C.; Moelans, Cathy B.; Meijer, S. L.; van Slooten, Henk-Jan; Wesseling, Pieter; Wesseling, Jelle; Westenend, Pieter J.; Bart, Joost; Seldenrijk, Cornelis A.; Nagtegaal, Iris D.; Oudejans, Joost; van der Valk, Paul; van Gils, Carla H.; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes in the receptor profile of primary breast cancers to their metastases (receptor conversion) have been described for the estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) and progesterone receptor (PR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of receptor conversion for ER alpha and

  7. Serum enterolactone and postmenopausal breast cancer risk by estrogen, progesterone and herceptin 2 receptor status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaineddin, A.K.; Vrieling, A.; Buck, K.; Becker, S.; Linseisen, J.; Flesch-Janys, D.; Kaaks, R.; Chang-Claude, J.

    2012-01-01

    Lignans are a group of estrogenic compounds present in plants. Several epidemiological studies proposed that lignans may protect against breast cancer by exerting anticarcinogenic activity. Levels of enterolactone were determined in serum samples of 1,250 cases and 2,164 controls from a large popula

  8. Urine estrogen profiles in European countries with high or low breast cancer rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macmahon, B.; Andersen, A.P.; Brown, J.; Cole, P.; Dewaard, V.; Kauraniemi, T.; Ravhinar, B.; Stormby, N.; Trichopoulos, D.; Westlund, K.

    1980-01-01

    Urine estrogens of women in two age groups, 15 18 and 30-39, were measured in four northern European countries where breast cancer rates are high, two southern European countries where they are low, and in Finland, a northern country where incidence rates are comparable to those of the southern coun

  9. Estrogen induces global reorganization of chromatin structure in human breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Mourad

    Full Text Available In the cell nucleus, each chromosome is confined to a chromosome territory. This spatial organization of chromosomes plays a crucial role in gene regulation and genome stability. An additional level of organization has been discovered at the chromosome scale: the spatial segregation into open and closed chromatins to form two genome-wide compartments. Although considerable progress has been made in our knowledge of chromatin organization, a fundamental issue remains the understanding of its dynamics, especially in cancer. To address this issue, we performed genome-wide mapping of chromatin interactions (Hi-C over the time after estrogen stimulation of breast cancer cells. To biologically interpret these interactions, we integrated with estrogen receptor α (ERα binding events, gene expression and epigenetic marks. We show that gene-rich chromosomes as well as areas of open and highly transcribed chromatins are rearranged to greater spatial proximity, thus enabling genes to share transcriptional machinery and regulatory elements. At a smaller scale, differentially interacting loci are enriched for cancer proliferation and estrogen-related genes. Moreover, these loci are correlated with higher ERα binding events and gene expression. Taken together these results reveal the role of a hormone--estrogen--on genome organization, and its effect on gene regulation in cancer.

  10. Estrogen induces global reorganization of chromatin structure in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Raphaël; Hsu, Pei-Yin; Juan, Liran; Shen, Changyu; Koneru, Prasad; Lin, Hai; Liu, Yunlong; Nephew, Kenneth; Huang, Tim H; Li, Lang

    2014-01-01

    In the cell nucleus, each chromosome is confined to a chromosome territory. This spatial organization of chromosomes plays a crucial role in gene regulation and genome stability. An additional level of organization has been discovered at the chromosome scale: the spatial segregation into open and closed chromatins to form two genome-wide compartments. Although considerable progress has been made in our knowledge of chromatin organization, a fundamental issue remains the understanding of its dynamics, especially in cancer. To address this issue, we performed genome-wide mapping of chromatin interactions (Hi-C) over the time after estrogen stimulation of breast cancer cells. To biologically interpret these interactions, we integrated with estrogen receptor α (ERα) binding events, gene expression and epigenetic marks. We show that gene-rich chromosomes as well as areas of open and highly transcribed chromatins are rearranged to greater spatial proximity, thus enabling genes to share transcriptional machinery and regulatory elements. At a smaller scale, differentially interacting loci are enriched for cancer proliferation and estrogen-related genes. Moreover, these loci are correlated with higher ERα binding events and gene expression. Taken together these results reveal the role of a hormone--estrogen--on genome organization, and its effect on gene regulation in cancer.

  11. Prognostic impact of pregnancy after breast cancer according to estrogen receptor status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azim, Hatem A; Kroman, Niels; Paesmans, Marianne;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE We questioned the impact of pregnancy on disease-free survival (DFS) in women with history of breast cancer (BC) according to estrogen receptor (ER) status. PATIENTS AND METHODS A multicenter, retrospective cohort study in which patients who became pregnant any time after BC were matched (1...

  12. Prognostic effect of estrogen receptor status across age in primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon, N.; During, M.; Rasmussen, B.B.;

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) status is considered as an important prognostic factor as well as a predictive factor for endocrine responsiveness in breast cancer. We analyzed the distribution of ER status across age and estimated variations in the prognostic impact of ER status related to patients' age...

  13. Estrogenic Activity of Coumestrol, DDT, and TCDD in Human Cervical Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Ndebele

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous estrogens have dramatic and differential effects on classical endocrine organ and proliferation. Xenoestrogens are environmental estrogens that have endocrine impact, acting as both estrogen agonists and antagonists, but whose effects are not well characterized. In this investigation we sought to delineate effects of xenoestrogens. Using human cervical cancer cells (HeLa cells as a model, the effects of representative xenoestrogens (Coumestrol-a phytoestrogen, tetrachlorodioxin (TCDD-a herbicide and DDT-a pesticide on proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis were examined. These xenoestrogens and estrogen inhibited the proliferation of Hela cells in a dose dependent manner from 20 to 120 nM suggesting, that 17-β-estrtadiol and xenoestrogens induced cytotoxic effects. Coumestrol produced accumulation of HeLa cells in G2/M phase, and subsequently induced apoptosis. Similar effects were observed in estrogen treated cells. These changes were associated with suppressed bcl-2 protein and augmented Cyclins A and D proteins. DDT and TCDD exposure did not induce apoptosis. These preliminary data taken together, suggest that xenoestrogens have direct, compound-specific effects on HeLa cells. This study further enhances our understanding of environmental modulation of cervical cancer.

  14. Vaginal estrogen products in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients on aromatase inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaica, Elisabeth; Han, Tiffany; Wang, Weiqun; Bhat, Raksha; Trivedi, Meghana V; Niravath, Polly

    2016-06-01

    Atrophic vaginitis represents a major barrier to compliance with aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy in breast cancer (BC) survivors. While local estrogen therapy is effective for postmenopausal vaginal dryness, the efficacy of such therapies has not been evaluated systematically in hormone receptor-positive (HR+) BC patients on AI therapy. Furthermore, the potential risk of breast cancer recurrence with vaginal estrogen therapy represents a long-term safety concern for the patients with HR + BC. Unfortunately, there is no standardized assay to measure very low concentrations of estradiol (E2) in these women being treated with AI therapy. This makes it difficult to evaluate even indirectly the potential risk of BC recurrence with vaginal estrogen therapy in HR + BC patients on AI therapy. In this review, we describe available assays to measure very low concentrations of E2, discuss the Food and Drug Administration-approved vaginal estrogen products on the market, and summarize published and ongoing clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of vaginal estrogen in HR + BC patients on AI therapy. In the absence of any randomized controlled clinical trials, this review serves as a summary of available clinical data and ongoing studies to aid clinicians in selecting the best available option for their patients.

  15. Polymorphisms of estrogen-metabolizing genes and breast cancer risk: a multigenic study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Ding-fen; ZHOU Xin; HU Ming-bai; XIE Wei; MAO Zong-fu; CHEN Dong-e; LIU Fang; ZHENG Fang

    2005-01-01

    Background Endogenous estrogen plays a very important role in the carcinogenesis and progression of breast cancer. The enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of estrogen have been proposed to contribute to this effect. To examine this hypothesis, we conducted a case-control study to investigate the relationship between polymorphisms of genes responsible for estrogen biosynthesis (CYP17, cytochrome P450c17a and CYP19, aromatase cytochrome P450) and estrogen sulfation of inactivation (SULT1A1, sulfotransferase1A1) and the risk of breast cancer in Chinese women. Methods This study involved 213 breast cancer patients and 430 matched controls. PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and short tandem repeat polymorphism (STRP) assays were used to detect the mononucleotide transition of CYP17 and SULT1A1 and tandem repeat polymorphism of CYP19. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine OR and 95% CI of each and all three high-risk genotypes, of all three genotypes combined, and of estrogen exposure factors. The relationship between each high-risk genotype and clinicalpathological characteristics were also assessed. Results The frequency of A2 allele of CYP17 was 49.8% in cases and 49.1% in controls (P=0.82). The frequency of His allele of SULT1A1 was significantly higher in cases (13.6%) than in controls (9.5%) (P<0.05). There was also significant difference of the (TTTA)10 allele of CYP19 which was 12.4% in cases and 8.2% in controls (P<0.05). When the CYP17 A2 allele, CYP19 (TTTA)10 and SULT1A1 His allele were considered as the "putative high-risk" genotype, there was an increased risk of breast cancer with the number of high-risk genotypes in a dose-response effect (trend, P=0.05). In multivariate analysis, the SULT1A1 genotype remained the most significant determinant for breast cancer, with OR=2.37 (95% CI 1.23-4.74), followed by CYP19, with OR=1.75 (95% CI 1.27-3.56). The (TTTA)10 allele of CYP19 was associated with tumor

  16. LYN-activating mutations mediate antiestrogen resistance in estrogen receptor–positive breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Luis J.; Fox, Emily M.; Balko, Justin M.; Garrett, Joan T.; Kuba, María Gabriela; Estrada, Mónica Valeria; González-Angulo, Ana María; Mills, Gordon B.; Red-Brewer, Monica; Mayer, Ingrid A.; Abramson, Vandana; Rizzo, Monica; Kelley, Mark C.; Meszoely, Ingrid M.; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptor–positive (ER+) breast cancers adapt to hormone deprivation and become resistant to antiestrogen therapy. Here, we performed deep sequencing on ER+ tumors that remained highly proliferative after treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and identified a D189Y mutation in the inhibitory SH2 domain of the SRC family kinase (SFK) LYN. Evaluation of 463 breast tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed four LYN mutations, two of which affected the SH2 domain. In addition, LYN was upregulated in multiple ER+ breast cancer lines resistant to long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED). An RNAi-based kinome screen revealed that LYN is required for growth of ER+ LTED breast cancer cells. Kinase assays and immunoblot analyses of SRC substrates in transfected cells indicated that LYND189Y has higher catalytic activity than WT protein. Further, LYND189Y exhibited reduced phosphorylation at the inhibitory Y507 site compared with LYNWT. Other SH2 domain LYN mutants, E159K and K209N, also exhibited higher catalytic activity and reduced inhibitory site phosphorylation. LYND189Y overexpression abrogated growth inhibition by fulvestrant and/or the PI3K inhibitor BKM120 in 3 ER+ breast cancer cell lines. The SFK inhibitor dasatinib enhanced the antitumor effect of BKM120 and fulvestrant against estrogen-deprived ER+ xenografts but not LYND189Y-expressing xenografts. These results suggest that LYN mutations mediate escape from antiestrogens in a subset of ER+ breast cancers. PMID:25401474

  17. Breast Cancer Lymphatic Dissemination-Influence of Estrogen and Progesterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    progesterone is diminished. Though progestin treatment led to a decrease in the percent of tumors that generated LN metastases, it is obvious that in... progestin dose and duration of treatment effect metastases is warranted. These studies complete task 2. Task 3. The third task in my approved...Results found that there are differences in estrogen responsiveness in breast tumors compared to the matched LN metastases, suggesting that aromatase

  18. Estrogen Receptor Mutants/Variants in Human Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Bethesda, MD, USA). detection sensitivity and increases the Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 Tamara Hiller, Linda Snell yield of the amplified products...was McBride- Putman 2 , S. Fuqua2, R. Luput. ’Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. observed for the estrogen receptor, cyclin DI, and CerbB-2. (3) A...Leygue, Linda Snell, Leigh C. Murphy and Peter H. Watson * *Affiliations of authors: A. Huang, L. Snell, and P.H. Watson (Department of Pathology), E

  19. Breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 4 (BCAR4) drives proliferation of IPH-926 lobular carcinoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.L.A. van Agthoven (Thecla); L.C.J. Dorssers (Lambert); U. Lehmann (Ulrich); H. Kreipe (Hans); L.H.J. Looijenga (Leendert); M. Christgen (Matthias)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Most breast cancers depend on estrogenic growth stimulation. Functional genetic screenings in in vitro cell models have identified genes, which override growth suppression induced by anti-estrogenic drugs like tamoxifen. Using that approach, we have previously identified Brea

  20. A splicing variant of TERT identified by GWAS interacts with menopausal estrogen therapy in risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Alice W; Bomkamp, Ashley; Bandera, Elisa V;

    2016-01-01

    Menopausal estrogen-alone therapy (ET) is a well-established risk factor for serous and endometrioid ovarian cancer. Genetics also plays a role in ovarian cancer, which is partly attributable to 18 confirmed ovarian cancer susceptibility loci identified by genome-wide association studies. The int......Menopausal estrogen-alone therapy (ET) is a well-established risk factor for serous and endometrioid ovarian cancer. Genetics also plays a role in ovarian cancer, which is partly attributable to 18 confirmed ovarian cancer susceptibility loci identified by genome-wide association studies...

  1. Progesterone and estrogen receptor expression and activity in human non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Garban, Diana C; Mah, Vei; Alavi, Mohammad; Maresh, Erin L; Chen, Hsiao-Wang; Bagryanova, Lora; Horvath, Steve; Chia, David; Garon, Edward; Goodglick, Lee; Pietras, Richard J

    2011-08-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality in male and female patients in the US. Although it is clear that tobacco smoking is a major cause of lung cancer, about half of all women with lung cancer worldwide are never-smokers. Despite a declining smoking population, the incidence of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the predominant form of lung cancer, has reached epidemic proportions particularly in women. Emerging data suggest that factors other than tobacco, namely endogenous and exogenous female sex hormones, have a role in stimulating NSCLC progression. Aromatase, a key enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis, is expressed in NSCLC. Clinical data show that women with high levels of tumor aromatase (and high intratumoral estrogen) have worse survival than those with low aromatase. The present and previous studies also reveal significant expression and activity of estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ) in both extranuclear and nuclear sites in most NSCLC. We now report further on the expression of progesterone receptor (PR) transcripts and protein in NSCLC. PR transcripts were significantly lower in cancerous as compared to non-malignant tissue. Using immunohistochemistry, expression of PR was observed in the nucleus and/or extranuclear compartments in the majority of human tumor specimens examined. Combinations of estrogen and progestins administered in vitro cooperate in promoting tumor secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and, consequently, support tumor-associated angiogenesis. Further, dual treatment with estradiol and progestin increased the numbers of putative tumor stem/progenitor cells. Thus, ER- and/or PR-targeted therapies may offer new approaches to manage NSCLC.

  2. Estrogenic activities of sesame lignans and their metabolites on human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianjing, Prisna; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Watcharasit, Piyajit; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2011-01-12

    Sesame lignans (sesamin, sesamolin) and their metabolites (enterodiol, ED; enterolactone, EL; and sesamol) have been evaluated for their estrogenic activities. ED and EL have been indicated to have estrogenic/antiestrogenic properties on human breast cancer cells; however the estrogenic activities of sesamin, sesamolin and sesamol have not been reported. In the present study, estrogenic potencies of sesame lignans and their metabolites were determined by estrogen responsive element (ERE) luciferase reporter assay in T47D cells stably transfected with ERE-luc (T47D-KBluc cells) and quantifying pS2 and progesterone receptor gene expression in T47D cells. All tested compounds except ED possessed ability of ERE activation with a very low potency compared to estradiol (E2). These effects were abolished by coincubating tested compounds with 1 μM ICI 182 780, suggesting that estrogen receptors were directly involved in their ERE activations. Among tested compounds, sesamol showed the highest ability in ERE induction. The coincubation of increasing concentration of E2 (10(-12)-10(-6) M) with 10 μM of tested compounds resulted in a downward shift of E2-ERE dose-response curves. In contrast, at the low concentration of E2 (10(-12) M), sesamin and sesamol significantly exhibited additive effects on the E2 responses. The inhibitory effect in a dose-dependent manner was also observed when 1-100 μM sesamol was coincubated with 1 nM E2. Sesamin, sesamol and EL significantly induced pS2 gene expression whereas only sesamol could significantly induce progesterone receptor gene. The data obtained in this study suggested that sesame lignans and their metabolites possess weak estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity.

  3. The membrane estrogen receptor GPR30 mediates cadmium-induced proliferation of breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinyuan; Filardo, Edward J; Shaikh, Zahir A

    2010-05-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential metal that is dispersed throughout the environment. It is an endocrine-disrupting element which mimics estrogen, binds to estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), and promotes cell proliferation in breast cancer cells. We have previously published that Cd promotes activation of the extracellular regulated kinases, erk-1 and -2 in both ER-positive and ER-negative human breast cancer cells, suggesting that this estrogen-like effect of Cd is not associated with the ER. Here, we have investigated whether the newly appreciated transmembrane estrogen receptor, G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), may be involved in Cd-induced cell proliferation. Towards this end, we compared the effects of Cd in ER-negative human SKBR3 breast cancer cells in which endogenous GPR30 signaling was selectively inhibited using a GPR30 interfering mutant. We found that Cd concentrations from 50 to 500 nM induced a proliferative response in control vector-transfected SKBR3 cells but not in SKBR3 cells stably expressing interfering mutant. Similarly, intracellular cAMP levels increased about 2.4-fold in the vector transfectants but not in cells in which GPR30 was inactivated within 2.5 min after treatment with 500 nM Cd. Furthermore, Cd treatment rapidly activated (within 2.5 min) raf-1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, mek-1, extracellular signal regulated kinases, erk-1/2, ribosomal S6 kinase, rsk, and E-26 like protein kinase, elk, about 4-fold in vector transfectants. In contrast, the activation of these signaling molecules in SKBR3 cells expressing the GPR30 mutant was only about 1.4-fold. These results demonstrate that Cd-induced breast cancer cell proliferation occurs through GPR30-mediated activation in a manner that is similar to that achieved by estrogen in these cells.

  4. Phytoestrogens and mitochondrial biogenesis in breast cancer. Influence of estrogen receptors ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Pilar; Sastre-Serra, Jorge; Nadal-Serrano, Mercedes; Pons, Daniel Gabriel; Blanquer-Rosselló, Ma del Mar; Oliver, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Phytoestrogens were originally identified as compounds having a close similarity in structure to estrogens and harboring weak estrogen activity. The interest in phytoestrogens as potential therapeutic agents has recently risen in the field of oncology, since population based studies have linked phytoestrogens consumption with a decreased risk of mortality due to several types of cancer. This review departs from the main focus of these articles by describing recent advances in our understanding of phytoestrogen potential action on mitochondria, specifically on mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and functionality, as well as mitoptosis in breast cancer. Further studies are necessary to explain the effects of individual phytoestrogens on mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics and for designing of new therapy targets for cancer treatment, nevertheless area promising therapeutic approach.

  5. Management of vaginal dryness and dyspareunia in estrogen sensitive cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pup, Lino

    2012-09-01

    Cancer patients suffer from vaginal dryness and dyspareunia earlier and longer than the general population, with more severe and distressing symptoms. Life-style advices are the first step and vaginal lubricants can be tried, but they can't completely relieve atrophic symptoms. The most effective therapy is use of vaginal estrogens, but compliance and management are particularly difficult in estrogen sensitive cancer patients because of their systemic absorption. Compliance can be improved if they are begun at a very low dose and gradually increased until the lowest effective dose is reached. Promestriene only possesses an intramucosal effect, it can be used at very low doses in cancer patients suffering from urogenital symptoms.

  6. The role of estrogen in the development of colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲; 王吉凌; 朱圣韬; 史学森

    2015-01-01

    <正>Cancer is a major public health problem in the world.With the progress of medical technology,mean 5-year survival rates of colorectal cancer(CRC)have doubled over the past 40 years[1].However,in 2013,the International Agency for Research on Cancer(IARC)released data on cancer incidence,mortality and prevalence worldwide.The IARC’s online database provides the estimates for 28 types of cancer in 184 countries worldwide.The

  7. Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series highlights emerging and cutting-edge research related to infection-associated cancers, shares scientific knowledge about technologies and methods, and fosters cross-disciplinary discussions on infectious agents and cancer epidemiology.

  8. Effects of 7-O substitutions on estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of daidzein analogues in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daidzein (1) is a natural estrogenic isoflavone. We report here that 1 can be transformed into an antiestrogenic ligand by simple alkyl substitutions of the 7-hydroxyl hydrogen. To test the effect of such structural modifications on the hormonal activities of the resulting compounds, a series of dai...

  9. Quantifying mediating effects of endogenous estrogen and insulin in the relation between obesity, alcohol consumption, and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Gunter, Marc J; Lange, Theis

    2012-01-01

    Increased exposure to endogenous estrogen and/or insulin may partly explain the relationship of obesity, physical inactivity, and alcohol consumption and postmenopausal breast cancer. However, these potential mediating effects have not been formally quantified in a survival analysis setting....

  10. Phytoestrogens induce differential estrogen receptor alpha- or Beta-mediated responses in transfected breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D M; Besselink, E; Henning, S M; Go, V L W; Heber, D

    2005-09-01

    Increased intake of phytoestrogens may be associated with a lower risk of cancer in the breast and several other sites, although there is controversy surrounding this activity. One of the mechanisms proposed to explain the activity of phytoestrogens is their ability to bind and activate human estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and human estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta). Nine phytoestrogens were tested for their ability to transactivate ERalpha or ERbeta at a range of doses. Mammary adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells were co-transfected with either ERalpha or ERbeta, and an estrogen-response element was linked to a luciferase reporter gene. Dose-dependent responses were compared with the endogenous ligand 17beta-estradiol. Purified genistein, daidzein, apigenin, and coumestrol showed differential and robust transactivation of ERalpha- and ERbeta-induced transcription, with an up to 100-fold stronger activation of ERbeta. Equol, naringenin, and kaempferol were weaker agonists. When activity was evaluated against a background of 0.5 nM 17beta-estradiol, the addition of genistein, daidzein, and resveratrol superstimulated the system, while kaempferol and quercetin were antagonists at the highest doses. This transfection assay provides an excellent model to evaluate the activation of ERalpha and ERbeta by different phytoestrogens in a breast cancer context and can be used as a screening bioassay tool to evaluate the estrogenic activity of extracts of herbs and foods.

  11. Estrogen-Induced Depurination of DNA: A Novel Target for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    A, Sherman ME, Sutter TR, Garcia-Closas M. Abstract Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP1B1 (Ex2 + 143 C > G, Ex2 +356 G > T, Ex3...testosterone on the expression of CYP19, CYP1B1 , COMT and NQO1 in the prostate of male Noble rats. Proc. Amer. Assoc. Cancer Res., 45:14, 2004. 12. Zhang... polymorphisms on estrogen metabolism in relation to initiation of breast cancer. Proc. Amer. Assoc. Cancer Res., 47:835, 2006. 35. Cavalieri, E

  12. Serum estrogen and SHBG levels and breast cancer incidence among users and never users of hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Anne Mette Lund; Tjønneland, Anne; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard;

    2012-01-01

    Levels of endogenous estrogen and SHBG are associated with risk of breast cancer among women who have never used hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We investigated these associations in both never and baseline users of HRT.......Levels of endogenous estrogen and SHBG are associated with risk of breast cancer among women who have never used hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We investigated these associations in both never and baseline users of HRT....

  13. The role of cadmium and nickel in estrogen receptor signaling and breast cancer: metalloestrogens or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Natalie B; Sevigny, Mary B; Sabangan, Jackielyn; Louie, Maggie C

    2012-01-01

    During the past half-century, incidences of breast cancer have increased globally. Various factors--genetic and environmental--have been implicated in the initiation and progression of this disease. One potential environmental risk factor that has not received a lot of attention is the exposure to heavy metals. While several mechanisms have been put forth describing how high concentrations of heavy metals play a role in carcinogenesis, it is unclear whether chronic, low-level exposure to certain heavy metals (i.e., cadmium and nickel) can directly result in the development and progression of cancer. Cadmium and nickel have been hypothesized to play a role in breast cancer development by acting as metalloestrogens--metals that bind to estrogen receptors and mimic the actions of estrogen. Since the lifetime exposure to estrogen is a well-established risk factor for breast cancer, anything that mimics its activity will likely contribute to the etiology of the disease. However, heavy metals, depending on their concentration, are capable of binding to a variety of proteins and may exert their toxicities by disrupting multiple cellular functions, complicating the analysis of whether heavy metal-induced carcinogenesis is mediated by the estrogen receptor. The purpose of this review is to discuss the various epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro studies that show a link between the heavy metals, cadmium and nickel, and breast cancer development. We will particularly focus on the studies that test whether these two metals act as metalloestrogens in order to assess the strength of the data supporting this hypothesis.

  14. Polymorphisms of catechol estrogens metabolism pathway genes and breast cancer risk in Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramírez, O C; Pérez-Morales, R; Castro, C; Flores-Díaz, A; Soto-Cruz, K E; Astorga-Ramos, A; Gonsebatt, M E; Casas, L; Valdés-Flores, M; Rubio, J

    2013-06-01

    Breast cancer is associated to estrogen exposure. Allelic variants involved in estrogen metabolism might change the risk of developing this neoplasia. We examined the potential association of breast cancer risk in Mexican women with the polymorphisms CYP1A1 rs1048943, CYP1B1 rs1056836, COMT rs4680, GSTP1 rs1695, GSTT1 null and GSTM1 null which are involved in estrogen metabolism pathway. This study included 150 cases and 150 controls. A significant association was observed between, CYP1A1 rs1048943 (OR = 1.95, C.I. 1.13-3.36) and GSTP1 rs1695 (OR = 2.39, C.I. 1.24-4.24) polymorphisms with the risk of breast cancer. This risk was increased when the women were stratified according to their menopausal status. The results show that breast cancer risk significantly increases in women with 3-6 risk polymorphisms (OR = 3.75, C.I. 1.44-9.74).

  15. Endocrine disrupting chemicals as potential risk factor for estrogen-dependent cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Aleksandra Z; Szybiak, Aleksandra; Serkies, Krystyna; Rachoń, Dominik

    2016-08-09

    Civilization, industrialization, and urbanization create an environment where humans are continuously exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Some of breast cancers and endometrial cancer, which are the most common female malignant neoplasms, are estrogen-dependent tumors. Prolonged exposure to estrogens or substances with estrogenic properties may be a risk factor for their development. This paper aimed to discuss the potential adverse effect of EDCs on human health, including the role of EDCs in hormone-dependent carcinogenesis. A review of literature regarding the sources of environmental exposure to EDCs and molecular mechanisms of their action was performed. We analyzed the possible mechanisms of how these substances alter the function of the endocrine system, resulting in adverse health effects. Hundreds of substances with endocrine disrupting potential have been identified in our environment. There is accumulating evidence linking exposure to EDCs with the development of mammary and endometrial cancer. By interacting with steroid receptors, EDCs can impact the cellular processes potentially leading to carcinogenesis. There are also data showing the effect of EDCs on immune dysfunction. During lifespan, people are usually exposed to a mixture of various EDCs, which complicates the assessment of individual substances or compounds implicated in cancer development. As the prevalence of hormone-dependent tumors among women continues to increase, their successful prevention is of human benefit. Institutions representing medicine, science, industry, and governments should develop joint strategies to decrease exposure to EDC, and thus to reduce the risk of hormonedependent tumors in women.

  16. Artonin E and Structural Analogs from Artocarpus Species Abrogates Estrogen Receptor Signaling in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imaobong Etti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing rate of mortality ensued from breast cancer has encouraged research into safer and efficient therapy. The human Estrogen receptor α has been implicated in the majority of reported breast cancer cases. Molecular docking employing Glide, Schrodinger suite 2015, was used to study the binding affinities of small molecules from the Artocarpus species after their drug-like properties were ascertained. The structure of the ligand-binding domain of human Estrogen receptor α was retrieved from Protein Data Bank while the structures of compounds were collected from PubChem database. The binding interactions of the studied compounds were reported as well as their glide scores. The best glide scored ligand, was Artonin E with a score of −12.72 Kcal when compared to other studied phytomolecules and it evoked growth inhibition of an estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells in submicromolar concentration (3.8–6.9 µM in comparison to a reference standard Tamoxifen (18.9–24.1 µM within the tested time point (24–72 h. The studied ligands, which had good interactions with the target receptor, were also drug-like when compared with 95% of orally available drugs with the exception of Artoelastin, whose predicted physicochemical properties rendered it less drug-like. The in silico physicochemical properties, docking interactions and growth inhibition of the best glide scorer are indications of the anti-breast cancer relevance of the studied molecules.

  17. ELF5 suppresses estrogen sensitivity and underpins the acquisition of antiestrogen resistance in luminal breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kalyuga

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that during pregnancy the E-twenty-six (ETS transcription factor ELF5 directs the differentiation of mammary progenitor cells toward the estrogen receptor (ER-negative and milk producing cell lineage, raising the possibility that ELF5 may suppress the estrogen sensitivity of breast cancers. To test this we constructed inducible models of ELF5 expression in ER positive luminal breast cancer cells and interrogated them using transcript profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation of DNA followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-Seq. ELF5 suppressed ER and FOXA1 expression and broadly suppressed ER-driven patterns of gene expression including sets of genes distinguishing the luminal molecular subtype. Direct transcriptional targets of ELF5, which included FOXA1, EGFR, and MYC, accurately classified a large cohort of breast cancers into their intrinsic molecular subtypes, predicted ER status with high precision, and defined groups with differential prognosis. Knockdown of ELF5 in basal breast cancer cell lines suppressed basal patterns of gene expression and produced a shift in molecular subtype toward the claudin-low and normal-like groups. Luminal breast cancer cells that acquired resistance to the antiestrogen Tamoxifen showed greatly elevated levels of ELF5 and its transcriptional signature, and became dependent on ELF5 for proliferation, compared to the parental cells. Thus ELF5 provides a key transcriptional determinant of breast cancer molecular subtype by suppression of estrogen sensitivity in luminal breast cancer cells and promotion of basal characteristics in basal breast cancer cells, an action that may be utilised to acquire antiestrogen resistance.

  18. Activation of Estrogen Receptor Transfected into a Receptor-Negative Brest Cancer Cell Line Decreases the Metastatic and Invasive Potential of the Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marcel; Derocq, Danielle; Freiss, Gilles; Rochefort, Henri

    1992-12-01

    Breast cancers containing estrogen receptors are responsive to antiestrogen treatment and have a better prognosis than estrogen receptor-negative tumors. The loss of estrogen and progesterone receptors appears to be associated with a progression to less-differentiated tumors. We transfected the human estrogen receptor into the estrogen receptor-negative metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 in an attempt to restore their sensitivity to antiestrogens. Two stable sublines of MDA-MB-231 cells (HC1 and HE5) expressing functional estrogen receptors were studied for their ability to grow and invade in vitro and to metastasize in athymic nude mice. The number and size of lung metastases developed by these two sublines in ovariectomized nude mice was not markedly altered by tamoxifen but was inhibited 3-fold by estradiol. Estradiol also significantly inhibited in vitro cell proliferation of these sublines and their invasiveness in Matrigel, a reconstituted basement membrane, whereas the antiestrogens 4-hydroxytamoxifen and ICI 164,384 reversed these effects. These results show that estradiol inhibits the metastatic ability of estrogen receptornegative breast cancer cells following transfection with the estrogen receptor, whereas estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers are stimulated by estrogen, indicating that factors other than the estrogen receptor are involved in progression toward hormone independence. Reactivation or transfer of the estrogen receptor gene can therefore be considered as therapeutic approaches to hormone-independent cancers

  19. Gene expression signature of estrogen receptor α status in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baggerly Keith

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogens are known to regulate the proliferation of breast cancer cells and to modify their phenotypic properties. Identification of estrogen-regulated genes in human breast tumors is an essential step toward understanding the molecular mechanisms of estrogen action in cancer. To this end we generated and compared the Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE profiles of 26 human breast carcinomas based on their estrogen receptor α (ER status. Thus, producing a breast cancer SAGE database of almost 2.5 million tags, representing over 50,000 transcripts. Results We identified 520 transcripts differentially expressed between ERα-positive (+ and ERα-negative (- primary breast tumors (Fold change ≥ 2; p Estrogen Responsive Elements (EREs distributed on the promoter regions of 163 out of the 473 up-modulated genes in ERα (+ breast tumors. In brief, we observed predominantly up-regulation of cell growth related genes, DNA binding and transcription factor activity related genes based on Gene Ontology (GO biological functional annotation. GO terms over-representation analysis showed a statistically significant enrichment of various transcript families including: metal ion binding related transcripts (p = 0.011, calcium ion binding related transcripts (p = 0.033 and steroid hormone receptor activity related transcripts (p = 0.031. SAGE data associated with ERα status was compared with reported information from breast cancer DNA microarrays studies. A significant proportion of ERα associated gene expression changes was validated by this cross-platform comparison. However, our SAGE study also identified novel sets of genes as highly expressed in ERα (+ invasive breast tumors not previously reported. These observations were further validated in an independent set of human breast tumors by means of real time RT-PCR. Conclusion The integration of the breast cancer comparative transcriptome analysis based on ERα status coupled to

  20. Epigenetics of Estrogen Receptor Signaling: Role in Hormonal Cancer Progression and Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Monica; Cortez, Valerie [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, UTHSCSA, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States); Vadlamudi, Ratna K., E-mail: vadlamudi@uthscsa.edu [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, UTHSCSA, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States)

    2011-03-29

    Estrogen receptor (ERα) signaling plays a key role in hormonal cancer progression. ERα is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that modulates gene transcription via recruitment to the target gene chromatin. Emerging evidence suggests that ERα signaling has the potential to contribute to epigenetic changes. Estrogen stimulation is shown to induce several histone modifications at the ERα target gene promoters including acetylation, phosphorylation and methylation via dynamic interactions with histone modifying enzymes. Deregulation of enzymes involved in the ERα -mediated epigenetic pathway could play a vital role in ERα driven neoplastic processes. Unlike genetic alterations, epigenetic changes are reversible, and hence offer novel therapeutic opportunities to reverse ERα driven epigenetic changes. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on mechanisms by which ERα signaling potentiates epigenetic changes in cancer cells via histone modifications.

  1. Estrogen Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    12th November 2007. 10) Speaker, “Research in the Prevention of secondary colon - rectal cancers in the Latina Province” (Indagine di prevenzione...hydroxyestrone and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone metabolism with flaxseed consumption: modification by COMT and CYP1B1 genotype. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers...sample of postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiology , Biomarkers & Prevention. 2008 Jan;17 (1): 33-42 10) Akl E, Barba M, Rohilla S, Terrenato I

  2. Proteomic analysis of pathways involved in estrogen-induced growth and apoptosis of breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Zhi Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Estrogen is a known growth promoter for estrogen receptor (ER-positive breast cancer cells. Paradoxically, in breast cancer cells that have been chronically deprived of estrogen stimulation, re-introduction of the hormone can induce apoptosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we sought to identify signaling networks that are triggered by estradiol (E2 in isogenic MCF-7 breast cancer cells that undergo apoptosis (MCF-7:5C versus cells that proliferate upon exposure to E2 (MCF-7. The nuclear receptor co-activator AIB1 (Amplified in Breast Cancer-1 is known to be rate-limiting for E2-induced cell survival responses in MCF-7 cells and was found here to also be required for the induction of apoptosis by E2 in the MCF-7:5C cells. Proteins that interact with AIB1 as well as complexes that contain tyrosine phosphorylated proteins were isolated by immunoprecipitation and identified by mass spectrometry (MS at baseline and after a brief exposure to E2 for two hours. Bioinformatic network analyses of the identified protein interactions were then used to analyze E2 signaling pathways that trigger apoptosis versus survival. Comparison of MS data with a computationally-predicted AIB1 interaction network showed that 26 proteins identified in this study are within this network, and are involved in signal transduction, transcription, cell cycle regulation and protein degradation. CONCLUSIONS: G-protein-coupled receptors, PI3 kinase, Wnt and Notch signaling pathways were most strongly associated with E2-induced proliferation or apoptosis and are integrated here into a global AIB1 signaling network that controls qualitatively distinct responses to estrogen.

  3. Anti-tumor effect of estrogen-related receptor alpha knockdown on uterine endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Hiroshi; Mori, Taisuke; Ito, Fumitake; Yamamoto, Takuro; Akiyama, Makoto; Kokabu, Tetsuya; Yoriki, Kaori; Umemura, Shiori; Akashi, Kyoko; Kitawaki, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen-related receptor (ERR)α presents structural similarities with estrogen receptor (ER)α. However, it is an orphan receptor not binding to naturally occurring estrogens. This study was designed to investigate the role of ERRα in endometrial cancer progression. Immunohistochemistry analysis on 50 specimens from patients with endometrial cancer showed that ERRα was expressed in all examined tissues and the elevated expression levels of ERRα were associated with advanced clinical stages and serous histological type (p < 0.01 for each). ERRα knockdown with siRNA suppressed angiogenesis via VEGF and cell proliferation in vitro (p < 0.01). Cell cycle and apoptosis assays using flow cytometry and western blot revealed that ERRα knockdown induced cell cycle arrest during the mitotic phase followed by apoptosis initiated by caspase-3. Additionally, ERRα knockdown sensitized cells to paclitaxel. A significant reduction of tumor growth and angiogenesis was also observed in ERRα knockdown xenografts (p < 0.01). These findings indicate that ERRα may serve as a novel molecular target for the treatment of endometrial cancer. PMID:27153547

  4. Crosstalk events in the estrogen signaling pathway may affect tamoxifen efficacy in breast cancer molecular subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Anda-Jáuregui, Guillermo; Mejía-Pedroza, Raúl A; Espinal-Enríquez, Jesús; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Steroid hormones are involved on cell growth, development and differentiation. Such effects are often mediated by steroid receptors. One paradigmatic example of this coupling is the estrogen signaling pathway. Its dysregulation is involved in most tumors of the mammary gland. It is thus an important pharmacological target in breast cancer. This pathway, however, crosstalks with several other molecular pathways, a fact that may have consequences for the effectiveness of hormone modulating drug therapies, such as tamoxifen. For this work, we performed a systematic analysis of the major routes involved in crosstalk phenomena with the estrogen pathway - based on gene expression experiments (819 samples) and pathway analysis (493 samples) - for biopsy-captured tissue and contrasted in two independent datasets with in vivo and in vitro pharmacological stimulation. Our results confirm the presence of a number of crosstalk events across the estrogen signaling pathway with others that are dysregulated in different molecular subtypes of breast cancer. These may be involved in proliferation, invasiveness and apoptosis-evasion in patients. The results presented may open the way to new designs of adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies for breast cancer treatment.

  5. Expression of Gli1 correlates with the transition of breast cancer cells to estrogen-independent growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jieying; Chen, Guangchun; Cao, Dongmei; Li, Yidong; Diao, Fei; Cai, Haoyu; Jin, Yiduo; Lu, Jian

    2010-01-01

    The failure of breast cancer treatment is largely due to the development of estrogen independence. Current data illustrate that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling may play an important role in breast cancer development. Here, we show that the expression of the Hh effector protein, Gli1 was significantly higher in estrogen-independent breast cancer cells than in estrogen-dependent cells. Our data showed for the first time that stable expression of Gli1 in ER positive breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D can induce estrogen-independent proliferation and promote G1/S phase transition, which associated with cyclin-Rb axi. Gli1 can also attenuate the response of proliferation to estrogenic stimulation, which was correlated with down-regulation of expression of ERalpha and PR, as well as down-regulation of transactivation of ERalpha. Our results suggest that up-regulation of Gli1 in breast cancer cells may be one of the mechanisms responsible for developing estrogen independence and this process may be regulated through down-regulation of expression and transactivation of ERalpha.

  6. Breast Cancer Lymphatic Dissemination-Influence of Estrogen and Progesterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    red channels or (b) green/red channels . Arrows, translocated chromosome. Cancer Research Cancer Res 2006; 66: (16). August 15, 2006 8276...Administration of nRHa drugs, such as leuprorelin acetate (LA) and triptore- in (TR), results in an initial increase in serum luteinizing ormone (LH) and

  7. A modulated empirical Bayes model for identifying topological and temporal estrogen receptor α regulatory networks in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yuming

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogens regulate diverse physiological processes in various tissues through genomic and non-genomic mechanisms that result in activation or repression of gene expression. Transcription regulation upon estrogen stimulation is a critical biological process underlying the onset and progress of the majority of breast cancer. Dynamic gene expression changes have been shown to characterize the breast cancer cell response to estrogens, the every molecular mechanism of which is still not well understood. Results We developed a modulated empirical Bayes model, and constructed a novel topological and temporal transcription factor (TF regulatory network in MCF7 breast cancer cell line upon stimulation by 17β-estradiol stimulation. In the network, significant TF genomic hubs were identified including ER-alpha and AP-1; significant non-genomic hubs include ZFP161, TFDP1, NRF1, TFAP2A, EGR1, E2F1, and PITX2. Although the early and late networks were distinct ( Conclusions We identified a number of estrogen regulated target genes and established estrogen-regulated network that distinguishes the genomic and non-genomic actions of estrogen receptor. Many gene targets of this network were not active anymore in anti-estrogen resistant cell lines, possibly because their DNA methylation and histone acetylation patterns have changed.

  8. Effect of Estrogen on Telomerase Activity in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高金波; 陈道达; 田元; 张锦辉; 蔡开琳

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the effects of estrogen(E2 ) on telomerase activity and its mechanism inhuman breast cancer cells, estrogen receptor positive MCF-7 cells were treated with different con-centrations of E2. Telomerase activity was measured by using TRAP-ELISA method, the cell cyclephases analyzed by using flow cytometry, and the expression of Cyclin D1 detected by using immu-nohistochemistry method. The results showed that telomerase activity levels were increased inMCF-7 cells treated with 10-8 mol/L E2 during the observed period (P<0.05), and E2 increasedtelomerase activity levels in a dose-dependent manner(10-10- 10-8 mol/L); Simultaneously, thecell cycle phases of MCF-7 cells treated with 10-8 mol/L E2 were changed significantly: G0/G1phase decreased from 60.52% to 50. 93%, S phase increased from 29.03% to 30.83%; However,the expression of Cyclin D1 was decreased. It was concluded that estrogen can upregulate telomeraseactivity of MCF-7 cells, and the effect can be blocked by antiestrogen tamoxifen. Its mechanismmay be closely associated with modulation of cell cycle phases.

  9. LYN-activating mutations mediate antiestrogen resistance in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Luis J; Fox, Emily M; Balko, Justin M; Garrett, Joan T; Kuba, María Gabriela; Estrada, Mónica Valeria; González-Angulo, Ana María; Mills, Gordon B; Red-Brewer, Monica; Mayer, Ingrid A; Abramson, Vandana; Rizzo, Monica; Kelley, Mark C; Meszoely, Ingrid M; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2014-12-01

    Estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancers adapt to hormone deprivation and become resistant to antiestrogen therapy. Here, we performed deep sequencing on ER(+) tumors that remained highly proliferative after treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and identified a D189Y mutation in the inhibitory SH2 domain of the SRC family kinase (SFK) LYN. Evaluation of 463 breast tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed four LYN mutations, two of which affected the SH2 domain. In addition, LYN was upregulated in multiple ER(+) breast cancer lines resistant to long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED). An RNAi-based kinome screen revealed that LYN is required for growth of ER(+) LTED breast cancer cells. Kinase assays and immunoblot analyses of SRC substrates in transfected cells indicated that LYN(D189Y) has higher catalytic activity than WT protein. Further, LYN(D189Y) exhibited reduced phosphorylation at the inhibitory Y507 site compared with LYN(WT). Other SH2 domain LYN mutants, E159K and K209N, also exhibited higher catalytic activity and reduced inhibitory site phosphorylation. LYN(D189Y) overexpression abrogated growth inhibition by fulvestrant and/or the PI3K inhibitor BKM120 in 3 ER(+) breast cancer cell lines. The SFK inhibitor dasatinib enhanced the antitumor effect of BKM120 and fulvestrant against estrogen-deprived ER(+) xenografts but not LYN(D189Y)-expressing xenografts. These results suggest that LYN mutations mediate escape from antiestrogens in a subset of ER(+) breast cancers.

  10. Epigenetic Regulation of the ERβ Gene on the Estrogen Signal Transfection Pathway in Colon Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟荣林; 王国斌; 蔡开琳; 陶凯雄; 许飞; 张万里; 王智勇

    2010-01-01

    We studied the regulatory effects of the estragen receptorβ(ERβ)gene on the downstream estrogen signal transfection pathway in colon cancer cells and the possible mechanisms involved.A human ERβ gene recombinant expression plasmid,pEGFP-C1-ERβ,was constructed and transfected into the Caco-2 colon cancer cell line,a line with low ERβ gene expression.The expression of ERβ mRNA and protein was detected 72h after transfection.RT-PCR was used to examine the expression levels of the progesterone recepror(PR)gene ...

  11. Association of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 and Ki67 in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Christina Annette; Knoop, Ann; Bjerre, Karsten;

    2013-01-01

    Background. The role of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) in estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer remains to be fully elucidated. We evaluated TIMP-1 as a prognostic marker in patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen and investigated TIMP-1s association with Ki67 and ER...... = 0.48; OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.23-1.99). Conclusion. TIMP-1 does not appear to be prognostic in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant tamoxifen. We identified a negative association between TIMP-1 and Ki67. We did not confirm our previous in vitro findings of a negative association between TIMP-1...

  12. Estrogen, anti-estrogen drugs, and thyroid cancer%雌激素及抗雌激素药物与甲状腺癌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王溪; 王战建

    2014-01-01

    雌激素与甲状腺的雌激素受体α、雌激素受体β以及G蛋白耦联受体30等结合,通过基因或非基因的信号途径,调节甲状腺细胞的生长和增殖,参与了甲状腺癌的发生发展.抗雌激素药物抑制甲状腺癌细胞增殖作用的研究,将为甲状腺癌的治疗提供新的靶点.%Several researches have suggested that estrogen contributes to the initiation and development of thyroid cancer by binding to estrogen receptors (estrogen receptor α,estrogen receptor β,and G-protein-coupled receptor 30),activating gene or non-genomic pathways and regulating proliferation of thyroid cells.Studies on antiestrogen drugs based on inhibiting thyroid cell proliferation may provide a new target in treating thyroid cancer.

  13. Actions of estrogens and endocrine disrupting chemicals on human prostate stem/progenitor cells and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen-Yang; Shi, Guang-Bin; Hu, Dan-Ping; Nelles, Jason L; Prins, Gail S

    2012-05-06

    Estrogen reprogramming of the prostate gland as a function of developmental exposures (aka developmental estrogenization) results in permanent alterations in structure and gene expression that lead to an increased incidence of prostatic lesions with aging. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with estrogenic activity have been similarly linked to an increased prostate cancer risk. Since it has been suggested that stem cells and cancer stem cells are potential targets of cancer initiation and disease management, it is highly possible that estrogens and EDCs influence the development and progression of prostate cancer through reprogramming and transforming the prostate stem and early stage progenitor cells. In this article, we review recent literature highlighting the effects of estrogens and EDCs on prostate cancer risk and discuss recent advances in prostate stem/progenitor cell research. Our laboratory has recently developed a novel prostasphere model using normal human prostate stem/progenitor cells and established that these cells express estrogen receptors (ERs) and are direct targets of estrogen action. Further, using a chimeric in vivo prostate model derived from these normal human prostate progenitor cells, we demonstrated for the first time that estrogens initiate and promote prostatic carcinogenesis in an androgen-supported environment. We herein discuss these findings and highlight new evidence using our in vitro human prostasphere assay for perturbations in human prostate stem cell self-renewal and differentiation by natural steroids as well as EDCs. These findings support the hypothesis that tissue stem cells may be direct EDC targets which may underlie life-long reprogramming as a consequence of developmental and/or transient adult exposures.

  14. Lycopene and other carotenoids inhibit estrogenic activity of 17beta-estradiol and genistein in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Keren; Atzmon, Andrea; Danilenko, Michael; Levy, Joseph; Sharoni, Yoav

    2007-08-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that carotenoids prevent several types of cancer, including mammary and endometrial cancers. On the other hand, such studies have also shown that estrogens are the most important risk factors for these cancer types. Genistein, the phytoestrogen mainly found in soy, also shows significant estrogenic activity when tested at concentrations found in human blood. The aim of this study was to determine whether carotenoids inhibit signaling of steroidal estrogen and phytoestrogen which could explain their cancer preventive activity. Similar to the known effect of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), treatment of breast (T47D and MCF-7) and endometrial (ECC-1) cancer cells with phytoestrogens induced cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression and transactivation of the estrogen response element (ERE). However, each of the tested carotenoids (lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, and beta-carotene) inhibited cancer cell proliferation induced by either E(2) or genistein. The inhibition of cell growth by lycopene was accompanied by slow down of cell-cycle progression from G1 to S phase. Moreover, the carotenoids inhibited estrogen-induced transactivation of ERE that was mediated by both estrogen receptors (ERs) ERalpha and ERbeta. The possibility that this inhibition results from competition of carotenoid-activated transcription systems on a limited pool of shared coactivators with the ERE transcription system was tested. Although cotransfection of breast and endometrial cancer cells with four different coactivators (SRC-1, SRC-2, SRC-3, and DRIP) strongly stimulated ERE reporter gene activity, it did not oppose the inhibitory effect of carotenoids. These results suggest that dietary carotenoids inhibit estrogen signaling of both 17beta-estradiol and genistein, and attenuate their deleterious effect in hormone-dependent malignancies.

  15. Early detection of breast cancer: a molecular optical imaging approach using novel estrogen conjugate fluorescent dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Shubhadeep; Jose, Iven

    2011-02-01

    Estrogen induced proliferation of mutant cells is widely understood to be the one of major risk determining factor in the development of breast cancer. Hence determination of the Estrogen Receptor[ER] status is of paramount importance if cancer pathogenesis is to be detected and rectified at an early stage. Near Infrared Fluorescence [NIRf] Molecular Optical Imaging is emerging as a powerful tool to monitor bio-molecular changes in living subjects. We discuss pre-clinical results in our efforts to develop an optical imaging diagnostic modality for the early detection of breast cancer. We have successfully carried out the synthesis and characterization of a novel target-specific NIRf dye conjugate aimed at measuring Estrogen Receptor[ER] status. The conjugate was synthesized by ester formation between 17-β estradiol and a hydrophilic derivative of Indocyanine Green (ICG) cyanine dye, bis-1,1-(4-sulfobutyl) indotricarbocyanine-5-carboxylic acid, sodium salt. In-vitro studies regarding specific binding and endocytocis of the dye performed on ER+ve [MCF-7] and control [MDA-MB-231] adenocarcinoma breast cancer cell lines clearly indicated nuclear localization of the dye for MCF-7 as compared to plasma level staining for MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells showed ~4.5-fold increase in fluorescence signal intensity compared to MDA-MB-231. A 3-D mesh model mimicking the human breast placed in a parallel-plate DOT Scanner is created to examine the in-vivo efficacy of the dye before proceeding with clinical trials. Photon migration and florescence flux intensity is modeled using the finite-element method with the coefficients (quantum yield, molar extinction co-efficient etc.) pertaining to the dye as obtained from photo-physical and in-vitro studies. We conclude by stating that this lipophilic dye can be potentially used as a target specific exogenous contrast agent in molecular optical imaging for early detection of breast cancer.

  16. Increased Midkine and Estrogen Receptor-β Expression in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-hua Zhang; Guang-feng Zhao; Ya-hong Huang; Kai-hua Lu; Ya-yi Hou

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Midkine (MK), a new member of the heparin-binding growth factor family, has been found recently to have a high expression level in many tumor specimens including lung carcinoma. Estrogens may be involved in lung carcinogenesis, and estrogen receptors, mainly estrogen receptor-β (ER-β), are present and functional in normal lung and tumor cell lines and tissues. In addition, estrogens and growth factors may promote the progression of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previously, we have immunohistochemically demonstrated that MK and ER-β proteins were overexpressed in NSCLC and their expression levels were both significantly negatively correlated with the pathological classification. The purpose of this study was to further verify their expression and its correlation with NSCLC.Methods: Taking NSCLC tissues and their corresponding paraneoplastic and normal lung as research objects, we further examined the expression of MK and ER-β by meas of RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and Western blot analyses at the levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein, respectively.Results: The increased MK and ER-β mRNA expression was found in NSCLC by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses. Furthermore, Western blot analysis also displayed increased expression of MK and ER-β proteins in NSCLC. Finally, their correlation analysis at the levels of mRNA and protein expression in NSCLC demonstrated that MK protein level was significantly correlated to estrogen receptor-β (P0.05, r_s=0.178).Conclusion: All these results in the present study confirmed that MK and ER-β were overexpressed in human NSCLC.

  17. The potential therapeutic benefits of vitamin D in the treatment of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Aruna V; Swami, Srilatha; Feldman, David

    2012-09-01

    Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)), the hormonally active form of vitamin D, inhibits the growth of many malignant cells including breast cancer (BCa) cells. The mechanisms of calcitriol anticancer actions include cell cycle arrest, stimulation of apoptosis and inhibition of invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. In addition we have discovered new pathways of calcitriol action that are especially relevant in inhibiting the growth of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) BCa cells. Calcitriol suppresses COX-2 expression and increases that of 15-PGDH thereby reducing the levels of inflammatory prostaglandins (PGs). Our in vitro and in vivo studies show that calcitriol decreases the expression of aromatase, the enzyme that catalyzes estrogen synthesis selectively in BCa cells and in the mammary adipose tissue surrounding BCa, by a direct repression of aromatase transcription via promoter II as well as an indirect effect due to the reduction in the levels of PGs, which are major stimulator of aromatase transcription through promoter II. Calcitriol down-regulates the expression of ERα and thereby attenuates estrogen signaling in BCa cells including the proliferative stimulus provided by estrogens. Thus the inhibition of estrogen synthesis and signaling by calcitriol and its anti-inflammatory actions will play an important role in inhibiting ER+BCa. We hypothesize that dietary vitamin D would exhibit similar anticancer activity due to the presence of the enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) in breast cells ensuring conversion of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D to calcitriol locally within the breast micro-environment where it can act in a paracrine manner to inhibit BCa growth. Cell culture and in vivo data in mice strongly suggest that calcitriol and dietary vitamin D would play a beneficial role in the prevention and/or treatment of ER+BCa in women.

  18. Genetic polymorphisms, the metabolism of estrogens and breast cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugano, D D G; Conforti-Froes, N; Yamaguchi, N H; Baracat, E C

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and the second cause of cancer death in women. Despite recent breakthroughs, much of the etiology of this disease is unknown and the most important risk factor, i.e., exposure to endogenous and exogenous estrogen throughout life cannot explain the heterogeneity of prognosis nor clinical features of patients. Recently, many gene polymorphisms in the metabolism of breast cancer have been described as possible neoplasm etiologic factors. This review is an attempt to summarize the current knowledge about these polymorphisms and to determine new target genes for diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Polymorphisms in the genes CYP17, CYP19, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, UGT1A1, SULT1A1, 17-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase, COMT, GST, ESR1, and ESR2 are described.

  19. Gender-Related Survival Differences Associated With Polymorphic Variants of Estrogen Receptor Beta (ERβ) in Patients with Metastatic Colon Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Press, Oliver A.; Zhang, Wu; Gordon, Michael A.; Yang, Dongyun; Haiman, Christopher A; Azuma, Mizutomo; Iqbal, Syma; Lenz, Heinz-Josef

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen replacement therapy in women has demonstrated a protective effect in the development of colonic carcinomas. Gender-related differences in the development of colonic carcinomas have also been reported. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is expressed in colon carcinomas and has demonstrated prognostic value in colon cancer patients. This study investigated an ERβ 3’ non-coding polymorphism associated with transcriptional activity to determine clinical outcome in patients with metastatic colo...

  20. Estrogen Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    prostate function. The co-expression of GH and its receptor 16 demonstrated by Chopin and colleagues in prostate cancer cell lines (16) would enable an...for growth hormone receptor isoforms in human tissues. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 85, 2865-2871. 16. Chopin , L.K., Veveris-lowe, T. L., Phillips

  1. Expression of Estrogen Sulfotransferase 1E1 and Steroid Sulfatase in Breast Cancer: A Immunohistochemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Poisson Paré

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the steroid sulfatase (STS and the estrogen sulfotransferase (EST1E1 are commonly expressed in human breast carcinomas. STS and EST1E1 combined action could maintain the equilibrium between sulfated (inactive and unconjugated (active estrogens, which might have effects on development of hormone dependent breast cancer. We studied the expression of the STS and EST1E1 in 88 breast carcinomas and 57 adjacent non-malignant tissues by immunohistochemistry. The results were correlated with the tumor expression of estrogen receptor α (ER-α and β (ER-β, progesterone receptor A (PR-A and B (PR-B and the proliferation marker CDC47, the tumoral type and stage and the age at surgery. STS expression was higher in carcinoma specimens than in adjacent normal tissues, although not to a significant level (p = 0.064 and it was positively associated with CDC47 expression (p 0.05. These observations support the hypothesis that STS is overexpressed in breast cancer and associated with a worse prognosis. EST1E1 was observed for the first time in the nuclei of epithelial and tumoral cells. Tumor expression of EST1E1 was positively correlated with ER-β (p 0.01 and PR-B (p 0.05, two steroid receptors already associated with an improve prognosis for breast cancer. Controlling the STS overexpression in carcinomas could be a way to inhibit cancer growth. The significance of the association between EST1E1 and ER-β or PR-B should be further studied since these two receptors are transcription activators and may regulate the expression of protective enzymes like EST1E1.

  2. Estrogen induced metastatic modulators MMP-2 and MMP-9 are targets of 3,3'-diindolylmethane in thyroid cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Rajoria

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine related cancer with increasing incidences during the past five years. Current treatments for thyroid cancer, such as surgery or radioactive iodine therapy, often require patients to be on lifelong thyroid hormone replacement therapy and given the significant recurrence rates of thyroid cancer, new preventive modalities are needed. The present study investigates the property of a natural dietary compound found in cruciferous vegetables, 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM, to target the metastatic phenotype of thyroid cancer cells through a functional estrogen receptor. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thyroid cancer cell lines were treated with estrogen and/or DIM and subjected to in vitro adhesion, migration and invasion assays to investigate the anti-metastatic and anti-estrogenic effects of DIM. We observed that DIM inhibits estrogen mediated increase in thyroid cell migration, adhesion and invasion, which is also supported by ER-α downregulation (siRNA studies. Western blot and zymography analyses provided direct evidence for this DIM mediated inhibition of E(2 enhanced metastasis associated events by virtue of targeting essential proteolytic enzymes, namely MMP-2 and MMP-9. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data reports for the first time that DIM displays anti-estrogenic like activity by inhibiting estradiol enhanced thyroid cancer cell proliferation and in vitro metastasis associated events, namely adhesion, migration and invasion. Most significantly, MMP-2 and MMP-9, which are known to promote and enhance metastasis, were determined to be targets of DIM. This anti-estrogen like property of DIM may lead to the development of a novel preventive and/or therapeutic dietary supplement for thyroid cancer patients by targeting progression of the disease.

  3. Estrogen Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    hormone therapy, nonprescription hormones (e.g., melatonin and dehydroepiandrosterone), black cohosh, tamoxifen, raloxifene, diabetes medication...The follow-up was conducted in collaboration with another NIH-funded study, the “Epidemiology of Type-2 Diabetes ” study, which is a prospective cohort...The re-call included participants without history of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and clinically defined type-2 diabetes at baseline interviewed

  4. Genetic Susceptibility to Estrogen-Induced Mammary Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    mammary glands were reflected in mammary histology. (A and E) Thin sections from Fig. 3. E2 induced pituitary growth and hyperprolactinemia similarly in...with E2 5 (33%) exhibited a normal DNA profile where the great for 12 wk induced pituitary growth and hyperprolactinemia in majority of cells displayed...etal. , " terone, or PRL. Hyperprolactinemia has been shown to be sufficient to induce mammary cancer in certain strains of mouse 1 , (29-31) and rat

  5. Gastric Metastasis of Breast Cancer: A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Fernandes, Gustavo; Batista Bugiato Faria, Luiza D.; de Assis Pereira, Isadora; Neves, Natália C. Moreira; Vieira, Yasmine Oliveira; Leal, Alessandro I. Cavalcanti

    2016-01-01

    Gastric metastasis is rare but it can be the initial symptom of cancer. The second leading cause of this type of metastasis is breast cancer. A lack of clinical signs and nonspecific side effects of the treatment of primary tumors can lead to the misdiagnosis of metastatic gastric cancer. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy and immunohistochemistry should be used for diagnosis. Treatment is palliative; it includes chemo, endocrine, and radiation therapies. Four patients with breast cancer and gastric metastasis were identified. All the patients tested positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors, and received chemotherapy and hormone therapy. One patient underwent surgery and two received radiation therapy. Patients with breast cancer and gastrointestinal symptoms should be investigated for gastric metastasis, given its morbidity and negative impact on quality of life.

  6. Estrogen receptor alpha polymorphism and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, AD; Ellervik, C; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A;

    2007-01-01

    Background- We hypothesized that the estrogen receptor (ESR1) IVS1-397T/C polymorphism affects high-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to hormone replacement therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer of reproductive organs, and hip fracture. Methods and Results- We studied...... thromboembolism, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism), cancer of reproductive organs (breasts, ovaries, uterus, and prostate), and hip fracture. We also studied patients with ischemic heart disease (n=2495), ischemic cerebrovascular disease (n=856), and breast cancer (n=1256) versus general population...... cross-sectionally 9244 individuals from the Danish general population and followed them up for 23 to 25 years. End points were CVD (ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, ischemic stroke, other ischemic cerebrovascular disease, venous...

  7. Prognostic and Predictive Biomarkers of Endocrine Responsiveness for Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cynthia X; Bose, Ron; Ellis, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    The estrogen-dependent nature of breast cancer is the fundamental basis for endocrine therapy. The presence of estrogen receptor (ER), the therapeutic target of endocrine therapy, is a prerequisite for this therapeutic approach. However, estrogen-independent growth often exists de novo at diagnosis or develops during the course of endocrine therapy. Therefore ER alone is insufficient in predicting endocrine therapy efficacy. Several RNA-based multigene assays are now available in clinical practice to assess distant recurrence risk, with majority of these assays evaluated in patients treated with 5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy. While MammaPrint and Oncotype Dx are most predictive of recurrence risk within the first 5 years of diagnosis, Prosigna, Breast Cancer Index (BCI), and EndoPredict Clin have also demonstrated utility in predicting late recurrence. In addition, PAM50, or Prosigna, provides further biological insights by classifying breast cancers into intrinsic molecular subtypes. Additional strategies are under investigation in prospective clinical trials to differentiate endocrine sensitive and resistant tumors and include on-treatment Ki-67 and Preoperative Endocrine Prognostic Index (PEPI) score in the setting of neoadjuvant endocrine therapy. These biomarkers have become important tools in clinical practice for the identification of low risk patients for whom chemotherapy could be avoided. However, there is much work ahead toward the development of a molecular classification that informs the biology and novel therapeutic targets in high-risk disease as chemotherapy has only modest benefit in this population. The recognition of somatic mutations and their relationship to endocrine therapy responsiveness opens important opportunities toward this goal.

  8. Inhibition of Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer by Estrogenic Compounds Is Associated with Increased Expression of Immune-Related Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilsa M. Coleman

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The clinical utility of estrogens for treating prostate cancer (CaP was established in the 1940s by Huggins. The classic model of the anti-CaP activity of estrogens postulates an indirect mechanism involving the suppression of androgen production. However, clinical, preclinical studies have shown that estrogens exert growth-inhibitory effects on CaP under low-androgen conditions, suggesting additional modes whereby estrogens affect CaP cells and/or the microenvironment. Here we have investigated the activity of 17β estradiol (E2 against androgen-independent CaP, identified molecular alterations in tumors exposed to E2. E2 treatment inhibited the growth of all four androgen-independent CaP xenografts studied (LuCaP 35V, LuCaP 23.1AI, LuCaP 49, LuCaP 58 in castrated male mice. The molecular basis of growth suppression was studied by cDNA microarray analysis, which indicated that multiple pathways are altered by E2 treatment. Of particular interest are changes in transcripts encoding proteins that mediate immune responses, regulate androgen receptor signaling. In conclusion, our data show that estrogens have powerful inhibitory effects on CaP in vivo in androgendepleted environments, suggest novel mechanisms of estrogen-mediated antitumor activity. These results indicate that incorporating estrogens into CaP treatment protocols could enhance therapeutic efficacy even in cases of advanced disease.

  9. Schistosome and liver fluke derived catechol-estrogens and helminth associated cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Correia da Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection with helminth parasites remains a persistent public health problem in developing countries. Three of these pathogens, the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium, are of particular concern due to their classification as Group 1 carcinogens: infection with these worms is carcinogenic. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS approaches, we identified steroid hormone like (e.g. oxysterol-like, catechol estrogen quinone-like, etc. metabolites and related DNA-adducts, apparently of parasite origin, in developmental stages including eggs of S. haematobium, in urine of people with urogenital schistosomiasis, and in the adult stage of Opisthorchis viverrini. Since these kinds of sterol derivatives are metabolized to active quinones that can modify DNA, which in other contexts can lead to breast and other cancers, helminth parasite associated sterols might induce tumor-like phenotypes in the target cells susceptible to helminth parasite associated cancers, i.e. urothelial cells of the bladder in the case of urogenital schistosomiasis and the bile duct epithelia or cholangiocytes, in the case of O. viverrini and C. sinensis. Indeed we postulate that helminth induced cancers originate from parasite estrogen-host epithelial/urothelial cell chromosomal DNA adducts, and here we review recent findings that support this conjecture.

  10. Homeobox A7 stimulates breast cancer cell proliferation by up-regulating estrogen receptor-alpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu [Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4H4 (Canada); Cheng, Jung-Chien [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4H4 (Canada); Huang, He-Feng, E-mail: huanghefg@hotmail.com [Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Leung, Peter C.K., E-mail: peter.leung@ubc.ca [Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4H4 (Canada)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •HOXA7 regulates MCF7 cell proliferation. •HOXA7 up-regulates ERα expression. •HOXA7 mediates estrogen-induced MCF7 cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common hormone-dependent malignancy in women. Homeobox (HOX) transcription factors regulate many cellular functions, including cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The aberrant expression of HOX genes has been reported to be associated with human reproductive cancers. Estradiol (E2) and its nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and ER-beta, are known to play critical roles in the regulation of breast cancer cell growth. However, an understanding of the potential relationship between HOXA7 and ER in breast cancer cells is limited. In this study, our results demonstrate that knockdown of HOXA7 in MCF7 cells significantly decreased cell proliferation and ERα expression. In addition, HOXA7 knockdown attenuated E2-induced cell proliferation as well as progesterone receptor (PR) expression. The stimulatory effects of E2 on cell proliferation and PR expression were abolished by co-treatment with ICI 182780, a selective ERα antagonist. In contrast, overexpression of HOXA7 significantly stimulated cell proliferation and ERα expression. Moreover, E2-induced cell proliferation, as well as PR expression, was enhanced by the overexpression of HOXA7. Neither knockdown nor overexpression of HOXA7 affected the ER-beta levels. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanistic role for HOXA7 in modulating breast cancer cell proliferation via regulation of ERα expression. This finding contributes to our understanding of the role HOXA7 plays in regulating the proliferation of ER-positive cancer cells.

  11. Effect of nomegestrol acetate on estrogen biosynthesis and transformation in MCF-7 and T47-D breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields-Botella, J; Chetrite, G; Meschi, S; Pasqualini, J R

    2005-01-01

    Although ovaries serve as the primary source of estrogen for pre-menopausal women, after menopause estrogen biosynthesis from circulating precursors occurs in peripheral tissues by the action of several enzymes, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (17beta-HSD1), aromatase and estrogen sulfatase. In the breast, both normal and tumoral tissues have been shown to be capable of synthesizing estrogens, and this local estrogen production can be implicated in the development of breast tumors. In these tissues, estradiol (E(2)) can be synthesized by three pathways: (1) estrone sulfatase transforms estrogen sulfates into bioactive estrogens, (2) 17beta-HSD1 converts estrone (E(1)) into E(2), (3) aromatase which converts androgens into estrogens is also present and contributes to the in situ synthesis of active estrogens but to a far lesser extent than estrone sulfatase. Quantitative assessment of E(2) formation in human breast tumors indicates that metabolism of estrone sulfate (E(1)S) via the sulfatase pathway produces 100-500 times more E(2) than androgen aromatization. Breast tissue also possesses the estrogen sulfotransferase involved in the conversion of estrogens into their sulfates that are biologically inactive. In the present review, we summarized the action of the 19-nor-progestin nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) on the sulfatase, 17beta-HSD1 and sulfotransferase activities in the hormone-dependent MCF-7 and T47-D human breast cancer cell lines. Using physiological doses of substrates NOMAC blocks very significantly the conversion of E(1)S to E(2). It inhibits the transformation of E(1) to E(2). NOMAC has a stimulatory effect on sulfotransferase activity in both cell lines, with a strong stimulating effect at low doses but only a weak effect at high concentrations. The effects on the three enzymes are always stronger in the progesterone-receptor rich T47-D cell line as compared with the MCF-7 cell line. Besides, no effect is found for NOMAC on the transformation of

  12. GalNAc-T4 putatively modulates the estrogen regulatory network through FOXA1 glycosylation in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, Bachir; Jin, Liyuan; Chen, Xixi; Guo, Xiaohan; Zhang, Hongshuo; Wu, Qiong; Padhiar, Arshad Ahmed; Xiao, Min; Fang, Deyu; Zhang, Jianing

    2016-01-01

    GALNT4 belongs to a family of N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases, which catalyze the transfer of GalNAc to Serine or Threonine residues in the initial step of mucin-type O-linked protein glycosylation. This glycosylation type is the most complex post-translational modification of proteins, playing important roles during cellular differentiation and in pathological disorders. Most of the breast cancer subtypes are estrogen receptor positive, and hence, the estrogen pathway represents a key regulatory network. We investigated the expression of GalNAc-T4 in a panel of mammary epithelial cell lines and found its expression is associated with the estrogen status of the cells. FOXA1, a key transcription factor, functions to promote estrogen responsive gene expression by acting as a cofactor to estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), but all the aspects of this regulatory mechanism are not fully explored. This study found that knockdown of GALNT4 expression in human breast cancer cells attenuated the protein expression of ERα, FOXA1, and Cyclin D1. Further, our immunoprecipitation assays depicted the possibility of FOXA1 to undergo O-GalNAc modifications with a decrease of GalNAc residues in the GALNT4 knockdown cells and also impairment in the FOXA1-ERα association. Rescuing GALNT4 expression could restore the interaction as well as the glycosylation of FOXA1. Together, these findings suggest a key role for GalNAc-T4 in the estrogen pathway through FOXA1 glycosylation.

  13. Estrogen induced {beta}-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 expression regulates proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hee-Jung [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Division of Applied Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan-city, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Cheorl-Ho [Department of Molecular and Cellular Glycobiology, College of Natural Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Kyungki-do (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Han-Sol; Joo, Myungsoo [Division of Applied Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan-city, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Youn, BuHyun, E-mail: bhyoun72@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Ki-Tae, E-mail: hagis@pusan.ac.kr [Division of Applied Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan-city, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the regulation and biological functions of B4GALT1 expression induced by estrogen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estrogen-induced B4GALT1 expression through the direct binding of ER-{alpha} to ERE in MCF-7 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer B4GALT1 expression activates the proliferation of MCF-7 cells via its receptor function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thus, we suggest B4GALT1 as a molecular target for inhibiting breast cancer proliferation. -- Abstract: Beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (B4GALT1) synthesizes galactose {beta}-1,4-N-acetylglucosamine (Gal{beta}1-4GlcNAc) groups on N-linked sugar chains of glycoproteins, which play important roles in many biological events, including the proliferation and migration of cancer cells. A previous microarray study reported that this gene is expressed by estrogen treatment in breast cancer. In this study, we examined the regulatory mechanisms and biological functions of estrogen-induced B4GALT1 expression. Our data showed that estrogen-induced expression of B4GALT1 is localized in intracellular compartments and in the plasma membrane. In addition, B4GALT1 has an enzyme activity involved in the production of the Gal{beta}1-4GlcNAc structure. The result from a promoter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that 3 different estrogen response elements (EREs) in the B4GALT1 promoter are critical for responsiveness to estrogen. In addition, the estrogen antagonists ICI 182,780 and ER-{alpha}-ERE binding blocker TPBM inhibit the expression of estrogen-induced B4GALT1. However, the inhibition of signal molecules relating to the extra-nuclear pathway, including the G-protein coupled receptors, Ras, and mitogen-activated protein kinases, had no inhibitory effects on B4GALT1 expression. The knock-down of the B4GALT1 gene and the inhibition of membrane B4GALT1 function resulted in the significant inhibition of estrogen-induced proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Considering

  14. Estrogen-induced SDF-1α production promotes the progression of ER-negative breast cancer via the accumulation of MDSCs in the tumor microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Liquan; Chang, Weilong; Fang, Bin; Qin, Jieting; Qu, Xincai; Cheng, Fanjun

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen plays a role in the processes of tumorigenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer (BC). Whether estrogen contributes to ER-negative BC is unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate whether estrogen could stimulate the secretion of stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1α) by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) to promote the progression of ER-negative BC. We transplanted ER-negative BC cells into ovariectomized mice, which was followed by continuous injection of estrogen, and found that estrogen promoted the tumorigenesis of BC. Furthermore, High levels of SDF-1α and tumor-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were detected in the estrogen treatment group. Estrogen stimulates secretion of SDF-1α by CAFs extracted from BC patients. Recombinant SDF-1α could recruit MDSCs isolated from bone marrow cells of mice. In addition, the co-culture of CAFs and MDSCs demonstrated that the recruitment of MDSCs was increased when CAFs were exposed to estrogen. Using AMD3100 to block the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis or gemcitabine to delete MDSCs, we observed that both of these agents could neutralize the effect of estrogen on tumorigenesis. Together, these results suggest that estrogen may promote the progression of ER-negative BC by stimulating CAFs to secrete SDF-1α, which can recruit MDSCs to the tumor microenvironment to exert tumor-promoting effects. PMID:27996037

  15. Estrogen-induced SDF-1α production promotes the progression of ER-negative breast cancer via the accumulation of MDSCs in the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Liquan; Chang, Weilong; Fang, Bin; Qin, Jieting; Qu, Xincai; Cheng, Fanjun

    2016-12-20

    Estrogen plays a role in the processes of tumorigenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer (BC). Whether estrogen contributes to ER-negative BC is unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate whether estrogen could stimulate the secretion of stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1α) by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) to promote the progression of ER-negative BC. We transplanted ER-negative BC cells into ovariectomized mice, which was followed by continuous injection of estrogen, and found that estrogen promoted the tumorigenesis of BC. Furthermore, High levels of SDF-1α and tumor-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were detected in the estrogen treatment group. Estrogen stimulates secretion of SDF-1α by CAFs extracted from BC patients. Recombinant SDF-1α could recruit MDSCs isolated from bone marrow cells of mice. In addition, the co-culture of CAFs and MDSCs demonstrated that the recruitment of MDSCs was increased when CAFs were exposed to estrogen. Using AMD3100 to block the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis or gemcitabine to delete MDSCs, we observed that both of these agents could neutralize the effect of estrogen on tumorigenesis. Together, these results suggest that estrogen may promote the progression of ER-negative BC by stimulating CAFs to secrete SDF-1α, which can recruit MDSCs to the tumor microenvironment to exert tumor-promoting effects.

  16. Inhibitory effects of γ- and δ-tocopherols on estrogen-stimulated breast cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Min Ji; Das Gupta, Soumyasri; Wahler, Joseph; Lee, Hong Jin; Li, Xiaowei; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Chung S; Suh, Nanjoo

    2017-01-17

    Estrogens have been implicated as complete carcinogens for breast and other tissues through mechanisms involving increased cell proliferation, oxidative stress and DNA damage. Because of their potent antioxidant activity and other effects, tocopherols have been shown to exert anti-tumor activities in various cancers. However, limited information is available on the effect of different forms of tocopherols in estrogen-mediated breast cancer. To address this, we examined the effects of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols as well as a natural γ-tocopherol rich mixture of tocopherols, γ-TmT, on estrogen-stimulated MCF-7 cells in vitro and in vivo. For the in vivo studies, MCF-7 cells were injected into the mammary fat pad of immunodeficient mice previously implanted with estrogen pellets. Mice were then administered diets containing 0.2% α-, γ-, δ-tocopherol or γ-TmT for 5 weeks. Treatment with α-, γ-, δ-tocopherols and γ-TmT reduced tumor volumes by 29% (pestrogen-related genes such as TFF/pS2, cathepsin D and progesterone receptor in estrogen-stimulated MCF-7 cells in vitro. Further, γ- and δ-tocopherols decreased the levels of estrogen-induced oxidative stress and nitrosative stress markers, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and nitrotyrosine, as well as the DNA damage marker, γ-H2AX. Our results suggest that γ- and δ-tocopherols and the γ-tocopherol rich mixture are effective natural agents for the prevention and treatment of estrogen-mediated breast cancer.

  17. Research Progress of Estrogen, Estrogen Receptor and Bladder Cancer%雌激素、雌激素受体与膀胱癌间关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国庆; 刘久华

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To review the effect of estrogen and estrogen receptor on the development of bladder cancer in order to provide new ideas for the endocrine therapy of bladder cancer . Methods: To consult and analyze the domestic and foreign literatures concerning the researches of estrogen , estrogen receptor and bladder cancer. Results: The etiology, pathogenesis, recurrence mechanism of bladder cancer are not very clear, and treatment is not perfect. Estrogen and estrogen receptor may play a role in the development of blad -der cancer. Conclusions: Studying the expression of estrogen and estrogen receptor , and the rationship with the development of bladder cancer plays an important role in diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer .%目的:探讨雌激素与雌激素受体对膀胱癌发生、发展的影响,为膀胱癌的内分泌治疗提供新的思路.方法:查阅近年来国内外膀胱癌与雌激素、雌激素受体间关系的相关文献,对其进行研究总结.结果:膀胱癌的病因、发病机理、复发机理还不十分明确,治疗方法也不完善.雌激素、雌激素受体可能对膀胱癌的发生发展有一定作用.结论:研究雌激素、雌激素受体与膀胱癌发生、发展的关系,对膀胱癌的诊断与治疗方面有重要意义.

  18. Targeting BCL-2 to enhance vulnerability to therapy in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, D; Lok, S W; Visvader, J E; Lindeman, G J

    2016-04-14

    The last three decades have seen significant progress in our understanding of the role of the pro-survival protein BCL-2 and its family members in apoptosis and cancer. BCL-2 and other pro-survival family members including Mcl-1 and BCL-XL have been shown to have a key role in keeping pro-apoptotic 'effector' proteins BAK and BAX in check. They also neutralize a group of 'sensor' proteins (such as BIM), which are triggered by cytotoxic stimuli such as chemotherapy. BCL-2 proteins therefore have a central role as guardians against apoptosis, helping cancer cells to evade cell death. More recently, an increasing number of BH3 mimetics, which bind and neutralize BCL-2 and/or its pro-survival relatives, have been developed. The utility of targeting BCL-2 in hematological malignancies has become evident in early-phase studies, with remarkable clinical responses seen in heavily pretreated patients. As BCL-2 is overexpressed in ~75% of breast cancer, there has been growing interest in determining whether this new class of drug could show similar promise in breast cancer. This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of BCL-2 and its family members in mammary gland development and breast cancer, recent progress in the development of new BH3 mimetics as well as their potential for targeting estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

  19. The balance of estrogen metabolites in breast cancer and the ways of its correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Ashrafyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A clear relationship is now found between the activity of estrogen metabolites and the development of tumors in estrogen-dependent tissues. Many international and Russian studies could identify a number of compounds involved in the regulation of estrogen metabolites. Indole-3-carbinol is one of these compounds that correct a ratio of 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1 to 16-OHE1. It is a phytonutrient that is contained in Cruciferous vegetables and has antitumor activity. Our investigations used highly purified indole-3-carbinol (Indinol. The ability to identify the role of metabolic syndrome, by applying the current methodological approaches, allowed us to study the effect of highly purified indole-3-carbinol on the level of expression of estrogen metabolites and to attempt to expand views on procedures to prevent and treat breast tumors. Materials and methods. A total of 136 women were comprehensively examined; of them 44 patients formed a group of those with morphologically verified hormone-independent breast cancer (BC and 42 patients were a group of those with hormone-dependent BC. A control group included 50 women without signs of breast disease. In all the patients, body mass index was calculated; the ratio of urinary estrogen metabolites (2-ОНЕ1/16α-ОНЕ1 was quantified; and biopsy specimens and operative material were histologically and immunohistologically studied. Results. The BC patients were noted to have the high expression of 16α-OHE1 and the low values of 2-OHE1 (ratio, 0.42 as compared to the control group (2.09, which was an important component of metabolic syndrome. The BC patients had the high level of concomitant endocrine metabolic disturbances with the high body mass index, which reflected the clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Indinol used to treat both hormone-dependent and hormone-independent BC showed an antimetabolic effect that was most pronounced 6 months later. Conclusion. Thus, early correction

  20. APOBEC3B-Mediated Cytidine Deamination Is Required for Estrogen Receptor Action in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikandan Periyasamy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen receptor α (ERα is the key transcriptional driver in a large proportion of breast cancers. We report that APOBEC3B (A3B is required for regulation of gene expression by ER and acts by causing C-to-U deamination at ER binding regions. We show that these C-to-U changes lead to the generation of DNA strand breaks through activation of base excision repair (BER and to repair by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ pathways. We provide evidence that transient cytidine deamination by A3B aids chromatin modification and remodelling at the regulatory regions of ER target genes that promotes their expression. A3B expression is associated with poor patient survival in ER+ breast cancer, reinforcing the physiological significance of A3B for ER action.

  1. Polymorphisms in estrogen-metabolizing and estrogen receptor genes and the risk of developing breast cancer among a cohort of women with benign breast disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuita Lucy W

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cohort study was conducted to examine the role of genetic polymorphisms in three estrogen metabolizing enzymes (COMT, CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and the two estrogen receptors (ESR1, ESR2 in the progression of benign breast disease (BBD to breast cancer. Methods Among participants in an ongoing cohort study, 1438 Caucasian women had a breast biopsy for BBD and were successfully genotyped for at least one of the polymorphisms examined in this study. Genotypes were determined using DNA extracted from blood specimens collected in 1989. Incident cases of breast cancer occurring subsequent to BBD diagnosis up to 2003 were identified through cancer registries. Results Among all participants, the ESR2 *5772G allele was associated with a significant decrease in the risk of breast cancer among women with BBD (Odds Ratio (OR 0.38; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.15, 0.96. Compared to the reference wild-type genotypes, marginally significant associations with the development of breast cancer were observed between carriers of the variant ESR1 – 104062T allele (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.45, 1.09, the variant ESR2 *38A allele (OR 1.40; 95% CI 0.88, 2.25, and the variant CYP1B1 453Ser allele (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.95, 2.32. Conclusion The results indicate that specific polymorphisms in the CYP1B1, ESR1, and ESR2 genes may play a role in progression of BBD to breast cancer among Caucasian women. Although additional studies are needed to confirm or refute our findings, these results suggest that genetic markers may aid in the identification of women who are at risk for progression of BBD to cancer.

  2. Enhanced noscapine delivery using estrogen-receptor-targeted nanoparticles for breast cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Jitender; Gundala, Sushma R; Kasetti, Yoganjaneyulu; Bharatam, Prasad V; Aneja, Ritu; Katyal, Anju; Jain, Upendra K

    2014-07-01

    Noscapine (Nos), an orally available plant-derived antitussive alkaloid, is in phase II clinical trials for cancer chemotherapy. It has extensively been shown to inhibit tumor growth in nude mice bearing human xenografts of hematopoietic, breast, lung, ovarian, brain, and prostate origin. However, high tumor-suppressive Nos dosages encumber the development of oral controlled-release formulations because of a short biological half-life (noscapine-loaded gelatin nanoparticles (Nos-ES-GN) for targeting estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Gelatin nanoparticles (GN) were a uniformly compact size, stable at physiological pH, and showed a drug entrapment efficiency of 66.1±5.9 and 65.2±5.6% for Nos-GN and Nos-ES-GN, respectively. The secondary structure of gelatin nanocoacervates was predicted using circular dichroism and in-silico molecular modeling. Our data suggest that ethanol-fabricated GN retained the α-helical content of gelatin, whereas acetone favored the formation of random coils. The conjugation of estrone to Nos-GN did not affect the release rate of the drug, and both formulations followed first-order release kinetics with an initial burst, followed by a slow release. The IC50 value of Nos-ES-GN was 21.2 μmol/l, which was ∼50% lower than the free drug (43.3 μmol/l), suggesting targeted drug delivery. Our cell uptake study carried out in an estrogen-receptor-positive (MCF-7) and negative (MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines showed greater accumulation of Nos-ES-GN in MCF-7 cells instead of MDA-MB-231 cells. Our data indicated that estrone-conjugated nanoparticles may potentially be used for targeting breast cancer cells.

  3. A precisely substituted benzopyran targets androgen refractory prostate cancer cells through selective modulation of estrogen receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Verma, Vikas; Sharma, Vikas; Jain, Ashish; Singh, Vishal; Sarswat, Amit; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Sharma, Vishnu L; Gupta, Gopal

    2015-03-15

    Dietary consumption of phytoestrogens like genistein has been linked with lower incidence of prostate cancer. The estradiol-like benzopyran core of genistein confers estrogen receptor-β (ER-β) selectivity that imparts weak anti-proliferative activity against prostate cancer cells. DL-2-[4-(2-piperidinoethoxy)phenyl]-3-phenyl-2H-1-benzopyran (BP), a SERM designed with benzopyran core, targeted androgen independent prostate cancer (PC-3) cells 14-times more potently than genistein, ~25% more efficiently than tamoxifen and 6.5-times more actively than ICI-182780, without forfeiting significant specificity in comparison to genistein. BP increased apoptosis (annexin-V and TUNEL labeling), arrested cell cycle, and significantly increased caspase-3 activity along with mRNA expressions of estrogen receptor (ER)-β and FasL (qPCR) in PC-3 cells. In classical ERE-luc reporter assay BP behaved as a potent ER-α antagonist and ER-β agonist. Accordingly, it decreased expression of ER-α target PS2 (P<0.01) and increased expression of ER-β target TNF-α (P<0.05) genes in PC-3. ER-β deficient PC-3 (siRNA-transfected) was resistant to apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions of SERMs, including stimulation of FasL expression by BP. BP significantly inhibited phosphorylation of Akt and ERK-1/2, JNK and p38 in PC-3 (immunoblotting), and thus adopted a multi-pathway mechanism to exert a more potent anti-proliferative activity against prostate cancer cells than natural and synthetic SERMs. Its precise ER-subtype specific activity presents a unique lead structure for further optimization.

  4. Cordycepin-induced apoptosis and autophagy in breast cancer cells are independent of the estrogen receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sunga [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301747 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Mi-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, Kangwon National University, Gangwon-do, 200701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Mo [Diabetic Complications Research Center, Division of Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM) Integrated Research, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM), 305811, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Byeong Hwa [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301747 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Won O. [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kim, Tae Woong, E-mail: tawkim@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Kangwon National University, Gangwon-do, 200701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Cordycepin (3-deoxyadenosine), found in Cordyceps spp., has been known to have many therapeutic effects including immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anti-aging effects. Moreover, anti-tumor and anti-metastatic effects of cordycepin have been reported, but the mechanism causing cancer cell death is poorly characterized. The present study was designed to investigate whether the mechanisms of cordycepin-induced cell death were associated with estrogen receptor in breast cancer cells. Exposure of both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells to cordycepin resulted in dose-responsive inhibition of cell growth and reduction in cell viability. The cordycepin-induced cell death in MDA-MB-231 cells was associated with several specific features of the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, which was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, TUNEL, and biochemical assays. Cordycepin also caused a dose-dependent increase in mitochondrial translocation of Bax, triggering cytosolic release of cytochrome c and activation of caspases-9 and -3. Interestingly, MCF-7 cells showed autophagy-associated cell death, as observed by the detection of an autophagosome-specific protein and large membranous vacuole ultrastructure morphology in the cytoplasm. Cordycepin-induced autophagic cell death has applications in treating MCF-7 cells with apoptotic defects, irrespective of the ER response. Although autophagy has a survival function in tumorigenesis of some cancer cells, autophagy may be important for cordycepin-induced MCF-7 cell death. In conclusion, the results of our study demonstrate that cordycepin effectively kills MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines in culture. Hence, further studies should be conducted to determine whether cordycepin will be a clinically useful, ER-independent, chemotherapeutic agent for human breast cancer. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the mechanism which cordycepin-induced cell death association with

  5. Impact of estrogen receptor-β expression on breast cancer prognosis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jieqiong; Guo, Huishan; Mao, Kai; Zhang, Kan; Deng, Heran; Liu, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER)-β has been discovered for decades; however, its prognostic value in breast cancer patients remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate the impact of ER-β expression on breast cancer survival. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library was performed to identify the association between ER-β expression and outcomes in early breast cancer patients. Random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to generate combined hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). A total of 6769 patients for ER-β1, 2295 patients for ER-β2, and 2271 patients for ER-β5 from 21 studies were included. ER-β1 protein expression was correlated with both favorable 5-year DFS and OS (HR 0.690, 95 % CI 0.610-0.779; P early breast cancer patients. The prognostic significance of ER-β1 for DFS is independent of ER-α coexpression, whereas the impact on OS was only in ER-α positive breast cancer.

  6. Role of manganese superoxide dismutase on growth and invasive properties of human estrogen-independent breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Zilal; Minig, Vanessa; Leroy, Pierre; Dauça, Michel; Becuwe, Philippe

    2008-03-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is known to play a role in cancer. MnSOD exerts a tumor suppressive effect in estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cells. In the present study we investigated the in vitro role of MnSOD in the growth of some aggressive and highly metastatic estrogen-independent breast cancer cells, i.e., MDA-MB231 and SKBR3 cells. We show that estrogen-independent cells expressed a significantly higher basal MnSOD level compared to estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and T47D). For MDA-MB231 cells, the high-MnSOD level was accompanied by an overproduction of intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and by a low expression of the major H2O2-detoxifying enzymes, catalase, and peroxiredoxin 3, compared to MCF-7 cells. Suppression of MnSOD expression by antisense RNA was associated with a decrease of H2O2 content and caused a stimulation of growth with a reduced cell doubling time but induced a decrease of colony formation. Furthermore, treatment of MDA-MB231 cells with H2O2 scavengers markedly reduced tumor cell growth and colony formation. In addition, MnSOD suppression or treatment with H2O2 scavengers reduced the invasive properties of MDA-MB231 cells up to 43%, with a concomitant decrease of metalloproteinase-9 activity. We conclude that MnSOD plays a role in regulating tumor cell growth and invasive properties of estrogen-independent metastatic breast cancer cells. These action are mediated by MnSOD-dependent H2O2 production. In addition, these results suggest that MnSOD up-regulation may be one mechanism that contributes to the development of metastatic breast cancers.

  7. Value of post-operative reassessment of estrogen receptor α expression following neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without gefitinib for estrogen receptor negative breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, Mogens; Balslev, Eva; Lykkesfeldt, Anne;

    2011-01-01

    The NICE trial was designed to evaluate the possible benefits of adding epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapy to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with estrogen receptor α (ER) negative and operable breast cancer. Preclinical data have suggested that signalling through the ErbB rec...... in a small but significant fraction of patients and should, whenever possible, be performed following neoadjuvant chemotherapy for ER negative breast cancer. Gefitinib did not affect the reversion rate of ER negative tumors.......The NICE trial was designed to evaluate the possible benefits of adding epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapy to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with estrogen receptor α (ER) negative and operable breast cancer. Preclinical data have suggested that signalling through the Erb......B receptors or downstream effectors may repress ER expression. Here the authors investigated whether gefitinib, given neoadjuvant in combination with epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (EC), could restore ER expression. Eligible patients in the NICE trial were women with unilateral, primary operable, ER negative...

  8. Value of post-operative reassessment of estrogen receptor α expression following neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without gefitinib for estrogen receptor negative breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, Mogens; Balslev, Eva; Lykkesfeldt, Anne;

    2011-01-01

    The NICE trial was designed to evaluate the possible benefits of adding epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapy to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with estrogen receptor a (ER) negative and operable breast cancer. Preclinical data have suggested that signalling through the ErbB rec...... in a small but significant fraction of patients and should, whenever possible, be performed following neoadjuvant chemotherapy for ER negative breast cancer. Gefitinib did not affect the reversion rate of ER negative tumors.......The NICE trial was designed to evaluate the possible benefits of adding epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapy to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with estrogen receptor a (ER) negative and operable breast cancer. Preclinical data have suggested that signalling through the Erb......B receptors or downstream effectors may repress ER expression. Here the authors investigated whether gefitinib, given neoadjuvant in combination with epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (EC), could restore ER expression. Eligible patients in the NICE trial were women with unilateral, primary operable, ER negative...

  9. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM: A new choice for postmenopausal women and physicians who worry on cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The postmenopausal state is characterized by the cessation of menstruation, loss of ovarian function, and a dramatic decrease in the level of circulating estrogen. This state of estrogen deficiency contributes to the acceleration of several age-related health problems in women, including cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and dementia. Estrogen replacement is clearly effective in the short-term and long-term treatment and prevention of postmenopausal symptoms. However, until now, the amount of HRT user is still very low. Fear of breast cancer and endometrial cancer are the most common concern in using hormone replacement therapy (HRT, although the relationship between long-term HRT and breast cancer remains controversial. For physicians or patients, who worry on cancer, the ideal drug is now available i.e. the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM, with the generic name raloxifine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 187-90Keywords: HRT, raloxifine, osteoporosis, CVD, tamoxifen

  10. Microarray-based determination of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 receptor status in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Roepman; H.M. Horlings; O. Krijgsman; M. Kok; J.M. Bueno-de-Mesquita; R. Bender; S.C. Linn; A.M. Glas; M.J. van de Vijver

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The level of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 aids in the determination of prognosis and treatment of breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry is currently the predominant method for assessment, but differences in methods and interpretation can substantially affect th

  11. Regulation of DNA Damage Response by Estrogen Receptor β-Mediated Inhibition of Breast Cancer Associated Gene 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hao Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that ubiquitin E3 ligases are involved in cancer development as their mutations correlate with genomic instability and genetic susceptibility to cancer. Despite significant findings of cancer-driving mutations in the BRCA1 gene, estrogen receptor (ER-positive breast cancers progress upon treatment with DNA damaging-cytotoxic therapies. In order to understand the underlying mechanism by which ER-positive breast cancer cells develop resistance to DNA damaging agents, we employed an estrogen receptor agonist, Erb-041, to increase the activity of ERβ and negatively regulate the expression and function of the estrogen receptor α (ERα in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Upon Erb-041-mediated ERα down-regulation, the transcription of an ERα downstream effector, BCA2 (Breast Cancer Associated gene 2, correspondingly decreased. The ubiquitination of chromatin-bound BCA2 was induced by ultraviolet C (UVC irradiation but suppressed by Erb-041 pretreatment, resulting in a blunted DNA damage response. Upon BCA2 silencing, DNA double-stranded breaks increased with Rad51 up-regulation and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM activation. Mechanistically, UV-induced BCA2 ubiquitination and chromatin binding were found to promote DNA damage response and repair via the interaction of BCA2 with ATM, γH2AX and Rad51. Taken together, this study suggests that Erb-041 potentiates BCA2 dissociation from chromatin and co-localization with Rad51, resulting in inhibition of homologous recombination repair.

  12. Telomerase activity, estrogen receptors (α, β), Bcl-2 expression in human breast cancer and treatment response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Ortiz, Blanca; Astudillo-De la Vega, Horacio; Castillo-Medina, Sebastian; Malacara, JM; Benitez-Bribiesca, Luis

    2006-01-01

    Background The mechanism for maintaining telomere integrity is controlled by telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that specifically restores telomere sequences, lost during replication by means of an intrinsic RNA component as a template for polymerization. Among the telomerase subunits, hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase) is expressed concomitantly with the activation of telomerase. The role of estrogens and their receptors in the transcriptional regulation of hTERT has been demonstrated. The current study determines the possible association between telomerase activity, the expression of both molecular forms of estrogen receptor (ERα and ERβ) and the protein bcl-2, and their relative associations with clinical parameters. Methods Tissue samples from 44 patients with breast cancer were used to assess telomerase activity using the TRAP method and the expression of ERα, ERβ and bcl-2 by means of immunocytochemical techniques. Results Telomerase activity was detected in 59% of the 44 breast tumors examined. Telomerase activity ranged from 0 to 49.93 units of total product generated (TPG). A correlation was found between telomerase activity and differentiation grade (p = 0.03). The only significant independent marker of response to treatment was clinical stage. We found differences between the frequency of expression of ERα (88%) and ERβ (36%) (p = 0.007); bcl-2 was expressed in 79.5% of invasive breast carcinomas. We also found a significant correlation between low levels of telomerase activity and a lack of ERβ expression (p = 0.03). Conclusion Lower telomerase activity was found among tumors that did not express estrogen receptor beta. This is the first published study demonstrating that the absence of expression of ERβ is associated with low levels of telomerase activity. PMID:16911782

  13. Telomerase activity, estrogen receptors (α, β, Bcl-2 expression in human breast cancer and treatment response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malacara JM

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanism for maintaining telomere integrity is controlled by telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that specifically restores telomere sequences, lost during replication by means of an intrinsic RNA component as a template for polymerization. Among the telomerase subunits, hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase is expressed concomitantly with the activation of telomerase. The role of estrogens and their receptors in the transcriptional regulation of hTERT has been demonstrated. The current study determines the possible association between telomerase activity, the expression of both molecular forms of estrogen receptor (ERα and ERβ and the protein bcl-2, and their relative associations with clinical parameters. Methods Tissue samples from 44 patients with breast cancer were used to assess telomerase activity using the TRAP method and the expression of ERα, ERβ and bcl-2 by means of immunocytochemical techniques. Results Telomerase activity was detected in 59% of the 44 breast tumors examined. Telomerase activity ranged from 0 to 49.93 units of total product generated (TPG. A correlation was found between telomerase activity and differentiation grade (p = 0.03. The only significant independent marker of response to treatment was clinical stage. We found differences between the frequency of expression of ERα (88% and ERβ (36% (p = 0.007; bcl-2 was expressed in 79.5% of invasive breast carcinomas. We also found a significant correlation between low levels of telomerase activity and a lack of ERβ expression (p = 0.03. Conclusion Lower telomerase activity was found among tumors that did not express estrogen receptor beta. This is the first published study demonstrating that the absence of expression of ERβ is associated with low levels of telomerase activity.

  14. Oral contraceptive use and impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M T; Jensen, A; Frederiksen, K

    2013-01-01

    women aged 35–79 years; 554 women with epithelial ovarian cancer and 1,564 age-matched controls were included in the analyses. Data were analyzed in multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: The use of combined oral contraceptives only and the mixed use of combined and progestin-only pills decreased...... the risk of ovarian cancer, while no association was found with exclusive use of progestin-only pills. No major differences in risk were found for users of combined oral contraceptives with high- and low-potency estrogen and progestin. There was no effect of cumulative progestin intake, but decreased risks......PURPOSE: Oral contraceptive use decreases the risk of ovarian cancer, but no previous studies have assessed the impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: We used data from a population-based case–control study conducted in Denmark in 1995–1999 among...

  15. Basal-like phenotype is not associated with patient survival in estrogen-receptor-negative breast cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Jumppanen, Mervi; Gruvberger-Saal, Sofia; Kauraniemi, Päivikki; Tanner, Minna; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Lundin, Mikael; Krogh, Morten; Kataja, Pasi; Borg, Åke; Fernö, Mårten; Isola, Jorma

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Basal-phenotype or basal-like breast cancers are characterized by basal epithelium cytokeratin (CK5/14/17) expression, negative estrogen receptor (ER) status and distinct gene expression signature. We studied the clinical and biological features of the basal-phenotype tumors determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and cDNA microarrays especially within the ER-negative subgroup. Methods IHC was used to evaluate the CK5/14 status of 445 stage II breast cancers. The gene expression...

  16. Estrogen Receptor beta 2 Induces Hypoxia Signature of Gene Expression by Stabilizing HIF-1 alpha in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Prasenjit Dey; Velazquez-Villegas, Laura A.; Michelle Faria; Anthony Turner; Philp Jonsson; Paul Webb; Cecilia Williams; Jan-Åke Gustafsson; Ström, Anders M.

    2015-01-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) beta variant ER beta 2 is expressed in aggressive castration-resistant prostate cancer and has been shown to correlate with decreased overall survival. Genome-wide expression analysis after ER beta 2 expression in prostate cancer cells revealed that hypoxia was an overrepresented theme. Here we show that ER beta 2 interacts with and stabilizes HIF-1 alpha protein in normoxia, thereby inducing a hypoxic gene expression signature. HIF-1 alpha is known to stimulate met...

  17. Effects of MSH2 gene re-expression on estrogen induced-apoptosis of colon cancer cells LOVO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晨曦

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of MSH2 gene reexpression on estrogen-induced apoptosis of colon cancer cells LOVO,and to explore its mechanisms.Methods According to different plasmid and whether with estradiol intervention,colon cancer LOVO cells were divided into empty plasmid with ethanol group,empty plasmid with estradiol group,MSH2 with ethanol group,MSH2 with

  18. Period 1 and estrogen receptor-beta are downregulated in Chinese colon cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yupeng; Xing, Tonghai; Huang, Li; Song, Guohe; Sun, Xing; Zhong, Lin; Fan, Junwei; Yan, Dongwang; Zhou, Chongzhi; Cui, Feifei; Yu, Fudong; Chen, Jian; Yu, Yang; Li, Chao; Tang, Huamei; Peng, Zhihai; Wang, Xiaoliang

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether Period 1 (PER1) and Estrogen receptor-beta (ER2) are associated with occurrence and development of Chinese colorectal cancers. By using RT-quantitative PCR, tissue microarray (TMA) and immunohistochemistry, we detected mRNA levels and protein levels of PER1 and ER2 in the cancerous tissues and paired normal adjacent tissues in patients with colorectal cancer. Survival analyses were performed by the Kaplan-Meier method utilizing log-rank test and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional modeling to measure 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Real-time PCR showed that, the delta Ct value (tumor tissue vs. normal mucosa) of PER1 or ER2 is 8.51 ± 2.81 vs. 7.34 ± 2.08 or 12.39 ± 2.43 vs. 9.76 ± 1.75, expression of PER1 and ER2 decreased significantly in tumor tissues compared with noncancerous mucosas of patients with or without metastasis (both of P values <0.001). Spearman test revealed that PER1 and ER2 were significantly down-regulated in cancerous tissues (r=0.283; P<0.001) which was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry of specimens from 203 colon cancer patients in a TMA format. The reduction of PER1 was associated with gender and distant metastasis (P=0.037 and P<0.001, respectively) whereas the decline of ER2 was associated with age (P=0.043) by analyzing the clinical data. However, we were not capable of detecting any association between PER1 level or ER2 level and overall survival (OS) or disease free survival (DFS). It is the first observation of correlated reduction of PER1 and ER2 in Chinese colon cancers, and they do play a certain role in colorectal cancer.

  19. RELATIONSHIP AMONG PS2 PROTEIN EXPRESSION, ESTROGEN AND PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR STATUS, AND PROGNOSIS OF BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jingxian; LI Jiyou; HE Luowen; ZHAO Yajuan

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the expression of PS2 protein and Estrogen (ER) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) status and their prognotic value in breast cancer. Methods: Using the immunohistochemical method, PS2 protein expressions were detected in 105 cases with breast cancer. Results:The positive rate of PS2 protein was 50.48% (53/105) in 105 cases. The positive rate of PS2 in the patients who survived five years or more was 56.96% (45/79), which was higher than that of those who lived less than five years (30.77%, 8/26). In the ER, PR (+) patients, the positive rate of PS2 was higher (76.74%, 33/34), than that of those with ER, PR (-) (22.5%, 9/40). Conclusions:Our results suggest that the expression of PS2 protein was positively correlated with the S-year-survival and that of ER and PR in breast cancer. It is considered that PS2 may be as a prognostic predictor, and detection of PS2 protein expression was useful for a guiding treatment of breast cancer.

  20. Dormancy Signatures and Metastasis in Estrogen Receptor Positive and Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ryung S.; Avivar-Valderas, Alvaro; Estrada, Yeriel; Bragado, Paloma; Sosa, Maria Soledad; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.; Segall, Jeffrey E.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancers can recur after removal of the primary tumor and treatment to eliminate remaining tumor cells. Recurrence may occur after long periods of time during which there are no clinical symptoms. Tumor cell dormancy may explain these prolonged periods of asymptomatic residual disease and treatment resistance. We generated a dormancy gene signature from published experimental models and applied it to both breast cancer cell line expression data as well as four published clinical studies of primary breast cancers. We found that estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cell lines and primary tumors have significantly higher dormancy signature scores (P<0.0000001) than ER- cell lines and tumors. In addition, a stratified analysis combining all ER+ tumors in four studies indicated 2.1 times higher hazard of recurrence among patients whose tumors had low dormancy scores (LDS) compared to those whose tumors had high dormancy scores (HDS) (p<0.000005). The trend was shown in all four individual studies. Suppression of two dormancy genes, BHLHE41 and NR2F1, resulted in increased in vivo growth of ER positive MCF7 cells. The patient data analysis suggests that disseminated ER positive tumor cells carrying a dormancy signature are more likely to undergo prolonged dormancy before resuming metastatic growth. Furthermore, genes identified with this approach might provide insight into the mechanisms of dormancy onset and maintenance as well as dormancy models using human breast cancer cell lines. PMID:22530051

  1. Dormancy signatures and metastasis in estrogen receptor positive and negative breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryung S Kim

    Full Text Available Breast cancers can recur after removal of the primary tumor and treatment to eliminate remaining tumor cells. Recurrence may occur after long periods of time during which there are no clinical symptoms. Tumor cell dormancy may explain these prolonged periods of asymptomatic residual disease and treatment resistance. We generated a dormancy gene signature from published experimental models and applied it to both breast cancer cell line expression data as well as four published clinical studies of primary breast cancers. We found that estrogen receptor (ER positive breast cell lines and primary tumors have significantly higher dormancy signature scores (P<0.0000001 than ER- cell lines and tumors. In addition, a stratified analysis combining all ER+ tumors in four studies indicated 2.1 times higher hazard of recurrence among patients whose tumors had low dormancy scores (LDS compared to those whose tumors had high dormancy scores (HDS (p<0.000005. The trend was shown in all four individual studies. Suppression of two dormancy genes, BHLHE41 and NR2F1, resulted in increased in vivo growth of ER positive MCF7 cells. The patient data analysis suggests that disseminated ER positive tumor cells carrying a dormancy signature are more likely to undergo prolonged dormancy before resuming metastatic growth. Furthermore, genes identified with this approach might provide insight into the mechanisms of dormancy onset and maintenance as well as dormancy models using human breast cancer cell lines.

  2. Genome Science and Personalized Cancer Treatment (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Joe

    2009-08-04

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Results from the Human Genome Project are enabling scientists to understand how individual cancers form and progress. This information, when combined with newly developed drugs, can optimize the treatment of individual cancers. Joe Gray, director of Berkeley Labs Life Sciences Division and Associate Laboratory Director for Life and Environmental Sciences, will focus on this approach, its promise, and its current roadblocks — particularly with regard to breast cancer.

  3. A retrospective review of the metabolic syndrome in women diagnosed with breast cancer and correlation with estrogen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, Sarah V; Douglas Case, L; Lawrence, Julia A

    2012-01-01

    Women diagnosed with obesity and breast cancer have an increased risk of recurrence and death (Protani et al., Breast Cancer Res Treat 123:627-635, 1). Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome--a pathophysiologically distinct inflammatory process comprised of central obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and atherogenic dyslipidemia. The relationship of obesity as a risk factor for breast cancer is complex with a protective effect for younger women in contrast to a risk for older women (Kabat et al., Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18:2046-2053, 2; Ursin et al., Epidemiology 6:137-141, 3). The metabolic syndrome has been associated with the risk of cancer, and pro-inflammatory circulating factors may be associated with risk of more aggressive breast cancer (Capasso et al., Cancer Biol Ther 10:1240-1243, 4; Healy et al., Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 22:281-288, 5; Laukkanen et al., Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13:1646-1650, 6). We conducted a retrospective review of 860 breast cancer patients to determine the relationship between estrogen receptor status and the metabolic syndrome. We collected the relevant metabolic diagnoses, medications, physical findings, and laboratory values and adapted the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria to define the metabolic syndrome retrospectively. No relationship was found between estrogen receptor status and the individual components of the metabolic syndrome. Based on findings in the medical records, 15% of the women with breast cancer had the metabolic syndrome, and 26% of the women were considered obese, 16% hyperglycemic, 54% hypertensive, and 30% dyslipidemic. The metabolic syndrome was associated with advanced age and African-American race (P metabolic syndrome was marginally associated with estrogen receptor-positive tumors (P = 0.054). Our findings do not support the concern that the metabolic syndrome may contribute to more biologically aggressive breast cancer.

  4. Tetrahydro-iso-alpha Acids Antagonize Estrogen Receptor Alpha Activity in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maëlle Lempereur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids commonly called THIAA or Tetra are modified hop acids extracted from hop (Humulus lupulus L. which are frequently used in brewing industry mainly in order to provide beer bitterness and foam stability. Interestingly, molecular structure of tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids is close to a new type of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα antagonists aimed at disrupting the binding of coactivators containing an LxxLL motif (NR-box. In this work we show that THIAA decreases estradiol-stimulated proliferation of MCF-7 (ERα-positive breast cancer cells. Besides, we show that it inhibits ERα transcriptional activity. Interestingly, this extract fails to compete with estradiol for ERα binding and does not significantly impact the receptor turnover rate in MCF-7 cells, suggesting that it does not act like classical antiestrogens. Hence, we demonstrate that THIAA is able to antagonize ERα estradiol-induced recruitment of the LxxLL binding motif.

  5. A precisely substituted benzopyran targets androgen refractory prostate cancer cells through selective modulation of estrogen receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Verma, Vikas; Sharma, Vikas; Jain, Ashish; Singh, Vishal [Division of Endocrinology, CSIR—Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Sarswat, Amit [Division of Medicinal & Process Chemistry, CSIR—Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Maikhuri, Jagdamba P. [Division of Endocrinology, CSIR—Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Sharma, Vishnu L. [Division of Medicinal & Process Chemistry, CSIR—Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Gupta, Gopal, E-mail: g_gupta@cdri.res.in [Division of Endocrinology, CSIR—Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India)

    2015-03-15

    Dietary consumption of phytoestrogens like genistein has been linked with lower incidence of prostate cancer. The estradiol-like benzopyran core of genistein confers estrogen receptor-β (ER-β) selectivity that imparts weak anti-proliferative activity against prostate cancer cells. DL-2-[4-(2-piperidinoethoxy)phenyl]-3-phenyl-2H-1-benzopyran (BP), a SERM designed with benzopyran core, targeted androgen independent prostate cancer (PC-3) cells 14-times more potently than genistein, ~ 25% more efficiently than tamoxifen and 6.5-times more actively than ICI-182780, without forfeiting significant specificity in comparison to genistein. BP increased apoptosis (annexin-V and TUNEL labeling), arrested cell cycle, and significantly increased caspase-3 activity along with mRNA expressions of estrogen receptor (ER)-β and FasL (qPCR) in PC-3 cells. In classical ERE-luc reporter assay BP behaved as a potent ER-α antagonist and ER-β agonist. Accordingly, it decreased expression of ER-α target PS2 (P < 0.01) and increased expression of ER-β target TNF-α (P < 0.05) genes in PC-3. ER-β deficient PC-3 (siRNA-transfected) was resistant to apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions of SERMs, including stimulation of FasL expression by BP. BP significantly inhibited phosphorylation of Akt and ERK-1/2, JNK and p38 in PC-3 (immunoblotting), and thus adopted a multi-pathway mechanism to exert a more potent anti-proliferative activity against prostate cancer cells than natural and synthetic SERMs. Its precise ER-subtype specific activity presents a unique lead structure for further optimization. - Highlights: • BP with benzopyran core of genistein was identified for ER-β selective action. • BP was 14-times more potent than genistien in targeting prostate cancer cells. • It behaved as a potent ER-β agonist and ER-α antagonist in gene reporter assays. • BP's anti-proliferative action was inhibited significantly in ER-β deficient cells. • BP — a unique lead

  6. The first organometallic selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and their relevance to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouen, Gérard; Top, Siden; Vessières, Anne; Leclercq, G; McGlinchey, Michael J

    2004-09-01

    In the overall scheme of the future development of new drugs for the treatment of breast cancer, specially tamoxifen resistant tumours, we have explored the unprecedented use of organometallic SERMs. The initial idea is to enhance the efficacy of the current standard, i.e. tamoxifen, by modifying the structure through judicious incorporation of an organometallic moiety possessing novel properties. Results have been varied, justifying a systematic approach that has proved to be full of surprised. The following differing situations were observed (a) the anti-proliferative effect is due to the vector and the organometallic moiety does not improve the effects of the SERM, no matter what concentration is used. In particular, this is the case for the hydroxytamoxifen derivative bearing a CpRe(CO)3 group, which behaves almost identically to hydroxytamoxifen. These stable species have future promise for use with radionucleides of Re and Tc (b) the effect of the organometallic moiety counteracts the anti-estrogenic behaviour of the vector and leads to species with proliferative activity; this is the case with Cp2TiCl2 entity, which when attached to tamoxifen behaves as a powerful estrogen, probably due to in situ release of Ti(IV) (c) a synergy exists between the cytotoxic organometallic moiety and its organic vector, leading to unique anti-proliferative effects on breast cancer cells classed ER+ and ER-. This result opens a new window on organometallic oncology. It is also clear that the range of possibilities is broad, varied and currently unpredictable. A systematic study combining organometallic chemistry and biology is the only option in the search for new SERMs with novel properties.

  7. Stars in Nutrition and Cancer Lecture Series | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This lecture series features extraordinary contributors or "stars" in the field of cancer and nutrition research. Speakers highlight the important role that nutrition plays in modifying cancer development. Past lectures are videotaped and available for viewing. |

  8. Divergent estrogen receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer trends and etiologic heterogeneity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, William F; Rosenberg, Philip S; Petito, Lucia;

    2013-01-01

    Long-term breast cancer trends in incidence in the United States (US) show rising estrogen receptor (ER)-positive rates and falling ER-negative rates. We hypothesized that these divergent trends reflect etiologic heterogeneity and that comparable trends should be observed in other countries......-period-cohort models to estimate age-specific EAPCs, cohort rate ratios and projections for future time periods (2011-2018). In Denmark, the overall rate of ER-positive cancers rose between 1993 and 2010 by 3.0% per year (95% CI: 2.8-3.3% per year), whereas the overall rate of ER-negative cancers fell by 2.1% per year...... (95% CI: -2.5 to -1.6% per year). The ER-positive rate increased fastest among postmenopausal women and the ER-negative rate decreased fastest among premenopausal women, reflecting that cohorts born after 1944 were at relatively higher risk of ER-positive tumors and lower risk of ER-negative tumors...

  9. Life history theory and breast cancer risk: methodological and theoretical challenges: Response to "Is estrogen receptor negative breast cancer risk associated with a fast life history strategy?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktipis, Athena

    2016-01-01

    In a meta-analysis published by myself and co-authors, we report differences in the life history risk factors for estrogen receptor negative (ER-) and estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers. Our meta-analysis did not find the association of ER- breast cancer risk with fast life history characteristics that Hidaka and Boddy suggest in their response to our article. There are a number of possible explanations for the differences between their conclusions and the conclusions we drew from our meta-analysis, including limitations of our meta-analysis and methodological challenges in measuring and categorizing estrogen receptor status. These challenges, along with the association of ER+ breast cancer with slow life history characteristics, may make it challenging to find a clear signal of ER- breast cancer with fast life history characteristics, even if that relationship does exist. The contradictory results regarding breast cancer risk and life history characteristics illustrate a more general challenge in evolutionary medicine: often different sub-theories in evolutionary biology make contradictory predictions about disease risk. In this case, life history models predict that breast cancer risk should increase with faster life history characteristics, while the evolutionary mismatch hypothesis predicts that breast cancer risk should increase with delayed reproduction. Whether life history tradeoffs contribute to ER- breast cancer is still an open question, but current models and several lines of evidence suggest that it is a possibility.

  10. Estrogen receptor testing and 10-year mortality from breast cancer: A model for determining testing strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Naugler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy in the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER expressing breast carcinomas represents a major advance in personalized cancer treatment. Because there is no benefit (and indeed there is increased morbidity and mortality associated with the use of tamoxifen therapy in ER-negative breast cancer, its use is restricted to women with ER expressing cancers. However, correctly classifying cancers as ER positive or negative has been challenging given the high reported false negative test rates for ER expression in surgical specimens. In this paper I model practice recommendations using published information from clinical trials to address the question of whether there is a false negative test rate above which it is more efficacious to forgo ER testing and instead treat all patients with tamoxifen regardless of ER test results. Methods: I used data from randomized clinical trials to model two different hypothetical treatment strategies: (1 the current strategy of treating only ER positive women with tamoxifen and (2 an alternative strategy where all women are treated with tamoxifen regardless of ER test results. The variables used in the model are literature-derived survival rates of the different combinations of ER positivity and treatment with tamoxifen, varying true ER positivity rates and varying false negative ER testing rates. The outcome variable was hypothetical 10-year survival. Results: The model predicted that there will be a range of true ER rates and false negative test rates above which it would be more efficacious to treat all women with breast cancer with tamoxifen and forgo ER testing. This situation occurred with high true positive ER rates and false negative ER test rates in the range of 20-30%. Conclusions: It is hoped that this model will provide an example of the potential importance of diagnostic error on clinical outcomes and furthermore will give an example of how the effect of that

  11. Role of interleukin-8 in the progression of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Chen; LIN Ying; YE Cai-sheng; BI Jiong; ZHU Yi-fan; WANG Shen-ming

    2007-01-01

    Background Estrogen receptor (ER) is a very important biomarker of breast cancer. ER deletion has been consistently associated with tumor progression, recurrence, metastasis and poor prognosis, but the biological mechanism is still unclear. ER negative breast cancer expresses high levels of interieukin-8 (IL-8). ER expression can downregulate IL-8 promotor activity. As a multifunctional cytokine, IL-8 has many important biological activities in tumor genesis and development. With the goal of investigating the role of IL-8 in ER-negative breast cancer progression, we applied RNA interference technology to specifically knockdown the IL-8 expression in ER-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.Methods Interfering pRNA-IL-8 and the control was transfected into ER(-) MDA-MB-231. The proliferation, cell apotosis,and invasive ability were recorded in transfected, untransfected and negative transfected cells. These cells were injected into nude mice to assess tumorigenicity, proliferation, metastasis and microvessel density (MVD).Results In vitro, decreased expression of IL-8 was associated with reduced cell invasion (P<0.001), but had no effect on cell proliferation (P>0.05). In vivo, neutrophils infiltration was significantly inhibited in pRNA-IL-8 transfected cells compared with untransfected and negatively transfected cells (P=0.001, P<0.001). Less metastasis was found in transfected cells compared with negatively transfected cells (0% vs 80%, P=0.048). Nevertheless, we observed less MVD in transfected cells compared with control in nude mice (P<0.001).Conclusions IL-8 inhibits ER-negative breast cancer cell growth and promotes its metastasis in vivo, which may be correlated with neutrophils infiltration induced by IL-8.

  12. Assessment of variation in immunosuppressive pathway genes reveals TGFBR2 to be associated with prognosis of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer after chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Lei (Jieping); A. Rudolph (Anja); K.B. Moysich (Kirsten); M. Rafiq (Meena); T.W. Behrens (Timothy); E.L. Goode (Ellen); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); P. Seibold (Petra); P.A. Fasching (Peter); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); V. Kristensen (Vessela); F.J. Couch (Fergus); U. Hamann (Ute); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); U. Eilber (Ursula); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); J. Dennis (Joe); Q. Wang (Qing); A. Lindblom (Annika); A. Mannermaa (Arto); D. Lambrechts (Diether); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); P. Hall (Per); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); M. Shah (Mitul); R.N. Luben (Robert); L. Haeberle (Lothar); A.B. Ekici (Arif); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); J.A. Knight (Julia); G. Glendon (Gord); S. Tchatchou (Sandrine); G.G. Alnæs (Grethe Grenaker); A.-L. Borresen-Dale (Anne-Lise); S. Nord (Silje); J.E. Olson (Janet); B. Hallberg (Boubou); C. Vachon (Celine); D. Torres (Diana); H.U. Ulmer (Hans); T. Rud̈iger (Thomas); A. Jager (Agnes); C.H.M. van Deurzen (Carolien); M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); T.A. Muranen (Taru); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); C. Blomqvist (Carl); S. Margolin (Sara); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); V. Kataja (Vesa); S. Hatse (Sigrid); H. Wildiers (Hans); A. Smeets (Ann); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); J. Li (Jingmei); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); K.-A. Phillips (Kelly-Anne); S.C. Linn (Sabine); S. Cornelissen (Sten); S.A.J. van den Broek (Sandra Alexandra); D. Kang (Daehee); J.-Y. Choi (J.); S.K. Park (Sue); K.Y. Yoo; C.-N. Hsiung (Chia-Ni); P.-E. Wu (Pei-Ei); M.-F. Hou (Ming-Feng); C-Y. Shen (Chen-Yang); S.-H. Teo; N.A.M. Taib (Nur Aishah Mohd); C.-H. Yip (Cheng-Har); G.F. Ho (Gwo Fuang); K. Matsuo (Keitaro); H. Ito (Hidemi); H. Iwata (Hisato); K. Tajima (Kazuo); A.M. Dunning (Alison); J. Benítez (Javier); K. Czene (Kamila); L. Sucheston (Lara); T. Maishman (Tom); W. Tapper (William); D. Eccles (Diana); D.F. Easton (Douglas); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Tumor lymphocyte infiltration is associated with clinical response to chemotherapy in estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer. To identify variants in immunosuppressive pathway genes associated with prognosis after adjuvant chemotherapy for ER-negative patients, we st

  13. Relationship between estrogen receptor α and β expression and clinicopathological characteristics in elderly patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate estrogen receptor(ER)α and β expressions in elderly patients with non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC) in China and their relationship with clinical and pathological characteristics

  14. Breast Cancer Anti-Estrogen Resistance 4 (BCAR4 Drives Proliferation of IPH-926 lobular Carcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ton van Agthoven

    Full Text Available Most breast cancers depend on estrogenic growth stimulation. Functional genetic screenings in in vitro cell models have identified genes, which override growth suppression induced by anti-estrogenic drugs like tamoxifen. Using that approach, we have previously identified Breast Cancer Anti-Estrogen Resistance 4 (BCAR4 as a mediator of cell proliferation and tamoxifen-resistance. Here, we show high level of expression and function of BCAR4 in human breast cancer.BCAR4 mRNA expression was evaluated by (qRT-PCR in a panel of human normal tissues, primary breast cancers and cell lines. A new antibody raised against C78-I97 of the putative BCAR4 protein and used for western blot and immunoprecipitation assays. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated gene silencing was implemented to study the function of BCAR4 and its downstream targets ERBB2/3.Except for placenta, all human normal tissues tested were BCAR4-negative. In primary breast cancers, BCAR4 expression was comparatively rare (10%, but associated with enhanced proliferation. Relative high BCAR4 mRNA expression was identified in IPH-926, a cell line derived from an endocrine-resistant lobular breast cancer. Moderate BCAR4 expression was evident in MDA-MB-134 and MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells. BCAR4 protein was detected in breast cancer cells with ectopic (ZR-75-1-BCAR4 and endogenous (IPH-926, MDA-MB-453 BCAR4 mRNA expression. Knockdown of BCAR4 inhibited cell proliferation. A similar effect was observed upon knockdown of ERBB2/3 and exposure to lapatinib, implying that BCAR4 acts in an ERBB2/3-dependent manner.BCAR4 encodes a functional protein, which drives proliferation of endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells. Lapatinib, a clinically approved EGFR/ERBB2 inhibitor, counteracts BCAR4-driven tumor cell growth, a clinical relevant observation.

  15. Triple-negative breast cancer risk in women is defined by the defect of estrogen signaling: preventive and therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suba Z

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zsuzsanna Suba National Institute of Oncology, Surgical and Molecular Tumor Pathology Centre, Budapest, Hungary Abstract: Epidemiologic studies strongly support that triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs may be distinct entities as compared with estrogen receptor (ER+ tumors, suggesting that the etiologic factors, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic possibilities may vary by molecular subtypes. Many investigations propose that reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use differently or even quite inversely affect the risk of TNBCs and ER+ cancers. Controversies concerning the exact role of even the same risk factor in TNBC development justify that the biological mechanisms behind the initiation of both TNBCs and non-TNBCs are completely obscure. To arrive at a comprehensive understanding of the etiology of different breast cancer subtypes, we should also reconsider our traditional concepts and beliefs regarding cancer risk factors. Malignancies are multicausal, but the disturbance of proper estrogen signaling seems to be a crucial risk factor for the development of mammary cancers. The grade of defect in metabolic and hormonal equilibrium is directly associated with TNBC risk for women during their whole life. Inverse impact of menopausal status or parity on the development of ER+ and ER- breast cancers may not be possible; these controversial results derive from the misinterpretation of percentage-based statistical evaluations. Exogenous or parity-associated excessive estrogen supply is suppressive against breast cancer, though the lower the ER expression of tumors, the weaker the anticancer capacity. In women, the most important preventive strategy against breast cancers – included TNBCs – is the strict control and maintenance of hormonal equilibrium from early adolescence through the whole lifetime, particularly during the periods of great hormonal changes. Keywords: cancer prevention, infertility, insulin resistance, menopause

  16. Effects of cadmium on estrogen receptor mediated signaling and estrogen induced DNA synthesis in T47D human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yu; Odwin-Dacosta, Shelly; Yager, James D

    2009-01-30

    Cadmium (Cd) has been shown to bind to the human estrogen receptor (ER), yet studies on Cd's estrogenic effects have yielded inconsistent results. In this study, we investigated the effects of Cd on DNA synthesis and its simultaneous effects on both genomic (mediated by nuclear ER (nER)) and non-genomic (mediated by membrane-bound ER (mER)) signaling in human breast cancer derived T47D cells. No effects on DNA synthesis were observed for non-cytotoxic concentrations of CdCl(2) (0.1-1000 nM), and Cd did not increase progesterone receptor (PgR) or pS2 mRNA levels. However, Cd stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 MAPK, detectable following 10 min and 18 h of treatment. The sustained Cd-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was inhibited by the ER antagonist ICI 182,780, suggesting the involvement of ER. In addition, Cd enhanced DNA synthesis and pS2 mRNA levels in estrogen (10 pM estradiol) treated T47D cells. The MEK1/2 specific inhibitor U0126 blocked DNA synthesis stimulated by estradiol (E2) and the E2-Cd mixtures. These findings indicate that the ERK1/2 signaling is critical in E2-related DNA synthesis. The sustained ERK1/2 phosphorylation may contribute to the Cd-induced enhancement of DNA synthesis and pS2 mRNA in mixture with low-concentration E2.

  17. Differential estrogen-regulation of CXCL12 chemokine receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7, contributes to the growth effect of estrogens in breast cancer cells.

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    Antoine Boudot

    Full Text Available CXCR4 and CXCR7 are the two receptors for the chemokine CXCL12, a key mediator of the growth effect of estrogens (E2 in estrogen receptor (ER-positive breast cancers. In this study we examined E2-regulation of the CXCL12 axis components and their involvement in the growth of breast cancer cells. CXCR4 and CXCR7 were differentially regulated by E2 which enhanced the expression of both CXCL12 and CXCR4 but repressed the expression of CXCR7. Formaldehyde-associated isolation of regulatory elements (FAIRE revealed that E2-mediated transcriptional regulation of these genes is linked to the control of the compaction state of chromatin at their promoters. This effect could be accomplished via several distal ER-binding sites in the regions surrounding these genes, all of which are located 20-250 kb from the transcription start site. Furthermore, individual down-regulation of CXCL12, CXCR4 or CXCR7 expression as well as the inhibition of their activity significantly decreases the rate of basal cell growth. In contrast, E2-induced cell growth was differentially affected. Unlike CXCR7, the inhibition of the expression or activity of either CXCL12 or CXCR4 significantly blunted the E2-mediated stimulation of cellular growth. Besides, CXCR7 over-expression increased the basal MCF-7 cell growth rate and decreased the growth effect of E2. These findings indicate that E2 regulation of the CXCL12 signaling axis is important for the E2-mediated growth effect of breast cancer cells. These data also provide support for distinct biological functions of CXCR4 and CXCR7 and suggest that targeting CXCR4 and/or CXCR7 would have distinct molecular effects on ER-positive breast tumors.

  18. Is Homepathy Effective for Hot Flashes and other Estrogen-Withdrawal Symptoms in Breast Cancer Survivors? A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    AD__________ Award Number: DAMD17-99-1-9438 TITLE: Is Homeopathy Effective for Hot Flashes and Other Estrogen-Withdrawal Symptoms in Breast Cancer...Mar 00) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Is Homeopathy Effective for Hot Flashes and Other Estrogen- DAMD17-99-1-9438 Withdrawal Symptoms in...there is evidence that homeopathy is an effective treatment to improve the quality of life in breast cancer survivors who are experiencing hot flashes

  19. Parenteral estrogen versus combined androgen deprivation in the treatment of metastatic prostatic cancer: part 2. Final evaluation of the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group (SPCG) Study No. 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, P.O.; Damber, J.E.; Hagerman, I.;

    2008-01-01

    To compare parenteral estrogen therapy in the form of high-dose polyestradiol phosphate (PEP; Estradurin) with combined androgen deprivation (CAD) in the treatment of prostate cancer patients with skeletal metastases. The aim of the study was to compare anticancer efficacy and adverse events...

  20. New steroidal aromatase inhibitors: Suppression of estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell proliferation and induction of cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roleira Fernanda MF

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromatase, the cytochrome P-450 enzyme (CYP19 responsible for estrogen biosynthesis, is an important target for the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer. In fact, the use of synthetic aromatase inhibitors (AI, which induce suppression of estrogen synthesis, has shown to be an effective alternative to the classical tamoxifen for the treatment of postmenopausal patients with ER-positive breast cancer. New AIs obtained, in our laboratory, by modification of the A and D-rings of the natural substrate of aromatase, compounds 3a and 4a, showed previously to efficiently suppress aromatase activity in placental microsomes. In the present study we have investigated the effects of these compounds on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and induction of cell death using the estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cell line stably transfected with the aromatase gene, MCF-7 aro cells. Results The new steroids inhibit hormone-dependent proliferation of MCF-7aro cells in a time and dose-dependent manner, causing cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and inducing cell death with features of apoptosis and autophagic cell death. Conclusion Our in vitro studies showed that the two steroidal AIs, 3a and 4a, are potent inhibitors of breast cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, it was also shown that the antiproliferative effects of these two steroids on MCF-7aro cells are mediated by disrupting cell cycle progression, through cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and induction of cell death, being the dominant mechanism autophagic cell death. Our results are important for the elucidation of the cellular effects of steroidal AIs on breast cancer.

  1. Argonaute 2 Expression Correlates with a Luminal B Breast Cancer Subtype and Induces Estrogen Receptor Alpha Isoform Variation

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    Adrienne K. Conger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα signaling pathways are frequently disrupted in breast cancer and contribute to disease progression. ERα signaling is multifaceted and many ERα regulators have been identified including transcription factors and growth factor pathways. More recently, microRNAs (miRNAs are shown to deregulate ERα activity in breast carcinomas, with alterations in both ERα and miRNA expression correlating to cancer progression. In this study, we show that a high expression of Argonaute 2 (AGO2, a translation regulatory protein and mediator of miRNA function, correlates with the luminal B breast cancer subtype. We further demonstrate that a high expression of AGO2 in ERα+ tumors correlates with a poor clinical outcome. MCF-7 breast cancer cells overexpressing AGO2 (MCF7-AGO2 altered ERα downstream signaling and selective ERα variant expression. Enhanced ERα-36, a 36 kDa ERα isoform, protein and gene expression was observed in vitro. Through quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, we demonstrate decreased basal expression of the full-length ERα and progesterone receptor genes, in addition to loss of estrogen stimulated gene expression in vitro. Despite the loss, MCF-7-AGO2 cells demonstrated increased estrogen stimulated tumorigenesis in vivo. Together with our clinical findings on AGO2 expression and the luminal B subtype, we suggest that AGO2 is a regulator of altered ERα signaling in breast tumors.

  2. Estrogen receptor-targeted optical imaging of breast cancer cells with near-infrared fluorescent dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Iven; Deodhar, Kodand; Chiplunkar, Shuba V.; Patkar, Meena

    2010-02-01

    Molecular imaging provides the in vivo characterization of cellular molecular events involved in normal and pathologic processes. With the advent of optical molecular imaging, specific molecules, proteins and genes may be tagged with a luminescent reporter and visualized in small animals. This powerful new tool has pushed in vivo optical imaging to the forefront as it allows for direct determination of drug bio-distribution and uptake kinetics as well as an indicator of biochemical activity and drug efficacy. Although optical imaging encompasses diverse techniques and makes use of various wavelengths of light, a great deal of excitement in molecular research lies in the use of tomographic and fluorescence techniques to image living tissues with near-infrared (NIR) light. Nonionizing, noninvasive near-infrared optical imaging has great potential to become promising alternative for breast cancer detection. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies of human tissue suggest that a variety of lesions show distinct fluorescence spectra compared to those of normal tissue. It has also been shown that exogenous dyes exhibit selective uptake in neoplastic lesions and may offer the best contrast for optical imaging. Use of exogenous agents would provide fluorescent markers, which could serve to detect embedded tumors in the breast. In particular, the ability to monitor the fluorescent yield and lifetime may also enable biochemical specificity if the fluorophore is sensitive to a specific metabolite, such as oxygen. As a first step, we have synthesized and characterized one such NIR fluorescent dye conjugate, which could potentially be used to detect estrogen receptors (ER)[2] . The conjugate was synthesized by ester formation between 17-β estradiol and a hydrophilic derivative of indocyanine green (ICG) cyanine dye, bis-1, 1-(4-sulfobutyl) indotricarbocyanine-5- carboxylic acid, sodium salt. The ester formed was found to have an extra binding ability with the receptor cites as

  3. Estrogen Receptor Expression Is Associated with DNA Repair Capacity in Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Matta

    Full Text Available Estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+ tumors employ complex signaling that engages in crosstalk with multiple pathways through genomic and non-genomic regulation. A greater understanding of these pathways is important for developing improved biomarkers that can better determine treatment choices, risk of recurrence and cancer progression. Deficiencies in DNA repair capacity (DRC is a hallmark of breast cancer (BC; therefore, in this work we tested whether ER signaling influences DRC. We analyzed the association between ER positivity (% receptor activation and DRC in 270 BC patients, then further stratified our analysis by HER2 receptor status. Our results show that among HER2 negative, the likelihood of having low DRC values among ER- women is 1.92 (95% CI: 1.03, 3.57 times the likelihood of having low DRC values among ER+ women, even adjusting for different potential confounders (p<0.05; however, a contrary pattern was observed among HER2 positives women. In conclusion, there is an association between DRC levels and ER status, and this association is modified by HER2 receptor status. Adding a DNA repair capacity test to hormone receptor testing may provide new information on defective DNA repair phenotypes, which could better stratify BC patients who have ER+ tumors. ER+/HER2- tumors are heterogeneous, incompletely defined, and clinically challenging to treat; the addition of a DRC test could better characterize and classify these patients as well as help clinicians select optimal therapies, which could improve outcomes and reduce recurrences.

  4. PLK1 Signaling in Breast Cancer Cells Cooperates with Estrogen Receptor-Dependent Gene Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wierer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1 is a key regulator of cell division and is overexpressed in many types of human cancers. Compared to its well-characterized role in mitosis, little is known about PLK1 functions in interphase. Here, we report that PLK1 mediates estrogen receptor (ER-regulated gene transcription in human breast cancer cells. PLK1 interacts with ER and is recruited to ER cis-elements on chromatin. PLK1-coactivated genes included classical ER target genes such as Ps2, Wisp2, and Serpina3 and were enriched in developmental and tumor-suppressive functions. Performing large-scale phosphoproteomics of estradiol-treated MCF7 cells in the presence or absence of the specific PLK1 inhibitor BI2536, we identified several PLK1 end targets involved in transcription, including the histone H3K4 trimethylase MLL2, the function of which on ER target genes was impaired by PLK1 inhibition. Our results propose a mechanism for the tumor-suppressive role of PLK1 in mammals as an interphase transcriptional regulator.

  5. Estrogen receptor alpha polymorphism and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Alisa D; Ellervik, Christina; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2007-01-01

    of reproductive organs, or hip fracture between genotypes. In case-control studies, risk of CVD did not differ between genotypes; however, the odds ratio for breast cancer in women with TT versus CC genotypes was 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1 to 1.7). Meta-analysis in men of 6 previous and the present 2 studies, including...... 4799 cases and 12 190 controls, showed odds ratios in CC versus CT and TT genotypes for fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction of 0.81 (95% CI, 0.59 to 1.12) and 1.08 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1.21). Conclusions- ESR1 IVS1-397T/C polymorphism does not influence high-density lipoprotein cholesterol response......Background- We hypothesized that the estrogen receptor (ESR1) IVS1-397T/C polymorphism affects high-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to hormone replacement therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer of reproductive organs, and hip fracture. Methods and Results- We studied...

  6. Estrogenic potency of benzophenone UV filters in breast cancer cells: proliferative and transcriptional activity substantiated by docking analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenneg Kerdivel

    Full Text Available The results from recent studies show that some benzophenones (BPs and their hydroxylated metabolites can function as weak estrogens (E2 in the environment. However, little is known about the structure-activity relationship of these molecules. We have examined the effects of exposure to ten different BPs on the proliferation of estrogen receptor (ER-positive breast cancer cells and on the transcriptional activity of E2-target genes. We analyzed two genes that are tightly linked with estrogen-mediated proliferation, the CXCL12 and amphiregulin genes and two classical estrogen-responsive genes, the pS2 and progesterone receptor. Significant differences in the BPs efficiency to induce cell proliferation and endogenous E2-target gene expressions were observed. Using ERE-, Sp1-, AP1- and C3-reporter genes that contain different ER-binding sites in their promoter, we also showed significant differences in the BPs efficiency in activation of the ER transactivation. Together, our analyzes showed that the most active molecule is 4-hydroxy-BP. Docking analysis of the interaction of BPs in the ligand-binding pocket of ERα suggests that the minimum structural requirement for the estrogenic activity of BPs is a hydroxyl (OH group in the phenyl A-ring that allows interaction with Glu-353, Arg-394 or Phe-404, which enhances the stability between BPs and ERα. Our modeling also indicates a loss of interaction between the OH groups of the phenyl B-ring and His-524. In addition, the presence of some OH groups in the phenyl B-ring can create repulsion forces, which may constrain helix 12 in an unfavorable position, explaining the differential estrogenic effects of BPs. These results, together with our analysis of BPs for their potency in activation of cell proliferation and ER-mediated transcription, report an improved understanding of the mechanism and structure-activity relationship of BPs.

  7. Estrogen metabolism genotypes, use of long-term hormone replacement therapy and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerne, Jasmina Ziva; Novakovic, Srdjan; Frkovic-Grazio, Snjezana; Pohar-Perme, Maja; Stegel, Vida; Gersak, Ksenija

    2011-08-01

    Association between long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use and increased risk of breast cancer is still under debate. Functionally relevant genetic variants within the estrogen metabolic pathway may alter exposure to exogenous sex hormones and affect the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. We investigated the associations of common polymorphisms in 4 genes encoding key proteins of the estrogen metabolic pathway, duration of HRT use and their interactions with breast cancer risk. We studied 530 breast cancer cases and 270 controls of the same age and ethnicity participating in a case-control study of postmenopausal women. Duration of HRT use was ascertained through a postal questionnaire. Genotyping was conducted for CYP1B1 (rs1056836), COMT (rs4680), GSTP1 (rs1695) and MnSOD (rs4880) polymorphisms by PCR-based RFLP and TaqMan® allelic discrimination method. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression analysis. HRT use was significantly associated with decreased breast cancer risk (pC and HRT use (pinteraction=0.036); the risk of breast cancer associated with long-term vs. short-term HRT use was decreased in women homozygous for the wild-type allele and increased in women with at least one variant allele of the MnSOD 47T>C polymorphism. Our results suggest that MnSOD 47T>C polymorphism in interaction with long-term HRT use may modify the risk of breast cancer.

  8. Identification of functional networks of estrogen- and c-Myc-responsive genes and their relationship to response to tamoxifen therapy in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Musgrove

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Estrogen is a pivotal regulator of cell proliferation in the normal breast and breast cancer. Endocrine therapies targeting the estrogen receptor are effective in breast cancer, but their success is limited by intrinsic and acquired resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With the goal of gaining mechanistic insights into estrogen action and endocrine resistance, we classified estrogen-regulated genes by function, and determined the relationship between functionally-related genesets and the response to tamoxifen in breast cancer patients. Estrogen-responsive genes were identified by transcript profiling of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Pathway analysis based on functional annotation of these estrogen-regulated genes identified gene signatures with known or predicted roles in cell cycle control, cell growth (i.e. ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis, cell death/survival signaling and transcriptional regulation. Since inducible expression of c-Myc in antiestrogen-arrested cells can recapitulate many of the effects of estrogen on molecular endpoints related to cell cycle progression, the estrogen-regulated genes that were also targets of c-Myc were identified using cells inducibly expressing c-Myc. Selected genes classified as estrogen and c-Myc targets displayed similar levels of regulation by estrogen and c-Myc and were not estrogen-regulated in the presence of siMyc. Genes regulated by c-Myc accounted for 50% of all acutely estrogen-regulated genes but comprised 85% (110/129 genes in the cell growth signature. siRNA-mediated inhibition of c-Myc induction impaired estrogen regulation of ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis, consistent with the prediction that estrogen regulates cell growth principally via c-Myc. The 'cell cycle', 'cell growth' and 'cell death' gene signatures each identified patients with an attenuated response in a cohort of 246 tamoxifen-treated patients. In multivariate analysis the cell death signature

  9. A novel taspine derivative, HMQ1611, inhibits breast cancer cell growth via estrogen receptor α and EGF receptor signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yingzhuan; Zhang, Yanmin; Liu, Cuicui; Zhang, Jie; Smith, Wanli W; Wang, Nan; Chen, Yinnan; Zheng, Lei; He, Langchong

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer is a common cancer with a leading cause of cancer mortality in women. Currently, the chemotherapy for breast cancer is underdeveloped. Here, we report a novel taspine derivative, HMQ1611, which has anticancer effects using in vitro and in vivo breast cancer models. HMQ1611 reduced cancer cell proliferation in four human breast cancer cell lines including MDA-MB-231, SK-BR-3, ZR-75-30, and MCF-7. HMQ1611 more potently reduced growth of estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive breast cancer cells (ZR-75-30 and MCF-7) than ERα-negative cells (MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3). Moreover, HMQ1611 arrested breast cancer cell cycle at S-phase. In vivo tumor xenograft model, treatment of HMQ1611 significantly reduced tumor size and weight compared with vehicles. We also found that HMQ1611 reduced ERα expression and inhibited membrane ERα-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling following the stimulation of cells with estrogen. Knockdown of ERα by siRNA transfection in ZR-75-30 cells attenuated HMQ1611 effects. In contrast, overexpression of ERα in MDA-MB-231 cells enhanced HMQ1611 effects, suggesting that ERα pathway mediated HMQ1611's inhibition of breast cancer cell growth in ERα-positive breast cancer. HMQ1611 also reduced phosphorylation of EGF receptor (EGFR) and its downstream signaling players extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and AKT activation both in ZR-75-30 and MDA-MB-231 cells. These results showed that the novel compound HMQ1611 had anticancer effects, and partially via ERα and/or EGFR signaling pathways, suggesting that HMQ1611 may be a potential novel candidate for human breast cancer intervention.

  10. Epigenetic reactivation of estrogen receptor-α (ERα by genistein enhances hormonal therapy sensitivity in ERα-negative breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanyuan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen receptor-α (ERα-negative breast cancer is clinically aggressive and normally does not respond to conventional estrogen target-directed therapies. The soybean isoflavone, genistein (GE, has been shown to prevent and inhibit breast cancer and recent studies have suggested that GE can enhance the anticancer capacity of an estrogen antagonist, tamoxifen (TAM, especially in ERα-positive breast cancer cells. However, the role of GE in ERα-negative breast cancer remains unknown. Methods We have evaluated the in vitro and in vivo epigenetic effects of GE on ERα reactivation by using MTT assay, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay, western-blot assay, immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay, immunohistochemistry and epigenetic enzymatic activity analysis. Preclinical mouse models including xenograft and spontaneous breast cancer mouse models were used to test the efficacy of GE in vivo. Results We found that GE can reactivate ERα expression and this effect was synergistically enhanced when combined with a histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA, in ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. GE treatment also re-sensitized ERα-dependent cellular responses to activator 17β-estradiol (E2 and antagonist TAM. Further studies revealed that GE can lead to remodeling of the chromatin structure in the ERα promoter thereby contributing to ERα reactivation. Consistently, dietary GE significantly prevented cancer development and reduced the growth of ERα-negative mouse breast tumors. Dietary GE further enhanced TAM-induced anti-cancer efficacy due at least in part to epigenetic ERα reactivation. Conclusions Our studies suggest that soybean genistein can epigenetically restore ERα expression, which in turn increases TAM-dependent anti-estrogen therapeutic sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. The results from our studies reveal a novel therapeutic combination approach using bioactive

  11. Identification of CETP as a molecular target for estrogen positive breast cancer cell death by cholesterol depleting agents

    OpenAIRE

    Esau, Luke; Sagar, Sunil; Bangarusamy, Dhinoth; Kaur, Mandeep

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol and its metabolites act as steroid hormone precursors, which promote estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer (BC) progression. Development of cholesterol targeting anticancer drugs has been hindered due to the lack of knowledge of viable molecular targets. Till now, Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) has been envisaged as a feasible molecular target in atherosclerosis, but for the first time, we show that CETP contributes to BC cell survival when challenged with chol...

  12. A systematic comparison of three commercial estrogen receptor assays in a single clinical outcome breast cancer cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornaga, Elizabeth N; Klimowicz, Alexander C; Guggisberg, Natalia; Ogilvie, Travis; Morris, Don G; Webster, Marc; Magliocco, Anthony M

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancers are routinely assessed for estrogen receptor status using immunohistochemical assays to assist in patient prognosis and clinical management. Specific assays vary between laboratories, and several antibodies have been validated and recommended for clinical use. As numerous factors can influence assay performance, many laboratories have opted for ready-to-use assays using automated stainers to improve reproducibility and consistency. Three commonly used autostainer vendors-Dako, Leica, and Ventana-all offer such estrogen receptor assays; however, they have never been directly compared. Here, we present a systematic comparison of three platform-specific estrogen receptor ready-to-use assays using a retrospective, tamoxifen-treated, breast cancer cohort from patients who were treated in Calgary, Alberta, Canada from 1985 to 2000. We found all assays showed good intra-observer agreement. Inter-observer pathological scoring showed some variability: Ventana had the strongest agreement followed closely by Dako, whereas Leica only showed substantial agreement. We also analyzed each estrogen receptor assay with respect to 5-year disease-free survival, and found that all performed similarly in univariate and multivariate models. Determination of measures of test performance found that the Leica assay had a lower negative predictive value than Dako or Ventana, compared with the original ligand-binding assay, while other measures-sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and accuracy-were comparable between the three ready-to-use assays. When comparing against disease-free survival, the difference in negative predictive value between the vendor assays were not as extreme, but Dako and Ventana still performed slightly better than Leica. Despite some discordance, we found that all ready-to-use assays were comparable with or superior to the ligand-binding assay, endorsing their continued use. Our analysis also allowed for exploration of estrogen receptor

  13. Inhibition of RET Increases the Efficacy of Anti-Estrogen and is a Novel Treatment Strategy for Luminal Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanheimer, Philip M.; Park, Jung-Min; Askeland, Ryan W.; Kulak, Mikhail V.; Woodfield, George W.; De Andrade, James P.; Cyr, Anthony R.; Sugg, Sonia L.; Thomas, Alexandra; Weigel, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recent findings suggest that combination treatment with anti-estrogen and anti-RET may offer a novel treatment strategy in a subset of breast cancer patients. We investigated the role of RET in potentiating the effects of anti-estrogen response and examined whether RET expression predicted the ability for tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) to affect ERK1/2 activation in primary breast cancer. Experimental Design Growth response, ERK1/2 activation, Ki-67 and TUNEL were assessed in breast cancer cell lines in vitro and in xenografts with vandetanib and/or tamoxifen. Thirty tumors with matched normal breast tissue were evaluated for RET expression and response to TKI treatment. Results Vandetanib potentiated the inhibitory effect of tamoxifen in hormone responsive (p=0.01) and hormone insensitive (p<0.001) ERα-positive breast cancer cells. Vandetanib significantly repressed tumorigenesis of MCF-7 xenografts (p<0.001), which displayed decreased activation of ERK1/2 and AKT. Vandetanib and tamoxifen reduced the growth of established tumors with a greater effect of dual therapy compared to single agent (p=0.003), with tamoxifen reducing proliferative index and vandetanib inducing apoptosis. In primary breast cancers, RET expression correlated with the ERα-positive subtype. Relative decrease in ERK1/2 phosphorylation with TKI treatment was 42% (p<0.001) in RET-positive tumors vs. 14% (p=ns) in RET-negative tumors. Conclusions Vandetanib potentiated the anti-growth effects of tamoxifen in breast cancer, which was mediated through RET activation. RET predicted response to TKI therapy with minimal effects on ERK1/2 activation in RET-negative tumors. The preclinical data support evaluation of anti-estrogen in combination with TKI as a potential treatment strategy for RET-positive luminal breast cancer. PMID:24526731

  14. Novel aspects concerning the functional cross-talk between the insulin/IGF-I system and estrogen signaling in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello eMaggiolini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The insulin/IGF system plays an important role in cancer progression. Accordingly, elevated levels of circulating insulin have been associated with an increased cancer risk as well as with aggressive and metastatic cancer phenotypes. Numerous studies have documented that estrogens cooperate with the insulin/IGF system in multiple pathophysiological conditions. The biological responses to estrogens are mainly mediated by the estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ, which act as transcription factors, however, several studies have recently demonstrated that a member of the G protein-coupled receptors, named GPR30/GPER, is also involved in the estrogen signaling in normal and malignant cells as well as in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs. In this regard, novel mechanisms linking the action of estrogens through GPER with the insulin/IGF system have been recently demonstrated. This review recapitulates the relevant aspects of this functional cross-talk between the insulin/IGF and the estrogenic GPER transduction pathways, which occurs in various cell types and may account for cancer progression.

  15. Breast cancer cell apoptosis with phytoestrogens is dependent on an estrogen-deprived state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiorah, Ifeyinwa E; Fan, Ping; Jordan, V Craig

    2014-09-01

    Phytoestrogens have been investigated as natural alternatives to hormone replacement therapy and their potential as chemopreventive agents. We investigated the effects of equol, genistein, and coumestrol on cell growth in fully estrogenized MCF7 cells, simulating the perimenopausal state, and long-term estrogen-deprived MCF7:5C cells, which simulate the postmenopausal state of a woman after years of estrogen deprivation, and compared the effects with that of steroidal estrogens: 17β estradiol (E2) and equilin present in conjugated equine estrogen. Steroidal and phytoestrogens induce proliferation of MCF7 cells at physiologic concentrations but inhibit the growth and induce apoptosis of MCF7:5C cells. Although steroidal and phytoestrogens induce estrogen-responsive genes, their antiproliferative and apoptotic effects are mediated through the estrogen receptor. Knockdown of ERα using siRNA blocks all estrogen-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition. Phytoestrogens induce endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammatory response stress-related genes in a comparable manner as the steroidal estrogens. Inhibition of inflammation using dexamethasone blocked both steroidal- and phytoestrogen-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition as well as their ability to induce apoptotic genes. Together, this suggests that phytoestrogens can potentially be used as chemopreventive agents in older postmenopausal women but caution should be exercised when used in conjunction with steroidal anti-inflammatory agents due to their antiapoptotic effects.

  16. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by a plumbagin derivative in estrogen positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil

    2014-01-31

    Plumbagin [5-hydroxy- 2-methyl-1, 4-naphthaquinone] is a well-known plant derived anticancer lead compound. Several efforts have been made to synthesize its analogs and derivatives in order to increase its anticancer potential. In the present study, plumbagin and its five derivatives have been evaluated for their antiproliferative potential in one normal and four human cancer cell lines. Treatment with derivatives resulted in dose- and time-dependent inhibition of growth of various cancer cell lines. Prescreening of compounds led us to focus our further investigations on acetyl plumbagin, which showed remarkably low toxicity towards normal BJ cells and HepG2 cells. The mechanisms of apoptosis induction were determined by APOPercentage staining, caspase-3/7 activation, reactive oxygen species production and cell cycle analysis. The modulation of apoptotic genes (p53, Mdm2, NF-kB, Bad, Bax, Bcl-2 and Casp-7) was also measured using real time PCR. The positive staining using APOPercentage dye, increased caspase-3/7 activity, increased ROS production and enhanced mRNA expression of proapoptotic genes suggested that acetyl plumbagin exhibits anticancer effects on MCF-7 cells through its apoptosis-inducing property. A key highlighting point of the study is low toxicity of acetyl plumbagin towards normal BJ cells and negligible hepatotoxicity (data based on HepG2 cell line). Overall results showed that acetyl plumbagin with reduced toxicity might have the potential to be a new lead molecule for testing against estrogen positive breast cancer. 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

  17. Methylation of the claudin 1 promoter is associated with loss of expression in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer.

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    Francescopaolo Di Cello

    Full Text Available Downregulation of the tight junction protein claudin 1 is a frequent event in breast cancer and is associated with recurrence, metastasis, and reduced survival, suggesting a tumor suppressor role for this protein. Tumor suppressor genes are often epigenetically silenced in cancer. Downregulation of claudin 1 via DNA promoter methylation may thus be an important determinant in breast cancer development and progression. To investigate if silencing of claudin 1 has an epigenetic etiology in breast cancer we compared gene expression and methylation data from 217 breast cancer samples and 40 matched normal samples available through the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. Moreover, we analyzed claudin 1 expression and methylation in 26 breast cancer cell lines. We found that methylation of the claudin 1 promoter CpG island is relatively frequent in estrogen receptor positive (ER+ breast cancer and is associated with low claudin 1 expression. In contrast, the claudin 1 promoter was not methylated in most of the ER-breast cancers samples and some of these tumors overexpress claudin 1. In addition, we observed that the demethylating agents, azacitidine and decitabine can upregulate claudin 1 expression in breast cancer cell lines that have a methylated claudin 1 promoter. Taken together, our results indicate that DNA promoter methylation is causally associated with downregulation of claudin 1 in a subgroup of breast cancer that includes mostly ER+ tumors, and suggest that epigenetic therapy to restore claudin 1 expression might represent a viable therapeutic strategy in this subtype of breast cancer.

  18. Iodine Alters Gene Expression in the MCF7 Breast Cancer Cell Line: Evidence for an Anti-Estrogen Effect of Iodine

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    Frederick R. Stoddard II, Ari D. Brooks, Bernard A. Eskin, Gregg J. Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of iodine on breast cancer have been postulated from epidemiologic evidence and described in animal models. The molecular mechanisms responsible have not been identified but laboratory evidence suggests that iodine may inhibit cancer promotion through modulation of the estrogen pathway. To elucidate the role of iodine in breast cancer, the effect of Lugol's iodine solution (5% I2, 10% KI on gene expression was analyzed in the estrogen responsive MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Microarray analysis identified 29 genes that were up-regulated and 14 genes that were down-regulated in response to iodine/iodide treatment. The altered genes included several involved in hormone metabolism as well as genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression, growth and differentiation. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the array data demonstrating that iodine/iodide treatment increased the mRNA levels of several genes involved in estrogen metabolism (CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and AKR1C1 while decreasing the levels of the estrogen responsive genes TFF1 and WISP2. This report presents the results of the first gene array profiling of the response of a breast cancer cell line to iodine treatment. In addition to elucidating our understanding of the effects of iodine/iodide on breast cancer, this work suggests that iodine/iodide may be useful as an adjuvant therapy in the pharmacologic manipulation of the estrogen pathway in women with breast cancer.

  19. THE CORRELATIONS OF RETINOIC ACID RECEPTOR-α AND ESTROGEN RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELL LINES AND TUMORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余黎明; 邵志敏; 蔡三军; 韩企夏; 沈镇宙

    1998-01-01

    Retinoic acid receptor-α(RAR α) plays a major role in the growth inhibitory effect of retinoic acid on human breast cancer ceils, may be it could serve as an indicator to guide the treatment and prevent of breast cancer with retinoic acid in ciiinc. All previous researchs were based on observing the changes ofRAR a mRAN expression. In this study, the expression of RAR a in human breast cell lines was studied by Northern Blot, Western Blot and Immunohistochemistry in mRNA level and protein level. Results showed that RAR a protein expression was correlated with RAR a mRNA expression. RAR α mRNA expression was higher in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive human breast cancer cell lines than in ER-negative ones. So was RAR α protein expression. Both RAR α mRNA amd RAR α protein expression were associated with ER status. The expression of RAR α and the relationship between RAR α and ER status were also determined by immunohistochemistry in 58 human primary breast cancer tumors. 37 (63.8%) tumors were ER-positive and of these 28 (75. 7%) were also RAR α -positive. The coexpression of ER and RAR α was statistleally significant (P<0. 01, by X2 contingency analysis), It was reported that RAR α expression in cultured breast cancer ceils was regulated by estrogen acting via the ER. Our study demonstrated that RAR α expression may be modulated in breast cancer in vivo by estrogen via ER.

  20. Breast density and parenchymal texture measures as potential risk factors for estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brad M.; Chen, Jinbo; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2014-03-01

    Accurate assessment of a woman's risk to develop specific subtypes of breast cancer is critical for appropriate utilization of chemopreventative measures, such as with tamoxifen in preventing estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer. In this context, we investigate quantitative measures of breast density and parenchymal texture, measures of glandular tissue content and tissue structure, as risk factors for estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Mediolateral oblique (MLO) view digital mammograms of the contralateral breast from 106 women with unilateral invasive breast cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Breast density and parenchymal texture were analyzed via fully-automated software. Logistic regression with feature selection and was performed to predict ER+ versus ER- cancer status. A combined model considering all imaging measures extracted was compared to baseline models consisting of density-alone and texture-alone features. Area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Delong's test were used to compare the models' discriminatory capacity for receptor status. The density-alone model had a discriminatory capacity of 0.62 AUC (p=0.05). The texture-alone model had a higher discriminatory capacity of 0.70 AUC (p=0.001), which was not significantly different compared to the density-alone model (p=0.37). In contrast the combined density-texture logistic regression model had a discriminatory capacity of 0.82 AUC (pbreast density and texture measures may have the potential to identify women specifically at risk for estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer and could be useful in triaging women into appropriate risk-reduction strategies.

  1. Effect of estrogen on morphine- and oxycodone-induced antinociception in a female femur bone cancer pain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroko; Nakamura, Atsushi; Kanemasa, Toshiyuki; Sakaguchi, Gaku; Shinohara, Shunji

    2016-02-15

    Although estrous cycle has been reported to influence antiociceptive effect of morphine in several pain conditions, its effect on cancer pain is not well established. We investigated the effect of estrogen on morphine antinociception using a bone cancer pain model and compared its potency with that of oxycodone. Female mice were ovariectomized (OVX) for preparation of a femur bone cancer pain (FBC) model. β-estradiol was subcutaneously (s.c.) administered and antinociceptive effects of opioids was assessed using the von Frey monofilament test. Although morphine (5-20mg/kg, s.c.) did have significant antinociceptive effects in the FBC-OVX group, its effects in the FBC-OVX+β-estradiol (OVX+E) group was limited. Oxycodone (1-5mg/kg, s.c.) exhibited significant effects in both groups. Expression changes in opioid-related genes (μ-, κ-, δ-opioid receptors, prodynorphin, proenkephalin, proopiomelanocortin) in the spinal and supraspinal sites were examined among the sham-OVX, sham-OVX+E, FBC-OVX, and FBC-OVX+E groups by in situ hybridization. These studies detected a significant increase in prodynorphin in the spinal dorsal horn of the FBC-OVX+E group. Spinal injection of a dynorphin-A antibody to FBC-OVX+E mice restored antinociception of morphine. In conclusion, we detected a differential effect of estrogen on morphine- and oxycodone-induced antinociception in a female FBC model. The effect of morphine was limited with estrogen exposure, which may be due to estrogen- and pain-mediated spinal expression of dynorphin-A.

  2. Effect of adding gefitinib to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in estrogen receptor negative early breast cancer in a randomized phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, M.; Ingvar, C.; Jorgensen, L.

    2011-01-01

    a significant difference in pCR between triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and non-TNBC tumors (P = 0.03). More patients in the gefitinib arm had hematological toxicity (P = 0.15) and discontinued treatment (9/94 vs. 2/86) because of adverse events (AE). Tumor response rates were similar in the two groups....... Women with unilateral, primary operable, estrogen receptor negative invasive breast cancer a parts per thousand yen 2 cm were eligible for inclusion. Randomized patients were to receive four cycles of neoadjuvant EC plus 12 weeks of either gefitinib (250 mg daily) or placebo. Primary endpoint...

  3. Effect of adding gefitinib to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in estrogen receptor negative early breast cancer in a randomized phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, Mogens; Ingvar, Christian; Jörgensen, Leif

    2011-01-01

    CR between triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and non-TNBC tumors (P = 0.03). More patients in the gefitinib arm had hematological toxicity (P = 0.15) and discontinued treatment (9/94 vs. 2/86) because of adverse events (AE). Tumor response rates were similar in the two groups. A significantly higher p....... Women with unilateral, primary operable, estrogen receptor negative invasive breast cancer = 2 cm were eligible for inclusion. Randomized patients were to receive four cycles of neoadjuvant EC plus 12 weeks of either gefitinib (250 mg daily) or placebo. Primary endpoint was pathologic complete response...

  4. Low expression of a few genes indicates good prognosis in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer

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    Buechler Steven

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many breast cancer patients remain free of distant metastasis even without adjuvant chemotherapy. While standard histopathological tests fail to identify these good prognosis patients with adequate precision, analyses of gene expression patterns in primary tumors have resulted in more successful diagnostic tests. These tests use continuous measurements of the mRNA concentrations of numerous genes to determine a risk of metastasis in lymph node negative breast cancer patients with other clinical traits. Methods A survival model is constructed from genes that are both connected with relapse and have expression patterns that define distinct subtypes, suggestive of different cellular states. This in silico study uses publicly available microarray databases generated with Affymetrix GeneChip technology. The genes in our model, as represented by array probes, have distinctive distributions in a patient cohort, consisting of a large normal component of low expression values; and a long right tail of high expression values. The cutoff between low and high expression of a probe is determined from the distribution using the theory of mixture models. The good prognosis group in our model consists of the samples in the low expression component of multiple genes. Results Here, we define a novel test for risk of metastasis in estrogen receptor positive (ER+ breast cancer patients, using four probes that determine distinct subtypes. The good prognosis group in this test, denoted AP4-, consists of the samples with low expression of each of the four probes. Two probes target MKI67, antigen identified by monoclonal antibody Ki-67, one targets CDC6, cell division cycle 6 homolog (S. cerevisiae, and a fourth targets SPAG5, sperm associated antigen 5. The long-term metastasis-free survival probability for samples in AP4- is sufficiently high to render chemotherapy of questionable benefit. Conclusion A breast cancer subtype defined by low

  5. Obesity Suppresses Estrogen Receptor Beta Expression in Breast Cancer Cells via a HER2-Mediated Pathway.

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    Laura W Bowers

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with a worse breast cancer prognosis, while greater breast tumor estrogen receptor beta (ERβ expression is correlated with improved therapy response and survival. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of obesity on breast cancer cell ERβ expression, which is currently unknown. We utilized an in vitro model of obesity in which breast cancer cells were exposed to patient serum pooled by body mass index category (obese (OB: ≥30 kg/m2; normal weight (N: 18.5-24.9 kg/m2. Four human mammary tumor cell lines representing the major breast cancer subtypes (SKBR3, MCF-7, ZR75, MDA-MB-231 and mammary tumor cells from MMTV-neu mice were used. ERβ expression, assessed by qPCR and western blotting, was suppressed in the two HER2-overexpressing cell lines (SKBR3, MMTV-neu following OB versus N sera exposure, but did not vary in the other cell lines. Expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1, two genes negatively regulated by ERβ, was elevated in SKBR3 cells following exposure to OB versus N sera, but this difference was eliminated when the ERβ gene was silenced with siRNA. Herceptin, a HER2 antagonist, and siRNA to HER2 were used to evaluate the role of HER2 in sera-induced ERβ modulation. SKBR3 cell treatment with OB sera plus Herceptin increased ERβ expression three-fold. Similar results were obtained when HER2 expression was silenced with siRNA. OB sera also promoted greater SKBR3 cell viability and growth, but this variance was not present when ERβ was silenced or the cells were modified to overexpress ERβ. Based on this data, we conclude that obesity-associated systemic factors suppress ERβ expression in breast cancer cells via a HER2-mediated pathway, leading to greater cell viability and growth. Elucidation of the mechanism(s mediating this effect could provide important insights into how ERβ expression is regulated as well as how obesity promotes a more aggressive disease.

  6. Anti-estrogen Resistance in Human Breast Tumors Is Driven by JAG1-NOTCH4-Dependent Cancer Stem Cell Activity

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    Bruno M. Simões

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancers (BCs typically express estrogen receptors (ERs but frequently exhibit de novo or acquired resistance to hormonal therapies. Here, we show that short-term treatment with the anti-estrogens tamoxifen or fulvestrant decrease cell proliferation but increase BC stem cell (BCSC activity through JAG1-NOTCH4 receptor activation both in patient-derived samples and xenograft (PDX tumors. In support of this mechanism, we demonstrate that high ALDH1 predicts resistance in women treated with tamoxifen and that a NOTCH4/HES/HEY gene signature predicts for a poor response/prognosis in 2 ER+ patient cohorts. Targeting of NOTCH4 reverses the increase in Notch and BCSC activity induced by anti-estrogens. Importantly, in PDX tumors with acquired tamoxifen resistance, NOTCH4 inhibition reduced BCSC activity. Thus, we establish that BCSC and NOTCH4 activities predict both de novo and acquired tamoxifen resistance and that combining endocrine therapy with targeting JAG1-NOTCH4 overcomes resistance in human breast cancers.

  7. Outcomes of Estrogen Receptor Negative and Progesterone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Melissa; Chang, Martin C.; González, Rosa; Lategan, Belinda; del Barco, Elvira; Vera-Badillo, Francisco; Quesada, Paula; Goldstein, Robyn; Cruz, Ignacio; Ocana, Alberto; Cruz, Juan J.; Amir, Eitan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical features and outcomes of estrogen receptor negative (ER-) and progesterone receptor positive (PgR+) breast cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a well-characterized database of sequential patients diagnosed with early stage invasive breast carcinoma. Outcomes of interest were time to relapse (TTR) and overall survival (OS). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis was conducted to assess the association of ER-/PgR+ with TTR and OS in comparison to ER+ and to ER- and PgR negative (ER-/PgR-) tumors irrespective of HER2 status. ER and PgR expression was conservatively defined as 10% or greater staining of cancer cells. Results 815 patients were followed for a median of 40.5 months; 56 patients (7%) had ER-/PgR+, 624 (77%) had ER+ and 136 (17%) had ER-/PgR- phenotypes. Compared with ER+ tumors, ER-/PgR+ tumors were associated with younger age (50 versus 59 years, p=0.03), high grade (50% versus 24%, p<0.001) and more frequent HER2 overexpression/amplification (43% versus 14%, p<0.001). TTR for ER-/PgR+ was intermediate between ER+ and ER-/PgR- tumors, but was not significantly different from ER+ tumors. Recurrences in the ER-/PgR+ and ER-/PgR- groups occurred early in follow-up while in ER+ tumors recurrences continued to occur over the duration of follow-up. OS of ER-/PgR+ was similar to ER+ tumors and better than that of ER-/PgR- tumors. Conclusions The ER-/PgR+ phenotype is associated with higher grade with HER2 overexpression/amplification and occurs more commonly in younger women. Risk of relapse and death more closely resembles ER+ than ER-/PgR- tumors suggesting this phenotype represents a group of more aggressive hormone receptor positive tumors. PMID:26161666

  8. Quality of life of breast cancer patients medicated with anti-estrogens, 2 years after acupuncture treatment: a qualitative study

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    Jill Hervik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Jill Hervik1, Odd Mjåland21Pain Clinic, Vestfold Hospital, Tønsberg, Norway; 2Department of Abdominal Surgery, Sørlandet Sykehus, Kristiansand, NorwayObjective: The aim of this study was to examine the quality of life of breast cancer patients medicated with estrogen antagonists, 2 years after having acupuncture treatment for hot flashes.Methods and materials: Our sample was taken from women who had recently participated in a randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of acupuncture on hot flashes, a side effect of estrogen-antagonist treatment. Forty-one women from the true acupuncture treatment group and 41 women from the control group (sham acupuncture, who had 2 years previously received a course of 15 acupuncture treatments over a period of 10 weeks, were asked to answer an open question. The question, “Would you like to share your thoughts and experiences related to your breast cancer diagnosis, treatments or anything else?” was by being open, broad, and nonspecific, intended to stimulate subjective information, which was not included in the original, or future quantitative studies. Qualitative data were analyzed using systematic text condensation.Results: Most women were troubled by two or more side effects due to anti-estrogen medication, negatively affecting their life quality. Symptoms included hot flashes, sleep problems, muscle and joint pain, arm edema, fatigue, weight gain, depression, and lack of sexual desire. Women previously treated with sham acupuncture complained that hot flashes were still problematic, whilst those previously treated with traditional Chinese acupuncture found them less of a problem and generally had a more positive outlook on life. These results compare favorably with the findings from our original study that measured quantitatively health related quality of life.Conclusion: Side effects due to anti-estrogen treatment seriously affect the quality of life of breast cancer operated patients

  9. Risk of estrogen receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer and single-nucleotide polymorphism 2q35-rs13387042

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milne, Roger L; Benítez, Javier; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A recent genome-wide association study identified single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 2q35-rs13387042 as a marker of susceptibility to estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. We attempted to confirm this association using the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. METHODS: 2q35......-rs13387042 SNP was genotyped for 31 510 women with invasive breast cancer, 1101 women with ductal carcinoma in situ, and 35 969 female control subjects from 25 studies. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by logistic regression, adjusted for study. Heterogeneity in odds ratios by each of age, ethnicity...... evidence of association between rs13387042 and breast cancer in white women of European origin (per-allele OR = 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 1.15; P(trend) = 1.0 x 10(-19)). The odds ratio was lower than that previously reported (P = .02) and did not vary by age or ethnicity (all P...

  10. Association of estrogen receptor beta variants and serum levels of estradiol with risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study

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    Wu Huanlei

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endogenous estrogens may play a vital role in colorectal tumorigenesis. Estrogen receptor beta is the predominant subtype which mediates the biological effect of estrogens, while loss of expression of estrogen receptor beta has been indicated as a common step in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC. Epidemiological studies have revealed several functional polymorphisms of estrogen receptor beta (ESR2 for cancer risk, but relevant study in CRC is limited, particularly in men. This study aimed to investigate the association of circulating estradiol and variations of ESR2 with CRC risk in men. Methods We initiated a case–control study consisting of 390 patients with CRC and 445 healthy controls in men only. We genotyped ESR2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs1256049 and rs4986938 and measured serum estradiol concentration using chemilluminescence immunoassay. Multivariable logistic regression model was performed to evaluate the associations between these variables and CRC risk. Results ESR2 rs1256049 CT/TT genotypes were associated with reduced risk of CRC (odds ratio [OR], 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5–1.0, while rs4986938 CT/TT genotypes were associated with increased risk of CRC (OR, 1.5, 95% CI, 1.0–2.1. In addition, the CRC risk increased with the number of risk genotypes of these two SNPs in a dose–response manner (Ptrend, 0.003. Specifically, subjects carrying risk genotypes of both SNPs had the highest risk of CRC (OR, 2.0, 95% CI, 1.3–3.3.. Moreover, serum estradiol concentration alone was associated with risk of CRC in men (OR, 1.2, 95% CI, 1.0–1.3. However, individuals presenting both rs4986938 CT/TT genotypes and high level of serum estradiol had a high risk of CRC (OR, 2.3, 95% CI, 1.4–3.9, compared with those presenting CC genotype and low level of serum estradiol. The similar joint results were not observed for SNP rs1256049. Conclusions These results suggest that endogenous

  11. Steroid induction of therapy-resistant cytokeratin-5-positive cells in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer through a BCL6-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, C R; Sato, T; Peck, A R; Girondo, M A; Yang, N; Liu, C; Yanac, A F; Kovatich, A J; Hooke, J A; Shriver, C D; Mitchell, E P; Hyslop, T; Rui, H

    2016-03-17

    Therapy resistance remains a major problem in estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-positive breast cancer. A subgroup of ERα-positive breast cancer is characterized by mosaic presence of a minor population of ERα-negative cancer cells expressing the basal cytokeratin-5 (CK5). These CK5-positive cells are therapy resistant and have increased tumor-initiating potential. Although a series of reports document induction of the CK5-positive cells by progestins, it is unknown if other 3-ketosteroids share this ability. We now report that glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids effectively expand the CK5-positive cell population. CK5-positive cells induced by 3-ketosteroids lacked ERα and progesterone receptors, expressed stem cell marker, CD44, and displayed increased clonogenicity in soft agar and broad drug-resistance in vitro and in vivo. Upregulation of CK5-positive cells by 3-ketosteroids required induction of the transcriptional repressor BCL6 based on suppression of BCL6 by two independent BCL6 small hairpin RNAs or by prolactin. Prolactin also suppressed 3-ketosteroid induction of CK5+ cells in T47D xenografts in vivo. Survival analysis with recursive partitioning in node-negative ERα-positive breast cancer using quantitative CK5 and BCL6 mRNA or protein expression data identified patients at high or low risk for tumor recurrence in two independent patient cohorts. The data provide a mechanism by which common pathophysiological or pharmacologic elevations in glucocorticoids or other 3-ketosteroids may adversely affect patients with mixed ERα+/CK5+ breast cancer. The observations further suggest a cooperative diagnostic utility of CK5 and BCL6 expression levels and justify exploring efficacy of inhibitors of BCL6 and 3-ketosteroid receptors for a subset of ERα-positive breast cancers.

  12. Multi-variant pathway association analysis reveals the importance of genetic determinants of estrogen metabolism in breast and endometrial cancer susceptibility.

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    Yen Ling Low

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the central role of estrogen exposure in breast and endometrial cancer development and numerous studies of genes in the estrogen metabolic pathway, polymorphisms within the pathway have not been consistently associated with these cancers. We posit that this is due to the complexity of multiple weak genetic effects within the metabolic pathway that can only be effectively detected through multi-variant analysis. We conducted a comprehensive association analysis of the estrogen metabolic pathway by interrogating 239 tagSNPs within 35 genes of the pathway in three tumor samples. The discovery sample consisted of 1,596 breast cancer cases, 719 endometrial cancer cases, and 1,730 controls from Sweden; and the validation sample included 2,245 breast cancer cases and 1,287 controls from Finland. We performed admixture maximum likelihood (AML-based global tests to evaluate the cumulative effect from multiple SNPs within the whole metabolic pathway and three sub-pathways for androgen synthesis, androgen-to-estrogen conversion, and estrogen removal. In the discovery sample, although no single polymorphism was significant after correction for multiple testing, the pathway-based AML global test suggested association with both breast (p(global = 0.034 and endometrial (p(global = 0.052 cancers. Further testing revealed the association to be focused on polymorphisms within the androgen-to-estrogen conversion sub-pathway, for both breast (p(global = 0.008 and endometrial cancer (p(global = 0.014. The sub-pathway association was validated in the Finnish sample of breast cancer (p(global = 0.015. Further tumor subtype analysis demonstrated that the association of the androgen-to-estrogen conversion sub-pathway was confined to postmenopausal women with sporadic estrogen receptor positive tumors (p(global = 0.0003. Gene-based AML analysis suggested CYP19A1 and UGT2B4 to be the major players within the sub-pathway. Our study indicates that the composite

  13. Estrogen promotes fat mass and obesity-associated protein nuclear localization and enhances endometrial cancer cell proliferation via the mTOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yaping; Shen, Jiaqi; Gao, Liyan; Feng, Youji

    2016-04-01

    Extensive exposure to estrogen is generally acknowledged as a risk factor for endometrial cancer. Given that the accumulation of adipocytes also contributes to the increased production of estrogen, in the present study, we evaluated the expression of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene in endometrial tumor tissues and further explored the mechanism of how estrogen facilitates FTO nuclear localization and promotes endometrial cancer cell proliferation. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining assay was used to detect the FTO expression in endometrial tumor samples. Western blotting was performed to investigate the mechanism of estrogen-induced FTO nuclear localization. siRNA was used to knock down ERα and further explore its role in FTO nuclear localization. MTT assay was carried out to determine cell proliferation. We found that FTO was overexpressed in endometrial carcinoma tissues and served as a poor prognostic marker. Additionally, estrogen induced FTO nuclear accumulation via the mTOR signaling pathway and the nuclear localization was ERα-dependent, which contributed to enhanced proliferative activity. Therefore, the present study provides new insight into the mechanisms of estrogen-induced proliferation, implying the possibility of using FTO as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of endometrial cancer.

  14. Gene expression signatures that predict outcome of tamoxifen-treated estrogen receptor-positive, high-risk, primary breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Maria Bibi; Lænkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Tan, Qihua;

    2013-01-01

    Tamoxifen significantly improves outcome for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer, but the 15-year recurrence rate remains 30%. The aim of this study was to identify gene profiles that accurately predicted the outcome of ER+ breast cancer patients who received adjuvant Tamoxifen mono-therapy....

  15. Effects of diverse dietary phytoestrogens on cell growth, cell cycle and apoptosis in estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takako; Horiguchi, Hyogo; Oguma, Etsuko; Kayama, Fujio

    2010-09-01

    Phytoestrogens have attracted attention as being safer alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and as chemopreventive reagents for breast cancer because dietary soy isoflavone intake has been correlated with reduction in risk. To identify safe and effective phytoestrogen candidates for HRT and breast cancer prevention, we investigated the effects of daidzein, genistein, coumestrol, resveratrol and glycitein on cell growth, cell cycle, cyclin D1 expression, apoptosis, Bcl-2/Bax expression ratio and p53-dependent or NF-kappaB-dependent transcriptional activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Phytoestrogens, except for glycitein, significantly enhanced estrogen-response-element-dependent transcriptional activity up to a level similar to that of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)). E(2) increased cell growth significantly, coumestrol increased cell growth moderately, and resveratrol and glycitein reduced cell growth. Phytoestrogens, except for glycitein, stimulated the promotion of cells to G(1)/S transition in cell cycle analysis, similar to E(2). This stimulation was accompanied by transient up-regulation of cyclin D1. While genistein, resveratrol and glycitein all increased apoptosis and reduced the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, resveratrol reduced this ratio more than either genistein or glycitein. Moreover, resveratrol significantly enhanced p53-dependent transcriptional activity, but slightly reduced NF-kappaB-dependent transcriptional activity. On knockdown analysis, genistein, resveratrol and glycitein all reduced the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in the presence of apoptosis-inducing stimuli, and estrogen receptor (ER) alpha silencing had no effect on these reductions. In contrast, in the absence of apoptosis-inducing stimuli, only resveratrol reduced the ratio, and ERalpha silencing abolished this reduction. Thus, resveratrol might be the most promising candidate for HRT and chemoprevention of breast cancer due to its estrogenic activity and high antitumor activity.

  16. Does postmenopausal estrogen administration increase the risk of breast cancer? Contributions of animal, biochemical, and clinical investigative studies to a resolution of the controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumoff, B

    1998-01-01

    Despite nearly six decades of epidemiological studies, meta-analyses, and reviews, there is still considerable controversy in the literature about the question, does postmenopausal estrogen administration increase the risk of breast cancer? In an effort to resolve the controversy, a number of animal, biochemical, and clinical investigative studies in this field have been reviewed. The following summary formulation is proposed: 1. Administration of estrogen is inherently capable of promoting the growth of breast cancer, and therefore of increasing the incidence of clinical breast cancer. 2. Human response to estrogen is like that of the low-cancer-incidence strains of mice studied by Lacassagne, in that large doses and prolonged administration are required to induce clinical breast cancer. 3. The blood levels of estradiol produced by the usual doses of postmenopausal estrogen are relatively low, equivalent to those of the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. These levels may be near the threshold for producing breast-cancer-promoting effects; therefore, the tumor response will vary greatly in different populations, depending on genetic susceptibility factors: a. The prevalence of a family history of premenopausal breast cancer in a first-degree relative. b. The prevalence of abnormal BRCA1, BRCA2, and p53 genes. c. The prevalence of increased 16 alpha-hydroxylation of estradiol. d. The prevalence of smokers who are slow acetylators. 4. Consumption of alcohol (5 grams or more daily) along with the postmenopausal estrogen administration results in elevation of blood estradiol levels to values equivalent to those of the periovulatory peak of the menstrual cycle, which may be well above the threshold for producing breast-cancer-promoting effects in all women. The risk for cancer will therefore be uniformly increased in women who use alcohol and take estrogen. 5. Increased risk of breast cancer from postmenopausal estrogen administration can be eliminated by taking

  17. The DHEA metabolite 7β-hydroxy-epiandrosterone exerts anti-estrogenic effects on breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra, Niro; Ester, Pereira; Marie-Agnès, Pélissier; Robert, Morfin; Olivier, Hennebert

    2012-04-01

    7β-Hydroxy-epiandrosterone (7β-OH-EpiA), an endogenous androgenic derivative of dehydroepiandrosterone, has previously been shown to exert anti-inflammatory action in vitro and in vivo via a shift from prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-PGJ2 production. This modulation in prostaglandin production was obtained with low concentrations of 7β-OH-EpiA (1-100nM) and suggested that it might act through a specific receptor. Inflammation and prostaglandin synthesis is important in the development and survival of estrogen-dependent mammary cancers. Estrogen induced PGE2 production and cell proliferation via its binding to estrogen receptors (ERs) in these tumors. Our objective was to test the effects of 7β-OH-EpiA on the proliferation (by counting with trypan blue exclusion), cell cycle and cell apoptosis (by flow cytometry) of breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 (ERα+, ERβ+, G-protein coupled receptor 30: GPR30+) and MDA-MB-231 (ERα-, ERβ+, GPR30+) and to identify a potential target of this steroid in these cell lineages (by transactivations) and in the nuclear ER-negative SKBr3 cells (GPR30+) (by proliferation assays). 7β-OH-EpiA exerted anti-estrogenic effects in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells associated with cell proliferation inhibition and cell cycle arrest. Moreover, transactivation and proliferation with ER agonists assays indicated that 7β-OH-EpiA interacted with ERβ. Data from proliferation assays on the MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SKBr3 cell lines suggested that 7β-OH-EpiA may also act through the membrane GPR30 receptor. These results support that this androgenic steroid acts as an anti-estrogenic compound. Moreover, this is the first evidence that low doses of androgenic steroid exert antiproliferative effects in these mammary cancer cells. Further investigations are needed to improve understanding of the observed actions of endogenous 7β-OH-EpiA.

  18. Integration of estrogen and progesterone receptors with pathological and molecular prognostic factors in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago, F E; Tello, O M; Diblasi, A M; Ciocca, D R

    1998-12-01

    In this study we have examined biopsies from women with localized primary breast cancer to investigate the prognostic performance of estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) for estimating the metastatic probability of the patients, and to explore whether discrimination gets better by combining clinicopathological and other molecular parameters into a score. This prospective study involved 205 patients with a median follow-up of 5 y. Among the evaluated clinicopathological data were: patient's age; tumor size; axillary lymph node involvement; and tumor grade. The most representative tumor samples were derived to a single laboratory for immunohistochemical evaluation of the following molecular markers: ER, PR, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), p53 protein product, erbB-2 (HER-2/neu) oncoprotein, and P170 glycoprotein (mdrl gen product). Distant metastases (study endpoint) appeared in 19.5% (40/205) of the patients, most of these patients presented a mixture of poor, regular and good prognostic factors. Disease-free survival analysis procedures (Kaplan-Meier method) identified tumor size, axillary lymph node involvement, tumor grade, receptor status, PCNA, p53, erbB-2 and P170 as useful prognostic factors. Proportional hazard regression analysis (Cox) identified in order of importance erbB-2, tumor size, receptors status, tumor grade and PCNA as useful prognostic factors. To facilitate the evaluation of the prognostic factors, a practical and simple score system was derived. A high pathological score identified 65% of the patients that developed distant metastases, while a high molecular score was obtained in 57% of patients with metastatic disease. There was a significant improvement in the diagnosis of probability of being with distant metastases when the pathological score was combined with the molecular score, 82% of the patients with distant metastases showed an elevated combined score. Validation of this scoring system will need further

  19. Distinct roles for aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator and ah receptor in estrogen-mediated signaling in human cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Labrecque

    Full Text Available The activated AHR/ARNT complex (AHRC regulates the expression of target genes upon exposure to environmental contaminants such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD. Importantly, evidence has shown that TCDD represses estrogen receptor (ER target gene activation through the AHRC. Our data indicates that AHR and ARNT act independently from each other at non-dioxin response element sites. Therefore, we sought to determine the specific functions of AHR and ARNT in estrogen-dependent signaling in human MCF7 breast cancer and human ECC-1 endometrial carcinoma cells. Knockdown of AHR with siRNA abrogates dioxin-inducible repression of estrogen-dependent gene transcription. Intriguingly, knockdown of ARNT does not effect TCDD-mediated repression of estrogen-regulated transcription, suggesting that AHR represses ER function independently of ARNT. This theory is supported by the ability of the selective AHR modulator 3',4'-dimethoxy-α-naphthoflavone (DiMNF to repress estrogen-inducible transcription. Furthermore, basal and estrogen-activated transcription of the genes encoding cathepsin-D and pS2 are down-regulated in MCF7 cells but up-regulated in ECC-1 cells in response to loss of ARNT. These responses are mirrored at the protein level with cathepsin-D. Furthermore, knock-down of ARNT led to opposite but corresponding changes in estrogen-stimulated proliferation in both MCF7 and ECC-1 cells. We have obtained experimental evidence demonstrating a dioxin-dependent repressor function for AHR and a dioxin-independent co-activator/co-repressor function for ARNT in estrogen signalling. These results provide us with further insight into the mechanisms of transcription factor crosstalk and putative therapeutic targets in estrogen-positive cancers.

  20. Value of post-operative reassessment of estrogen receptor α expression following neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without gefitinib for estrogen receptor negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernsdorf, Mogens; Balslev, Eva; Lykkesfeldt, Anne E; Kroman, Niels; Harder, Eva; von der Maase, Hans; Jakobsen, Erik H; Grabau, Dorthe; Ejlertsen, Bent

    2011-07-01

    The NICE trial was designed to evaluate the possible benefits of adding epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapy to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with estrogen receptor α (ER) negative and operable breast cancer. Preclinical data have suggested that signalling through the ErbB receptors or downstream effectors may repress ER expression. Here the authors investigated whether gefitinib, given neoadjuvant in combination with epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (EC), could restore ER expression. Eligible patients in the NICE trial were women with unilateral, primary operable, ER negative invasive breast cancer ≥ 2 cm. Material from patients randomized and completing treatment (four cycles of neoadjuvant EC plus 12 weeks of either gefitinib or placebo) in the NICE trial having available ER status both at baseline and after neoadjuvant treatment were eligible for this study. Tumors with indication of changed ER phenotype (based on collected pathology reports) were immunohistochemically reassessed centrally. 115 patients were eligible for this study; 59 patients in the gefitinib group and 56 patients in the placebo group. Five (4.3%) of 115 tumors changed ER phenotype from negative to positive. A change was seen in three patients in the gefitinib (5.1%) and in two patients in the placebo (3.6%) group with a difference of 1.51% (95% CI, -6.1-9.1). Results of the NICE trial have been reported previously. Post-operative reassessment of ER expression changed the assessment of ER status in a small but significant fraction of patients and should, whenever possible, be performed following neoadjuvant chemotherapy for ER negative breast cancer. Gefitinib did not affect the reversion rate of ER negative tumors.

  1. Expression profile of E-cadherin, estrogen receptors, and P53 in early-onset gastric cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Shi, Jiong; Lan, Xing; Zou, Xiaoping; Wang, Lei; Huang, Qin

    2016-12-01

    Early-onset gastric cancer (EOGC) is predominant in females, diffuse histology, and hereditary pattern. Germline mutation of CDH1 and p53 has been reported previously and female dominance was speculated to be associated with estrogen and its receptors. Expression of E-cadherin, estrogen receptor α (ERα), estrogen receptor β (ERβ), and p53 in EOGC remains unclear, which was the focus of this study, to assess clinical significance of their expression in EOGC. The expression of E-cadherin, ERα, ERβ, and p53 in tumors and normal tissues from surgically resected EOGCs was assessed by immunohistochemistry (n = 139) and Western blot (n = 7) methods, respectively. The expression in tumor tissues was significantly higher for ERα, ERβ, and p53, but lower for E-cadherin, compared to uninvolved mucosa. Positive staining of ERβ and p53 was more frequently observed in younger patients with advanced TNM stages. For E-cadherin, significant correlation was observed between the immunopositivity and TNM stages IA+IB. P53-negative patients had significantly better outcomes than p53-positive patients. Significant association between expression of E-cadherin and histologic types was found in familial, but not in sporadic, EOGC. In conclusion, our results demonstrated E-cadherin may have a role in initiation of EOGC and positive ERβ and p53 expression may partially explained early-onset and tumor progression of EOGC.

  2. Low-dose vaginal estrogens or vaginal moisturizer in breast cancer survivors with urogenital atrophy: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglia, Nicoletta; Peano, Elisa; Sgandurra, Paola; Moggio, Giulia; Panuccio, Enrico; Migliardi, Marco; Ravarino, Nicoletta; Ponzone, Riccardo; Sismondi, Piero

    2010-06-01

    The study aim is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two low-dose vaginal estrogen treatments (ETs) and of a non-hormonal vaginal moisturizer in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors with urogenital atrophy. Eighteen patients receiving estriol cream 0.25 mg (n = 10) or estradiol tablets 12.5 microg (n = 8) twice/week for 12 weeks were evaluated and compared with eight patients treated with polycarbophil-based moisturizer 2.5 g twice/week. Severity of vaginal atrophy was assessed using subjective [Vaginal Symptoms Score (VSS), Profile of Female Sexual Function (PFSF)] and objective [Vaginal Health Index (VHI), Karyopycnotic Index (KI)] evaluations, while safety by measuring endometrial thickness and serum sex hormones levels. After 4 weeks, VSS and VHI were significantly improved by both vaginal ETs, with further improvement after 12 weeks. PFSF improved significantly only in estriol group (p = 0.02). Safety measurements did not significantly change. Vaginal moisturizer improved VSS at week 4 (p = 0.01), but score returned to pre-treatment values at week 12; no significant modification of VHI, KI, PFSF was recorded. Both low-dose vaginal ET are effective for relieving urogenital atrophy, while non-hormonal moisturizer only provides transient benefit. The increase of serum estrogens levels during treatment with vaginal estrogen at these dosages is minimal.

  3. Advances in Variations of Estrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2 Status in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yuan; Zhang Lili

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy, endocrine therapy and molecular targeted therapy are vital means in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC), whose reasonable and standard applications are of great importance to prolong patients’ survival and improve the quality of life. The expressions of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) present signiifcant differences between primary and metastatic breast cancer. However, these differences may affect the selection of MBC patients for therapeutic strategies and judgment on the prognosis. Hence, the relevant researches on variations of hormone receptors and HER-2 in primary and metastatic breast cancer, discordant causes of ER, PR and HER-2 expression in primary and metastatic lesions and clinical value of biopsy to the metastases are reviewed in the study.

  4. Estrogen receptor α determination in serum, cell lysates and breast cancer cells using an amperometric magnetoimmunosensing platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Eletxigerra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical magnetoimmunosensor for the determination of estrogen receptor α (ERα protein in complex samples (serum and cell lysates able to discriminate between ERα positive and negative breast cancer cells is reported. Specifically functionalized magnetic microbeads with sandwich immunocomplexes and amperometric detection at disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs resulted in highly selective and sensitive ERα detection with a detection limit of 19 pg mL−1. This magnetoimmunosensing platform was successfully applied to the quantitation of ERα in spiked human serum and cell lysates samples without any matrix effect with an advantageous performance in terms of simplicity and assay times over commercial ELISA assays. The biosensor capability for assessing ERα in intact breast cancer cells makes it competitive with conventional strategies providing rapidly quantitative and reliable results on this relevant biomarker currently used in the clinical practice for diagnosis, follow-up and monitoring of metastatic breast cancer.

  5. Estrogen Receptor β2 Induces Hypoxia Signature of Gene Expression by Stabilizing HIF-1α in Prostate Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasenjit Dey

    Full Text Available The estrogen receptor (ER β variant ERβ2 is expressed in aggressive castration-resistant prostate cancer and has been shown to correlate with decreased overall survival. Genome-wide expression analysis after ERβ2 expression in prostate cancer cells revealed that hypoxia was an overrepresented theme. Here we show that ERβ2 interacts with and stabilizes HIF-1α protein in normoxia, thereby inducing a hypoxic gene expression signature. HIF-1α is known to stimulate metastasis by increasing expression of Twist1 and increasing vascularization by directly activating VEGF expression. We found that ERβ2 interacts with HIF-1α and piggybacks to the HIF-1α response element present on the proximal Twist1 and VEGF promoters. These findings suggest that at least part of the oncogenic effects of ERβ2 is mediated by HIF-1α and that targeting of this ERβ2 - HIF-1α interaction may be a strategy to treat prostate cancer.

  6. Estrogen Receptor β2 Induces Hypoxia Signature of Gene Expression by Stabilizing HIF-1α in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Prasenjit; Velazquez-Villegas, Laura A.; Faria, Michelle; Turner, Anthony; Jonsson, Philp; Webb, Paul; Williams, Cecilia; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Ström, Anders M.

    2015-01-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) β variant ERβ2 is expressed in aggressive castration-resistant prostate cancer and has been shown to correlate with decreased overall survival. Genome-wide expression analysis after ERβ2 expression in prostate cancer cells revealed that hypoxia was an overrepresented theme. Here we show that ERβ2 interacts with and stabilizes HIF-1α protein in normoxia, thereby inducing a hypoxic gene expression signature. HIF-1α is known to stimulate metastasis by increasing expression of Twist1 and increasing vascularization by directly activating VEGF expression. We found that ERβ2 interacts with HIF-1α and piggybacks to the HIF-1α response element present on the proximal Twist1 and VEGF promoters. These findings suggest that at least part of the oncogenic effects of ERβ2 is mediated by HIF-1α and that targeting of this ERβ2 – HIF-1α interaction may be a strategy to treat prostate cancer. PMID:26010887

  7. Molecular Markers of Estrogen Metabolism and Progression From High-Grade Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (HGPIN) to Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    cases, and 45 healthy controls free of prostate cancer at biopsy. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP3A4 and CYP1B1 associated with estrogen metabolism...report. Year 3: Genotyping for CYP1B1 polymorphism is complete. Genotyping for CYP3A4 polymorphism is currently in progress. This genotyping...3 weeks. Year 4: Genotyping for CYP1B1 and CYP3A4 polymorphisms are complete. We have extended the genotyping protocol to include PPARγ2 and CYP19

  8. Development of a bicistronic vector for multimodality imaging of estrogen receptor activity in a breast cancer model: preliminary application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottobrini, Luisa; Lecchi, Michela; Martelli, Cristina; Lucignani, Giovanni [University of Milan, Unit of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital San Paolo, Institute of Radiological Sciences, Milan (Italy); Ciana, Paolo; Maggi, Adriana [University of Milan, Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Milan (Italy); Moresco, Rosamaria; Belloli, Sara; Todde, Sergio; Fazio, Ferruccio [University of Milan-Bicocca, Scientific Institute H. S. Raffaele, CNR-IBFM, Milan (Italy); Gambhir, Sanjiv S. [Stanford University, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Department of Radiology, Bio-X Program, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2008-02-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a cellular model for the concurrent imaging of reporter genes expression by using positron emission tomography (PET) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI) for the assessment of estrogen receptor activity in vivo in a breast cancer model. Two reporters were chosen: a mutated form of the dopaminergic D2 receptor (D{sub 2}R80A) for PET imaging, and the Firefly Luciferase for BLI. The presence of an IRES sequence between the two reporters ensured the coordinated expression driven by the same regulatory sequence containing an estrogen responsive element (ERE). To prevent chromatin effects on reporter expression, the construct was flanked by insulator sequences (Matrix Attachment Region, MAR). In vitro studies showed that the vector was efficient in coordinating the expression of the two genes. Moreover, stably transfected cells implanted in recipient animals maintained their capacity to express the reporters and react to systemic treatments permitting the in vivo study of ERs activity by PET and BLI imaging. In vitro expression analysis after long-term treatments showed different behaviour of the two reporter proteins in monitoring estrogen-dependent transcription outlining the importance of multi-reporter systems. With this model, PET and BLI can be applied to the concurrent evaluation of gene expression induced by estrogen and its analogues by using a bicistronic construct. The combined features of rapid, sensitive, sequential BLI and tomographic and quantitative PET imaging will allow the use of this strategy for the in vivo evaluation of molecular processes also for pharmacodynamic studies. (orig.)

  9. Disruption of androgen and estrogen receptor activity in prostate cancer by a novel dietary diterpene carnosol: implications for chemoprevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeremy J.; Syed, Deeba N.; Suh, Yewseok; Heren, Chenelle R.; Saleem, Mohammad; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Emerging data is suggesting that estrogens, in addition to androgens, may also be contributing to the development of prostate cancer (PCa). In view of this notion agents that target estrogens, in addition to androgens, may be a novel approach for PCa chemoprevention and treatment. Thus, the identification and development of non-toxic dietary agents capable of disrupting androgen receptor (AR) in addition to estrogen receptor (ER) could be extremely useful in the management of PCa. Through molecular modeling we found carnosol, a dietary diterpene fits within the ligand binding domain of both AR and ER-α. Using a TR-FRET assay we found that carnosol interacts with both AR and ER-α and additional experiments confirmed that it functions as a receptor antagonist with no agonist effects. LNCaP, 22Rv1, and MCF7 cells treated with carnosol (20–40 µM) showed decreased protein expression of AR and ER-α. Oral administration of carnosol at 30 mg/kg five days weekly for 28 days to 22Rv1 PCa xenografted mice suppressed tumor growth by 36% (p = 0.028) and was associated with a decrease in serum PSA by 26% (p=0.0042). These properties make carnosol unique to any known anti-androgen or anti-estrogen investigated so far for the simultaneous disruption of AR and ER-α. We suggest that carnosol may be developed or chemically modified through more rigorous structure activity relationship studies for a new class of investigational agents - a dual AR/ER modulator. PMID:20736335

  10. Increased TET1 Expression in Inflammatory Microenvironment of Hyperinsulinemia Enhances the Response of Endometrial Cancer to Estrogen by Epigenetic Modulation of GPER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qiao-Ying; Xie, Bing-Ying; Yang, Bing-Yi; Ning, Cheng-Cheng; Shan, Wei-Wei; Gu, Chao; Luo, Xue-Zhen; Chen, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Bo; Feng, You-Ji

    2017-01-01

    Background: Insulin resistance (IR) has been well studied in the initiation and development of endometrial endometrioid carcinoma (EEC). As yet, it has been largely neglected for estrogen sensitivity in local endometrium in hyperinsulinemia-induced systemic microenvironment. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of insulin in regulating estrogen sensitivity and explore the potential mechanisms in insulin-driven inflammatory microenvironment. Methods: We first investigated the effect of insulin on estradiol-driven endometrial cancer cells proliferation in vitro to address the roles of insulin in modulating estrogen sensitivity. Then GPER, ERα and TET1 in EEC samples with or without insulin resistance were screened by immunohistochemistry to confirm whether insulin resistance regulates estrogen receptors. Further mechanism analysis was carried out to address whether TET1 was mediated epigenetic modulation of GPER in insulin-induced microenvironment. Results: Insulin enhanced estradiol-driven endometrial cancer cells proliferation by up-regulating G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) expression, but not ERα or ERβ. Immunohistochemistry of EEC tissues showed that GPER expression was greatly increased in endometrial tissues from EEC subjects with insulin resistance and was positively correlated with Ten-eleven-translocation 1 (TET1) expression. Mechanistically, insulin up-regulates TET1 expression, and the latter, an important DNA hydroxymethylase, could up-regulate GPER expression through epigenetic modulation. Conclusion: This study identified TET1 as the upstream regulator of GPER expression and provides a possible mechanism that insulin-induced positive regulation of estrogen sensitivity in endometrial cancer cells. Increasing expression of GPER through TET1-mediated epigenetic modulation may emerge as the main regulator to enhance the response of endometrial cancer to estrogen in insulin-driven inflammatory microenvironment.

  11. Bisphosphonates in the adjuvant treatment of young women with breast cancer: the estrogen rich is a poor candidate!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Hamdy A; Kamal, Nermine S; Malak, Rafaat A

    2013-06-01

    During the last 2 decades the role of bisphosphonates (BPs) to reduce skeletal-related events from bone metastases in breast cancer has been well defined. Several preclinical studies have strongly suggested that BPs may also provide an anti-cancer effect in early breast cancer. Indeed, the use of adjuvant BPs represents a unique approach that attempts at eradicating occult tumor micro-metastases residing in the bone marrow via targeting the bone microenvironment to render it less favorable for cancer cell growth. Although, this concept has been tested clinically for more than 15 years, no final consensus has been reached as for the routine use of BPs in the adjuvant phase of breast cancer, owing to conflicting results of randomized studies. Nevertheless, accumulating evidence from recent trials has indicated a therapeutic benefit of adjuvant BPs-particularly zoledronic acid-in women with established menopause, with no or perhaps detrimental effects in premenopausal women. Indeed, this hypothesis has opened a new chapter on the role of estrogen-poor microenvironment as a potential pre-requisite for the anti-tumor effects of BPs in the adjuvant phase of breast cancer. In this review, we will emphasize the biological rational of using BPs to target bone microenvironment in patients with early breast cancer and we will explore mechanistic differences; related to bisphosphonates effects in premenopausal versus postmenopausal women and how the endocrine environment would influence the anticancer potential of these compounds.

  12. Quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate inhibit glucose uptake and metabolism by breast cancer cells by an estrogen receptor-independent mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Liliana, E-mail: lilianam87@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine of University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Araújo, Isabel, E-mail: isa.araujo013@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine of University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Costa, Tito, E-mail: tito.fmup16@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine of University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Correia-Branco, Ana, E-mail: ana.clmc.branco@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine of University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Ana, E-mail: anafaria@med.up.pt [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine of University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Faculty of Sciences of University of Porto, Rua Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences of University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Martel, Fátima, E-mail: fmartel@med.up.pt [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine of University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Keating, Elisa, E-mail: keating@med.up.pt [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine of University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal)

    2013-07-15

    In this study we characterized {sup 3}H-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 3}H -DG) uptake by the estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF7 and the ER-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines and investigated the effect of quercetin (QUE) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) upon {sup 3}H-DG uptake, glucose metabolism and cell viability and proliferation. In both MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells {sup 3}H-DG uptake was (a) time-dependent, (b) saturable with similar capacity (V{sub max}) and affinity (K{sub m}), (c) potently inhibited by cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of the facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT), (d) sodium-independent and (e) slightly insulin-stimulated. This suggests that {sup 3}H-DG uptake by both cell types is mediated by members of the GLUT family, including the insulin-responsive GLUT4 or GLUT12, while being independent of the sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT1). QUE and EGCG markedly and concentration-dependently inhibited {sup 3}H-DG uptake by MCF7 and by MDA-MB-231 cells, and both compounds blocked lactate production by MCF7 cells. Additionally, a 4 h-treatment with QUE or EGCG decreased MCF7 cell viability and proliferation, an effect that was more potent when glucose was available in the extracellular medium. Our results implicate QUE and EGCG as metabolic antagonists in breast cancer cells, independently of estrogen signalling, and suggest that these flavonoids could serve as therapeutic agents/adjuvants even for ER-negative breast tumors. -- Highlights: • Glucose uptake by MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells is mainly mediated by GLUT1. • QUE and EGCG inhibit cellular glucose uptake thus abolishing the Warburg effect. • This process induces cytotoxicity and proliferation arrest in MCF7 cells. • The flavonoids’ effects are independent of estrogen receptor signalling.

  13. MALAT1 and HOTAIR Long Non-Coding RNAs Play Opposite Role in Estrogen-Mediated Transcriptional Regulation in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Aurora; Bacci, Lorenza; Re, Agnese; Ripoli, Cristian; Pierconti, Francesco; Pinto, Francesco; Masetti, Riccardo; Grassi, Claudio; Gaetano, Carlo; Bassi, Pier Francesco; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Nanni, Simona; Farsetti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    In the complex network of nuclear hormone receptors, the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as critical determinants of hormone action. Here we investigated the involvement of selected cancer-associated lncRNAs in Estrogen Receptor (ER) signaling. Prior studies by Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) Sequencing showed that in prostate cancer cells ERs form a complex with the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and that in turn these complexes associate with chromatin in an estrogen-dependent fashion. Among these associations (peaks) we focused our attention on those proximal to the regulatory region of HOTAIR and MALAT1. These transcripts appeared regulated by estrogens and able to control ERs function by interacting with ERα/ERβ as indicated by RNA-ChIP. Further studies performed by ChIRP revealed that in unstimulated condition, HOTAIR and MALAT1 were present on pS2, hTERT and HOTAIR promoters at the ERE/eNOS peaks. Interestingly, upon treatment with17β-estradiol HOTAIR recruitment to chromatin increased significantly while that of MALAT1 was reduced, suggesting an opposite regulation and function for these lncRNAs. Similar results were obtained in cells and in an ex vivo prostate organotypic slice cultures. Overall, our data provide evidence of a crosstalk between lncRNAs, estrogens and estrogen receptors in prostate cancer with important consequences on gene expression regulation. PMID:27922078

  14. Design and Synthesis of Norendoxifen Analogues with Dual Aromatase Inhibitory and Estrogen Receptor Modulatory Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wei; Liu, Jinzhong; Skaar, Todd C.; Flockhart, David A.; Cushman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Both selective estrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors are widely used for the treatment of breast cancer. Compounds with both aromatase inhibitory and estrogen receptor modulatory activities could have special advantages for treatment of breast cancer. Our previous efforts led to the discovery of norendoxifen as the first compound with dual aromatase inhibitory and estrogen receptor binding activities. To optimize its efficacy and aromatase selectivity versus other cytochrome P450 enzymes, a series of structurally related norendoxifen analogues were designed and synthesized. The most potent compound, 4'-hydroxynorendoxifen (10), displayed elevated inhibitory potency against aromatase and enhanced affinity for estrogen receptors when compared to norendoxifen. The selectivity of 10 for aromatase versus other cytochrome P450 enzymes was also superior to norendoxifen. 4'-Hydroxynorendoxifen is therefore an interesting lead for further development to obtain new anticancer agents of potential value for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25751283

  15. EPO-independent functional EPO receptor in breast cancer enhances estrogen receptor activity and promotes cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinbothe, Susann; Larsson, Anna-Maria; Vaapil, Marica; Wigerup, Caroline [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Translational Cancer Research, Medicon Village, Lund University, SE-223 81 Lund (Sweden); CREATE Health, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Sun, Jianmin [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Translational Cancer Research, Medicon Village, Lund University, SE-223 81 Lund (Sweden); Jögi, Annika [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Translational Cancer Research, Medicon Village, Lund University, SE-223 81 Lund (Sweden); CREATE Health, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Neumann, Drorit [Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Rönnstrand, Lars [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Translational Cancer Research, Medicon Village, Lund University, SE-223 81 Lund (Sweden); Påhlman, Sven, E-mail: sven.pahlman@med.lu.se [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Translational Cancer Research, Medicon Village, Lund University, SE-223 81 Lund (Sweden); CREATE Health, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • New anti-human EPOR antibody confirms full-length EPOR expression in breast cancer cells. • Proliferation of breast cancer cells is not affected by rhEPO treatment in vitro. • EPOR knockdown impairs proliferation of ERa positive breast cancer cells. • EPOR knockdown reduces AKT phosphorylation and ERa activity. - Abstract: The main function of Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR) is the stimulation of erythropoiesis. Recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) is therefore used to treat anemia in cancer patients. However, clinical trials have indicated that rhEPO treatment might promote tumor progression and has a negative effect on patient survival. In addition, EPOR expression has been detected in several cancer forms. Using a newly produced anti-EPOR antibody that reliably detects the full-length isoform of the EPOR we show that breast cancer tissue and cells express the EPOR protein. rhEPO stimulation of cultured EPOR expressing breast cancer cells did not result in increased proliferation, overt activation of EPOR (receptor phosphorylation) or a consistent activation of canonical EPOR signaling pathway mediators such as JAK2, STAT3, STAT5, or AKT. However, EPOR knockdown experiments suggested functional EPO receptors in estrogen receptor positive (ERα{sup +}) breast cancer cells, as reduced EPOR expression resulted in decreased proliferation. This effect on proliferation was not seen in ERα negative cells. EPOR knockdown decreased ERα activity further supports a mechanism by which EPOR affects proliferation via ERα-mediated mechanisms. We show that EPOR protein is expressed in breast cancer cells, where it appears to promote proliferation by an EPO-independent mechanism in ERα expressing breast cancer cells.

  16. The regulation of tumor suppressor protein, p53, and estrogen receptor (ERα) by resveratrol in breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saluzzo, Julieta; Hallman, Kelly M.; Aleck, Katie; Dwyer, Brigitte; Quigley, Meghan; Mladenovik, Viktoria; Siebert, Amy E.; Dinda, Sumi

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (RES) is a natural antioxidant found abundantly in grapes, peanuts, and berries, and is known to possess anti-tumorigenic properties. However, there is a noticeable lack of studies on the mechanistic effects of Resveratrol on tumor suppressors. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown the tumor suppressor protein p53 and estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) to be possible molecular targets for RES. In this study, the anti-estrogenic effects of RES were analyzed on the expression of ERα and p53. The breast cancer cells grown in stripped serum were treated with 60 μM RES, as the optimum concentration based on data obtained from a concentration study using 1-100 μM RES. Our studies indicate that RES caused a decrease in the levels of protein expression of p53 and ERα as compared to the control. Increasing concentrations of RES caused a four-fold decrease in cell number in comparison to estradiol. RES, in conjunction with ICI 182,780 (ICI), caused a down-regulation of both p53 and ERα as compared to the control. These observed effects on cell proliferation and regulation of both p53 and ERα by RES may lead to further understanding of the relationship between tumor suppressor proteins and steroid receptors in breast cancer cells. PMID:28191286

  17. Expression of △DNMT3B Variants and Its Association with Estrogen/Progestogen Receptor Status in Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning-hong Liu; Lu Yang; Ming-lei Zhuo; Jie Wang; Shu-hang Wang; Jun Zhao; Hua Bai

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Our previous study has showed that (DNMT3B is the predominant form of DNMT3B in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we aimed to explore the expression patterns of the (DNMT3B variants in breast cancer and to identify whether the pattern was similar to that in NSCLC or not and its clinical significance.Methods: Expression of seven (DNMT3B variants in 59 breast cancer and the corresponding normal tissue was measured using RT-PCR. The correlations between the expressions of (DNMT3B variants and the clinical parameters including ER/PR status, clincopathologic feature and survivals were analyzed.Results: There were significant differences in the expression ratios of (DNMT3B1-7 variants between breast cancer tissues and normal tissues (P<0.001). The positive ratio of (DNMT3B1-7 variants were 66%, 71%, 17%, 51%, 76.2%, 50% and 61% in tumor tissue, respectively; while 16%, 8.4%, 3.38%, 3.38%, 11.8%, 13.5% and 5.08% in the corresponding normal tissue, which was different from the pattern of (DNMT3B1-7 expression in NSCLC (62%, 76%, 2.5%, 46%, 18%, 27% and 16% in tumor tissue, respectively; while 18%, 11%, 0%, 3.3%, 0%, 0% and 0% in normal lung tissue, respectively; P<0.0001). Expressions of (DNMT3B2, 3B4 and 3B7 were higher in the patients with negative estrogen receptor (ER) than those with positive estrogen receptor (P=0.035, P=0.0141 and P=0.0219, respectively). (DNMT3B7 expression was higher for the patients with negative progestogen receptor (PR) compared to those with positive progestogen receptor (P=0.0379). Expression ratio of (DNMT3B5 in stage III tumors is lower than that in stage I/II ones (P= 0.041). But we did not find any relation between the (DNMT3B variants and the patients' survival.Conclusion: The pattern of (DNMT3B variants in breast cancer is different from that in NSCLC. Expressions of (DNMT3B2, 3B4 and 3B7 are associated with estrogen receptors status. While (DNMT3B7 is associated with progestogen receptor. No relation between

  18. Estrogen and pure antiestrogen fulvestrant (ICI 182 780) augment cell–matrigel adhesion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through a novel G protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30)-to-calpain signaling axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan; Li, Zheng; He, Yan; Shang, Dandan; Pan, Jigang; Wang, Hongmei; Chen, Huamei; Zhu, Zhuxia [Department of Physiology/Cancer Research Group, Guiyang Medical University School of Basic Medicine, 9 Beijing Road, Guiyang 550004, Guizhou (China); Wan, Lei [Department of Pharmacology, Guiyang Medical University School of Basic Medicine, 9 Beijing Road, Guiyang 550004, Guizhou (China); Wang, Xudong, E-mail: xdwang@gmc.edu.cn [Department of Physiology/Cancer Research Group, Guiyang Medical University School of Basic Medicine, 9 Beijing Road, Guiyang 550004, Guizhou (China)

    2014-03-01

    Fulvestrant (ICI 182 780, ICI) has been used in treating patients with hormone-sensitive breast cancer, yet initial or acquired resistance to endocrine therapies frequently arises and, in particular, cancer recurs as metastasis. We demonstrate here that both 17-beta-estradiol (E2) and ICI enhance cell adhesion to matrigel in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, with increased autolysis of calpain 1 (large subunit) and proteolysis of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), indicating calpain activation. Additionally, either E2 or ICI induced down-regulation of estrogen receptor α without affecting G protein coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30) expression. Interestingly, GPR30 agonist G1 triggered calpain 1 autolysis but not calpain 2, whereas ER agonist diethylstilbestrol caused no apparent calpain autolysis. Furthermore, the actions of E2 and ICI on calpain and cell adhesion were tremendously suppressed by G15, or knockdown of GPR30. E2 and ICI also induced phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and suppression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by U0126 profoundly impeded calpain activation triggered by estrogenic and antiestrogenic stimulations indicating implication of ERK1/2 in the GPR30-mediated action. Lastly, the E2- or ICI-induced cell adhesion was dramatically impaired by calpain-specific inhibitors, ALLN or calpeptin, suggesting requirement of calpain in the GPR30-associated action. These data show that enhanced cell adhesion by E2 and ICI occurs via a novel GPR30-ERK1/2-calpain pathway. Our results indicate that targeting the GPR30 signaling may be a potential strategy to reduce metastasis and improve the efficacy of antiestrogens in treatment of advanced breast cancer. - Highlights: • Estrogen and ICI augment adhesion to matrigel with calpain activation in MCF-7 cells. • GPR30 mediates cell–matrigel adhesion and calpain activation via ERK1/2. • Calpain is required in the cell–matrigel adhesion induced by E2 and ICI.

  19. Targeting the Estrogen Receptor for Ubiquitination and Degradation in Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    equipment and microscope. We are also grateful to Frank Mercurio (Signal Division, Celgene Pharmaceuticals, Wan-en, NJ) for help obtaining GA-1-mo...34Targeting the estrogen receptor for Proteolysis", wifli Celgene , hic. ($40,000), K Sakamoto, P.I. 1/02-12/02 CaPCURE research award

  20. Inhibition of Estrogen-induced Growth of Breast Cancer by Targeting Mitochondrial Oxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    of oxidative stress [30]. Embryo lethality and depletion of mitochondrial content has also been shown inmice lacking NRF-1 [31]. Whereas estrogen...Moroni,M.C., Christians ,F., Grassilli,E., Prosperini,E., Vigo,E., Oliner,J.D., and Helin,K. (2001) E2Fs regulate the expression of genes involved in

  1. The Circadian Rhythm Gene Arntl2 Is a Metastasis Susceptibility Gene for Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc-Han Ha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer mortality is primarily due to metastasis rather than primary tumors, yet relatively little is understood regarding the etiology of metastatic breast cancer. Previously, using a mouse genetics approach, we demonstrated that inherited germline polymorphisms contribute to metastatic disease, and that these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs could be used to predict outcome in breast cancer patients. In this study, a backcross between a highly metastatic (FVB/NJ and low metastatic (MOLF/EiJ mouse strain identified Arntl2, a gene encoding a circadian rhythm transcription factor, as a metastasis susceptibility gene associated with progression, specifically in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer patients. Integrated whole genome sequence analysis with DNase hypersensitivity sites reveals SNPs in the predicted promoter of Arntl2. Using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated substitution of the MOLF promoter, we demonstrate that the SNPs regulate Arntl2 transcription and affect metastatic burden. Finally, analysis of SNPs associated with ARNTL2 expression in human breast cancer patients revealed reproducible associations of ARNTL2 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL SNPs with disease-free survival, consistent with the mouse studies.

  2. The Circadian Rhythm Gene Arntl2 Is a Metastasis Susceptibility Gene for Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ngoc-Han; Long, Jirong; Cai, Qiuyin; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality is primarily due to metastasis rather than primary tumors, yet relatively little is understood regarding the etiology of metastatic breast cancer. Previously, using a mouse genetics approach, we demonstrated that inherited germline polymorphisms contribute to metastatic disease, and that these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be used to predict outcome in breast cancer patients. In this study, a backcross between a highly metastatic (FVB/NJ) and low metastatic (MOLF/EiJ) mouse strain identified Arntl2, a gene encoding a circadian rhythm transcription factor, as a metastasis susceptibility gene associated with progression, specifically in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer patients. Integrated whole genome sequence analysis with DNase hypersensitivity sites reveals SNPs in the predicted promoter of Arntl2. Using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated substitution of the MOLF promoter, we demonstrate that the SNPs regulate Arntl2 transcription and affect metastatic burden. Finally, analysis of SNPs associated with ARNTL2 expression in human breast cancer patients revealed reproducible associations of ARNTL2 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) SNPs with disease-free survival, consistent with the mouse studies. PMID:27656887

  3. Development of a stably transfected estrogen receptor-mediated luciferase reporter gene assay in the human T47D breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, J; van den Brink, C E; Brouwer, A; Murk, A J; van der Saag, P T; Vethaak, A D; van der Burg, B

    1999-03-01

    Development of an estrogen receptor-mediated, chemical-activated luciferase reporter gene-expression (ER-CALUX) assay was attempted by stable transfection of luciferase reporter genes in a number of cell lines. Stable transfection of the chimeric Gal4 estrogen receptor and luciferase gene constructs in MCF-7 breast cancer and Hepa.1c1c7 mouse hepatoma cell lines, as well as transfection of a newly constructed luciferase reporter gene pEREtata-Luc in the ECC-1 human endometrial cell line, resulted in constitutive, non-estradiol-inducible clones. Stable transfection of pEREtata-Luc in the T47D breast cancer cell line, however, resulted in an extremely sensitive, highly responsive cell line. Following a 24-h exposure to estradiol (E2), stably transfected T47D.Luc cells demonstrated a detection limit of 0.5 pM, an EC50 of 6 pM, and a maximum induction of 100-fold relative to solvent controls. No clear reduction in responsiveness has been found over extended culture periods (50 passages). Anti-estrogens ICI 182,780, TCDD, and tamoxifen inhibited the estradiol-mediated luciferase induction. Genistein, nonylphenol, and o,p'DDT were the most potent (pseudo-)estrogens tested in this system (EC50 100, 260, and 660 nM, respectively). Determination of interactive effects of the (pseudo-)estrogens nonylphenol, o,p'DDT, chlordane, endosulfan, dieldrin, and methoxychlor revealed that, in combination with 3 pM E2, (pseudo-)estrogens were additive. Slightly more than additive effects (less than 2-fold) were found for combinations of dieldrin and endosulfan tested in the range of 3 to 6 microM. At these concentrations, the combination of endosulfan and chlordane demonstrated additive interaction. The ER-CALUX assay with T47D cells can provide a sensitive, responsive, and rapid in vitro system to detect and measure substances with potential (anti-)estrogenic activity.

  4. Epidermal growth factor receptor signalling in human breast cancer cells operates parallel to estrogen receptor α signalling and results in tamoxifen insensitive proliferation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerkens, M.; Zhang, Y.; Wester, L.; Water, van de B.; Meerman, J.H.N.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tamoxifen resistance is a major problem in the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER) α -positive breast cancer patients. Although the mechanisms behind tamoxifen resistance are still not completely understood, clinical data suggests that increased expression of receptor tyrosine kinases is

  5. Effects of flaxseed and Hypericum perforatum on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers in menopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Ghazanfarpour

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: The results of our systematic review suggest beneficial effect on vasomotor symptom with both of flaxseed and H. perforatum. Consistent conclusion regarding estrogen-dependent cancers and maturation value is limited due to small number of trials related to flaxseed. Further trials are still needed to confirm the results of our systematic review.

  6. Is Homeopathy Effective for Hot Flashes and Other Estrogen-Withdrawal Symptoms in Breast Cancer Survivors? A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    homeopathy may be effective in improving hot flashes and quality of life in breast cancer survivors with symptoms of estrogen withdrawal. Methods- A...scores improved significantly in both homeopathy groups compared to placebo. Results of this study suggest that a larger study should be done.

  7. Induction of the LRP16 gene by estrogen promotes the invasive growth of Ishikawa human endometrial cancer cells through the downregulation of E-cadherin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Guang Meng; Wei Dong Han; Ya Li Zhao; Ke Huang; Yi Ling Si; Zhi Qiang Wu; Yi Ming Mu

    2007-01-01

    LRP16 was previously identified as an estrogen-induced gene in breast cancer cells.The responsiveness of LRPl6to estrogen and its functional effects in endometrial cancer(EC)cells are still unclear.Here,we show that the mRNAlevel and promoter activity of the LRP16 gene were significantly increased by 17β-estradiol(E2)in estrogen receptorα(ERα)-positive Ishikawa human EC cells.Although the growth rate of Ishikawa cells was not obviously affected byectopic expression of LIP16,the results of a Transwell assay showed an approximate one-third increase of the invasivecapacity of LRP16-overexpressing cells.As a result of molecular screening,we observed that the expression of E-cadherin,an essential adhesion molecule associated with tumor metastasis,was repressed by LRP16.Further promoter analysesdemonstrated that LRP16 inhibited E-cadherin transactivation in a dose-dependent manner.However,the inhibition wasabolished by estrogen deprivation.indicating that the downregulation of E-cadherin transcription by LRP16 requiresERa mediation.Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that the binding of ERa to the E-cadherin promoterwas antagonized by LRP16,suggesting that LRP16 could interfere with ERα-mediated transcription.These results sug-gest that the upregulation of LRP16 by estrogen could be involved in invasive growth by downregulating E-cadherin inhuman ECs.

  8. TWIST Represses Estrogen Receptor-alpha Expression by Recruiting the NuRD Protein Complex in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjiang Fu, Lianmei Zhang, Tao He, Xiuli Xiao, Xiaoyan Liu, Li Wang, Luquan Yang, Manman Yang, Tiandan Zhang, Rui Chen, Jianming Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss of estrogen receptor α (ERα expression and gain of TWIST (TWIST1 expression in breast tumors correlate with increased disease recurrence and metastasis and poor disease-free survival. However, the molecular and functional regulatory relationship between TWIST and ERα are unclear. In this study, we found TWIST was associated with a chromatin region in intron 7 of the human ESR1 gene coding for ERα. This association of TWIST efficiently recruited the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD repressor complex to this region, which subsequently decreased histone H3K9 acetylation, increased histone H3K9 methylation and repressed ESR1 expression in breast cancer cells. In agreement with these molecular events, TWIST expression was inversely correlated with ERα expression in both breast cancer cell lines and human breast ductal carcinomas. Forced expression of TWIST in TWIST-negative and ERα-positive breast cancer cells such as T47D and MCF-7 cells reduced ERα expression, while knockdown of TWIST in TWIST-positive and ERα-negative breast cancer cells such as MDA-MB-435 and 4T1 cells increased ERα expression. Furthermore, inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC activity including the one in NuRD complex significantly increased ERα expression in MDA-MB-435 and 4T1 cells. HDAC inhibition together with TWIST knockdown did not further increase ERα expression in 4T1 and MDA-MB-435 cells. These results demonstrate that TWIST/NuRD represses ERα expression in breast cancer cells. Therefore, TWIST may serve as a potential molecular target for converting ERα-negative breast cancers to ERα-positive breast cancers, allowing these cancers to restore their sensitivity to endocrine therapy with selective ERα antagonists such as tamoxifen and raloxifene.

  9. Estrogen Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estradiol cypionate and estradiol valerate forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot ... should consider a different treatment. These forms of estrogen injection are also sometimes used to treat the ...

  10. Spatholobus suberectus Column Extract Inhibits Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer via Suppressing ER MAPK PI3K/AKT Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Qi Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Chinese herbal compounds have long been alternatively applied for cancer treatment in China, their treatment effects have not been sufficiently investigated. The Chinese herb Spatholobus suberectus is commonly prescribed to cancer patients. HPLC analysis has shown that the main components of Spatholobus suberectus are flavonoids that can be classified as phytoestrogens, having a structure similar to estrogen. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Spatholobus suberectus column extract (SSCE on the estrogen receptor-positive (ER+ breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and its possible molecular mechanism. In our study, MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell viability. The results show that SSCE (80, 160, and 320 μg/ml significantly decreased the viability of MCF-7 cells. SSCE also triggered apoptosis, arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase, and inhibited cell migration. A dual-luciferase reporter system showed that SSCE suppressed intranuclear p-ER activity; Western blot analysis confirmed the repressed expression of phosphorylated-ER alpha (p-ERα, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, AKT, p-AKT, p-mTOR, PI3K, and p-PI3K, indicating that SSCE suppressed the MAPK PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Collectively, our results suggest that SSCE causes apoptosis, an arrest in the G0/G1 phase, and a decrease in migration in ER+ MCF-7 cells via hypoactivity of the ER and suppression of the MAPK PI3K/AKT pathway.

  11. An integrative transcriptomics approach identifies miR-503 as a candidate master regulator of the estrogen response in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Jeremy E.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is an important biomarker of breast cancer severity and a common therapeutic target. In response to estrogen, ERα stimulates a dynamic transcriptional program including both coding and noncoding RNAs. We generate a fine-scale map of expression dynamics by performing a temporal profiling of both messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) in MCF-7 cells (an ER+ model cell line for breast cancer) in response to estrogen stimulation. We identified three primary expression trends—transient, induced, and repressed—that were each enriched for genes with distinct cellular functions. Integrative analysis of mRNA and miRNA temporal expression profiles identified miR-503 as the strongest candidate master regulator of the estrogen response, in part through suppression of ZNF217—an oncogene that is frequently amplified in cancer. We confirmed experimentally that miR-503 directly targets ZNF217 and that overexpression of miR-503 suppresses MCF-7 cell proliferation. Moreover, the levels of ZNF217 and miR-503 are associated with opposite outcomes in breast cancer patient cohorts, with high expression of ZNF217 associated with poor survival and high expression of miR-503 associated with improved survival. Overall, these data indicate that miR-503 acts as a potent estrogen-induced candidate tumor suppressor miRNA that opposes cellular proliferation and has promise as a novel therapeutic for breast cancer. More generally, our work provides a systems-level framework for identifying functional interactions that shape the temporal dynamics of gene expression. PMID:27539783

  12. Dense collagen-I matrices enhance pro-tumorigenic estrogen-prolactin crosstalk in MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig E Barcus

    Full Text Available Breast cancers that express estrogen receptor alpha (ERα+ constitute the majority of breast tumors. Estrogen is a major driver of their growth, and targeting ER-mediated signals is a largely successful primary therapeutic strategy. Nonetheless, ERα+ tumors also result in the most breast cancer mortalities. Other factors, including altered characteristics of the extracellular matrix such as density and orientation and consequences for estrogen crosstalk with other hormones such as prolactin (PRL, may contribute to these poor outcomes. Here we employed defined three dimensional low density/compliant and high density/stiff collagen-I matrices to investigate the effects on 17β-estradiol (E2 activity and PRL/E2 interactions in two well-characterized ERα+/PRLR+ luminal breast cancer cell lines in vitro. We demonstrate that matrix density modulated E2-induced transcripts, but did not alter the growth response. However, matrix density was a potent determinant of the behavioral outcomes of PRL/E2 crosstalk. High density/stiff matrices enhanced PRL/E2-induced growth mediated by increased activation of Src family kinases and insensitivity to the estrogen antagonist, 4-hydroxytamoxifen. It also permitted these hormones in combination to drive invasion and modify the alignment of collagen fibers. In contrast, low density/compliant matrices allowed modest if any cooperation between E2 and PRL to growth and did not permit hormone-induced invasion or collagen reorientation. Our studies demonstrate the power of matrix density to determine the outcomes of hormone actions and suggest that stiff matrices are potent collaborators of estrogen and PRL in progression of ERα+ breast cancer. Our evidence for bidirectional interactions between these hormones and the extracellular matrix provides novel insights into the regulation of the microenvironment of ERα+ breast cancer and suggests new therapeutic approaches.

  13. The role of 14-3-3{beta} in transcriptional activation of estrogen receptor {alpha} and its involvement in proliferation of breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoonseo; Kim, Hyungjin; Jang, Sung-Wuk [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jesang, E-mail: jesangko@korea.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} 14-3-3{beta} interacts with ER{alpha} and the interaction is Akt-dependent. {yields} 14-3-3{beta} regulates the transcriptional activity of ER{alpha} in a ligand-dependent manner. {yields} 14-3-3{beta} increases expressions of ER{alpha} target genes. {yields} 14-3-3{beta} increases breast cancer cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The estrogen receptor (ER) functions as a transcription factor that mediates the effects of estrogen. ER{alpha}, which plays a crucial role in the development and progression of breast cancer, is activated by estrogen binding, leading to receptor phosphorylation, dimerization, and recruitment of co-activators and chaperons to the estrogen-bound receptor complex. The 14-3-3 proteins bind to target proteins via phosphorylation and influence many cellular events by altering their subcellular localization or acting as a chaperone. However, regulation of ER{alpha} expression and transactivation by the 14-3-3 proteins has not been reported. We demonstrate that 14-3-3{beta} functions as a positive regulator of ER{alpha} through a direct protein-protein interaction in an estrogen-dependent manner. Ectopic expression of 14-3-3{beta} stimulated ER{alpha}-mediated transcriptional activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Enhanced ER{alpha} transcriptional activity due to 14-3-3{beta} increased the expressions of the endogenous ER{alpha} target genes, leading to proliferation of breast cancer cells. We suggest that 14-3-3{beta} has oncogenic potential in breast cancer via binding to ER{alpha} and activation of the transcriptional activity of ER{alpha}.

  14. Pigment epithelium-derived factor: clinical significance in estrogen-dependent tissues and its potential in cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Chuaire, María Liliana; Ramírez-Clavijo, Sandra; Chuaire-Noack, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a glycoprotein that belongs to the family of non-inhibitory serpins. The broad spectrum of PEDF biological activity is evident when considering its effects in promoting cell survival and proliferation, as well as its antiangiogenic, antitumor, and anti-metastatic properties. Although the structural domains of the PEDF gene that mediate such diverse effects and their mechanisms of action have not been completely elucidated, there is a large body of evidence describing their diverse range of activities; this evidence combined with the regulation of PEDF expression by sex steroids and their receptors have led to the idea that PEDF is not only a diagnostic and prognostic marker for certain diseases such as cancer, but is also a potential therapeutic target. In this manner, this paper aims to generally review the regulation of PEDF expression and PEDF interactions, as well as the findings that relate PEDF to the role of estrogens and estrogen receptors. In addition, this manuscript will review major advances toward potential therapeutic applications of PEDF. PMID:26523216

  15. Pigment epithelium-derived factor: clinical significance in estrogen-dependent tissues and its potential in cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Liliana Franco-Chuaire

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF is a glycoprotein that belongs to the family of non-inhibitory serpins. The broad spectrum of PEDF biological activity is evident when considering its effects in promoting cell survival and proliferation, as well as its antiangiogenic, antitumor, and anti-metastatic properties. Although the structural domains of the PEDF gene that mediate such diverse effects and their mechanisms of action have not been completely elucidated, there is a large body of evidence describing their diverse range of activities; this evidence combined with the regulation of PEDF expression by sex steroids and their receptors have led to the idea that PEDF is not only a diagnostic and prognostic marker for certain diseases such as cancer, but is also a potential therapeutic target. In this manner, this paper aims to generally review the regulation of PEDF expression and PEDF interactions, as well as the findings that relate PEDF to the role of estrogens and estrogen receptors. In addition, this manuscript will review major advances toward potential therapeutic applications of PEDF.

  16. Eight functional polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor 1 gene and endometrial cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence indicates that common functional polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1 gene may have an impact on an individual's susceptibility to endometrial cancer, but individually published results are inconclusive. The aim of this meta-analysis is to derive a more precise estimation of the associations between eight polymorphisms in the ESR1 gene and endometrial cancer risk. METHODS: A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and China Biology Medicine (CBM databases was conducted on publications published before November 1(st, 2012. Crude odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Statistical analyses were performed using the STATA 12.0 software. RESULTS: Thirteen case-control studies were included with a total of 7,649 endometrial cancer cases and 16,855 healthy controls. When all the eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis, the results indicated that PvuII (C>T polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer, especially among Caucasian populations. There were also significant associations between rs3020314 (C>T polymorphism and an increased risk of endometrial cancer. Furthermore, rs2234670 (S/L polymorphism may decrease the risk of endometrial cancer. However, no statistically significant associations were found in XbaI (A>G, Codon 325 (C>G, Codon 243 (C>T, VNTR (S/L and rs2046210 (G>A polymorphisms. CONCLUSION: The current meta-analysis suggests that PvuII (C>T and rs3020314 (C>T polymorphisms may be risk factors for endometrial cancer, especially among Caucasian populations.

  17. The scaffold protein MEK Partner 1 is required for the survival of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Mihaela; Wang, Limin; Conrad, Susan E

    2012-07-09

    MEK Partner 1 (MP1 or MAPKSP1) is a scaffold protein that has been reported to function in multiple signaling pathways, including the ERK, PAK and mTORC pathways. Several of these pathways influence the biology of breast cancer, but MP1's functional significance in breast cancer cells has not been investigated. In this report, we demonstrate a requirement for MP1 expression in estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer cells. MP1 is widely expressed in both ER-positive and negative breast cancer cell lines, and in non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cell lines. However, inhibition of its expression using siRNA duplexes resulted in detachment and apoptosis of several ER-positive breast cancer cell lines, but not ER-negative breast cancer cells or non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells. Inhibition of MP1 expression in ER-positive MCF-7 cells did not affect ERK activity, but resulted in reduced Akt1 activity and reduced ER expression and activity. Inhibition of ER expression did not result in cell death, suggesting that decreased ER expression is not the cause of cell death. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of PI3K signaling did induce cell death in MCF-7 cells, and expression of a constitutively active form of Akt1 partially rescued the cell death observed when the MP1 gene was silenced in these cells. Together, these results suggest that MP1 is required for pro-survival signaling from the PI3K/Akt pathway in ER-positive breast cancer cells.

  18. KISS1R induces invasiveness of estrogen receptor-negative human mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Donna; Dragan, Magdalena; Leith, Sean J; Mir, Zuhaib M; Leong, Hon S; Pampillo, Macarena; Lewis, John D; Babwah, Andy V; Bhattacharya, Moshmi

    2013-06-01

    Kisspeptins (KPs), peptide products of the KISS1 metastasis-suppressor gene, are endogenous ligands for a G protein-coupled receptor (KISS1R). KISS1 acts as a metastasis suppressor in numerous human cancers. However, recent studies have demonstrated that an increase in KISS1 and KISS1R expression in patient breast tumors correlates with higher tumor grade and metastatic potential. We have shown that KP-10 stimulates invasion of estrogen receptor α (ERα)-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells via transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Here, we report that either KP-10 treatment of ERα-negative nonmalignant mammary epithelial MCF10A cells or expression of KISS1R in MCF10A cells induced a mesenchymal phenotype and stimulated invasiveness. Similarly, exogenous expression of KISS1R in ERα-negative SKBR3 breast cancer cells was sufficient to trigger invasion and induced extravasation in vivo. In contrast, KP-10 failed to transactivate EGFR or stimulate invasiveness in the ERα-positive MCF7 and T47D breast cancer cells. This suggested that ERα negatively regulates KISS1R-dependent breast cancer cell migration, invasion, and EGFR transactivation. In support of this, we found that these KP-10-induced effects were ablated upon exogenous expression of ERα in the MDA-MB-231 cells, by down-regulating KISS1R expression. Lastly, we have identified IQGAP1, an actin cytoskeletal binding protein as a novel binding partner of KISS1R, and have shown that KISS1R regulates EGFR transactivation in breast cancer cells in an IQGAP1-dependent manner. Overall, our data strongly suggest that the ERα status of mammary cells dictates whether KISS1R may be a novel clinical target for treating breast cancer metastasis.

  19. Comparison of Radiologic Features of Triple-Negative and Estrogen Receptor/Progesteron Receptor Positive Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Joong; Kim, Keum Won; Kim, Dae Ho; Cho, Yong Jun; Hwang, Cheol Mog; Seo, Jae Young; Kim, Jin Suk; Yoon, Dae Sung [Dept. of Konyang University College of Medicine, Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gyu Soon [Dept. of Radiology, Eulji University College of Medicine, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    To retrospectively investigate the imaging [mammographic, ultrasonographic (US), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging] features and standardized uptake values (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) and to compare them with breast cancers that are either estrogen receptor (ER) positive or progesteron receptor (PR) positive. 155 breast cancers cases were identified in 134 women (mean age, 51 years; range, 31-86 years). Surgically confirmed TNBC (n = 27) and ER-positive/PR-positive breast cancers (n = 81) were included among them. Cancers were investigated with mammography (n = 81), US (n = 106), MR imaging (n = 34) and PET-CT (n = 59). Mammographic findings are identified by detection of characteristic masses and microcalcifications. US findings included tumor size, margin, tumor shape, calcification and posterior shadowing. MR findings included tumor size, shape, margin, internal enhancement, intratumoral signal intensity and kinetics. Peak SUVs (p-SUV) of breast cancers were evaluated in PET/CT. These findings were compared with TNBC and ER/PR positive groups. Mammographic findings had no significant association with the TNBC. High pathological grade (p < 0.05), larger than 2 cm in size, well-marginal mass, and round or oval-shaped (p < 0.05) is US were significantly associated with TNBC. In MR imaging, round mass shape (p < 0.05), well-circumscribed mass margin (p < 0.05), rim enhancement (p < 0.05), were significantly associated with TNBC. The peak SUV of TNBC tend to be higher than that of ER-positive/PR-positive breast cancer (7.95 {+-} 5.50 vs. 4.91 {+-} 3.00, p < 0.05). TNBC tend to have high pathological grade, are of a large, round and smooth mass with rim enhancement on MR and US. In addition to above features, PET-CT with SUV estimation can improve the accuracy of test through the evaluation of TNBC.

  20. Downregulation of steroid receptor coactivator-2 modulates estrogen-responsive genes and stimulates proliferation of mcf-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenne, Ingvild S; Helland, Thomas; Flågeng, Marianne H; Dankel, Simon N; Mellgren, Gunnar; Sagen, Jørn V

    2013-01-01

    The p160/Steroid Receptor Coactivators SRC-1, SRC-2/GRIP1, and SRC-3/AIB1 are important regulators of Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) activity. However, whereas the functions of SRC-1 and SRC-3 in breast tumourigenesis have been extensively studied, little is known about the role of SRC-2. Previously, we reported that activation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA, facilitates ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of SRC-2 which in turn leads to inhibition of SRC-2-coactivation of ERα and changed expression of the ERα target gene, pS2. Here we have characterized the global program of transcription in SRC-2-depleted MCF-7 breast cancer cells using short-hairpin RNA technology, and in MCF-7 cells exposed to PKA activating agents. In order to identify genes that may be regulated through PKA-induced downregulation of SRC-2, overlapping transcriptional targets in response to the respective treatments were characterized. Interestingly, we observed decreased expression of several breast cancer tumour suppressor genes (e.g., TAGLN, EGR1, BCL11b, CAV1) in response to both SRC-2 knockdown and PKA activation, whereas the expression of a number of other genes implicated in cancer progression (e.g., RET, BCAS1, TFF3, CXCR4, ADM) was increased. In line with this, knockdown of SRC-2 also stimulated proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Together, these results suggest that SRC-2 may have an antiproliferative function in breast cancer cells.

  1. Association Between a Germline OCA2 Polymorphism at Chromosome 15q13.1 and Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzato, E.M.; Tyrer, J.; Fasching, P.A.;

    2010-01-01

    -sided. In the hypothesis-generating dataset, SNP rs4778137 (C > G) of the OCA2 gene at 15q13.1 was statistically significantly associated with overall survival among patients with estrogen receptor-negative tumors, with the rare G allele being associated with increased overall survival (HR of death per rare allele carried.......92, P = 5 x 10(-4)). The rare G allele of the OCA2 polymorphism, rs4778137, may be associated with improved overall survival among patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer...

  2. Progesterone and estrogen receptor expression and activity in human non-small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality in male and female patients in the US. Although it is clear that tobacco smoking is a major cause of lung cancer, about half of all women with lung cancer worldwide are never-smokers. Despite a declining smoking population, the incidence of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the predominant form of lung cancer, has reached epidemic proportions particularly in women. Emerging data suggest that factors other than tobacco, namely endogeno...

  3. Estrogen-DNA Adducts as Novel Biomarkers for Ovarian Cancer Risk and for Use in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    urine samples [4] and genetic polymorphisms in four selected estrogen- metabolizing enzymes in DNA saliva samples from 50 women diagnosed with ovarian...The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author( s ) and should not be construed...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: 5f. WORK UNIT

  4. A New Therapeutic Paradigm for Breast Cancer Exploiting Low Dose Estrogen-Induce Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    various species (rat, mouse, mon- key, and dog ). Themajor route of excretion of radioactivitywas in the feces. The rat and dog were used to show that...identified in the dog [40]. This phenolic metabolite without the dimethylaminoethyl side chain is a full estrogen [47,49]. The dimethylaminoethoxy side...The American journal of Cardiology . 94, Bolognesi, A , Aldrighetti, D. and 19 1205 1208. Farris, A. (2000) Cyclophosphamide, 20 374 Verhoeven, M.O

  5. Targeting Estrogen Receptor-Beta in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    polyacrylamide gels . Proteins were transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane for 1.5 hr at 0.35 A. Membranes were blocked with 5% nonfat milk and...anti-mouse IgG secondary antibody (Licor Biosciences, Lincoln, NE) for 1 hr at room temperature and visualized on a Licor Odyssey near-infrared gel ...from Glycyrrhizae uralensis and the most active estrogenic component of MF101, an herbal supplement with therapeutic potential [11]. In the initial

  6. Preliminary research on regulatory effect of estrogen on malignant biological behaviors of triple-negative breast cancer cells and its molecular mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Fang Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the regulating effect of estrogen on malignant biological behaviors of triple-negative breast cancer cells and its molecular mechanisms. Methods:Triple-negative breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-468 were cultured and treated with different doses of estrogen and 10-6 mol/L estrogen combined with GPR30 antagonist G15 for 12 h, 24 h and 48 h, and then cell viability, migration as well as mRNA expression levels of ITGβ1, Sema 4D, MK, c-Met and AEG-1 were detected. Results:Estradiol could increase cell viability, reduce scratch area and increase mRNA expression levels of ITGβ1, Sema 4D, MK, c-Met and AEG-1 in dose-dependent and time-dependent manner;after estradiol combined with G15 treatment, cell viability was significantly lower than that of estradiol treatment alone, scratch area was significantly larger than that of estradiol treatment alone, and mRNA contents of ITGβ1, Sema 4D, MK, c-Met and AEG-1 were significantly lower than those of estradiol treatment alone. Conclusion:Estrogen can regulate the malignant biological behaviors of triple-negative breast cancer cells, promote cell proliferation and migration, and increase the expression of related genes through GPR30.

  7. Association of Estrogen Receptor Alpha and Interleukin 6 Polymorphisms with Lymphovascular Invasion, Extranodal Extension, and Lower Disease-Free Survival in Thai Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa-Nguanraksa, Doonyapat; Suntiparpluacha, Monthira; Kulprom, Anchalee; Kummalue, Tanawan; Chuangsuwanich, Tuenjai; Avirutnan, Panissadee; O-Charoenrat, Pornchai

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent type of cancer diagnosed among women worldwide and also in Thailand. Estrogen and estrogen receptors exert important roles in its genesis and progression. Several cytokines have been reported to be involved in the microenvironment that promotes distant metastasis via modulation of immune and inflammatory responses to tumor cells. Estrogen receptor genetic polymorphisms and several cytokines have been reported to be associated with breast cancer susceptibility and aggressiveness. To investigate roles of genetic polymorphisms in estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and interleukin 6 (IL6), breast cancer patients and control subjects were recruited from the Division of Head, Neck and Breast Surgery (Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand). Polymorphisms in ESR1 (rs3798577) and IL6 (rs1800795 and rs1800797) were evaluated by real-time PCR in 391 breast cancer patients and 79 healthy controls. Associations between genetic polymorphisms and clinicopathological data were determined. There was no association between genetic polymorphisms and breast cancer susceptibility. However the ESR1 rs3798577 CT genotype was associated with presence of lymphovascular invasion (OR=2.07, 95%CI 1.20-3.56, p=0.009) when compared to the TT genotype. IL6 rs1800795 CC genotype was associated with presence of extranodal extension (OR= 2.30, 95%CI 1.23-4.31, p=0.009) when compared to the GG genotype. Survival analysis showed that IL6 rs1800797 AG or AA genotypes were associated with lower disease-free survival. These findings indicate that polymorphisms in ESR1 and IL6 contribute to aggressiveness of breast cancer and may be used to identify high risk patients.

  8. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 2-Aroyl-3-aryl-6,7-dihydro-5H-furo[3,2-g]chromen Derivatives as a Novel Series of Estrogen Receptor Modulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shi-hui; WANG Yan; ZHU Yu-ying; LIU Si-jie; HAN Jian; ZHOU Yi-fan; LI Da-wei; KOIRALA Diwa; HU Chun

    2011-01-01

    Based on the principles of the bioisosterism, combination of the active substructures of selective estrogen receptor modulators which are currently therapeutic agents available for the prevention and treatment of various estrogen dependent diseases, and structural optimization, a novel series of 2-aroyl-3-aryl-6,7-dihydro-5H-furo[3,2-g]chromen derivatives was designed as potent selective estrogen receptor modulators via molecular docking. The target compoundshave been synthesized, and characterized by IR, proton NMR, ESI-MS, elemental analysis and evaluated for their antitumor activity against human osteosarcoma U2OS-EGFP-4FI2G cell line. Some target compounds showed good inhibition effects on U2OS-EGFP-4F 12G cell line and the preliminary structure-activity relationships were discussed.

  9. Nottingham Prognostic Index Plus: Validation of a clinical decision making tool in breast cancer in an independent series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andrew R; Soria, Daniele; Stephen, Jacqueline; Powe, Desmond G; Nolan, Christopher C; Kunkler, Ian; Thomas, Jeremy; Kerr, Gillian R; Jack, Wilma; Cameron, David; Piper, Tammy; Ball, Graham R; Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Rakha, Emad A; Bartlett, John Ms; Ellis, Ian O

    2016-01-01

    The Nottingham Prognostic Index Plus (NPI+) is a clinical decision making tool in breast cancer (BC) that aims to provide improved patient outcome stratification superior to the traditional NPI. This study aimed to validate the NPI+ in an independent series of BC. Eight hundred and eighty five primary early stage BC cases from Edinburgh were semi-quantitatively assessed for 10 biomarkers [Estrogen Receptor (ER), Progesterone Receptor (PgR), cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, CK7/8, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER2, HER3, HER4, p53, and Mucin 1] using immunohistochemistry and classified into biological classes by fuzzy logic-derived algorithms previously developed in the Nottingham series. Subsequently, NPI+ Prognostic Groups (PGs) were assigned for each class using bespoke NPI-like formulae, previously developed in each NPI+ biological class of the Nottingham series, utilising clinicopathological parameters: number of positive nodes, pathological tumour size, stage, tubule formation, nuclear pleomorphism and mitotic counts. Biological classes and PGs were compared between the Edinburgh and Nottingham series using Cramer's V and their role in patient outcome prediction using Kaplan-Meier curves and tested using Log Rank. The NPI+ biomarker panel classified the Edinburgh series into seven biological classes similar to the Nottingham series (p > 0.01). The biological classes were significantly associated with patient outcome (p  0.01). The good PGs were similarly validated in Luminal B, Basal p53 normal, HER2+/ER- tumours and the poor PG in the Luminal N class (p > 0.01). Due to small patient numbers assigned to the remaining PGs, Luminal N, Luminal B, Basal p53 normal and HER2+/ER- classes could not be validated. This study demonstrates the reproducibility of NPI+ and confirmed its prognostic value in an independent cohort of primary BC. Further validation in large randomised controlled trial material is warranted.

  10. Immunohistochemical analysis of aldehyde dehydrogenase isoforms and their association with estrogen-receptor status and disease progression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opdenaker LM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lynn M Opdenaker,1,2 Kimberly M Arnold,1,3 Ryan T Pohlig,3,4 Jayasree S Padmanabhan,1 Daniel C Flynn,1,3 Jennifer Sims-Mourtada1–3 1Center for Translational Cancer Research, Helen F Graham Cancer Center, Christiana Care Health Services, Inc., Newark, Delaware, USA; 2Department of Biological Sciences, 3Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, 4Biostatistics Core Facility, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA Abstract: In many types of tumors, especially breast tumors, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity has been used to identify cancer stem-like cells within the tumor. The presence and quantity of these cells are believed to predict the response of tumors to chemotherapy. Therefore, identification and eradication of these cells would be necessary to cure the patient. However, there are 19 different ALDH isoforms that could contribute to the enzyme activity. ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A3 are among the isoforms mostly responsible for the increased ALDH activity observed in these stem-like cells, although the main isoforms vary in different tissues and tumor types. In the study reported here, we attempted to determine if ALDH1A1 or ALDH1A3, specifically, correlate with tumor stage, grade, and hormone-receptor status in breast-cancer patients. While there was no significant correlation between ALDH1A1 and any of the parameters tested, we were able to identify a positive correlation between ALDH1A3 and tumor stage in triple-negative cancers. In addition, ALDH1A3 was negatively correlated with estrogen-receptor status. Our data suggest that ALDH1A3 could be utilized as a marker to identify stem-like cells within triple-negative tumors. Keywords: breast tumor, ALDH, ALDH1A1, ALDH1A3, stem-like cells, triple-negative cancer

  11. Genetic polymorphisms in miRNAs targeting the estrogen receptor and their effect on breast cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giang T. Nguyen-Dien

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the cancer that most commonly affects women worldwide. This type of cancer is genetically complex, but is strongly linked to steroid hormone signaling systems. Because microRNAs act as translational regulators of multiple genes, including the steroid nuclear receptors, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in microRNA genes can have potentially wide-ranging influences on breast cancer development. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the relationships between six SNPs (rs6977848, rs199981120, rs185641358, rs113054794, rs66461782, and rs12940701 located in four miRNA genes predicted to target the estrogen receptor (miR-148a, miR-221, miR-186, and miR-152 and breast cancer risk in Caucasian Australian women. By using high resolution melt analysis (HRM and polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP, 487 samples including 225 controls and 262 cases were genotyped. Analysis of their genotype and allele frequencies indicated that the differences between case and control populations were not significant for rs6977848, rs66461782, and rs12940701 because their p-values are 0.81, 0.93, and 0.1, respectively, which are all above the threshold value (p = 0.05. Our data thus suggests that these SNPs do not affect breast cancer risk in the tested population. In addition, rs199981120, rs185641358, and rs113054794 could not be found in this population, suggesting that these SNPs do not occur in Caucasian Australians.

  12. Association between cadmium and breast cancer risk according to estrogen receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2: epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumylaite, Loreta; Kregzdyte, Rima; Bogusevicius, Algirdas; Poskiene, Lina; Baranauskiene, Dale; Pranys, Darius

    2014-05-01

    The study aimed to examine the association between cadmium (Cd) and the risk of breast cancer according to estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). A hospital-based case-control study was carried out in 585 cases and 1,170 controls. Information on possible risk factors was collected via a structured questionnaire. Urinary Cd was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The ER and HER2 levels in tumor tissue were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer by creatinine-adjusted urinary Cd. Women with greater creatinine-adjusted urine Cd (3rd quartile: 0.241-0.399 μg/g and 4th quartile: ≥ 0.4 μg/g) experienced 1.6 times higher risk of breast cancer compared with those having Cd concentration lower than 0.147 μg/g (1st quartile) [OR = 1.6, (95 % CI 1.19, 2.17) and OR = 1.62 (95 % CI 1.19, 2.21), respectively, P trend = 0.001] after adjustment for age and other confounders. Both ER+ and HER2- cases from the highest quartile of urine Cd exhibited approximately twice the breast cancer risk of those in the lowest quartile [OR = 1.9, (95 % CI 1.31, 2.74) and OR = 1.87, (95 % CI 1.33, 2.62), respectively, P trend cadmium as a risk factor for breast cancer, especially for both ER+ and HER2- cancer patients.

  13. Regulation of progesterone-binding breast cyst protein GCDFP-24 secretion by estrogens and androgens in human breast cancer cells: a new marker of steroid action in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, J; Dauvois, S; Haagensen, D E; Lévesque, C; Mérand, Y; Labrie, F

    1990-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that androgens are potent inhibitors of breast cancer cell proliferation under both basal and estrogen-induced incubation conditions, while they suppress expression of the estrogen and progesterone receptors. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for the antagonism between androgens and estrogens in breast cancer and to obtain a new tumor marker for the actions of these two steroids, we have investigated the effects of androgens and estrogens on expression of the major protein found in human breast gross cystic disease fluid, namely GCDFP-24. This study was performed in ZR-75-1 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. After a 9-day incubation period, physiological concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol stimulated proliferation of ZR-75-1 and MCF-7 cells by 2- to 3.5-fold while simultaneously exerting a marked 70-90% inhibition of GCDFP-24 secretion. The estrogenic effects on GCDFP-24 secretion and cell proliferation were both competitively blocked by simultaneous incubation with the new steroidal pure antiestrogen EM-139. On the other hand, a maximal concentration (10 nM) of the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone decreased by 50% the proliferation of ZR-75-1 cells; the half-maximal inhibitory effect was exerted at 0.01 nM. The androgen exerted a 3- to 4-fold stimulatory effect on GCDFP-24 secretion at an EC50 value of 0.01 nM. The effect of dihydrotestosterone on these parameters was competitively blocked by simultaneous incubation with the pure antiandrogen OH-flutamide. The present data show that the effects of estrogens and androgens in ZR-75-1 cells on GCDFP-24 secretion and cell growth are opposite. Similarly, in MCF-7 cells, estrogens stimulate cell growth, while GCDFP-24 secretion is inhibited. The present data also suggest that GCDFP-24 could well be a good biochemical marker for monitoring the response to androgenic and antiestrogenic compounds in the therapy of advanced breast cancer.

  14. Hemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of estrogen homeostasis: elevation of estrogenquinones as a risk factor for developing breast cancer in Taiwanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Che; Hsieh, Wei-Chung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Yu, Wen-Fa; Hu, Suh-Woan; Sue, Hung-Jie; Ko, Mao-Hui; Juan, Chang-Hsin; Chung, Kuo-Suan; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2014-03-21

    The aim of this study was to establish a methodology to analyze estrogen quinone-derived adducts, including 17β-estradiol-2,3-quinone (E2-2,3-Q) and 17β-estradiol-3,4-quinone (E2-3,4-Q), in human hemoglobin (Hb). The methodology was then used to measure the levels of these adducts in Hb derived from female breast cancer patients (n=143) as well as controls (n=147) in Taiwan. Our result confirmed that both E2-2,3-Q- and E2-3,4-Q-derived adducts, including E2-2,3-Q-4-S-Hb and E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Hb, were detected in all breast cancer patients with median levels at 434 (215-1472) and 913 (559-2384) (pmol/g), respectively. Levels of E2-2,3-Q-4-S-Hb correlated significantly with those of E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Hb (r=0.622-0.628, pQ-4-S-Hb and E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Hb in breast cancer patients compared to those in the controls (pbreast cancer risk. We hypothesize that combination of genetic events and environmental factors may modulate estrogen homeostasis and enhance the production of estrogen quinones which lead to subsequent generation of pro-mutagenic DNA lesions in breast cancer patients.

  15. The Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Cervical Cancers and Hela Cells Was Regulated by Estrogen/Progestogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yunguang; PU Demin; LI Yanli

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and menstrual cycle, the regulatory effects of 17-β-estradiol (E2) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) on the expression of COX-2 in cervical cancer Hela cells were examined. Cervical cancer specimens were obtained from 47 pre-menopausal patients. The phase of menstrual cycle was determined by case history and HE staining of uterine endometrium. COX-2 was immunohistochemically stained by SABC staining and the staining intensity was determined with computerized image analysis system.Hela cells were incubated with alcohol, E2, E2+MPA, MPA for 12, 24 and 48 h respectively. The expression of COX-2 in Hela cells was detected by Western blotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our results showed that the expression of COX-2 was significantly higher during proliferative phase than secretory phase (P<0.05), but there was no difference in the positive rate between proliferative phase and secretory phase (P>0.05). Incubation with E2 could significantly enhance the expression of COX-2 continually. On the contrary, E2+MPA and MPA alone could decrease the expression of COX-2 as compared with the control and E2 group (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively). It is concluded that the expression of COX-2 in cervical cancer of pre-menopausal patients and Hela cells was regulated by estrogen/progestogen.

  16. Identification of CETP as a molecular target for estrogen positive breast cancer cell death by cholesterol depleting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esau, Luke; Sagar, Sunil; Bangarusamy, Dhinoth; Kaur, Mandeep

    2016-09-01

    Cholesterol and its metabolites act as steroid hormone precursors, which promote estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer (BC) progression. Development of cholesterol targeting anticancer drugs has been hindered due to the lack of knowledge of viable molecular targets. Till now, Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) has been envisaged as a feasible molecular target in atherosclerosis, but for the first time, we show that CETP contributes to BC cell survival when challenged with cholesterol depleting agents. We show that MCF-7 CETP knockout BC cells pose less resistance towards cytotoxic compounds (Tamoxifen and Acetyl Plumbagin (AP)), and were more susceptible to intrinsic apoptosis. Analysis of differentially expressed genes using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), in vivo tumor inhibition, and in vitro phenotypic responses to AP revealed a unique CETP-centric cholesterol pathway involved in sensitizing ER+ BC cells to intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis. Furthermore, analysis of cell line, tissue and patient data available in publicly available databases linked elevated CETP expression to cancer, cancer relapse and overall poor survival. Overall, our findings highlight CETP as a pharmacologically relevant and unexploited cellular target in BC. The work also highlights AP as a promising chemical entity for preclinical investigations as a cholesterol depleting anticancer therapeutic agent.

  17. Relationship between expression of somatostatin receptors subtype 2 mRNA and estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾希志; 姚榛祥

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To observe the expression of somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) mRNA, and investigate the relationship between the expression of SSTR2 mRNA and the expressions of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ERs and PRs) in benign and malignant breast tissues.Methods Samples from a total of 23 breast carcinomas, 16 mammary hyperplasias, and 9 mammary fibroadenomas were analyzed. SSTR2 mRNA expression was examined by in situ hybridization using multiphase oligoprobes. ER and PR expressions were detected by immunohistochemical staining. A computerized image analysis system was utilized to estimate the relative content of SSTR2 mRNA.Results The rate of expression (87.0%) and relative content (0.47) of SSTR2 mRNA in breast cancer were higher than those in benign breast tissue (64%,0.26) (P<0.05). SSTR2 mRNA expression was closely correlated with ER and PR expressions in breast cancer (P<0.05). SSTR2 mRNA was also positively correlated with ER expression in benign breast tissues.Conclusions SSTR2 mRNA expression is higher or in benign breast tissues than in malignant ones. There is a significant positive correlation between SSTR2 mRNA and ER and PR expressions. Combined antiestrogen and somatostatin analogue in treatment of ER-positive breast cancers should be further investigated.

  18. The Detection and Analysis of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors in Breast Cancer (Report of 1,393 Patients)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CuizhiGeng; XiangdeWu; XiaolingWang; GuilanWang; HuichaiYang; MeiLin

    2004-01-01

    OBJECIVE To explore the distribution of estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) in patients with breast cancer and to compare the results with clinical parameters. METHODS Breast cancer specimens of 1393 cases were stained for the ER and PR by a SP Two-Step method, and analyzed with respect to age, menstrual status, histopathology and metastasis of axillary lymph nodes .RESULTS The correlation coefficients between ER and PR were positive (PO.05). There were significantly higher positive rates of ER and lower positive rates of PR in post-menopausal patients than in premenopausal cases(PO.05). The patients with no metastasis in the axillary lymph nodes had higher simultaneous positive rates of ER and PR (Pcancer patients.

  19. Inhibition of Estrogen-Induced Growth of Breast Cancer by Targeting Mitochondria Oxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    mM NaCl, 0.5% deoxycholate, 0.1% Nonidet P - 40 , 0.1% SDS, 50 mM Tris) containing protease and phosphatase inhibitors (Roche, CA). Equal amounts of...19 deoxycholate, 0.1% Nonidet P - 40 , 0.1% SDS, 50 mM Tris) containing protease and phosphatase inhibitors (Roche, CA). Whole cell lysates (WCL...modulators (MnSOD and catalase), were pre-treated with 40 μM ebselen or 1.0 mM NAC and then challenged with 100 pg/ml estrogensMCF-7 cells containing null

  20. Modulation of Estrogen-Depurinating DNA Adducts by Sulforaphane for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    estrogen metabolism enzymes. Scr , scrambled; siKp, siKEAP1. C. Effect of siKEAP1 on NQO1 activity. Values are mean ± SE of 3 independent...glutathione conjugates, respectively, following addition of 4-OHE2 to cells pre-treated with either SFN or siKEAP1. Veh, vehicle; Scr , scrambled vector. Values...synthesized by published procedures (7,22–24). A  mixed standard solution of 10 µg/ml was obtained by mixing 10  µl of individual stock solutions (1 mg/ml

  1. Extracellular alkaline pH leads to increased metastatic potential of estrogen receptor silenced endocrine resistant breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitham A Khajah

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Endocrine resistance in breast cancer is associated with enhanced metastatic potential and poor clinical outcome, presenting a significant therapeutic challenge. We have established several endocrine insensitive breast cancer lines by shRNA induced depletion of estrogen receptor (ER by transfection of MCF-7 cells which all exhibit enhanced expression profile of mesenchymal markers with reduction of epithelial markers, indicating an epithelial to mesenchymal transition. In this study we describe their behaviour in response to change in extracellular pH, an important factor controlling cell motility and metastasis. METHODS: Morphological changes associated with cell exposure to extracellular alkaline pH were assessed by live cell microscopy and the effect of various ion pumps on this behavior was investigated by pretreatment with chemical inhibitors. The activity and expression profile of key signaling molecules was assessed by western blotting. Cell motility and invasion were examined by scratch and under-agarose assays respectively. Total matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity and specifically of MMP2/9 was assessed in conditioned medium in response to brief alkaline pH exposure. RESULTS: Exposure of ER -ve but not ER +ve breast cancer cells to extracellular alkaline pH resulted in cell shrinkage and spherical appearance (termed contractolation; this was reversed by returning the pH back to 7.4. Contractolation was blocked by targeting the Na(+/K(+ and Na(+/H(+ pumps with specific chemical inhibitors. The activity and expression profile of key signaling molecules critical for cell adhesion were modulated by the exposure to alkaline pH. Brief exposure to alkaline pH enhanced MMP2/9 activity and the invasive potential of ER -ve cells in response to serum components and epithelial growth factor stimulation without affecting unhindered motility. CONCLUSIONS: Endocrine resistant breast cancer cells behave very differently to estrogen

  2. Inference of hierarchical regulatory network of estrogen-dependent breast cancer through ChIP-based data

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    Parvin Jeffrey

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global profiling of in vivo protein-DNA interactions using ChIP-based technologies has evolved rapidly in recent years. Although many genome-wide studies have identified thousands of ERα binding sites and have revealed the associated transcription factor (TF partners, such as AP1, FOXA1 and CEBP, little is known about ERα associated hierarchical transcriptional regulatory networks. Results In this study, we applied computational approaches to analyze three public available ChIP-based datasets: ChIP-seq, ChIP-PET and ChIP-chip, and to investigate the hierarchical regulatory network for ERα and ERα partner TFs regulation in estrogen-dependent breast cancer MCF7 cells. 16 common TFs and two common new TF partners (RORA and PITX2 were found among ChIP-seq, ChIP-chip and ChIP-PET datasets. The regulatory networks were constructed by scanning the ChIP-peak region with TF specific position weight matrix (PWM. A permutation test was performed to test the reliability of each connection of the network. We then used DREM software to perform gene ontology function analysis on the common genes. We found that FOS, PITX2, RORA and FOXA1 were involved in the up-regulated genes. We also conducted the ERα and Pol-II ChIP-seq experiments in tamoxifen resistance MCF7 cells (denoted as MCF7-T in this study and compared the difference between MCF7 and MCF7-T cells. The result showed very little overlap between these two cells in terms of targeted genes (21.2% of common genes and targeted TFs (25% of common TFs. The significant dissimilarity may indicate totally different transcriptional regulatory mechanisms between these two cancer cells. Conclusions Our study uncovers new estrogen-mediated regulatory networks by mining three ChIP-based data in MCF7 cells and ChIP-seq data in MCF7-T cells. We compared the different ChIP-based technologies as well as different breast cancer cells. Our computational analytical approach may guide biologists to

  3. Organochlorine exposures influence on breast cancer risk and survival according to estrogen receptor status: a Danish cohort-nested case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rank Fritz

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between breast cancer and organochlorine exposure is controversial and complex. As estrogen receptor positive and negative breast cancer may represent different entities of the disease, this study was undertaken to evaluate organochlorines influence on breast cancer risk and survival according to receptor status. Methods The background material stems from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (Denmark 1976-78. The breast cancer risk was investigated in a cohort nested case-control design including 161 cases and twice as many breast cancer free controls. The cases served as a cohort in the survival analysis. Serum organochlorine concentrations were determined by gaschromotography. Results The observed increased breast cancer risk associated with exposure to dieldrin derived from women who developed an estrogen receptor negative (ERN tumor (Odds ratio [OR] I vs. IV quartile, 7.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-46.1, p-value for linear trend 0.01. Tumors in women with the highest dieldrin serum level were larger and more often spread at the time of diagnosis than ERP tumors. The risk of dying was for the remaining evaluated compounds higher among patients with ERP breast cancer when compared to those with ERN. In the highest quartile of polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB it was more than 2-fold increased (Relative risk [RR] I vs. IV quartile, 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.7, but no dose-response relation was apparent. Conclusion The results do not suggest that exposure to potential estrogenic organochlorines leads to development of an ERP breast cancer. A possible adverse effect on prognosis of hormone-responsive breast cancers needs to be clarified.

  4. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens;

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  5. Elevated APOBEC3B Correlates with Poor Outcomes for Estrogen-Receptor-Positive Breast Cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Sieuwerts (Anieta); S. Willis (Scooter); M.J. Burns (Michael); M.P. Look (Maxime); M.E.M.-V. Gelder (Marion E. Meijer-Van); A. Schlicker (Andreas); D.A.M. Heideman (Danielle); H. Jacobs (Heinz); L. Wessels (Lodewyk); B. Leyland-Jones (Brian); K.P. Gray (Kathryn); J.A. Foekens (John); R.S. Harris (Reuben); J.W.M. Martens (John)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecent observations connected DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B to the genetic evolution of breast cancer. We addressed whether APOBEC3B is associated with breast cancer clinical outcomes. APOBEC3B messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were related in 1,491 primary breast cancers to disease-free (DF

  6. Evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay for estrogen receptors in human breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, R I; Colin, P; Francis, A B; Keshra, R; Finlay, P; Williams, M; Elston, C W; Blamey, R W; Griffiths, K

    1986-08-01

    An estrogen receptor enzyme immunoassay kit (ER-EIA) has been evaluated in 70 human breast carcinomas against a routine cytoplasmic [3H]estradiol binding assay (ERU). A linear correlation between the ER-EIA and the ERU was observed for binding values up to 400 fmol/mg of cytosol protein. Above this value, the ERU underestimates the concentration of receptor. The ERU gave a lower number of estrogen receptor-positive tumors (50 of 70) than did the ER-EIA assay (59 of 70). In the ERU-negative ER-EIA-positive tumors, receptor values as determined by the ER-EIA assay all fell below 50 fmol/mg of protein (mean, 19.9 +/- 4.2 fmol/mg of protein). Application of an exchange procedure which estimates the total steroid binding capacity of the cytosol gave positive results in 7 of 9 ERU-negative ER-EIA-positive tumors (mean, 16.9 +/- 2.95 fmol/mg of protein). Subdivision of the binding data according to the menopausal status of the patient indicates low receptor values in premenopausal women by each assay. A correlation between the ER-EIA assay and the histological grade of tumors was observed; Grade I well-differentiated tumors were all positive, while Grade II and III tumors were 86% and 75% positive, respectively. No correlation between the ER-EIA assay and tumor lymph node stage or tumor size was observed.

  7. Estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer. Immunohistochemical assay on scraping material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigo, B; Pilotti, S; Coradini, D; La Malfa, G; Rilke, F

    1992-04-01

    In order to demonstrate the reliability of immunocytochemical results on cytologic specimens for receptor analysis, the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors was investigated using immunohistochemistry on frozen sections and on scraping material from the same samples of 50 breast carcinomas. The level of agreement between the two procedures was evaluated by the kappa statistic, as was that between each immunohistochemical procedure and the dextran-coated-charcoal assay since the latter is still the assay employed most frequently for steroid receptor determination and is used for official reports. Statistical results revealed very good agreement regarding the estrogen receptor analysis, with kappa values of .910 and .952 for the comparison of the dextran-coated-charcoal assay with immunocytochemistry on frozen sections and on scrapes, respectively, and .950 for the comparison between the two immunocytochemical procedures. As to progesterone receptors, the kappa values were .795 and .712 for the comparison between the biochemical and immunocytochemical results and .915 for agreement evaluation between the two immunocytochemical procedures. The study showed that the scraping procedure is a valuable tool for the immunocytochemical assessment of steroid receptors in small mammary tumors; it yields representative cellular samples, thus permitting the investigation of heterogeneously distributed substances in tissues.

  8. Research Progress on Estrogen Relationship With breast cancer%雌激素与乳腺癌关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蕾蕾; 吴东恩

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen is a steroid hormone,ER is widely spread in tissues including reproductive system ,skeleton and cardiovas-cular system,could induce breast cancer.Complete mechanism of estrogen cause breast cancer remains unclear,but One important mechanism which is known to stimulate the growth of breast cancer and inhibition of apoptosis.Here is to review the full text on estro-gen,estrogen receptor and breast cancer relationship.%雌激素是一种甾体激素,具有广泛的组织分布,包括生殖系统、骨骼、心血管系统等,可诱导乳腺肿瘤的发生。雌激素导致乳腺癌的完全机制仍不明确,但已知其中重要的机制之一就是刺激乳腺癌组织的生长和抑制凋亡。本文就雌激素,雌激素受体与乳腺癌的关系进行综述。

  9. 17β-estradiol promotes the invasion and migration of nuclear estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells through cross-talk between GPER1 and CXCR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qi-Feng; Wu, Ting-Ting; Yang, Jun-Yan; Dong, Chao-Ran; Wang, Ni; Liu, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Zhi-Min

    2013-11-01

    G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) is widely expressed in human breast cancers correlating with increased tumor size and malignancy. Although estrogen signaling via GPER1 was extensively studied in recent years, the underlying molecular mechanism of GPER1-associated metastasis of breast cancer still remains unclear. In this study, the main aims were focused on the potential role of GPER1 in regulating migration and invasion of nuclear estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer cells upon 17β-estradiol (E2) stimulation and the involved signaling pathway. Key events in estrogen signaling were chosen for our studies, such as the activation of ERK and AKT, nuclear translocation of NF-κB and secretion of Interleukin-8 (IL-8). The migration and invasion activities upon E2 stimulation were also examined in ER-negative SKBR3 and BT-20 breast cancer cells. Compared with ER-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells, both SKBR3 and BT-20 cells had very similar expression of GPER1, but relatively high expression of CXC receptor-1 (CXCR1), which is considered as an active regulator for cancer metastasis upon binding IL-8. Results showed that E2 facilitated the activation of ERK, AKT and NF-κB, which could be significantly attenuated by GPER1 blockage or knock-down in both SKBR3 and BT-20 cells. Moreover, increased secretion of IL-8 induced by E2 was also inhibited either by specific inhibitors for GPER1, ERK, AKT, and NF-κB, or by knock-down for GPER1. Furthermore, E2 could activate the migration and invasion of both SKBR3 and BT-20 cells, which in turn could also be inhibited by blocking GPER1, ERK, AKT, NF-κB, and CXCR1, respectively, or knock-down for GPER1 and CXCR1. In conclusion, we demonstrated that estrogen signaling via GPER1 associated with the metastasis of breast cancer, which might be through GPER1/ERK&AKT/NF-κB/IL-8/CXCR1 cascade. The cross-talk between GPER1 and CXCR1 could be another potential target for the therapy of metastatic breast cancer.

  10. Transrepression of the estrogen receptor promoter by calcitriol in human breast cancer cells via two negative vitamin D response elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Srilatha; Krishnan, Aruna V; Peng, Lihong; Lundqvist, Johan; Feldman, David

    2013-08-01

    Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), the hormonally active metabolite of vitamin D, exerts its anti-proliferative activity in breast cancer (BCa) cells by multiple mechanisms including the downregulation of the expression of estrogen receptor α (ER). We analyzed an ∼3.5 kb ER promoter sequence and demonstrated the presence of two potential negative vitamin D response elements (nVDREs), a newly identified putative nVDRE upstream at -2488 to -2473 bp (distal nVDRE) and a previously published sequence (proximal nVDRE) at -94 to -70 bp proximal to the P1 start site. Transactivation analysis using ER promoter deletion constructs and heterologous promoter-reporter constructs revealed that both nVDREs functioned to mediate calcitriol transrepression. In the electrophoretic mobility shift assay, the vitamin D receptor (VDR) showed strong binding to both nVDREs in the presence of calcitriol, and the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated the recruitment of the VDR to the distal nVDRE site. Mutations in the 5' hexameric DNA sequence of the distal nVDRE resulted in the loss of calcitriol-mediated transrepression and the inhibition of protein-DNA complex formation, demonstrating the importance of these nucleotides in VDR DNA binding and transrepression. A putative nuclear factor-Y (NFY) binding site, identified within the distal nVDRE, led to the findings that NFY bound to the distal nVDRE site interfered with the binding of the VDR at the site and reduced calcitriol-mediated transrepression. In conclusion, the ER promoter region contains two negative VDREs that act in concert to bind to the VDR and both nVDREs are required for the maximal inhibition of ER expression by calcitriol. The suppression of ER expression and estrogen-mediated signaling by calcitriol in BCa cells suggests that vitamin D may be useful in the treatment of ER+ BCa.

  11. A pooled analysis of post-diagnosis lifestyle factors in association with late estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechuta, Sarah; Chen, Wendy Y; Cai, Hui; Poole, Elizabeth M; Kwan, Marilyn L; Flatt, Shirley W; Patterson, Ruth E; Pierce, John P; Caan, Bette J; Ou Shu, Xiao

    2016-05-01

    Lifestyle factors have been well studied in relation to breast cancer prognosis overall; however, associations of lifestyle and late outcomes (>5 years after diagnosis) have been much less studied, and no studies have focused on estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer survivors, who may have high risk of late recurrence and mortality. We utilized a large prospective pooling study to evaluate the associations of lifestyle factors with late recurrence and all-cause mortality among 6,295 5-year ER+ Stage I-III breast cancer survivors. Pooled and harmonized data were available on clinical factors and lifestyle factors (pre- to post-diagnosis weight change, body mass index (BMI) (kg/m(2)), recreational physical activity, alcohol intake and smoking history), measured on average 2.1 years after diagnosis. Updated information for weight only was available. Study heterogeneity was evaluated by the Q-statistic. Multivariable Cox regression models were stratified by study. Adjusting for clinical factors and potential confounders, ≥ 10% weight gain and obesity (BMI, 30-34.99 and ≥ 35) were associated with increased risk of late recurrence (hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals): 1.24 (1.00-1.53), 1.40 (1.05-1.86) and 1.41 (1.02-1.93), respectively). Daily alcohol intake was associated with late recurrence, 1.28 (1.01-1.62). Physical activity was inversely associated with late all-cause mortality (0.81 (0.71-0.93) and 0.71 (0.61-0.82) for 4.9 to factors were associated with late outcomes among long-term ER+ breast cancer survivors.

  12. Estrogen Receptor Expression and Docetaxel Efficacy in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of Four Randomized Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broglio, Kristine; Pusztai, Lajos; Berrada, Narjiss; Mackey, John R.; Nabholtz, Jean Marc; Chan, Stephen; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Differences in the efficacy of various chemotherapies in patients with estrogen receptor (ER)+ metastatic breast cancer are not well understood. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of docetaxel in patients with metastatic breast cancer according to ER expression. Methods. The efficacy of docetaxel in terms of the response rate and progression-free survival (PFS) time was analyzed according to ER expression in four randomized trials comparing a docetaxel-based regimen with a nontaxane regimen that included a total of 1,631 patients. The odds ratio for tumor response was estimated with logistic regression and a hazard ratio (HR) for PFS was estimated with Cox proportional hazards models. Findings. ER expression was assessable in 1,037 patients included in these trials (64%). ER was expressed in 601 tumors (58%). Docetaxel was associated with a similarly higher response rate in both patients with ER+ (odds ratio, 2.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72–4.87) and patients with ER− (odds ratio, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.44–4.51) disease. The lower hazard for disease progression with docetaxel was also similar in ER+ (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.67–1.00) and ER− (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.70–1.07) cancers. The effect of docetaxel was not different in ER+ and ER− disease, in terms of both the response rate and PFS time (interaction test, p = .77 and p = .93). Interpretation. Docetaxel produces a higher response rate and lower risk for disease progression to a statistically similar extent in both patients with ER+ and patients with ER− metastatic breast cancer. PMID:20421265

  13. Biologic Roles of Estrogen Receptor-β and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-2 in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalo Hamilton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC occurs in 10–15% of patients yet accounts for almost half of all breast cancer deaths. TNBCs lack expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors and HER-2 overexpression and cannot be treated with current targeted therapies. TNBCs often occur in African American and younger women. Although initially responsive to some chemotherapies, TNBCs tend to relapse and metastasize. Thus, it is critical to find new therapeutic targets. A second ER gene product, termed ERβ, in the absence of ERα may be such a target. Using human TNBC specimens with known clinical outcomes to assess ERβ expression, we find that ERβ1 associates with significantly worse 5-year overall survival. Further, a panel of TNBC cell lines exhibit significant levels of ERβ protein. To assess ERβ effects on proliferation, ERβ expression in TNBC cells was silenced using shRNA, resulting in a significant reduction in TNBC proliferation. ERβ-specific antagonists similarly suppressed TNBC growth. Growth-stimulating effects of ERβ may be due in part to downstream actions that promote VEGF, amphiregulin, and Wnt-10b secretion, other factors associated with tumor promotion. In vivo, insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2, along with ERβ1, is significantly expressed in TNBC and stimulates high ERβ mRNA in TNBC cells. This work may help elucidate the interplay of metabolic and growth factors in TNBC.

  14. In silico study of curcumol, curcumenol, isocurcumenol, and β-sitosterol as potential inhibitors of estrogen receptor alpha of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resmi Mustarichiei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on data from the Hospital Information System (HIS in 2007, breast cancer is the top ranked diagnosed cancer in Indonesia. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα is associated with breast cancer because it is found in high levels in cancer tissues. Curcumol, curcumenol, isocurcumenol of white tumeric rhizomes (Curcuma zedoaria (Christm. Roscoe, and β-sitosterol from seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. have been reported to have inhibitory activity against cancer cells. This study presents the in silico study of these compounds as inhibitors of ERα.Methods: Docking simulations are carried out in this paper to visualize molecular-level interactions between the four compounds with ERα. Docking simulations between estradiol and tamoxifen on ERα are carried out as well.Results: Docking results indicated that curcumol, curcumenol, isocurcumenol, and β-sitosterol showed inhibitory activity againts estrogen receptor alpha (ERα.  The order of potency is shown consecutively by isocurcumenol, curcumol, curcumenol, and β-sitosterol with values 0.584 M, 1.36 M, 1.61 M, and 7.35 M respectively. Curcumenol and estradiol interacts with ERα through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions, whereas curcumol, isocurcumenol, β-sitosterol and tamoxifen through hydrophobic interactions in succession. Conclusion: Natural products containing all four compounds have the potential to be used as drugs or adjuvant drugs in breast cancer therapy.Keywords: β-sitosterol, breast cancer, curcumol, curcumenol, estradiol, ERα, isocurcumenol

  15. Identification of Potential Glycoprotein Biomarkers in Estrogen Receptor Positive (ER+ and Negative (ER- Human Breast Cancer Tissues by LC-LTQ/FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan M. Semaan, Xu Wang, Alan G. Marshall, Qing-Xiang Amy Sang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second most fatal cancer in American women. To increase the life expectancy of patients with breast cancer new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and drug targets must be identified. A change in the glycosylation on a glycoprotein often causes a change in the function of that glycoprotein; such a phenomenon is correlated with cancerous transformation. Thus, glycoproteins in human breast cancer estrogen receptor positive (ER+ tissues and those in the more advanced stage of breast cancer, estrogen receptor negative (ER- tissues, were compared. Glycoproteins showing differences in glycosylation were examined by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis with double staining (glyco- and total protein staining and identified by reversed-phase nano-liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid linear quadrupole ion trap/ Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Among the identified glycosylated proteins are alpha 1 acid glycoprotein, alpha-1-antitrypsin, calmodulin, and superoxide dismutase mitochondrial precursor that were further verified by Western blotting for both ER+ and ER- human breast tissues. Results show the presence of a possible glycosylation difference in alpha-1-antitrypsin, a potential tumor-derived biomarker for breast cancer progression, which was expressed highest in the ER- samples.

  16. Dietary lignan intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk by estrogen and progesterone receptor status

    OpenAIRE

    Touillaud, Marina; Thiébaut, Anne,; Fournier, Agnès; Niravong, Maryvonne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies conducted in Asian populations have suggested that high consumption of soy-based foods that are rich in isoflavone phytoestrogens is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. However, the potential associations of other dietary phytoestrogens--i.e., the lignans or their bioactive metabolites, the enterolignans--with the risk of breast cancer are unclear. METHODS: We prospectively examined associations between the risk of postmenopausal invasive breast cancer and die...

  17. Genistein and daidzein induce cell proliferation and their metabolites cause oxidative DNA damage in relation to isoflavone-induced cancer of estrogen-sensitive organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Mariko; Midorikawa, Kaoru; Koh, Masashi; Umezawa, Kazuo; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2004-03-09

    The soy isoflavones, genistein (5,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone) and daidzein (7,4'-dihydroxyisoflavone), are representative phytoestrogens that function as chemopreventive agents against cancers, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. However, recent studies indicated that genistein and/or daidzein induced cancers of reproductive organs in rodents, such as the uterus and vulva. To clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of carcinogenesis by soy isoflavones, we examined the ability of genistein, daidzein, and their metabolites, 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyisoflavone (orobol), 7,3',4'-trihydroxyisoflavone (7,3',4'-OH-IF), and 6,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone (6,7,4'-OH-IF), to cause DNA damage and cell proliferation. An E-screen assay revealed that genistein and daidzein enhanced proliferation of estrogen-sensitive breast cancer MCF-7 cells, while their metabolites had little or no effect. A surface plasmon resonance sensor showed that binding of isoflavone-liganded estrogen receptors (ER) to estrogen response elements (ERE) was largely consistent with cell proliferative activity of isoflavones. Orobol and 7,3',4'-OH-IF significantly increased 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) formation in human mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells, while genistein, daidzein, and 6,7,4'-OH-IF did not. Experiments using isolated DNA revealed a metal-dependent mechanism of oxidative DNA damage induced by orobol and 7,3',4'-OH-IF. DNA damage was enhanced by the addition of endogenous reductant NADH, formed via the redox cycle. These findings suggest that oxidative DNA damage by isoflavone metabolites plays a role in tumor initiation and that cell proliferation by isoflavones via ER-ERE binding induces tumor promotion and/or progression, resulting in cancer of estrogen-sensitive organs.

  18. Innovative drug delivery nanosystems improve the anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo of anti-estrogens in human breast cancer and multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Sébastien; Ameller, Thibault; Gauduchon, Juliette; Gougelet, Angélique; Gouilleux, Fabrice; Legrand, Philippe; Marsaud, Véronique; Fattal, Elias; Sola, Brigitte; Renoir, Jack-Michel

    2005-02-01

    Anticancer drug efficiency is governed by its bioavailability. In order to increase this parameter, we synthesized several injectable and biodegradable systems based on incorporation of anti-estrogens (AEs) in nanoparticles (NPs) and liposomes were synthesized. Both nanospheres (NS) and nanocapsules (NCs, polymers with an oily core in which AEs were solubilized) incorporated high amounts of 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (4-HT) or RU 58668 (RU). Physico-chemical and biological parameters of these delivery systems, and coupling of polyethylene-glycol chains on the NP surface revealed to enhance the anti-tumoral activity of trapped AEs in a breast cancer MCF-7 cell xenograft model and to induce apoptosis. These features correlated with an augmentation of p21(Waf-1/Cip1) and of p27(Kip1) and a concomitant decrease of cyclin D1 and E in tumor extracts. Liposomes containing various ratios of lipids enhanced the apoptotic activity of RU in several multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines tested by flow cytometry. MM cell lines expressed both estrogen receptor alpha and beta subtypes except Karpas 620. Karpas 620 cells which did not respond to AEs became responsive following ER cDNA transfection. A new MM xenograft model was generated after s.c. injection of RPMI 8226 cells in nude mice. RU-loaded liposomes, administered i.v. in this model, at a dose of 12mgRU/kg/week, induced the arrest of tumor growth contrary to free RU or to empty liposomes. Thus, the drug delivery of anti-estrogens enhances their ability to arrest the growth of tumors which express estrogen receptors and are of particular interest for estrogen-dependent breast cancer treatment. In addition it represents a new potent therapeutic approach for multiple myeloma.

  19. The phenomenon of acquired resistance to metformin in breast cancer cells: The interaction of growth pathways and estrogen receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbakov, Alexander M; Sorokin, Danila V; Tatarskiy, Victor V; Prokhorov, Nikolay S; Semina, Svetlana E; Berstein, Lev M; Krasil'nikov, Mikhail A

    2016-04-01

    Metformin, a biguanide antidiabetic drug, is used to decrease hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Recently, the epidemiological studies revealed the potential of metformin as an anti-tumor drug for several types of cancer, including breast cancer. Anti-tumor metformin action was found to be mediated, at least in part, via activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-intracellular energy sensor, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and some other signaling pathways. Nevertheless, some patients can be non-sensitive or resistant to metformin action. Here we analyzed the mechanism of the formation of metformin-resistant phenotype in breast cancer cells and its role in estrogen receptor (ER) regulation. The experiments were performed on the ER-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells and metformin-resistant MCF-7 subline (MCF-7/M) developed due to long-term metformin treatment. The transcriptional activity of NF-κB and ER was measured by the luciferase reporter gene analysis. The protein expression was determined by immunoblotting (Snail1, (phospho)AMPK, (phospho)IκBα, (phospho)mTOR, cyclin D1, (phospho)Akt and ERα) and immunohistochemical analysis (E-cadherin). We have found that: 1) metformin treatment of MCF-7 cells is accompanied with the stimulation of AMPK and inhibition of growth-related proteins including IκBα, NF-κB, cyclin D1 and ERα; 2) long-term metformin treatment lead to the appearance and progression of cross-resistance to metformin and tamoxifen; the resistant cells are characterized with the unaffected AMPK activity, but the irreversible ER suppression and constitutive activation of Akt/Snail1 signaling; 3) Akt/Snail1 signaling is involved into progression of metformin resistance. The results presented may be considered as the first evidence of the progression of cross-resistance to metformin and tamoxifen in breast cancer cells. Importantly, the acquired resistance to both drugs is based on the

  20. Estrogen receptor β upregulates FOXO3a and causes induction of apoptosis through PUMA in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, P; Ström, A; Gustafsson, J-Å

    2014-08-14

    Estrogen receptor β (ERβ) is emerging as a critical factor in understanding prostate cancer biology. Although reduced in prostate cancer above Gleason grade 3, ERβ is a potential drug target at the initial stage of the disease. In human prostate cancer cells, we found that ERβ causes apoptosis by increasing the expression of pro-apoptotic factor p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), independent of p53, but dependent on the forkhead transcription factor class-O family member, FOXO3a. FOXO3a has previously been shown to induce PUMA after growth factor withdrawal and inhibition of the Akt pathway. Surprisingly, the phosphorylation of FOXO3a remained unchanged, while the mRNA and total protein levels of FOXO3a were increased in response to ERβ expression or treatment of PC3, 22Rv1 and LNCaP cells with the ERβ-specific ligands 3β-Adiol (5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol), DPN (diarylpropionitrile) or 8β-VE2 (8-vinylestra-1,3,5 (10)-triene-3,17β-diol). Knockdown of FOXO3a or ERβ expression abolished the increase of PUMA in response to 3β-Adiol in LNCaP and PC3 cells, suggesting that FOXO3a mediates the apoptotic effect of 3β-Adiol-activated ERβ. Moreover, the ventral prostate of ERβ-/- mice had decreased expression of FOXO3a and PUMA compared with the ERβ+/+ mice, indicating a relationship between ERβ and FOXO3a expression. The regulation of FOXO3a by ERβ in normal basal epithelial cells indicates a function of ERβ in cell differentiation and maintenance of cells in a quiescent state. In addition, the expression of ERβ, FOXO3a and PUMA is comparable and higher in benign prostatic hyperplasia than in prostate cancer Gleason grade 4 or higher, where there is substantial loss of ERβ, FOXO3a and PUMA. We conclude that ERβ induces apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by increasing transcription of FOXO3a, leading to an increase of PUMA and subsequent triggering of apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway involving caspase-9. Furthermore, we conclude that

  1. Cyclic AMP Modulation of Estrogen-Induced Effects: A Novel Mechanism for Hormonal Resistance in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Marden E, Martin G, MacKay H, Abbon- danza C, Brown M 1994 Estrogen receptor-associated proteins: possible mediators of hormone-induced tran...cells. Nucleic Ac- ids Res 19:6595-6602 42. Halachmi S, Marden E, Martin G, MacKay H, Abbon- danza C, Brown M 1994 Estrogen receptor-associated...the estrogen re- ceptor. EMBO J 14:3741-3751 26. Halachmi S, Marden E, Martin G, MacKay H, Abbon- danza C, Brown M 1994 Estrogen receptor-associated

  2. Role of ornithine decarboxylase in regulation of estrogen receptor alpha expression and growth in human breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qingsong; Jin, Lihua; Casero, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that specific polyamine analogues, oligoamines, down-regulated the activity of a key polyamine biosynthesis enzyme, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and suppressed expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in human breast cancer cells. However, the mechanism underlying the potential regulation of ERα expression by polyamine metabolism has not been explored. Here, we demonstrated that RNAi-mediated knockdown of ODC (ODC KD) down-regulated the polyamine pool, and hindered growth in ERα-positive MCF7 and T47D and ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. ODC KD significantly induced the expression and activity of the key polyamine catabolism enzymes, spermine oxidase (SMO) and spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT). However, ODC KD-induced growth inhibition could not be reversed by exogenous spermidine or overexpression of antizyme inhibitor (AZI), suggesting that regulation of ODC on cell proliferation may involve the signaling pathways independent of polyamine metabolism. In MCF7 and T47D cells, ODC KD, but not DFMO treatment, diminished the mRNA and protein expression of ERα. Overexpression of antizyme (AZ), an ODC inhibitory protein, suppressed ERα expression, suggesting that ODC plays an important role in regulation of ERα expression. Decrease of ERα expression by ODC siRNA altered the mRNA expression of a subset of ERα response genes. Our previous analysis showed that oligoamines disrupt the binding of Sp1 family members to an ERα minimal promoter element containing GC/CA-rich boxes. By using DNA affinity precipitation and mass spectrometry analysis, we identified ZBTB7A, MeCP2, PARP-1, AP2, and MAZ as co-factors of Sp1 family members that are associated with the ERα minimal promoter element. Taken together, these data provide insight into a novel antiestrogenic mechanism for polyamine biosynthesis enzymes in breast cancer. PMID:22976807

  3. Mechanisms for the activity of heterocyclic cyclohexanone curcumin derivatives in estrogen receptor negative human breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers-Edgar, Tiffany J; Taurin, Sebastien; Larsen, Lesley; Chandramouli, Anupama; Nelson, Mark A; Rosengren, Rhonda J

    2011-02-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer is an aggressive form that currently requires more drug treatment options. Thus, we have further modified cyclohexanone derivatives of curcumin and examined them for cytotoxicity towards ER-negative human breast cancer cells. Two of the analogs screened elicited increased cytotoxic potency compared to curcumin and other previously studied derivatives. Specifically, 2,6-bis(pyridin-3-ylmethylene)-cyclohexanone (RL90) and 2,6-bis(pyridin-4-ylmethylene)-cyclohexanone (RL91) elicited EC(50) values of 1.54 and 1.10 µM, respectively, in MDA-MB-231 cells and EC(50) values of 0.51 and 0.23 in SKBr3 cells. All other new compounds examined were less potent than curcumin, which elicited EC(50) values of 7.6 and 2.4 µM in MDA-MB-231 and SKBr3 cells, respectively. Mechanistic analyses demonstrated that RL90 and RL91 significantly induced G(2)/M-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. RL90 and RL91 also modulated the expression of key cell signaling proteins, specifically, in SKBr3 cells, protein levels of Her-2, Akt, and NFκB were decreased in a time-dependent manner, while activity of stress kinases JNK1/2 and P38 MAPK were increased. Signaling events in MDA-MB-231 cells were differently implicated, as EGFR protein levels were decreased and activity of GSK-3β transiently decreased, while β-catenin protein level and activity of P38 MAPK, Akt, and JNK1/2 were transiently increased. In conclusion replacement of the phenyl group of cyclohexanone derived curcumin derivatives with heterocyclic rings forms a class of second-generation analogs that are more potent than both curcumin and other derivatives. These new derivatives provide a platform for the further development of drugs for the treatment of ER-negative breast cancer.

  4. Antiproliferative effect of ASC-J9 delivered by PLGA nanoparticles against estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verderio, Paolo; Pandolfi, Laura; Mazzucchelli, Serena; Marinozzi, Maria Rosaria; Vanna, Renzo; Gramatica, Furio; Corsi, Fabio; Colombo, Miriam; Morasso, Carlo; Prosperi, Davide

    2014-08-04

    Among polymeric nanoparticles designed for cancer therapy, PLGA nanoparticles have become one of the most popular polymeric devices for chemotherapeutic-based nanoformulations against several kinds of malignant diseases. Promising properties, including long-circulation time, enhanced tumor localization, interference with "multidrug" resistance effects, and environmental biodegradability, often result in an improvement of the drug bioavailability and effectiveness. In the present work, we have synthesized 1,7-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-hydroxyhepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one (ASC-J9) and developed uniform ASC-J9-loaded PLGA nanoparticles of about 120 nm, which have been prepared by a single-emulsion process. Structural and morphological features of the nanoformulation were analyzed, followed by an accurate evaluation of the in vitro drug release kinetics, which exhibited Fickian law diffusion over 10 days. The intracellular degradation of ASC-J9-bearing nanoparticles within estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells was correlated to a time- and dose-dependent activity of the released drug. A cellular growth inhibition associated with a specific cell cycle G2/M blocking effect caused by ASC-J9 release inside the cytosol allowed us to put forward a hypothesis on the action mechanism of this nanosystem, which led to the final cell apoptosis. Our study was accomplished using Annexin V-based cell death analysis, MTT assessment of proliferation, radical scavenging activity, and intracellular ROS evaluation. Moreover, the intracellular localization of nanoformulated ASC-J9 was confirmed by a Raman optical imaging experiment designed ad hoc. PLGA nanoparticles and ASC-J9 proved also to be safe for a healthy embryo fibroblast cell line (3T3-L1), suggesting a possible clinical translation of this potential nanochemotherapeutic to expand the inherently poor bioavailability of hydrophobic ASC-J9 that could be proposed for the treatment of malignant breast cancer.

  5. Evaluation of cell cycle arrest in estrogen responsive MCF-7 breast cancer cells: pitfalls of the MTS assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Eileen M; Alling, Nikki; Jackson, Elise A; Yagoub, Daniel; Haass, Nikolas K; Allen, John D; Martinello-Wilks, Rosetta

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine resistance is a major problem with anti-estrogen treatments and how to overcome resistance is a major concern in the clinic. Reliable measurement of cell viability, proliferation, growth inhibition and death is important in screening for drug treatment efficacy in vitro. This report describes and compares commonly used proliferation assays for induced estrogen-responsive MCF-7 breast cancer cell cycle arrest including: determination of cell number by direct counting of viable cells; or fluorescence SYBR®Green (SYBR) DNA labeling; determination of mitochondrial metabolic activity by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay; assessment of newly synthesized DNA using 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) nucleoside analog binding and Alexa Fluor® azide visualization by fluorescence microscopy; cell-cycle phase measurement by flow cytometry. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with ICI 182780 (Faslodex), FTY720, serum deprivation or induction of the tumor suppressor p14ARF showed inhibition of cell proliferation determined by the Trypan Blue exclusion assay and SYBR DNA labeling assay. In contrast, the effects of treatment with ICI 182780 or p14ARF-induction were not confirmed using the MTS assay. Cell cycle inhibition by ICI 182780 and p14ARF-induction was further confirmed by flow cytometric analysis and EdU-DNA incorporation. To explore this discrepancy further, we showed that ICI 182780 and p14ARF-induction increased MCF-7 cell mitochondrial activity by MTS assay in individual cells compared to control cells thereby providing a misleading proliferation readout. Interrogation of p14ARF-induction on MCF-7 metabolic activity using TMRE assays and high content image analysis showed that increased mitochondrial activity was concomitant with increased mitochondrial biomass with no loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, or cell death. We conclude that, whilst p14ARF and ICI 182780 stop cell cycle progression, the

  6. Evaluation of cell cycle arrest in estrogen responsive MCF-7 breast cancer cells: pitfalls of the MTS assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen M McGowan

    Full Text Available Endocrine resistance is a major problem with anti-estrogen treatments and how to overcome resistance is a major concern in the clinic. Reliable measurement of cell viability, proliferation, growth inhibition and death is important in screening for drug treatment efficacy in vitro. This report describes and compares commonly used proliferation assays for induced estrogen-responsive MCF-7 breast cancer cell cycle arrest including: determination of cell number by direct counting of viable cells; or fluorescence SYBR®Green (SYBR DNA labeling; determination of mitochondrial metabolic activity by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTS assay; assessment of newly synthesized DNA using 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU nucleoside analog binding and Alexa Fluor® azide visualization by fluorescence microscopy; cell-cycle phase measurement by flow cytometry. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with ICI 182780 (Faslodex, FTY720, serum deprivation or induction of the tumor suppressor p14ARF showed inhibition of cell proliferation determined by the Trypan Blue exclusion assay and SYBR DNA labeling assay. In contrast, the effects of treatment with ICI 182780 or p14ARF-induction were not confirmed using the MTS assay. Cell cycle inhibition by ICI 182780 and p14ARF-induction was further confirmed by flow cytometric analysis and EdU-DNA incorporation. To explore this discrepancy further, we showed that ICI 182780 and p14ARF-induction increased MCF-7 cell mitochondrial activity by MTS assay in individual cells compared to control cells thereby providing a misleading proliferation readout. Interrogation of p14ARF-induction on MCF-7 metabolic activity using TMRE assays and high content image analysis showed that increased mitochondrial activity was concomitant with increased mitochondrial biomass with no loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, or cell death. We conclude that, whilst p14ARF and ICI 182780 stop cell cycle

  7. Troglitazone suppresses telomerase activity independently of PPARγ in estrogen-receptor negative breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Johnny

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one the highest causes of female cancer death worldwide. Many standard chemotherapeutic agents currently used to treat breast cancer are relatively non-specific and act on all rapidly dividing cells. In recent years, more specific targeted therapies have been introduced. It is known that telomerase is active in over 90% of breast cancer tumors but inactive in adjacent normal tissues. The prevalence of active telomerase in breast cancer patients makes telomerase an attractive therapeutic target. Recent evidence suggests that telomerase activity can be suppressed by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ. However, its effect on telomerase regulation in breast cancer has not been investigated. Methods In this study, we investigated the effect of the PPARγ ligand, troglitazone, on telomerase activity in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Real time RT-PCR and telomerase activity assays were used to evaluate the effect of troglitazone. MDA-MB-231 cells had PPARγ expression silenced using shRNA interference. Results We demonstrated that troglitazone reduced the mRNA expression of hTERT and telomerase activity in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Troglitazone reduced telomerase activity even in the absence of PPARγ. In agreement with this result, we found no correlation between PPARγ and hTERT mRNA transcript levels in breast cancer patients. Statistical significance was determined using Pearson correlation and the paired Student's t test. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first time that the effect of troglitazone on telomerase activity in breast cancer cells has been investigated. Our data suggest that troglitazone may be used as an anti-telomerase agent; however, the mechanism underlying this inhibitory effect remains to be determined.

  8. Development and characterization of a novel rat model of estrogen-induced mammary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Kirsten L; Samanas, Nyssa Becker; Harenda, Quincy Eckert; Hickman, Maureen Peters; Seiler, Nicole L; Ding, Lina; Shull, James D

    2015-04-01

    The ACI rat model of 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced mammary cancer is highly relevant for use in establishing the endocrine, genetic, and environmental bases of breast cancer etiology and identifying novel agents and strategies for preventing breast cancer. E2 treatment rapidly induces mammary cancer in female ACI rats and simultaneously induces pituitary lactotroph hyperplasia and adenoma. The pituitary tumors can result in undesired morbidity, which compromises long-term studies focused on mammary cancer etiology and prevention. We have defined the genetic bases of susceptibility to E2-induced mammary cancers and pituitary tumors and have utilized the knowledge gained in these studies to develop a novel inbred rat strain, designated ACWi, that retains the high degree of susceptibility to E2-induced mammary cancer exhibited by ACI rats, but lacks the treatment-related morbidity associated with pituitary lactotroph hyperplasia/adenoma. When treated with E2, female ACWi rats developed palpable mammary cancer at a median latency of 116 days, an incidence of 100% by 161 days and exhibited an average of 15.6 mammary tumors per rat following 196 days of treatment. These parameters did not differ from those observed for contemporaneously treated ACI rats. None of the E2-treated ACWi rats were killed before the intended experimental end point due to any treatment-related morbidity other than mammary cancer burden, whereas 20% of contemporaneously treated ACI rats exhibited treatment-related morbidity that necessitated premature killing. The ACWi rat strain is well suited for use by those in the research community, focusing on breast cancer etiology and prevention.

  9. Tamoxifen in early-stage estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer: overview of clinical use and molecular biomarkers for patient selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Criscitiello

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Carmen Criscitiello1, Debora Fumagalli1, Kamal S Saini2, Sherene Loi11Breast Cancer Translational Research Laboratory, Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels; 2Breast Data Centre, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels, BelgiumAbstract: Tamoxifen was the first targeted anticancer agent for breast cancer patients and its effects on reduction of breast cancer events and improvement in overall survival are undisputed. Hence, it has long been considered an essential part of patient care. Recent results of several large adjuvant hormonal trials evaluating the use of aromatase inhibitors in comparison with the previous standard of five years of tamoxifen has led to a paradigm shift, ensuring the inclusion of an aromatase inhibitor as part of standard endocrine therapy for most postmenopausal women diagnosed today with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. However, one could argue that despite statistically significant improvements in breast cancer events, an overall survival advantage has not been clear. In this review, we discuss recent genomic and molecular data pertaining to estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and how this knowledge may aid clinicians to prescribe adjuvant hormonal treatment in the future. A combination of gene expression and genetic aberration markers may be most useful in discerning a population that is still appropriate for adjuvant tamoxifen treatment.Keywords: tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors, resistance, prediction, mutation, endocrine therapy, PI3K

  10. Effects of SULT1A1 Copy Number Variation on Estrogen Concentration and Tamoxifen-Associated Adverse Drug Reactions in Premenopausal Thai Breast Cancer Patients: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenchokthavee, Wanaporn; Ayudhya, Duangchit Panomvana Na; Sriuranpong, Virote; Areepium, Nutthada

    2016-01-01

    Tamoxifen is a pharmacological estrogen inhibitor that binds to the estrogen receptor (ER) in breast cells. However, it shows an estrogenic effect in other organs, which causes adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) enzyme encoded by the SULT1A1 gene is involved in estrogen metabolism. Previous research has suggested that the SULT1A1 copy number is linked with the plasma estradiol (E2) concentration. Here, a total of 34 premenopausal breast cancer patients, selected from the Thai Tamoxifen (TTAM) Project, were screened for their SULT1A1 copy number, plasma E2 concentration and ADRs. The mean age was 44.3±11.1 years, and they were subtyped as ER+/ progesterone receptor (PR) + (28 patients), ER+/ PR- (5 patients) and ER-/PR- (1 patient). Three patients reported ADRs, which were irregular menstruation (2 patients) and vaginal discharge (1 patient). Most (33) patients had two SULT1A1 copies, with one patient having three copies. The median plasma E2 concentration was 1,575.6 (IQR 865.4) pg/ml. Patients with ADRs had significantly higher plasma E2 concentrations than those patients without ADRs (p = 0.014). The plasma E2 concentration was numerically higher in the patient with three SULT1A1 copies, but this lacked statistical significance.

  11. Activation of G protein-coupled receptor 30 by thiodiphenol promotes proliferation of estrogen receptor α-positive breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bingli; Peng, Wei; Xu, Gang; Wu, Minghong; Wen, Yu; Xu, Jie; Yu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yipei

    2017-02-01

    Many studies have been shown that environmental estrogen bisphenol A (BPA) can activate nuclear receptor (estrogen receptor alpha, ERα) or membrane receptor (G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR30) in breast cancer cells and exerts genomic or nongenomic actions inducing cell proliferation. 4,4'-thiodiphenol (TDP) as one of BPA derivatives exhibits more potent estrogenic activity than BPA does. However, comparatively little is known about the ways in which TDP interferes with these signaling pathways and produces cell biological changes. This study evaluated the effect of TDP on cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and intercellular calcium (Ca(2+)) fluctuation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The underlying molecular mechanism of cell proliferation induced by TDP was analyzed by examining the activation of ERα and GPR30-mediated phosphatidylinotidol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) and extracellular-signa1regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signaling pathways. The results showed that exposure to 0.1-10 μM TDP for 24, 48, and 72 h significantly increased viability of MCF-7 cells. At the same concentration range, TDP exposure for 3 and 24 h markedly elevated ROS production and intracellular Ca(2+) levels. In addition, 0.01-1 μM TDP significantly increased the expression of ERα, GPR30, p-AKT and p-ERK1/2 protein. Specific protein inhibitors blocked phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT and decreased TDP-induced cell proliferation. These findings show that TDP activated the GPR30-PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 pathways, and the resulting interaction with ERα stimulated MCF-7 cell proliferation. Our results indicate a novel mechanism through which TDP may exert relevant estrogenic action in ERα positive cancer cells.

  12. Alterations in Circulating miRNA Levels following Early-Stage Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Resection in Post-Menopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kodahl, Annette R; Zeuthen, Pernille; Binder, Harald

    2014-01-01

    design and the same qPCR profiling platform, resulting in limited agreement. CONCLUSIONS: A panel of 4 circulating miRNAs exhibited significantly altered levels following radical resection of primary ER+ breast cancers in post-menopausal women. These specific miRNAs may be involved in tumorigenesis...... these alterations were also observed in an independent data set. METHODS: Global miRNA analysis was performed on prospectively collected serum samples from 24 post-menopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer before surgery and 3 weeks after tumor resection using global LNA...

  13. Novel Strategies for the Treatment of Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    classification by total principal component regression (TPCR) using microarray gene expression data.” Nucleic Acids Res 33(1): 56-65 (9) Subramaniam...researcher in Dr. Kim O’Neill’s cancer research laboratory evaluating the anti- genotoxic effects of flavonoids 2002 SMART program participant in...1. Patient Population: A total of 102 patients with invasive breast cancer were recruited through IRB-approved, neoadjuvant studies to

  14. A New Therapeutic Paradigm for Breast Cancer Exploiting Low Dose Estrogen-Induced Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    ATCC, Manassas, VA). Results Analysis of endometrial cancer cell lines Endometrial carcinomas are derived from glandular epithelium and are typically...responsive linewith a pheno- type characteristic of luminal surface epithelium , distinct from Ishikawa cells, which expressed markers of glandular endometrial...Washington, DC, April 17-21, 2010. Loss of pigment epithelium derived-factor (PEDF) is associated with breast cancer progression and antihormone drug

  15. The Estrogen Receptor and Its Variants as Risk Factors in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    d’Urologia, Winnipeg. Manitoba,. R3EOW3, Canada.Hospitals Vail d’Hebr6n, 5lnstirut de Biologia Molecular . CSIC. Barcelona.Span.’Presenting author The... molecular biology. Endocr. Rev. 20: 321-344. 1999. Theillet. C. In breast cancer. amplification of the steroid receptor coactivator gene 3. Montano...dried and exposed for 2 h to a Molecular expression was significantly increased in breast cancer cells carrying Imager-FX Imaging screen (Bio-Rad

  16. Expression of estrogen receptor α in human breast cancer cells regulates mitochondrial oxidative stress under simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hong-xia; Tian, Wei-ming; Yan, Hong-ji; Jiang, Hua-dong; Liu, Shan-shan; Yue, Lei; Han, Fang; Wei, Li-jun; Chen, Xiong-biao; Li, Yu

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated intracellular oxidative stress and its underlying mechanisms in a rotary cell culture system used to achieve a simulated microgravity (SMG) environment. Experiments were conducted with human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 (an estrogen receptor (ER) α positive cell line) and MDA-MB-231 (an ERα negative cell line) encapsulated in alginate/collagen carriers. After 48 h, SMG led to oxidative stress and DNA damage in the MDA-MB-231 cells but a significant increase in mitochondrial activity and minimal DNA damage in the MCF-7 cells. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased in the MCF-7 cells and decreased in MDA-MB-231 cells in the SMG environment compared with a standard gravity control. Moreover, SMG promoted expression of ERα and protein kinase C (PKC) epsilon in MCF-7 cells treated with PKC inhibitor Gö6983. Overall, exposure to SMG increased mitochondrial activity in ERα positive cells but induced cellular oxidative damage in ERα negative cells. Thus, ERα may play an important role in protecting cells from oxidative stress damage under simulated microgravity.

  17. Elevated APOBEC3B correlates with poor outcomes for estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieuwerts, Anieta M; Willis, Scooter; Burns, Michael B; Look, Maxime P; Meijer-Van Gelder, Marion E; Schlicker, Andreas; Heideman, Marinus R; Jacobs, Heinz; Wessels, Lodewyk; Leyland-Jones, Brian; Gray, Kathryn P; Foekens, John A; Harris, Reuben S; Martens, John W M

    2014-12-01

    Recent observations connected DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B to the genetic evolution of breast cancer. We addressed whether APOBEC3B is associated with breast cancer clinical outcomes. APOBEC3B messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were related in 1,491 primary breast cancers to disease-free (DFS), metastasis-free (MFS), and overall survival (OS). For independent validation, APOBEC3B mRNA expression was associated with patient outcome data in five additional cohorts (over 3,500 breast cancer cases). In univariate Cox regression analysis, increasing APOBEC3B expression as a continuous variable was associated with worse DFS, MFS, and OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.20, 1.21, and 1.24, respectively; all P DFS (continuous variable: HR = 1.29, P = .001; dichotomized at the median level, HR = 1.66, P = .0002). This implies that APOBEC3B is a marker of pure prognosis in ER + disease. These findings were confirmed in the analyses of five independent patient sets. In these analyses, APOBEC3B expression dichotomized at the median level was associated with adverse outcomes (METABRIC discovery and validation, 788 and 706 ER + cases, disease-specific survival (DSS), HR = 1.77 and HR = 1.77, respectively, both P DFS, HR = 1.57, P = 2.46E-04; NKI295, 181 ER + cases, DFS, HR = 1.72, P = .054; and BIG 1-98, 1,219 ER + cases, breast-cancer-free interval (BCFI), HR = 1.42, P = 0.0079). APOBEC3B is a marker of pure prognosis and poor outcomes for ER + breast cancer, which strongly suggests that genetic aberrations induced by APOBEC3B contribute to breast cancer progression.

  18. Estrogen plays a critical role in AAV2-mediated gone transfer in ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-fang SHI; Jeffrey S BARTLETT

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of our study was to develop an effective gone delivery system for ovarian cancer gone therapy. Methods: The expression of heparin sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) and integrins αvβ3 and αvβ5 were analyzed with flow cytometry on 2 human ovarian cancer cell lines (OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3ip). The gone transduction efficiencies were evaluated with recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV)2-green fluorescent protein or rAAV2-1actase Z followed by flow eytometry or cytohistochemistry staining. The effect of 17β-estradiol on ovarian cancer cell proliferation, HSPG, the expressions of integrins αvβ3 and αvβ5, and adeno-associated viral vector (AAV)2-mediated gone transduction were determined. Results: In the present study, we found: (1) a variation in HSPG and the expressions of integrins αvβ3 and αvβ5 between OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3ip; (2) that 1713-estradiol was shown to significantly stimulate cell proliferation and integrin β5 expression in certain ovarian cancer cell lines; and (3) integrin-targeted A520/N584RGD-rAAV2, which has alternative interactivity with integrins and abrogates the binding capacity HSPG, showed much higher gone transduction efficiency in ovarian cancer cells than rAAV2 in the presence/ absence of 17β-estradiol. Moreover, this RGD-modified rAAV2 exerted more efficient transduction in ovarian cancer cells in response to 17β-estradiol. Conclusion: Our findings implied that A520/N584RGD-rAAV2 may offer great potential for ovarian cancer treatment in vivo.

  19. The histone demethylase LSD1 is required for estrogen-dependent S100A7 gene expression in human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Seung Eun [Department of Systems Biology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei Biomolecule Research Initiative, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Yeun Kyu, E-mail: ykjang@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Systems Biology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei Biomolecule Research Initiative, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S100A7 gene is up-regulated in response to estrogen in breast cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Histone demethylase LSD1 can associate physically with S100A7 gene promoters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer E2-induced S100A7 expression requires the enzymatic activity of LSD1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S100A7 inhibits cell proliferation, implying its tumor suppressor-like function. -- Abstract: S100A7, a member of S100 calcium binding protein family, is highly associated with breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of S100A7 regulation remains unclear. Here we show that long-term treatment with estradiol stimulated S100A7 expression in MCF7 breast cancer cells at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Both treatment with a histone demethylase LSD1 inhibitor and shRNA-based knockdown of LSD1 expression significantly decreased 17{beta}-estradiol (E2)-induced S100A7 expression. These reduced E2-mediated S100A7 expression are rescued by the overexpressed wild-type LSD1 but not by its catalytically inactive mutant. Our data showed in vivo association of LSD1 with S100A7 promoters, confirming the potential role of LSD1 in regulating S100A7 expression. S100A7 knockdown increased both normal cell growth and estrogen-induced cell proliferation, suggesting a negative influence by S100A7 on the growth of cancer cells. Together, our data suggest that estrogen-induced S100A7 expression mediated by the histone demethylase LSD1 may downregulate breast cancer cell proliferation, implying a potential tumor suppressor-like function for S100A7.

  20. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 acts synergistically with CDK2 to regulate the basal activity of estrogen receptor α in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Lucchetti

    Full Text Available In hormone receptor-positive breast cancers, most tumors in the early stages of development depend on the activity of the estrogen receptor and its ligand, estradiol. Anti-estrogens, such as tamoxifen, have been used as the first line of therapy for over three decades due to the fact that they elicit cell cycle arrest. Unfortunately, after an initial period, most cells become resistant to hormonal therapy. Peptidylprolyl isomerase 1 (Pin1, a protein overexpressed in many tumor types including breast, has been demonstrated to modulate ERalpha activity and is involved in resistance to hormonal therapy. Here we show a new mechanism through which CDK2 drives an ERalpha-Pin1 interaction under hormone- and growth factor-free conditions. The PI3K/AKT pathway is necessary to activate CDK2, which phosphorylates ERalphaSer294, and mediates the binding between Pin1 and ERalpha. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that ERalphaSer294 is essential for Pin1-ERalpha interaction and modulates ERalpha phosphorylation on Ser118 and Ser167, dimerization and activity. These results open up new drug treatment opportunities for breast cancer patients who are resistant to anti-estrogen therapy.

  1. Factors influencing the uptake of {sup 18}F-fluoroestradiol in patients with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Lanell M. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle WA (United States); Department of Radiology, Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle WA (United States); Kurland, Brenda F. [Clinical Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Link, Jeanne M. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle WA (United States); Schubert, Erin K. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle WA (United States); Department of Radiology, Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle WA (United States); Stekhova, Svetlana [Department of Radiology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle WA (United States); Linden, Hannah M. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center/Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, WA (United States); Mankoff, David A., E-mail: dam@u.washington.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle WA (United States); Department of Radiology, Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle WA (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Introduction: {sup 18}F-Fluoroestradiol (FES) PET imaging provides a non-invasive method to measure estrogen receptor (ER) expression in tumors. Assessment of factors that could affect the quantitative level of FES uptake is important as part of the validation of FES PET for evaluating regional ER expression in breast cancer. Methods: This study examines FES uptake in tumors from 312 FES PET scans (239 patients) with documented ER+ primary breast cancer. FES uptake was compared to clinical and laboratory data, treatment prior to or at time of scan, and properties of FES and its metabolism and transport. Linear mixed models were used to explore univariate, threshold-based and multivariate associations. Results: Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was inversely associated with FES SUV. Average FES uptake did not differ by levels of plasma estradiol, age or rate of FES metabolism. FES tumor uptake was greater for patients with a higher body mass index (BMI), but this effect did not persist when SUV was corrected for lean body mass (LBM). In multivariate analysis, only plasma SHBG binding was an independent predictor of LBM-adjusted FES SUV. Conclusions: Calculation of FES SUV, possibly adjusted for LBM, should be sufficient to assess FES uptake for the purpose of inferring ER expression. Pre-menopausal estradiol levels do not appear to interfere with FES uptake. The availability and binding properties of SHBG influence FES uptake and should be measured. Specific activity did not have a clear influence on FES uptake, except perhaps at higher injected mass per kilogram. These results suggest that FES imaging protocols may be simplified without sacrificing the validity of the results.

  2. An integrated analysis of genes and pathways exhibiting metabolic differences between estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davie James R

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sex hormone estrogen (E2 is pivotal to normal mammary gland growth and differentiation and in breast carcinogenesis. In this in silico study, we examined metabolic differences between ER(+ve breast cancer cells during E2 deprivation. Methods Public repositories of SAGE and MA gene expression data generated from E2 deprived ER(+ve breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and ZR75-1 were compared with normal breast tissue. We analyzed gene ontology (GO, enrichment, clustering, chromosome localization, and pathway profiles and performed multiple comparisons with cell lines and tumors with different ER status. Results In all GO terms, biological process (BP, molecular function (MF, and cellular component (CC, MCF-7 had higher gene utilization than ZR75-1. Various analyses showed a down-regulated immune function, an up-regulated protein (ZR75-1 and glucose metabolism (MCF-7. A greater percentage of 77 common genes localized to the q arm of all chromosomes, but in ZR75-1 chromosomes 11, 16, and 19 harbored more overexpressed genes. Despite differences in gene utilization (electron transport, proteasome, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and expression (ribosome in both cells, there was an overall similarity of ZR75-1 with ER(-ve cell lines and ER(+ve/ER(-ve breast tumors. Conclusion This study demonstrates integral metabolic differences may exist within the same cell subtype (luminal A in representative ER(+ve cell line models. Selectivity of gene and pathway usage for strategies such as energy requirement minimization, sugar utilization by ZR75-1 contrasted with MCF-7 cells, expressing genes whose protein products require ATP utilization. Such characteristics may impart aggressiveness to ZR75-1 and may be prognostic determinants of ER(+ve breast tumors.

  3. Estrogen Receptor (ER)α-regulated Lipocalin 2 Expression in Adipose Tissue Links Obesity with Breast Cancer Progression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Brian G.; Hamidi, Habib; Zhou, Zhenqi; Villanueva, Claudio J.; Krum, Susan A.; Calkin, Anna C.; Parks, Brian W.; Ribas, Vicent; Kalajian, Nareg Y.; Phun, Jennifer; Daraei, Pedram; Christofk, Heather R.; Hewitt, Sylvia C.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Tontonoz, Peter; Lusis, Aldons J.; Slamon, Dennis J.; Hurvitz, Sara A.; Hevener, Andrea L.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased breast cancer (BrCA) incidence. Considering that inactivation of estrogen receptor (ER)α promotes obesity and metabolic dysfunction in women and female mice, understanding the mechanisms and tissue-specific sites of ERα action to combat metabolic-related disease, including BrCA, is of clinical importance. To study the role of ERα in adipose tissue we generated fat-specific ERα knock-out (FERKO) mice. Herein we show that ERα deletion increased adipocyte size, fat pad weight, and tissue expression and circulating levels of the secreted glycoprotein, lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), an adipokine previously associated with BrCA development. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter studies showed that ERα binds the Lcn2 promoter to repress its expression. Because adipocytes constitute an important cell type of the breast microenvironment, we examined the impact of adipocyte ERα deletion on cancer cell behavior. Conditioned medium from ERα-null adipocytes and medium containing pure Lcn2 increased proliferation and migration of a subset of BrCA cells in culture. The proliferative and promigratory effects of ERα-deficient adipocyte-conditioned medium on BrCA cells was reversed by Lcn2 deletion. BrCA cell responsiveness to exogenous Lcn2 was heightened in cell types where endogenous Lcn2 expression was minimal, but components of the Lcn2 signaling pathway were enriched, i.e. SLC22A17 and 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH2). In breast tumor biopsies from women diagnosed with BrCA we found that BDH2 expression was positively associated with adiposity and circulating Lcn2 levels. Collectively these data suggest that reduction of ERα expression in adipose tissue promotes adiposity and is linked with the progression and severity of BrCA via increased adipocyte-specific Lcn2 production and enhanced tumor cell Lcn2 sensitivity. PMID:25468909

  4. Estrogen receptor beta rs1271572 polymorphism and invasive ovarian carcinoma risk: pooled analysis within the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Lurie

    Full Text Available The association of ovarian carcinoma risk with the polymorphism rs1271572 in the estrogen receptor beta (ESR2 gene was examined in 4946 women with primary invasive ovarian carcinoma and 6582 controls in a pooled analysis of ten case-control studies within the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC. All participants were non-Hispanic white women. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for site and age. Women with the TT genotype were at increased risk of ovarian carcinoma compared to carriers of the G allele (OR = 1.10; 95%; CI: 1.01-1.21; p = 0.04; the OR was 1.09 (CI: 0.99-1.20; p = 0.07 after excluding data from the center (Hawaii that nominated this SNP for OCAC genotyping A stronger association of rs1271572 TT versus GT/GG with risk was observed among women aged ≤50 years versus older women (OR = 1.35; CI: 1.12-1.62; p = 0.002; p for interaction = 0.02 that remained statistically significant after excluding Hawaii data (OR = 1.34; CI: 1.11-1.61; p = 0.009. No heterogeneity of the association was observed by study, menopausal status, gravidity, parity, use of contraceptive or menopausal hormones, tumor histological type, or stage at diagnosis. This pooled analysis suggests that rs1271572 might influence the risk of ovarian cancer, in particular among younger women.

  5. Association of Obesity and Breast Cancer Risk: The Role of Estrogen, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, and Adiponectin as Risk factors (preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampi Retnowarnadi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer diagnosed among women. Many factors influence the carcinogenesis of breast cancer. The aim of this study to analyze the role of obesity (waist circumference and body mass index, serum Estradiol levels, TNF-α, and Adiponectin in the occurrence of breast cancer. METHODS: This was observational study with case control design. Eleven breast cancer patients as cases and twelve Fibroadenoma Mammae (FAM patients as controls were analyzed. The serum Estrogen, TNF-α and Adiponectin were examined in their association with breast cancer risk. RESULTS: Women with breast tumor and waist circumference >80 cm have significantly higher breast cancer risk than women with breast tumor and waist circumference 2.30 pg/ml have higher breast cancer risk (19.25 times than women with breast tumor and have lower serum TNF-α levels (95% CI=1.77-209.55, p=0.015. Whereas, women with breast tumor and lower Adiponectin/TNF-α ratio (80 cm and low Adiponectin/TNF-α ratio in women with breast tumor are significantly associated with an increased risk for breast cancer. KEYWORDS: obesity, breast cancer, adiponectin/TNF-α ratio.

  6. Characterization of a novel small molecule subtype specific estrogen-related receptor alpha antagonist in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

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    Michael J Chisamore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRalpha is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. It was identified through a search for genes encoding proteins related to estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha. An endogenous ligand has not been found. Novel ERRalpha antagonists that are highly specific for binding to the ligand binding domain (LBD of ERRalpha have been recently reported. Research suggests that ERRalpha may be a novel drug target to treat breast cancer and/or metabolic disorders and this has led to an effort to characterize the mechanisms of action of N-[(2Z-3-(4,5-dihydro-1,3-thiazol-2-yl-1,3-thiazolidin-2-yl idene]-5H dibenzo[a,d][7]annulen-5-amine, a novel ERRalpha specific antagonist. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate this ERRalpha ligand inhibits ERRalpha transcriptional activity in MCF-7 cells by luciferase assay but does not affect mRNA levels measured by real-time RT-PCR. Also, ERalpha (ESR1 mRNA levels were not affected upon treatment with the ERRalpha antagonist, but other ERRalpha (ESRRA target genes such as pS2 (TFF1, osteopontin (SPP1, and aromatase (CYP19A1 mRNA levels decreased. In vitro, the ERRalpha antagonist prevents the constitutive interaction between ERRalpha and nuclear receptor coactivators. Furthermore, we use Western blots to demonstrate ERRalpha protein degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome pathway is increased by the ERRalpha-subtype specific antagonist. We demonstrate by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP that the interaction between ACADM, ESRRA, and TFF1 endogenous gene promoters and ERRalpha protein is decreased when cells are treated with the ligand. Knocking-down ERRalpha (shRNA led to similar genomic effects seen when MCF-7 cells were treated with our ERRalpha antagonist. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We report the mechanism of action of a novel ERRalpha specific antagonist that inhibits transcriptional activity of ERRalpha, disrupts the constitutive

  7. Marantic Endocarditis Associated with Pancreatic Cancer: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle S. Jameson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Marantic endocarditis, otherwise known as nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE, is a well-documented phenomenon due to hypercoagulability from an underlying cause. It has been associated with a variety of inflammatory states including malignancy. Surprisingly, although hypercoagulability is often seen in patients with pancreatic cancer, marantic endocarditis has rarely been reported antemortem in this population. We report three cases of marantic endocarditis in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. In two instances, the patients’ neurological symptoms preceded the diagnosis of advanced pancreatic cancer. Health care professionals should be alert to the possibility of marantic endocarditis in any patient with cancer, especially pancreatic cancer, who presents with symptoms of neurological dysfunction or an arterial thrombotic event. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with heparin, unfractionated or low molecular weight, may prevent catastrophic CNS events and decrease morbidity in patients with pancreatic cancer and other malignancies.

  8. Breast cancer cells can switch between estrogen receptor alpha and ErbB signaling and combined treatment against both signaling pathways postpones development of resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Hansen, Katrine; Norrie, Ida C; Emdal, Kristina Bennet

    2010-01-01

    The majority of breast cancers are estrogen responsive, but upon progression of disease other growth promoting pathways are activated, e.g., the ErbB receptor system. The present study focuses on resistance to the pure estrogen antagonist fulvestrant and strategies to treat resistant cells or even...... could be abrogated by combined therapy targeting both receptor systems. Thus, the present study indicates that upon development of antiestrogen resistance, antiestrogen treatment should be continued in combination with signal transduction inhibitors. Further, upfront combination of endocrine therapy...... circumvent development of resistance. Limited effects were observed when targeting EGFR and ErbB2 with the monoclonal antibodies cetuximab, trastuzumab, and pertuzumab, whereas the pan-ErbB inhibitor CI-1033 selectively inhibited growth of fulvestrant resistant cell lines. CI-1033 inhibited Erk but not Akt...

  9. Estrogen-Induced Depurination of DNA: A Novel Target for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Cavalieri, E. L’origine del cancro e dialtre malattie. Biblioteca Mandotti, Guastalla, Italy, September 12, 2005. 26. Cavalieri, E. L’origine...departmental officials on issues and topics pertaining to the protection of human research subjects. National Cancer Institute Central Institutional Review

  10. Dietary acrylamide intake and estrogen and progesterone receptor-defined postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, G.S.; Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    Acrylamide, a potential human carcinogen, has been discovered in a variety of heat-treated carbohydrate-rich food products. Previously, dietary acrylamide intake was shown to be associated with endocrine-related cancers in humans. We assessed the association between dietary acrylamide intake and ris

  11. A Fortran program for the calculation of estrogen receptor contents in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, A; Lage, A

    1981-01-01

    A computer program in Fortran-IV for the processing of data from estradiol receptor assays in human breast cancer is described. The program prints the results in two tables together with the Saturation graph and the Scatchard's Plot. It includes a systematic, operator-independent, method for the elimination of "deviated points".

  12. Polymorphisms in estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism-related genes, ionizing radiation exposure, and risk of breast cancer among US radiologic technologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Alice J; Bhatti, Parveen; Chang, Shih-Chen; Rajaraman, Preetha; Doody, Michele M; Bowen, Laura; Simon, Steven L; Weinstock, Robert M; Linet, Martha S; Rosenstein, Marvin; Stovall, Marilyn; Alexander, Bruce H; Preston, Dale L; Struewing, Jeffery P

    2009-11-01

    Ionizing radiation-associated breast cancer risk appears to be modified by timing of reproductive events such as age at radiation exposure, parity, age at first live birth, and age at menopause. However, potential breast cancer risk modification of low to moderate radiation dose by polymorphic estrogen metabolism-related gene variants has not been routinely investigated. We assessed breast cancer risk of 12 candidate variants in 12 genes involved in steroid metabolism, catabolism, binding, or receptor functions in a study of 859 cases and 1,083 controls within the US radiologic technologists (USRT) cohort. Using cumulative breast dose estimates from a detailed assessment of occupational and personal diagnostic ionizing radiation exposure, we investigated the joint effects of genotype on the risk of breast cancer. In multivariate analyses, we observed a significantly decreased risk of breast cancer associated with the CYP3A4 M445T minor allele (rs4986910, OR = 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.9). We found a borderline increased breast cancer risk with having both minor alleles of CYP1B1 V432L (rs1056836, CC vs. GG, OR = 1.2; 95% CI 0.9-1.6). Assuming a recessive model, the minor allele of CYP1B1 V432L significantly increased the dose-response relationship between personal diagnostic X-ray exposure and breast cancer risk, adjusted for cumulative occupational radiation dose (p (interaction) = 0.03) and had a similar joint effect for cumulative occupational radiation dose adjusted for personal diagnostic X-ray exposure (p (interaction) = 0.06). We found suggestive evidence that common variants in selected estrogen metabolizing genes may modify the association between ionizing radiation exposure and breast cancer risk.

  13. Nuclear estrogen receptor targeted photodynamic therapy: selective uptake and killing of MCF-7 breast cancer cells by a C17alpha-alkynylestradiol-porphyrin conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Narasimha; Purohit, Ajay; Fernandez-Gacio, Ana; Jones, Graham B; Ray, Rahul

    2006-10-15

    We hypothesized that over-expression of estrogen receptor (ER) in hormone-sensitive breast cancer could be harnessed synergistically with the tumor-migrating effect of porphyrins to selectively deliver estrogen-porphyrin conjugates into breast tumor cells, and preferentially kill the tumor cells upon exposure to red light. In the present work we synthesized four (4) conjugates of C17-alpha-alkynylestradiol and chlorin e6-dimethyl ester with varying tether lengths, and showed that all these conjugates specifically bound to recombinant ER alpha. In a cellular uptake assay with ER-positive MCF-7 and ER-negative MDA-MB 231 human breast cancer cell-lines, we observed that one such conjugate (E17-POR, XIV) was selectively taken up in a dose-dependent and saturable manner by MCF-7 cells, but not by MDA-MB 231 cells. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells, but not MDA-MB 231 cells, were selectively and efficiently killed by exposure to red light after incubation with E17-POR. Therefore, the combination approach, including drug and process modalities has the potential to be applied clinically for hormone-sensitive cancers in organs where ER is significantly expressed. This could potentially be carried out either as monotherapy involving a photo-induced selective destruction of tumor cells and/or adjuvant therapy in post-surgical treatment for the destruction of residual cancer cells in tissues surrounding the tumor.

  14. Stromal cells promote anti-estrogen resistance of breast cancer cells through an insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5)/B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 3 (Bcl-3) axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Leyh (Benjamin); A. Dittmer (Angela); T. Lange (Theresia); J.W.M. Martens (John W. M.); A. Dittmer (Angela)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThere is strong evidence that stromal cells promote drug resistance of cancer. Here, we show that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) desensitize ERa-positive breast cancer cells to the anti-estrogen fulvestrant. In search for the mechanism, we found

  15. Investigation of the cumulative body burden of estrogen-3,4-quinone in breast cancer patients and controls using albumin adducts as biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Che; Chen, Dar-Ren; Hsieh, Wei-Chung; Yu, Wen-Fa; Lin, Ching-Chiuan; Ko, Mao-Huei; Juan, Chang-Hsin; Tsuang, Ben-Jei; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2013-04-26

    Both 17β-estradiol-2,3-quinone (E2-2,3-Q) and 17β-estradiol-3,4-quinone (E2-3,4-Q) are reactive metabolites of estrogen. Elevation of E2-3,4-Q to E2-2,3-Q ratio is thought to be an important indicator of estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. Our current study compared the cumulative body burden of these estrogen quinones in serum samples taken from Taiwanese women with breast cancer (n=152) vs healthy controls (n=75) by using albumin (Alb) adducts as biomarkers. Results clearly demonstrated the presence of cysteinyl adducts of E2-2,3-Q-4-S-Alb and E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb in all study population at levels ranging from 61.7-1330 to 66.6-1,590 pmol/g, respectively. Correlation coefficient between E2-2,3-Q-4-S-Alb and E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb was 0.610 for controls and 0.767 for breast cancer patients (pQ-2-S-Alb was inversely proportional to BMI with about 25% increase in E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb per 5 kg/m(2) decrease in BMI (pQ-2-S-Alb in breast cancer patients were ∼5-fold greater than in those of controls (pQ may play a role in the development of breast cancer.

  16. Tyrosine phosphorylation of transcriptional coactivator WW-domain binding protein 2 regulates estrogen receptor α function in breast cancer via the Wnt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shen Kiat; Orhant-Prioux, Magali; Toy, Weiyi; Tan, Kah Yap; Lim, Yoon Pin

    2011-09-01

    WW-binding protein 2 (WBP2) has been demonstrated in different studies to be a tyrosine kinase substrate, to activate estrogen receptor α (ERα)/progesterone receptor (PR) transcription, and to play a role in breast cancer. However, the role of WBP2 tyrosine phosphorylation in regulating ERα function and breast cancer biology is unknown. Here, we established WBP2 as a tyrosine phosphorylation target of estrogen signaling via EGFR crosstalk. Using dominant-negative, constitutively active mutants, RNAi, and pharmacological studies, we demonstrated that phosphorylation of WBP2 at Tyr192 and Tyr231 could be regulated by c-Src and c-Yes kinases. We further showed that abrogating WBP2 phosphorylation impaired >60% of ERα reporter activity, putatively by blocking nuclear entry of WBP2 and its interaction with ERα. Compared to vector control, overexpression of WBP2 and its phospho-mimic mutant in MCF7 cells resulted in larger tumors in mice, induced loss of cell-cell adhesion, and enhanced cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration, and invasion in both estrogen-dependent and -independent manners, events of which could be substantially abolished by overexpression of the phosphorylation-defective mutant. Hormone independence of cells expressing WBP2 phospho-mimic mutant was associated with heightened ERα and Wnt reporter activities. Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor FH535 blocked phospho-WBP2-mediated cancer cell growth more pronouncedly than tamoxifen and fulvestrant, in part by reducing the expression of ERα. Wnt pathway is likely to be a critical component in WBP2-mediated breast cancer biology.

  17. Role of Raf-1 Signaling in Breast Cancer - Progression to Estrogen Independent Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    6124, 1993. 39. Ignar -Trowbridge, D.M., Nelson, K.G., Bidwell, M.C., Curtis, S.W., Washburn, T.F., McLachlan, J.A., and Korach, K.S. Coupling of dual...MCF-7 cell proliferation and invasiveness. Cancer Res. 49: 6929-6934, 1989. 41. Ignar -Trowbridge, D.M., Teng, C.T., Ross, K.A., Parker, M.G., Korach

  18. Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series provides an opportunity for our grantees and other interested individuals to share lessons learned and practical information regarding the application of next generation sequencing to cancer epidemiology studies.

  19. Qigong program on insomnia and stress in cancer patients: A case series report

    OpenAIRE

    Seungmo Kim; Sangnam Lee; Osung Kwon; Seonghoon Park; Jungchul Seo; Kyungsoon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Background: In recent years, the interest in Qigong as an alternative therapy has grown following reports of its ability to regulate psychological factors in cancer patients. This is a case series to evaluate the outcome measures of Qigong when used as an adjunct to standard medical care to treat insomnia and stress in cancer patients. Patients and methods: The Qigong program was applied to four cancer patients with insomnia, stress, and anxiety. The program consisted of 30-min sessions invol...

  20. Breast Cancer in Transgender Veterans: A Ten-Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, George R

    2015-03-01

    All known cases of breast cancer in patients with a diagnosis consistent with transgender identification were identified in the Veterans Health Administration (1996-2013). Ten cases were confirmed: seven birth sex females and three birth sex males. Of the three birth sex males, two identified as gender dysphoric male-to-female and one identified as transgender with transvestic fetishism. The birth sex males all presented with late-stage disease that proved fatal, whereas most of the birth sex female transgender veterans presented with earlier stage disease that could be treated. These cases support the importance of screening for breast cancer using standard guidelines in birth sex males and females. Family history of breast cancer should be obtained from transgender people as part of routine care. This report expands the known cases of breast cancer in transgender persons from 5 to 12 (female-to-male) and from 10 to 13 (male-to-female).

  1. Pretreatment Serum Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Breast Cancer Prognostic Characteristics: A Case-Control and a Case-Series Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Song; Sucheston, Lara E.; Millen, Amy E.; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.; Nesline, Mary K.; Davis, Warren; Hong, Chi-Chen; McCann, Susan E.; Hwang, Helena; Kulkarni, Swati; Edge, Stephen B.; O'Connor, Tracey L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Results from epidemiologic studies on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer risk are inconclusive. It is possible that vitamin D may be effective in reducing risk only of specific subtypes due to disease heterogeneity. Methods and Findings In case-control and case-series analyses, we examined serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in relation to breast cancer prognostic characteristics, including histologic grade, estrogen receptor (ER), and molecular subtypes defined by ER, progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2, among 579 women with incident breast cancer and 574 controls matched on age and time of blood draw enrolled in the Roswell Park Cancer Institute from 2003 to 2008. We found that breast cancer cases had significantly lower 25OHD concentrations than controls (adjusted mean, 22.8 versus 26.2 ng/mL, p<0.001). Among premenopausal women, 25OHD concentrations were lower in those with high- versus low-grade tumors, and ER negative versus ER positive tumors (p≤0.03). Levels were lowest among women with triple-negative cancer (17.5 ng/mL), significantly different from those with luminal A cancer (24.5 ng/mL, p = 0.002). In case-control analyses, premenopausal women with 25OHD concentrations above the median had significantly lower odds of having triple-negative cancer (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.08–0.53) than those with levels below the median; and every 10 ng/mL increase in serum 25OHD concentrations was associated with a 64% lower odds of having triple-negative cancer (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.22–0.56). The differential associations by tumor subtypes among premenopausal women were confirmed in case-series analyses. Conclusion In our analyses, higher serum levels of 25OHD were associated with reduced risk of breast cancer, with associations strongest for high grade, ER negative or triple negative cancers in premenopausal women. With further confirmation in large prospective studies, these findings could warrant

  2. Pretreatment serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and breast cancer prognostic characteristics: a case-control and a case-series study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Results from epidemiologic studies on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer risk are inconclusive. It is possible that vitamin D may be effective in reducing risk only of specific subtypes due to disease heterogeneity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In case-control and case-series analyses, we examined serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD in relation to breast cancer prognostic characteristics, including histologic grade, estrogen receptor (ER, and molecular subtypes defined by ER, progesterone receptor (PR and HER2, among 579 women with incident breast cancer and 574 controls matched on age and time of blood draw enrolled in the Roswell Park Cancer Institute from 2003 to 2008. We found that breast cancer cases had significantly lower 25OHD concentrations than controls (adjusted mean, 22.8 versus 26.2 ng/mL, p<0.001. Among premenopausal women, 25OHD concentrations were lower in those with high- versus low-grade tumors, and ER negative versus ER positive tumors (p≤0.03. Levels were lowest among women with triple-negative cancer (17.5 ng/mL, significantly different from those with luminal A cancer (24.5 ng/mL, p = 0.002. In case-control analyses, premenopausal women with 25OHD concentrations above the median had significantly lower odds of having triple-negative cancer (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.08-0.53 than those with levels below the median; and every 10 ng/mL increase in serum 25OHD concentrations was associated with a 64% lower odds of having triple-negative cancer (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.22-0.56. The differential associations by tumor subtypes among premenopausal women were confirmed in case-series analyses. CONCLUSION: In our analyses, higher serum levels of 25OHD were associated with reduced risk of breast cancer, with associations strongest for high grade, ER negative or triple negative cancers in premenopausal women. With further confirmation in large prospective studies, these findings

  3. Aromatase inhibition remodels the clonal architecture of estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher A.; Gindin, Yevgeniy; Lu, Charles; Griffith, Obi L; Griffith, Malachi; Shen, Dong; Hoog, Jeremy; Li, Tiandao; Larson, David E.; Watson, Mark; Davies, Sherri R; Hunt, Kelly; Suman, Vera J.; Snider, Jacqueline; Walsh, Thomas; Colditz, Graham A.; DeSchryver, Katherine; Wilson, Richard K.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Ellis, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to oestrogen-deprivation therapy is common in oestrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. To better understand the contributions of tumour heterogeneity and evolution to resistance, here we perform comprehensive genomic characterization of 22 primary tumours sampled before and after 4 months of neoadjuvant aromatase inhibitor (NAI) treatment. Comparing whole-genome sequencing of tumour/normal pairs from the two time points, with coincident tumour RNA sequencing, reveals widespread spatial and temporal heterogeneity, with marked remodelling of the clonal landscape in response to NAI. Two cases have genomic evidence of two independent tumours, most obviously an ER− ‘collision tumour', which was only detected after NAI treatment of baseline ER+ disease. Many mutations are newly detected or enriched post treatment, including two ligand-binding domain mutations in ESR1. The observed clonal complexity of the ER+ breast cancer genome suggests that precision medicine approaches based on genomic analysis of a single specimen are likely insufficient to capture all clinically significant information. PMID:27502118

  4. Patients with Acromegaly Presenting with Colon Cancer: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray B. Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Frequent colonoscopy screenings are critical for early diagnosis of colon cancer in patients with acromegaly. Case Presentations. We performed a retrospective analysis of the incidental diagnoses of colon cancer from the ACCESS trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01995734. Colon cancer was identified in 2 patients (4.5%. Case  1 patient was a 36-year-old male with acromegaly who underwent transsphenoidal surgery to remove the pituitary adenoma. After surgery, the patient underwent routine colonoscopy screening, which revealed a 40 mm tubular adenoma in the descending colon. A T1N1a carcinoma was surgically removed, and 1 of 22 lymph nodes was positive for metastatic disease, leading to a diagnosis of stage 3 colon cancer. Case  2 patient was a 50-year-old male with acromegaly who underwent transsphenoidal surgery to remove a 2 cm pituitary adenoma. The patient reported severe cramping and lower abdominal pain, and an invasive 8.1 cm3 grade 2 adenocarcinoma with signet rings was identified in the ascending colon and removed. Of the 37 lymph nodes, 34 were positive for the presence of tumor cells, and stage 3c colon cancer was confirmed. Conclusion. Current guidelines for colonoscopy screening at the time of diagnosis of acromegaly and at appropriate follow-up intervals should be followed.

  5. Patients with Acromegaly Presenting with Colon Cancer: A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhle, Samer; Ludlam, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Frequent colonoscopy screenings are critical for early diagnosis of colon cancer in patients with acromegaly. Case Presentations. We performed a retrospective analysis of the incidental diagnoses of colon cancer from the ACCESS trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01995734). Colon cancer was identified in 2 patients (4.5%). Case  1 patient was a 36-year-old male with acromegaly who underwent transsphenoidal surgery to remove the pituitary adenoma. After surgery, the patient underwent routine colonoscopy screening, which revealed a 40 mm tubular adenoma in the descending colon. A T1N1a carcinoma was surgically removed, and 1 of 22 lymph nodes was positive for metastatic disease, leading to a diagnosis of stage 3 colon cancer. Case  2 patient was a 50-year-old male with acromegaly who underwent transsphenoidal surgery to remove a 2 cm pituitary adenoma. The patient reported severe cramping and lower abdominal pain, and an invasive 8.1 cm3 grade 2 adenocarcinoma with signet rings was identified in the ascending colon and removed. Of the 37 lymph nodes, 34 were positive for the presence of tumor cells, and stage 3c colon cancer was confirmed. Conclusion. Current guidelines for colonoscopy screening at the time of diagnosis of acromegaly and at appropriate follow-up intervals should be followed. PMID:28025627

  6. Antiproliferative effect of the Ginkgo biloba extract is associated with the enhancement of cytochrome P450 1B1 expression in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Dan; Dong, Ni; Man, Hong-Tao; Fu, Zhong-Lin; Zhang, Mei-Hong; Kou, Shuang; Ma, Shi-Liang

    2013-09-01

    Ginkgo biloba is a dioecious tree and its extract is a complex mixture that has been used for thousands of years to treat a variety of ailments in traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study was to present our observations on the inhibitory effects of different Ginkgo biloba extracts on human breast cancer cell proliferation and growth. Our results demonstrated that treatment of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells with Ginkgo biloba leaves and ginkgo fruit extract inhibited cell proliferation. It was also observed that this inhibition was accompanied by the enhancement of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, treatment with ginkgo fruit extract resulted in a higher CYP1B1 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells compared to treatment with the Ginkgo biloba leaves extract. Our results suggested that the inhibitory effects of the Ginkgo biloba extract on estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer proliferation and the induction of CYP1B1 expression may be exerted through an alternative pathway, independent of the estrogen receptor or the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway.

  7. LACKING EXON5 OF VARIANT ESTROGEN RECEPTOR IN HUMAN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lei; Gong Ping; Sun Sulian; Dong Zhiwei

    1998-01-01

    Methods: The target sequence of ER RNA covering exon4~6(1082~1520bp) was amplified in 7 clinical human breast cancer tissues by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques.Results: PCR products were transferred to nitrocellulose membranes and hybridized using a [r-32P]-ATP labeled ER 29 oligonulceotide probe representing the antisense strand of the ER Cdna sequence 1271~1299. Specific bands were found at 438 and 300 base pairs in two tumors. The 300 base pair of PCR product was recovered from ER+/PR+ and ER+/PR- tumor, respectively.Conclusion: Dideoxy sequence analysis revealed that they contained the variant ER completely missing exon 5.

  8. Neuroinfection as a Mask of Lung Cancer: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kuklińska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The diagnosis of lung cancer may still be difficult due to the fact that the first symptoms very often mimic symptoms of other diseases. Case Presentation. In this paper we present two cases, in which initial diagnosis of neuroinfection delayed proper diagnosis. Conclusion. Based on our experience we concluded that neurological symptoms in the area endemic for tick-borne diseases suggesting neuroinfection require careful differential diagnosis. Moreover, neurological symptoms in heavy smokers may be associated with metastases of lung cancer.

  9. Neuroinfection as a Mask of Lung Cancer: A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklińska, Beata; Moniuszko-Malinowska, Anna; Mróz, Robert; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Zajkowska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The diagnosis of lung cancer may still be difficult due to the fact that the first symptoms very often mimic symptoms of other diseases. Case Presentation. In this paper we present two cases, in which initial diagnosis of neuroinfection delayed proper diagnosis. Conclusion. Based on our experience we concluded that neurological symptoms in the area endemic for tick-borne diseases suggesting neuroinfection require careful differential diagnosis. Moreover, neurological symptoms in heavy smokers may be associated with metastases of lung cancer. PMID:27239354

  10. Association of CYP1B1 gene polymorphisms and the positive expression of estrogen alpha and estrogen beta with endometrial cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z Y; Mu, Y Q; Fu, X M; Li, S M; Zhao, F X

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the CYP1B1 L432V polymorphism, ERalpha and ERbeta positivities and the incidence of endometrial cancer. The relationship between CYP1B1 L432V polymorphism, ERalpha and ERbeta positivities and endometrial cancer was investigated using the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction method to analyze gene polymorphism in exon 3 codon 432 (C-G) of CYP1B1. Our results are as follows: in endometrial cancer cases the prevalence rates of CYP1B1 L432V genotypes C/C, C/G, and G/G were 47.2%, 36.1%, and 16.7%, respectively, and 68.8%, 23.8% and 7.5% in the control group, respectively. The frequencies of CYP1B1 C and G alleles were 65.3% and 34.7% in endometrial cancer patients and 80.6% and 19.4% in the control group. A significant difference was found in the genotype distributions or allele frequencies of CYP1B1 L432V polymorphism between the two groups (p polymorphism of CYP1B1 L432V increases the risk of endometrial cancer and has a positive correlation with ERalpha expression.

  11. CORRELATION BETWEEN CLINICAL PATHOLOGY OF LUMINAL B BREAST CANCER AND DETERMINATION OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR, PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR AND HER2 EXPRESSION COMBINED WITH NUCLEAR MORPHOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, D; Wang, Y L; Wang, Y F; Yang, L; Zhang, L; Tang, C; Xie, W; Ma, Y

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer, one of the most common malignant tumors in females, draws little attention because of its untypical symptoms and signs, so the disease is usually confirmed too late, in an advanced stage. Based on the detection of nuclear morphology parameters of luminal B breast cancer, this study explored how pathological features relate to estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). A quantity of 354 breast cancer specimens with follow-up records from the department of pathology in the First People’s Hospital of Nantong and the Tumor Hospital of Nantong were selected as research subjects. Nuclear parameters of specimens stained by hematoxylin and eosin were measured by imaging analysis software. It was found that breast cancer can be divided into four types, luminal B, luminal A, HER2 over-expression and basal-like type based on immunohistochemical results of three antibodies, i.e, ER, PR and HER2. A total of 113 patients (31.8%) were confirmed with luminal B breast cancer, mostly in histological stage II; the difference of nuclear morphology was of statistical significance between ER+/PR+ and ER-/PR- (Pbreast cancer, luminal B had the lowest brain metastasis rate, while HER2 over-expression subtype was found with the highest rate of lung and pleura metastasis. Besides, luminal B possessed longer disease-free survival (DFS) than basal-like (Pbreast cancer.

  12. Estrogen-related receptor γ is upregulated in liver cancer and its inhibition suppresses liver cancer cell proliferation via induction of p21 and p27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Yeon-Kyung; Byun, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Yu Na; Kim, Seong Heon; Lee, Sungwoo; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Park, Keun-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) regulates cell growth and tumorigenesis in various cancers. However, the clinical relevance of ERRγ to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Here we examined the clinical significance of ERRγ in HCC and its potential as a therapeutic target. ERRγ levels in tissues from completely resected specimens from 190 HCC patients were examined immunohistochemically and their association with clinical stage and pathological grade was analyzed. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of ERRγ (siRNA-ERRγ) or an ERRγ inverse agonist, GSK5182, were also used to examine the effects of ERRγ inhibition on the proliferation and growth of a human hepatoma cell line, PLC/PRF/5. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that tumor tissues showed higher levels of ERRγ-positivity than adjacent non-tumor lesions. Tumors showing high levels of ERRγ immunoreactivity also had advanced tumor node metastasis (TNM) and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stages and a higher Edmondson–Steiner grade. In addition, high-level expression of ERRγ in tumors of advanced TNM stage correlated with poorer overall survival. Treatment of PLC/PRF/5 cells with siRNA-ERRγ or GSK5182 inhibited proliferation through G1 arrest, increased expression of p21 and p27 and decreased expression of phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein. GSK5182-induced reactive oxygen species also suppressed the proliferation of PLC/PRF/5 cells. The present study showed that ERRγ expression is clinically significant in HCC; therefore, it can be considered a biomarker for HCC diagnosis. Moreover, the results provide a rationale for the use of ERRγ inhibitors such as GSK5182 as potential therapeutic agents. PMID:26940882

  13. Detection of weak estrogenic flavonoids using a recombinant yeast strain and a modified MCF7 cell proliferation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinholt, V; Larsen, J C

    1998-06-01

    A newly developed recombinant yeast strain, in which the human estrogen receptor has been stably integrated into the genome of the yeast, was used to gain information on the estrogenic activity of a large series of dietary flavonoids. Among 23 flavonoids investigated, 8 were found to markedly stimulate the transcriptional activity of the human estrogen receptor in the yeast assay increasing transcriptional activity 5-13-fold above background level, corresponding to EC50 values between 0.1 and 25 microM. Five compounds increased the transcriptional activity 2-5-fold over the control, with EC50 values ranging from 84 to 102 microM, whereas the remaining flavonoids were devoid of activity. The most potent flavonoid estrogens tested were naringenin, apigenin, kaempferol, phloretin, and the four isoflavonoids equol, genistein, daidzein, and biochanin A. With the exception of biochanin A, the main feature required to confer estrogenicity was the presence of a single hydroxyl group in the 4'-position of the B-ring of the flavan nucleus, corresponding to the 4-position on phloretin. The estrogenic potency of the flavonoids was found to be 4 000-4 000 000 times lower than that observed for 17beta-estradiol, when compared on the basis of EC50 values. The estrogenic activity of the dietary flavonoids was further investigated in estrogen-dependent human MCF7 breast cancer cells. In this system several of the flavonoids were likewise capable of mimicking natural estrogens and thereby induce cell proliferation. Similar structural requirements for estrogenic activity were found for the two assays. The present results provide evidence that several of the flavo-estrogens possess estrogenic properties comparable in activity to the well-established isoflavonoid estrogens. The use of Alamar Blue, a vital dye which is metabolically reduced by cellular enzymes to a fluorescent product, was found to greatly simplify the MCF7 cell-based estrogen screen, making this mammalian assay

  14. Host genetic variants in the interleukin-6 promoter predict poor outcome in patients with estrogen receptor-positive, node-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMichele, Angela; Gray, Robert; Horn, Michelle; Chen, Jinbo; Aplenc, Richard; Vaughan, William P; Tallman, Martin S

    2009-05-15

    Interleukin-6 modulates immune response, estrogen production, and growth pathways in breast cancer. We evaluated the effect of several common, functional interleukin-6 promoter variants in node-positive breast cancer patients enrolled on a multicenter, cooperative group, adjuvant chemotherapy trial to determine whether these variants were associated with clinical outcome overall and by estrogen receptor tumor phenotype. Genomic DNA and clinical data were collected from a clinical trial of adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy followed by randomization to high-dose cyclophosphamide/thiotepa or observation (Intergroup Trial 0121). Genotyping for -174G>C (rs1800795), -597G>A (rs1800797), and -572G>C (rs1800796) was done by site-specific PCR and PyroSequencing, whereas the -373A(n)T(n) repeat was directly sequenced. Log-rank tests and Cox modeling were used to compare outcomes by genotype/haplotype and other factors. Three hundred forty-six patients (64% of trial) had corresponding genotype/clinical data available and did not differ from overall trial participants. After adjustment, patients with estrogen receptor-positive tumors and genotypes 597 GG or 174 GG had significantly worse disease-free survival [hazard ratio (HR), 1.6; P = 0.02 and HR, 1.71; P = 0.007, respectively], whereas the 373 8A12T repeat appeared to be protective (HR, 0.62; P = 0.02). The presence of at least one copy of the haplotype ([-597G, -572G, -373[10A/11T], -174G]) was associated with worse disease-free survival (HR, 1.46; P = 0.04). Kaplan-Meier plots show that all patients in this group relapsed by 24 months from diagnosis. This poor-risk haplotype was quite common overall (estimated frequency, 0.20) and twice as frequent among Blacks (estimated frequency, 0.41).

  15. The molecular, cellular and clinical consequences of targeting the estrogen receptor following estrogen deprivation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ping; Maximov, Philipp Y; Curpan, Ramona F; Abderrahman, Balkees; Jordan, V Craig

    2015-12-15

    During the past 20 years our understanding of the control of breast tumor development, growth and survival has changed dramatically. The once long forgotten application of high dose synthetic estrogen therapy as the first chemical therapy to treat any cancer has been resurrected, refined and reinvented as the new biology of estrogen-induced apoptosis. High dose estrogen therapy was cast aside once tamoxifen, from its origins as a failed "morning after pill", was reinvented as the first targeted therapy to treat any cancer. The current understanding of the mechanism of estrogen-induced apoptosis is described as a consequence of acquired resistance to long term antihormone therapy in estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer. The ER signal transduction pathway remains a target for therapy in breast cancer despite "antiestrogen" resistance, but becomes a regulator of resistance. Multiple mechanisms of resistance come into play: Selective ER modulator (SERM) stimulated growth, growth factor/ER crosstalk, estrogen-induced apoptosis and mutations of ER. But it is with the science of estrogen-induced apoptosis that the next innovation in women's health will be developed. Recent evidence suggests that the glucocorticoid properties of medroxyprogesterone acetate blunt estrogen-induced apoptosis in estrogen deprived breast cancer cell populations. As a result breast cancer develops during long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A new synthetic progestin with estrogen-like properties, such as the 19 nortestosterone derivatives used in oral contraceptives, will continue to protect the uterus from unopposed estrogen stimulation but at the same time, reinforce apoptosis in vulnerable populations of nascent breast cancer cells.

  16. Combined effects of circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin d and Th1 and th2 cytokines on breast cancer estrogen receptor status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Song; Hong, Chi-Chen; McCann, Susan E; Zirpoli, Gary; Quan, Lei; Gong, Zhihong; Johnson, Candace S; Trump, Donald L; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2014-01-27

    Vitamin D has been recognized for its immune-modulating properties. We have previously found that levels of 25OHD, and cytokines including IL5, IFNα2, and TNFα, are also associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer in younger women. Thus, we hypothesized that there may be interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in influencing breast cancer ER status, which was tested in 490 women with incident breast cancer. There was no correlation of the levels of 25OHD with any cytokine, and their associations with tumor ER negative status were independent of each other. However, premenopausal women with low 25OHD and high TNFα levels had the highest likelihood of having ER negative cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 7.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44-21.98), with evidence of synergy between the two (relative excess risk due to interaction [RERI] = 5.46, p for additive interaction = 0.14, and p for multiplicative interaction = 0.09). There were similar synergistic associations between 25OHD and IL5, and several IFNα2 to Th2 cytokine ratios. This is the first study to provide evidence of interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in relation to breast cancer ER status, which may inform combinational use of vitamin D and anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention and therapy.

  17. Combined Effects of Circulating Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Th1 and Th2 Cytokines on Breast Cancer Estrogen Receptor Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Song, E-mail: song.yao@roswellpark.org; Hong, Chi-Chen; McCann, Susan E.; Zirpoli, Gary; Quan, Lei; Gong, Zhihong [Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Johnson, Candace S. [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Trump, Donald L. [Department of Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Ambrosone, Christine B. [Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States)

    2014-01-27

    Vitamin D has been recognized for its immune-modulating properties. We have previously found that levels of 25OHD, and cytokines including IL5, IFNα2, and TNFα, are also associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer in younger women. Thus, we hypothesized that there may be interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in influencing breast cancer ER status, which was tested in 490 women with incident breast cancer. There was no correlation of the levels of 25OHD with any cytokine, and their associations with tumor ER negative status were independent of each other. However, premenopausal women with low 25OHD and high TNFα levels had the highest likelihood of having ER negative cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 7.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44−21.98), with evidence of synergy between the two (relative excess risk due to interaction [RERI] = 5.46, p for additive interaction = 0.14, and p for multiplicative interaction = 0.09). There were similar synergistic associations between 25OHD and IL5, and several IFNα2 to Th2 cytokine ratios. This is the first study to provide evidence of interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in relation to breast cancer ER status, which may inform combinational use of vitamin D and anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention and therapy.

  18. Combined Effects of Circulating Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Th1 and Th2 Cytokines on Breast Cancer Estrogen Receptor Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D has been recognized for its immune-modulating properties. We have previously found that levels of 25OHD, and cytokines including IL5, IFNα2, and TNFα, are also associated with estrogen receptor (ER negative breast cancer in younger women. Thus, we hypothesized that there may be interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in influencing breast cancer ER status, which was tested in 490 women with incident breast cancer. There was no correlation of the levels of 25OHD with any cytokine, and their associations with tumor ER negative status were independent of each other. However, premenopausal women with low 25OHD and high TNFα levels had the highest likelihood of having ER negative cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 7.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44−21.98, with evidence of synergy between the two (relative excess risk due to interaction [RERI] = 5.46, p for additive interaction = 0.14, and p for multiplicative interaction = 0.09. There were similar synergistic associations between 25OHD and IL5, and several IFNα2 to Th2 cytokine ratios. This is the first study to provide evidence of interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in relation to breast cancer ER status, which may inform combinational use of vitamin D and anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention and therapy.

  19. Oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis induced by ethanolic mango seed extract in cultured estrogen receptor positive breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Al-Shwyeh Hussah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Rasedee, Abdullah; Mirghani, Mohamed Elwathig Saeed

    2015-02-05

    Breast cancer has become a global health issue requiring huge expenditures for care and treatment of patients. There is a need to discover newer cost-effective alternatives for current therapeutic regimes. Mango kernel is a waste product with potential as a source of anti-cancer phytochemicals, especially since it is non-toxic towards normal breast cell lines at concentrations for which it induces cell death in breast cancer cells. In this study, the anti-cancer effect of mango kernel extract was determined on estrogen receptor-positive human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells. The MCF-7 cells were cultured and treated with 5, 10 and 50 μg/mL of mango kernel extract for 12 and 24 h. In response to treatment, there were time- and dose-dependent increases in oxidative stress markers and pro-apoptotic factors; Bcl-2-like protein 4 (BAX), p53, cytochrome c and caspases (7, 8 and 9) in the MCF-7 cells treated with the extract. At the same time, there were decreases in pro-survival markers (Bcl-2 and glutathione) as the result of the treatments. The changes induced in the MCF-7 cells by mango kernel extract treatment suggest that the extract can induce cancer cell apoptosis, likely via the activation of oxidative stress. These findings need to be evaluated further to determine whether mango kernel extract can be developed as an anti-breast cancer agent.

  20. Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis Induced by Ethanolic Mango Seed Extract in Cultured Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shwyeh Hussah Abdullah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer has become a global health issue requiring huge expenditures for care and treatment of patients. There is a need to discover newer cost-effective alternatives for current therapeutic regimes. Mango kernel is a waste product with potential as a source of anti-cancer phytochemicals, especially since it is non-toxic towards normal breast cell lines at concentrations for which it induces cell death in breast cancer cells. In this study, the anti-cancer effect of mango kernel extract was determined on estrogen receptor-positive human breast carcinoma (MCF-7 cells. The MCF-7 cells were cultured and treated with 5, 10 and 50 μg/mL of mango kernel extract for 12 and 24 h. In response to treatment, there were time- and dose-dependent increases in oxidative stress markers and pro-apoptotic factors; Bcl-2-like protein 4 (BAX, p53, cytochrome c and caspases (7, 8 and 9 in the MCF-7 cells treated with the extract. At the same time, there were decreases in pro-survival markers (Bcl-2 and glutathione as the result of the treatments. The changes induced in the MCF-7 cells by mango kernel extract treatment suggest that the extract can induce cancer cell apoptosis, likely via the activation of oxidative stress. These findings need to be evaluated further to determine whether mango kernel extract can be developed as an anti-breast cancer agent.

  1. High CDK6 protects cells from fulvestrant-mediated apoptosis and is a predictor of resistance to fulvestrant in estrogen receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Carla Maria Lourenco; Elias, Daniel; Lyng, Maria B

    2016-01-01

    patients treated with fulvestrant (N=45 and N=46) correlated significantly with shorter progression-free survival (PFS) of fulvestrant treatment (p=0.0006 and p=0.018), while no association was observed in patients receiving other first- or second-/third-line endocrine treatments (N=68, p=0.135 and p=0......PURPOSE: Resistance to endocrine therapy in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer remains a major clinical problem. Recently, the CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib combined with letrozole or fulvestrant was approved for treatment of ER+ advanced breast cancer. However, the role of CDK4....../6 in endocrine resistance and their potential as predictive biomarkers of endocrine treatment response remains undefined. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We investigated the specific role of increased CDK6 expression in fulvestrant-resistant cells by gene knockdown and treatment with palbociclib, and evaluated the effect...

  2. The importance of molecular structures, endpoints' values, and predictivity parameters in QSAR research: QSAR analysis of a series of estrogen receptor binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiazhong; Gramatica, Paola

    2010-11-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methodology aims to explore the relationship between molecular structures and experimental endpoints, producing a model for the prediction of new data; the predictive performance of the model must be checked by external validation. Clearly, the qualities of chemical structure information and experimental endpoints, as well as the statistical parameters used to verify the external predictivity have a strong influence on QSAR model reliability. Here, we emphasize the importance of these three aspects by analyzing our models on estrogen receptor binders (Endocrine disruptor knowledge base (EDKB) database). Endocrine disrupting chemicals, which mimic or antagonize the endogenous hormones such as estrogens, are a hot topic in environmental and toxicological sciences. QSAR shows great values in predicting the estrogenic activity and exploring the interactions between the estrogen receptor and ligands. We have verified our previously published model for additional external validation on new EDKB chemicals. Having found some errors in the used 3D molecular conformations, we redevelop a new model using the same data set with corrected structures, the same method (ordinary least-square regression, OLS) and DRAGON descriptors. The new model, based on some different descriptors, is more predictive on external prediction sets. Three different formulas to calculate correlation coefficient for the external prediction set (Q2 EXT) were compared, and the results indicated that the new proposal of Consonni et al. had more reasonable results, consistent with the conclusions from regression line, Williams plot and root mean square error (RMSE) values. Finally, the importance of reliable endpoints values has been highlighted by comparing the classification assignments of EDKB with those of another estrogen receptor binders database (METI): we found that 16.1% assignments of the common compounds were opposite (20 among 124 common

  3. Estrogen signaling pathway in cancer%肿瘤中雌激素信号转导通路的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈安安; 汪炬

    2012-01-01

    @@ 雌激素(estrogen,E2)可通过特异性结合并激活其受体传递信号,广泛调控机体的各种功能,如生殖功能、骨骼及其它组织的分化和维持等.雌激素受体属于核受体超家族,有3个亚类即雌激素受体α(estrogen receptor α,ERα)、Erβ和最近发现的G蛋白偶联受体--GPR(G protein-coupled receptor)30/GPER (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor).典型的ER作用机制是ERα或ERβ结合配体、同源或异源二聚化进入核内与靶基因的反式元件直接结合,或与共激活及共抑制因子结合,从而与靶基因间接结合并调控其转录,被称为基因组作用.此外,雌激素还可通过定位于膜上ER以及定位于胞质的ER介导,在不同的细胞发生不同的信号转导过程,即非基因组作用.非基因组作用通常会涉及与其它多个信号通路相互作用.虽然这2种途径的作用机制不同,但一些研究表明两者紧密联系,共同发挥作用,见图1[1].%In recenl years, accumulaled evidence indicates lhal lhe expression level of eslrogen is relaled Lo cancer development, especially in breasl cancer. This review is an overall inlroduclion aboul lhe progress of recenl years in lhe regulalion of eslrogen receplor expression, degradation and complicaled eslrogen signaling palhways in Lumors, including lhe genomic and non - genomic pathways. We also inlegrales lhe eslrogen palhways inlo a network for beller understanding the molecular mechanisms of estrogen signaling in the development of related tumors.

  4. 15-deoxy-δ12,14-prostaglandin j2 inhibits osteolytic breast cancer bone metastasis and estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Rim Kim

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the major cause of cancer death in women worldwide. The most common site of metastasis is bone. Bone metastases obstruct the normal bone remodeling process and aberrantly enhance osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, which results in osteolytic lesions. 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2 is an endogenous ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ that has anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity at micromolar concentrations through PPARγ-dependent and/or PPARγ-independent pathways. We investigated the inhibitory activity of 15d-PGJ2 on the bone loss that is associated with breast cancer bone metastasis and estrogen deficiency caused by cancer treatment. 15d-PGJ2 dose-dependently inhibited viability, migration, invasion, and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP production in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. 15d-PGJ2 suppressed receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL mRNA levels and normalized osteoprotegerin (OPG mRNA levels in hFOB1.19 osteoblastic cells treated with culture medium from MDA-MB-231 cells or PTHrP, which decreased the RANKL/OPG ratio. 15d-PGJ2 blocked RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and inhibited the formation of resorption pits by decreasing the activities of cathepsin K and matrix metalloproteinases, which are secreted by mature osteoclasts. 15d-PGJ2 exerted its effects on breast cancer and bone cells via PPARγ-independent pathways. In Balb/c nu/nu mice that received an intracardiac injection of MDA-MB-231 cells, subcutaneously injected 15d-PGJ2 substantially decreased metastatic progression, cancer cell-mediated bone destruction in femora, tibiae, and mandibles, and serum PTHrP levels. 15d-PGJ2 prevented the destruction of femoral trabecular structures in estrogen-deprived ICR mice as measured by bone morphometric parameters and serum biochemical data. Therefore, 15d-PGJ2 may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer

  5. Snus (nass and oral cancer: A case series report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Alsadat Hashemipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Snus (nass is a form of snuff used in a similar manner to American dipping tobacco, but it does not typically result in a need for spitting. Possible hazards associated with this material include malignant and premalignant lesions in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The use of smokeless tobacco has increased in the Middle East in recent decades, particularly among teenagers and young adults. Therefore, practitioners must be able to recognize malignant and premalignant lesions. Although, an estimated 10-25% of the world′s population uses smokeless tobacco, this practice is virtually unknown in Iran. The aim of this study is to report a series of cases of squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma occurring in the users of snus, who referred to the Department of Oral Medicine in Kerman Dental School.

  6. Cross-talk between estradiol receptor and EGFR/IGF-IR signaling pathways in estrogen-responsive breast cancers: focus on the role and impact of proteoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalis, Spyros S; Afratis, Nikolaos; Smirlaki, Gianna; Nikitovic, Dragana; Theocharis, Achilleas D; Tzanakakis, George N; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2014-04-01

    In hormone-dependent breast cancer, estrogen receptors are the principal signaling molecules that regulate several cell functions either by the genomic pathway acting directly as transcription factors in the nucleus or by the non-genomic pathway interacting with other receptors and their adjacent pathways like EGFR/IGFR. It is well established in literature that EGFR and IGFR signaling pathways promote cell proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, recent data indicate the cross-talk between ERs and EGFR/IGFR signaling pathways causing a transformation of cell functions as well as deregulation on normal expression pattern of matrix molecules. Specifically, proteoglycans, a major category of extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell surface macromolecules, are modified during malignancy and cause alterations in cancer cell signaling, affecting eventually functional cell properties such as proliferation, adhesion and migration. The on-going strategies to block only one of the above signaling effectors result cancer cells to overcome such inactivation using alternative signaling pathways. In this article, we therefore review the underlying mechanisms in respect to the role of ERs and the involvement of cross-talk between ERs, IGFR and EGFR in breast cancer cell properties and expression of extracellular secreted and cell bound proteoglycans involved in cancer progression. Understanding such signaling pathways may help to establish new potential pharmacological targets in terms of using ECM molecules to design novel anticancer therapies.

  7. Glucuronidation does not suppress the estrogenic activity of quercetin in yeast and human breast cancer cell model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotolo, Roberta; Calani, Luca; Brighenti, Furio; Crozier, Alan; Ottonello, Simone; Del Rio, Daniele

    2014-10-01

    Several plant-derived molecules, referred to as phytoestrogens, are thought to mimic the actions of endogenous estrogens. Among these, quercetin, one of the most widespread flavonoids in the plant kingdom, has been reported as estrogenic in some occasions. However, quercetin occurs in substantial amounts as glycosides such as quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin) and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin) in dietary sources. It is now well established that quercetin undergoes substantial phase II metabolism after ingestion by humans, with plasma metabolites after a normal dietary intake rarely exceeding nmol/L concentrations. Therefore, attributing phytoestrogenic activity to flavonoids without taking into account the fact that it is their phase II metabolites that enter the circulatory system, will almost certainly lead to misleading conclusions. With the aim of clarifying the above issue, the goal of the present study was to determine if plant-associated quercetin glycosides and human phase II quercetin metabolites, actually found in human biological fluids after intake of quercetin containing foods, are capable of interacting with the estrogen receptors (ER). To this end, we used a yeast-based two-hybrid system and an estrogen response element-luciferase reporter assay in an ER-positive human cell line (MCF-7) to probe the ER interaction capacities of quercetin and its derivatives. Our results show that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, one of the main human phase II metabolites produced after intake of dietary quercetin, displays ERα- and ERβ-dependent estrogenic activity, the functional consequences of which might be related to the protective activity of diets rich in quercetin glycosides.

  8. Polymorphisms of estrogen synthesizing and metabolizing genes and breast cancer susceptibility%雌激素合成及代谢基因的多态性与乳腺癌易感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜永冬; 刘晶; 庞达

    2009-01-01

    Estrogens,the major risk factors for breast cancer,are speculated to affect breast cancer risk through estrogens receptor(ER), thus, genetic polymorphisms of the genes involved in the estrogens biosynthesis and metabolism are expected as the main risk factors for breast cancer. Polymorphisms of the genes involved in estrogens biosynthesis (CYP11A1, CYP17, CYP19) and metabolism (CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP1A2) in modulating the susceptibility of breast cancer is important.%雌激素是乳腺癌的主要危险因素,推测是通过雌激素受体影响乳腺癌的发病风险.因此,与雌激素合成和代谢相关的基因多态性被认为是乳腺癌的主要危险因子.与雌激素合成基因(CYP11A1、CYP17、CYP19)和代谢基因(CYP1A1、CYP1B1、CYP1A2)相关的基因多态性在调节乳腺癌易感性中具有一定意义.

  9. Estrogen receptor, Progesterone receptor, HER2 status and Ki67 index and responsiveness to adjuvant tamoxifen in postmenopausal high-risk breast cancer patients enrolled in the DBCG 77C trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoop, Ann S; Lænkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2014-01-01

    from 1515 patients was analysed and the hormone receptor positive (estrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR)) cancers were defined as luminal A if Ki67 low and HER2-negative; as luminal B if Ki67 high or HER2-positive; and otherwise as non-luminal-HER2 positive or triple negative...

  10. Structure-function relationships of hydroxylated metabolites of tamoxifen that control the proliferation of estrogen-responsive T47D breast cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, C S; Langan-Fahey, S M; McCague, R; Jordan, V C

    1990-11-01

    Several hydroxylated derivatives of tamoxifen were tested for their effects on the growth of T47D human breast cancer cells in vitro. Compounds containing a fused seven-membered ring were used to prevent isomerization of the triphenyl-ethylenes at the double bond. This stable structure permitted the determination of the activity of the cis and trans forms of tamoxifen and the true activity of two of its metabolites, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and metabolite E. Estradiol stimulates the growth of T47D cells 3-4-fold over control after 6 days of treatment (EC50 = congruent to 3 x 10(-12) to 3 x 10(-11) M, depending upon the particular experiment). The fixed ring form of the trans isomer of tamoxifen is an antiestrogen, whereas the cis isomer is estrogenic. Fixed ring-trans-4-hydroxytamoxifen is a potent antiestrogen, and its cis isomer is a weak antiestrogen (IC50 congruent to 4 x 10(-8) to 2 x 10(-7) M). The fixed ring form of trans-metabolite E (tamoxifen without the dimethylaminoethane side chain) is only a weak partial estrogen agonist, whereas the fixed ring derivative of its cis isomer is a potent estrogen agonist (EC50 congruent to 4 x 10(-12) to 1 x 10(-11) M). These studies have determined the true biological activities of the hydroxylated derivatives of tamoxifen. This information will be valuable for the development of drug receptor models and will be particularly useful when the three-dimensional structure of the receptor complex is determined.

  11. AACR centennial series: the biology of cancer metastasis: historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmadge, James E; Fidler, Isaiah J

    2010-07-15

    Metastasis resistant to therapy is the major cause of death from cancer. Despite almost 200 years of study, the process of tumor metastasis remains controversial. Stephen Paget initially identified the role of host-tumor interactions on the basis of a review of autopsy records. His "seed and soil" hypothesis was substantiated a century later with experimental studies, and numerous reports have confirmed these seminal observations. An improved understanding of the metastatic process and the attributes of the cells selected by this process is critical for the treatment of patients with systemic disease. In many patients, metastasis has occurred by the time of diagnosis, so metastasis prevention may not be relevant. Treating systemic disease and identifying patients with early disease should be our goal. Revitalized research in the past three decades has focused on new discoveries in the biology of metastasis. Even though our understanding of molecular events that regulate metastasis has improved, the contributions and timing of molecular lesion(s) involved in metastasis pathogenesis remain unclear. Review of the history of pioneering observations and discussion of current controversies should increase understanding of the complex and multifactorial interactions between the host and selected tumor cells that contribute to fatal metastasis and should lead to the design of successful therapy.

  12. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in esophageal cancer: a case series and systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, R V; Mata-Machado, N A; Nicholas, M K; Salgia, R; Antic, T; Villaflor, V M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to more clearly define the clinical course of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis due to esophageal cancer. A single institution retrospective case series was conducted. Additionally, a systematic review of the literature was performed. We present a large case series (n = 7) of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis due to esophageal cancer. Our case series and systematic review of the literature report similar findings. In our series, we report a predominance of male patients (86%) with adenocarcinoma histology (77%). Variable onset of leptomeningeal involvement of esophageal cancer in relation to the original diagnosis of the primary disease (5 months to 3 years and 11 weeks) was noted. Disease progresses quickly and overall survival is poor, measured in weeks (2.5-16 weeks) from the diagnosis of leptomeningeal involvement. Four of our patients initiated whole-brain radiation therapy with only two completing the course prior to clinical deterioration. Our patient with the longest survival (16 weeks) received intrathecal topotecan and oral temozolomide. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis secondary to esophageal cancer has a poor prognosis. A clearly beneficial treatment modality is lacking.

  13. An overview of nomegestrol acetate selective receptor binding and lack of estrogenic action on hormone-dependent cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields-Botella, J; Duc, I; Duranti, E; Puccio, F; Bonnet, P; Delansorne, R; Paris, J

    2003-11-01

    The specific pharmacological profile of the 19-norprogestin nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) is, at least in part, defined by its pattern of binding affinities to the different steroid hormone receptors. In the present study, its affinity to the progesterone receptor (PgR), the androgen receptor (AR) and the estrogen receptor (ER) was re-evaluated and compared to those obtained for progesterone (P) and several progestins. The characteristics of binding to the PgR in rat uterus were determined and Ki were found to be roughly similar with 22.8 and 34.3 nM for NOMAC and P, respectively. The binding characteristics of 3H-NOMAC were also determined and compared to that of 3H-ORG2058 with Kd of 5 and 0.6 nM, respectively for rat uterus and 4 and 3 nM, respectively for human T47-D cells. Structure-affinity and -activity relationships were studied on a variety of compounds related to NOMAC in order to assess its specificity as a progestin. The effects of NOMAC on the binding of androgen to the AR were investigated, using rat ventral prostate as target model. Contrary to what was observed for MPA, the RBA of NOMAC was found to decline with time, showing anti-androgenic rather than androgenic potential, a result that was confirmed in vivo. Regarding the ER, since none of the progestins were able to compete with estrogen for binding in rat uterus as well as in Ishikawa cells, the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity (APase) was used as an estrogen-specific response. It confirmed the intrinsic estrogenicity of progestins derived from 19-nor-testosterone (19NT), norethisterone acetate (NETA), levonorgestrel (LNG) or norgestimate (NGM) and others. In contrast, all P and 19-norP derivatives remained inactive. Finally, to complete this overview of NOMAC at the sex steroid receptor levels, the lack of estrogenic or estrogenic-like activity was checked out in different in vitro models. Data from this study have demonstrated that NOMAC is a progestin that has greater steroid

  14. Estrogen and gastrointestinal malignancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, A M

    2012-02-01

    The concept that E2 exerts an effect on the gastrointestinal tract is not new and its actions on intestinal mucosa have been investigated for at least three decades. An attempt to consolidate results of these investigations generates more questions than answers, thus suggesting that many unexplored avenues remain and that the full capabilities of this steroid hormone are far from understood. Evidence of its role in esophageal, gastric and gallbladder cancers is confusing and often equivocal. The most compelling evidence regards the protective role conferred by estrogen (or perhaps ERbeta) against the development and proliferation of colon cancer. Not only has the effect been described but also many mechanisms of action have been explored. It is likely that, along with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, hormonal manipulation will play an integral role in colon cancer management in the very near future.

  15. Clinical pathological significance of estrogen receptor level of patients with non-small cell lung cancer and expression of serum estrogen level in lung cancer tissue%非小细胞肺癌患者血清雌激素水平与肺癌组织中雌激素受体表达及其临床病理意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘政宏; 晏淼; 张蕾; 杨成喜

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical pathological significance of estrogen receptor level of patients with non-small cell lung cancer and expression of serum estrogen level in lung cancer tissue for providing some reference on the prevention and control of non small cell lung cancer. Methods 36 patients with lung adenocarcinoma were selected as the observation group,who were pathologically confirmed and treated in our hospital from 2010 January to 2012 December,at the same time,32 patients with squamous cell lung carcinoma in the same period,who were pathologically confirmed and treated in our hospital,were selected as control 1 group,and 30 healthy volunteers in our hospital for medical examination of the lungs were selected as control 2 group.The lung tissue leptin,serum estradiol(E) and estrogen receptor(ER)of all the participants were detected by immunohistochemical staining technique.The serum leptin,estrogen(E)and estrogen receptor(ER) of observation group,control 1 group,and control 2 group were compared.In addition,the leptin,serum estrogen(E)and estrogen receptor(ER) of male and female patients with lung adenocarcinoma in the observation group were compared. Results The leptin,serum estradiol(E)and estrogen receptor(ER)positive expression of the observation group were significantly higher than those of the other two groups, and the differences were statistically significant(P 0.05),but the positive expression of ER in female patients was significantly higher than that in male(P < 0.05). Conclusion The leptin,serum estrogen(E) and estrogen receptor(ER)positive expression of the non small cell lung cancer patients are higher than those of normal people.It shows that these three factors may participate in non small cell lung cancer,which can be used as an important basis for the diagnosis of non small cell lung cancer.%目的:探讨非小细胞肺癌患者血清雌激素水平与肺癌组织中雌激素受体表达及其临床病理意义,为非小细胞肺

  16. Estrogenic compounds -endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors (polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane [DDT], dioxin, and some pesticides are estrogen-like and anti-androgenic chemicals in the environment. They mimic natural hormones, inhibit the action of hormones, or alter the normal regulatory function of the endocrine system and have potential hazardous effects on male reproductive axis causing infertility. Although testicular and prostate cancers, abnormal sexual development, undescended testis, chronic inflammation, Sertoli-cell-only pattern, hypospadias, altered pituitary and thyroid gland functions are also observed, the available data are insufficient to deduce worldwide conclusions.

  17. Impact of suppression of tumorigenicity 14 (ST14)/serine protease 14 (Prss14) expression analysis on the prognosis and management of estrogen receptor negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sauryang; Yang, Jae Woong; Kim, Chungho; Kim, Moon Gyo

    2016-06-01

    To elucidate the role of a type II transmembrane serine protease, ST14/Prss14, during breast cancer progression, we utilized publically accessible databases including TCGA, GEO, NCI-60, and CCLE. Survival of breast cancer patients with high ST14/Prss14 expression is significantly poor in estrogen receptor (ER) negative populations regardless of the ratios of ST14/Prss14 to its inhibitors, SPINT1 or SPINT2. In a clustering of 1085 selected EMT signature genes, ST14/Prss14 is located in the same cluster with CDH3, and closer to post-EMT markers, CDH2, VIM, and FN1 than to the pre-EMT marker, CDH1. Coexpression analyses of known ST14/Prss14 substrates and transcription factors revealed context dependent action. In cell lines, paradoxically, ST14/Prss14 expression is higher in the ER positive group and located closer to CDH1 in clustering. This apparent contradiction is not likely due to ST14/Prss14 expression in a cancer microenvironment, nor due to negative regulation by ER. Genes consistently coexpressed with ST14/Prss14 include transcription factors, ELF5, GRHL1, VGLL1, suggesting currently unknown mechanisms for regulation. Here, we report that ST14/Prss14 is an emerging therapeutic target for breast cancer where HER2 is not applicable. In addition we suggest that careful conclusions should be drawn not exclusively from the cell line studies for target development.

  18. Online CME Series Can Nutrition Simultaneously Affect Cancer and Aging? | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging is considered by some scientists to be a normal physiological process, while others believe it is a disease. Increased cancer risk in the elderly raises the question regarding the common pathways for cancer and aging. Undeniably, nutrition plays an important role in both cases and this webinar will explore whether nutrition can simultaneously affect cancer and aging. |

  19. Melatonin affects the dynamic steady-state equilibrium of estrogen sulfates in human umbilical vein endothelial cells by regulating the balance between estrogen sulfatase and sulfotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alicia; Martínez-Campa, Carlos; Alonso-González, Carolina; Cos, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    Melatonin is known to reduce the growth of endocrine-responsive breast cancers by interacting with estrogen signaling pathways. Estrogens play an important role in breast cancer, but also in various types of tissues, including vascular tissue. Estrogen sulfatase (STS) converts inactive estrogen sulfates into active estrogens, whereas estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) sulfonates estrogens to estrogen sulfates. Therefore, STS and EST are considered to be involved in the regulation of local estrogen levels in hormone‑dependent tumors and in non-pathologic tissues, such as those of the vascular system. Estrogens have a major impact on the vasculature, influencing vascular function, the expression of adhesion proteins, angiogenesis and the inflammatory state. In this study, we investigated the status of STS and EST in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the modulatory effects of melatonin. Both STS and EST were highly expressed in the HUVECs. The enzymatic activity correlated with the expression levels in these cells. Our findings also demonstrated that melatonin, at physiological concentrations, modulated the synthesis and transformation of biologically active estrogens in HUVECs through the inhibition of STS activity and expression, and the stimulation of EST activity and expression. Since melatonin decreased the STS levels and increased the EST levels, it modified the dynamic steady‑state equilibrium of estrogen sulfates by increasing the inactive estrogen levels and decreasing the active estrogen levels. Therefore, melatonin may modulate the known different biological actions of estrogens in endothelial cells, as well as in estrogen-dependent tumors and non-pathologic tissues.

  20. Reprogramming of non-genomic estrogen signaling by the stemness factor SOX2 enhances the tumor-initiating capacity of breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Cufí, Sílvia; López-Bonet, Eugeni; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Vellon, Luciano; Iglesias, Juan Manuel; Leis, Olatz; Martín, Ángel G; Menendez, Javier A

    2013-01-01

    The restoration of pluripotency circuits by the reactivation of endogenous stemness factors, such as SOX2, may provide a new paradigm in cancer development. The tumoral stem cell reprogramming hypothesis, i.e., the ability of stemness factors to redirect normal and differentiated tumor cells toward a less-differentiated and stem-like state, adds new layers of complexity to cancer biology, because the effects of such reprogramming may remain dormant until engaged later in response to (epi)genetic and/or (micro)environmental events. To test this hypothesis, we utilized an in vitro model of a SOX2-overexpressing cancer stem cell (CSC)-like cellular state that was recently developed in our laboratory by employing Yamanaka’s nuclear reprogramming technology in the estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Despite the acquisition of distinct molecular features that were compatible with a breast CSC-like cellular state, such as strong aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, as detected by ALDEFLUOR, and overexpression of the SSEA-4 and CD44 breast CSC markers, the tumor growth-initiating ability of SOX2-overexpressing CSC-like MCF-7 cells solely occurred in female nude mice supplemented with estradiol when compared with MCF-7 parental cells. Ser118 phosphorylation of estrogen receptor α (ERα), which is a pivotal integrator of the genomic and nongenomic E2/ERα signaling pathways, drastically accumulated in nuclear speckles in the interphase nuclei of SOX2-driven CSC-like cell populations. Moreover, SOX2-positive CSC-like cells accumulated significantly higher numbers of actively dividing cells, and the highest levels of phospho-Ser118-ERα occurred when chromosomes lined up on a metaphase plate. The previously unrecognized link between E2/ERα signaling and SOX2-driven stem cell circuitry may significantly impact our current understanding of breast cancer initiation and progression, i.e., SOX2 can promote non-genomic E2 signaling that leads to

  1. Estrogen, male dominance and esophageal adenocarcinoma: Is there a link?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiqi Yang; Olga A Sukocheva; Damian J Hussey; David I Watson

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma is a cancer with poor prognosis, and its incidence has risen sharply over recent decades. Obesity is a major risk factor for developing this cancer and there is a clear male gender bias in the incidence that cannot be fully explained by known risk factors. It is possible that a difference in the expression of estrogen, or its signaling axes, may contribute to this gender bias. We undertook a comprehensive literature search and analyzed the available data regarding estrogen and estrogen receptor expression, and the possible sex-specific links with esophageal adenocarcinoma development. Potentially relevant associations between visceral vs subcutaneous fat deposition and estrogen expression, and the effect of crosstalk between estrogen and leptin signaling were identified. We also found limited studies suggesting a role for estrogen receptor β expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma development. The current literature supports speculation on an etiological role for estrogen in the male gender bias in esophageal adenocarcinoma, but further studies are required.

  2. In situ aromatase expression in primary tumor is associated with estrogen receptor expression but is not predictive of response to endocrine therapy in advanced breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Anne E; Henriksen, Katrine L; Rasmussen, Birgitte B;

    2009-01-01

    whether in situ carcinoma cell aromatization is the primary source of estrogen production for tumor growth and whether the aromatase expression is predictive of response to endocrine therapy. Due to methodological difficulties in the determination of the aromatase protein, COX-2, an enzyme involved...... of advanced breast cancer. Semi-quantitative immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis was performed for ER, PR, COX-2 and aromatase using Tissue Microarrays (TMAs). Aromatase was also analyzed using whole sections (WS). Kappa analysis was applied to compare association of protein expression levels. Univariate...... TMAs. Expression of COX-2 and aromatase did not predict response to endocrine therapy. Aromatase in combination with high PR expression may select letrozole treated patients with a longer TTP. CONCLUSION: TMAs are not suitable for IHC analysis of in situ aromatase expression and we did not find COX-2...

  3. Melatonin down-regulates hTERT expression induced by either natural estrogens (17beta-estradiol) or metalloestrogens (cadmium) in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Campa, Carlos M; Alonso-González, Carolina; Mediavilla, Maria D; Cos, Samuel; González, Alicia; Sanchez-Barcelo, Emilio J

    2008-09-18

    The goal was to evaluate whether melatonin (Mel) down-regulates hTERT expression induced by 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) or cadmium (Cd) in breast cancer cells. We found that: (a) Mel inhibits E(2) or Cd-induced hTERT transcription in hTERT-Luc transfected MCF-7 cells, (b) Mel significantly reduces E(2)- and Cd-mediated hTERT transactivation triggered by ERalpha in transfected HeLa cells, (c) Mel inhibits hTERT expression induced by E(2) or Cd in MCF-7 cells. Melatonin inhibition of telomerase activity supports a possible role in treatment of estrogen-dependent tumors or carcinogenesis by environmental or occupational exposure to xenoestrogens.

  4. The endometrial cancer cell lines Ishikawa and HEC-1A, and the control cell line HIEEC, differ in expression of estrogen biosynthetic and metabolic genes, and in androstenedione and estrone-sulfate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevir-Kene, Neli; Rižner, Tea Lanišnik

    2015-06-05

    Estrogens have important roles in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer. They can have carcinogenic effects through stimulation of cell proliferation or formation of DNA-damaging species. To characterize model cell lines of endometrial cancer, we determined the expression profiles of the estrogen receptors (ERs) ESR1, ESR2 and GPER, and 23 estrogen biosynthetic and metabolic genes, and investigated estrogen biosynthesis in the control HIEEC cell line and the Ishikawa and HEC-1A EC cell lines. HIEEC and Ishikawa expressed all ERs to different extents, while HEC-1A cells lacked expression of ESR1. Considering the estrogen biosynthetic and metabolic enzymes, these cells showed statistically significant different gene expression profiles for SULT2B1, HSD3B2, CYP19A1, AKR1C3, HSD17B1, HSD17B7, HSD17B12, CYP1B1, CYP3A5, COMT, SULT1A1, GSTP1 and NQO2. In these cells, E2 was formed from E1S and E1, while androstenedione was not converted to estrogens. HIEEC and Ishikawa had similar profiles of androstenedione and E1 metabolism, but hydrolysis of E1S to E1 was weaker in Ishikawa cells. HEC-1A cells were less efficient for activation of E1 into the potent E2, but metabolized androstenedione to other androgenic metabolites better than HIEEC and Ishikawa cells. This study reveals that HIEEC, Ishikawa, and HEC-1A cells can all form estrogens only via the sulfatase pathway. HIEEC, Ishikawa, and HEC-1A cells expressed all the major genes in the production of hydroxyestrogens and estrogen quinones, and in their conjugation. Significantly higher CYP1B1 mRNA levels in Ishikawa cells compared to HEC-1A cells, together with lack of UGT2B7 expression, indicate that Ishikawa cells can accumulate more toxic estrogen-3,4-quinones than HEC-1A cells, as also for HIEEC cells. This study provides further characterization of HIEEC, Ishikawa, and HEC-1A cells, and shows that they differ greatly in expression of the genes investigated and in their capacity for E2 formation, and thus they

  5. Study of genistein on human breast cancer cells of estrogen-like activity%染料木黄酮对人乳腺癌细胞雌激素样作用机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈海鹏

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨染料木黄酮(genistein,GEN)对人乳腺癌细胞增殖影响及作用机制.方法 MTT法测定GEN对雌激素依赖性乳腺癌细胞MCF-7和非雌激素依赖性乳腺癌细胞MDA-MB231增殖作用,应用雌激素受体拮抗剂IC1182780观察GEN的雌激素样作用途径,采用流式细胞术分析乳腺癌细胞周期情况.结果 GEN可促进MCF-7细胞的增殖,使G1期向S期转变,增殖作用可被雌激素受体拮抗剂所拮抗;对非雌激素依赖性MDA-MB231细胞增殖无影响.结论 GEN通过雌激素受体(ER)介导而发挥雌激素样活性作用.%Objective To explore the role of genistein (genistcin, GEN) on human breast cancer cell proliferation and its mecha-nism. Method GEN MTT method was used to detect the proliferation of GEN on estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells MCF-7 and non-es-trogen-dependent breast cancer cell proliferation of MDA-MB231. Estrogen receptor.antagonist IC1182780 was used to observe the effect of GEN. FACS was used to analyze the cell cycle of breast cancer cells. Results GEN promote MCF-7 cell proliferation, and make G1/S transition. Estrogen receptor antagonist can block the proliferation effect on MCF-7 cells but no effect on MDA MB231. Conclusion GEN has estrogen-like activity, which was mediated by estrogen receptor (ER).

  6. Management of osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms: focus on bazedoxifene/conjugated estrogen combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkin S

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sebastian Mirkin,1 James H Pickar21Pfizer Inc, Collegeville, PA, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Loss of estrogen production in women during menopause results in a state of estrogen deficiency which has been associated with multiple problems, including vasomotor symptoms, symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy, bone loss, and difficulties with sleep, mood, memory, and sexual activity. The only treatment option currently available to address multiple postmenopausal symptoms in women with an intact uterus is estrogen/progestin-containing hormone therapy (HT. Concerns surrounding side effects and published data regarding the association of HT with the increased risk for breast cancer have induced a decrease in the number of women seeking, initiating, and continuing this type of therapy. A combination containing bazedoxifene and conjugated estrogens (BZA/CE maintains the established benefits of estrogen therapy for treatment of postmenopausal vasomotor symptoms, vulvovaginal atrophy, and osteoporosis, while certain estrogenic effects, such as stimulation of the uterus and breast, are antagonized without the side effects associated with HT. BZA/CE has been evaluated in a series of multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and active-controlled Phase III trials known as the Selective estrogens, Menopause, And Response to Therapy (SMART trials. BZA/CE demonstrated clinically meaningful improvements in vasomotor symptoms, vulvovaginal atrophy, and a protective effect on the skeleton. These clinical benefits were associated with an acceptable safety profile and an improved tolerability compared with HT. BZA/CE showed a favorable safety profile on the breast, endometrium, and ovaries. The incidence of venous thromboembolism was low and the risk does not appear to be any greater than for CE alone or BZA alone or greater than HT. The incidence of coronary heart disease and

  7. Risk estimation of distant metastasis in node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients using an RT-PCR based prognostic expression signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Joe

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the large number of genes purported to be prognostic for breast cancer, it would be optimal if the genes identified are not confounded by the continuously changing systemic therapies. The aim of this study was to discover and validate a breast cancer prognostic expression signature for distant metastasis in untreated, early stage, lymph node-negative (N- estrogen receptor-positive (ER+ patients with extensive follow-up times. Methods 197 genes previously associated with metastasis and ER status were profiled from 142 untreated breast cancer subjects. A "metastasis score" (MS representing fourteen differentially expressed genes was developed and evaluated for its association with distant-metastasis-free survival (DMFS. Categorical risk classification was established from the continuous MS and further evaluated on an independent set of 279 untreated subjects. A third set of 45 subjects was tested to determine the prognostic performance of the MS in tamoxifen-treated women. Results A 14-gene signature was found to be significantly associated (p Conclusion The 14-gene signature is significantly associated with risk of distant metastasis. The signature has a predominance of proliferation genes which have prognostic significance above that of Ki-67 LI and may aid in prioritizing future mechanistic studies and therapeutic interventions.

  8. Raloxifene: a selective estrogen receptor modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J A; Da Camara, C C; Early, J E

    1999-09-15

    Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that produces both estrogen-agonistic effects on bone and lipid metabolism and estrogen-antagonistic effects on uterine endometrium and breast tissue. Because of its tissue selectivity, raloxifene may have fewer side effects than are typically observed with estrogen therapy. The most common adverse effects of raloxifene are hot flushes and leg cramps. The drug is also associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic events. The beneficial estrogenic activities of raloxifene include a lowering of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and an augmentation of bone mineral density. Raloxifene has been labeled by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the prevention of osteoporosis. However, its effects on fracture risk and its ability to protect against cardiovascular disease have yet to be determined. Studies are also being conducted to determine its impact on breast and endometrial cancer reduction.

  9. Online Series presents Cancer Prevention Through Immunomodulation. Does Diet Play a Role? | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists are increasingly harnessing the power of the immune system to prevent cancer. Nutrition provides an opportunity for a generalized immune activation and reduction of cancer risk in certain populations. Research on several foods and bioactive food components as immunologic modulators is showing promising results. |

  10. Flightless I (Drosophila) homolog facilitates chromatin accessibility of the estrogen receptor α target genes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwang Won, E-mail: kwjeong@gachon.ac.kr

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • H3K4me3 and Pol II binding at TFF1 promoter were reduced in FLII-depleted MCF-7 cells. • FLII is required for chromatin accessibility of the enhancer of ERalpha target genes. • Depletion of FLII causes inhibition of proliferation of MCF-7 cells. - Abstract: The coordinated activities of multiple protein complexes are essential to the remodeling of chromatin structure and for the recruitment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to the promoter in order to facilitate the initiation of transcription in nuclear receptor-mediated gene expression. Flightless I (Drosophila) homolog (FLII), a nuclear receptor coactivator, is associated with the SWI/SNF-chromatin remodeling complex during estrogen receptor (ER)α-mediated transcription. However, the function of FLII in estrogen-induced chromatin opening has not been fully explored. Here, we show that FLII plays a critical role in establishing active histone modification marks and generating the open chromatin structure of ERα target genes. We observed that the enhancer regions of ERα target genes are heavily occupied by FLII, and histone H3K4me3 and Pol II binding induced by estrogen are decreased in FLII-depleted MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements (FAIRE)-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) experiments showed that depletion of FLII resulted in reduced chromatin accessibility of multiple ERα target genes. These data suggest FLII as a key regulator of ERα-mediated transcription through its role in regulating chromatin accessibility for the binding of RNA Polymerase II and possibly other transcriptional coactivators.

  11. Development of Novel Technetium-99m-Labeled Steroids as Estrogen-Responsive Breast Cancer Imaging Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Herman , L. W.; Hanson, R. N. Synthesis and estrogen receptor binding of (17alpha,20E)- and (17alpha,20Z)-21-phenylthio- and 21-phenylseleno-19-norpregna...1,3,5(10),20- tetraene-3,17beta-diols. Steroids 1996, 61, 384-389. 18. Hanson, R. N.; Herman , L. W.; Fiaschi, R.; Napolitano, E. Stereochemical...Soc., Dalton Trans: Inorg. Chem. 1994, 3545- 52. 11. (a) Schubert, U. S.; Eschbaumer, C.; Heller , M. Org. Lett. 2000, 2, 3373-3376. (b

  12. Estrogenic activity of naturally occurring anthocyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, E; Stopper, H

    2001-01-01

    Anthocyanins, which are natural plant pigments from the flavonoid family, represent substantial constituents of the human diet. Because some other bioflavonoids are known to have estrogenic activity, the aim of this study was to determine the estrogenic activity of the anthocyanine aglycones. Binding affinity to the estrogen receptor-alpha was 10,000- to 20,000-fold lower than that of the endogenous estrogen estradiol. In the estrogen receptor-positive cell line MCF-7, the anthocyanidins induced expression of a reporter gene. The tested anthocyanidins showed estrogen-inducible cell proliferation in two cell lines (MCF-7 and BG-1), but not in the receptor-negative human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The phytoestrogen-induced cell proliferation could be blocked by addition of the receptor antagonist 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Combination treatments with the endogenous estrogen estradiol resulted in a reduction of estradiol-induced cell proliferation. Overall, the tested anthocyanidins exert estrogenic activity, which might play a role in altering the development of hormone-dependent adverse effects.

  13. Online Series presents The Impact of Obesity on Cancer Risk | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is a critical public health problem which is worsening over time. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than one third (34.9% or 78.6 million) of U.S. adults are obese. Growing obesity incidence is associated with detrimental health consequences including cancer. Experts in the field of nutrition and cancer will present the latest data and future directions of research for this important topic. |

  14. AHNS Series - Do you know your guidelines? Principles of treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer: A review of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooi, Zhen; Richmon, Jeremy; Agrawal, Nishant; Blair, Elizabeth; Portugal, Louis; Vokes, Everett; Seiwert, Tanguy; de Souza, Jonas; Saloura, Vassiliki; Haraf, Daniel; Goldenberg, David; Chan, Jason

    2017-02-01

    This article is a continuation of the "Do You Know Your Guidelines" series, an initiative of the American Head and Neck Society's Education Committee to increase awareness of current best practices pertaining to head and neck cancer. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for the management of nasopharyngeal cancer are reviewed here in a systematic fashion. These guidelines outline the workup, treatment and surveillance of patients with nasopharyngeal cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 201-205, 2017.

  15. Signs of proinflammatory/genotoxic switch (adipogenotoxicosis) in mammary fat of breast cancer patients: role of menopausal status, estrogens and hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, Lev M; Kovalevskij, Anatolij Y; Poroshina, Tatjana E; Kotov, Alexander V; Kovalenko, Irina G; Tsyrlina, Evgenia V; Leenman, Elena E; Revskoy, Sergey Y; Semiglazov, Vladimir F; Pozharisski, Kazimir M

    2007-08-01

    The abundance of fat tissue surrounding normal and malignant epithelial mammary cells raises the questions whether such "adipose milieu" is important in the local proinflammatory/genotoxic shift, which apparently promotes tumor development and worsens prognosis, and what conditions stimulate this shift, or "adipogenotoxicosis." We studied 95 mammary fat samples from 70 postmenopausal and 25 premenopausal breast cancer (BC) patients at a distance of 1.5-2.0 cm from tumors. The levels of leptin, adiponectin, TNFalpha and IL-6 release after 4-hr incubation of the samples were evaluated with ELISA, nitric oxide (NO) production by Griess reaction and lipid peroxidation by determination of thiobarbiturate-reactive products (TBRP). Infiltration of fat with macrophages (CD68-positive cells) and expression of cytochrome P450 1B1/estrogen 4-hydroxylase (CYP1B1) were detected by immunohistochemistry. Aromatase (CYP19) activity in mammary fat was measured by (3)H(2)O release from (3)H-1beta-androstenedione. In the postmenopausal BC patients, NO and TNFalpha production by adipose tissue explants increased independent of BMI and in parallel with decreasing leptin and, especially, adiponectin release. In the premenopausal patients, higher CYP1B1 expression and TBRP level were found in mammary fat, while higher aromatase activity was combined with higher CYP1B1 expression as well as NO and IL-6 production. In the postmenopausal group, impaired glucose tolerance was associated with higher IL-6 release production by fat and with higher IL-6/adiponectin ratio. Thus, signs of adipogenotoxicosis in mammary fat can be found in both pre- and postmenopausal BC patients. This condition is likely being maintained through estrogen- and glucose-related factors and mechanisms presumably associated with less favorable types of hormonal carcinogenesis.

  16. A deep learning based strategy for identifying and associating mitotic activity with gene expression derived risk categories in estrogen receptor positive breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Bucheli, David; Janowczyk, Andrew; Gilmore, Hannah; Romero, Eduardo; Madabhushi, Anant

    2017-02-13

    The treatment and management of early stage estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer is hindered by the difficulty in identifying patients who require adjuvant chemotherapy in contrast to those that will respond to hormonal therapy. To distinguish between the more and less aggressive breast tumors, which is a fundamental criterion for the selection of an appropriate treatment plan, Oncotype DX (ODX) and other gene expression tests are typically employed. While informative, these gene expression tests are expensive, tissue destructive, and require specialized facilities. Bloom-Richardson (BR) grade, the common scheme employed in breast cancer grading, has been shown to be correlated with the Oncotype DX risk score. Unfortunately, studies have also shown that the BR grade determined experiences notable inter-observer variability. One of the constituent categories in BR grading is the mitotic index. The goal of this study was to develop a deep learning (DL) classifier to identify mitotic figures from whole slides images of ER+ breast cancer, the hypothesis being that the number of mitoses identified by the DL classifier would correlate with the corresponding Oncotype DX risk categories. The mitosis detector yielded an average F-score of 0.556 in the AMIDA mitosis dataset using a 6-fold validation setup. For a cohort of 174 whole slide images with early stage ER+ breast cancer for which the corresponding Oncotype DX score was available, the distributions of the number of mitoses identified by the DL classifier was found to be significantly different between the high vs low Oncotype DX risk groups (P < 0.01). Comparisons of other risk groups, using both ODX score and histological grade, were also found to present significantly different automated mitoses distributions. Additionally, a support vector machine classifier trained to separate low/high Oncotype DX risk categories using the mitotic count determined by the DL classifier yielded a 83.19% classification

  17. Worse prognosis in breast cancer patients can be predicted by immunohistochemical analysis of positive MMP-2 and negative estrogen and progesterone receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edneia A. S. Ramos

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Breast cancer is the most cause of death, and approximately 90% of these deaths are due to metastases. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 gelatinase activity is able to degrade a major constituent of the tumor microenvironment, type IV collagen. Two well-established proteins used as markers in clinical practice for breast cancer are the receptors for estrogen (ER and progesterone (PR. Although the presence of these receptors has been associated with a better prognosis, loss of these proteins can occur during tumor progression, with subsequent resistance to hormone therapy. Objective: To study the correlation among MMP-2, ER, and PR, as well as the establishment of the metastatic process in primary breast tumors. Method: Breast cancer samples (n=44 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for MMP-2, ER, and PR. Results: We observed that 90% of patients who had metastases and died showed positive staining for MMP-2 (p=0.0082 for both. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that negative ER patients who were also positive for MMP-2 had even worse disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS (p= 0.012 and p=0.005, respectively. Similar results were found in PR-negative patients for DFS (a trend p=0.077 and OS (p=0.038. Conclusion: Regardless of our small sample size (n=44, the data obtained strongly suggest that MMP-2 in combination with already well-established markers could help to predict the emergence of metastases and death in patients with breast cancer.

  18. Effects of environmental estrogenic chemicals on AP1 mediated transcription with estrogen receptors alpha and beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Nariaki; Honda, Hiroaki; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2004-01-01

    There has been much discussion concerning endocrine disrupting chemicals suspected of exerting adverse effects in both wildlife and humans. Since the majority of these compounds are estrogenic, a large number of in vitro tests for estrogenic characteristics have been developed for screening purpose. One reliable and widely used method is the reporter gene assay employing estrogen receptors (ERs) and a reporter gene with a cis-acting estrogen responsive element (ERE). Other elements such as AP1 also mediate estrogenic signals and the manner of response could be quite different from that of ERE. Since this has yet to be explored, the ER mediated AP1 activity in response to a series of environmental estrogens was investigated in comparison with ERE findings. All the compounds exhibited estrogenic properties with ERE-luc and their AP1 responses were quite similar. These was one exception, however, p,p'-DDT (1,1,1,-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) did not exert any AP1-luc activity, while it appeared to be estrogenic at 10(-7) to 10(-5)M with the ERE action. None of the compounds demonstrated ER beta:AP1 activity. These data suggest that significant differences can occur in responses through the two estrogen pathways depending on environmental chemicals.

  19. Tumor-derived CCL-2 and CXCL-8 as possible prognostic markers of breast cancer: correlation with estrogen and progestrone receptor phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, H M; Maher, Sara; Abdel-Aty, Asmaa; Saad, A; Kazem, A; Demian, S R

    2009-01-01

    Prognosis of breast cancer is believed to be a multifactorial process best achieved by complex factors including host and tumor-derived biomarkers together with traditional clinicopathological parameters and tumor histologic markers. The present study aimed at evaluating the prognostic significance of chemokine ligand-2 (CCL-2) and interleukin-8 (CXCL-8) expression in extracts of breast carcinomas through correlation with clinicopathological aspects as well as estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) phenotyping. The study was conducted on 30 Egyptian breast cancer patients diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and subjected to modified radical mastectomy. Excised tissues were used to prepare tissue sections and extracts for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Expression of CCL-2 and CXCL-8 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 26 patients had invasive ductal carcinoma, grades II and III with metastasis to axillary lymph nodes and ER and PR positive phenotype. Expression of CCL-2 and CXCL-8 was significantly influenced by patient's age, menopausal status, nodal involvement, tumor grade and the ER phenotype. In contrast, it was not affected by either tumor size or PR staining pattern. Both chemokines correlated positively to each other and to tumor grade and negatively to age, menopausal status of patients and ER phenotyping. It is concluded that the angiogenic chemokine CXCL-8 and the macrophage chemoattractant CCL-2 might be useful prognostic markers where their routine follow up might be of importance in assessment of tumor aggressiveness in clinical settings.

  20. 植物雌激素与雌激素受体β对乳腺癌作用的研究进展%The Research Progress of Phytoestrogen and Estrogen Receptorβin Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜翠红; 卢雯平

    2009-01-01

    Phytoestrogens (PEs) and estrogen receptorβ(ERβ) have close relationship with breast cancer. PEs preferentially binds to ERβ rather than ERa. Although there are still some arguments, it provides a new though for researching the mechanism of Phytoestrogen-containing herbs on breast cancer and exploring the essence of TCM theory.%植物雌激素及雌激素受体β(estrogen receptora β,ERβ)与乳腺癌关系密切,植物雌激素与ERβ的亲和力远远高于ERa,虽然对此结论有争议,但仍为研究植物雌激素相关中药对乳腺癌的作用机制及探索中医理论的实质提供了思路.

  1. Evidence that the 5p12 Variant rs10941679 Confers Susceptibility to Estrogen-Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer through FGF10 and MRPS30 Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoussaini, Maya; French, Juliet D; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Nord, Silje; Beesley, Jonathan; Canisus, Sander; Hillman, Kristine M; Kaufmann, Susanne; Sivakumaran, Haran; Moradi Marjaneh, Mahdi; Lee, Jason S; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dicks, Ed; Milne, Roger L; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Alonso, M Rosario; Pita, Guillermo; Neuhausen, Susan L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Tessier, Daniel C; Vincent, Daniel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Khan, Sofia; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Wu, Anna H; Van Den Berg, David; Lambrechts, Diether; Floris, Giuseppe; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Radice, Paolo; Barile, Monica; Couch, Fergus J; Hallberg, Emily; Giles, Graham G; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loic; Goldberg, Mark S; Teo, Soo H; Yip, Cheng Har; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Andrulis, Irene L; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Brand, Judith S; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Hooning, Maartje J; Koppert, Linetta B; Li, Jingmei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Ying; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Shah, Mitul; Rhenius, Valerie; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kang, Daehee; Hartman, Mikael; Chia, Kee Seng; Kabisch, Maria; Torres, Diana; Luccarini, Craig; Conroy, Don M; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Brennan, Paul; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hou, Ming-Feng; Swerdlow, Anthony; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Simard, Jacques; Pharoah, Paul D P; Kristensen, Vessela; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F; Dunning, Alison M; Edwards, Stacey L

    2016-10-06

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed increased breast cancer risk associated with multiple genetic variants at 5p12. Here, we report the fine mapping of this locus using data from 104,660 subjects from 50 case-control studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). With data for 3,365 genotyped and imputed SNPs across a 1 Mb region (positions 44,394,495-45,364,167; NCBI build 37), we found evidence for at least three independent signals: the strongest signal, consisting of a single SNP rs10941679, was associated with risk of estrogen-receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer (per-g allele OR ER(+) = 1.15; 95% CI 1.13-1.18; p = 8.35 × 10(-30)). After adjustment for rs10941679, we detected signal 2, consisting of 38 SNPs more strongly associated with ER-negative (ER(-)) breast cancer (lead SNP rs6864776: per-a allele OR ER(-) = 1.10; 95% CI 1.05-1.14; p conditional = 1.44 × 10(-12)), and a single signal 3 SNP (rs200229088: per-t allele OR ER(+) = 1.12; 95% CI 1.09-1.15; p conditional = 1.12 × 10(-05)). Expression quantitative trait locus analysis in normal breast tissues and breast tumors showed that the g (risk) allele of rs10941679 was associated with increased expression of FGF10 and MRPS30. Functional assays demonstrated that SNP rs10941679 maps to an enhancer element that physically interacts with the FGF10 and MRPS30 promoter regions in breast cancer cell lines. FGF10 is an oncogene that binds to FGFR2 and is overexpressed in ∼10% of human breast cancers, whereas MRPS30 plays a key role in apoptosis. These data suggest that the strongest signal of association at 5p12 is mediated through coordinated activation of FGF10 and MRPS30, two candidate genes for breast cancer pathogenesis.

  2. Qigong program on insomnia and stress in cancer patients: A case series report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungmo Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the interest in Qigong as an alternative therapy has grown following reports of its ability to regulate psychological factors in cancer patients. This is a case series to evaluate the outcome measures of Qigong when used as an adjunct to standard medical care to treat insomnia and stress in cancer patients. Patients and methods: The Qigong program was applied to four cancer patients with insomnia, stress, and anxiety. The program consisted of 30-min sessions involving exercise, patting of the 12 meridians, and spontaneous breathing exercises three times a week for a period of 4 weeks. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was measured as the primary outcome, while the Stress Scale, the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Functional Assessment Cancer Therapy–General determined the secondary outcomes. Insomnia, stress, and anxiety levels were examined weekly, while quality of life was examined on the first visit and the last visit. Results: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Stress Scale scores were reduced after conduct of the Qigong program. Conclusion: This study could provide a better understanding of Qigong’s influence on insomnia and stress in cancer patients. However, a larger controlled trial should be conducted to confirm these findings.

  3. Opportunities During Early Life for Cancer Prevention: Highlights From a Series of Virtual Meetings With Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Dawn M; Buchanan, Natasha D

    2016-11-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that early life exposures can affect lifetime cancer risk. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Cancer Prevention Across the Lifespan Workgroup hosted a series of virtual meetings with select experts to discuss the state of the evidence linking factors during the prenatal period and early childhood to subsequent risk of both pediatric and adult cancers. In this article, we present the results from a qualitative analysis of the meeting transcripts and summarize themes that emerged from our discussions with meeting participants. Themes included the state of the evidence linking early life factors to cancer risk, research gaps and challenges, the level of evidence needed to support taking public health action, and the challenges of communicating complex, and sometimes conflicting, scientific findings to the public. Opportunities for collaboration among public health agencies and other stakeholders were identified during these discussions. Potential next steps for the CDC and its partners included advancing and building upon epidemiology and surveillance work, developing and using evidence from multiple sources to inform decision-making, disseminating and communicating research findings in a clear and effective way, and expanding collaborations with grantees and other partners. As the science on early life factors and cancer risk continues to evolve, there are opportunities for collaboration to translate science into actionable public health practice.

  4. Bisphosphonates in the adjuvant treatment of young women with breast cancer: the estrogen rich is a poor candidate!

    OpenAIRE

    Azim, Hamdy A.; Kamal, Nermine S.; Malak, Rafaat A.

    2013-01-01

    During the last 2 decades the role of bisphosphonates (BPs) to reduce skeletal-related events from bone metastases in breast cancer has been well defined. Several preclinical studies have strongly suggested that BPs may also provide an anti-cancer effect in early breast cancer. Indeed, the use of adjuvant BPs represents a unique approach that attempts at eradicating occult tumor micro-metastases residing in the bone marrow via targeting the bone microenvironment to render it less favorable fo...

  5. Anticancer effect of genistein on BG-1 ovarian cancer growth induced by 17 β-estradiol or bisphenol A via the suppression of the crosstalk between estrogen receptor alpha and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Min-Ah; Kang, Nam-Hee; Yi, Bo-Rim; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Choi, Kyung-Chul, E-mail: kchoi@cbu.ac.kr

    2013-11-01

    The interaction between estrogen receptor (ER) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway plays an important role in proliferation of and resistance to endocrine therapy to estrogen dependent cancers. Estrogen (E2) upregulates the expression of components of IGF-1 system and induces the downstream of mitogenic signaling cascades via phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). In the present study, we evaluated the xenoestrogenic effect of bisphenol A (BPA) and antiproliferative activity of genistein (GEN) in accordance with the influence on this crosstalk. BPA was determined to affect this crosstalk by upregulating mRNA expressions of ERα and IGF-1R and inducing phosphorylation of IRS-1 and Akt in protein level in BG-1 ovarian cancer cells as E2 did. In the mouse model xenografted with BG-1 cells, BPA significantly increased a tumor burden of mice and expressions of ERα, pIRS-1, and cyclin D1 in tumor mass compared to vehicle, indicating that BPA induces ovarian cancer growth by promoting the crosstalk between ER and IGF-1R signals. On the other hand, GEN effectively reversed estrogenicity of BPA by reversing mRNA and protein expressions of ERα, IGF-1R, pIRS-1, and pAkt induced by BPA in cellular model and also significantly decreased tumor growth and in vivo expressions of ERα, pIRS-1, and pAkt in xenografted mouse model. Also, GEN was confirmed to have an antiproliferative effect by inducing apoptotic signaling cascades. Taken together, these results suggest that GEN effectively reversed the increased proliferation of BG-1 ovarian cancer by suppressing the crosstalk between ERα and IGF-1R signaling pathways upregulated by BPA or E2.

  6. Rapid yeast estrogen bioassays stably expressing human estrogen receptors alpha and beta, and green fluorescent protein: a comparison of different compounds on both receptor types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovee, T.F.H.; Helsdingen, J.R.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Keijer, J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2004-01-01

    Previously, we described the construction of a rapid yeast bioassay stably expressing human estrogen receptor (hER) and yeast enhanced green fluorescent protein (yEGFP) in response to estrogens. In the present study, the properties of this assay were further studied by testing a series of estrogenic

  7. Involvement of Human Estrogen Related Receptor Alpha 1 (hERR Alpha 1) in Breast Cancer and Hormonally Insensitive Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    breast tumor biopsies: relationship to steroid receptor status and regulation by progestins . Cancer Res, 59: 529-532, 1999. 16 17. Speirs, V., Parkes, A... aromatase expression in the breast tissue by ERR alpha-1 orphan receptor. Cancer Res, 58: 5695-5700, 1998. 42. Yang, C. and Chen, S. Two organochlorine

  8. 9q31.2-rs865686 as a susceptibility locus for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, Helen; Dudbridge, Frank; Fletcher, Olivia

    2012-01-01

    Our recent genome-wide association study identified a novel breast cancer susceptibility locus at 9q31.2 (rs865686).......Our recent genome-wide association study identified a novel breast cancer susceptibility locus at 9q31.2 (rs865686)....

  9. Estrogen and the Dietary Phytoestrogen Resveratrol as Regulators of the Rho GTPase Rac in Breast Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Fernandez Larrea J, Pujadas G, Salvado J, Blay M (2007) Grape seed procyanidins act as antiinflammatory agents in endotoxin stimulated RAW 264.7...transcription factor and NFKBIA; molecules known to regulate cancer progression [34 36]. Materials and methods Cell culture Human metastatic cancer

  10. In vitro study on effect of germinated wheat on human breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research investigated the possible anti-cancer effects of germinated wheat flours (GWF) on cell growth and apoptosis of human breast cancer cells. In a series of in vitro experiments, estrogen receptor-positive (MCF-7) and negative (MDA-MB-231) cells were cultured and treated with GWF that wer...

  11. Gene expression signatures that predict outcome of tamoxifen-treated estrogen receptor-positive, high-risk, primary breast cancer patients: a DBCG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria B Lyng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen significantly improves outcome for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+ breast cancer, but the 15-year recurrence rate remains 30%. The aim of this study was to identify gene profiles that accurately predicted the outcome of ER+ breast cancer patients who received adjuvant Tamoxifen mono-therapy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Post-menopausal breast cancer patients diagnosed no later than 2002, being ER+ as defined by >1% IHC staining and having a frozen tumor sample with >50% tumor content were included. Tumor samples from 108 patients treated with adjuvant Tamoxifen were analyzed for the expression of 59 genes using quantitative-PCR. End-point was clinically verified recurrence to distant organs or ipsilateral breast. Gene profiles were identified using a model building procedure based on conditional logistic regression and leave-one-out cross-validation, followed by a non-parametric bootstrap (1000x re-sampling. The optimal profiles were further examined in 5 previously-reported datasets containing similar patient populations that were either treated with Tamoxifen or left untreated (n = 623. Three gene signatures were identified, the strongest being a 2-gene combination of BCL2-CDKN1A, exhibiting an accuracy of 75% for prediction of outcome. Independent examination using 4 previously-reported microarray datasets of Tamoxifen-treated patient samples (n = 503 confirmed the potential of BCL2-CDKN1A. The predictive value was further determined by comparing the ability of the genes to predict recurrence in an additional, previously-published, cohort consisting of Tamoxifen-treated (n = 58, p = 0.015 and untreated patients (n = 62, p = 0.25. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A novel gene expression signature predictive of outcome of Tamoxifen-treated patients was identified. The validation suggests that BCL2-CDKN1A exhibit promising predictive potential.

  12. The estrogenic activity of phthalate esters in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, CA; Henttu, P; Parker, MG; Sumpter, JP

    1997-01-01

    A large number of phthalate esters were screened for estrogenic activity using a recombinant yeast screen. a selection of these was also tested for mitogenic effect on estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cells. A small number of the commercially available phthalates tested showed extremely weak estrogenic activity. The relative potencies of these descended in the order butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) > dibutyl phthalate (DBP) > diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) > diethyl phthalate (DEP) > diisiono...

  13. Estrogen and Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Robert

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews the use of estrogen in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Dosage levels, interactions with other factors, side effects, and the mechanism of estrogen action are discussed. (Author/MT)

  14. Phytoestrogens selective for the estrogen receptor beta exert anti-androgenic effects in castration resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Paul; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Seidlová-Wuttke, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men of the Western world. A castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) eventually will arise when a local restricted prostate carcinoma was not cured duly by radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy. Although androgen ablation therapies are considered the gold standard for treatments of advanced prostate cancer there is no curative therapy available at present. In previous pre-clinical and clinical trials several phytoestrogens were investigated for their anticancer potential in various models for prostate cancer. Phytoestrogens feature tumour preventive characteristics and most probably are involved in the low incidence rate of hormone related cancers in Asian countries. Phytoestrogens such as isoflavones can have a marked impact on the most essential therapy target of CRPC i.e. the androgen receptor. Furthermore, functional analyses solidified the notion of such drugs as androgen antagonistic. Phytoestrogens commonly feature low toxicity combined with a potential of targeted therapy. Thus, these drugs qualify for conceivable implementation in prostate cancer patients under active surveillance. In addition, relapse prevention with these drugs after radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy might be considered. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Phytoestrogens'.

  15. Postoperative mortality after cancer surgery in octogenarians and nonagenarians: results from a series of 5,390 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijer Willem S

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To support decisions about surgical treatment of elderly patients with cancer, population-based estimates of postoperative mortality (POM rates are required. Methods Electronic records from the Rotterdam Cancer Registry were retrieved for octogenarians and nonagenarians who underwent resection in the period 1987–2000. POM was defined as death within 30 days of resection and both elective and emergency operations were included. Results In a series of 5.390 operated patients aged 80 years and older, POM rates were 0.5% for breast cancer, 1.7% for endometrial cancer and 4.2% for renal cancer. For patients with colorectal cancer, POM increased from 8% for the age group 80–84 to 13% for those 85–89 to 20% in nonagenarians. For stomach cancer, the respective figures were 11%, 20% and 44%. Conclusion These results show that resections can be performed at acceptable risk in selected elderly patients with cancer.

  16. A novel series of conferences tackling the hurdles confronting the translation of novel cancer immunotherapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bot Adrian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While there has been significant progress in advancing novel immune therapies to the bedside, much more needs to be done to fully tap into the potential of the immune system. It has become increasingly clear that besides practical and operational challenges, the heterogeneity of cancer and the limited efficacy profile of current immunotherapy platforms are the two main hurdles. Nevertheless, the promising clinical data of several approaches point to a roadmap that carries the promise to significantly advance cancer immunotherapy. A new annual series sponsored by Arrowhead Publishers and Conferences aims at bringing together scientific and business leadership from academia and industry, to identify, share and discuss most current priorities in research and translation of novel immune interventions. This Editorial provides highlights of the first event held earlier this year and outlines the focus of the second meeting to be held in 2013 that will be dedicated to stem cells and immunotherapy.

  17. IMPACT OF SEQUENTIAL NEOADJUVANT CHEMOTHERAPY IN LOCALLY ADVANCED BREAST CANCER: A SERIES OF 10 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer currently is a major health problem among women worldwide accounting for around 13.7% cancer deaths, nearly 1/3rd of it being due to Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC. Despite progress achieved in diagnosis & therapy of Breast cancer, LABC remains a major clinical challenge and in efforts to increase pCR, CCR & DFS in LABC, Neoadjuvant or primary chemotherapy followed by locoregional therapy and adjuvant systemic CT is well accepted treatment strategy since last 3 decades. Further to address the issue of drug resistance in NACT sequential anthracycline-taxane NACT has been evaluated by many researchers and has resulted in better outcome in terms of overall survival and pCR. In this study we have evaluated 4 cycles of sequential anthracycline-taxane, 2 cycles of Cyclophosphamide, Epirubicin, Fluracil +2 cycles of Docetaxel, Epirubicin (CEF- DE NACT in a series of 10 cases of ER/PR +ve, Her -2 neu negative patients of LABC. 9/10 cases were rendered operable after primary chemotherapy and were subjected to further 4 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy (1 cycle CEF, 1 cycle DE, 2cycles single agent Docetaxel, followed by locoregional RT. This tailored sequential NACT protocol in our subgroup of patient was well tolerated, well accepted and resulted in substantial increase in operability with CCR & DFS in 6/10 cases on 3 years follow up and pCR in one patient. Sequential NACT needs further validation by more RCT with extensive follow up

  18. Impact of estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) co-expression on breast cancer disease characteristics: implications for tumor biology and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqaisi, Abeer; Chen, Li; Romond, Edward; Chambers, Mara; Stevens, Mark; Pasley, Grace; Awasthi, Mukta; Massarweh, Suleiman

    2014-11-01

    ER and HER2 are critical drivers of breast cancer biology and can interact when co-expressed, but less data describe the impact of ER/HER2 co-expression on clinical disease characteristics. We studied the impact of ER and HER2 (co)-expression in a cohort of 1,187 patients with invasive breast cancer and compared disease characteristics among different groups according to ER and HER2 status. Age, tumor size, grade, nodal status, TNM stage, and metastatic sites were compared and significance determined using the appropriate t tests. All p values were two-tailed. Compared to ER-negative/HER2-negative disease as the control group, ER expression was associated with older age, smaller tumors, lower grade, earlier TNM stage, and increased bone involvement in de novo metastasis, while HER2 had no significant impact on these characteristics. ER and HER2 co-expression was associated with lower grade and higher bone involvement in de novo metastasis, reflecting a retained impact for ER. HER2 impact on ER-positive disease was reflected by younger age, higher grade and TNM stage, and increased frequency of visceral involvement in de novo metastasis. Within the ER-positive/HER2-positive group, triple positive breast cancer (ER+/PgR+/HER2+) was associated with younger age compared to ER+/PgR-/HER2+ disease (mean age of 50.8 vs. 56 years, p = 0.0226). PgR was also associated with younger age in ER+/HER2- disease with a mean age of 57.6 years in ER+/PgR+/HER2- disease vs. 63.4 years in ER+/PgR-/HER2- disease (p impact on breast cancer characteristics, including a retained impact when co-expressed with HER2. Similarly, HER2 dramatically modulates ER-positive breast cancer making it more aggressive. PgR association with young age may be related to hormonal levels of the premenopausal state, with HER2 providing an earlier growth advantage in triple positive disease, suggesting a specific dependence for this subset on high estrogen levels.

  19. Estrogen receptor beta growth-inhibitory effects are repressed through activation of MAPK and PI3K signalling in mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrim, C Z; Fabris, V; Doria, M L; Lindberg, K; Gustafsson, J-Å; Amado, F; Lanari, C; Helguero, L A

    2013-05-09

    Two thirds of breast cancers express estrogen receptors (ER). ER alpha (ERα) mediates breast cancer cell proliferation, and expression of ERα is the standard choice to indicate adjuvant endocrine therapy. ERbeta (ERβ) inhibits growth in vitro; its effects in vivo have been incompletely investigated and its role in breast cancer and potential as alternative target in endocrine therapy needs further study. In this work, mammary epithelial (EpH4 and HC11) and breast cancer (MC4-L2) cells with endogenous ERα and ERβ expression and T47-D human breast cancer cells with recombinant ERβ (T47-DERβ) were used to explore effects exerted in vitro and in vivo by the ERβ agonists 2,3-bis (4-hydroxy-phenyl)-propionitrile (DPN) and 7-bromo-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-benzoxazol-5-ol (WAY). In vivo, ERβ agonists induced mammary gland hyperplasia and MC4-L2 tumour growth to a similar extent as the ERα agonist 4,4',4''-(4-propyl-(1H)-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl) trisphenol (PPT) or 17β-estradiol (E2) and correlated with higher number of mitotic and lower number of apoptotic features. In vitro, in MC4-L2, EpH4 or HC11 cells incubated under basal conditions, ERβ agonists induced apoptosis measured as upregulation of p53 and apoptosis-inducible factor protein levels and increased caspase 3 activity, whereas PPT and E2 stimulated proliferation. However, when extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK ½) were activated by co-incubation with basement membrane extract or epidermal growth factor, induction of apoptosis by ERβ agonists was repressed and DPN induced proliferation in a similar way as E2 or PPT. In a context of active ERK ½, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT) signalling was necessary to allow proliferation stimulated by ER agonists. Inhibition of MEK ½ with UO126 completely restored ERβ growth-inhibitory effects, whereas inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 inhibited ERβ-induced proliferation. These

  20. Science Signaling podcast for 24 May 2016: Designer estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenellenbogen, Benita S; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Madak-Erdogan, Zeynep; VanHook, Annalisa M

    2016-05-24

    This Podcast features an interview with Zeynep Madak-Erdogan, Benita Katzenellenbogen, and John Katzenellenbogen, authors of a Research Article that appears in the 24 May 2016 issue of Science Signaling, about designer estrogens that have the therapeutic benefits of natural estrogens, but less cancer risk. In addition to controlling female reproduction and secondary sex characteristics, estrogen is also an important regulator of metabolism, the vasculature, and bone. Estrogen production decreases as women enter menopause, leading to changes in metabolism, a reduced ability to repair blood vessels, and decreased bone density. Although hormone replacement therapy can alleviate these symptoms, it can also promote the growth of uterine and breast cancers. Madak-Erdogan et al engineered synthetic forms of estrogen that activate the cytosolic signaling pathways that are associated with the beneficial effects of this hormone without also activating the nuclear signaling events associated with cancer growth.Listen to Podcast.

  1. Temporal Heterogeneity of Estrogen Receptor Expression in Bone-Dominant Breast Cancer: 18F-Fluoroestradiol PET Imaging Shows Return of ER Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin, Erin; Peterson, Lanell M; Schubert, Erin K; Link, Jeanne M; Krohn, Kenneth A; Livingston, Robert B; Mankoff, David A; Linden, Hannah M

    2016-02-01

    Changes in estrogen receptor (ER) expression over the course of therapy may affect response to endocrine therapy. However, measuring temporal changes in ER expression requires serial biopsies, which are impractical and poorly tolerated by most patients. Functional ER imaging using (18)F-fluoroestradiol (FES)-PET provides a noninvasive measure of regional ER expression and is ideally suited to serial studies. Additionally, lack of measurable FES uptake in metastatic sites of disease predict tumor progression in patients with ER-positive primary tumors treated with endocrine therapy. This report presents a case of restored sensitivity to endocrine therapy in a patient with bone-dominant breast cancer who underwent serial observational FES-PET imaging over the course of several treatments at our center, demonstrating the temporal heterogeneity of regional ER expression. Although loss and restoration of endocrine sensitivity in patients who have undergone prior hormonal and cytotoxic treatments has been reported, this is, to our knowledge, the first time the accompanying changes in ER expression have been documented by molecular imaging.

  2. Estrogenic effect of the MEK1 inhibitor PD98059 on endogenous estrogen receptor alpha and beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrim, Cândida Z; Amado, Francisco L; Helguero, Luisa A

    2011-03-01

    Estrogens are key regulators in mammary development and breast cancer and their effects are mediated by estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ). These two receptors are ligand activated transcription factors that bind to regulatory regions in the DNA known as estrogen responsive elements (EREs). ERα and ERβ activation is subject to modulation by phosphorylation and p42/p44 MAP kinases are the best characterized ER modifying kinases. Using a reporter gene (3X-ERE-TATA-luciferase) to measure activation of endogenous ERs, we found that MEK1 inhibitor PD98059, used in concentrations insufficient to inhibit MEK1 activation of p42/p44 MAP kinases, exerted estrogenic effects on the reporter gene and on the ERE-regulated RIP 140 protein. Such estrogenic effects were observed in mammary epithelial HC11 cells and occur on unliganded ERα and ligand activated ERβ. Additionally, concentrations of PD98059 able to inhibit p42/p44 phosphorylation were not estrogenic. Further, inhibition of p42 MAP kinase expression with siRNAs also resulted in loss of PD98059 estrogenic effect. In summary, PD98059 in concentrations below the inhibitory for MEK1, exerts estrogenic effects in HC11 mammary epithelial cells.

  3. Novel Promising Estrogenic Receptor Modulators: Cytotoxic and Estrogenic Activity of Benzanilides and Dithiobenzanilides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucinska, Malgorzata; Giron, Maria-Dolores; Piotrowska, Hanna; Lisiak, Natalia; Granig, Walter H; Lopez-Jaramillo, Francisco-Javier; Salto, Rafael; Murias, Marek; Erker, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of 27 benzanilides and dithiobenzanilides built on a stilbene scaffold and possessing various functional groups in aromatic rings previously described for their spasmolytic properties was assayed on three human cancer cell lines (A549 -lung adenocarcinoma, MCF-7 estrogen dependent breast adenocarcinoma and MDA-MB-231 estrogen independent breast adenocarcinoma) and 2 non-tumorigenic cell lines (CCD39Lu-lung fibroblasts, MCF-12A - breast epithelial). Three compounds (6, 15 and 18) showed selective antiproliferative activity against estrogen dependent MCF-7 cancer cells and their estrogenic activity was further confirmed in MCF-7 transfected with an estrogen receptor reporter plasmid and in HEK239 cells over-expressing the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). Compound 18 is especially interesting as a potential candidate for therapy since it is highly toxic and selective towards estrogen dependent MCF7 cell lines (IC50 = 5.07 μM versus more than 100 μM for MDA-MB-231) and almost innocuous for normal breast cells (IC50 = 91.46 μM for MCF-12A). Docking studies have shown that compound 18 interacts with the receptor in the same cavity as estradiol although the extra aromatic ring is involved in additional binding interactions with residue W383. The role of W383 and the extended binding mode were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis.

  4. Treatment with bisphenol A and methoxychlor results in the growth of human breast cancer cells and alteration of the expression of cell cycle-related genes, cyclin D1 and p21, via an estrogen receptor-dependent signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Rim; Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Min-Ah; Yi, Bo-Rim; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2012-05-01

    Various endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous compounds found in the environment and have the potential to interfere with the endocrine system and hormonal regulation. Among EDCs, bisphenol A (BPA) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-methoxyphenol)-ethane [methoxychlor (MXC)] have estrogenic activity resulting in a variety of dysfunctions in the E2-mediated response by binding to estrogen receptors (ERs), causing human health problems such as abnormal reproduction and carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of BPA and MXC on cell proliferation facilitated by ER signaling in human breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cells are known to be ERα-positive and to be a highly E2-responsive cancer cell line; these cells are, therefore, a useful in vitro model for detecting estrogenic activity in response to EDCs. We evaluated cancer cell proliferation following BPA and MXC treatment using an MTT assay. We analyzed alterations in the expression of genes associated with the cell cycle in MCF-7 cells by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR following treatment with BPA or MXC compared to EtOH. To determine whether BPA and MXC stimulate cancer cell growth though ER signaling, we co-treated the cells with agonists (propyl pyrazoletriol, PPT; and diarylpropionitrile, DPN) or an antagonist (ICI 182,780) of ER signaling and reduced ERα gene expression via siRNA in MCF-7 cells before treatment with EDCs. These studies confirmed the carcinogenicity of EDCs in vitro. As a result, BPA and MXC induced the cancer cell proliferation by the upregulation of genes that promote the cell cycle and the downregulation of anti-proliferative genes, especially ones affecting the G1/S transition via ERα signaling. These collective results confirm the carcinogenicity of these EDCs in vitro. Further studies are required to determine whether EDCs promote carcinogenesis in vivo.

  5. MicroRNA-125a reduces proliferation and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by targeting estrogen-related receptor α: implications for cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ankana; Shivananda, Swamy; Gopinath, Kodaganur S; Kumar, Arun

    2014-11-14

    Estrogen-related receptor α (ESRRA) functions as a transcription factor and regulates the expression of several genes, such as WNT11 and OPN. Up-regulation of ESRRA has been reported in several cancers. However, the mechanism underlying its up-regulation is unclear. Furthermore, the reports regarding the role and regulation of ESRRA in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are completely lacking. Here, we show that tumor suppressor miR-125a directly binds to the 3'UTR of ESRRA and represses its expression. Overexpression of miR-125a in OSCC cells drastically reduced the level of ESRRA, decreased cell proliferation, and increased apoptosis. Conversely, the delivery of an miR-125a inhibitor to these cells drastically increased the level of ESRRA, increased cell proliferation, and decreased apoptosis. miR-125a-mediated down-regulation of ESRRA impaired anchorage-independent colony formation and invasion of OSCC cells. Reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis of OSCC cells were dependent on the presence of the 3'UTR in ESRRA. The delivery of an miR-125a mimic to OSCC cells resulted in marked regression of xenografts in nude mice, whereas the delivery of an miR-125a inhibitor to OSCC cells resulted in a significant increase of xenografts and abrogated the tumor suppressor function of miR-125a. We observed an inverse correlation between the expression levels of miR-125a and ESRRA in OSCC samples. In summary, up-regulation of ESRRA due to down-regulation of miR-125a is not only a novel mechanism for its up-regulation in OSCC, but decreasing the level of ESRRA by using a synthetic miR-125a mimic may have an important role in therapeutic intervention of OSCC and other cancers.

  6. Multi-field-of-view strategy for image-based outcome prediction of multi-parametric estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer histopathology: Comparison to Oncotype DX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Basavanhally

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we attempt to quantify the prognostic information embedded in multi-parametric histologic biopsy images to predict disease aggressiveness in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+ breast cancers (BCa. The novel methodological contribution is in the use of a multi-field-of-view (multi-FOV framework for integrating image-based information from differently stained histopathology slides. The multi-FOV approach involves a fixed image resolution while simultaneously integrating image descriptors from many FOVs corresponding to different sizes. For each study, the corresponding risk score (high scores reflecting aggressive disease and vice versa, predicted by a molecular assay (Oncotype DX, is available and serves as the surrogate ground truth for long-term patient outcome. Using the risk scores, a trained classifier is used to identify disease aggressiveness for each FOV size. The predictions for each FOV are then combined to yield the final prediction of disease aggressiveness (good, intermediate, or poor outcome. Independent multi-FOV classifiers are constructed for (1 50 image features describing the spatial arrangement of cancer nuclei (via Voronoi diagram, Delaunay triangulation, and minimum spanning tree graphs in H and E stained histopathology and (2 one image feature describing the vascular density in CD34 IHC stained histopathology. In a cohort of 29 patients, the multi-FOV classifiers obtained by combining information from the H and E and CD34 IHC stained channels were able to distinguish low- and high-risk patients with an accuracy of 0.91 ± 0.02 and a positive predictive value of 0.94 ± 0.10, suggesting that a purely image-based assay could potentially replace more expensive molecular assays for making disease prognostic predictions.

  7. Association of genetic variants of xenobiotic and estrogen metabolism pathway (CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) with gallbladder cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kiran Lata; Agarwal, Akash; Misra, Sanjeev; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Vijay; Mittal, Balraj

    2014-06-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma is a highly aggressive cancer with female predominance. Interindividual differences in the effectiveness of the activation/detoxification of environmental carcinogens and endogenous estrogens may play a crucial role in cancer susceptibility. The present study included 410 patients with carcinoma of the gallbladder (GBC) and 230 healthy subjects. This study examined association of CYP1A1-MspI, CYP1A1-Ile462Val, and CYP1B1-Val432Leu with GBC susceptibility. CYP1A1-MspI [CC] and CYP1A1-Ile462Val [iso/val] genotypes were found to be significantly associated with GBC (p=0.006 and p=0.03, respectively), as compared to healthy controls, while CYP1B1-Val432Leu was not associated with GBC. The CYP1A1 haplotype [C-val] showed a significant association with GBC (p=0.006). On stratification based on gender, the CYP1A1-MspI [CC] genotype showed an increased risk of GBC in females (p=0.018). In case-only analysis, tobacco users with CYP1A1-MspI [CT] genotypes were at a higher risk of GBC (p=0.008). Subdividing the GBC patients on the basis of gallstone status, the CYP1A1 haplotype [C-val] imparted a higher risk in patients without stones when compared to controls (p=0.001). The results remained significant even after applying Bonferroni correction. Multivariate analysis revealed an increased risk of CYP1A1 iso/val and val/val genotypes in GBC patients having BMI >25 (p=0.021). The CYP1A1 polymorphisms may confer increased risk of GBC, probably due to impaired xenobiotic or hormone metabolism through a gallstone-independent pathway.

  8. Estrogenic botanical supplements, health-related quality of life, fatigue, and hormone-related symptoms in breast cancer survivors: a HEAL study report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Huiyan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains unclear whether estrogenic botanical supplement (EBS use influences breast cancer survivors' health-related outcomes. Methods We examined the associations of EBS use with health-related quality of life (HRQOL, with fatigue, and with 15 hormone-related symptoms such as hot flashes and night sweats among 767 breast cancer survivors participating in the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL Study. HRQOL was measured by the Medical Outcomes Study short form-36 physical and mental component scale summary score. Fatigue was measured by the Revised-Piper Fatigue Scale score. Results Neither overall EBS use nor the number of EBS types used was associated with HRQOL, fatigue, or hormone-related symptoms. However, comparisons of those using each specific type of EBS with non-EBS users revealed the following associations. Soy supplements users were more likely to have a better physical health summary score (odds ratio [OR] = 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-2.70. Flaxseed oil users were more likely to have a better mental health summary score (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.05-2.94. Ginseng users were more likely to report severe fatigue and several hormone-related symptoms (all ORs ≥ 1.7 and all 95% CIs exclude 1. Red clover users were less likely to report weight gain, night sweats, and difficulty concentrating (all OR approximately 0.4 and all 95% CIs exclude 1. Alfalfa users were less likely to experience sleep interruption (OR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.12-0.68. Dehydroepiandrosterone users were less likely to have hot flashes (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.14-0.82. Conclusions Our findings indicate that several specific types of EBS might have important influences on a woman's various aspects of quality of life, but further verification is necessary.

  9. Integrative analysis of deep sequencing data identifies estrogen receptor early response genes and links ATAD3B to poor survival in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Ovaska

    Full Text Available Identification of responsive genes to an extra-cellular cue enables characterization of pathophysiologically crucial biological processes. Deep sequencing technologies provide a powerful means to identify responsive genes, which creates a need for computational methods able to analyze dynamic and multi-level deep sequencing data. To answer this need we introduce here a data-driven algorithm, SPINLONG, which is designed to search for genes that match the user-defined hypotheses or models. SPINLONG is applicable to various experimental setups measuring several molecular markers in parallel. To demonstrate the SPINLONG approach, we analyzed ChIP-seq data reporting PolII, estrogen receptor α (ERα, H3K4me3 and H2A.Z occupancy at five time points in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line after estradiol stimulus. We obtained 777 ERa early responsive genes and compared the biological functions of the genes having ERα binding within 20 kb of the transcription start site (TSS to genes without such binding site. Our results show that the non-genomic action of ERα via the MAPK pathway, instead of direct ERa binding, may be responsible for early cell responses to ERα activation. Our results also indicate that the ERα responsive genes triggered by the genomic pathway are transcribed faster than those without ERα binding sites. The survival analysis of the 777 ERα responsive genes with 150 primary breast cancer tumors and in two independent validation cohorts indicated the ATAD3B gene, which does not have ERα binding site within 20 kb of its TSS, to be significantly associated with poor patient survival.

  10. Phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase alpha catalytic subunit mutation and response to neoadjuvant endocrine therapy for estrogen receptor positive breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Matthew J; Lin, Li; Crowder, Robert; Tao, Yu; Hoog, Jeremy; Snider, Jacqueline; Davies, Sherri; DeSchryver, Katherine; Evans, Dean B; Steinseifer, Jutta; Bandaru, Raj; Liu, WeiHua; Gardner, Humphrey; Semiglazov, Vladimir; Watson, Mark; Hunt, Kelly; Olson, John; Baselga, José

    2010-01-01

    Background Mutations in the alpha catalytic subunit of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PIK3CA) occur in ~30% of ER positive breast cancers. We therefore sought to determine the impact of PIK3CA mutation on response to neoadjuvant endocrine therapy. Methods Exon 9 (helical domain - HD) and Exon 20 (kinase domain- KD) mutations in PIK3CA were determined samples from four neoadjuvant endocrine therapy trials. Interactions with clinical, pathological and biomarker response parameters were examined. Results A weak negative interaction between PIK3CA mutation status and clinical response to neoadjuvant endocrine treatment was detected (N=235 P=<0.05), but not with treatment-induced changes in Ki67-based proliferation index (N=418). Despite these findings, PIK3CA KD mutation was a favorable prognostic factor for relapse-free survival (RFS log rank P=0.02) in the P024 trial (N=153). The favorable prognostic effect was maintained in a multivariable analysis (N=125) that included the preoperative prognostic index (PEPI), an approach to predicting RFS based on post neoadjuvant endocrine therapy pathological stage, ER and Ki67 levels (HR for no PIK3CA KD mutation, 14, CI 1.9–105 P=0.01). Conclusion PIK3CA mutation status did not strongly interact with neoadjuvant endocrine therapy responsiveness in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Nonetheless, as with other recent studies, a favorable interaction between PIK3CA kinase domain mutation and prognosis was detected. The mechanism for the favorable prognostic impact of PIK3CA mutation status therefore remains unexplained. PMID:19844788

  11. Stable transfection of estrogen receptor-alpha suppresses expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor-C in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui; LIN Ying; XIAO Ying; WANG San-ming; LIU Xiang-xia; WANG Shen-ming

    2010-01-01

    Background Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer cells are more aggressive than ER-positive cells. Elevated levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) expression have been detected in cultured human breast cancer cells and are associated with negative hormone receptor status. In this study, we created ERα stable transfectants in MDA-MB-231 cells to explore the effect of ERα on cell growth and COX-2 and VEGF-C expression.Methods The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-ERα plasmids were stably transfected into ER-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. The proliferation and migration of untransfected MDA-MB-231 cells, ERα-transfected MDA-MB-231 cells and ER-positive MCF-7 cells were determined. The expression of COX-2, and the levels of VEGF-C mRNA and the VEGF-C secretion concentration were assayed in these cell lines.Results The proliferation and migration capacities of ERα-tranfected MDA-MB-231 cells were significantly decreased (P <0.05). The expression of COX-2 was significantly lower in ERa-tranfected MDA-MB-231 cells than in untranfected MDA-MB-231 cells. The mRNA and protein levels of VEGF-C were lower in ERa-tranfected MDA-MB-231 cells than in untransfected MDA-MB-231 cells (P<0.05).Conclusions ERα stable transfection inhibits proliferation and migration capacities of MDA-MB-231 cells and decreases expression of COX-2 and VEGF-C. The decreases of proliferation and migration capacities may be related to suppression of COX-2 and VEGF-C expression.

  12. 9q31.2-rs865686 as a susceptibility locus for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer: Evidence from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Warren (Helen); F. Dudbridge (Frank); O. Fletcher (Olivia); N. Orr (Nick); N. Johnson (Nichola); J.L. Hopper (John); C. Apicella (Carmel); M.C. Southey (Melissa); M. Mahmoodi (Maryam); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); A. Broeks (Annegien); S. Cornelissen (Sten); L.M. Braaf (Linde); K.R. Muir (Kenneth); A. Lophatananon (Artitaya); A. Chaiwerawattana (Arkom); S. Wiangnon (Surapon); P.A. Fasching (Peter); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); A.B. Ekici (Arif); R. Schulz-Wendtland (Rüdiger); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); F. Marme (Federick); A. Schneeweiss (Andreas); C. Sohn (Christof); P. Guénel (Pascal); T. Truong (Thérèse); P. Laurent-Puig (Pierre); C. Mulot (Claire); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); S.F. Nielsen (Sune); H. Flyger (Henrik); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); R.L. Milne (Roger); J. Benítez (Javier); J.I. Arias Pérez (José Ignacio); M.P. Zamora (Pilar); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); A. Ziogas (Argyrios); L. Bernstein (Leslie); C.C. Dur (Christina Clarke); H. Brenner (Hermann); H. Müller (Heike); V. Arndt (Volker); A. Langheinz (Anne); A. Meindl (Alfons); M. Golatta (Michael); C.R. Bartram (Claus); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); C. Justenhoven (Christina); T. Brüning (Thomas); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); U. Eilber (Ursula); T. Dörk (Thilo); P. Schürmann (Peter); M. Bremer (Michael); P. Hillemanns (Peter); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); T.A. Muranen (Taru); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); C. Blomqvist (Carl); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); N.N. Antonenkova (Natalia); Y.I. Rogov (Yuri); M. Bermisheva (Marina); D. Prokofyeva (Darya); G. Zinnatullina (Guzel); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); A. Lindblom (Annika); S. Margolin (Sara); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J. Hartikainen (Jaana); V. Kataja (Vesa); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); J. Beesley (Jonathan); X. Chen (Xiaoqing); D. Lambrechts (Diether); A. Smeets (Ann); R. Paridaens (Robert); C. Weltens (Caroline); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); K. Buck (Katharina); T.W. Behrens (Timothy); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); L. Bernard (Loris); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); P. Radice (Paolo); F.J. Couch (Fergus); C. Vachon (Celine); X. Wang (Xing); J.E. Olson (Janet); G.G. Giles (Graham); L. Baglietto (Laura); C.A. McLean (Cariona); G. Severi (Gianluca); E.M. John (Esther); A. Miron (Alexander); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); M. Grip (Mervi); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); A.M. Mulligan (Anna Marie); N. Weerasooriya (Nayana); P. Devilee (Peter); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); J.W.M. Martens (John); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); A. Jager (Agnes); M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); P. Hall (Per); K. Czene (Kamila); J. Liu (Jianjun); J. Li (Jingmei); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); I.W. Brock (Ian); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); F. Blows (Fiona); A.M. Dunning (Alison); M. Ghoussaini (Maya); A. Ashworth (Alan); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); M. Jones (Marta); M. Schoemaker (Minouk); D.F. Easton (Douglas); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); Q. Wang (Qing); J. Peto (Julian); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Our recent genome-wide association study identified a novel breast cancer susceptibility locus at 9q31.2 (rs865686). Methods: To further investigate the rs865686-breast cancer association, we conducted a replication study within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, which

  13. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 activation correlates with HER2 overexpression and mediates estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell growth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Caiazza, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    Cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha (cPLA(2)alpha) catalyzes the hydrolysis of membrane glycerol-phospholipids to release arachidonic acid as the first step of the eicosanoid signaling pathway. This pathway contributes to proliferation in breast cancer, and numerous studies have demonstrated a crucial role of cyclooxygenase 2 and prostaglandin E(2) release in breast cancer progression. The role of cPLA(2)alpha activation is less clear, and we recently showed that 17beta-estradiol (E2) can rapidly activate cPLA(2)alpha in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Overexpression or gene amplification of HER2 is found in approximately 30% of breast cancer patients and correlates with a poor clinical outcome and resistance to endocrine therapy. This study reports the first evidence for a correlation between cPLA(2)alpha enzymatic activity and overexpression of the HER2 receptor. The activation of cPLA(2)alpha in response to E2 treatment was biphasic with the first phase dependent on trans-activation through the matrix metalloproteinase-dependent release of heparin-bound epidermal growth factor. EGFR\\/HER2 heterodimerization resulted in downstream signaling through the ERK1\\/2 cascade to promote cPLA(2)alpha phosphorylation at Ser505. There was a correlation between HER2 and cPLA(2)alpha expression in six breast cancer cell lines examined, and inhibition of HER2 activation or expression in the SKBR3 cell line using herceptin or HER2-specific small interfering RNA, respectively, resulted in decreased activation and expression of cPLA(2)alpha. Pharmacological blockade of cPLA(2)alpha using a specific antagonist suppressed the growth of both MCF-7 and SKBR3 cells by reducing E2-induced proliferation and by stimulating cellular apoptosis and necrosis. This study highlights cPLAalpha(2) as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in endocrine-dependent and endocrine-independent breast cancer.

  14. Nitric Oxide-Releasing Aspirin Suppresses NF-κB Signaling in Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer Cells in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niharika Nath

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen receptor negative (ER(− breast cancer is aggressive, responds poorly to current treatments and has a poor prognosis. The NF-κB signaling pathway is implicated in ER(− tumorigenesis. Aspirin (ASA is chemopreventive against ER(+ but not for ER(− breast cancers. Nitric oxide-releasing aspirin (NO-ASA is a safer ASA where ASA is linked to an NO-releasing moiety through a spacer. In vitro, we investigated anti-proliferation effects of NO-ASA (para- and meta-isomers against ER(− breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-23, effects on NF-κB signaling, and reactive oxygen species by standard techniques. In vivo, effects of NO-ASA were evaluated in a mouse xenograft model using MDA-MB-231 cells. p-NO-ASA inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells at 24 h, the respective IC50s were 13 ± 2 and 17 ± 2 μM; ASA had an IC50 of >3000 μM in both cell lines. The IC50s for m-NO-ASA in MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 were 173 ± 15 and 185 ± 12 μM, respectively, therefore, implying p-NO-ASA as a stronger inhibitor of growth p-NO-ASA reduced cell growth by inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis and causing G0/G1 cell cycle block. Activation of NF-κB was inhibited by both isomers as demonstrated by decreases in NF-κB-DNA binding and luciferase activity at 24 h, However, m-NO-ASA produced transient effects at 3 h such as increased NF-κB-DNA-binding, increased levels of nuclear p50, even though both isomers inhibited IκB degradation. Increase in nuclear p50 by m-NO-ASA was associated with translocation of p50 in to the nucleus as observed by immunoflouresence at 3 h. NO-ASA induced reactive oxygen species (ROS as evidenced by overall increases in both H2DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein and DHE (dihydroethidium-derived fluorescence. Inhibition of ROS by N-acetyl-cysteine reversed the m-NO-ASA-mediated translocation of p50 in to the nucleus. In xenografts, p-NO-ASA inhibited tumor growth by inhibiting proliferation (PCNA and

  15. Automated immunohistochemical assay for estrogen receptor status in breast cancer using monoclonal antibody CC4-5 on the Ventana ES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, G E; Frierson, H F; Boyd, J C; Hanigan, M H

    1996-09-01

    Determination of breast cancer estrogen receptor (ER) status as a predictor of tumor response to adjuvant endocrine therapy remains a mainstay of breast cancer management. Recent second generation anti-ER antibodies and new epitope retrieval methods have produced paraffin-based immunohistochemical results that correlate closely with the dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) assay and appear to represent a superior method of ER assay. The authors determined the ER status of 103 invasive breast cancers by paraffin-based, automated immunohistochemistry on the Ventana ES using a new monoclonal antibody, CC4-5, and compared the results to those of parallel DCC biochemical analysis and manual immunohistochemical analysis using anti-ER monoclonal antibody ER1D5. The specificity of the CC4-5 antibody for ER protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Sixty of 103 cases were positive for ER by CC4-5 automated immunohistochemistry. With a ligand binding assay threshold value of 20 fmol/mg protein, there were 50 positive cases by biochemical assay. The biochemical results corresponded to an 88% rate of agreement with automated CC4-5 staining. Analysis of discordant cases revealed that the majority of CC4-5 immunopositive only cases (8 of 11) were strongly positive, stroma rich tumors, suggesting that corresponding biochemical measurements were diluted by non representative stromal tissue. There was only one immunonegative, biochemically positive case (27 fmol/mg protein). Semiquantitation of CC4-5 staining using percent positive tumor cells or weighted average staining intensity (HSCORE) showed moderate to good correlation with quantitative DCC results (r = 0.64 and 0.62, P Ventana ES, most likely due to temperature constraints of the instrument. By manual ER1D5 staining, 40 of 79 examined cases were positive corresponding to a 99% rate of agreement with automated CC4-5 staining. Semiquantitation of ER1D5 staining by percent positive tumor cells and weighted average staining

  16. Correlation and Significance of Midkine and Estrogen Receptor Beta Protein Expression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shihua Zhang; Guanfeng Zhao; Qingling Wang; Kaihua Lu; Yayi Hou

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Midkine(MK),a new member of the heparin-binding growth factor family,was found recently to have a highexpression level in many carcinoma specimens,including thoseof the esophagus,gall bladder,pancreas,colorectum,breast andlung.Estrogen receptor beta(ER-β),a recently cloned estrogenreceptor subtype,was also found to be highly expressed in lungtumor tissue.in contrast to a lower level of expression in normallung tissue.However,few relevant studies on these proteins havebeen published.The aims of our study were to investigate theexpression of midkine and ER-B proteins in non-small cell lungcancer(NSCLC)and to examine the relationship between theirexpression and the clinicopathologic data as well as to analyse thecorrelation of their expression in NSCLC.METHODS By immunohistochemistry,MK and ER-β were ex-amined in 24 surgically resected cases of NSCLC with their corre-sponding paraneoplastic and normal lung tissues.RESULTS MK and ER-β were overexpressed in NSCLC.Thelevels of MK and ER-B expression in NSCLC were found to be sig-nificantly negatively correlated with the pathological classification(P=0.042 and 0.021,respectively),and their expression decreasedwith a raise in the classification.Spearman's correlation analysisshowed that the correlation of their expression in NSCLC wasstrong(correlation toefficient[rs]=0.535,P=0.007<0.01).CoNCLUSl0N The expression levels of MK and ER-β to someextent reflect the malignant degree of NSCLC,and their combineddetection may be of great value in early diagnosis,treatments ofpatients with NSCLC and can predict the prognoses.