WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer screening programs

  1. Assessment of a cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeneck, Linda; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2015-12-01

    Several Asian countries are implementing nationwide cancer screening programs. Assessment of the effectiveness of these programs is critical to their success as this is the only way to ensure that the benefits of screening outweigh the harms. In this paper we focus on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening to illustrate the principles of screening program assessment. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has defined organized screening, distinguishing it from opportunistic screening. The key advantage of organized screening is that it provides greater protection against the possible harms of screening. Since screening is a process, not simply a test, the effectiveness of a program depends on the quality of each step in the cancer screening process. The evaluation of long-term screening program outcomes (CRC incidence and mortality) will not be observable for many years, given the time it takes to plan, pilot and implement a program. However, early performance indicators of the impact of screening should be monitored to give an early indication whether the program is on track. The European Union (EU) has recommended a minimum dataset to be collected and reported regularly by a screening program. Using information from these data tables, early performance indicators can be generated (e.g., participation rate, proportion of screen-detected cancers that are early-stage). Subsequently, modeling the natural history of the disease can be very helpful to estimate long-term outcomes, making use of these directly measured early performance indicators. Modeling can also be used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a screening program and the potential impact of changes in policy, as illustrated by its recent use in the Netherlands to change the definition of a positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) for the CRC screening program. Programs should consider modeling as an important component of screening program evaluation. PMID:26651258

  2. Screening history in women with cervical cancer in a Danish population-based screening program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Poll, Susanne; Rygaard, Carsten;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer....

  3. Importance of Smoking Cessation in a Lung Cancer Screening Program

    OpenAIRE

    Munshi, Vidit; McMahon, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of lung cancer and smoking cessation interventions can decrease lung cancer mortality, but information on the effectiveness and interaction between smoking cessation and lung cancer screening is sparse and inconsistent. This review aims to synthesize recent studies in two major areas of interest. First, we explore the interactions and potential for synergies between lung cancer screening programs and smoking cessation by summarizing reported changes in smoking behavior observe...

  4. Radiation doses to screened women in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program in 2005 and 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiographers report exposure data for approximately 50 women annually to the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. Based on reported data from all laboratories involved in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program average glandular dose (AGD) to the screened. (author)

  5. Quality control in screening programs for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The malignancy of the cervix is one of the few locations avoidable cancers, if detected before it progresses to the infiltration. The most efficient way of early detection is through a screening program to provide women undertaking a regular and quality Pap smear. If this test results abnormal, the program offers easier access to specialized care, effective treatment, and follow-up. The objective of this article is to present usefulness of methods for quality control used in screening programs for cervical cancer to detect their inadequacies. Here are some factors and conditions that must be considered in each of the steps to take, for a cervical cancer screening program to be successful and to meet the objectives proposed in reducing mortality due to this cause. This document contains some useful indexes calculated to ensure quality throughout the process. There should be the measurement of quality throughout the screening process that allows collecting of reliable data as well as correcting deficiencies

  6. Using lessons from breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening to inform the development of lung cancer screening programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Katrina; Kim, Jane J; Halm, Ethan A; Ballard, Rachel M; Schnall, Mitchell D

    2016-05-01

    Multiple advisory groups now recommend that high-risk smokers be screened for lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography. Given that the development of lung cancer screening programs will face many of the same issues that have challenged other cancer screening programs, the National Cancer Institute-funded Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) consortium was used to identify lessons learned from the implementation of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening that should inform the introduction of lung cancer screening. These lessons include the importance of developing systems for identifying and recruiting eligible individuals in primary care, ensuring that screening centers are qualified and performance is monitored, creating clear communication standards for reporting screening results to referring physicians and patients, ensuring follow-up is available for individuals with abnormal test results, avoiding overscreening, remembering primary prevention, and leveraging advances in cancer genetics and immunology. Overall, this experience emphasizes that effective cancer screening is a multistep activity that requires robust strategies to initiate, report, follow up, and track each step as well as a dynamic and ongoing oversight process to revise current screening practices as new evidence regarding screening is created, new screening technologies are developed, new biological markers are identified, and new approaches to health care delivery are disseminated. Cancer 2016;122:1338-1342. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26929386

  7. CT Lung Cancer Screening Program Development: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Teri

    2015-01-01

    Radiology administrators must use innovative strategies around clinical collaboration and marketing to ensure that patients access the service in sufficient numbers. Radiology Associates of South Florida in collaboration with Baptist Health South Florida have developed a successful lung cancer screening program. The biggest factors in their success have been the affordability of their service and the quality of the program. Like mammography, lung cancer screening programs serve as an entry point to other services that generate revenue for the hospital. Patients may require further evaluation in the form of more imaging or surgical services for biopsy. Part 1 provided background and laid out fundamentals for starting a program. Part 2 focuses on building patient volume, marketing, and issues related to patient management after the screen is performed. PMID:26314180

  8. Start-Up of the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy DeGroff, MPH

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionIn 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded five sites to implement the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP. An evaluation is being conducted that includes a multiple case study. Case study results for the start-up period, the time between initial funding and screening initiation, provide details about the program models and start-up process and reveal important lessons learned.MethodsThe multiple case study includes all five CRCSDP sites, each representing a unique case. Data were collected from August 2005 through September 2006 from documents, observations, and more than 70 interviews with program staff and stakeholders.ResultsSites differed by geographic service area, screening modality selected, and service delivery structure. Program models were influenced by two factors: preexisting infrastructure and the need to adapt programs to fit local service delivery structures. Several sites modeled program components after their National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program. Medical advisory boards convened by all sites provided clinical support for developing program policies and quality assurance plans. Partnerships with comprehensive cancer control programs facilitated access to financial and in-kind resources.ConclusionThe program models developed by the CRCSDP sites offer a range of prototypes. Case study results suggest benefits in employing a multidisciplinary staff team, assembling a medical advisory board, collaborating with local partners, using preexisting resources, designing programs that are easily incorporated into existing service delivery systems, and planning for adequate start-up time.

  9. [Cigarette smoking among women attending cervical cancer screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walentowicz-Sadłecka, Małgorzata; Sadłecki, Paweł; Marszałek, Andrzej; Grabiec, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is recognized as tobacco-related malignancy. HPV vaccination and introducing screening protocols were found as the best way to decrease cervical cancer related mortality. Besides the cytological screening programs of the uterine cervix smear, nowadays co-factors of carcinogenesis are taken into consideration, also. The aim of our study was to analyse data included in questionnaire of 310 women who underwent cytological examination wi thin cervical cancer screening program in our Department in 2011. There were no differences found between studied groups on rate of oral contraceptive or hormonal therapy use, as well as age and tobacco smoking. However, taking into account education and smoking, there was a significant correlation observed. Patients with higher education level smoked less often. The special attention should be paid to promote smoking cessation in the group of women who finished education on elementary level. PMID:23421059

  10. Pancreatic Cancer and Cancer Screening Programs: From Nihilism to Hope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Pezzilli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The most common incipit of papers published regarding exocrine pancreatic neoplasms is that pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers, with a rate of incidence equal to that of mortality. Pancreatic cancer is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms in which pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common. For the most part, the problems related to the early diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma are three: 1 to better understand the biology of this tumor; 2 to better investigate the precursors of this tumor; and 3 to plan projects for pancreatic cancer screening in high-risk individuals. Recently, Yachida et al. [1] performed rapid autopsies on seven individuals with Stage IV pancreatic cancer and they found that the clonal populations which give rise to distant metastases are represented within the primary carcinoma, but these clones are genetically evolved from the original parental, non-metastatic clone. Thus, the genetic heterogeneity of the metastases reflects that of the primary carcinoma. Most important, when the authors performed a quantitative analysis of the timing of the genetic evolution of pancreatic cancer, they found that there was at least a decade between the occurrence of the initial mutation and the birth of the parental, non-metastatic founder cell. At least five more years are required for the acquisition of metastatic ability and patients die an average two years thereafter. As underscored by the authors, these data have an important implication in planning population screening for the purpose of preventing pancreatic cancer deaths: in fact, quantitative analysis indicated a large window, of at least a decade, in which the disease could be diagnosed while it is still in the curative stage. This model also predicts an average of 6.8 years between the birth of the cell giving rise to the parental clone and the seeding of the index metastasis.

  11. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, M., E-mail: Marta.Roman@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Department of Women and Children’s Health, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Skaane, P., E-mail: PERSK@ous-hf.no [Department of Radiology, Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Hofvind, S., E-mail: Solveig.Hofvind@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  12. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  13. Radiologic aspects of breast cancers detected through a breast cancer screening program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early detection in breast cancer and reduced mortality in women with this disease is today attributed to widespread use of mammography. High-quality performance is essential in all steps of breast cancer screening programs in order to avoid unnecessary anxiety and surgery in the women concerned. This report presents radiologic aspects of screening cancers. A total of 8370 asymptomatic women aged 50-69 years were screened with 2-view mammography, of which only 70 (0.84 percent) were selected for surgery after a thorough work-up. Cancers were verified histologically in 61 women and 9 showed non-malignant histology, giving a cancer detection rate of 7.3 cancers per thousand screened asymptomatic women. The benign/malignant ratio in the operated cases is thus approximately 1:7. The cancers detected showed all existing types of mammographic features where 77 percent (47 cases) showed rather typical findings, such as spiculated densities both with and without microcalcifications. The results indicate that surgery can be minimized without impairing the breast cancer detection rate. Radiologists in screening programs should be aware that a large proportion of non-palpable breast cancers present in rather unconventional forms. This point is important in order to maintain a high cancer detection rate and thereby justify the widespread use of mammography as a screening tool for breast cancer in asymptomatic women. (author). 20 refs.; 1 tab

  14. Cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Prasad

    1987-01-01

    Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  15. Opinion of nurses regarding breast cancer screening programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Venkatramana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Found to be effective in its treatment. The increased incidence of breast cancer supports the implementation of breast cancer screening programs. The present study evaluates the opinion among nurses regarding breast cancer screening programs in United Arab Emirates (UAE. Materials and Methods: The study population included 154 nurses practicing at different hospitals in United Arab Emirates (UAE, all nurses who participated in the breast cancer awareness programme organized by Gulf Medical University, Ajman, UAE. A self-administered, pretested, structured, close-ended questionnaire was used for data collection. Statistical Analysis was performed using Predictive Analytic Software (PASW 17. Results: The participants′ age ranged between 20 and 59 years. Fifty percent of the participants strongly agreed with the early detection of breast cancer by performing breast self examination. Thirty-nine percent were of the opinion that women aged 40 years and older should have a mammogram every year and continue to do so and 25.3% strongly felt that women in their 20s and 30s should have clinical breast examination as part of their periodic health examination by health professionals. 33.8% of the respondents strongly agree on providing information on the benefits and limitations of BSE to the female population. Twenty-six percent of the participants strongly agree that women at high risk should get magnetic resonance imaging and mammogram done every year. Conclusion: The present study indicates the need for providing workplace training programs thus equipping them with better knowledge and enhancing their service among the general population.

  16. Simulation of reduced breast cancer mortality in breast cancer screening programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breast cancer screening programs are an essential tool in the fight against breast cancer. Currently, many questions concerning the setup of these programs are open, namely: age range of women who undergo the same, frequency of mammography, ... The effectiveness of a program should be evaluated in terms of mortality reduction is its systematic implementation in the population. In this sense, we performed Monte Carlo simulations to assess that these reductions.

  17. Cost of Starting Colorectal Cancer Screening Programs: Results From Five Federally Funded Demonstration Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Royalty, MS; James Gardner, MSPH; A. Blythe Ryerson, MPH; Marion Nadel, PhD; Florence K. L. Tangka, PhD; Sujha Subramanian, PhD; Bela Bapat, MS; Laura C. Seeff, MD; Amy DeGroff, MPH

    2008-01-01

    Introduction In 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) started a 3-year colorectal cancer screening demonstration project and funded five programs to explore the feasibility of a colorectal cancer program for the underserved U.S. population. CDC is evaluating the five programs to estimate implementation cost, identify best practices, and determine the most cost-effective approach. The objectives are to calculate start-up costs and estimate funding requirements for widespre...

  18. Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  19. Influence of a screening navigation program on social inequalities in health beliefs about colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Fanny; Guillaume, Elodie; Dejardin, Olivier; Guittet, Lydia; Bouvier, Véronique; Mignon, Astrid; Berchi, Célia; Salinas, Agnès; Launoy, Guy; Christophe, Véronique

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to test whether a screening navigation program leads to more favorable health beliefs and decreases social inequalities in them. The selected 261 noncompliant participants in a screening navigation versus a usual screening program arm had to respond to health belief measures inspired by the Protection Motivation Theory. Regression analyses showed that social inequalities in perceived efficacy of screening, favorable attitude, and perceived facility were reduced in the screening navigation compared to the usual screening program. These results highlight the importance of health beliefs to understand the mechanism of screening navigation programs in reducing social inequalities. PMID:25549659

  20. FPs have vital role in ensuring success of breast cancer screening programs

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, L.

    1997-01-01

    SCREENING IS THE ONLY PROVEN STRATEGY for reducing breast cancer mortality in women older than 50. Over the last 9 years, 8 provinces and 2 (territories have established independent dedicated mammography programs. A recent workshop on screening programs was told that family physicians play a crucial role in the ultimate success of these programs because of their referral role.

  1. The first national public breast cancer screening program in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abulkhair, Omalkhair A.; Al Tahan, Fatina M.; Young, Susan E.; Musaad, Salma MA.; Jazieh, Abdul-Rahman M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite its relatively low incidence in Saudi Arabia, breast cancer has been the most common cancer among Saudi females for the past 12 consecutive years. The objective of this study was to report the results of the first national public breast cancer screening program in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Women 40 years of age or older underwent breast cancer screening. Mammograms were scored using the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Correlations between im...

  2. CAN RAP: A Program to Help Patients Choose a Screening Strategy for Colon Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Detmer, William M.; Gilbertson, David G.

    1993-01-01

    The CANcer Risk Assessment and Preference (CAN RAP) system is a prototype computer program that helps patients to select a screening strategy for colon cancer. CAN RAP uses demographic and risk-factor information to calculate the benefit and cost of various screening strategies. The system communicates to patients these benefits and costs, and elicits patient preferences using audio, text, and graphics.

  3. Recommendations From the International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network on the Evaluation of the Cost of Screening Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sujha; Tangka, Florence K L; Hoover, Sonja; Nadel, Marion; Smith, Robert; Atkin, Wendy; Patnick, Julietta

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, colorectal cancer is the fourth leading cause of death from cancer and the incidence is projected to increase. Many countries are exploring the introduction of organized screening programs, but there is limited information on the resources required and guidance for cost-effective implementation. To facilitate the generating of the economics evidence base for program implementation, we collected and analyzed detailed program cost data from 5 European members of the International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network. The cost per person screened estimates, often used to compare across programs as an overall measure, varied significantly across the programs. In addition, there were substantial differences in the programmatic and clinical cost incurred, even when the same type of screening test was used. Based on these findings, several recommendations are provided to enhance the underlying methodology and validity of the comparative economic assessments. The recommendations include the need for detailed activity-based cost information, the use of a comprehensive set of effectiveness measures to adequately capture differences between programs, and the incorporation of data from multiple programs in cost-effectiveness models to increase generalizability. Economic evaluation of real-world colorectal cancer-screening programs is essential to derive valuable insights to improve program operations and ensure optimal use of available resources. PMID:27479308

  4. Comprehensive evaluation of cervical cancer screening programs: the case of Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Murillo; Carolina Wiesner; Ricardo Cendales; Marion Piñeros; Sandra Tovar

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify critical screening program factors for reducing cervical cancer mortality in Colombia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Coverage, quality, and screening follow-up were evaluated in four Colombian states with different mortality rates. A case-control study (invasive cancer and healthy controls) evaluating screening history was performed. RESULTS: 3-year cytology coverage was 72.7%, false negative rate 49%, positive cytology follow-up 64.2%. There was no association between screenin...

  5. Proteomic Serum Biomarkers and Their Potential Application in Cancer Screening Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Deelder, André M; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Mertens, Bart J.; Yuri E. M. van der Burgt; Anouck Huijbers; Tim J. A. Dekker; Wilma E. Mesker; Berit Velstra

    2010-01-01

    Early diagnosis of cancer is of pivotal importance to reduce disease-related mortality. There is great need for non-invasive screening methods, yet current screening protocols have limited sensitivity and specificity. The use of serum biomarkers to discriminate cancer patients from healthy persons might be a tool to improve screening programs. Mass spectrometry based proteomics is widely applied as a technology for mapping and identifying peptides and proteins in body fluids. One commonly use...

  6. [Shared decision making in the colorectal cancer screening program in the canton of Vaud].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Reto; Selby, Kevin; Bulliard, Jean-Luc; Nichita, Christina; Dorta, Gian; Ducros, Cyril; Cornuz, Jacques

    2015-11-25

    The colorectal cancer screening program of the canton of Vaud aims to facilitate screening for this cancer for the population aged 50 to 69 years old. The two screening modalities offered are fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) and colonoscopy. The decision to undergo screening and the screening modality is based on an individual medical encounter with a primary care physician. Both screening modalities are reimbursed through basic health coverage in Switzerland. The participation to the screening program allows the exemption of the deductible for the medical encounter and the chosen screening modality. A copay of 10% is maintained for all costs. Communication tools were developed on the basis of recommendations in the literature to facilitate shared decision-making in a medical encounter. PMID:26742350

  7. Functional health literacy in Spanish-speaking Latinas seeking breast cancer screening through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    OpenAIRE

    Samantha Garbers; Karen Schmitt; Anne Marie Rappa; Mary Ann Chiasson

    2010-01-01

    Samantha Garbers1, Karen Schmitt2, Anne Marie Rappa2, Mary Ann Chiasson11Public Health Solutions, New York, NY, USA; 2Columbia University Breast Cancer Screening Program, New York, NY, USABackground: This analysis examines the association between functional health literacy and follow-up after mammography among women receiving breast cancer screening at a National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program site in New York City that provides universal bilingual case management.Methods:...

  8. Proteomic Serum Biomarkers and Their Potential Application in Cancer Screening Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André M. Deelder

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of cancer is of pivotal importance to reduce disease-related mortality. There is great need for non-invasive screening methods, yet current screening protocols have limited sensitivity and specificity. The use of serum biomarkers to discriminate cancer patients from healthy persons might be a tool to improve screening programs. Mass spectrometry based proteomics is widely applied as a technology for mapping and identifying peptides and proteins in body fluids. One commonly used approach in proteomics is peptide and protein profiling. Here, we present an overview of profiling methods that have the potential for implementation in a clinical setting and in national screening programs.

  9. Low-dose computed tomography screening for lung cancer in a clinical setting: essential elements of a screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Brady J; McKee, Andrea B; Kitts, Andrea Borondy; Regis, Shawn M; Wald, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to review clinical computed tomography (CT) lung screening program elements essential to safely and effectively manage the millions of Americans at high risk for lung cancer expected to enroll in lung cancer screening programs over the next 3 to 5 years. To optimize the potential net benefit of CT lung screening and facilitate medical audits benchmarked to national quality standards, radiologists should interpret these examinations using a validated structured reporting system such as Lung-RADS. Patient and physician educational outreach should be enacted to support an informed and shared decision-making process without creating barriers to screening access. Programs must integrate smoking cessation interventions to maximize the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of screening. At an institutional level, budgets should account for the necessary expense of hiring and/or training qualified support staff and equipping them with information technology resources adequate to enroll and track patients accurately over decades of future screening evaluation. At a national level, planning should begin on ways to accommodate the upcoming increased demand for physician services in fields critical to the success of CT lung screening such as diagnostic radiology and thoracic surgery. Institutions with programs that follow these specifications will be well equipped to meet the significant oncoming demand for CT lung screening services and bestow clinical benefits on their patients equal to or beyond what was observed in the National Lung Screening Trial. PMID:25658476

  10. [Colorectal cancer screening programs in the population at average risk in the European Union and Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Jaume; Serradesanferm, Anna; Polbach, Sandra; García-Basteiro, Alberto L; Trilla, Antoni; Castells, Antoni

    2010-02-01

    There is broad international consensus on the need for colorectal cancer screening in men and women aged 50 years old or older with no personal or familial history of adenoma or colorectal cancer. The main problem is the disagreement among the various screening guidelines on the best screening method. The European Union (2003) extended the recommendation of implanting colorectal cancer screening using the fecal occult blood test (FOBT) in the population aged between 50 and 74 years. Seventy percent of the member states are introducing a program but there is wide heterogeneity. In Spain, 2-yearly FOBT is recommended in the target population aged 50 to 69 years. Currently, three autonomous communities have developed pilot programs and are extending the program to the entire population. Many other communities have announced they will commence programs shortly. PMID:19523716

  11. Readiness of primary care clinicians to implement lung cancer screening programs

    OpenAIRE

    Volk, Robert J.; Lewis E. Foxhall

    2015-01-01

    We examined the readiness of primary care clinicians to implement lung cancer screening programs in their practice settings in light of recent policy changes in the U.S. Attendees of two large continuing medical education events in Texas held in October and November of 2014 completed surveys about their current lung cancer screening practices and implementation needs. Surveys were completed by 350 participants (57.2% of registered attendees). Although 89.5% of participants routinely scr...

  12. Validity of fecal occult blood test in the national cancer screening program, Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aesun Shin

    Full Text Available AIM: The aims of the current study were to assess the validity of the fecal occult blood test (FOBT in an organized screening setting in Korea and to determine factors associated with FOBT validity, such as screening round, age group, and anatomical location of the cancer. METHODS: Study participants were those who were 50 years and older who received an FOBT through the National Cancer Screening Program between 2004 and 2007. Colorectal cancer diagnoses were ascertained through linkage with the Korean National Cancer Incidence Database. The positivity rate, colorectal cancer detection rate, interval cancer rate, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of the FOBT were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 2,193,093 tests were included in the analysis. Overall, the sensitivity of the FOBT for colorectal cancer was 59.7% for the first round and 56.1% for the subsequent round. Sensitivity was highest for distal colon cancer (65.9% in the first round, and for rectal cancer (58.4% for the subsequent round. The sensitivity and positive predictive value of the FOBT generally improved between 2004 and 2008. CONCLUSIONS: The FOBT showed reasonable validity in an organized screening setting, and the validity of the FOBT varied by screening round, anatomical location, and screening year.

  13. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  14. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  15. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J; Jakobsen, Karen V; Christensen, Ib J;

    2011-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among...... procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest....

  16. Lung Cancer Screening Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchalski, Kathleen L; Brown, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Since the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recommendations for lung cancer screening, low-dose chest computed tomography screening has moved from the research arena to clinical practice. Lung cancer screening programs must reach beyond image acquisition and interpretation and engage in a multidisciplinary effort of clinical shared decision-making, standardization of imaging and nodule management, smoking cessation, and patient follow-up. Standardization of radiologic reports and nodule management will systematize patient care, provide quality assurance, further reduce harm, and contain health care costs. Although the National Lung Screening Trial results and eligibility criteria of a heavy smoking history are the foundation for the standard guidelines for low-dose chest computed tomography screening in the United States, currently only 27% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer would meet US lung cancer screening recommendations. Current and future efforts must be directed to better delineate those patients who would most benefit from screening and to ensure that the benefits of screening reach all socioeconomic strata and racial and ethnic minorities. Further optimization of lung cancer screening program design and patient eligibility will assure that lung cancer screening benefits will outweigh the potential risks to our patients. PMID:27306387

  17. Culturally Competent Training Program: A Key to Training Lay Health Advisors for Promoting Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mei-yu; Song, Lixin; Seetoo, Amy; Cai, Cuijuan; Smith, Gary; Oakley, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    The lay health advisor (LHA) training program for breast cancer screening was conducted among Chinese-English bilingual trainees residing in Southeast Michigan. Guided by Bandura's Social Learning Theory, the development of the training curriculum followed the health communication process recommended by the National Cancer Institute. Data analysis…

  18. Adherence to Cancer Screening Guidelines and Predictors of Improvement Among Participants in the Kansas State Employee Wellness Program

    OpenAIRE

    Siu-kuen Azor Hui, PhD, MSPH; Kimberly K. Engelman, PhD; Theresa I. Shireman, PhD, RPh; Edward F. Ellerbeck, MD, MPH

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Employee wellness programs (EWPs) have been used to implement worksite-based cancer prevention and control interventions. However, little is known about whether these programs result in improved adherence to cancer screening guidelines or how participants’ characteristics affect subsequent screening. This study was conducted to describe cancer screening behaviors among participants in a state EWP and identify factors associated with screening adherence among those who were initia...

  19. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test. PMID:21954677

  20. Effects of different phases of an invitational screening program on breast cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen, Johanna; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Anttila, Ahti; Sarkeala, Tytti; Virkkunen, Hanna; Hakulinen, Timo

    2006-08-15

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of separate phases of an invitational screening program on breast cancer incidence at different ages. Our database included detailed municipality-specific information about invitations for mass-screening for breast cancer in 267 Finnish municipalities from time period 1987-2001. The age range was 50-74. For this study, the program was divided into 7 separate phases, and those that had not been invited served as a baseline. The incidence rate was modeled using Poisson regression. To study the differences between age groups within each program phase, an interaction term between age group and phase of screening was included in the model. The modeling was done separately for localized breast cancers, nonlocalized breast cancers and all stages combined. For localized cancers, the risk compared to the noninvited increased during the first years of the 2-year screening rounds in all age groups, and declined below the baseline during the second years. This effect was larger during the first round compared to the subsequent ones. In nonlocalized cancers, a clear incidence peak was detected only during the first year of the first round. A decreasing post screening effect was detected in nonlocalized cancers in women aged 60-69, but not in localized cancers. Cumulating over ages 50-74, extra incidence caused by regular screening in localized cancers was 5.2% if the program was continued up to age 59, and 28.0% if it continued up to age 69. Corresponding figures for nonlocalized cancers were decreases of 19.8% and 20.9%, respectively. PMID:16550598

  1. Interventional Education Methods for Increasing Women's Participation in Breast Cancer Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Memnun; Akyüz, Aygül; Robertson, Lyn B

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the three methods of education-individual, individual with an educational brochure for spouses, and group-on participation on breast cancer screening in Turkey. A total of 550 home visits were made and 446 women were interviewed to accrue 327 women for the study, 26.7% of whom reported receiving a screening mammogram within the past 2 years. Participants were divided into one of the three educational groups, and following the educational session, they were invited to attend a breast cancer screening program. The results indicated that the decision to have a screening mammogram was influenced by the method of education and the knowledge score. Women, who were educated, within a group scored the highest. These results demonstrate that group education is an effective method of increasing breast cancer knowledge and screening awareness. PMID:25077769

  2. Australia's National Bowel Cancer Screening Program: does it work for Indigenous Australians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katzenellenbogen Judith M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a lower incidence of bowel cancer overall, Indigenous Australians are more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage when prognosis is poor. Bowel cancer screening is an effective means of reducing incidence and mortality from bowel cancer through early identification and prompt treatment. In 2006, Australia began rolling out a population-based National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP using the Faecal Occult Blood Test. Initial evaluation of the program revealed substantial disparities in bowel cancer screening uptake with Indigenous Australians significantly less likely to participate in screening than the non-Indigenous population. This paper critically reviews characteristics of the program which may contribute to the discrepancy in screening uptake, and includes an analysis of organisational, structural, and socio-cultural barriers that play a part in the poorer participation of Indigenous and other disadvantaged and minority groups. Methods A search was undertaken of peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports, and other grey literature using electronic databases and citation snowballing. Articles were critically evaluated for relevance to themes that addressed the research questions. Results The NBCSP is not reaching many Indigenous Australians in the target group, with factors contributing to sub-optimal participation including how participants are selected, the way the screening kit is distributed, the nature of the test and comprehensiveness of its contents, cultural perceptions of cancer and prevailing low levels of knowledge and awareness of bowel cancer and the importance of screening. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the population-based approach to implementing bowel cancer screening to the Australian population unintentionally excludes vulnerable minorities, particularly Indigenous and other culturally and linguistically diverse groups. This potentially contributes to exacerbating

  3. Establishing and Sustaining a Prospective Screening Program for Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema at the Massachusetts General Hospital: Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Brunelle, Cheryl; Skolny, Melissa; Ferguson, Chantal; Swaroop, Meyha; O’Toole, Jean; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing call to prospectively screen patients with breast cancer for the development of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) following their breast cancer treatment. While the components of a prospective screening program have been published, some centers struggle with how to initiate, establish, and sustain a screening program of their own. The intent of this manuscript is to share our experience and struggles in establishing a prospective surveillance program within ...

  4. Promoting Breast Cancer Screening Among Asian American Women: the Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program

    OpenAIRE

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; Beerman, Paula R.; Lee, Kathy; Hung, Jenny; Nguyen, Helene; Cho, Janet; Huang, Wennie

    2012-01-01

    Asian American women's historically low breast cancer mortality rate has remained constant as rates decreased for all other races. From 2000 to 2004, a randomized controlled trial explored the Asian grocery store-based breast cancer education program's impact on Chinese, Filipino, Korean, and Vietnamese women (n=1,540). Women aged 40 and older and non-adherent for annual screening mammograms were more likely to schedule a mammogram after receiving the breast cancer education program than wome...

  5. Follow-up of abnormal or inadequate test results in the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Bettina Kjær

    2014-01-01

    -up recommendation. However problems with delayed follow-up may threaten the effectiveness of the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program, as 20% of women are delayed and dysplasia potentially can progress into cancer. Delayed follow-up is found in situations where women either consciously or unconsciously postpone......Denmark has a higher incidence of cervical cancer than other Nordic countries, although all Danish women (aged 23–65) are screened regularly to identify possible cervical dysplasia or asymptomatic invasive cancer. Annually 40 000 women receives an abnormal or inadequate test result and a follow...... follow-up, or because of organizational aspects of the screening program, where communication regarding test results can fail either in content or with delay.This study will evaluate two interventions designed to increase follow-up: 1) A letter with the test result and potential recommendation for follow...

  6. Breast cancer correlates in a cohort of breast screening program participants in Riyadh, KSA

    OpenAIRE

    Fahad A. Al-Amri; Mohammed Y. Saeedi; Fatina M. Al-Tahan; Ali, Arwa M.; Shaker A. Alomary; Mostafa Arafa; Ibrahim, Ahmed K.; Kassim A. Kassim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the first cancer among females in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, accounting for 27.4% of all newly diagnosed female cancers in 2010. There are several risk factors affecting the incidence of breast cancer where some factors influence the risk more than the others. Aim: We aimed to identify the different risk factors related to breast cancer among females participating in the breast-screening program in Riyadh, KSA. Methods: Based on data from phase-I of the br...

  7. Pap smear screening among Asian Pacific Islander women in a multisite community-based cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Maria E; Lin, Jennifer; Leong-Wu, Cindy; Aday, Luann

    2009-04-01

    This study assessed screening completion rates (SCR) and sociodemographic factors associated with Pap test screening among previously nonadherent, foreign-born Asian Pacific Islander (API) women across four sites participating in a community-based cancer screening program called ENCOREplus. At intake, 926 out of 1,140 women were nonadherent to recommended Pap test screening guidelines. Most participants were age 51 and older, had a high school education or higher, had been in the U.S. less than a decade, had annual household incomes less than $10,000, and were uninsured. Women with limited resources were more likely to get a Pap test after participating in ENCOREplus. Women from the Glendale site were almost 18 times more likely to get a Pap test than API women in other sites. Over half of the women in Glendale reported that help getting low cost Pap tests and having translators available were instrumental in completing screening. PMID:19372282

  8. Lung cancer screening program using annual chest radiographs with computed radiography (FCR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, Tsutomu; Itoh, Hiroshi; Ikegaki, Shigeru; Chika, Koyata; Nitta, Haruo; Seno, Takashi; Miyashita, Yukichi; Kobayashi, Tadashi

    1987-08-01

    In the Wajima lung cancer screening program conducted under the auspices of Kanazawa University Hospital, Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) was utilized in a new chest radiography trial. The results of the screening program are that the necessity of repeat examinations due to poor image quality are less common and the method enables detection of small pulmonary nodular shadows which are possibly candidates for surgery. Oblique chest X-ray with FCR is remarkably effective for the detection and the identification of small lesions. However, the disadvantage of slow processing and high cost must be fully satisfied if FCR is to become a new imaging modality for mass screening.

  9. Population-based programs for increasing colorectal cancer screening in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Manisha; Sarfaty, Mona; Brooks, Durado; Wender, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Screening to detect polyps or cancer at an early stage has been shown to produce better outcomes in colorectal cancer (CRC). Programs with a population-based approach can reach a large majority of the eligible population and can offer cost-effective interventions with the potential benefit of maximizing early cancer detection and prevention using a complete follow-up plan. The purpose of this review was to summarize the key features of population-based programs to increase CRC screening in the United States. A search was conducted in the SCOPUS, OvidSP, and PubMed databases. The authors selected published reports of population-based programs that met at least 5 of the 6 International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) criteria for cancer prevention and were known to the National Colorectal Cancer Roundtable. Interventions at the level of individual practices were not included in this review. IARC cancer prevention criteria served as a framework to assess the effective processes and elements of a population-based program. Eight programs were included in this review. Half of the programs met all IARC criteria, and all programs led to improvements in screening rates. The rate of colonoscopy after a positive stool test was heterogeneous among programs. Different population-based strategies were used to promote these screening programs, including system-based, provider-based, patient-based, and media-based strategies. Treatment of identified cancer cases was not included explicitly in 4 programs but was offered through routine medical care. Evidence-based methods for promoting CRC screening at a population level can guide the development of future approaches in health care prevention. The key elements of a successful population-based approach include adherence to the 6 IARC criteria and 4 additional elements (an identified external funding source, a structured policy for positive fecal occult blood test results and confirmed cancer

  10. Interval breast cancers: Absolute and proportional incidence and blinded review in a community mammographic screening program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonaro, Luca A., E-mail: luca.carbonaro@gmail.com [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Azzarone, Antonio [Servizio di Radiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Circolo di Melegnano, Via Pandina 1, Vizzolo Predabissi (Mi) 20070 (Italy); Paskeh, Bijan Babaei [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Brambilla, Giorgio [Dipartimento di Radiologia, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via Manzoni 56, Rozzano (Mi) 20089 (Italy); Brunelli, Silvia [Centro di Prevenzione Senologica, ULSS 20, Piazza Lambranzi, Verona 37034 (Italy); Calori, Anna [Servizio di Radiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Circolo di Melegnano, Via Pandina 1, Vizzolo Predabissi (Mi) 20070 (Italy); Caumo, Francesca [Centro di Prevenzione Senologica, ULSS 20, Piazza Lambranzi, Verona 37034 (Italy); Malerba, Paolo [Dipartimento di Radiologia, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via Manzoni 56, Rozzano (Mi) 20089 (Italy); Menicagli, Laura [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Sconfienza, Luca M. [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Vadalà, Giuseppe [Servizio di Radiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Circolo di Melegnano, Via Pandina 1, Vizzolo Predabissi (Mi) 20070 (Italy); Brambilla, Gelma; Fantini, Luigi [Servizio di Medicina Preventiva delle Comunità, ASL Milano 2, Via Friuli 2, Lacchiarella (Mi) 20084 (Italy); Ciatto, Stefano [Screening Program, ULSS 16, Padova (Italy); and others

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the first years since the beginning of a mammographic population-based screening program. Materials and methods: Women aged 49–69 were invited biennially for two-view film-screen mammography and double reading without arbitration was performed. Interval cancers (ICs) from 2001 to 2006 were identified using screening archives, local pathology archives, and hospital discharge records. The proportional incidence of IC was determined considering breast cancers expected without screening. Three offsite radiologists experienced in breast cancer screening blindly evaluated mammograms prior to diagnosis, randomly mixed with negative mammograms (1:2 ratio). Cases unrecalled at review were considered as true ICs, those recalled by only one reviewer as minimal signs, and those recalled by two or three reviewers as missed cancers. T and N stage of the reviewed ICs were evaluated and compared. Results: A total of 86,276 first level mammograms were performed. Mean recall rate was 6.8% at first and 4.6% at repeat screening. We had 476 screen-detected cancers and 145 ICs (10 of them ductal carcinomas in situ). Absolute incidence was 17 per 10,000 screening examinations. Invasive proportional incidence was 19% (44/234) in the first year, 39% (91/234) in the second year, and 29% (135/468) in the two-year interval. Of 145 ICs, 130 (90%) were reviewed mixed with 287 negative controls: 55% (71/130) resulted to be true ICs, 24% (31/130) minimal signs, and 22% (28/130) missed cancers. The rate of ICs diagnosed in the first year interval was 21% (15/71) for true ICs, 46% (13/28) for missed cancers, and 39% (12/31) for minimal signs, with a significant difference of true ICs rate compared to missed cancers rate (p = 0.012). A higher rate of T3 and T4 stages was found for missed cancers (18%, 5/28) compared to minimal signs (6%, 2/31) or true ICs (8%, 6/71), while the rate of N2 and N3 stage for both minimal signs (19%, 6/31) or missed cancers (25

  11. Interval breast cancers: Absolute and proportional incidence and blinded review in a community mammographic screening program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the first years since the beginning of a mammographic population-based screening program. Materials and methods: Women aged 49–69 were invited biennially for two-view film-screen mammography and double reading without arbitration was performed. Interval cancers (ICs) from 2001 to 2006 were identified using screening archives, local pathology archives, and hospital discharge records. The proportional incidence of IC was determined considering breast cancers expected without screening. Three offsite radiologists experienced in breast cancer screening blindly evaluated mammograms prior to diagnosis, randomly mixed with negative mammograms (1:2 ratio). Cases unrecalled at review were considered as true ICs, those recalled by only one reviewer as minimal signs, and those recalled by two or three reviewers as missed cancers. T and N stage of the reviewed ICs were evaluated and compared. Results: A total of 86,276 first level mammograms were performed. Mean recall rate was 6.8% at first and 4.6% at repeat screening. We had 476 screen-detected cancers and 145 ICs (10 of them ductal carcinomas in situ). Absolute incidence was 17 per 10,000 screening examinations. Invasive proportional incidence was 19% (44/234) in the first year, 39% (91/234) in the second year, and 29% (135/468) in the two-year interval. Of 145 ICs, 130 (90%) were reviewed mixed with 287 negative controls: 55% (71/130) resulted to be true ICs, 24% (31/130) minimal signs, and 22% (28/130) missed cancers. The rate of ICs diagnosed in the first year interval was 21% (15/71) for true ICs, 46% (13/28) for missed cancers, and 39% (12/31) for minimal signs, with a significant difference of true ICs rate compared to missed cancers rate (p = 0.012). A higher rate of T3 and T4 stages was found for missed cancers (18%, 5/28) compared to minimal signs (6%, 2/31) or true ICs (8%, 6/71), while the rate of N2 and N3 stage for both minimal signs (19%, 6/31) or missed cancers (25

  12. Assessment of required resources for implementation of national breast cancer screening program in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Nemanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. High values of standardized mortality and morbidity rates of standardized cancer mortality in Serbia, especially colorectal, cervical and breast cancer led to creation of national programs for their early detection and engagement of the international support for their implementation. Objective. Assessment of required resources (time, personnel, financial to implement the National program for screening of breast cancer in the Republic of Serbia. Methods. Three possible scenarios have been prepared (optimistic, realistic and pessimistic based on the expected coverage by screening of women aged 45 to 69 years, and time, personnel and financial feasibility estimates were made for a two-year screening cycle. Results. Time aspect of feasibility even under conditions of “relaxation” of the assumption on the number of working days during the year did not question feasibility of any of the scenarios. Personnel feasibility is only possible in the pessimistic scenario, while the financial feasibility only makes sense in optimistic scenario as the least unfavorable solution due to economies of scale. Conclusion. Establishment of the initial base of skilled radiologists and radiology technicians and the system for their continuous medical education as well as allocation of specific MoH budget line for screening program expenditures, along with donated mammographs and good organization and coordination, may provide unobstructed implementation of the National program for early detection of breast cancer in the Republic of Serbia.

  13. Mammographic density and histopathologic characteristics of screen-detected tumors in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High mammographic density might mask breast tumors, resulting in delayed diagnosis or missed cancers. To investigate the association between mammographic density and histopathologic tumor characteristics (histologic type, size, grade, and lymph node status) among women screened in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Information about 1760 screen-detected ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 7366 invasive breast cancers diagnosed among women aged 50–69 years, 1996–2010, was analyzed. The screening mammograms were classified subjectively according to the amount of fibroglandular tissue into fatty, medium dense, and dense by breast radiologists. Chi-square test was used to compare the distribution of tumor characteristics by mammographic density. Odds ratio (OR) of tumor characteristics by density was estimated by means of logistic regression, adjusting for screening mode (screen-film and full-field digital mammography), and age. Mean and median tumor size of invasive breast cancers was 13.8 and 12 mm, respectively, for women with fatty breasts, and 16.2 and 14 mm for those with dense breasts. Lymph node positive tumors were identified among 20.6% of women with fatty breasts compared with 27.2% of those with dense breasts (P < 0.001). The proportion of DCIS was significantly lower for women with fatty (15.8%) compared with dense breasts (22.0%). Women with dense breasts had an increased risk of large (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.18–1.73) and lymph node positive tumors (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05–1.51) compared with women with fatty and medium dense breasts. High mammographic density was positively associated with tumor size and lymph node positive tumors

  14. Adherence to the cervical cancer screening program in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). International HIV guidelines suggest cervical screening twice the first year after HIV diagnosis and thereafter annually. Adherence to the HIV cervical screening program in Denmark is unknown. METHODS...... to guidelines were estimated. Pathology specimens were identified from The Danish Pathology Data Bank. RESULTS: We followed 1143 WLWH and 17,145 controls with no prior history of ICC for 9,509 and 157,362 person-years. The first year after HIV diagnosis 2.6% of WLWH obtained the recommended two cervical...... cytologies. During the different calendar intervals throughout the study period between 29-46% of WLWH followed the HIV cervical screening guidelines. Adjusted OR's of attendance to the general population screening program for WLWH aged 30, 40 and 50 years, compared to controls, were 0.69 (95% CI: 0...

  15. Analysis of various malignant neoplasms detected by FDG-PET cancer screening program. Based on a Japanese nationwide survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most distinctive feature of Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET cancer screening program is the ability to find various kinds of malignant neoplasms in a single test. The aim of this survey is to clarify the range and frequency of various malignant neoplasms detected by FDG-PET cancer screening performed in Japan. 'FDG-PET cancer screening' was defined as FDG-PET or positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) scan with or without other tests performed for cancer screening of healthy subjects. This survey was based on a questionnaire regarding FDG-PET cancer screening. We analyzed the situation of 9 less frequently found malignant neoplasms including malignant lymphoma, malignancy of head and neck, esophagus, hepatobiliary and gallbladder, pancreas, kidney, cervical and uterine, ovary, and bladder. The detailed information of subjects with the suspected 9 kinds of malignant neoplasms mentioned above in the FDG-PET cancer screening program was studied in a total of 1,219 cases from 212 facilities. A statistical significance between PET/CT and PET was found in relative sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) for renal cell cancer. Malignant lymphoma was frequently of indolent type, suspected head and neck cancers had many false-positive results, and pancreatic cancer detected in this program was often in the advanced stage even in asymptomatic subjects. The recommendation of combined screening modality to PET or PET/CT was as follows: gastric endoscopy for assessing early esophageal cancer; abdominal ultrasound for screening hepatobiliary and gallbladder cancer; pelvic magnetic resonance imaging for assessing gynecological and pelvic cancers; and the CA125 blood test for screening ovarian cancer. Delayed image was helpful depending on the type of suspected malignant neoplasm. We analyzed various types of malignant neoplasms detected by the FDG-PET cancer screening program and presented recommended combination of examinations to cover FDG-PET and

  16. A community-based cervical cancer screening program among women of Delhi using camp approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Pragya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the commonest malignancy among women in developing countries. Cytological screening (Pap smear have been claimed to reduce incidence and mortality of carcinoma cervix significantly for which sensitization of women is required through community-based approach. Objectives: To find out number of cervical cancer cases among patients reporting to a general health care camp through screening program and study the prevalence of perceived morbidity and its confirmation. Settings: Cross-sectional study among women attending cancer awareness camps. Materials and Methods: A total of 435 women attending cancer awareness camps were screened for carcinoma cervix. The findings of history and clinical examination were recorded. Pap smears of all the symptomatic patients were collected and cytological diagnosis was confirmed by a pathologist. Results and Conclusions: The perceived gynecological morbidity was observed to be 59.8%. The smear of the women who were suspected of carcinoma on clinical examination was confirmed to be the cases of carcinoma-in-situ (7.8% and high-grade neoplasia (2.9% on laboratory investigations. The findings of the study highlight the utility and need of cancer cervix screening among the women at regular intervals through camp approach in the community.

  17. Comprehensive evaluation of cervical cancer screening programs: the case of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Murillo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify critical screening program factors for reducing cervical cancer mortality in Colombia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Coverage, quality, and screening follow-up were evaluated in four Colombian states with different mortality rates. A case-control study (invasive cancer and healthy controls evaluating screening history was performed. RESULTS: 3-year cytology coverage was 72.7%, false negative rate 49%, positive cytology follow-up 64.2%. There was no association between screening history and invasive cancer in two states having high cytology coverage but high false negative rates. Two states revealed association between deficient screening history and invasive cancer as well as lower positive-cytology follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced number of visits between screening and treatment is more relevant when low access to health care is present. Improved quality is a priority if access to screening is available. Suitable interventions for specific scenarios and proper appraisal of new technologies are compulsory to improve cervical cancer screening. Comprehensive process-failure audits among invasive cancer cases could improve program evaluation since mortality is a late outcome.OBJETIVO: Identificar factores críticos para reducir la mortalidad por cáncer cervical en Colombia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se evaluó cobertura, calidad y seguimiento del tamizaje en cuatro departamentos con tasas de mortalidad diferenciales. Un estudio de casos (cáncer invasor y controles (sanos evaluó historia de tamizaje. RESULTADOS: Cobertura 72,7%; falsos negativos 49%; acceso a diagnóstico-tratamiento de HSIL 64,2%. La historia de tamizaje no se asoció con cáncer invasor en dos departamentos con elevada cobertura pero elevada proporción de falsos negativos. Dos departamentos con asociación entre historia de tamizaje deficiente y cáncer invasor tuvieron cobertura aceptable pero bajo acceso a diagnóstico-tratamiento. No hubo relación entre mortalidad

  18. Genotypic distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cytology findings in 5906 Thai women undergoing cervical cancer screening programs

    OpenAIRE

    Kantathavorn, Nuttavut; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Sritana, Narongrit; Sricharunrat, Thaniya; Phoolcharoen, Natacha; Auewarakul, Chirayu; Teerayathanakul, Narongchai; Taepisitpong, Chantanee; Saeloo, Siriporn; Sornsamdang, Gaidganok; Udomchaiprasertkul, Wandee; Krongthong, Waraphorn; Arnamwong, Arpaporn

    2015-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Thai women. Nevertheless, the preventive strategy such as HPV vaccination program has not been implemented at the national level. This study explored the HPV prevalence and genotypic distribution in a large cohort of Thai women. Methods A hospital-based cervical cancer screening program at Chulabhorn Hospital, Bangkok and a population-based screening program at a rural Pathum Thani Province were conducted using liquid...

  19. Prostate cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000846.htm Prostate cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this ... Intern Med . 2011;155(11):762-71. National Cancer Institute. Prostate Cancer Screening -- for health professionals. Revised April 2, ...

  20. Breast cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000837.htm Breast cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast cancer screenings can help find breast cancer early, before ...

  1. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Cancer screening is looking for cancer before you have any ... be easier to treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different ...

  2. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  3. Breast cancer correlates in a cohort of breast screening program participants in Riyadh, KSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Breast cancer is the first cancer among females in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, accounting for 27.4% of all newly diagnosed female cancers in 2010. There are several risk factors affecting the incidence of breast cancer where some factors influence the risk more than the others. Aim: We aimed to identify the different risk factors related to breast cancer among females participating in the breast-screening program in Riyadh, KSA. Methods: Based on data from phase-I of the breast-screening program, a case-control study was conducted on women living in Riyadh, KSA. A sample of 349 women (58 cases and 290 controls) was recruited to examine the different breast cancer correlates. Multivariate regression model was built to investigate the most important risk factors. Results: The mean age of cases was 48.5 ± 7.1 years. Age at marriage, number of pregnancy, age at menopause, oral contraceptive pills, breast feeding and family history of breast cancer in first-degree relative were identified as the most important correlates among the studied cohort. Conclusions: The findings of the current work suggested that age at marriage, age at menopause ≥50 years, and 1st degree family history of breast cancer were risk factors for breast cancer, while, age at menopause<50 years, number of pregnancies and practicing breast feeding were protective factors against breast cancer. There was no effect of body mass index or physical inactivity. Further studies are needed to explore the hereditary, familial and genetic background risk factors in Saudi population.

  4. Comparing benefits from many possible computed tomography lung cancer screening programs: Extrapolating from the National Lung Screening Trial using comparative modeling

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Pamela; Meza, Rafael; Plevritis, Sylvia; Black, William; Tammemagi, C. Martin; Erdogan, Sibel; Haaf, Kevin; Hazelton, William; Holford, N H; Jeon, Jihyoun; Clarke, Lauren; Kong, Chung Yin; Choi, Sung; Munshi, Vidit; Han, Summer

    2014-01-01

    Background: The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that in current and former smokers aged 55 to 74 years, with at least 30 pack-years of cigarette smoking history and who had quit smoking no more than 15 years ago, 3 annual computed tomography (CT) screens reduced lung cancer-specific mortality by 20% relative to 3 annual chest X-ray screens. We compared the benefits achievable with 576 lung cancer screening programs that varied CT screen number and frequency, ages of screenin...

  5. Estimating Development Cost for a Tailored Interactive Computer Program to Enhance Colorectal Cancer Screening Compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Lairson, David R.; Chang, Yu-Chia; Bettencourt, Judith L.; Vernon, Sally W.; Greisinger, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    The authors used an actual-work estimate method to estimate the cost of developing a tailored interactive computer education program to improve compliance with colorectal cancer screening guidelines in a large multi-specialty group medical practice. Resource use was prospectively collected from time logs, administrative records, and a design and computing subcontract. Sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the uncertainty of the overhead cost rate and other parameters. The cost of deve...

  6. Screening for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Brendon M; Pua, Bradley; Altorki, Nasser K

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer is a global health burden and is among the most common and deadliest of all malignancies worldwide. The goal of screening programs is to detect tumors in earlier, curable stages, consequently reducing disease-specific mortality. The issue of screening has great relevance to thoracic surgeons, who should play a leading role in the debate over screening and its consequences. The burden is on thoracic surgeons to work in a multidisciplinary setting to guide and treat these patients safely and responsibly, ensuring low morbidity and mortality of potential diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. PMID:27261909

  7. Adherence to Cancer Screening Guidelines and Predictors of Improvement Among Participants in the Kansas State Employee Wellness Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu-kuen Azor Hui, PhD, MSPH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Employee wellness programs (EWPs have been used to implement worksite-based cancer prevention and control interventions. However, little is known about whether these programs result in improved adherence to cancer screening guidelines or how participants’ characteristics affect subsequent screening. This study was conducted to describe cancer screening behaviors among participants in a state EWP and identify factors associated with screening adherence among those who were initially nonadherent. Methods We identified employees and their dependents who completed health risk assessments (HRAs as part of the Kansas state EWP in both 2008 and 2009. We examined baseline rates of adherence to cancer screening guidelines in 2008 and factors associated with adherence in 2009 among participants who were initially nonadherent. Results Of 53,095 eligible participants, 13,222 (25% participated in the EWP in 2008 and 6,205 (12% participated in both years. Among the multiyear participants, adherence was high at baseline to screening for breast (92.5%, cervical (91.8%, and colorectal cancer (72.7%. Of participants who were initially nonadherent in 2008, 52.4%, 41.3%, and 33.5%, respectively, became adherent in the following year to breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening. Suburban/urban residence and more frequent doctor visits predicted adherence to breast and colorectal cancer screening guidelines. Conclusion The effectiveness of EWPs for increasing cancer screening is limited by low HRA participation rates, high rates of adherence to screening at baseline, and failure of nonadherent participants to get screening. Improving overall adherence to cancer screening guidelines among employees will require efforts to increase HRA participation, stronger interventions for nonadherent participants, and better access to screening for rural employees.

  8. Functional health literacy in Spanish-speaking Latinas seeking breast cancer screening through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Garbers

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Samantha Garbers1, Karen Schmitt2, Anne Marie Rappa2, Mary Ann Chiasson11Public Health Solutions, New York, NY, USA; 2Columbia University Breast Cancer Screening Program, New York, NY, USABackground: This analysis examines the association between functional health literacy and follow-up after mammography among women receiving breast cancer screening at a National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program site in New York City that provides universal bilingual case management.Methods: A total of 707 Latinas who spoke Spanish as their primary language completed a survey of health and demographic characteristics and the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Spanish (TOFHLA-S. Survey results were matched with clinical outcome data.Results: Among the survey participants, 98% were foreign-born and 99% had no health insurance. While the study found significant differences in access to health information and past screening behavior, women without adequate health literacy in Spanish were no less likely to receive clinical resolution of abnormal mammograms within 60 days (81.8% overall; n = 110 or to return for a repeat mammogram within 18 months (57.2% overall; n = 697. In fact, among those referred for a Pap test (n = 310, women without adequate health literacy were more likely to receive a Pap test within 60 days of their mammogram than those with adequate health literacy (82% compared to 71%, OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.04–3.22.Discussion: The lack of significantly lower follow-up outcomes among women with inadequate and marginal functional health literacy in this population of primary Spanish-speaking Latinas suggests that, once women have accessed screening services, programmatic approaches may exist to mitigate barriers to follow-up and to ensure optimal cancer screening outcomes for women of all literacy levels.Keywords: health literacy, mammography, Latinas, case management, cancer screening

  9. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Cervical Cancer Key Points Cervical cancer is a disease in ...

  10. Simulation of reduced breast cancer mortality in breast cancer screening programs; Simulacion de la reduccion de mortalidad por cancer de mama en programas de cribado mamografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, L. I.; Forastero, C.; Guirado, D.; Lallena, A. M.

    2011-07-01

    The breast cancer screening programs are an essential tool in the fight against breast cancer. Currently, many questions concerning the setup of these programs are open, namely: age range of women who undergo the same, frequency of mammography, ... The effectiveness of a program should be evaluated in terms of mortality reduction is its systematic implementation in the population. In this sense, we performed Monte Carlo simulations to assess that these reductions.

  11. [Cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer screening program in Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Caleffi, Maira; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer mammographic screening program implemented in Porto Alegre (Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA), Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A Markov model was constructed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of NMPOA compared to current BC diagnosis and care in the Brazilian public health system, in a hypothetical cohort of women aged 40-69 years at risk of developing breast cancer. Model parameters were collected from NMPOA and the national literature. In the NMPOA strategy, effectiveness was modeled taking into account the actual observed screening adherence. Effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in the base case was R$ 13,426 per QALY. This result was not sensitive to variation in the main model parameters in sensitivity analyses. Considering the threshold usually suggested as highly attractive in Brazil, breast cancer screening as performed in NMPOA is cost-effective in cities with high incidence of breast cancer. PMID:25402242

  12. Does digital mammography in a decentralized breast cancer screening program lead to screening performance parameters comparable with film-screen mammography?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ongeval, Chantal van; Steen, Andre van; Zanca, Federica; Bosmans, Hilde; Marchal, Guy [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Putte, Gretel vande; Limbergen, Erik van [Leuven University Centre for Cancer Prevention (LUCK), Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    To evaluate if the screening performance parameters of digital mammography (DM) in a decentralized screening organization were comparable with film-screen mammography (FSM). A nationwide screening program was launched in 2001, and since 2005 screening with DM has been allowed. Firstly, the parameters of the three regional screening units (RSUs) that first switched to DM (11,355 women) were compared with the FSM period of the same three RSUs (23,325 women). Secondly, they were compared with the results of the whole central breast unit (CBU). The recall rate (RR) of the DM group in the initial round was 2.64% [2.40% for FSM (p = 0.43)] and in the subsequent round 1.20% [1.58% for FSM (p = 0.03)]. The cancer detection rate (CDR) was 0.59% for DM and 0.64% for FSM (p = 0.56). The percentage of ductal carcinoma in situ was 0.07% for DM and 0.16% for FSM (p = 0.02). The positive predictive value was high in the subsequent rounds (DM 48.00%, FSM 45.93%) and lower in the initial round (DM 24.05%, FSM 24.86%). Compared with the results of the whole CBU, DM showed no significant difference. DM can be introduced in a decentralized screening organization with a high CDR without increasing the RR. (orig.)

  13. Does digital mammography in a decentralized breast cancer screening program lead to screening performance parameters comparable with film-screen mammography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate if the screening performance parameters of digital mammography (DM) in a decentralized screening organization were comparable with film-screen mammography (FSM). A nationwide screening program was launched in 2001, and since 2005 screening with DM has been allowed. Firstly, the parameters of the three regional screening units (RSUs) that first switched to DM (11,355 women) were compared with the FSM period of the same three RSUs (23,325 women). Secondly, they were compared with the results of the whole central breast unit (CBU). The recall rate (RR) of the DM group in the initial round was 2.64% [2.40% for FSM (p = 0.43)] and in the subsequent round 1.20% [1.58% for FSM (p = 0.03)]. The cancer detection rate (CDR) was 0.59% for DM and 0.64% for FSM (p = 0.56). The percentage of ductal carcinoma in situ was 0.07% for DM and 0.16% for FSM (p = 0.02). The positive predictive value was high in the subsequent rounds (DM 48.00%, FSM 45.93%) and lower in the initial round (DM 24.05%, FSM 24.86%). Compared with the results of the whole CBU, DM showed no significant difference. DM can be introduced in a decentralized screening organization with a high CDR without increasing the RR. (orig.)

  14. SCREENING FOR COLORECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bărbulescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a review of the main procedures for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer, especially for the asymptomatic individuals with high risk to develop this neoplasm, devise the risk groups to develop this cancer and to study the management of these. The advantages and disadvantages or limitations of screening modalities for colorectal cancer, such as faecal occult blood testing with old guaiac-based tests or the new tests for detecting faecal deoxyribonucleic acid of tumor cells, endoscopic screening by flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, or CT-colonography and double contrast barium enema examination, are evaluated. The most accurate diagnosed sensibility (95-97% belong to total colonoscopy with biopsy, barium enema having a lower sensibility (83%; the easiest and cheaper screening method represent guaiac-based faecal occult blood tests but with a global predictive positive value of only 5-10%. In our country, as it’s known, most of the colorectal cancer patients presents to the doctor in an advanced local stage or with distant metastases or in other situations like perforation, obstructive or hemorrhaged complications. In all these cases the therapeutic resources are limited and the survival is much diminished. The situation would be different if in the precocious diagnosis in the incipient stage of the colorectal neoplasm, proper treatment resources may assure to these patients a higher life hope. A proper national healthy political program that will promote some fesabile screening programs could diagnose and treat patients with colorectal neoplasm in incipient stages, with the result of prolonged survival and disease-free interval and complete socio-professional reinstatement. These national screening programs may absolve the expensiveness on the patients care with the colorectal neoplasm cancer in the advanced stages that have a poor prognosis.

  15. RESULTS OF A GOAL-ORIENTED PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING PROGRAM IN THE PENZA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sh. Engalychev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC has been recently the most common male cancer disease. At the same time, its incidence is ever increasing. In this connection, PS screening is highly pressing.Objective: to study and assess the first results of a regional goal-oriented PC screening program in the Penza Region.Subjects and methods. The regional goal-oriented “Male Health” program for PC screening was launched in the Penza Region in February 2008. The serum level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA was detected in all 45-to-70-year men who had visited the region’s polyclinics and hospitals for any disease. Digital rectal and transrectal ultrasound studies were additionally performed in patients having the symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction. When the PSA level was > 4 ng/ml, multifocal biopsy was made through transperineal and transrectal accesses under ultrasound guidance, by using 12-24 points.Results. In February 2008 to June 2010, blood was tested for PSA in 55 of 103 patients. In 5910 (10.7% of them, its level (> 4 ng/ml was above the allowable limit. Multifocal prostate puncture biopsy was performed in 1695 patients with elevated PSA levels for further examination to rule out PC. The latter was established by the results of biopsy in 737 patients. The percentage of biopsy results positive for cancer was 38.9%. That of PC detected among all the men examined for serum PSA level was 1.3%.Conclusion. To elaborate programs for the early diagnosis and screening of PC is one of the priorities of the development of oncourology, which can considerably improve the results of treatment for this disease.

  16. Structured additive regression modeling of age of menarche and menopause in a breast cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Elisa; de Sousa, Bruno; Cadarso-Suarez, Carmen; Rodrigues, Vitor; Kneib, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Breast cancer risk is believed to be associated with several reproductive factors, such as early menarche and late menopause. This study is based on the registries of the first time a woman enters the screening program, and presents a spatio-temporal analysis of the variables age of menarche and age of menopause along with other reproductive and socioeconomic factors. The database was provided by the Portuguese Cancer League (LPCC), a private nonprofit organization dealing with multiple issues related to oncology of which the Breast Cancer Screening Program is one of its main activities. The registry consists of 259,652 records of women who entered the screening program for the first time between 1990 and 2007 (45-69-year age group). Structured Additive Regression (STAR) models were used to explore spatial and temporal correlations with a wide range of covariates. These models are flexible enough to deal with a variety of complex datasets, allowing us to reveal possible relationships among the variables considered in this study. The analysis shows that early menarche occurs in younger women and in municipalities located in the interior of central Portugal. Women living in inland municipalities register later ages for menopause, and those born in central Portugal after 1933 show a decreasing trend in the age of menopause. Younger ages of menarche and late menopause are observed in municipalities with a higher purchasing power index. The analysis performed in this study portrays the time evolution of the age of menarche and age of menopause and their spatial characterization, adding to the identification of factors that could be of the utmost importance in future breast cancer incidence research. PMID:24615881

  17. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ... Physicians The full report is titled “Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ...

  18. Screening for Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Ovarian Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Ovarian Cancer . This recommendation is ...

  19. Adapting the Australian system: is an organized screening program feasible in Malaysia?--an overview of cervical cancer screening in both countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Rima Ma; Dahlui, Maznah; Mohamed, Majdah; Gertig, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common form of cancer that strikes Malaysian women. The National Cancer Registry in 2006 and 2007 reported that the age standardized incidence (ASR) of cervical cancer was 12.2 and 7.8 per 100,000 women, respectively. The cumulative risk of developing cervical cancer for a Malaysian woman is 0.9 for 74 years. Among all ethnic groups, the Chinese experienced the highest incidence rate in 2006, followed by Indians and Malays. The percentage cervical cancer detected at stage I and II was 55% (stage I: 21.0%, stage II: 34.0%, stage III: 26.0% and stage IV: 19.0%). Data from Ministry of Health Malaysia (2006) showed a 58.9% estimated coverage of pap smear screening conducted among those aged 30-49 years. Only a small percentage of women aged 50-59 and 50-65 years old were screened, 14% and 13.8% coverage, respectively. Incidence of cervical cancer was highest (71.6%) among those in the 60-65 age group (MOH, 2003). Currently, there is no organized population-based screening program available for the whole of Malaysia. A pilot project was initiated in 2006, to move from opportunistic cervical screening of women who attend antenatal and postnatal visits to a population based approach to be able to monitor the women through the screening pathway and encourage women at highest risk to be screened. The project was modelled on the screening program in Australia with some modifications to suit the Malaysian setting. Substantial challenges have been identified, particularly in relation to information systems for call and recall of women, as well as laboratory reporting and quality assurance. A cost-effective locally-specific approach to organized screening, that will provide the infrastructure for increasing participation in the cervical cancer screening program, is urgently required. PMID:23679334

  20. Establishing and Sustaining a Prospective Screening Program for Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema at the Massachusetts General Hospital: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Brunelle

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing call to prospectively screen patients with breast cancer for the development of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL following their breast cancer treatment. While the components of a prospective screening program have been published, some centers struggle with how to initiate, establish, and sustain a screening program of their own. The intent of this manuscript is to share our experience and struggles in establishing a prospective surveillance program within the infrastructure of our institution. It is our hope that by sharing our history other centers can learn from our mistakes and successes to better design their own prospective screening program to best serve their patient population.

  1. Controversies in Lung Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ritu R; Jaklitsch, Michael T; Jacobson, Francine L

    2016-02-01

    There remains an extensive debate over lung cancer screening, with lobbying for and against screening for very compelling reasons. The National Lung Screening Trial, International Early Lung Cancer Program, and other major screening studies favor screening with low-dose CT scans and have shown a reduction in lung cancer-specific mortality. The increasing incidence of lung cancer and the dismal survival rate for advanced disease despite improved multimodality therapy have sparked an interest in the implementation of national lung cancer screening. Concerns over imaging workflow, radiation dose, management of small nodules, overdiagnosis bias, lead-time and length-time bias, emerging new technologies, and cost-effectiveness continue to be debated. The authors address each of these issues as they relate to radiologic practice. PMID:26846531

  2. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  3. Recommendations for cervical cancer screening programs in developing countries: the need for equity and technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazcano-Ponce Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The cervical cancer screening programs (CCSP have not been very efficient in the developing countries. This explains the need to foster changes on policies, standards, quality control mechanisms, evaluation and integration of new screening alternatives considered as low and high cost, as well as to regulate colposcopy practices and the foundation of HPV laboratories. Cervical cancer (CC is a disease most frequently found in poverty-stricken communities and reflecting a problem of equity at both levels gender and regional, and this, is not only due to social and economic development inequalities, but to the infrastructure and human resources necessary for primary care. For this reason, the CCSP program must be restructured, a to primarily address unprivileged rural and urban areas; b to foster actions aimed at ensuring extensive coverage as well as a similar quality of that coverage in every region; c to use screening strategies in keeping with the availability of health care services. In countries with a great regional heterogeneity, a variety of screening procedures must be regulated and standardized, including a combination of assisted visual inspection, cervical cytology and HPV detection; d regional community intervention must be set up to assess the effectiveness of using HPV detection as an strategy in addition to cervical cytology (pap smear; e the practice of colposcopy must be regulated to prevent the use of it in healthy women at a population level, thus preventing unnecessary diagnosis and treatment which not only are expensive but also causes unnecessary anxiety to women at risk; f the operation of those clinical laboratories using HPV as a detection strategy must likewise be accredited and regulated and g the CCSP program for assuring health care quality should meet the expectations of its beneficiaries, and increase the knowledge in cervical cancer related matters. Finally, though a variety of clinical tests on prophylactic and

  4. The Breast Cancer Screening Program. The first year of activity on the territory of Pomeranian Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives. The Breast Cancer Screening Program (BCSP) has been launched in January 2007. There are 16 Regional Coordinating Centers. The headquarters are located the the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center - Institute of Oncology, in Warsaw. In Poland breast cancer (BC) accounts for a 20.5% morbidity rate and causes 13% of deaths. Women between 50 and 69 years of age make up half of the breast cancer morbidity group. There is a tendency towards an increase in BC morbidity. Of all the 13385 registered in Poland throughout 2005 641 occurred in the Pomeranian Voivodeship. Material and Methods. There are 31 mammography units in the Pomeranian region. Mammography for women between the ages of 50 and 69 is performed free of charge and financed by the governmental health insurance. In 2007 over 57,500 mammographies were performed in the Pomeranian Voivodeship accounting for some 33.1% of all the women eligible for the BCSP. Results. 298 cases of BC were detected. BCSP increased the likelihood of detecting early BC (T1). T1 BCs were detected in 61.1% and were described by radiologists as stages BIRADS 4 and BIRADS 5. Conclusions. The main aim of the BCSP is reducing the coefficient of BC mortality. The results of BCSP confirmed the need for the continuation of such a program. (authors)

  5. Radiation risks in lung cancer screening programs: a comparison with nuclear industry workers and atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCunney, Robert J; Li, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that screening with low-dose CT (LDCT) scan reduced lung cancer and overall mortality by 20% and 7%, respectively. The LDCT scanning involves an approximate 2-mSv dose, whereas full-chest CT scanning, the major diagnostic study used to follow up nodules, may involve a dose of 8 mSv. Radiation associated with CT scanning and other diagnostic studies to follow up nodules may present an independent risk of lung cancer. On the basis of the NLST, we estimated the incidence and prevalence of nodules detected in screening programs. We followed the Fleischner guidelines for follow-up of nodules to assess cumulative radiation exposure over 20- and 30-year periods. We then evaluated nuclear worker cohort studies and atomic bomb survivor studies to assess the risk of lung cancer from radiation associated with long-term lung cancer screening programs. The findings indicate that a 55-year-old lung screening participant may experience a cumulative radiation exposure of up to 280 mSv over a 20-year period and 420 mSv over 30 years. These exposures exceed those of nuclear workers and atomic bomb survivors. This assessment suggests that long-term (20-30 years) LDCT screening programs are associated with nontrivial cumulative radiation doses. Current lung cancer screening protocols, if conducted over 20- to 30-year periods, can independently increase the risk of lung cancer beyond cigarette smoking as a result of cumulative radiation exposure. Radiation exposures from LDCT screening and follow-up diagnostic procedures exceed lifetime radiation exposures among nuclear power workers and atomic bomb survivors. PMID:24590022

  6. An Educational Training on Cervical Cancer Screening Program for Rural Healthcare Providers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Caroline Isaac

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional, cytology based Cervical cancer screening programmes used in the developed world is often not practical in developing countries. Training of health care work force on a feasible, low-tech, screening methods is urgently needed in low resource settings. Twenty providers including doctors and nurses participated in a 2-days training workshop organized by a Community Health Center in rural South India. The pre-post-training assessment showed significant improvement in knowledge about cervical cancer, ‘low tech’ screening, treatment options and counseling among the participants.  Twenty volunteers screened at the workshop, 2 women (10% tested positive and one had CINIII lesion and the other had cervical cancer stage IIIB. After the training, the participants felt confident about their ability to counsel and screen women for cervical cancer.

  7. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  8. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  9. Evidence for cervical cancer mortality with screening program in Taiwan, 1981–2010: age-period-cohort model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Shih-Yung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the most common cancer experienced by women worldwide; however, screening techniques are very effective for reducing the risk of death. The national cervical cancer screening program was implemented in Taiwan in 1995. The objective of this study was to examine and provide evidence of the cervical cancer mortality trends for the periods before and after the screening program was implemented. Methods Data from 1981 to 2010 of the causes of death registered were obtained from the Department of Health, Taiwan. Age-standardized mortality rates, age-specific rates, and age-period-cohort models that employed the sequential method were used to assess temporal changes that occurred between 1981 and 2010, with 1995 used as the separating year. Results The results showed that for both time periods of 1981 to 1995 and 1996 to 2010, age and period had significant effects, whereas the birth cohort effects were insignificant. For patients between 80 and 84 years of age, the mortality rate for 1981 to 1995 and 1996 to 2010 was 48.34 and 68.08. The cervical cancer mortality rate for 1996 to 2010 was 1.0 for patients between 75 and 79 years of age and 1.4 for patients between 80 and 84 years of age compared to that for 1981 to 1995. Regarding the period effect, the mortality trend decreased 2-fold from 1996 to 2010. Conclusions The results of this study indicate a decline in cervical cancer mortality trends after the screening program involving Papanicolaou tests was implemented in 1995. However, the positive effects of the screening program were not observed in elderly women because of treatment delays during the initial implementation of the screening program.

  10. Occurrence of Breast Cancer After Chest Wall Irradiation for Pediatric Cancer, as Detected by a Multimodal Screening Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terenziani, Monica [Pediatric Oncology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy); Casalini, Patrizia [Molecular Biology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy); Scaperrotta, Gianfranco; Gandola, Lorenza; Trecate, Giovanna [Radiology and Radiotherapy Departments, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy); Catania, Serena; Cefalo, Graziella [Pediatric Oncology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy); Conti, Alberto [Breast Surgery Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy); Massimino, Maura; Meazza, Cristina; Podda, Marta; Spreafico, Filippo [Pediatric Oncology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy); Suman, Laura [Radiology and Radiotherapy Departments, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy); Gennaro, Massimiliano, E-mail: gennaromassimiliano@istitutotumori.mi.it [Breast Surgery Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the occurrence of breast cancer (BC) after exposure to ionizing radiation for pediatric cancer, by means of a multimodal screening program. Patients and Methods: We identified 86 patients who had received chest wall radiation therapy for pediatric cancer. Clinical breast examination (CBE), ultrasound (US), and mammography (MX) were performed yearly. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was added as of October 2007. We calculated the risk of developing BC by radiation therapy dose, patient age, and menarche before or after primary treatment. Results: Eleven women developed a BC from July 2002-February 2010. The sensitivity of the screening methods was 36% for CBE, 73% for MX, 55% for US, and 100% for MRI; the specificity was 91%, 99%, 95%, and 80% for CBE, MX, US, and MRI, respectively. The annual BC detection rate was 2.9%. The median age at BC diagnosis was 33 years. Although age had no influence, menarche before as opposed to after radiation therapy correlated significantly with BC (P=.027): the annual BC detection rate in the former subgroup was 5.3%. Conclusions: Mammography proved more sensitive and specific in our cohort of young women than CBE or US. Magnetic resonance imaging proved 100% sensitive (but this preliminary finding needs to be confirmed). Our cohort of patients carries a 10-fold BC risk at an age more than 20 years younger than in the general population.

  11. Occurrence of Breast Cancer After Chest Wall Irradiation for Pediatric Cancer, as Detected by a Multimodal Screening Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the occurrence of breast cancer (BC) after exposure to ionizing radiation for pediatric cancer, by means of a multimodal screening program. Patients and Methods: We identified 86 patients who had received chest wall radiation therapy for pediatric cancer. Clinical breast examination (CBE), ultrasound (US), and mammography (MX) were performed yearly. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was added as of October 2007. We calculated the risk of developing BC by radiation therapy dose, patient age, and menarche before or after primary treatment. Results: Eleven women developed a BC from July 2002-February 2010. The sensitivity of the screening methods was 36% for CBE, 73% for MX, 55% for US, and 100% for MRI; the specificity was 91%, 99%, 95%, and 80% for CBE, MX, US, and MRI, respectively. The annual BC detection rate was 2.9%. The median age at BC diagnosis was 33 years. Although age had no influence, menarche before as opposed to after radiation therapy correlated significantly with BC (P=.027): the annual BC detection rate in the former subgroup was 5.3%. Conclusions: Mammography proved more sensitive and specific in our cohort of young women than CBE or US. Magnetic resonance imaging proved 100% sensitive (but this preliminary finding needs to be confirmed). Our cohort of patients carries a 10-fold BC risk at an age more than 20 years younger than in the general population.

  12. Impact of invitation and reminder letters on cervical cancer screening participation rates in an organized screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavasoli, Simon M; Pefoyo, Anna J Kone; Hader, Joanne; Lee, Alex; Kupets, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Study's Objective was to explore the impact of invitation and reminder letters on cervical cancer screening participation among eligible Ontario women 30 to 69years of age. A cross-sectional study was used to describe factors and screening patterns for 1,150,783 eligible women. A cohort design was used to compare the impact of invitation and reminder letters on Pap uptake comparing women who received the intervention (n=99,278) with a historical non-intervention group (n=130,181). Factors that might influence screening participation were included as covariates in a multivariable logistic regression models. Overall, 26.7% of women who had a Pap test 3 to 5years prior and 9.8% of women with no Pap test in the previous 5years were screened within 9months after the intervention. On cohort analysis, 14.1% of women in the intervention group and 8.5% of women in the non-intervention group were screened within 9months. Being mailed an invitation letter was associated with greater likelihood of screening (OR=1.8, CI 1.7-1.8). Controlling for covariates, the letter intervention was associated with 9month screening for both women with a Pap test 3 to 5years prior (AOR=1.7, CI 1.6-1.8) and those with no Pap test in the previous 5years (AOR=1.8, CI 1.7-1.9). There was a significant effect of all covariates on the participation. The invitation and reminder letter strategy increased cervical cancer screening participation. Additional strategies that could encourage eligible women to participate and/or removing barriers to screening for eligible women may be necessary. PMID:27143497

  13. Breast cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Skrabanek, P

    1988-01-01

    Consensus is still lacking on guidelines for breast-cancer screening with mammography: who should be screened, how frequently at what age, to what benefits and at what risks. American, Dutch, Swedish and Italian studies spanning the 1960s to the 1980s reveal a benefit from screening (reduced mortality from breast cancer) that occurs unambiguously only in women 50 years of age and over. Physicians who choose to screen mammographically their over-49-year-old female patients must do so with the ...

  14. Use of risk projection models to estimate mortality and incidence from radiation-induced breast cancer in screening programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report on a method to calculate radiological risks, applicable to breast screening programs and other controlled medical exposures to ionizing radiation. In particular, it has been applied to make a risk assessment in the Valencian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (VBCEDP) in Spain. This method is based on a parametric approach, through Markov processes, of hazard functions for radio-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality, with mean glandular breast dose, attained age and age-at-exposure as covariates. Excess relative risk functions of breast cancer mortality have been obtained from two different case-control studies exposed to ionizing radiation, with different follow-up time: the Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study (1950-1987) and the Life Span Study (1950-1985 and 1950-1990), whereas relative risk functions for incidence have been obtained from the Life Span Study (1958-1993), the Massachusetts tuberculosis cohorts (1926-1985 and 1970-1985), the New York post-partum mastitis patients (1930-1981) and the Swedish benign breast disease cohort (1958-1987). Relative risks from these cohorts have been transported to the target population undergoing screening in the Valencian Community, a region in Spain with about four and a half million inhabitants. The SCREENRISK software has been developed to estimate radiological detriments in breast screening. Some hypotheses corresponding to different screening conditions have been considered in order to estimate the total risk associated with a woman who takes part in all screening rounds. In the case of the VBCEDP, the total radio-induced risk probability for fatal breast cancer is in a range between [5 x 10-6, 6 x 10-4] versus the natural rate of dying from breast cancer in the Valencian Community which is 9.2 x 10-3. The results show that these indicators could be included in quality control tests and could be adequate for making comparisons between several screening programs

  15. Use of risk projection models to estimate mortality and incidence from radiation-induced breast cancer in screening programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, M [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Ferrer, S [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Villaescusa, J I [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Avda Campanar, 21 46009 Valencia (Spain); Verdu, G [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Salas, M D [Public Health General Direction, Conselleria de Sanitat de Valencia, C/Micer Masco, 31 46021 Valencia (Spain); Cuevas, M D [Assistential Service General Direction, Conselleria de Sanitat de Valencia, C/Micer Masco, 31 46021 Valencia (Spain)

    2005-02-07

    The authors report on a method to calculate radiological risks, applicable to breast screening programs and other controlled medical exposures to ionizing radiation. In particular, it has been applied to make a risk assessment in the Valencian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (VBCEDP) in Spain. This method is based on a parametric approach, through Markov processes, of hazard functions for radio-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality, with mean glandular breast dose, attained age and age-at-exposure as covariates. Excess relative risk functions of breast cancer mortality have been obtained from two different case-control studies exposed to ionizing radiation, with different follow-up time: the Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study (1950-1987) and the Life Span Study (1950-1985 and 1950-1990), whereas relative risk functions for incidence have been obtained from the Life Span Study (1958-1993), the Massachusetts tuberculosis cohorts (1926-1985 and 1970-1985), the New York post-partum mastitis patients (1930-1981) and the Swedish benign breast disease cohort (1958-1987). Relative risks from these cohorts have been transported to the target population undergoing screening in the Valencian Community, a region in Spain with about four and a half million inhabitants. The SCREENRISK software has been developed to estimate radiological detriments in breast screening. Some hypotheses corresponding to different screening conditions have been considered in order to estimate the total risk associated with a woman who takes part in all screening rounds. In the case of the VBCEDP, the total radio-induced risk probability for fatal breast cancer is in a range between [5 x 10{sup -6}, 6 x 10{sup -4}] versus the natural rate of dying from breast cancer in the Valencian Community which is 9.2 x 10{sup -3}. The results show that these indicators could be included in quality control tests and could be adequate for making comparisons between several screening programs.

  16. Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors among African American women: the Black cosmetologists promoting health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weldon Rai-nesha

    2007-04-01

    demonstrated a lack of basic knowledge about breast cancer. The Health Belief Model postulates that access to such information is an essential element in the progression toward engaging in screening behaviors. Conclusion Data from this study reflect a continuing need for increased breast cancer education for African American women. In light of the considerable mainstream information available related to breast cancer, these data reinforce the need for more breast cancer education programs that are clearly intended to attract the attention of African American women.

  17. A Peer Health Educator Program for Breast Cancer Screening Promotion: Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese Immigrant Women's Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Joanne; Frisina, Angela; Hack, Tricia; Parascandalo, Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study explored Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese immigrant women's experiences with a peer health educator program, a public health program that facilitated access to breast health information and mammography screening. Framed within critical social theory, this participatory action research project took place from July 2009 to January 2011. Ten focus groups and 14 individual interviews were conducted with 82 immigrant women 40 years of age and older. Qualitative methods were utilized. Thematic content analysis derived from grounded theory and other qualitative literature was employed to analyze data. Four dominant themes emerged: Breast Cancer Prevention focused on learning within the program, Social Support provided by the peer health educator and other women, Screening Services Access for Women centered on service provision, and Program Enhancements related to specific modifications required to meet the needs of immigrant women accessing the program. The findings provide insights into strategies used to promote breast health, mammography screening, and the improvement of public health programming. Perceived barriers that continue to persist are structural barriers, such as the provision of information on breast cancer and screening by family physicians. A future goal is to improve collaborations between public health and primary care to minimize this barrier. PMID:25810922

  18. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... absolute reduction in mortal- ity. Preliminary results from PIVOT (Prostate Cancer In- tervention Versus Observation Trial), in ... early PSA screening era, prelim- inary findings from PIVOT show that, after 12 years, in- tention to ...

  19. Endometrial Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may detect (find) endometrial cancer are being studied: Pap test A Pap test is a procedure to collect cells from ... are abnormal . This procedure is also called a Pap smear. Pap tests are not used to screen ...

  20. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervical cancer: • Cytology: This test, also called a Pap test or Pap smear, looks for abnormal changes in cells in ... women ages 21 to 65, screening with a Pap test every 3 years has the highest benefits ...

  1. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laxatives to clear the colon, shows polyps clearly. DNA stool test This test checks DNA in stool cells for genetic changes that may be a sign of colorectal cancer. Screening clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the ... Screening tests have risks. False-negative test results can occur. ...

  2. Advances in breast cancer screening program%乳腺癌筛查研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫淼; 柳光宇; 吕力琅; 徐望红

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women around the world. Breast cancer screening has been recognized as the primary approach to effectively improve the survival of female breast cancer. The most commonly used methods for breast cancer screening in China and other countries include mammography (MAM), ultrasonography (US), clinical breast examination (CBE) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of these screening techniques and reviewes the economic efficiency in health care of different screening techniques based on these examination approaches to provide some evidence for developing a breast cancer screening strategy with optimal cost-effectiveness for Chinese women.%乳腺癌是危害全世界女性健康最常见的恶性肿瘤.乳腺癌筛查是公认的能够有效提高女性乳腺癌生存率的主要方法.目前国内外常用的乳腺癌筛查手段包括乳房X线摄影术(钼靶X线摄影)、超声成像、临床乳腺检查和磁共振成像等.本文对这些筛查手段的优缺点进行了比较,并对基于这些手段建立的不同筛查方案在人群中的应用效果和卫生经济学评价进行综述,以期为建立符合中国国情的具有成本-效果的女性乳腺癌筛查策略提供参考和依据.

  3. Elements of an anal dysplasia screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of anal cancer in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) is highly elevated compared to the general population, as is the incidence of its precursor lesion, high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN). MSM in general and other immunocompromised populations are also at higher risk. Treatment of HGAIN may prevent development of cancer, similar to the decrease in cervical cancers that has occurred since the advent of cervical cancer screening programs in women. Cervical cancer screening tools have been adapted and validated for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of anal HGAIN. Anal cancer screening programs have now been available for more than a decade, although they are not yet standards of care. Incorporating screening procedures into practice depends on the available resources in a particular community. This article discusses the procedures for anal cancer screening including cytology, digital anal rectal examinations, high-resolution anoscopy, and biopsy. PMID:22035526

  4. Colorectal cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramona M McLoughlin; Colm A O'Morain

    2006-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden worldwide.There is clear-cut evidence that screening will reduce colorectal cancer mortality and the only contentious issue is which screening tool to use.Most evidence points towards screening with fecal occult blood testing.The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests have a higher sensitivity than the guaiac-based tests.In addition,their automation and haemoglobin quantification allows a threshold for colonoscopy to be selected that can be accommodated within individual health care systems.

  5. Quality Assessment of Colonoscopy Reporting: Results from a Statewide Cancer Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to assess quality of colonoscopy reports and determine if physicians in practice were already documenting recommended quality indicators, prior to the publication of a standardized Colonoscopy Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS in 2007. We examined 110 colonoscopy reports from 2005-2006 through Maryland Colorectal Cancer Screening Program. We evaluated 25 key data elements recommended by CO-RADS, including procedure indications, risk/comorbidity assessments, procedure technical descriptions, colonoscopy findings, specimen retrieval/pathology. Among 110 reports, 73% documented the bowel preparation quality and 82% documented specific cecal landmarks. For the 177 individual polyps identified, information on size and morphology was documented for 87% and 53%, respectively. Colonoscopy reporting varied considerately in the pre-CO-RADS period. The absence of key data elements may impact the ability to make recommendations for recall intervals. This paper provides baseline data to assess if CO-RADS has an impact on reporting and how best to improve the quality of reporting.

  6. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  7. Lung cancer screening: Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers

  8. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  9. Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening Summer 2016 Table of Contents Dr. Asad Umar, ... know to help determine the best colon cancer screening test for them? Colonoscopy is considered the gold ...

  10. Colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Frederico Ferreira Novaes de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in the world, and mortality has remained the same for the past 50 years, despite advances in diagnosis and treatment. Because significant numbers of patients present with advanced or incurable stages, patients with pre-malignant lesions (adenomatous polyps that occur as result of genetic inheritance or age should be screened, and patients with long-standing inflammatory bowel disease should undergo surveillance. There are different risk groups for CRC, as well as different screening strategies. It remains to be determined which screening protocol is the most cost-effective for each risk catagory. The objective of screening is to reduce morbidity and mortality in a target population. The purpose of this review is to analyze the results of the published CRC screening studies, with regard to the measured reduction of morbidity and mortality, due to CRC in the studied populations, following various screening procedures. The main screening techniques, used in combination or alone, include fecal occult blood tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy. Evidence from the published literature on screening methods for specific risk groups is scanty and frequently does not arise from controlled studies. Nevertheless, data from these studies, combined with recent advances in molecular genetics, certainly lead the way to greater efficacy and lower cost of CRC screening.

  11. Adaptation of an Evidence-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Program Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Allison M; Esplin, Andrea; Baldwin, Laura-Mae

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) provide primary care to low-income and uninsured patients in the United States. FQHCs are required to report annual measurements and provide evidence of improvement for quality measures; effective methods to improve quality in FQHCs are needed. Systems of Support (SOS) is a proactive, mail-based, colorectal cancer screening program that was developed and tested in an integrated health care system. The objective of this study was to adapt...

  12. Visual inspection with acetic acid (via screening program: 7 years experience in early detection of cervical cancer and pre-cancers in rural South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Rani Poli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer continues to be a major public health problem in India in the absence of wide spread organised cervical screening programs. Visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA is an effective, inexpensive screening test that can be combined with simple treatment procedures for early cervical lesions, provided by trained health workers. We report 7 years experience in early detection of cervical cancer and pre-cancers using the VIA test in a community-based program in rural Andhra Pradesh, India where there are no existing organised cervical screening programs. Materials and Methods: Eligible women aged between 26 and 60 were opportunistically screened by trained health wor kers using the VIA test. Women who tested positive were further evaluated and those with cervical lesions were treated either by cryotherapy in the screening clinic or referred to a higher center. Results: A total of 18,869 women were screened by a single round of VIA testing with a positive rate of 10.75%. Biopsy proven high-grade squamous intraepithelials (HSILs were 90 (0.48% and low-grade squamous intraepithelials (LSILs were 43 (0.28%. The overall prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+ lesion rate is 1.05%. A total of 312 (1.65% cryotherapies were done and 49 women underwent hysterectomy. Conclusions: VIA by trained female health workers is a safe, acceptable, and effective test that can save lives from cervical cancer even in remote areas with few resources. These results have important implications for efficient service delivery in cervical screening programs in low-resourced settings.

  13. Gender Differences in Elders’ Participation in the National Can-cer Screening Program: Evidence from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Hyun KIM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer-screening programs are effective in reducing cancer prevalence and mortality; however, cancer remains the leading cause of death in elderly people in Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with elders’ participation in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP and differences in screening rates by gender.Methods: Original data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The sample consisted of 5,505 elderly individuals over age 60. Selected demographic variables, cancer screening participation, physical and psychological health status, and lifestyle were examined.Results: The NCSP participation rates decreased in both men and women as age increased. Private medical insurance (OR 95% CI: 1.04–1.78, one or more chronic disease (OR 95% CI: 1.07–1.71, and current smoker (OR 95% CI: 0.52–0.94 had the strongest associations with cancer screening participation among men after multivariate adjustment. In contrast, cancer screening participation among women was significantly associated only with living place (OR 95% CI: 1.06–2.203 after multivariate adjustment.Conclusions: Effective health promoting interventions for elders require individualized programs that address gender-related factors associated with elders’ participation in cancer screening programs.

  14. Single reading with computer-aided detection performed by selected radiologists in a breast cancer screening program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargalló, Xavier, E-mail: xbarga@clinic.cat [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/ Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Santamaría, Gorane; Amo, Montse del; Arguis, Pedro [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/ Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Ríos, José [Biostatistics and Data Management Core Facility, IDIBAPS, (Hospital Clinic) C/ Mallorca, 183. Floor -1. Office #60. 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Grau, Jaume [Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology Unit, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/ Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Burrel, Marta; Cores, Enrique; Velasco, Martín [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/ Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • 1-The cancer detection rate of the screening program improved using a single reading protocol by experienced radiologists assisted by CAD. • 2-The cancer detection rate improved at the cost of increasing recall rate. • 3-CAD, used by breast radiologists, did not help to detect more cancers. - Abstract: Objectives: To assess the impact of shifting from a standard double reading plus arbitration protocol to a single reading by experienced radiologists assisted by computer-aided detection (CAD) in a breast cancer screening program. Methods: This was a prospective study approved by the ethics committee. Data from 21,321 consecutive screening mammograms in incident rounds (2010–2012) were read following a single reading plus CAD protocol and compared with data from 47,462 consecutive screening mammograms in incident rounds (2004–2010) that were interpreted following a double reading plus arbitration protocol. For the single reading, radiologists were selected on the basis of the appraisement of their previous performance. Results: Period 2010–2012 vs. period 2004–2010: Cancer detection rate (CDR): 6.1‰ (95% confidence interval: 5.1–7.2) vs. 5.25‰; Recall rate (RR): 7.02% (95% confidence interval: 6.7–7.4) vs. 7.24% (selected readers before arbitration) and vs. 3.94 (all readers after arbitration); Predictive positive value of recall: 8.69% vs. 13.32%. Average size of invasive cancers: 14.6 ± 9.5 mm vs. 14.3 ± 9.5 mm. Stage: 0 (22.3/26.1%); I (59.2/50.8%); II (19.2/17.1%); III (3.1/3.3%); IV (0/1.9%). Specialized breast radiologists performed better than general radiologists. Conclusions: The cancer detection rate of the screening program improved using a single reading protocol by experienced radiologists assisted by CAD, at the cost of a moderate increase of the recall rate mainly related to the lack of arbitration.

  15. Single reading with computer-aided detection performed by selected radiologists in a breast cancer screening program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 1-The cancer detection rate of the screening program improved using a single reading protocol by experienced radiologists assisted by CAD. • 2-The cancer detection rate improved at the cost of increasing recall rate. • 3-CAD, used by breast radiologists, did not help to detect more cancers. - Abstract: Objectives: To assess the impact of shifting from a standard double reading plus arbitration protocol to a single reading by experienced radiologists assisted by computer-aided detection (CAD) in a breast cancer screening program. Methods: This was a prospective study approved by the ethics committee. Data from 21,321 consecutive screening mammograms in incident rounds (2010–2012) were read following a single reading plus CAD protocol and compared with data from 47,462 consecutive screening mammograms in incident rounds (2004–2010) that were interpreted following a double reading plus arbitration protocol. For the single reading, radiologists were selected on the basis of the appraisement of their previous performance. Results: Period 2010–2012 vs. period 2004–2010: Cancer detection rate (CDR): 6.1‰ (95% confidence interval: 5.1–7.2) vs. 5.25‰; Recall rate (RR): 7.02% (95% confidence interval: 6.7–7.4) vs. 7.24% (selected readers before arbitration) and vs. 3.94 (all readers after arbitration); Predictive positive value of recall: 8.69% vs. 13.32%. Average size of invasive cancers: 14.6 ± 9.5 mm vs. 14.3 ± 9.5 mm. Stage: 0 (22.3/26.1%); I (59.2/50.8%); II (19.2/17.1%); III (3.1/3.3%); IV (0/1.9%). Specialized breast radiologists performed better than general radiologists. Conclusions: The cancer detection rate of the screening program improved using a single reading protocol by experienced radiologists assisted by CAD, at the cost of a moderate increase of the recall rate mainly related to the lack of arbitration

  16. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  17. Patient-initiated breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the results of a breast cancer screening program sponsored by organizations at workplace or community locations. A comprehensive mobile breast cancer screening program, including education, breast physical examination, and mammography, was provided to 89 local organizations at $50.00 per examination over an 18-month period. The examination was patient initiated, following the ACS screening guidelines. Estimates of eligible women were provided by each organization. A total of 5,030 women at 89 organizations were screened for breast cancer. Approximately 25,727 women were eligible

  18. A cross-sectional analysis of participation in National Bowel Cancer Screening Program in Adelaide by age, gender and geographical location of residence.

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Javanparast; Ward, Paul R.; Stephen Cole; Tiffany Gill; Michelle Ah Matt; Paul Aylward; Genevieve Baratiny; Moyez Jiwa; Angelita Martini; Gary Misan; George Tsourtos; Carlene Wilson; Graeme Young

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundThe National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) is apopulation-based screening program based on a mailedscreening invitation and immunochemical faecal occult bloodtest. Initial published evidence from the NBCSP concurs withinternational evidence on similar colorectal cancer screeningprograms about the unequal participation by differentpopulation sub-groups. The aim of the paper is to present across-sectional analysis of participation in the NBCSP forAdelaide, in order to identif...

  19. Cancer screening: Should cancer screening be essential component of primary health care in developing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Bobdey; Ganesh Balasubramanium; Abhinendra Kumar; Aanchal Jain

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a fatal disease and is on the rise across the globe. In India, breast, cervix and the oral cavity are the leading cancer sites, but, unfortunately, in-spite of availability of screening tools, there is no organized cancer screening program in India. The main objective of this study was to review the performance of various cancer screening modalities in a resource poor setting. Methods: MEDLINE and web of science electronic database was searched from January 1990 to D...

  20. A Case-Control Study to Estimate the Impact of the Icelandic Population-Based Mammography Screening Program on Breast Cancer Death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The Icelandic breast cancer screening program, initiated November 1987 in Reykjavik and covering the whole country from December 1989, comprises biennial invitation to mammography for women aged 40-69 years old. Purpose: To estimate the impact of mammography service screening in Iceland on deaths from breast cancer. Material and Methods: Cases were deaths from breast cancer from 1990 onwards in women aged 40 and over at diagnosis, during the period November 1987 to December 31, 2002. Age- and screening-area-matched, population-based controls were women who had also been invited to screening but were alive at the time their case died. Results: Using conditional logistic regression on the data from 226 cases and 902 controls, the odds ratio for the risk of death from breast cancer in those attending at least one screen compared to those never screened was 0.59 (95% CI 0.41-0.84). After adjustment for healthy-volunteer bias and screening-opportunity bias, the odds ratio was 0.65 (95% CI 0.39-1.09). Conclusion: These results indicate a 35-40% reduction in breast cancer deaths by attending the Icelandic breast cancer screening program. These results are consistent with the overall evidence from other observational evaluations of mammography-based programs

  1. Reducing Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Disparities: Performance and Outcomes of a Screening Colonoscopy Program in South Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Xirasagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficiency, effectiveness, and racial disparities reduction potential of Screening Colonoscopies for People Everywhere in South Carolina (SCOPE SC, a state-funded program for indigent persons aged 50–64 years (45–64 years for African American (AA with a medical home in community health centers. Patients were referred to existing referral network providers, and the centers were compensated for patient navigation. Data on procedures and patient demographics were analyzed. Of 782 individuals recruited (71.2% AA, 85% (665 completed the procedure (71.1% AA. The adenoma detection rate was 27.8% (males 34.6% and females 25.1%, advanced neoplasm rate 7.7% (including 3 cancers, cecum intubation rate 98.9%, inadequate bowel preparation rate 7.9%, and adverse event rate 0.9%. All indicators met the national quality benchmarks. The adenoma rate of 26.0% among AAs aged 45–49 years was similar to that of older Whites and AAs. We found that patient navigation and a medical home setting resulted in a successful and high-quality screening program. The observed high adenoma rate among younger AAs calls for more research with larger cohorts to evaluate the appropriateness of the current screening guidelines for AAs, given that they suffer 47% higher colorectal cancer mortality than Whites.

  2. The North Carolina Breast Cancer Screening Program: foundations and design of a model for reaching older, minority, rural women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, J A; Altpeter, M; Mayne, L; Viadro, C I; O'Malley, M S

    1995-07-01

    Breast cancer screening programs do not reach all women at the same rate. Screening mammography use varies according to sociodemographic characteristics; mammography utilization is highest among women in their fifties but then decreases with age. In North Carolina, breast cancer is a particular burden for Black and lower-income women. Black women are more likely to be diagnosed with late stage disease, and their rate of breast cancer mortality is higher than it is for White women even though the incidence in White women is greater. Older, Black, and low-income women are less likely to obtain screening by mammography and clinical breast examination. The Black-White gap is even more pronounced among rural women, in part because they are more likely to be poor. The North Carolina Breast Cancer Screening Program (NC-BCSP) was established to increase the rate of regular mammography screening by an absolute 20% in 3 years among older Black women ages 50 and older in five rural counties in the eastern part of the state. In this paper, we describe the genesis of this comprehensive community intervention model, highlighting the behavioral science constructs, health education principles, and theories of behavioral and organizational change that form its conceptual foundation. NC-BCSP's theoretical foundations include the social ecological perspective, the PRECEDE model of health promotion, the Health Belief Model of individual change, and the "stages of change" transtheoretical model. We also review the experiences and lessons learned from two previous outreach initiatives in North Carolina that provided valuable "lessons" in the development of the NC-BCSP intervention model. In the second half of the paper, we describe the actual NC-BCSP interventions, activities, and evaluation tools, citing specific examples of how the underlying theories are implemented. NC-BCSP's goal goes beyond individual behavior change to raise low mammography screening rates among Black women in

  3. Screening for prostatic cancer. Investigational models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Torp-Pedersen, S T

    1991-01-01

    Prostatic cancer has a long natural history and a significant preclinical period, during which the disease is detectable. Thus, this common malignancy in males fulfills some of the most important criteria for initiating screening programs. However, the still enigmatic epidemiology also includes...... features of the disease, which make the possible gain from screening programs questionable. Thus, before embarking on expensive community or national screening programs, the beneficial effect of such an effort on morbidity and mortality must be demonstrated in large-scale trials comparing a screened...

  4. Breast cancer screening in Canada: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organized screening for breast cancer in Canada began in 1988 and has been implemented in all provinces and 2 of the 3 territories. Quality initiatives are promoted through national guidelines which detail best practices in various areas, including achieving quality through a client-service approach, recruitment and capacity, retention, quality of mammography, reporting, communication of results, follow-up and diagnostic workup, and program evaluation; it also offers detailed guidelines for the pathological examination and reporting of breast specimens. The Canadian Breast Cancer Data Base is a national breast cancer screening surveillance system whose objective is to collect information from provincial-screening programs. These data are used to monitor and evaluate the performance of programs and allow comparison with national and international results. A series of standardized performance indicators and targets for the evaluation of performance and quality of organized breast cancer screening programs have been developed from the data base. Although health care is a provincial responsibility in Canada, the collective reporting and comparison of results both nationally and internationally is beneficial in evaluating and refining both screening programs and individual radiologist performance. The results of Canadian performance indicators compare favourably with those of other well-established international screening programs. There are variations in performance indicators across the provinces and territories, but these differences are not extreme. (author)

  5. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and former heavy smokers. Current smokers whose LDCT scan results show possible signs of cancer may be more likely to quit smoking. A Guide is available for patients and doctors to learn more about the benefits and harms of low-dose helical CT screening for lung cancer. Screening with chest x- ...

  6. Screening for colorectal cancer: what fits best?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been shown to be effective in reducing CRC incidence and mortality. There are currently a number of screening modalities available for implementation into a population-based CRC screening program. Each screening method offers different strengths but also possesses its own limitations as a population-based screening strategy. We review the current evidence base for accepted CRC screening tools and evaluate their merits alongside their challenges in fulfilling their role in the detection of CRC. We also aim to provide an outlook on the demands of a low-risk population-based CRC screening program with a view to providing insight as to which modality would best suit current and future needs.

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of non-invasive assessment in the Dutch breast cancer screening program versus usual care: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, J.M.H.; Damen, J.A.A.G.; Pijnappel, R.M.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Heeten, GJ. den; Adang, E.M.M.; Broeders, M.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increased recall rates in the Dutch breast cancer screening program call for a new assessment strategy aiming to reduce unnecessary costs and anxiety. Diagnostic work-up (usual care) includes multidisciplinary hospital assessment and is similar for all recalled women, regardless of the ra

  9. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada;

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  10. A simple way to measure the burden of interval cancers in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sune Bangsbøll; Törnberg, Sven; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2014-01-01

    . This resulted in 5 papers describing 12 mammography screening programs. RESULTS: Covering initial screens only, the ICR varied from 0.10 to 0.28 while the PICR varied from 0.22 to 0.51. For subsequent screens only, the ICR varied from 0.22 to 0.37 and the PICR from 0.28 to 0.51. There was a strong......BACKGROUND: The sensitivity of a mammography program is normally evaluated by comparing the interval cancer rate to the expected breast cancer incidence without screening, i.e. the proportional interval cancer rate (PICR). The expected breast cancer incidence in absence of screening is, however...... systematic review and included studies: 1) covering a service screening program, 2) women aged 50-69 years, 3) observed data, 4) interval cancers, women screened, or interval cancer rate, screen detected cases, or screen detection rate, and 5) estimated breast cancer incidence rate of background population...

  11. CDC Vital Signs: Cancer Screenings: Colorectal Cancer and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aged 50–75 need to be screened for colorectal cancer, and 7 million women aged 50–74 need ... aged 50–75 are up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening. 56% Only 56% of uninsured women aged ...

  12. EFFECTIVITY OF SCREENING PROGRAMS OF NEOPLASMS IN CZECH REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Valášková, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with the national screening programs for cancer diagnosis. The goal of this thesis is to find a proper way how to evaluate the effectivity of screening programs as well as their influence on the intensity of mortality from certain types of cancer. For the purpose of finding out necessary information were used data related to the diagnosis of colorectal cancer, a diagnosis of cervical cancer and breast cancer in the population of the Czech Republic between 1977 - 2011...

  13. Breast cancer correlates in a cohort of breast screening program participants in Riyadh, KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad A. Al-Amri

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: The findings of the current work suggested that age at marriage, age at menopause ⩾50 years and 1st degree family history of breast cancer were risk factors for breast cancer, while, age at menopause <50 years, number of pregnancies and practicing breast feeding were protective factors against breast cancer. There was no effect of body mass index or physical inactivity. Further studies are needed to explore the hereditary, familial and genetic background risk factors in Saudi population.

  14. What dentists should know about oral cancer screening?

    OpenAIRE

    Omar B Kujan

    2013-01-01

    Although the advances in the diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer, it remains one of the most devastating malignancies. Early detection and prevention is a major key in combating policy of cancer. Screening offers an important opportunity for early detection. Several screening methods, visual examination, toluidine blue, fluorescence imaging, and brush biopsy, were used in oral cancer screening programs. General dental practitioner plays an important role in such programs. Therefore, this r...

  15. Real-Time Monitoring and Evaluation of a Visual-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Program Using a Decision Support Job Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Curtis W; Rose, Donny; Mink, Jonah; Levitz, David

    2016-01-01

    In many developing nations, cervical cancer screening is done by visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of such screening programs is challenging. An enhanced visual assessment (EVA) system was developed to augment VIA procedures in low-resource settings. The EVA System consists of a mobile colposcope built around a smartphone, and an online image portal for storing and annotating images. A smartphone app is used to control the mobile colposcope, and upload pictures to the image portal. In this paper, a new app feature that documents clinical decisions using an integrated job aid was deployed in a cervical cancer screening camp in Kenya. Six organizations conducting VIA used the EVA System to screen 824 patients over the course of a week, and providers recorded their diagnoses and treatments in the application. Real-time aggregated statistics were broadcast on a public website. Screening organizations were able to assess the number of patients screened, alongside treatment rates, and the patients who tested positive and required treatment in real time, which allowed them to make adjustments as needed. The real-time M&E enabled by "smart" diagnostic medical devices holds promise for broader use in screening programs in low-resource settings. PMID:27196932

  16. Central online quality assurance in radiology. An IT solution exemplified by the German Breast Cancer Screening Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Physical-technical quality assurance is one of the essential tasks of the National Reference Centers in the German Breast Cancer Screening Program. For this purpose the mammography units are required to transfer the measured values of the constancy tests on a daily basis and all phantom images created for this purpose on a weekly basis to the reference centers. This is a serious logistical challenge. To meet these requirements, we developed an innovative software tool. Materials and Methods: By the end of 2005, we had already developed web-based software (MammoControl) allowing the transmission of constancy test results via entry forms. For automatic analysis and transmission of the phantom images, we then introduced an extension (MammoControl DIANA). This was based on Java, Java Web Start, the NetBeans Rich Client Platform, the Pixelmed Java DICOM Toolkit and the ImageJ library. Results: MammoControl DIANA was designed to run locally in the mammography units. This allows automated on-site image analysis. Both results and compressed images can then be transmitted to the reference center. We developed analysis modules for the daily and monthly consistency tests and additionally for a homogeneity test. Conclusion: The software we developed facilitates the immediate availability of measurement results, phantom images, and DICOM header data in all reference centers. This allows both targeted guidance and short response time in the case of errors. We achieved a consistent IT-based evaluation with standardized tools for the entire screening program in Germany. (orig.)

  17. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test ... called the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and stool DNA test (sDNA). Sigmoidoscopy : This test uses a small flexible ...

  18. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may detect (find) endometrial cancer are being studied: Pap test A Pap test is a procedure to collect cells from ... are abnormal . This procedure is also called a Pap smear. Pap tests are not used to screen ...

  19. A Peer Health Educator Program for Breast Cancer Screening Promotion: Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese Immigrant Women’s Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Crawford

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese immigrant women’s experiences with a peer health educator program, a public health program that facilitated access to breast health information and mammography screening. Framed within critical social theory, this participatory action research project took place from July 2009 to January 2011. Ten focus groups and 14 individual interviews were conducted with 82 immigrant women 40 years of age and older. Qualitative methods were utilized. Thematic content analysis derived from grounded theory and other qualitative literature was employed to analyze data. Four dominant themes emerged: Breast Cancer Prevention focused on learning within the program, Social Support provided by the peer health educator and other women, Screening Services Access for Women centered on service provision, and Program Enhancements related to specific modifications required to meet the needs of immigrant women accessing the program. The findings provide insights into strategies used to promote breast health, mammography screening, and the improvement of public health programming. Perceived barriers that continue to persist are structural barriers, such as the provision of information on breast cancer and screening by family physicians. A future goal is to improve collaborations between public health and primary care to minimize this barrier.

  20. Benefits of E-Cigarettes Among Heavy Smokers Undergoing a Lung Cancer Screening Program: Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiero, Marianna; Veronesi, Giulia; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Spina, Stefania; Jemos, Costantino; Omodeo Salè, Emanuela; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking is a global public health problem. For this reason, experts have called smoking dependence a global epidemic. Over the past 5 years, sales of electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, have been growing strongly in many countries. Yet there is only partial evidence that e-cigarettes are beneficial for smoking cessation. In particular, although it has been proven that nicotine replacement devices may help individuals stop smoking and tolerate withdrawal symptoms, e-cigarettes’ power to increase the quitting success rate is still limited, ranging from 5% to 20% dependent on smokers’ baseline conditions as shown by a recent Cochrane review. Consequently, it is urgent to know if e-cigarettes may have a higher success rate than other nicotine replacement methods and under what conditions. Furthermore, the effects of the therapeutic setting and the relationship between individual characteristics and the success rate have not been tested. This protocol is particularly innovative, because it aims to test the effectiveness of electronic devices in a screening program (the COSMOS II lung cancer prevention program at the European Institute of Oncology), where tobacco reduction is needed to lower individuals’ lung cancer risks. Objective This protocol was designed with the primary aim of investigating the role of tobacco-free cigarettes in helping smokers improve lung health and either quit smoking or reduce their tobacco consumption. In particular, we aim to investigate the impact of a 3-month e-cigarettes program to reduce smoking-related respiratory symptoms (eg, dry cough, shortness of breath, mouth irritation, and phlegm) through reduced consumption of tobacco cigarettes. Furthermore, we evaluate the behavioral and psychological (eg, well-being, mood, and quality of life) effects of the treatment. Methods This is a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, three-parallel group study. The study is organized as a nested randomized

  1. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laxatives to clear the colon, shows polyps clearly. DNA stool test This test checks DNA in stool cells for genetic changes that may be a sign of colorectal cancer. Screening clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the ... Screening tests have risks. False-negative test results can occur. ...

  2. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  3. Human papillomavirus testing in cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Philip E; Cremer, Miriam

    2013-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more reliable and sensitive but less specific than Papanicolaou (Pap) testing/cervical cytology for the detection of cervical precancer and cancer. HPV-negative women are at lower risk of cervical cancer than Pap-negative women. In high-resource settings, HPV testing can be used to make cervical cancer prevention programs more efficient by focusing clinical attention on women who have HPV. In lower-resource settings, where Pap testing has not been sustained or widespread, new, lower-cost HPV tests may make cervical cancer screening feasible. PMID:23732037

  4. Screening for prostatic cancer. Investigational models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Torp-Pedersen, S T

    1991-01-01

    Prostatic cancer has a long natural history and a significant preclinical period, during which the disease is detectable. Thus, this common malignancy in males fulfills some of the most important criteria for initiating screening programs. However, the still enigmatic epidemiology also includes...

  5. Review on the medical and health economic evidence for an inclusion of colposcopy in primary screening programs for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With 3.2% of all cancer cases in 2002, cervical carcinoma is the tenth most common cancer in Germany and causes 1.8% of all cancer deaths in women in Germany. To date diagnosis in Germany solely has been based on cervical cytology which has been criticised due to its low sensitivity and consequently high rate of false negative results. Objectives: How does colposcopy compare to cytological tests in terms of sensitivity and specificity, and what may be the effects of changes in screening for cervical carcinoma in Germany? Is there health economic evidence that may foster an inclusion of colposcopy into national screening programms? Methods: A systematic literature review was performed, including studies that compared colposcopy to cervical cytology in terms of sensitivity and specificity. In addition, a systematic review of the relevant health economic literature was performed to analyse cost-effectiveness issues relevant to the German setting. Results: A total of four studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, of which only two were of high methodologic quality. In all studies, the sensitivity of colposcopy was lower than that of cytology. In three studies the specificity of colposcopy was lower than that of cytology, in one study specificity of colposcopy and cytology was similar. No health economic data suggesting positive effects of adding colposcopy in primary screening could be identified. Discussion: Only few studies have compared the test criteria of colposcopy with those of cytology for screening in cervical cancer. In all studies, sensitivity of colposcopy was even lower than the sensitivity of cytology, which has been critisized because of its low sensitivity. Conclusion: Based on the present data, an inclusion of colposcopy in primary cervical cancer screening programmes can not be recommended.

  6. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is present in the body. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker for ... and other types of cancer, may also increase AFP levels. Specific tumor markers that may lead to ...

  7. MRI screening for breast cancer in women at high risk; is the Australian breast MRI screening access program addressing the needs of women at high risk of breast cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Schenberg, Tess; Mitchell, Gillian; Taylor, Donna; Saunders, Christobel

    2015-01-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening of women under 50 years old at high familial risk of breast cancer was given interim funding by Medicare in 2009 on the basis that a review would be undertaken. An updated literature review has been undertaken by the Medical Services Advisory Committee but there has been no assessment of the quality of the screening or other screening outcomes. This review examines the evidence basis of breast MRI screening and how this fits within an Australi...

  8. Mammographic screening for breast cancer: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Warwick; Peters, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, BreastScreen Australia celebrated 20 years of mammographic screening for breast cancer in Australia. There has been a reduction in mortality from breast cancer over the last two decades, coincident with mammographic screening. However, there are concerns that mammographic screening may result in overdiagnosis of breast cancer and that the reduction in mortality from breast cancer is the result of better treatment rather than screening. This article reviews the evidence on which mammo...

  9. European Breast Cancer Service Screening Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paci, Eugenio; Broeders, Mireille; Hofvind, Solveig;

    2014-01-01

    A recent comprehensive review has been carried out to quantify the benefits and harms of the European population-based mammographic screening programs. Five literature reviews were conducted on the basis of the observational published studies evaluating breast cancer mortality reduction, breast...... seven to nine breast cancer deaths are avoided, four cases are overdiagnosed, 170 women have at least one recall followed by noninvasive assessment with a negative result, and 30 women have at least one recall followed by invasive procedures yielding a negative result. The chance of a breast cancer...... cancer overdiagnosis, and false-positive results. On the basis of the studies reviewed, the authors present a first estimate of the benefit and harm balance sheet. For every 1,000 women screened biennially from ages 50 to 51 years until ages 68 to 69 years and followed up until age 79 years, an estimated...

  10. Breast cancer screening in British Columbia: implications of diagnostic trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Despite reductions in mortality rates, breast cancer remains the most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death in Canadian women. Organized screening programs have contributed to the decrease in breast cancer mortality by allowing for early diagnosis and treatment. The diagnostic phase following an abnormal screen has implications for patient well-being, clinical practice, and resource management in health care. We present data from British Columbia that show that improv...

  11. Relationship between primary and specialized care in a screening program for early detection of breast cancer set up by a county hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To present another approach to early detection of, or screening for, breast cancer in a health care based on the coordination between specialized care and primary care teams and the optimal use of the available human and technological resources. All the women between the ages of 50 and 65 years (n=3548) were studied. Their medical histories were recorded and their breasts were examined by their specialists. They then underwent mammography and, on the same day when indicated, ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy, carried out by the breast cancer screening specialists. A total of 2562 mammographies were performed. The response rate was 72.21%. Fourteen malignant tumors were detected. There was a mean interval of 3 days between mammography and the receipt of the results by the primary care physician, of 5 days for the patient to learn of the results, and of 14 days for surgical treatment to be carried out in the case of breast cancer. The good coordination and relationship between the women who participate in the program and the specialized and primary care physicians facilitates early breast cancer detection in a health care area. The rapid and personalized notification of the results by the primary care physician and their conveyance, in the case of malignant disease, to the specialist in the management of breast cancer ensure an effective, practical and smoothly run program that adapts to the particular circumstance of the female population it is designed to assist. (Author) 48 refs

  12. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  13. Comparing the diagnostic yields of technologists and radiologists in an invitational colorectal cancer screening program performed with CT colonography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. de Haan (Margriet); C.Y. Nio (Yung); M. Thomeer (Maarten); A.H. de Vries (Ayso); P.M.M. Bossuyt (Patrick); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); E. Dekker (Evelien); J. Stoker (Jacob)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To compare the diagnostic yields of a radiologist and trained technologists in the detection of advanced neoplasia within a population-based computed tomographic (CT) colonography screening program. Materials and Methods: Ethical approval was obtained from the Dutch Health Counc

  14. Effect of radiologist experience on the risk of false-positive results in breast cancer screening programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of radiologist experience on the risk of false-positive results in population-based breast cancer screening programmes. We evaluated 1,440,384 single-read screening mammograms, corresponding to 471,112 women aged 45-69 years participating in four Spanish programmes between 1990 and 2006. The mammograms were interpreted by 72 radiologists. The overall percentage of false-positive results was 5.85% and that for false-positives resulting in an invasive procedure was 0.38%. Both the risk of false-positives overall and of false-positives leading to an invasive procedure significantly decreased (p 14,999 mammograms with respect to the reference category (<500). The risk of both categories of false-positives was also significantly reduced (p < 0.001) as radiologists' years of experience increased: OR 0.96 and OR 0.84, respectively, for 1 year's experience and OR 0.72 and OR 0.73, respectively, for more than 4 years' experience with regard to the category of <1 year's experience. Radiologist experience is a determining factor in the risk of a false-positive result in breast cancer screening. (orig.)

  15. MRI screening for breast cancer in women at high risk; is the Australian breast MRI screening access program addressing the needs of women at high risk of breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenberg, Tess; Mitchell, Gillian; Taylor, Donna; Saunders, Christobel

    2015-09-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening of women under 50 years old at high familial risk of breast cancer was given interim funding by Medicare in 2009 on the basis that a review would be undertaken. An updated literature review has been undertaken by the Medical Services Advisory Committee but there has been no assessment of the quality of the screening or other screening outcomes. This review examines the evidence basis of breast MRI screening and how this fits within an Australian context with the purpose of informing future modifications to the provision of Medicare-funded breast MRI screening in Australia. Issues discussed will include selection of high-risk women, the options for MRI screening frequency and measuring the outcomes of screening. PMID:26451244

  16. MRI screening for breast cancer in women at high risk; is the Australian breast MRI screening access program addressing the needs of women at high risk of breast cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening of women under 50 years old at high familial risk of breast cancer was given interim funding by Medicare in 2009 on the basis that a review would be undertaken. An updated literature review has been undertaken by the Medical Services Advisory Committee but there has been no assessment of the quality of the screening or other screening outcomes. This review examines the evidence basis of breast MRI screening and how this fits within an Australian context with the purpose of informing future modifications to the provision of Medicare-funded breast MRI screening in Australia. Issues discussed will include selection of high-risk women, the options for MRI screening frequency and measuring the outcomes of screening

  17. MRI screening for breast cancer in women at high risk; is the Australian breast MRI screening access program addressing the needs of women at high risk of breast cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenberg, Tess [Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Familial Cancer Centre, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Mitchell, Gillian [Familial Cancer Centre, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Taylor, Donna [School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Department of Radiology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); BreastScreen Western Australia, Adelaide Terrace, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Saunders, Christobel [School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Department of General Surgery, St John of God Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening of women under 50 years old at high familial risk of breast cancer was given interim funding by Medicare in 2009 on the basis that a review would be undertaken. An updated literature review has been undertaken by the Medical Services Advisory Committee but there has been no assessment of the quality of the screening or other screening outcomes. This review examines the evidence basis of breast MRI screening and how this fits within an Australian context with the purpose of informing future modifications to the provision of Medicare-funded breast MRI screening in Australia. Issues discussed will include selection of high-risk women, the options for MRI screening frequency and measuring the outcomes of screening.

  18. The Effect of National Cancer Screening on Disparity Reduction in Cancer Stage at Diagnosis by Income Level

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Hye-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Lairson, David R.; Kim, Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Background Early detection of cancer is an effective and efficient cancer management strategy. In South Korea, the National Health Insurance administers the National Cancer Screening Program to its beneficiaries. We examined the impact of the National Cancer Screening Program on socioeconomic disparities in cancer stage at diagnosis. Methods Cancer patients registered in the Korean Central Cancer Registry from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010 with a diagnosis of gastric cancer (n = 22,470...

  19. Mind the gap: Racial differences in breast cancer incidence and biologic phenotype, but not stage, among low-income women participating in a government-funded screening program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Joan E.; Walters, Christine A.; Hill, Elizabeth G.; Ford, Marvella E.; Barker-Elamin, Tiffany; Bennett, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer mortality rates in South Carolina (SC) are 40% higher among African-American (AA) than European-American (EA) women. Proposed reasons include race-associated variations in care and/or tumor characteristics, which may be subject to income effects. We evaluated race-associated differences in tumor biologic phenotype and stage among low-income participants in a government-funded screening program. Methods Best Chance Network (BCN) data were linked with the SC Central Cancer Registry. Characteristics of breast cancers diagnosed in BCN participants aged 47–64 years during 1996–2006 were abstracted. Race-specific case proportions and incidence rates based on estrogen receptor (ER) status and histologic grade were estimated. Results Among 33,880 low-income women accessing BCN services, repeat breast cancer screening utilization was poor, especially among EAs. Proportionally, stage at diagnosis did not differ by race (607 cancers, 53% among AAs), with about 40% advanced stage. Compared to EAs, invasive tumors in AAs were 67% more likely (proportions) to be of poor-prognosis phenotype (both ER-negative and high-grade); this was more a result of the 46% lesser AA incidence (rates) of better-prognosis (ER+ lower-grade) cancer than the 32% greater incidence of poor-prognosis disease (p-values <0.01). When compared to the general SC population, racial disparities in poor prognostic features within the BCN population were attenuated; this was due to more frequent adverse tumor features in EAs rather than improvements for AAs. Conclusion Among low-income women in SC, closing the breast cancer racial and income mortality gaps will require improved early diagnosis, addressing causes of racial differences in tumor biology, and improved care for cancers of poor-prognosis biology. PMID:23239148

  20. Differences between first and subsequent rounds of the MRISC breast cancer screening program for women with a familial or genetic predisposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kriege, M; Brekelmans, CTM; Boetes, C; Muller, SH; Zonderland, HM; Obdeijn, IM; Manoliu, RA; Kok, T; Rutgers, EJT; de Koning, HJ; Klijn, JGM

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND. within the Dutch MRI Screening (MRISC) study, a Dutch multicenter screening study for hereditary breast cancer, the authors investigated whether previously reported increased diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared with mammography would be maintained during subs

  1. Early Impact and Performance Characteristics of an Established Anal Dysplasia Screening Program: Program Evaluation Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews, Christopher; Caperna, Joseph; Cachay, Edward R.; Cosman, Bard

    2007-01-01

    Background: Screening for invasive anal cancer and its precursors is being increasingly advocated as a response to increasing incidence among HIV-infected persons. We implemented a comprehensive screening program in 2001 and report our early experience to inform monitoring and evaluation of such programs. Our research aims were: (1) to estimate incidence of and mortality from invasive anal cancer (IAC) before (1995-2000) and after (2001-2005) screening program implementation and (2) to examin...

  2. Colorectal cancer screening: Time for action in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is now the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. According to the Iranian Annual National Cancer Registration Report, CRC is the third most common cancer in Iranian women and fifth in men. The incidence of CRC has increased during the last 25 years. CRC screening is an efficient way to reduce the burden of CRC through detection of precursor lesions of cancer or early stage cancer. Iran may benefit even more from screening programs. According to...

  3. Effect of radiologist experience on the risk of false-positive results in breast cancer screening programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubizarreta Alberdi, Raquel [Galician Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Public Health and Planning Directorate, Health Office, Galicia (Spain); Edificio Administrativo da Conselleria de Sanidade, Servicio de Programas Poboacionais de Cribado, Direccion Xeral de Saude Publica e Planificacion, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Llanes, Ana B.F.; Ortega, Raquel Almazan [Galician Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Public Health and Planning Directorate, Health Office, Galicia (Spain); Exposito, Ruben Roman; Collado, Jose M.V.; Oliveres, Xavier Castells [Department of Epidemiology and Evaluation, Institut Municipal d' Investigacio Medica-Parc de Salut Mar. CIBERESP, Barcelona (Spain); Queiro Verdes, Teresa [Galician Agency for Health Technology Assessment, Public Health and Planning Directorate, Health Office, Galicia (Spain); Natal Ramos, Carmen [Principality of Asturias Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Principality of Asturias (Spain); Sanz, Maria Ederra [Public Health Institute, Navarra Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Pamplona (Spain); Salas Trejo, Dolores [General Directorate Public Health and Centre for Public Health Research (CSISP), Valencia Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    To evaluate the effect of radiologist experience on the risk of false-positive results in population-based breast cancer screening programmes. We evaluated 1,440,384 single-read screening mammograms, corresponding to 471,112 women aged 45-69 years participating in four Spanish programmes between 1990 and 2006. The mammograms were interpreted by 72 radiologists. The overall percentage of false-positive results was 5.85% and that for false-positives resulting in an invasive procedure was 0.38%. Both the risk of false-positives overall and of false-positives leading to an invasive procedure significantly decreased (p < 0.001) with greater reading volume in the previous year: OR 0.77 and OR 0.78, respectively, for a reading volume 500-1,999 mammograms and OR 0.59 and OR 0.60 for a reading volume of >14,999 mammograms with respect to the reference category (<500). The risk of both categories of false-positives was also significantly reduced (p < 0.001) as radiologists' years of experience increased: OR 0.96 and OR 0.84, respectively, for 1 year's experience and OR 0.72 and OR 0.73, respectively, for more than 4 years' experience with regard to the category of <1 year's experience. Radiologist experience is a determining factor in the risk of a false-positive result in breast cancer screening. (orig.)

  4. Early diagnosis and screening for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The barium enema has been a neglected tool in the diagnosis of early colon cancer. With appropriate attention to technical detail, the double contrast enema is capable of detecting the smallest malignant and pre-malignant lesions. Many of these early colon cancers are found in asymptomatic patients and these lesions are curable. The goal of a screening program should be to identify by history or by fecal occult blood testing patients at high risk for the development of colon cancer. These patients should be examined by high-quality double contrast enema in the search for these potentially lethal but curable lesions. In addition, we believe that any patient undergoing radiologic examination of the colon for whatever reason, should receive an examination of adequate quality to rule out an early colon cancer. (Author)

  5. Cancer Screening on the Hopi Reservation: A Model for Success in a Native American Community

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Sylvia R.; Joshweseoma, Lori; Saboda, Kathylynn; Sanderson, Priscilla; Ami, Delores; Harris, Robin

    2015-01-01

    American Indian women have lower cancer survival rates compared to non-Hispanic White women. Increased cancer screening fostered by culturally sensitive education and community programs may help decrease this disparity. This study assesses the effectiveness of Hopi Cancer Support Services (HCSS) in maintaining high rates of breast and cervical cancer screening among Hopi women and evaluates the impact of participation in HCSS programs on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. A population-based s...

  6. Celebrity endorsements of cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robin J; Woloshin, Steven; Schwartz, Lisa M; Welch, H Gilbert

    2005-05-01

    Celebrities often promote cancer screening by relating personal anecdotes about their own diagnosis or that of a loved one. We used data obtained from a random-digit dialing survey conducted in the United States from December 2001 through July 2002 to examine the extent to which adults of screening age without a history of cancer had seen or heard or been influenced by celebrity endorsements of screening mammography, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. The survey response rate was 72% among those known to be eligible and 51% among potentially eligible people accounting for those who could not be contacted. A total of 360 women aged 40 years or older and 140 men aged 50 years or older participated in the survey. Most respondents reported they "had seen or heard a celebrity talk about" mammography (73% of women aged 40 years or older), PSA testing (63% of men aged 50 years or older), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (52% of adults aged 50 years or older). At least one-fourth of respondents who had seen or heard a celebrity endorsement said that the endorsement made them more likely to undergo mammography (25%), PSA testing (31%), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (37%). PMID:15870440

  7. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Computed Tomography Screening Workshop 2011 report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John K; Smith, Robert A; Aberle, Denise R; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Baldwin, David R; Yankelevitz, David; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Swanson, Scott James; Travis, William D; Wisbuba, Ignacio I; Noguchi, Masayuki; Mulshine, Jim L

    2012-01-01

    The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Board of Directors convened a computed tomography (CT) Screening Task Force to develop an IASLC position statement, after the National Cancer Institute press statement from the National Lung Screening Trial showed that lung cancer deaths fell by 20%. The Task Force's Position Statement outlined a number of the major opportunities to further improve the CT screening in lung cancer approach, based on experience with cancer screening from other organ sites.The IASLC CT Screening Workshop 2011 further developed these discussions, which are summarized in this report. The recommendation from the workshop, and supported by the IASLC Board of Directors, was to set up the Strategic CT Screening Advisory Committee (IASLC-SSAC). The Strategic CT Screening Advisory Committee is currently engaging professional societies and organizations who are stakeholders in lung cancer CT screening implementation across the globe, to focus on delivering guidelines and recommendations in six specific areas: (i) identification of high-risk individuals for lung cancer CT screening programs; (ii) develop radiological guidelines for use in developing national screening programs; (iii) develop guidelines for the clinical work-up of "indeterminate nodules" resulting from CT screening programmers; (iv) guidelines for pathology reporting of nodules from lung cancer CT screening programs; (v) recommendations for surgical and therapeutic interventions of suspicious nodules identified through lung cancer CT screening programs; and (vi) integration of smoking cessation practices into future national lung cancer CT screening programs. PMID:22173661

  8. Screening for Breast Cancer: Staging and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Staging and Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... oncology nurse and a registered dietitian. Read More "Screening For Breast Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer ...

  9. BREAST CANCER SCREENING KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE AMONG WOMEN IN SOUTHEAST OF IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    Z Heidari; H. R Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb; N. Sakhavar

    2008-01-01

    "nBreast cancer is the most common cancer occurring among women. The mortality rate of breast cancer can be reduced by regular breast cancer screening program. This study was carried out to identify the knowledge and practice of women about breast cancer screening in Zahedan, southeast of Iran. In this cross- sectional study, 384 women were selected as an improbability sample of women referring to Qouds maternity hospital. Knowledge and practice of them about breast cancer screening were...

  10. A cross-sectional analysis of participation in National Bowel Cancer Screening Program in Adelaide by age, gender and geographical location of residence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Javanparast

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP is apopulation-based screening program based on a mailedscreening invitation and immunochemical faecal occult bloodtest. Initial published evidence from the NBCSP concurs withinternational evidence on similar colorectal cancer screeningprograms about the unequal participation by differentpopulation sub-groups. The aim of the paper is to present across-sectional analysis of participation in the NBCSP forAdelaide, in order to identify geographical areas andpopulation groups which may benefit from targetedapproaches to increase participation rates in colorectal cancerscreening.MethodDe-identified data from the NBCSP (February 2007 to July2008 were provided by Medicare Australia. Mapping andanalysis of the NBCSP data was performed using ESRI ArcGISsoftware, MapInfo, Microsoft Access and Microsoft Excel.Data was aggregated to postcode and participation was thenmapped according to overall participation rates, sex and age.ResultsThe overall participation rate was 46.9%, although thisdiffered by age, gender and geographical location. Mapsprovided in the paper reveal a socio-economic patterningof participation in the NBCSP, whereby areas with higherparticipation rates are also more affluent, whereas areaswith lower participation rates tend to be moredisadvantaged.ConclusionFindings from this study suggest inequities in participationin the NBCSP on the basis of gender, geographicallocation, and socio-economic status.

  11. Cancer Screening: How Do Screening Tests Become Standard Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have grown and spread. This can make the cancer harder to treat or cure. It is important to remember that when your ... Finds cancer before symptoms appear. Screens for a cancer that is easier to treat and cure when found early. Has few false-negative test ...

  12. Screening for Breast Cancer: Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Screening Mammography In November 2009, the United States Preventive ...

  13. Breast Cancer Screening in Black and Hispanic Subpopulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Miller

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary objective was to examine and compare the breast cancer screening adherence rates between black (African American and Afro-Caribbean and Hispanic (foreign born Hispanic and US-born Hispanic subpopulations. Methods: Study data was collected in community settings in New York City between the years of 2011-2012. Participants (N=592 were black and Hispanic individuals who attended a breast cancer screening community outreach program. Breast cancer screening rates as well as demographic data were collected. Results: Results revealed that Afro-Caribbean and foreign-born Hispanics are at a greater risk for non-adherence in breast cancer screening compared with African Americans and US-born Hispanics. Conclusions: The majority of breast screening research and community outreach programs categorize people into broad racial and ethnic groups (e.g., black and Hispanic. The results revealed significant variability within these broader racial/ethnic categories with regard to breast cancer screening. Community outreach programs and future research efforts should target the subpopulations that are at particular risk for breast cancer screening non-adherence.

  14. A comparative study of faecal occult blood kits in a colorectal cancer screening program in a cohort of healthy construction workers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shuhaibar, M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been increasing. We evaluated uptake rates and outcomes of faecal immunochemical test (FIT) and Guaiac test (gFOBT) kits as part of a two-step CRC screening. METHODS: A 3-year CRC screening program for a defined population of construction workers was conducted. Those satisfying the inclusion criteria were provided with gFOBT or FIT kits. Individuals testing positive were invited for a colonoscopy. RESULTS: A total of 909 faecal testing kits were distributed. Age range was 53-60 years. Compliance rate was higher for FIT (58.3%) as compared to gFOBT (46.7%) (p = 0.0006). FIT detected adenomatous polyps and CRC in 37.5 and 25%, respectively, whereas; gFOBT detected 23.5 and 18%. Colonoscopies were normal in 53 and 25% tested positive by gFOBT and FIT, respectively (p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: The FIT was more cost-effective when compared with gFOBT with higher return rate, sensitivity and specificity. A comparative study of faecal occult blood kits in a CRC screening program in a healthy cohort of construction workers.

  15. The benefits and harms of screening for cancer with a focus on breast screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    The balance between benefits and harms is delicate for cancer screening programs. By attending screening with mammography some women will avoid dying from breast cancer or receive less aggressive treatment. But many more women will be overdiagnosed, receive needless treatment, have a false...... recommended. The effects of routine clinical breast examination are unknown, but considering the results of the breast self-examination trials, it is likely that it is harmful. The effects of screening for breast cancer with thermography, ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging are unknown. It is not clear...

  16. Screening for Psychosocial Risk in Pediatric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kazak, Anne E.; Brier, Moriah; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Reilly, Anne; Parker, Stephanie Fooks; Rogerwick, Stephanie; Ditaranto, Susan; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2012-01-01

    Major professional organizations have called for psychosocial risk screening to identify specific psychosocial needs of children with cancer and their families and facilitate the delivery of appropriate evidence-based care to address these concerns. However, systematic screening of risk factors at diagnosis is rare in pediatric oncology practice. Subsequent to a brief summary of psychosocial risks in pediatric cancer and the rationale for screening, this review identified three screening mode...

  17. The benefits and harms of screening for cancer with a focus on breast screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    The balance between benefits and harms is delicate for cancer screening programs. By attending screening with mammography some women will avoid dying from breast cancer or receive less aggressive treatment. But many more women will be overdiagnosed, receive needless treatment, have a false......-positive result, or live more years as a patient with breast cancer. Systematic reviews of the randomized trials have shown that for every 2000 women invited for mammography screening throughout 10 years, only 1 will have her life prolonged. In addition, 10 healthy women will be overdiagnosed with breast cancer...... whether screening with mammography does more good than harm. Women invited to screening should be informed according to the best available evidence, data should be reported in absolute numbers, and benefits and harms should be reported using the same denominator so that they can be readily compared....

  18. Psychological distress following fecal occult blood test in colorectal cancer screening--a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, Klaus; Ladelund, Steen; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Jørgensen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the possible psychological side-effect of participating in a colorectal cancer (CRC)-screening program.......To evaluate the possible psychological side-effect of participating in a colorectal cancer (CRC)-screening program....

  19. Vibrational Microspectroscopy for Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona M. Lyng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibrational spectroscopy analyses vibrations within a molecule and can be used to characterise a molecular structure. Raman spectroscopy is one of the vibrational spectroscopic techniques, in which incident radiation is used to induce vibrations in the molecules of a sample, and the scattered radiation may be used to characterise the sample in a rapid and non-destructive manner. Infrared (IR spectroscopy is a complementary vibrational spectroscopic technique based on the absorption of IR radiation by the sample. Molecules absorb specific frequencies of the incident light which are characteristic of their structure. IR and Raman spectroscopy are sensitive to subtle biochemical changes occurring at the molecular level allowing spectral variations corresponding to disease onset to be detected. Over the past 15 years, there have been numerous reports demonstrating the potential of IR and Raman spectroscopy together with multivariate statistical analysis techniques for the detection of a variety of cancers including, breast, lung, brain, colon, oral, oesophageal, prostate and cervical cancer. This paper discusses the recent advances and the future perspectives in relation to cancer screening applications, focussing on cervical and oral cancer.

  20. 宜昌市乳腺癌筛查及高危因素分析%Breast Cancer Screening Program and Risk Factors Analysis in Yichang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永芬

    2013-01-01

    目的通过乳腺癌的筛查,以了解本地区乳腺癌发病趋势及危险因素,探索基层医疗机构乳腺筛查方法。方法通过2008年5月~2009年12月宜昌市西陵区2多万名妇女进行乳腺保健教育实施的乳腺临床检查、红外线乳透、鉬靶、乳腺彩B超检查、病理诊断乳腺癌筛查模式进行研究。经筛查诊断乳腺癌为筛查组;2008年~2009年门诊收住院31例诊断乳腺癌患者为对照组。结果22189例妇女中筛查乳腺异常、触诊乳腺有肿块、结节、溢液或局限性增厚腺体等情况者1937例,其中43例接受手术活检或空心针穿刺活检,确诊为乳腺良性变1929例,占99.6%。确诊为乳腺癌8例,占0.4%,其中非浸润性癌1例,包括有小叶原位浸润性癌7例。其中T1期是2例。本组乳腺癌筛查的乳腺癌检出率为0.006%,筛查组肿瘤大小、淋巴转移、远处转移均比对照组小。结论临床检查、红外线乳透、鉬靶、彩超、病理穿刺检查的乳腺癌筛查模式适应基层医院,筛查提高妇女乳腺保健意识、提高乳腺癌早期诊断水平,有一定的临床推广价值。%Purpose: To improve the level of women's breast health ;Though the analysis of breast cancer screening program. We can understand the trends of Breast cancer and risk factors of breast cancer in the region and we can also find an ef ective way to improve the detection rate of early breast cancer. Method: By May 2008 to December 2009,There are 22189women in Yichang city conducted mode of "clinical breast examination-Mammography-breast ultrasound color Doppler-B model of breast cancer screening"after the implementation of breast health education. Result: There are 364 person who have breast diseases,such as Breast abnormalities, breast lump, Breast nodules; Breast discharge, Etc. Of which 43 person received surgical biopsy or hol ow needle aspiration biopsy cases diagnosed as breast changes which accounted

  1. Computer screens and brain cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia, both in the media and at the federal government level, over possible links between screen-based computer use and cancer, brain tumour in particular. The screen emissions assumed to be the sources of the putative hazard are the magnetic fields responsible for horizontal and vertical scanning of the display. Time-varying fluctuations in these magnetic fields induce electrical current flows in exposed tissues. This paper estimates that the induced current densities in the brain of the computer user are up to 1 mA/m2 (due to the vertical flyback). Corresponding values for other electrical appliances or installations are in general much less than this. The epidemiological literature shows no obvious signs of a sudden increase in brain tumour incidence, but the widespread use of computers is a relatively recent phenomenon. The occupational use of other equipment based on cathode ray tubes (such as TV repair) has a much longer history and has been statistically linked to brain tumour in some studies. A number of factors make this an unreliable indicator of the risk from computer screens, however. 42 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  2. Transition from film to digital mammography: Impact for breast cancer screening through the national breast and cervical cancer early detection program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T. van Ravesteyn (Nicolien); L. Van Lier (Lisanne); C.B. Schechter (Clyde); D.U. Ekwueme (Donatus U.); J. Royalty (Janet); J.W. Miller (Jacqueline W.); A.M. Near (Aimee); K.A. Cronin (Kathleen); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); J.S. Mandelblatt (Jeanne); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides mammograms and diagnostic services for low-income, uninsured women aged 40-64 years. Mammography facilities within the NBCCEDP gradually shifted from plain-film to digital mammography. The pur

  3. Social Construction of Cervical Cancer Screening among Panamanian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Arlene; Brown, Kelli McCormack; McDermott, Robert J.; Bryant, Carol A.; Coreil, Jeanine; Loseke, Donileen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding how "health issues" are socially constructed may be useful for creating culturally relevant programs for Hispanic/Latino populations. Purpose: We explored the constructed meanings of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Panamanian women, as well as socio-cultural factors that deter or encourage screening…

  4. Increased FDG uptake in the wall of the right atrium in people who participated in a cancer screening program with whole-body PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Hirofumi; Ide, Michiru; Yasuda, Seiei; Takahashi, Wakoh; Shohtsu, Akira [HIMEDIC Imaging Center at Lake Yamanaka, Yamanashi (Japan); Kubo, Atsushi

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of patients who showed increased FDG uptake in the wall of the right atrium. We have encountered 10 patients with increased activity in the wall of the right atrium among a total of 2,367 examinees who participated in our cancer screening program with whole-body PET. The mean age of these examinees was 62.9 yr, higher than that of the total population. All suffered from cardiac disorders, especially atrial fibrillation. FDG accumulated almost exclusively in the wall of the right atrium, whereas only slight activity was seen in the wall of the left atrium. Although the average size of the right atria was significantly enlarged, left atria were more severely dilated than right ones. Therefore overload does not seem to account for the FDG accumulation in the wall of the right atrium. In conclusion, the increased activity in the wall of the right atrium was a rare finding that was made in older people who suffered from cardiac disease. Although the mechanism of induction of the high metabolic state of glucose in the wall of the right atrium remains unclear, this unusual activity would be another false positive finding in cancer screening with whole-body FDG PET. (author)

  5. Increased FDG uptake in the wall of the right atrium in people who participated in a cancer screening program with whole-body PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of patients who showed increased FDG uptake in the wall of the right atrium. We have encountered 10 patients with increased activity in the wall of the right atrium among a total of 2,367 examinees who participated in our cancer screening program with whole-body PET. The mean age of these examinees was 62.9 yr, higher than that of the total population. All suffered from cardiac disorders, especially atrial fibrillation. FDG accumulated almost exclusively in the wall of the right atrium, whereas only slight activity was seen in the wall of the left atrium. Although the average size of the right atria was significantly enlarged, left atria were more severely dilated than right ones. Therefore overload does not seem to account for the FDG accumulation in the wall of the right atrium. In conclusion, the increased activity in the wall of the right atrium was a rare finding that was made in older people who suffered from cardiac disease. Although the mechanism of induction of the high metabolic state of glucose in the wall of the right atrium remains unclear, this unusual activity would be another false positive finding in cancer screening with whole-body FDG PET. (author)

  6. Screening for colorectal cancer: possible improvements by risk assessment evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Hans J; Jakobsen, Karen V; Christensen, Ib J; Brünner, Nils

    2011-11-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including colono- and sigmoidoscopy, CT- and MR-colonography, capsule endoscopy, DNA and occult blood in feces, and so on. The pros and cons of the various tests, including economic issues, are debated. Although a plethora of evaluated and validated tests even with high specificities and reasonable sensitivities are available, an international consensus on screening procedures is still not established. The rather limited compliance in present screening procedures is a significant drawback. Furthermore, some of the procedures are costly and, therefore, selection methods for these procedures are needed. Current research into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among the screening populations, and thereby improve the compliances. Furthermore, the involvement of the media, including social media, may add even more individuals to the screening programs. Implementation of validated RAE and progressively improved screening methods may reform the cost/benefit of screening procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest. PMID:21854094

  7. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Nielsen, Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of screening for breast cancer with mammography on mortality and morbidity. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Pub...

  8. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary.......A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary....

  9. Tailored Telephone Counseling Increases Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawl, Susan M.; Christy, Shannon M.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Ding, Yan; Krier, Connie; Champion, Victoria L.; Rex, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of two interventions to promote colorectal cancer screening participation and forward stage movement of colorectal cancer screening adoption among first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps. One hundred fifty-eight first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps were…

  10. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our...... aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital...... 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. CONCLUSION: Despite...

  11. Ovarian cancer screening in the general population.

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, U

    2007-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in therapy, ovarian cancer continues to be a leading cause of death amongst women with gynaecological malignancies. Advanced stage at diagnosis is thought to be a major contributor to mortality. Hence, there is considerable interest in early detection through screening. In the 1990s, Professor Jacobs pioneered the development of a multimodal ovarian cancer screening (OCS) strategy using serum CA125 as the first line screen and pelvic ultrasound as the second l...

  12. Screening methods of ovarian cancer in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Vera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is associated with high mortality rate which has improved a little despite therapeutic advances. It causes more deaths than combined cervical and uterine cancer. High mortality is believed to be a direct result of already advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. Survival is excellent in case of early stage disease but poor in late stage disease, regardless of histology. The goal of screening for ovarian cancer is restricted to detection of asymptomatic early stage disease, as precursor lesions of ovarian cancer have not been identified. At present, there is no reliable method of ovarian cancer screening which has been shown to reduce mortality from ovarian cancer. Therefore, routine screening of women in general population can not be currently advised. Screening should be limited to high-risk population and subjects participating in research projects as long as the results of current studies are available.

  13. Continuous quality improvement of colorectal cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariusz; Madalinski

    2013-01-01

    Quality assurance is a key issue in colorectal cancer screening, because effective screening is able to improve primary prevention of the cancer. The quality measure may be described in terms:how well the screening test tells who truly has a disease (sensitivity) and who truly does not have a disease (specificity). This paper raises concerns about identification of the optimal screening test for colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy vs flexible sigmoidoscopy in colorectal cancer screening has been a source of ongoing debate. A multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing flexible sigmoidoscopy with usual care showed that flexible sigmoidoscopy screening is able to diminish the incidence of distal and proximal colorectal cancer, and also mortality related to the distal colorectal cancer. However, colonoscopy provides a more complete examination and remains the more sensitive exam than flexible sigmoidoscopy. Moreover, colonoscopy with polypectomy significantly reduces colorectal cancer incidence and colorectal cancer-related mortality in the general population. The article considers the relative merits of both methods and stresses an ethical aspect of patient’s involvement in decision-making. Patients should be informed not only about tests tolerability and risk of endoscopy complications, but also that different screening tests for bowel cancer have different strength to exclude colonic cancer and polyps. The authorities calculate effectiveness and costs of the screening tests, but patients may not be interested in statistics regarding flexible sigmoidoscopy screening and from an ethical point of view, they have the right to chose colonoscopy, which is able to exclude a cancer and precancerous lesions in the whole large bowel.

  14. Cancer screening with CT: dose controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomographic (CT) cancer screening has seen a steady increase in interest with the introduction of multislice scanners. While the potential benefits of screening are obvious, radiation dose may pose a long-term risk for the screened individual. This article will discuss the basis for radiation risk estimation and give an overview of the current dose controversy surrounding CT screening. Given the current evidence, a non-negligible radiation risk has to be postulated even at very low doses, but estimates depend heavily on the chosen mathematical model. Lung cancer risk is the most important factor in a screening population because it peaks in the time interval between 40 and 70 years of age. Substantial risks for lung cancer development from yearly screening CT examinations are currently discussed in the literature. Risks for colon cancer screening are less because of less frequent screening intervals. For both indications substantial dose reduction up to factors of 5-10 may be possible. Full-body screening remains critical when performed at regular intervals because of the large doses required and the direct exposure of the lungs. If performed in a dose-conscious fashion, individual risks with lung and colon cancer screening are very small, but estimated population risks are non-negligible. (orig.)

  15. Screening for breast cancer post reduction mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To investigate whether remodelling of the breast after breast reduction surgery has an effect on mammographic cancer detection. Methods and materials: For women who attended population-based screening between January 1998 to December 2007, data were extracted on their age, history of previous breast reduction, and the result of screening (recall for further assessment, cancer, or no cancer). The number of cancers detected, recalls per 1000 screens and the characteristics of the cancers detected in the two groups was compared. Results: In total 244,147 women with 736,219 screening episodes were reviewed. In the 4743 women who had a breast reduction, 51 breast cancers were detected [age standardized rate (ASR) of 4.28 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 3.11-5.46], compared with 4342 breast cancers in 239 404 women screened in the non-reduction group (ASR of 5.99 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 5.81-6.16). There were fewer cancers in the breast reduction group with a relative risk of 0.71. There was no significant difference in the rate of recall between the two groups, with a crude recall rate of 46.1 per 1000 screening episodes post-breast reduction compared with 50.7 per 1000 screening episodes for women without breast reduction. There was no significant difference in the pathological type or location of the cancer between the two groups of women. Conclusion: Postoperative breast changes following reduction mammoplasty do not significantly hinder analysis of the screening mammogram.

  16. 乳腺癌教育项目对乳腺癌筛查知识及参加意愿的影响%The effect of breast cancer screening educational program on breast cancer screening knowledge and willingness to participation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳君; 刘彩刚

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a breast cancer screening educational program on women's knowledge and intention to seek breast cancer screening in China.Methods 60 patients were divided into the experimental group (30 cases) and the control group (32 cases).The experimental group received breast cancer screening educational program,while the control group did not.A pre-test and post-test were used in both the experimental and the control groups.A convenience sampling was used.Two structured questionnaires were used.Results The mean scores of knowledge of breast cancer screening and intention to seek breast cancer screening of the experimental group were statistically different from those of the control group after the education.Statistical difference also existed in the experimental group in the above aspects within the experimental group.Conclusions Application of breast cancer screening educational program can improve women's knowledge and intention to seek breast cancer screening,as well as supply reference for prevention item of breast cancer.%目的 调查乳腺癌教育项目对妇女的乳腺癌筛查知识以及筛查意愿的影响.方法 将62例被调查者随机分为实验组30人和对照组32人.实验组接受乳腺癌教育项目,对照组参与者未接受.实验组和对照组均进行了教育前测试和教育后测试.采用抽样调查以及调查问卷的方法对2组患者乳腺癌筛查知识及筛查意愿进行测评.结果 2组接受教育后,筛查知识和筛查意愿得分比较差异均有统计学意义.实验组内教育前后在筛查知识和筛查意愿方面比较差异也同样具有统计学意义.结论 实施乳腺癌筛查教育项目可提高筛查知识水平以及筛查意愿,可以为临床乳腺癌预防项目提供参考.

  17. [Cervical cancer screening: past--present--future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenecker, G

    2009-12-01

    Despite the undisputed and impressive success which has been achieved since the 1960s by cervical cytology in the fight against cervical cancer and its precursor stages, during which the mortality rate in industrialized countries over the last 40 years has been reduced by two-thirds to three-quarters, a perfect and error-free screening procedure is still a long way off and will probably never be reached. There are two main reasons for this, the lack of adequate coverage and suboptimal quality and assessment of smears. Two screening procedures are in use Europe, an opportunistic and an organized system. Both systems have many advantages but also disadvantages. In organized programs the coverage is higher (up to 80%), although similar numbers are also achieved by non-organized programs over a 3-year cycle, even if they cannot be so exactly documented. The decision on which system is used depends on the health system of the country, public or non-public, and many other national circumstances. However, in both systems prerequisites for a satisfactory result is a high quality in the sampling technique, the processing and the assessment. Therefore, several guidelines have been introduced by state and medical societies for internal and external quality assurance. New technologies, such as thin-layer cytology or automation for replacement or support of conventional cytology liquid-based cytology proved not to be superior enough to justify the high costs of these systems. The recognition of the strong causal relationship between persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types and cervical cancer and its precursors has resulted in the development of comparably simple tests. Primary screening using HPV typing alone is not recommended in opportunistic screening due to the low specificity but high sensitivity because it leads to many clinically irrelevant results which place women under stress. In organized screening HPV testing is always and only possible

  18. Lung cancer screening overdiagnosis: reports of overdiagnosis in screening for lung cancer are grossly exaggerated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortani Barbosa, Eduardo J

    2015-08-01

    The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a mortality reduction benefit associated with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening for lung cancer. There has been considerable debate regarding the benefits and harms of LDCT lung cancer screening, including the challenges related to its practical implementation. One of the controversies regards overdiagnosis, which conceptually denotes diagnosing a cancer that, either because of its indolent, low-aggressiveness biologic behavior or because of limited life expectancy, is unlikely to result in significant morbidity during the patient's remainder lifetime. In theory, diagnosing and treating these cancers offer no measurable benefit while incurring costs and risks. Therefore, if a screening test detects a substantial number of overdiagnosed cancers, it is less likely to be effective. It has been argued that LDCT screening for lung cancer results in an unacceptably high rate of overdiagnosis. This article aims to defend the opposite stance. Overdiagnosis does exist and to a certain extent is inherent to any cancer-screening test. Nonetheless, the concept is less dualistic and more nuanced than it has been suggested. Furthermore, the average estimates of overdiagnosis in LDCT lung cancer screening based on the totality of published data are likely much lower than the highest published estimates, if a careful definition of a positive screening test reflecting our current understanding of lung cancer biology is utilized. This article presents evidence on why reports of overdiagnosis in lung cancer screening have been exaggerated. PMID:25772581

  19. December 2013 Phoenix pulmonary journal club: lung cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Mathew

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. During this month’s pulmonary journal club we reviewed several of the sentinel studies looking at lung cancer screening. Since the National Lung Screening Research Team (NLSRT (1 published the impressive results showing a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality, the debate on when and if to initiate a national lung cancer screening program has been at the forefront of debate. The American Lung Association and American Cancer Society have issued statements that are not guidelines, but did offer insight on the price we pay for earlier lung cancer detection and reduction in mortality…which is the increased rates of false positives detected and increased rates of biopsies. The US Task Force on Lung Cancer Screening has yet to decide on a screening program and have yielded a statement that neither supports nor refutes the current level of evidence. Prior to the NLSRT study there were others that showed conflicting results on …

  20. Canadian cancer screening disparities: a recent historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kerner, J.; Liu, J; Wang, K.; Fung, S; Landry, C; Lockwood, G.; Zitzelsberger, L; Mai, V

    2015-01-01

    Across Canada, introduction of the Pap test for cervical cancer screening, followed by mammography for breast cancer screening and, more recently, the fecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer screening, has contributed to a reduction in cancer mortality. However, another contribution of screening has been disparities in cancer mortality between certain populations. Here, we explore the disparities associated with breast and cervical cancer screening and preliminary data concerning dispar...

  1. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus ( ... can do to decrease your chance of having cervical cancer. Also, tests done by your health care provider ...

  2. Breast cancer screening implementation and reassurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerø, J; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Brodersen, John

    2013-01-01

    difference in reported psychosocial aspects had disappeared or been reduced because of the nationwide screening implementation. METHODS: The 1000 women included in the previous survey were posted part I of the questionnaire Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer (COS-BC1) in August 2011, nearly 5 years...

  3. Cervical cancer screening: on the way to a shift from cytology to full molecular screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, M G; Snijders, P J F; Arbyn, M; Rijkaart, D C; Berkhof, J; Meijer, C J L M

    2014-05-01

    Cytology-based nation-wide cervical screening has led to a substantial reduction of the incidence of cervical cancer in western countries. However, the sensitivity of cytology for the detection of high-grade precursor lesions or cervical cancer is limited; therefore, repeated testing is necessary to achieve program effectiveness. Additionally, adenocarcinomas and its precursors are often missed by cytology. Consequently, there is a need for a better screening test. The insight that infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the causal agent of cervical cancer and its precursors has led to the development of molecular tests for the detection of hrHPV. Strong evidence now supports the use of hrHPV testing in the prevention of cervical cancer. In this review, we will discuss the arguments in favor of, and concerns on aspects of implementation of hrHPV testing in primary cervical cancer screening, such as the age to start hrHPV-based screening, ways to increase screening attendance, requirements for candidate hrHPV tests to be used, and triage algorithms for screen-positive women. PMID:24445150

  4. Preferences and acceptance of colorectal cancer screening in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengow, Udomsak; Chongsuwiwatvong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan; Birch, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is now common in Thailand with an increase in incidence over time. Health authorities are planning to implement a nationwide CRC screening program using fecal immunochemical test (FIT) as a primary screening tool. This study aimed to estimate preferences and acceptance of FIT and colonoscopy, explore factors influencing the acceptance, and investigate reasons behind choosing and rejecting to screen before the program was implemented. Patients aged 50-69, visiting the primary care unit during the study period, were invited to join this study. Patients with a history of cancer or past CRC screening were excluded. Face-to-face interviews were conducted. Subjects were informed about CRC and the screening tests: FIT and colonoscopy. Then, they were asked for their opinions regarding the screening. The total number of subjects was 437 (86.7% response rate). Fifty-eight percent were females. The median age was 58 years. FIT was accepted by 74.1% of subjects compared to 55.6% for colonoscopy. The acceptance of colonoscopy was associated with perceived susceptibility to CRC and family history of cancer. No symptoms, unwilling to screen, healthy, too busy and anxious about diagnosis were reasons for refusing to screen. FIT was preferred for its simplicity and non-invasiveness compared with colonoscopy. Those rejecting FIT expressed a strong preference for colonoscopy. Subjects chose colonoscopy because of its accuracy; it was refused for the process and complications. If the screening program is implemented for the entire target population in Thailand, we estimate that 106,546 will have a positive FIT, between 8,618 and 12,749 identified with advanced adenoma and between 2,645 and 3,912 identified with CRC in the first round of the program. PMID:25824749

  5. Breast cancer screening interventions for Arabic women: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Hwang, Jasmine

    2015-06-01

    Similar to other Middle Eastern countries, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Qatar with increasing incidence and mortality rates. High mortality rates of breast cancer in the Middle Eastern countries are primarily due to delayed diagnosis of the disease. Thus screening and early detection of breast cancer are important in reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. With the aim of updating knowledge on existing interventions and developing effective intervention programs to promote breast cancer screening in Arabic populations in Qatar, this review addresses the question: What interventions are effective in increasing breast cancer knowledge and breast cancer screening rates in Arabic populations in Arabic countries and North America? Systematic literature review was performed to answer the proposed question. As the result of the search, six research studies were identified and appraised. From the findings, we infer several insights: (a) a language-appropriate and culturally sensitive educational program is the most important component of a successful intervention regardless of the study setting, (b) multi-level interventions that target both women, men, health care professionals, and/or larger health care system are more likely to be successful than single educational interventions or public awareness campaigns, and (c) more vigorous, personal and cognitive interventions that address psychosocial factors are likely to be more effective than less personal and informative interventions. This review has important implications for health care providers, intervention planners, and researchers. PMID:23975014

  6. Screening for Lynch syndrome in colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the application of mismatch repair(MMR)genes proteins expression to screen for Lynch syndrome in colorectal cancer patients.Methods One hundred consecutive colorectal cancers cases collected from 2012 to 2013 were tested immunohistochemically for the protein expression of MLH1,MSH2,MSH6 and PMS2,and also by the ARMS method for the mutation

  7. Improving Screening Strategies for Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Wolters (Tineke)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTh is thesis describes research on screening for prostate cancer. To improve understanding of the thesis, some background information will be provided in this introduction. First, a short description of the prostate and of prostate cancer will be given in Chapter 1, followed by more deta

  8. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  9. What Women Need to Know about Colon Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you love): What Women Need to Know about Colon Cancer Screening March is National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month ... the United States. Tests used for screening for colon cancer include digital rectal exam, stool blood test, barium ...

  10. Filipina American women's breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Ryujin Lisa; Sadler Georgia; Ko Celine M; Dong Adam

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Filipino Americans are the fastest growing Asian minority group in the United States. There is limited knowledge about their breast cancer knowledge, screening practices and attitudes. Methods As part of the evaluation of the Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program, 248 Filipino American women completed baseline and follow-up surveys, while an additional 58 took part in focus groups. Results Compliance with annual clinical breast exam guidelines among women 40 t...

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging for lung cancer screen

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi-Xiang J.; Lo, Gladys G.; Yuan, Jing; Larson, Peder E.Z.; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death throughout the world. Lung cancer is an example of a disease for which a large percentage of the high-risk population can be easily identified via a smoking history. This has led to the investigation of lung cancer screening with low-dose helical/multi-detector CT. Evidences suggest that early detection of lung cancer allow more timely therapeutic intervention and thus a more favorable prognosis for the patient. The positive relationshi...

  12. Decision aid for women considering breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasternack, Iris; Saalasti-Koskinen, Ulla; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the process and challenges of developing a decision aid for the national public breast cancer screening program in Finland. METHODS: An expert team with stakeholder representation used European guidelines and other literature as basis for selecting...... balanced information for women invited to breast cancer screening is demanding and requires careful planning. Professionals and service providers need to be engaged in the HTA process to ensure proper dissemination and implementation of the information. End user participation is essential in the...

  13. Colorectal cancer screening:The role of CT colonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea; Laghi; Franco; Iafrate; Marco; Rengo; Cesare; Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomography colonography(CTC) in colorectal cancer(CRC) screening has two roles:one present and the other potential.The present role is,without any further discussion,the integration into established screening programs as a replacement for barium enema in the case of incomplete colonoscopy.The potential role is the use of CTC as a first-line screening method together with Fecal Occult Blood Test,sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy.However,despite the fact that CTC has been officially endorsed for CRC scre...

  14. Attendance in cancer screening programmes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Grazzini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The European Community recommends mammography, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes. In Italy, cancer screening programmes have been included in the Basic Healthcare Parameters (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza since 2001. Full national coverage of a population-based organized screening programme has been planned for in Italy and is being implemented. Since 2005, the Ministry of Health - Department of Prevention has formally charged The National Centre for Screening Monitoring (Osservatorio Nazionale Screening –ONS- with monitoring and promoting screening programmes nationwide. Participation of target populations is a key indicator of the impact and efficacy of a screening programme in reducing cancer mortality.

    Methods: Attendance of invitees is one of the indicators calculated every year in the quality control of Italian screening programmes. Data collection is organized by means of a structured questionnaire, sent by ONS to the referent for data collection in each Region, who then returns the completed questionnaires to the Regional Centre. Questionnaires are then sent to the National Centre. Logical and epidemiologic checks are performed at both levels. Every year ONS publishes reports on the results of the surveys. A feasibility study for a National data warehouse based on individual records is in progress. The national survey “Multiscopo sulle famiglie” and the Passi Study (Progetti delle Aziende Sanitarie per la Salute in Italia provided additional information regarding spontaneous preventive health care activities in the Italian population.

    Results: Mammography screening: In 2006, 78.2% of Italian women aged 50-69 lived in areas where organised screening was in place (theoretical extension, however, the distribution of the screening activity is not uniform (higher in Northern/Central Italy compared with Southern

  15. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammography is generally accepted as a useful problem-solving clinical tool in characterizing known breast lesions, so that appropriate and timely treatment can be given. However, it remains grossly underutilized at what it does best: screening. The major strengths of mammography are (a) its ability to detect breast cancer at a smaller, potentially more curable stage than any other examination, and (b) its proved efficacy in reducing breast cancer mortality in asymptomatic women aged 40-74. If, as has recently been estimated, screening with mammography and physical examination can be expected to lower breast cancer deaths by 40%-50% among those actually examined (13), then the lives of almost 20,000 U.S. women might be saved each year if screening were to become very widely used. The challenges of the next decade are clear, to mount much more effective campaigns to educate physicians and lay women about the life-saving benefits of breast cancer screening, to devise increasingly effective and lower cost screening strategies, to further improve the current high quality of mammographic imaging despite its increasing proliferation, and to train large numbers of breast imaging specialists to guarantee that the growing case load of screening and problem-solving mammograms is interpreted with a very high level of skill

  16. Stage distribution of breast cancer diagnosed before and after implementation of population-based mammographic screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The German mammographic screening program is very similar to the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP), which started about 10 years earlier. This study analyzes the stage distribution of invasive breast cancers diagnosed in the pre-screening and screening period, and evaluates the overall mortality in women aged 55 - 74 in the pilot and non-pilot counties of the NBCSP. Materials and Methods: The NBCSP invites women aged 50 - 69 to participate in two-view mammography biennially. Chi-square statistics were used to compare percentages of the stage and treatment of invasive breast cancers diagnosed in women residing in the four pilot counties in the pre-screening (1984 - 1995) and screening (1996 - 2007) period. An ecological approach was used to analyze the age-specific mortality in the pilot and non-pilot counties for the period 1970 - 2007. Results: 50 % of the breast cancers diagnosed in the pre-screening period, 70 % of the cases detected with screening, 43 % of the interval cancers, and 52 % of the cancers diagnosed outside the NBCSP were stage I. Stage III + was present in 11 % of the cancers in the pre-screening period, and in 1 % of the cancers detected with screening. In the screening period, the breast cancer mortality rate decreased substantially more in the pilot counties than in the non-pilot counties. Conclusion: The stage distribution of breast cancer diagnosed in the NBCSP is prognostically favorable compared to cancers diagnosed outside the screening program. The reduction in the breast cancer mortality rate was more pronounced in the four pilot counties compared to the non-pilot counties. It is necessary to evaluate the program based on individual data. (orig.)

  17. Who wants cancer screening with PET?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Cancer screening using whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has gradually become popular in Japan. Although some studies have reported high cancer detection rates with PET screening, the justification for such an approach is still unclear, and no evidence has been provided to indicate that PET screening reduces cancer mortality. We measured the general public's willingness to pay (WTP) for this service using a contingent valuation method, after providing them with sufficient information regarding the efficacy and limitations of the service. Methods: A computer-assisted questionnaire survey was conducted on males and females in Japan aged between 40 and 59 years. The study participants (n = 390) were provided with sufficient information about the PET procedure, the high cancer detection rate, false-negatives/false-positives and the fact that the mortality-reducing effect of PET screening has not yet been demonstrated. The participants' WTP was ascertained by a double-bound dichotomous choice approach. Results: The average WTP among all the participants was $68.0 (95% confidence interval: $56.9-79.2). A Weibull regression analysis showed that income, degree of concern about health, and family history of cancer were significant factors affecting WTP. Conclusions: The actual charge for PET screening in Japan is approximately $1000 on average, which is significantly higher than the participants' WTP for the actual benefit obtained from the service. If the Japanese healthcare consumers are well-informed, most of them would avoid purchasing such a costly service.

  18. Seventeen-years overview of breast cancer inside and outside screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo, Laia; Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina;

    2013-01-01

    Background. Long-term data on breast cancer detection in mammography screening programs are warranted to better understand the mechanisms by which screening changes the breast cancer pattern in the population. We aimed to analyze 17 years of breast cancer detection rates inside and outside...... to women aged 50-69 years. We identified targeted, eligible, invited and participating women. We calculated screening detection and interval cancer rates for participants, and breast cancer incidence in non-screened women (= targeted women excluding participants) by biennial invitation rounds. Tumor...... characteristics were tabulated for each of the three groups of cancers. Results. Start of screening resulted in a prevalence peak in participants, followed by a decrease to a fairly stable detection rate in subsequent invitation rounds. A similar pattern was found for breast cancer incidence in non-screened women...

  19. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta;

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  20. Overdiagnosis, sojourn time, and sensitivity in the Copenhagen mammography screening program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anne Helene; Agbaje, Olorunsola F; Myles, Jonathan P; Lynge, Elsebeth; Duffy, Stephen W

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this research was to estimate the overdiagnosis at the first and second screens of the mammography screening program in Copenhagen, Denmark. This study involves a mammography service screening program in Copenhagen, Denmark, with 35,123 women screened at least once. We fit multistate...... models to the screening data, including preclinical incidence of progressive cancers and nonprogressive (i.e., overdiagnosed) cancers. We estimated mean sojourn time as 2.7 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2-3.1) and screening test sensitivity as 100% (95% CI 99.8-100). Overdiagnosis was estimated...... to be 7.8% (95% CI 0.3-26.5) at the first screen and 0.5% (95% CI 0.02-2.1) at the second screen. This corresponds to 4.8% of all cancers diagnosed among participants during the first two invitation rounds and following intervals. A modest overdiagnosis was estimated for the Copenhagen screening...

  1. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group scr

  2. Early detection of lung cancer: A statement from an expert panel of the Swiss university hospitals on lung cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Frauenfelder, T.; Puhan, Milo A.; Lazor, R; von Garnier, C; Bremerich, J; Niemann, T.; Christe, A; Montet, X; Gautschi, O.; Weder, W; Kohler, M.

    2014-01-01

    The discussion about setting up a program for lung cancer screening was launched with the publication of the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, which suggested reduced mortality in high-risk subjects undergoing CT screening. However, important questions about the benefit-harm balance and the details of a screening program and its cost-effectiveness remain unanswered. A panel of specialists in chest radiology, respiratory medicine, epidemiology, and thoracic surgery representing all...

  3. Using hair to screen for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Veronica; Kearsley, John; Irving, Tom; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Cookson, David

    1999-03-01

    We have studied hair using fibre X-ray diffraction studies with synchrotron radiation and find that hair from breast-cancer patients has a different intermolecular structure to hair from healthy subjects. These changes are seen in all samples of scalp and pubic hair taken from women diagnosed with breast cancer. All the hair samples from women who tested positive for a mutation of the BRCA1 gene, which is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, also show these changes. Because our results are so consistent, we propose that such hair analyses may be used as a simple, non-invasive screening method for breast cancer.

  4. Imaging and screening in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giaj Levra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the main cause of death for neoplasia in the world. Hence it’s growing the necessity to investigate screening tests to detect tumoral lesions at the early stages: several trials have been performed to establish the best method, target and frequence of the screening to offer. CT, X-ray, PET, sputum citology and CAD software are here analyzed, together with the associated statistics and bias.

  5. Evolving Recommendations on Prostate Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, Otis W; Thompson, Ian M; Grönberg, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Results of a number of studies demonstrate that the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in and of itself is an inadequate screening test. Today, one of the most pressing questions in prostate cancer medicine is how can screening be honed to identify those who have life-threatening disease and need aggressive treatment. A number of efforts are underway. One such effort is the assessment of men in the landmark Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial that has led to a prostate cancer risk calculator (PCPTRC), which is available online. PCPTRC version 2.0 predicts the probability of the diagnosis of no cancer, low-grade cancer, or high-grade cancer when variables such as PSA, age, race, family history, and physical findings are input. Modern biomarker development promises to provide tests with fewer false positives and improved ability to find high-grade cancers. Stockholm III (STHLM3) is a prospective, population-based, paired, screen-positive, prostate cancer diagnostic study assessing a combination of plasma protein biomarkers along with age, family history, previous biopsy, and prostate examination for prediction of prostate cancer. Multiparametric MRI incorporates anatomic and functional imaging to better characterize and predict future behavior of tumors within the prostate. After diagnosis of cancer, several genomic tests promise to better distinguish the cancers that need treatment versus those that need observation. Although the new technologies are promising, there is an urgent need for evaluation of these new tests in high-quality, large population-based studies. Until these technologies are proven, most professional organizations have evolved to a recommendation of informed or shared decision making in which there is a discussion between the doctor and patient. PMID:27249774

  6. Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelli Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women’s health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2. Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5. A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease. Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer.

  7. Barriers and Motivators Related to Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bokaee

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: modern knowledge could protect against cancer for individuals in community with early stage and premalignat state. Screening of cancer is best instrument for early detection of malignancy. Between women’s cancers breast and cervical cancer have more incidence and mortality than other cancers . But could be prevented by simple and cheep screening programs. Despite specific statistics in Iran evidence shows that women’s participation in screening program is poor , so cancers are diagnosed in advanced stage. The purpose of this study was to identify major barriers and motivators for breast and cervical screening . Methods: This survey was a descriptive study in which 400 women participated in health and treatment centers in Yazd. Sampling method was done in two simple and random stages. Data was collected by inventory and questionnaire . Then data were analyzed by SPSS soft ware . Results: Findings showed that 80% of them never refereed to a health provider for clinical breast exam (C B E and only 3% of them did regularly C B E . 46% of them had never done pap smear and only 14.5 % of them did regularly pap smear. The findings showed that major motivators were as follow: advice of health’s personnel , using of contraceptive methods , and awareness of media. Also the major barriers were as follow : Not having knowledge of these exams , not having knowledge of the existence of these centers of education and practice , not having precious health problems , fear of examination , Embarrassment of examination and health providers not to teach them . to consider the most important barriers were propounded which showed that health education role to eliminate barriers for referring women for screening . Discussion: Based on the results of this sample , screening was the least expected . considering barriers and motivators observed it was revealed that health education was required for prevention of common women’s cancers. Also

  8. Cancer Screening Among Peer-Led Community Wellness Center Enrollees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockson, Lois E; Swarbrick, Margaret A; Pratt, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests health disparities exist in services for individuals with mental disorders served by the public mental health system. The current study assessed the use of cancer screening services among New Jersey residents in publicly funded mental health programs. Self-administered written surveys were completed by 148 adults using peer-led community wellness centers throughout New Jersey. Information was collected on (a) the use of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening services; (b) barriers to receiving preventive services; and (c) perceptions of overall health. More males than females participated in the study, with equal participation among White and African American individuals. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders were the most common self-reported psychiatric condition. Colorectal cancers had lower screening levels compared to those of the general population. Physicians not advising patients to complete tests emerged as a main cause of low screening rates. Wellness initiatives designed by peers collaborating with health care providers may improve adherence to preventive cancer screening measures. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(3), 36-40.]. PMID:26935189

  9. Hepatitis B vaccinations among Koreans: Results from 2005 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak Min-Son; Park Eun-Cheol; Choi Kui; Juon Hee-Soon; Lee Sunmin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Liver cancer is one of most commonly diagnosed cancers among Koreans. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for liver cancer. HBV infection can be prevented by effective screening and vaccination programs. The purpose of this study is to examine the status of HBV infection and the predictors associated with HBV vaccination. Methods The study population was derived from the 2005 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS). The KNCSS is an annua...

  10. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Cervical Cancer and Screening among Haitian Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilah Zahedi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27 in the Central Plateau. The majority (22/27 of participants stated pre-cancerous cells could be detected through screening, however, only four had ever performed a pap smear. All of the participants felt a screening program should be started in their area. Our data establishes that knowledge is fairly lacking among healthcare workers and there is an opportunity to train them in simple, cost effective “screen-and-treat” programs that could have a great impact on the overall health of the population.

  11. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding cervical cancer and screening among Haitian health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Leilah; Sizemore, Emma; Malcolm, Stuart; Grossniklaus, Emily; Nwosu, Oguchi

    2014-11-01

    It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27) in the Central Plateau. The majority (22/27) of participants stated pre-cancerous cells could be detected through screening, however, only four had ever performed a pap smear. All of the participants felt a screening program should be started in their area. Our data establishes that knowledge is fairly lacking among healthcare workers and there is an opportunity to train them in simple, cost effective "screen-and-treat" programs that could have a great impact on the overall health of the population. PMID:25390794

  12. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  13. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  14. Colorectal cancer development and advances in screening

    OpenAIRE

    Simon K

    2016-01-01

    Karen Simon Ventura County Gastroenterology Medical Group, Inc., Camarillo, CA, USA Abstract: Most colon tumors develop via a multistep process involving a series of histological, morphological, and genetic changes that accumulate over time. This has allowed for screening and detection of early-stage precancerous polyps before they become cancerous in individuals at average risk for colorectal cancer (CRC), which may lead to substantial decreases in the incidence of CRC. Despite the known b...

  15. Age appropriate screening for cancer: Evidence-based practice in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer screening is a well established and integral part of routine care in the Western world including United States. Men and women are recommended to get age-specific screening for common cancers like breast, cervical, prostate, and colon. The goal of screening is primary and secondary prevention. Cancer prevention and early detection of cancers has been shown to improve survival rates and decrease mortality by prompt appropriate treatment. This article serves to outline the current guidelines in the United States for cancer screening and the evidence for them as well as discusses the possibility of a similar model of care in India as well as barriers to such a screening program for cancer. The evidence was mostly obtained from systematic reviews done by the United States Preventive Services Task Force guidelines and other peer institutions like American Cancer Society and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

  16. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening: A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Rong Cai; Su-Zhan Zhang; Shu Zheng; Hong-Hong Zhu

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To investigate barriers to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in a community population. METHODS:We conducted a community-based case-control study in an urban Chinese population by questionnaire. Cases were selected from those completing both a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) case and colonoscopy in a CRC screening program in 2004. Control groups were matched by gender, age group and community. Control 1 included those having a positive FOBT but refusing a colonoscopy. Control 2 included those who refused both an FOBT and colonoscopy. RESULTS:The impact of occupation on willingness to attend a colorectal screening program differed by gender. P for heterogeneity was 0.009 for case vs control group 1, 0.01 for case versus control group 2, and 0.80 for control group 1 vs 2. Poor awareness of CRC and its screening program, characteristics of screening tests, and lack of time affected the screening rate. Financial support, fear of pain and bowel preparation were barriers to a colonoscopy as a screening test. Eighty-two percent of control group 1 and 87.1% of control group 2 were willing attend if the colonoscopy was free, but only 56.3% and 53.1%,respectively, if it was self-paid. Multivariate odds ratios for case vs control group 1 were 0.10 among those unwilling to attend a free colonoscopy and 0.50 among those unwilling to attend a self-paid colonoscopy. CONCLUSION:Raising the public awareness of CRC and its screening, integrating CRC screening into the health care system, and using a painless colonoscopy would increase its screening rate.

  17. Cervical Cancer Screening and Perceived Information Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whynes, David K.; Clarke, Katherine; Philips, Zoe; Avis, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To identify women's sources of information about cervical cancer screening, information which women report receiving during Pap consultations, information they would like to receive, and the relationships between perceived information needs, personal characteristics and information sources. Design/methodology/approach: Logistic regression…

  18. Risk-based prostate cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X.D. Zhu (Xiaoye); P.C. Albertsen (Peter); G.L. Andriole (Gerald); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); A.J. Vickers (Andrew)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContext: Widespread mass screening of prostate cancer (PCa) is not recommended because the balance between benefits and harms is still not well established. The achieved mortality reduction comes with considerable harm such as unnecessary biopsies, overdiagnoses, and overtreatment. There

  19. Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Screening Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess young women's breast health knowledge and explore its relation to the use of screening mammography. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women aged 25-45 residing in Toronto, Canada, with no history of breast cancer and mammography received an information brochure and four questionnaires which assessed their knowledge of…

  20. Breast cancer screening: ''reassuring'' the worried well?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert; Ryle, Mette

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the suggested benefits of cancer screening is the peace of mind and reassurance experienced by those women who are given negative results. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there was a difference in the expression of psychosocial aspects in a population of...

  1. Screening for distress in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Luigi; Johansen, Christoffer; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta;

    2013-01-01

    Routine screening for distress is internationally recommended as a necessary standard for good cancer care, given its high prevalence and negative consequences on quality of life. The objective of the current study was to contribute to the Italian validation of the Distress Thermometer (DT) to...

  2. [Sharing uncertainties of prostate cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Kevin; Auer, Reto; Valerio, Massimo; Jichlinski, Patrice; Cornuz, Jacques

    2015-11-25

    The decision of whether our patients should undergo prostate cancer screening with the prostate specifc antigen (PSA) test remains daunting. The role of the primary care doctor is to help men decide between a potential decrease in mortality from a slow evolving but sometimes lethal cancer, and the risk of diagnosing and treating cancers that would have otherwise been indolent and asymptomatic. We can structure our discussions with three steps: choice, option, and decision making. A decision aid, such as the one that we have adapted and simplifed from the Collège des médecins du Québec, can help with this complex decision. PMID:26742351

  3. Reducing Barriers to Use of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigation to determine whether a telephone counseling intervention aimed at women who are known to underuse breast cancer screening can with, or without, an accompanying educational intervention for their physicians, increase use of breast cancer screening.

  4. Lethal Prostate Cancer in the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoag, Jonathan; Mittal, Sameer; Halpern, Joshua A; Scherr, Douglas; Hu, Jim C; Barbieri, Christopher E

    2016-07-01

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial randomized men to usual care or annual prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for 6 yr and digital rectal examination for 4 yr. This trial found no difference between the intervention and usual care arms of the study in the primary end point of prostate cancer (PCa)-specific mortality. The PLCO trial results have had a major impact on health policy and the rate of PSA screening in the United States. We analyzed the 13-yr screening and outcomes data from the 151 participants who died of PCa in the screening arm of the trial to better understand how randomization to screening failed to prevent PCa death in these men. We found that of these men, 81 (53.6%) either were never screened as part of the trial or had an initial positive screen. Only 17 (11.3%) of those who died reached year 6 of the trial with a PSA <4.0 ng/ml. The men who died in the screening arm were also older at study entry than the average PLCO participant (66 vs 62 yr; p < 0.001). Our analysis should inform the interpretation of the PLCO trial and provide insight into future trial design. PMID:27166670

  5. Prostate Cancer – To screen, or not to screen, is that the question?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosser Charles J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There continues to be controversy regarding serum Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA and prostate cancer screening. We anxiously await the results of two large prospective randomized clinical trials (Prostate, Lung, Colon, and Ovary-PCLO screening trial in the US and European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer-ERSPC in Europe assessing the benefits of prostate cancer screening. However the true question to answer may be which cancer to treat and when should we treat it.

  6. Screening spectroscopy of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolenko, S. B.; Voloshynskyy, D. I.; Fedoruk, O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to establish objective parameters of the field of laser and incoherent radiation of different spectral ranges (UV, visible, IR) as a non-invasive optical method of interaction with different samples of biological tissues and fluids of patients to determine the state of prostate cancer and choosing the best personal treatment. The objects of study were selected venous blood plasma of patient with prostate cancer, histological sections of rat prostate gland in the postoperative period. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5-25 microns) dry residue of plasma by spectral diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues.

  7. Attitudes towards Lung Cancer Screening in an Australian High-Risk Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra E. Flynn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine whether persons at high risk of lung cancer would participate in lung cancer screening test if available in Australia and to elicit general attitudes towards cancer screening and factors that might affect participation in a screening program. Methods. We developed a 20-item written questionnaire, based on two published telephone interview scripts, addressing attitudes towards cancer screening, perceived risk of lung cancer, and willingness to be screened for lung cancer and to undertake surgery if lung cancer were detected. The questionnaire was given to 102 current and former smokers attending the respiratory clinic and pulmonary rehabilitation programmes. Results. We gained 90 eligible responses (M:F, 69:21. Mean [SD] age was 63 [11] and smoking history was 32 [21] pack years. 95% of subjects would participate in a lung cancer screening test, and 91% of these would consider surgery if lung cancer was detected. 44% of subjects considered that they were at risk of lung cancer. This was lower in ex-smokers than in current smokers. Conclusions. There is high willingness for lung cancer screening and surgical treatment. There is underrecognition of risk among ex-smokers. This misperception could be a barrier to a successful screening or case-finding programme in Australia.

  8. Cancer screening: Should cancer screening be essential component of primary health care in developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bobdey

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study highlights the availability and success of visual screening tools in early detection and mortality reduction of major neoplasia in resource-poor health care settings and recommends implementation of oral and cervical cancer screening as part of assured primary health care package in developing countries.

  9. Genetic Screening for Familial Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Carla

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Approximately 10% of gastric cancer cases show familial clustering but only 1-3% of gastric carcinomas arise as a result of inherited gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Direct proof that Hereditary Gastric Cancer a genetic disease with a germline gene defect has come from the demonstration of co-segregation of germline E-cadherin (CDH1 mutations with early onset diffuse gastric cancer in families with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance (HDGC. E-cadherin is a transmembrane calcium-dependent cell-adhesion molecule involved in cell-junction formation and the maintenance of epithelial integrity. In this review, we describe frequency and type of CDH1 mutations in sporadic and familial gastric cancer. Further we demonstrate the functional significance of some CDH1 germline missense mutations found in HDGC. We also discuss the CDH1 polymorphisms that have been associated to gastric cancer. We report other types of malignancies associated to HDGC, besides diffuse gastric cancer. Moreover, we review the data available on putative alternative candidate genes screened in familial gastric cancer. Finally, we briefly discuss the role of low-penetrance genes and Helicobacter pylori in gastric cancer. This knowledge is a fundamental step towards accurate genetic counselling, in which a highly specialised pre-symptomatic therapeutic intervention should be offered.

  10. Breast cancer screening; cost-effective in practice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of national breast screening is a reduction in breast cancer mortality. The data on the reduction in breast cancer mortality from three (of the five) Swedish trials in particular gave rise to the expectation that the Dutch programme of 2-yearly screening for women aged 50-70 would produce a 16% reduction in the total population. In all likelihood, many of the years of life gained as a result of screening are enjoyed in good health. According to its critics the actual benefit that can be achieved from the national breast cancer screening programmes is overstated. Considerable benefits have recently been demonstrated in England and Wales. However, the fall was so considerable in such a relatively short space of time that screening (started in 1987) was thought to only have played a small part. As far as the Dutch screening programme is concerned it is still too early to reach any conclusions about a possible reduction in mortality. The first short-term results of the screening are favourable and as good as (or better than) expectations. In Swedish regions where mammographic screening was introduced, a 19% reduction in breast cancer mortality can be estimated at population level, and recently a 20% reduction was presented in the UK. In countries where women are expected to make appointments for screening themselves, the attendance figures are significantly lower and the quality of the process as a whole is sometimes poorer. The benefits of breast cancer screening need to be carefully balanced against the burden to women and to the health care system. Mass breast screening requires many resources and will be a costly service. Cost-effectiveness of a breast cancer screening programme can be estimated using a computer model. Published cost-effectiveness ratios may differ tremendously, but are often the result of different types of calculation, time periods considered, including or excluding downstream cost. The approach of simulation and estimation is here

  11. Impact of Job Status on Accessibility of Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung Ju; Han, Kyu-Tae; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide with approximately 75,000 cancer deaths in Korea alone in 2013. Cancer screening is an important method of prevention; however, only 63.4% of Koreans sought cancer screening in 2012 even though it was widely offered at no cost. We focused on part time workers because they often experience job instability and relative discrimination. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between job status and cancer screening. Materials and Methods Dat...

  12. Distinct breast cancer characteristics between screen- and self-detected breast cancers recorded in the Japanese Breast Cancer Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Takayuki; Kumamaru, Hiraku; Miyata, Hiroaki; Tomotaki, Ai; Niikura, Naoki; Kawai, Masaaki; Anan, Keisei; Hayashi, Naoki; Masuda, Shinobu; Tsugawa, Koichiro; Aogi, Kenjiro; Ishida, Takanori; Masuoka, Hideji; Iijima, Kotaro; Matsuoka, Junji; Doihara, Hiroyoshi; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Nakamura, Seigo; Tokuda, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    The rate of breast cancer screening for women of all ages in Japan is increasing. However, little is known about the biological differences between screen- and self-detected tumors. We used data from the Japanese Breast Cancer Registry (JBCR), a nationwide registry of newly diagnosed breast cancer cases in Japan, to investigate patients diagnosed between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2011. We compared the clinicopathological features of tumors and assessed yearly trends regarding the proportion of screen-detected cases during the study period. We found that 31.8 % (65,358/205,544) of cancers were detected by screening. Asymptomatic tumors detected by screening (asymptomatic) were more likely to have favorable prognostic features than those that were self-detected (ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS]: 19.8 versus 4.1 %, node-negative: 77.0 versus 61.6 %, and estrogen receptor-positive [ER+]: 82.0 versus 72.9 %, respectively). All these findings were statistically significant (p DCIS increased from 41.5 to 66.0 % and that of ER+ cancers increased from 23.2 to 39.7 %. This study demonstrated that low-risk tumors, including DCIS, ER+, and lower TNM stage, account for a substantial proportion of clinical screening-detected cancers. The differences in biological characteristics between screen- and self-detected cancers may account in part for the limited efficacy of breast cancer screening programs aimed at improving breast cancer mortality. PMID:27048417

  13. Screening for thyroid cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the screening of the thyroid diseases in the radiation exposed cohort, it is essential to make correct diagnosis and to measure radiation dose in every subjects in the cohort and to analyze the dose response relationship by the most appropriate statistical method. Thus, thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma and autoimmune hypothyroidism were confirmed to be radiation-induced thyroid diseases among atomic bomb survivors. A group of investigators from Nagasaki university have been working in the thyroid part of Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project, and more than 80000 children were screened in 5 diagnostic centers (Mogilev, Gomel, Kiev, Korosten and Klincy). In order to make correct diagnosis, thyroid echo-tomography, measurements of serum levels of free thyroxine, TSH, titers of anti-thyroid antibodies were performed in every children in the cohort and aspiration biopsy was performed when necessary. Whole body Cs137 radioactivity was also determined in every subjects. Children with thyroid cancer confirmed by histology (biopsy or operation) were 2 in Mogilev, 19 in Gomel, 6 in Kiev, 5 in Korosten and 4 in Klincy (until 1994). Since children screened in each center were less than 20000, prevalence of thyroid cancer was remarkably high (lowest 100 and highest 1000/million children) when compared to the other parts of the world (0.2 to 5/million/year). However, there was no dose response relationship between the prevalence of cancer or nodule and whole body Cs137 radioactivity. Although a significant correlation between thyroid cancer and reconstructed thyroid I131 dose was presented, there are no previous reports to prove that I131 produces thyroid cancer in human. Investigation on external radiation and short lived isotopes along with I131 may be important to elucidate the cause of thyroid cancer

  14. Screening for Emotional Distress in Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review of Assessment Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Vodermaier, Andrea; Linden, Wolfgang; Siu, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Screening for emotional distress is becoming increasingly common in cancer care. This systematic review examines the psychometric properties of the existing tools used to screen patients for emotional distress, with the goal of encouraging screening programs to use standardized tools that have strong psychometrics. Systematic searches of MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases for English-language studies in cancer patients were performed using a uniform set of key words (eg, depression, anxiety, scre...

  15. The Effect of National Cancer Screening on Disparity Reduction in Cancer Stage at Diagnosis by Income Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Min Jung

    Full Text Available Early detection of cancer is an effective and efficient cancer management strategy. In South Korea, the National Health Insurance administers the National Cancer Screening Program to its beneficiaries. We examined the impact of the National Cancer Screening Program on socioeconomic disparities in cancer stage at diagnosis.Cancer patients registered in the Korean Central Cancer Registry from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010 with a diagnosis of gastric cancer (n = 22,470, colon cancer (n = 16,323, breast cancer (n = 10,076, or uterine cervical cancer (n = 2,447 were included. Income level was divided into three groups according to their monthly contribution of National Health Insurance. We employed absolute (age-standardized prevalence rate, slope index of inequality and relative (relative index of inequality measures to separately examine social disparities among participants and non-participants of the National Cancer Screening Program in terms of the early-stage rate.Age-standardized prevalence rates of early-stage by income group were always higher in participants than in non-participants. Furthermore, the age-standardized prevalence rate of early-stage in the low income group of the participants was also higher than that of the high income group of the non-participants. The sizes of disparities (both slope index of inequality and relative index of inequality are smaller in participants compared to non-participants.National Cancer Screening Program participation reduced income disparity in cancer stage at diagnosis. Population-based cancer screening programs can be used as an effective measure to reduce income disparity in cancer care.

  16. Early results of the screening program for radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although WR-2721, S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorotioc acid, is the most widely studied and most effective radioprotective drug at present, it is nevertheless clear from animal studies that it has important shortcomings as the ideal radioprotector in clinical radiotherapy. More effective and less toxic radioprotective drugs are needed. For this reason, a chemical radioprotector screening program has been initiated at the Fox Chase Cancer Center under a contract with the National Cancer Institute. Most of the 20 compounds that have now entered the screening program provide good protection of the mouse hematopoietic system as indicated by 30 day survival following the radiation LD100/30. Administration of a radioprotector dose equal to one half of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD/2) gave hematopoietic dose reduction factors (DRF's) as high as 2.3. No radioprotector appeared to be superior to WR-2721, although four others gave DRF's exceeding 1.8

  17. Improving colorectal cancer screening: fact and fantasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jacques

    2008-02-01

    Premalignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, such as Barrett's esophagus, long-standing ulcerative colitis, and adenomatous polyps, have a significantly increased risk for development of adenocarcinoma, most often through an intermediate stage of dysplasia. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is the second most common cancer in the United States. Because patients with colorectal cancer often present with advanced disease, the outcomes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Effective methods of early detection are essential. As non-polypoid dysplasia is not visible using conventional endoscopy, surveillance of patients with Barrett's esophagus and ulcerative colitis is performed via a system in which multiple random biopsies are obtained at prescribed intervals. Sampling error and missed diagnoses occur frequently and render current screening methods inadequate. Also, the examination of a tissue biopsy is time consuming and costly, and significant intra- and inter-observer variation may occur. The newer methods discussed herein demonstrate the potential to solve these problems by early detection of disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Conventional endoscopy is based on the observation of white light reflected off the tissue surface. Subtle changes in color and shadow reveal structural changes. New developments in optical imaging go beyond white light, exploiting other properties of light. Several promising methods will be discussed at this meeting and shall be briefly discussed below. However, few such imaging modalities have arrived at our clinical practice. Some much more practical methods to improve colorectal cancer screening are currently being evaluated for their clinical impact. These methods seek to overcome limitations other than those of detecting dysplasia not visible under white light endoscopy. The current standard practice of colorectal cancer screening utilizes colonoscopy, an uncomfortable, sometimes difficult medical

  18. Impact of traditional Samoan lifestyle (fa’Samoa) on cancer screening practices

    OpenAIRE

    Puaina, Seumaninoa; Aga, Daniel F.; Pouesi, Daniel; Hubbell, F. Allan

    2008-01-01

    The lack of emphasis on disease prevention in the fa’aSamoa, the Samoan way of life, may contribute to low cancer screening rates. However, other aspects of the culture, such as the respect of matai (chiefs) and faifeau (pastors) could be incorporated into cancer prevention programs aimed at improving cancer control among Samoans.

  19. Intrinsic motivation factors based on the self-determinant theory for regular breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Su Mi; Jo, Heui-Sug

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors of intrinsic motivation that affect regular breast cancer screening and contribute to development of a program for strategies to improve effective breast cancer screening. Subjects were residing in South Korea Gangwon-Province and were female over 40 and under 69 years of age. For the investigation, the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) was modified to the situation of cancer screening and was used to survey 905 inhabitants. Multinominal logistic regression analyses were conducted for regular breast cancer screening (RS), one-time breast cancer screening (OS) and non-breast cancer screening (NS). For statistical analysis, IBM SPSS 20.0 was utilized. The determinant factors between RS and NS were "perceived effort and choice" and "stress and strain" - internal motivations related to regular breast cancer screening. Also, determinant factors between RS and OS are "age" and "perceived effort and choice" for internal motivation related to cancer screening. To increase regular screening, strategies that address individual perceived effort and choice are recommended. PMID:25556433

  20. Breast cancer screening: the underuse of mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early detection of breast cancer is promoted by the American Cancer Society (ACS) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) by encouraging the regular use of three types of screening: breast self-examination (BSE), the clinical breast examination, and mammography. In August 1983, the ACS publicized seven recommendations pertaining to screening, including a revised statement about the routine use of mammography for women between the ages of 40 and 49 years. In response to the ACS statement, the present study assessed compliance with the updated recommendations for all three types of screening. The results show reasonable rates of compliance for the BSE (53%-69%) and clinical examination (70%-78%). In contrast, only 19% of the women between the ages of 35 and 49 and 25% of the women older than 50 reported complying with the recommendation to undergo one baseline screening mammogram. Some implications for health education by physicians and the professional education of physicians in the use of mammography are discussed

  1. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  2. Human papillomavirus, anal cancer, and screening considerations among HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachay, Edward R; Mathews, William Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Invasive anal cancer has become an important cause of non AIDS-related cancer among HIV-infected individuals. Human papillomavirus is the main etiological agent. This review explains the pathophysiologic role of human papillomavirus in the development of invasive anal cancer, summarizes recent epidemiological trends of invasive anal cancer, and reviews the evidence to address common clinical questions posed when screening for anal cancer in HIV-infected patients. The effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on human papillomavirus oncogenesis is still unclear, but given the increased clinical burden of invasive anal cancer among HIV-infected patients, many clinics have implemented screening programs for anal cancer and its precursors. Despite the availability of several modalities for treatment of precursors of anal cancer, evidence that current treatment modalities favorably alter the natural history of human papillomavirus oncogenesis in the anal and perianal regions is still inconclusive. However, there is sufficient evidence to state that the accuracy of anal cancer screening procedures (cytology and high-resolution anoscopy directed biopsy) is comparable to the accuracy of those used in screening for cervical cancer precursors. Studies that systematically assess the efficacy of these anal cancer screening programs in reducing the incidence of and morbidity and mortality from invasive anal cancer among HIV-infected patients are needed. PMID:23681437

  3. Anal cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia screening: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Leeds, Ira L.; Fang, Sandy H

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the early diagnosis of anal cancer and its precursor lesions through routine screening. A number of risk-stratification strategies as well as screening techniques have been suggested, and currently little consensus exists among national societies. Much of the current clinical rationale for the prevention of anal cancer derives from the similar tumor biology of cervical cancer and the successful use of routine screening to identify cervical cancer and its precursors earl...

  4. Can colorectal cancer mass-screening organization be evidence-based? Lessons from failures: The experimental and pilot phases of the Lazio program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Sabrina

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening programmes should be organized to translate theoretical efficacy into effectiveness. An evidence-based organizational model of colorectal cancer screening (CRCS should assure feasibility and high compliance. Methods A multidisciplinary Working Group (WG, reviewed literature and guidelines to define evidence-based recommendations. The WG identified the need for further local studies: physicians' CRCS attitudes, the effect of test type and provider on compliance, and individual reasons for non-compliance. A survey of digestive endoscopy services was conducted. A feasibility study on a target population of 300.000 has begun. Results Based on the results of population trials and on literature review the screening strategy adopted was Faecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT every two years for 50–74 year olds and, for positives, colonoscopy. The immunochemical test was chosen because it has 20% higher compliance than the Guaiac. GPs were chosen as the preferred provider also for higher compliance. Since we observed that distance is the major determinant of non-compliance, we choose GPs because they are the closest providers, both geographically and emotionally, to the public. The feasibility study showed several barriers: GP participation was low, there were administrative problems to involve GPs; opportunistic testing by the GPs; difficulties in access to Gastroenterology centres; difficulties in gathering colonoscopy results; little time given to screening activity by the gastroenterology centre. Conclusion The feasibility study highlighted several limits of the model. Most of the barriers that emerged were consequences of organisational choices not supported by evidence. The principal limit was a lack of accountability by the participating centres.

  5. Filipina American women's breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryujin Lisa

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filipino Americans are the fastest growing Asian minority group in the United States. There is limited knowledge about their breast cancer knowledge, screening practices and attitudes. Methods As part of the evaluation of the Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program, 248 Filipino American women completed baseline and follow-up surveys, while an additional 58 took part in focus groups. Results Compliance with annual clinical breast exam guidelines among women 40 to 49 years old was 43%, and annual mammography use among women 50 and over was 56%. The Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program and complementary focus group study identified multiple barriers that hindered women from attending education programs, with time as the most frequently reported barrier. Conclusion The Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program was reported to be a culturally acceptable and effective way of disseminating breast cancer information and one that addressed the women's most frequently reported barrier, lack of time.

  6. Comparison of digital screening mammography and screen-film mammography in the early detection of clinically relevant cancers: a multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluekens, A.M.; Holland, R.; Karssemeijer, N.; Broeders, M.J.M.; Heeten, G.J. den

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare screen-film mammography with digital mammography in a breast cancer screening program, with a focus on the clinical relevance of detected cancers. Materials and Methods: The study was approved by the regional medical ethics review board. Informed consent was not required. Before

  7. Correlates of Cervical Cancer Screening among Vietnamese American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace X. Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Vietnamese American women are at the greatest risk for cervical cancer but have the lowest cervical cancer screening rates. This study was to determine whether demographic and acculturation, healthcare access, and knowledge and beliefs are associated with a prior history of cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese women. Methods. Vietnamese women (n=1450 from 30 Vietnamese community-based organizations located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey participated in the study and completed baseline assessments. Logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. Overall levels of knowledge about cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus (HPV are low. Factors in knowledge, attitude, and beliefs domains were significantly associated with Pap test behavior. In multivariate analyses, physician recommendation for screening and having health insurance were positively associated with prior screening. Conclusion. Understanding the factors that are associated with cervical cancer screening will inform the development of culturally appropriate intervention strategies that would potentially lead to increasing cervical cancer screening rates among Vietnamese women.

  8. Obesity and Cancer Screening according to Race and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bittner Fagan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between obesity and cancer screening varies by screening test, race, and gender. Most studies on cervical cancer screening found a negative association between increasing weight and screening, and this negative association was most consistent in white women. Recent literature on mammography reports no association with weight. However, some studies show a negative association in white, but not black, women. In contrast, obese/overweight men reported higher rates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing. Comparison of prostate cancer screening, mammography, and Pap smears implies a gender difference in the relationship between screening behavior and weight. In colorectal cancer (CRC screening, the relationship between weight and screening in men is inconsistent, while there is a trend towards lower CRC screening in higher weight women.

  9. Overdiagnosis in mammographic screening for breast cancer in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puliti, Donella; Duffy, Stephen W; Miccinesi, Guido;

    2012-01-01

    Overdiagnosis, the detection through screening of a breast cancer that would never have been identified in the lifetime of the woman, is an adverse outcome of screening. We aimed to determine an estimate range for overdiagnosis of breast cancer in European mammographic service screening programmes....

  10. Prostate cancer screening with PSA: new data, old debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Sciallero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two prostate cancer screening randomised controlled trials from Europe (European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer—ERSPC and U.S. (Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Program— PLCO have been published earlier this year...

  11. Randomization to screening for prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancers and thyroid cancer incidence in two large cancer screening trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J O'Grady

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer incidence has increased significantly over the past three decades due, in part, to incidental detection. We examined the association between randomization to screening for lung, prostate, colorectal and/or ovarian cancers and thyroid cancer incidence in two large prospective randomized screening trials.We assessed the association between randomization to low-dose helical CT scan versus chest x-ray for lung cancer screening and risk of thyroid cancer in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST. In the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO, we assessed the association between randomization to regular screening for said cancers versus usual medical care and thyroid cancer risk. Over a median 6 and 11 years of follow-up in NLST and PLCO, respectively, we identified 60 incident and 234 incident thyroid cancer cases. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the cause specific hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for thyroid cancer.In NLST, randomization to lung CT scan was associated with a non-significant increase in thyroid cancer risk (HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 0.96-2.71. This association was stronger during the first 3 years of follow-up, during which participants were actively screened (HR = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.07-4.47, but not subsequently (HR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.49-2.37. In PLCO, randomization to cancer screening compared with usual care was associated with a significant decrease in thyroid cancer risk for men (HR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49-0.95 but not women (HR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.66-1.26. Similar results were observed when restricting to papillary thyroid cancer in both NLST and PLCO.Our study suggests that certain medical encounters, such as those using low-dose helical CT scan for lung cancer screening, may increase the detection of incidental thyroid cancer.

  12. Randomization to Screening for Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancers and Thyroid Cancer Incidence in Two Large Cancer Screening Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Thomas J.; Kitahara, Cari M.; DiRienzo, A. Gregory; Boscoe, Francis P.; Gates, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer incidence has increased significantly over the past three decades due, in part, to incidental detection. We examined the association between randomization to screening for lung, prostate, colorectal and/or ovarian cancers and thyroid cancer incidence in two large prospective randomized screening trials. Methods We assessed the association between randomization to low-dose helical CT scan versus chest x-ray for lung cancer screening and risk of thyroid cancer in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). In the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO), we assessed the association between randomization to regular screening for said cancers versus usual medical care and thyroid cancer risk. Over a median 6 and 11 years of follow-up in NLST and PLCO, respectively, we identified 60 incident and 234 incident thyroid cancer cases. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the cause specific hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for thyroid cancer. Results In NLST, randomization to lung CT scan was associated with a non-significant increase in thyroid cancer risk (HR  = 1.61; 95% CI: 0.96–2.71). This association was stronger during the first 3 years of follow-up, during which participants were actively screened (HR  = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.07–4.47), but not subsequently (HR  = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.49–2.37). In PLCO, randomization to cancer screening compared with usual care was associated with a significant decrease in thyroid cancer risk for men (HR  = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49–0.95) but not women (HR  = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.66–1.26). Similar results were observed when restricting to papillary thyroid cancer in both NLST and PLCO. Conclusion Our study suggests that certain medical encounters, such as those using low-dose helical CT scan for lung cancer screening, may increase the detection of incidental thyroid cancer. PMID:25192282

  13. Sociodemographic gradients in breast and cervical cancer screening in Korea: the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS 2005-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Jae

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer screening rates in Korea for five cancer types have increased steadily since 2002. With regard to the life-time cancer screening rates in 2009 according to cancer sites, the second highest was breast cancer (78.1% and the third highest was cervical cancer (76.1%. Despite overall increases in the screening rate, disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening, based on sociodemographic characteristics, still exist. Methods Data from 4,139 women aged 40 to74 years from the 2005 to 2009 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey were used to analyze the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and receiving mammograms and Pap smears. The main outcome measures were ever having had a mammogram and ever having had a Pap smear. Using these items of information, we classified women into those who had had both types of screening, only one screening type, and neither screening type. We used logistic regression to investigate relationships between screening history and sociodemographic characteristics of the women. Results Being married, having a higher education, a rural residence, and private health insurance were significantly associated with higher rates of breast and cervical cancer screening after adjusting for age and sociodemographic factors. Household income was not significantly associated with mammograms or Pap smears after adjusting for age and sociodemographic factors. Conclusions Disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening associated with low sociodemographic status persist in Korea.

  14. Adult hearing screening: the Cyprus Pilot Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Thodi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is the third most common condition affecting adults over 65 (Cruickshanks et al., 1998. It can affect quality of life, limiting the ability to communicate efficiently, and leading to isolation, psychological strain, and functional decline (LaForge, Spector, Sternberg, 1992; Yueh, Shapiro, MacLean, Shekelle, 2003. Communication limitations impinge on the person directly, as well as the family, friends, and social circle. Reports on hearing loss among adults indicate that less than 25% of people who can benefit from amplification are actually using hearing aids, and that people diagnosed with a hearing loss delay seeking amplification by about seven years (Kochkin, 1997. Often, family members are the driving force behind a person with a hearing loss who decides to seek help. Adult hearing screening programs might have a positive effect on raising public awareness on hearing loss and its implications, and shortening delay time for intervention. There is no routine hearing screening for the adult population in Cyprus. The health system provides hearing tests for beneficiaries upon physician recommendation or self-referral. The Cyprus pilot adult hearing screening program (ΑΠΑΣ- EVERYONE- Greek acronym for Screening- Intervention-Hearing-Participation to Life screened hearing in retired adults.

  15. Breast cancer mortality in mammographic screening in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Nyström, Lennarth; Moss, Sue;

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the impact of service mammography screening on breast cancer mortality using European incidence-based mortality (IBM) studies (or refined mortality studies). IBM studies include only breast cancer deaths occurring in women with breast cancer diagnosed after their first invitation to...... screening....

  16. Promoting Quality of Cervical Cancer Screening and Treatment in India

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, S.; Madsen, E.; Porterfield, D.; Varghese, B.

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer screening is highly cost effective, feasible, and culturally acceptable in higher and lower income settings across the world. According to the World Health Organization and the World Economic Forum, screening for cervical cancer is an evidence-based best buy prevention intervention (1). However, to be effective in reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality, screenin...

  17. Use of Evidence-Based Interventions to Address Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Djenaba A; Redwood, Diana; DeGroff, Amy; Butler, Emily L

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death among cancers that affect both men and women. Despite strong evidence of their effectiveness, CRC screening tests are underused. Racial/ethnic minority groups, persons without insurance, those with lower educational attainment, and those with lower household income levels have lower rates of CRC screening. Since 2009, CDC's Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP) has supported state health departments and tribal organizations in implementing evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to increase use of CRC screening tests among their populations. This report highlights the successful implementation of EBIs to address disparities by two CRCCP grantees: the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium (ANTHC) and Washington State's Breast, Cervical, and Colon Health Program (BCCHP). ANTHC partnered with regional tribal health organizations in the Alaska Tribal Health System to implement provider and client reminders and use patient navigators to increase CRC screening rates among Alaska Native populations. BCCHP identified patient care coordinators in each clinic who coordinated staff training on CRC screening and integrated client and provider reminder systems. In both the Alaska and Washington programs, instituting provider reminder systems, client reminder systems, or both was facilitated by use of electronic health record systems. Using multicomponent interventions in a single clinical site or facility can support more organized screening programs and potentially result in greater increases in screening rates than relying on a single strategy. Organized screening systems have an explicit policy for screening, a defined target population, a team responsible for implementation of the screening program, and a quality assurance structure. Although CRC screening rates in the United States have increased steadily over the past decade, this increase has not been seen equally across all populations. Increasing the

  18. Risk Stratification System for Oral Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lutécia H Mateus; Reis, Isildinha M; Reategui, Erika P; Gordon, Claudia; Saint-Victor, Sandra; Duncan, Robert; Gomez, Carmen; Bayers, Stephanie; Fisher, Penelope; Perez, Aymee; Goodwin, W Jarrard; Hu, Jennifer J; Franzmann, Elizabeth J

    2016-06-01

    Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer (oral cancer) is a deadly disease that is increasing in incidence. Worldwide 5-year survival is only 50% due to delayed intervention with more than half of the diagnoses at stage III and IV, whereas earlier detection (stage I and II) yields survival rates up to 80% to 90%. Salivary soluble CD44 (CD44), a tumor-initiating marker, and total protein levels may facilitate oral cancer risk assessment and early intervention. This study used a hospital-based design with 150 cases and 150 frequency-matched controls to determine whether CD44 and total protein levels in oral rinses were associated with oral cancer independent of age, gender, race, ethnicity, tobacco and alcohol use, and socioeconomic status (SES). High-risk subjects receiving oral cancer prevention interventions as part of a community-based program (n = 150) were followed over 1 year to determine marker specificity and variation. CD44 ≥5.33 ng/mL was highly associated with case status [adjusted OR 14.489; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.973-35.145; P cancer. In contrast, specificity in the high-risk community was 74% and reached 95% after annual retesting. Simple and inexpensive salivary CD44 and total protein measurements may help identify individuals at heightened risk for oral cancer from the millions who partake in risky behaviors. Cancer Prev Res; 9(6); 445-55. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27020654

  19. Cancer diagnosis program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Peralta Cancer Research Institute has organized the Breast Diagnostic Center (BDC) to make available to women information about the breast, and to conduct clinical research to improve methods for early diagnosis and treatment of breast disease. Women entering the center are educated about the anatomy and physiology of the breast, signs of both benign and malignant disease, and factors that influence the risk of developing cancer. The BDC program proposes to demonstrate that the combined use of various diagnostic modalities, when each modality is used at maximum potential, can detect cancers at an earlier stage. Emphasis is placed on the physical examination, using nipple aspiration cytology, contrast ductography, fine-needle aspirations, and mammography. With the financial participation of the Clorox Company, it is shown that the concept of the BDC is economically sound and fills a need in the community

  20. A favorable view: progress in cancer prevention and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Peter

    2007-01-01

    spiral CT screening will reduce lung cancer mortality. Prevention and earlier detection offer efficient and practical strategies to reduce the cancer burden. Several of the suggestions Mr. Leaf makes, such as developing interdisciplinary collaborations and allocating resources to research earlier in the process of carcinogenesis, have become an integral strategy in the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) approach in the past decade, specifically in the realm of cancer prevention and early detection. For example, an aggressive program to identify biomarkers for earlier detection of cancer--the NCI's Early Detection Research Detection (EDRN)--has identified three promising biomarkers since its establishment in 2000. It collaborates with the National Institute of Standards and Technology and extramural scientists to develop validation standards and to identify the best technologies to use for systematic investigations. If these biomarkers can be validated, they might help to reduce cancer mortality. PMID:17302181

  1. Impact of risk factors on different interval cancer subtypes in a population-based breast cancer screening programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Blanch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interval cancers are primary breast cancers diagnosed in women after a negative screening test and before the next screening invitation. Our aim was to evaluate risk factors for interval cancer and their subtypes and to compare the risk factors identified with those associated with incident screen-detected cancers. METHODS: We analyzed data from 645,764 women participating in the Spanish breast cancer screening program from 2000-2006 and followed-up until 2009. A total of 5,309 screen-detected and 1,653 interval cancers were diagnosed. Among the latter, 1,012 could be classified on the basis of findings in screening and diagnostic mammograms, consisting of 489 true interval cancers (48.2%, 235 false-negatives (23.2%, 172 minimal-signs (17.2% and 114 occult tumors (11.3%. Information on the screening protocol and women's characteristics were obtained from the screening program registry. Cause-specific Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR of risks factors for interval cancer and incident screen-detected cancer. A multinomial regression model, using screen-detected tumors as a reference group, was used to assess the effect of breast density and other factors on the occurrence of interval cancer subtypes. RESULTS: A previous false-positive was the main risk factor for interval cancer (HR = 2.71, 95%CI: 2.28-3.23; this risk was higher for false-negatives (HR = 8.79, 95%CI: 6.24-12.40 than for true interval cancer (HR = 2.26, 95%CI: 1.59-3.21. A family history of breast cancer was associated with true intervals (HR = 2.11, 95%CI: 1.60-2.78, previous benign biopsy with a false-negatives (HR = 1.83, 95%CI: 1.23-2.71. High breast density was mainly associated with occult tumors (RRR = 4.92, 95%CI: 2.58-9.38, followed by true intervals (RRR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.18-2.36 and false-negatives (RRR = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.00-2.49. CONCLUSION: The role of women's characteristics differs among

  2. Programs | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    OCG facilitates cancer genomics research through a series of highly-focused programs. These programs generate and disseminate genomic data for use by the cancer research community. OCG programs also promote advances in technology-based infrastructure and create valuable experimental reagents and tools. OCG programs encourage collaboration by interconnecting with other genomics and cancer projects in order to accelerate translation of findings into the clinic. Below are OCG’s current, completed, and initiated programs:

  3. To screen or not to screen: ongoing debate in the early detection of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquin, Joanna Marie

    2011-02-01

    Debate about the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests to screen prostate cancer in men is ongoing. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer after skin cancer in men and the second most deadly after lung cancer. An elevated PSA level can lead to this cancer's diagnosis and treatment even before the onset of symptoms. However, other causes also can create a high PSA level, which may lead to men being unnecessarily treated for prostate cancer. This article will shed some light on the issue and discuss prostate cancer screening. PMID:21278045

  4. Community-Based Health Education has Positive Influence on the Attitude to Cervical Cancer Screening among Women in Rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Sunila; Karmacharya, Biraj Man; Afset, Jan Egil; Bofin, Anna; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Syversen, Unni; Tingulstad, Solveig

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal and explore the feasibility and impact of a community-based awareness program on cervical cancer. Community-based educational meetings on cervical cancer and its prevention were conducted among women's groups in rural Nepal. Through a questionnaire, the women's baseline knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, and perceived risk of cervical cancer were identified. The willingness to participate in cervical cancer screening was compared before and after the educational meeting. The meetings were followed by a cervical cancer screening program. Among the 122 participants at the educational meeting, only 6 % had heard of cervical cancer. Their baseline knowledge of risk factors and symptoms was poor. The proportion of women willing to participate in cervical screening increased from 15.6 to 100 % after attending the educational meeting. All the study subjects participated in the screening program. Additionally, the study participants recruited a further 222 of their peers for screening. Poor knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal highlights the urgency of public awareness programs for cervical cancer at a national level. A community-based awareness program can change women's attitude to cervical screening, and women's groups can play a major role in promoting participation in cervical cancer screening programs. PMID:26031906

  5. Análisis costo beneficio del Programa de Detección Oportuna del Cáncer Cervicouterino Cost benefit analysis of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA HERNÁNDEZ-PEÑA

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el costo beneficio de la reorganización del Programa de Detección Oportuna del Cáncer Cervicouterino (PDOC mediante intervenciones de garantía de calidad. Material y métodos. Se siguieron tres etapas: a identificación y cuantificación de costos; b identificación y cuantificación de beneficios, y c evaluación económica del costo beneficio. Resultados. El costo unitario de operación por citología -obtención, fijación, el traslado al centro de lectura, su tinción e interpretación y la notificación de resultados- se estimó en USD$ 11.6. En conjunto, las intervenciones en calidad al PDOC elevarían el costo de cada citología en 32.7%. Sin embargo, la nueva organización generaría una razón beneficio/costo de 2 y un beneficio neto de 88 millones de dólares para los próximos cinco años. Conclusiones. La operación del programa propuesto resulta socialmente deseable, siempre y cuando las modificaciones se lleven a cabo, particularmente la capacitación, la notificación personalizada de los casos positivos, el incremento de cobertura, la introducción de mecanismos de control de calidad, el monitoreo contínuo y el tratamiento en mujeres con anormalidades detectadas.Objective. Previous researches pointed out the critical changes needed to increase the efficiency of the National Screening Programme of Cervical Cancer in Mexico. These changes were assessed through a cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents the results of that appraisal. Figures are presented as USDollars of 1996 valued as 7.5 pesos for each dollar. Results. The operational unitary cost of the integral process of the cytology –the obtention of the Pap smear, its transportation to the interpretation centre, its analysis, and the notification of results to users– was estimated in US$ 11.6. If the proposed changes are operated, the cost of each citology would increase by 32.7%. The benefit/cost ratio would be 2 and the net benefit of 88

  6. Most Breast Cancer Screening Trials Have a Flawed Design

    OpenAIRE

    Gurnani, Nishant; Srivastava, Anurag

    2011-01-01

    In the present article, we discuss that why most breast cancer screening trials have a flawed origin. We suggest some solutions to correct these flaws so that more valid and reliable screening trials can be conducted in the future.

  7. Data on Medicare eligibility and cancer screening utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian P. Meyer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Health insurance is associated with increased utilization of cancer screening services. Data on breast, prostate and colorectal cancer screening were abstracted from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor and Surveillance System. This data in brief includes two sets of analyses: (i the use of cancer screening in individuals within the low-income bracket and (ii determinants for each of the three approaches to colorectal cancer screening (fecal occult blood test, colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy+fecal occult blood test. Covariates included education attainment, residency, and access to health care provider. The data supplement our original research article on the effect of Medicare eligibility on cancer screening utilization “The impact of Medicare eligibility on cancer screening behaviors” [1].

  8. Access to cancer screening for women with mobility disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Jan; Seto, Lisa; Barry, Nancy; Cechetto, Naomi; Chandani, Samira; Devaney, Julie; Fernando, Sharmini; Muraca, Linda; Odette, Fran

    2012-03-01

    Women with mobility disabilities are less likely to access cancer screening, even when they have a primary care provider. The Gateways to Cancer Screening project was initiated to document the challenges for women with disabilities in their access and experiences of screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer. The study followed the tenets of participatory action research. Five peer-led focus groups were held with 24 women with mobility disabilities. Study participants identified multiple and interacting institutional barriers to cancer screening. Their discussions highlighted the complex work of (1) arranging and attending health-related appointments, (2) confronting normative assumptions about women's bodies and (3) securing reliable health care and information. These overlapping, mutually reinforcing issues interact to shape how women with disabilities access and experience cancer screening. We explore implications for redesign of cancer screening services and education of health providers, providing specific recommendations suggested by our participants and the findings. PMID:21927868

  9. European randomized lung cancer screening trials: Post NLST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, JK; Klaveren, R; Pedersen, JH;

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects of their ......Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects...

  10. Public Awareness of Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interventions for Increasing Screening Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno Garcia, Antonio Z.; Hernandez Alvarez Buylla, Noemi; Nicolas-Perez, David; Quintero, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer ranks as one of the most incidental and death malignancies worldwide. Colorectal cancer screening has proven its benefit in terms of incidence and mortality reduction in randomized controlled trials. In fact, it has been recommended by medical organizations either in average-risk or family-risk populations. Success of a screening campaign highly depends on how compliant the target population is. Several factors influence colorectal cancer screening uptake including sociodemographics, provider and healthcare system factors, and psychosocial factors. Awareness of the target population of colorectal cancer and screening is crucial in order to increase screening participation rates. Knowledge about this disease and its prevention has been used across studies as a measurement of public awareness. Some studies found a positive relationship between knowledge about colorectal cancer, risk perception, and attitudes (perceived benefits and barriers against screening) and willingness to participate in a colorectal cancer screening campaign. The mentioned factors are modifiable and therefore susceptible of intervention. In fact, interventional studies focused on average-risk population have tried to increase colorectal cancer screening uptake by improving public knowledge and modifying attitudes. In the present paper, we reviewed the factors impacting adherence to colorectal cancer screening and interventions targeting participants for increasing screening uptake. PMID:24729896

  11. Intermittent attendance at breast cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padraic Fleming

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. To determine why women skip rounds and factors influencing return of previous non attenders (PNAs to breast screening. Design and methods. Retrospective, quantitative, structured questionnaire posted to 2500 women. First PNAs did not attend their first screening appointment in 2007/2008 but then attended in 2010; First Controls first attended in 2010 without missed previous appointments. Women who attended screening in 2006 or earlier then skipped a round but returned in 2010 were Subsequent PNAs; Subsequent Controls attended all appointments.Results. More First Controls than First PNAs had family history of cancer (72.7% vs 63.2%; P=0.003; breast cancer (31.3% vs 24.8%; P=0.04. More PNAs lived rurally; more First PNAs had 3rd level education (33.2% vs 23.6%; P=0.002 and fewer had private insurance than First Controls (57.7% vs 64.8%; P=0.04. Excellent/good health was reported in First PNAs and First Controls (82.9% vs 83.2%, but fewer Subsequent PNAs than Subsequent Controls (72.7% vs 84.9%; P=0.000. Common considerations at time of missed appointment were had mammogram elsewhere (33% First PNA and postponed to next round (16% First PNA, 18.8% Subsequent PNA. Considerations when returning to screening were similar for First PNAs and Subsequent PNAs: I am older (35.4%, 29.6%, I made sure I remembered (29%, 23.6%, could reschedule (17.6%, 20.6%, illness of more concern (16.5%, 19%. More First PNAs stated my family/friends advised (22.3% vs 15.2% or my GP (12.6% vs 4.6% advised me to attend, heard good things about BreastCheck (28.8% vs 13.6%.Conclusions. Intermittent attenders do not fit socio-demographic patterns of non-attenders; GP recommendation and word of mouth were important in women’s return to screening. Fear and anxiety seem to act as a screening facilitator rather than an inhibitor.

  12. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E.; Berry, Michael J.; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey ...

  13. 75 FR 77869 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Second List of Chemicals for Tier 1 Screening; Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... (75 FR 70248) (FRL-8848-7). In that notice, EPA announced the second list of chemicals and substances... AGENCY Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Second List of Chemicals for Tier 1 Screening; Extension of... Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program's (EDSP) second list of chemicals for Tier 1 screening. This...

  14. Colorectal cancer screening awareness among physicians in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzimichalis Georgios

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data comparison between SEER and EUROCARE database provided evidence that colorectal cancer survival in USA is higher than in European countries. Since adjustment for stage at diagnosis markedly reduces the survival differences, a screening bias was hypothesized. Considering the important role of primary care in screening activities, the purpose of the study was to investigate the colorectal cancer screening awareness among Hellenic physicians. Methods 211 primary care physicians were surveyed by mean of a self-reported prescription-habits questionnaire. Both physicians' colorectal cancer screening behaviors and colorectal cancer screening recommendations during usual check-up visits were analyzed. Results Only 50% of physicians were found to recommend screening for colorectal cancer during usual check-up visits, and only 25% prescribed cost-effective procedures. The percentage of physicians recommending stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy was 24% and 4% respectively. Only 48% and 23% of physicians recognized a cancer screening value for stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy. Colorectal screening recommendations were statistically lower among physicians aged 30 or less (p = 0.012. No differences were found when gender, level and type of specialization were analyzed, even though specialists in general practice showed a trend for better prescription (p = 0.054. Conclusion Contemporary recommendations for colorectal cancer screening are not followed by implementation in primary care setting. Education on presymptomatic control and screening practice monitoring are required if primary care is to make a major impact on colorectal cancer mortality.

  15. Colorectal cancer screening awareness among physicians in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xilomenos, Apostolos; Mauri, Davide; Kamposioras, Konstantinos; Gkinosati, Athanasia; Zacharias, Georgios; Sidiropoulou, Varvara; Papadopoulos, Panagiotis; Chatzimichalis, Georgios; Golfinopoulos, Vassilis; Peponi, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Background Data comparison between SEER and EUROCARE database provided evidence that colorectal cancer survival in USA is higher than in European countries. Since adjustment for stage at diagnosis markedly reduces the survival differences, a screening bias was hypothesized. Considering the important role of primary care in screening activities, the purpose of the study was to investigate the colorectal cancer screening awareness among Hellenic physicians. Methods 211 primary care physicians were surveyed by mean of a self-reported prescription-habits questionnaire. Both physicians' colorectal cancer screening behaviors and colorectal cancer screening recommendations during usual check-up visits were analyzed. Results Only 50% of physicians were found to recommend screening for colorectal cancer during usual check-up visits, and only 25% prescribed cost-effective procedures. The percentage of physicians recommending stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy was 24% and 4% respectively. Only 48% and 23% of physicians recognized a cancer screening value for stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy. Colorectal screening recommendations were statistically lower among physicians aged 30 or less (p = 0.012). No differences were found when gender, level and type of specialization were analyzed, even though specialists in general practice showed a trend for better prescription (p = 0.054). Conclusion Contemporary recommendations for colorectal cancer screening are not followed by implementation in primary care setting. Education on presymptomatic control and screening practice monitoring are required if primary care is to make a major impact on colorectal cancer mortality. PMID:16756674

  16. Comprehensive Diagnostic Program for Medically Underserved Women With Abnormal Breast Screening Evaluations in an Urban Population

    OpenAIRE

    Palmieri, Frances M.; Deperi, Elizabeth R.; Mincey, Betty A.; Smith, Judith A.; Wen, Lonnie K.; Chewar, Deborah M.; Abaya, Reza; Colon-Otero, Gerardo; Perez, Edith A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To institute a patient navigator program for underinsured women to eliminate delays in diagnostic resolution of abnormal screening mammograms, provide services for abnormalities noted during breast cancer screening, describe demographic and clinical characteristics of enrollees, and assess postscreening follow-up care.

  17. Epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and screening of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally. Smoking causes about 90 % of all lung cancer cases. Passive, i.e. involuntary smoking has been confirmed to enhance the risk of lung cancer in exposed people. Individual susceptibility is one of important factors in lung cancer formation. New knowledge in epidemiology and aetiology of lung cancer gives new possibilities in diagnostic and screening of this disease. Results of large randomised trials aimed at new technologies in lung cancer screening will be available in a few years. (author)

  18. Factors associated with use of gastric cancer screening services in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young Min Kwon; Hyung Taek Lim; Kiheon Lee; Be Long Cho; Min Sun Park; Ki Young Son; Sang Min Park

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To identify the factors associated with participation in gastric cancer screening programs. METHODS: Using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 (KNHANES Ⅲ), a nationwide health-related survey in Korea, a cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the multiple factors associated with gastric cancer screening attendance among persons aged at least 40 years. The study population included 4593 individuals who completed a gastric cancer screening questionnaire and had no previous cancer history. Four groups of individual-level or environmental level covariates were considered as potential associated factors. RESULTS: Using KNHANES Ⅲ data, an estimated 31.71% of Korean individuals aged at least 40 years adhered to gastric cancer screening recommendations. Subjects who graduated from elementary school [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.66; 95% CI: 1.21-2.26], middle/high school (aOR, 1.38; 95% CI: 1.01-1.89), and university or higher (aOR, 1.64; 95% CI: 1.13-2.37) were more likely to undergo gastric cancer screening than those who received no formal education at all. The population with the highest income tertile had more attendance at gastric screening compared to those with the lowest income tertile (aOR, 1.36; 95% CI: 1.06-1.73). Gastric screening was also negatively associated with excessive alcohol consumption (aOR, 0.71; 95% CI: 0.53-0.96). A positive attitude to preventive medical evaluation was significantly associated with better participation in gastric cancer screening programs (aOR, 5.26; 95% CI: 4.35-6.35). CONCLUSION: Targeted interventions for vulnerable populations and public campaigns about preventivemedical evaluation are needed to increase gastric cancer screening participation and reduce gastric cancer mortality.

  19. Results and analysis of screening for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of death in most countries of the world. Screening of asymptomatic women can detect a large percentage of cancers at an early stage. This is the basis for a possible cure or at least a prolongation of the survival time. The percentage of minimal cancers (smaller than 1 cm without dissemination) may be as high as 48% depending on the screening modality (10% without screening), axillary lymph node involvement can be reduced to 20% (40% without screening), and the percentage of stage II to IV cancers can be reduced to 8-20% (60% without screening). Mortality in the study group over age 50 years was reduced by 30%. Disadvantages of screening are: high cost; biopsies prompted by false positive results; psychological stress for the patients; radiation hazards which have, however, become almost negligible thanks to improved technique (2 cancers in 1 million mammographies and year). (Author)

  20. BREAST CANCER SCREENING KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE AMONG WOMEN IN SOUTHEAST OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Heidari

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBreast cancer is the most common cancer occurring among women. The mortality rate of breast cancer can be reduced by regular breast cancer screening program. This study was carried out to identify the knowledge and practice of women about breast cancer screening in Zahedan, southeast of Iran. In this cross- sectional study, 384 women were selected as an improbability sample of women referring to Qouds maternity hospital. Knowledge and practice of them about breast cancer screening were investigated through face-to-face interview based on a purposed questionnaire, and data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Only 8.3% of women were aware of breast cancer screening methods. About breast self-examination 21.6%, and about mammography 3.4% had good knowledge. Overall knowledge of breast cancer screening was insufficient in 67.4%. There was statistically significant relationship between knowledge of breast cancer screening and level of education, history of individual breast disease, and history of breast cancer in their families (P < 0.001. There was statistically significant and inverse relationship between knowledge of how to examine the breasts and knowledge about mammography with age (P < 0.001. Practices of women in Zahedan about Breast cancer screening were very low. Only 4.5% of women performed breast self examination (BSE, on a regular basis, 4.1% had ever had a clinical breast examination (CBE, and %1.3 had a mammography throughout their life. Our findings suggest that knowledge and practice about breast cancer screening was relatively in a weak level and it needs to be improved.

  1. Optimal breast cancer screening strategies for older women: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braithwaite D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dejana Braithwaite,1 Joshua Demb,1 Louise M Henderson2 1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 2Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related deaths among older women, aged 65 years or older. Screening mammography has been shown to be effective in reducing breast cancer mortality in women aged 50–74 years but not among those aged 75 years or older. Given the large heterogeneity in comorbidity status and life expectancy among older women, controversy remains over screening mammography in this population. Diminished life expectancy with aging may decrease the potential screening benefit and increase the risk of harms. In this review, we summarize the evidence on screening mammography utilization, performance, and outcomes and highlight evidence gaps. Optimizing the screening strategy will involve separating older women who will benefit from screening from those who will not benefit by using information on comorbidity status and life expectancy. This review has identified areas related to screening mammography in older women that warrant additional research, including the need to evaluate emerging screening technologies, such as tomosynthesis among older women and precision cancer screening. In the absence of randomized controlled trials, the benefits and harms of continued screening mammography in older women need to be estimated using both population-based cohort data and simulation models. Keywords: aging, breast cancer, precision cancer screening

  2. The Effects of New Screening Tests in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women all over the world, mainly affecting young women. As cervical cancer is easy to prevent by early detection and treatment of the disease, screening was introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s. The number of cervical cancer c

  3. Hemoccult II Screening for Bowel Cancer: Will Family Practice Patients Accept It?

    OpenAIRE

    Sangster, J. F.; Gerace, T. M.; Bass, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Acceptability to patients of Hemoccult II® screening for bowel cancer will be a major determinant of whether such screening programs can be successfully implemented. In order to evaluate the screening test's acceptability to patients, compliance rates were assessed in 17 family practices in London, Ontario. Patients' reactions to the test were assessed by both a retrospective questionnaire and a similar prospective questionnaire. Respondents indicated the test's unpleasantness, dietary prepar...

  4. Trends in adherence to recommended cancer screening: The US population and working cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TainyaC.Clarke

    2012-12-01

    Conclusions: Cancer survivors report higher screening rates than the general population. Nevertheless, national screening rates are lower than desired, and disparities exist by cancer history and occupation. Understanding existing disparities, and the impact of cancer screening on survivors is crucial as the number of working survivors increases.

  5. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding cervical cancer and screening among Ethiopian health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kress CM

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Catherine M Kress,1 Lisa Sharling,2 Ashli A Owen-Smith,3 Dawit Desalegn,4 Henry M Blumberg,2 Jennifer Goedken1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 3Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 4Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Addis Ababa University School of Medicine, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Though cervical cancer incidence has dramatically decreased in resource rich regions due to the implementation of universal screening programs, it remains one of the most common cancers affecting women worldwide and has one of the highest mortality rates. The vast majority of cervical cancer-related deaths are among women that have never been screened. Prior to implementation of a screening program in Addis Ababa University-affiliated hospitals in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted to assess knowledge of cervical cancer etiology, risk factors, and screening, as well as attitudes and practices regarding cervical cancer screening among women’s health care providers.Methods: Between February and March 2012 an anonymous, self-administered survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to cervical cancer and its prevention was distributed to 334 health care providers at three government hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and three Family Guidance Association clinics in Awassa, Adama, and Bahir Dar. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and chi-square test was used to test differences in knowledge, attitudes, and practices across provider type.Results: Overall knowledge surrounding cervical cancer was high, although awareness of etiology and risk factors was low among nurses and midwives. Providers had no experience performing cervical cancer screening on a routine basis with <40% having performed any type of cervical cancer screening. Reported barriers to performing screening were lack of

  6. Screening for familial and hereditary prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Henry T; Kosoko-Lasaki, Omofolasade; Leslie, Stephen W; Rendell, Marc; Shaw, Trudy; Snyder, Carrie; D'Amico, Anthony V; Buxbaum, Sarah; Isaacs, William B; Loeb, Stacy; Moul, Judd W; Powell, Isaac

    2016-06-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) has the highest degree of genetic transmission of any form of malignancy. In some families, the hereditary pattern is so strong as to mimic an autosomal dominance trait. We reviewed the known predisposing genetic markers to assess possible strategies for screening of families at risk. We carried out a systematic literature search using the Pubmed service of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and several gene libraries, including the NCBI SNP Library, the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man® Catalog of Human Genes and Genetic Disorders (OMIM) and SNPedia to obtain known gene loci, SNPs and satellite markers associated with PC. We further cross referenced information on identified loci comparing data from different articles and gene reference sites. Whenever possible, we recorded the odds ratio (OR) for the allele associated with PC. In multiple different linkage studies, many independent PC associated loci have been identified on separate chromosomes. Genome-wide association studies have added many more markers to the set derived from linkage investigations. A subset of the alleles is associated with early onset and aggressive cancer. Due to the great heterogeneity, the OR for any one allele predicting future development of this malignancy is low. The strongest predictors are the BRCA2 mutations, and the highly penetrant G84E mutation in HOXB13. The presence of multiple risk alleles is more highly predictive than a single allele. Technical limitations on screening large panels of alleles are being overcome. It is appropriate to begin supplementing prostate specific antigen testing with alleles, such as BRCA2 and HOXB13, disclosed by targeted genomic analysis in families with an unfavorable family cancer history. Future population studies of PC should include genomic sequencing protocols, particularly in families with a history of PC and other malignancies. PMID:26638190

  7. Targeted Cancer Screening in Average-Risk Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Pamela M; Freedman, Andrew N; Khoury, Muin J

    2015-11-01

    Targeted cancer screening refers to use of disease risk information to identify those most likely to benefit from screening. Researchers have begun to explore the possibility of refining screening regimens for average-risk individuals using genetic and non-genetic risk factors and previous screening experience. Average-risk individuals are those not known to be at substantially elevated risk, including those without known inherited predisposition, without comorbidities known to increase cancer risk, and without previous diagnosis of cancer or pre-cancer. In this paper, we describe the goals of targeted cancer screening in average-risk individuals, present factors on which cancer screening has been targeted, discuss inclusion of targeting in screening guidelines issued by major U.S. professional organizations, and present evidence to support or question such inclusion. Screening guidelines for average-risk individuals currently target age; smoking (lung cancer only); and, in some instances, race; family history of cancer; and previous negative screening history (cervical cancer only). No guidelines include common genomic polymorphisms. RCTs suggest that targeting certain ages and smoking histories reduces disease-specific cancer mortality, although some guidelines extend ages and smoking histories based on statistical modeling. Guidelines that are based on modestly elevated disease risk typically have either no or little evidence of an ability to affect a mortality benefit. In time, targeted cancer screening is likely to include genetic factors and past screening experience as well as non-genetic factors other than age, smoking, and race, but it is of utmost importance that clinical implementation be evidence-based. PMID:26165196

  8. Diabetes and cancer I: risk, survival, and implications for screening

    OpenAIRE

    Onitilo, Adedayo A.; Engel, Jessica M.; Glurich, Ingrid; Stankowski, Rachel V.; Williams, Gail M.; Doi, Suhail A.

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer are common diseases that are frequently diagnosed in the same individual. An association between the two conditions has long been postulated. Here, we review the epidemiological evidence for increased risk of cancer, decreased cancer survival, and decreased rates of cancer screening in diabetic patients. The risk for several cancers, including cancers of the pancreas, liver, colorectum, breast, urinary tract, and endometrium, is increased in patients w...

  9. The Knowledge and Practice of Breast Cancer Screening Among Women in Kerman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Khanjani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and if diagnosed on time, the chance of treatment will increase. There is limited information about the knowledge and practice of Iranian women about early detection of breast cancer and in this study we aimed to investigate it in Kerman. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done on 120 women; from 6 randomly selected maternal and childcare centers spread around Kerman, women were questioned about the primary signs of breast cancer and the screening methods. Results: The results show that 70% of women thought that with on time detection, breast cancer can be successfully treated, but 47% had no idea about any screening method. The most common breast cancer sign mentioned by women was a painless lump. Breast self examination as the easiest and cheapest screening method was never done in 51% of women. The most common reason for not performing screening tests in the participants, was not knowing anything about it. Conclusion: Although breast cancer when diagnosed on time is treatable, the knowledge and attitude of Iranian women about breast cancer screening and the signs of breast cancer are very low. Educational programs to increase women's knowledge about breast cancer should be foreseen and performed

  10. The patient's subjective attitude towards screening for breast cancer. Should screening be extended to other forms of cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, T V; Rimmer, S.; Forrest, A P

    1980-01-01

    A sample of 500 consecutive women without symptoms of breast disease attending a breast screening clinic were investigated regarding their attitude to breast screening and to the extension of the screening programme to other forms of cancer. Attendance at the screening clinic was found to be reassuring by 94.2%, and 96.4% felt that the screening programme should be extended to include other forms of malignancy. There was a history of either respiratory or alimentary tract symptoms, and of smo...

  11. Prostate Cancer Screening, Yes or No? the Current Controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Razi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Purpose: The increasing incidence of prostate cancer and different viewpoints of medical authorities to it, has lead to conversion of preliminary plan of screening test to a requisite. The objective of this study is to clarify the obscure aspects of this subject using the literature review.

    Materials and Methods: We reviewed the following items in the literature: prostate cancer screening, introduction of relevant tests, screening criteria according to World Health Organization, screening experience in different countries, community notification, specialists training in order to establish an integrated approach and treatment, anxiety relief, and promotion of patient awareness in this field.

    Results: It has been shown that, except in China, programmed and official screening of prostatic cancer has not been accepted by concordant responsible authorities, neither in developed countries nor in developing ones. However, it is performed informally in different parts of the world.

    Conclusion: There is no unanimous consensus about performance of screening for prostate cancer. Continuing

  12. New Screening Proposals: the Federal Joint Commission Defines the Parameters for Cervical Cancer Screening from 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillemanns, P.; Mallmann, P.; Beckmann, M. W.

    2016-01-01

    The Gynecology Oncology Working Group (AGO e. V.) unequivocally welcomes the decision taken by the German Federal Joint Commission (Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, G-BA) on March 19, 2015 regarding screening for cervical cancer. AGO is convinced that, in view of recent medical advances, this evidence-based decision will improve screening for cervical cancer. PMID:26941445

  13. Big screens with small RNAs : loss of function genetic screens to identify novel cancer genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullenders, J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis described the construction and screening of one of the first large scale RNAi libraries for use in human cells. Functional genetic screens with this library have led to the identification of novel cancer genes. These cancer genes function in several pathways including the p53 tumor suppr

  14. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Screening, Diagnosis, and Staging

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, J; Magalhães, M; Rocha, E; Marques, F

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Tobacco consumption is the primary cause of lung cancer, accounting for more than 85% 90% of all lung cancer deaths. Non-small cell lung cancer accounts for about 85% of all lung cancers. Several studies have shown that low-dose helical CT of the lung detects more nodules and lung cancers, including early-stage cancers, than does chest radiography. The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial results show that three annual roun...

  15. Screening for breast cancer in England: past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The NHS Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) began in 1988. It aims to invite all women aged 50-70 years for mammographic screening once every three years. The programme now screens 1.3 million women each year, about 75% of those invited, and diagnoses about 10,000 breast cancers annually. Although some have questioned the value of screening for breast cancer, the scientific evidence demonstrates clearly that regular mammographic screening between the ages of 50 and 70 years reduces mortality from the malignancy. Screened women are slightly more likely than unscreened women to be diagnosed with breast cancer. The cancers in screened women are smaller and are less likely to be treated with mastectomy than they would have been if diagnosed without screening. For every 400 women screened regularly by the NHSBSP over a 10-year period, one woman fewer will die from breast cancer than would have died without screening. The current NHSBSP saves an estimated 1400 lives each year in England. The screening programme spends about pound sterling 3000 for every year of life saved. PMID:16792825

  16. Communicating the balance sheet in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, Livia; Cogo, Carla; Patnick, Julietta;

    2012-01-01

    Despite the difficulties, there is a moral responsibility to provide the public with the best estimates of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening.......Despite the difficulties, there is a moral responsibility to provide the public with the best estimates of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening....

  17. The Danish randomized lung cancer CT screening trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper H; Ashraf, Haseem; Dirksen, Asger;

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer screening with low dose computed tomography (CT) has not yet been evaluated in randomized clinical trials, although several are underway. METHODS: In The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 4104 smokers and previous smokers from 2004 to 2006 were randomized to either...

  18. European cervical cancer screening:experiences and results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Europe has devoted great efforts to cervical cancer screening over 30 years.The mortality was generally declining although incidence rates of cervical cancer among young women have been increasing in many countries of Europe.The efficiency of screening,however,needs to be addressed by planners for an improved cost-effectiveness in the future.

  19. Anal cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia screening: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeds, Ira L; Fang, Sandy H

    2016-01-27

    This review focuses on the early diagnosis of anal cancer and its precursor lesions through routine screening. A number of risk-stratification strategies as well as screening techniques have been suggested, and currently little consensus exists among national societies. Much of the current clinical rationale for the prevention of anal cancer derives from the similar tumor biology of cervical cancer and the successful use of routine screening to identify cervical cancer and its precursors early in the disease process. It is thought that such a strategy of identifying early anal intraepithelial neoplasia will reduce the incidence of invasive anal cancer. The low prevalence of anal cancer in the general population prevents the use of routine screening. However, routine screening of selected populations has been shown to be a more promising strategy. Potential screening modalities include digital anorectal exam, anal Papanicolaou testing, human papilloma virus co-testing, and high-resolution anoscopy. Additional research associating high-grade dysplasia treatment with anal cancer prevention as well as direct comparisons of screening regimens is necessary to develop further anal cancer screening recommendations. PMID:26843912

  20. Cost-benefit analysis of screening for esophageal and gastric cardiac cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Qiang Wei; Chun-Xia Yang; Si-Han Lu; Juan Yang; Bian-Yun Li; Shi-Yong Lian; You-Lin Qiao

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, a program named “Early Detection and Early Treatment of Esophageal and Cardiac Cancer”(EDETEC) was initiated in China. A total of 8279 residents aged 40-69 years old were recruited into the EDETEC program in Linzhou of Henan Province between 2005 and 2008. Howerer, the cost-benefit of the EDETEC program is not very clear yet. We conducted herein a cost-benefit analysis of screening for esophageal and cardiac cancer. The assessed costs of the EDETEC program included screening costs for each subject, as well as direct and indirect treatment costs for esophageal and cardiac severe dyspiasia and cancer detected by screening. The assessed benefits of this program included the saved treatment costs, both direct and indirect, on esophageal and cardiac cancer, as well as the value of prolonged life due to screening, as determined by the human capital approach. The results showed the screening cost of finding esophageal and cardiac severe dysplasia or cancer ranged from ¥2707 to ¥4512, and the total cost on screening and treatment was ¥13 115-¥14 920. The cost benefit was ¥58 944-¥155 110 (the saved treatment cost, ¥17 730, plus the value of prolonged life,¥41 214-¥137 380). The ratio of benefit-to-cost (BCR) was 3.95-11.83. Our results suggest that EDETEC has a high benefit-to-cost ratio in China and could be instituted into high risk areas of China.

  1. Sociocultural Barriers to Lung Cancer Screening Among Korean Immigrant Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Mo-Kyung; Ha, Ara; Taylor, Vicky

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer is a commonly occurring cancer among Korean American men. Korean Americans have lower rates of cancer screening participation than other Asian American sub-groups. However, little is known about factors that influence the cancer screening behavior of Korean immigrants. The purpose of this study was to explore facilitators of and barriers to lung cancer screening (i.e., low dose CT of the chest) among Korean immigrant men, using qualitative individual interviews and focus groups. A convenience sample of 24 Korean men who were immigrants, Washington State residents, able to speak Korean, aged 55-79, and eligible for lung cancer screening (based on current guidelines) were recruited from Korean churches and senior centers. Five focus groups (that included between two and five men) and nine individual interviews were conducted. Content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. Facilitators of lung cancer screening included perceptions about positive aspects of the health care system in South Korea, recommendations from others (physicians, family members, and community organizations), existing health problems and respiratory symptoms, interest in health, and the health consequences of aging. Barriers included costs of health care in the US, lack of time, lack of knowledge (about lung cancer and screening), attitudes about prevention, and lack of physician recommendation. This study adds new knowledge to a field where little information is available. It also lays the groundwork for developing culturally relevant lung cancer screening interventions for Korean Americans and the health care providers who serve them. PMID:26846627

  2. PRESSING MORTALITY RATE THROUGH SCREENING oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Widnyani Wulan Laksmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Based on World Health Organization (WHO data, oral cancer is one of malignancy with the highest mortality. In USA, there are more than 30.000 new cases every year. We can find many risk factors of oral cancer in our daily living. Moreover, it’s easy to find the main risk factors in our society, they are smoking, alcohol consumption, tobacco consumtion, viral infection, and bad oral hygiene. For the early stadium, Five-years survival rate is about 82% and 61% for all stadium. But, more than 50% of oral cancer has been distributed (metastatic regionally and also into the other organ far away from the oral itself when it’s detected. It will decrease 5-years survival rate to be less than 50%. So that, it’s really important to detect the oral cancer at the earlier stadium. Screening is the way to find the earlier stadium. Screening is done by some methods, start from the anamnesis, physical examination, toluidine blue staining, endoscopy, cytology, telomerase examination, and also PET-scan if it’s possible (because of the financial reasons. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  3. Prostate Cancer Screening (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best in your individual situation. WHAT IS PROSTATE CANCER? — Prostate cancer is a cancer of the prostate, a ... most of them do not die from their cancer. Prostate cancer often grows so slowly that many men ...

  4. Engaging Health Systems to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening: Community–Clinical Outreach in Underserved Areas of Wisconsin

    OpenAIRE

    LoConte, Noelle K.; Weeth-Feinstein, Lauren; Conlon, Amy; Scott, Sheryl

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in Wisconsin. Incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer vary by age, race/ethnicity, geography, and socioeconomic status. From 2010 through 2012, the Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Control Program awarded grants to 5 regional health systems for the purpose of planning and implementing events to increase colorectal cancer screening rates in underserved commun...

  5. Temporal Trends in Colorectal Cancer Screening among Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Stacey A; Sauer, Ann Goding; Siegel, Rebecca L; Smith, Robert A; Torre, Lindsey A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-06-01

    Asian Americans (AA) are less likely to be screened for colorectal cancer compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), with a widening disparity for some AA subgroups in the early 2000s. Whether these patterns have continued in more recent years is unknown. We examined temporal trends in colorectal cancer screening among AA overall compared with NHWs and by AA subgroup (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, South Asian, Vietnamese) using data from the 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2009 California Health Interview Surveys. Unadjusted (PR) and adjusted (aPR) prevalence ratios for colorectal cancer screening, accounting for sociodemographic, health care, and acculturation factors, were calculated for respondents ages 50 to 75 years (NHW n = 60,125; AA n = 6,630). Between 2003 and 2009, colorectal cancer screening prevalence increased from 43.3% to 64.6% in AA (P ≤ 0.001) and from 58.1% to 71.4% in NHW (P ≤ 0.001). Unadjusted colorectal cancer screening was significantly lower among AA compared with NHW in 2003 [PR = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.68-0.82], 2005 (PR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.72-0.84), 2007 (PR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96), and 2009 (PR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.84-0.97), though disparities narrowed over time. After adjustment, there were no significant differences in colorectal cancer screening between the two groups, except in 2003. In subgroup analyses, between 2003 and 2009, colorectal cancer screening significantly increased by 22% in Japanese, 56% in Chinese, 47% in Filipino, and 94% in Koreans. In our study of California residents, colorectal cancer screening disparities between AA and NHW narrowed, but were not eliminated and screening prevalence among AA remains below nationwide goals, including the Healthy People 2020 goal of increasing colorectal cancer screening prevalence to 70.5%. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(6); 995-1000. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197273

  6. Determinants of acceptance of cervical cancer screening in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahesa, Crispin; Kjaer, Susanne; Mwaiselage, Julius;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To describe how demographic characteristics and knowledge of cervical cancer influence screening acceptance among women living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: Multistage cluster sampling was carried out in 45 randomly selected streets in Dar es Salaam. Women between...... the ages of 25--59 who lived in the sampled streets were invited to a cervical cancer screening; 804 women accepted and 313 rejected the invitation. Information on demographic characteristics and knowledge of cervical cancer were obtained through structured questionnaire interviews. RESULTS: Women aged 35...... to accept screening in comparison with women who had five or more children (ORs 3.21). Finally, knowledge of cervical cancer and awareness of the existing screening program were also associated with increased acceptance rates (ORs of 5.90 and 4.20). CONCLUSION: There are identifiable subgroups where...

  7. Breast cancer screening with mammography as part of our comprehensive medical check-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the breast cancer screening program adopted by our hospital's Health Care Center as part of a comprehensive medical check-up, mammography (MMG) is performed in addition to a clinical breast examination to provide better screening quality. The clinical breast examination is performed by our surgeons. Two-view MMG is performed for women in their 40's and one-view MMG for the others. If any abnormality is detected in the clinical breast examination, or if MMG reveals abnormalities of category 3 or over, a more thorough diagnostic work-up is recommended. Each year, 1,400 or more women undergo breast cancer screening at the center, with an average recall rate of 12% and an average breast cancer detection rate of 0.14%. The high recall rate indicates the need for improvement of screening accuracy. Although the breast cancer detection rate and positive predictive value are somewhat low, the majority of the detected cases are early-stage breast cancer, thus demonstrating the efficacy of the screening. Herein, we describe the current state of MMG screening in our comprehensive medical check-up, along with a discussion of the screening procedure. However, further efforts are needed to improve screening accuracy. (author)

  8. Lung Cancer Screening and clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. van 't Westeinde (Susan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the most frequently diagnosed major cancer worldwide and the leading cause of death from cancer. Lung cancer is divided into two subgroups: small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), accounting for 10-20% and 75% of lung cancer cases, respectivel

  9. Population based screening for prostate cancer : tumor characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Cruijsen, Ingrid W

    2008-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer is a multi-centre randomized controlled trial to examine whether screening for prostate cancer has an effect on prostate cancer mortality. The total study cohort consists of 268.000 men in eight different European Countries. In the Netherlands the study is being conducted in the region of Rotterdam by the study group of the Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam. Between 1993 and 2000 a total of 42,376 men (...

  10. Breast Cancer Screening in Saudi Arabia: Free but Almost No Takers

    OpenAIRE

    Charbel El Bcheraoui; Mohammed Basulaiman; Shelley Wilson; Farah Daoud; Marwa Tuffaha; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Memish, Ziad A.; Mohammed Al Saeedi; Mokdad, Ali H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mammography ensures early diagnosis and a better chance for treatment and recovery from breast cancer. We conducted a national survey to investigate knowledge and practices of breast cancer screening among Saudi women aged 50 years or older in order to inform the breast cancer national health programs. Materials and Methods The Saudi Health Interview Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older. The survey included questions on socio-demographic ch...

  11. Metoder til screening for kolorektal cancer kan forbedres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad; Madsen, Mogens Rørbæk; Vilandt, Jesper; Klærke, Michael; Andersen, Jens; Nielsen, Knud T; Khalid, Ali; Laurberg, Søren; Andersen, Claus Lindbjerg; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Brünner, Nils; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    Screening programmes for colorectal cancer (CRC) are being implemented in various countries worldwide including Denmark. The majority of programmes rely on faecal occult blood testing with subsequent colonoscopy. This approach is challenged by limited compliance, which reduces the efficiency of the...... screening programme. Current research into improve-ments of screening of CRC includes biological markers identified in blood. Combining blood-based biological markers with clinical and demographical parameters have shown promising results, which may improve the present approach to screening....

  12. Breast cancer mortality in Norway after the introduction of mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anne Helene; Lynge, Elsebeth; Njor, Sisse H;

    2013-01-01

    An organized mammography screening program was gradually implemented in Norway during the period 1996-2004. Norwegian authorities have initiated an evaluation of the program. Our study focused on breast cancer mortality. Using Poisson regression, we compared the change in breast cancer mortality......, in the four control groups. The ratio between the changes in breast cancer mortality between early and late starting counties was 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-1.12). In the evaluation model, this ratio was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.71-1.12). In Norway, where 40% of women used regular mammography prior...... to the program, the implementation of the organized mammography screening program was associated with a statistically nonsignificant decrease in breast cancer mortality of around 11%....

  13. Effectiveness of ultrasound for breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound (US) for breast cancer screening, we conducted a retrospective survey of 856 breast cancer patients who were preoperatively examined by mammography (MMG) and US. Their average age was 54.7 years, with a range of 24 to 92 years. MMG revealed positive findings in 771 patients (90.1%), and negative findings in the remaining 85 patients (9.9%). Likewise, US revealed positive findings in 835 patients (97.5%), and negative findings in the remaining 21 patients (2.5%). Accordingly, the proportion of positive finding in US was significantly higher than that in MMG (chi-square test, p<0.0001). The incidence of negative findings with MMG was inversely related to age: 5.8% for patients in their 70s, 5.7% for those in their 60s, 8.3% for those in their 50s, 11.1% for those in their 40s, and 26.2% for those in their 30s or younger, because of the higher breast density in younger women (chi-square test, p<0.0001). The incidence of positive findings was 99.4% for tumors 2.1 to 3.0 cm in size, 96.3% for those measuring 1.6 to 2.0 cm, 94.3% for those measuring 1.1 to 1.5 cm, and 75.4% for those less than or equal to 1.0 cm (chi-square test, p<0.0001). Among the 85 patients with negative findings by MMG, 70(82.4%) were positive and 15 (17.6%) were negative by US. As findings of calcification by US, high echo spots plus a tumor lesion were observed in 59 patients (71.1%), high echo spots only were noted in 22 patients (26.5%), and high echo spots were not seen in 2 patients (2.4%). In conclusion, parallel use of MMG and US is recommended for breast cancer screening, especially for women in their 50s or younger, to reduce the incidence of misdiagnosis. (author)

  14. First epidemiological analysis of breast cancer incidence and tumor characteristics after implementation of population-based digital mammography screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to epidemiologically evaluate the impact of digital mammography screening on incidence rates and tumor characteristics for breast cancer. Materials and methods: the first German digital screening units in the clinical routine were evaluated during the implementation period by using data from the cancer registry to compare the incidence rate of breast cancers and prognostic characteristics. 74% of women aged 50-69 within the region of Muenster/Coesfeld/Warendorf were invited between 10/2005 and 12/2007 for initial screening; 55% participated (n = 35961). Results: in 2002-2004 the average breast cancer incidence rate (per 100000) was 297.9. During the implementation of screening, the rate rose to 532.9 in 2007. Of the 349 cancers detected with screening, 76% (265/349) were invasive compared to 90% (546/608) of cases not detected with screening during the same period. 37% (97/265) of cancers detected in the screening program had a diameter of ≤ 10 mm and 75% (198/265) were node-negative compared to 15% (79/546) and 64% (322/503), respectively, in cancers detected outside the screening program. The distribution of invasive tumor size (pT categories) and the nodal status differed with statistical significance between cancers detected in and outside the program (p = 0.005 and p = 0.004, respectively). (orig.)

  15. The relative effect of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality by socioeconomic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripping, Theodora M.; van der Waal, Danielle; Verbeek, André L.M.; Broeders, Mireille J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Breast cancer incidence and mortality are higher in women with a high socioeconomic status (SES). The potential to prevent death from breast cancer is therefore greater in the high SES group. This does, however, require that the effectiveness of screening in the high SES group is equal to or greater than the effectiveness in the low SES group. The aim of this study is to assess the relative effectiveness of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality by SES. In Nijmegen, the Netherlands, women are invited to participate in biennial mammographic screening since 1975. Postal code is collected at each round and is used to calculate the SES of each woman based on the SES indicator of the Netherlands Institute for Social Research. The Dutch average was used to classify the SES score of each woman as either high or low. We designed a case-control study to investigate the effect of mammographic screening in women aged 50 to 75, 40 to 75, and 50 to 69 years, and calculated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Among the women invited to the mammographic screening program in Nijmegen, 10% had a high SES. In women aged 50 to 75 years, the breast cancer death rate was 38% lower in screened women than in unscreened women. The ORs for women with high SES (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.31–2.19) and low SES did not differ significantly (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.47–0.78). Mammographic screening reduces breast cancer mortality, but we did not observe a significant difference in the relative effectiveness of screening by SES. If the effectiveness of mammographic screening is indeed not dependent on SES status, the absolute number of breast cancer deaths prevented by mammographic screening will be greater in the high SES than low SES group, because women with a high SES have a greater risk of breast cancer death. PMID:27495038

  16. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices for cervical cancer screening among the Bhutanese refugee community in Omaha, Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Rebecca J; Margalit, Ruth; Ross, Christine; Nepal, Tikka; Soliman, Amr S

    2014-10-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer mortality among women with the vast majority of patients in developing countries. Bhutanese refugees in the United States are from South Central Asia, the 4th leading region of the world for cervical cancer incidence. Over the past few years, Bhutanese refugees have increased significantly in Nebraska. This study evaluates current knowledge of cervical cancer and screening practices among the Bhutanese refugee women in Omaha, Nebraska. The study aimed to investigate cervical cancer and screening knowledge and perceptions about the susceptibility and severity of cervical cancer and perceived benefits and barriers to screening. Self-administered questionnaires and focus groups based on the Health Belief Model were conducted among 42 healthy women from the Bhutanese refugee community in Omaha. The study revealed a significant lack of knowledge in this community regarding cervical cancer and screening practices, with only 22.2 % reporting ever hearing of a Pap test and 13.9 % reporting ever having one. Only 33.3 % of women were in agreement with their own perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. Women who reported ever hearing about the Pap test tended to believe more strongly about curability of the disease if discovered early than women who never heard about the test (71.4 vs. 45.0 %, for the two groups. respectively). Refugee populations in the United States are in need for tailored cancer education programs especially when being resettled from countries with high risk for cancer. PMID:25060231

  17. Health seeking behavioral analysis associated with breast cancer screening among Asian American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Wanzhen Gao,1 Sunmin Lee,2 MinQi Wang,3 Yin Tan,1 Steven E Shive,1,41Department of Public Health, Center for Asian Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA; 3Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, MD, USA; 4East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, USAObjective: The purpose of this community-based study was to apply a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model to determine the association of factors proposed in the model with breast cancer screening behaviors among Asian American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 682 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women aged 40 years and older. The frequency distribution analysis and Chi-square analysis were used for the initial screening of the following variables: sociodemographic, cultural, enabling, environmental, and social support. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on factors for breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression analysis.Results: Correlates to positive breast cancer screening included demographics (ethnicity, cultural factors (living in the United States for 15 years or more, speaking English well, enabling factors (having a regular physician to visit, health insurance covering the screening, and family/social support factors (those who had a family/friend receiving a mammogram.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that breast cancer screening programs will be more effective if they include the cultural and health beliefs, enabling, and social support factors associated with breast cancer screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in helping to increase breast cancer screening rates among Asian American women.Keywords: breast cancer screening, Vietnamese, Korean, Chinese, breast

  18. A systematic review of interventions to increase breast and cervical cancer screening uptake among Asian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Mingshan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asian population is one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in western countries. However, cancer screening uptake is consistently lower in this group than in the native-born populations. As a first step towards developing an effective cancer screening intervention program targeting Asian women, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review, without geographic, language or date limitations, to update current knowledge on the effectiveness of existing intervention strategies to enhance breast and cervical screening uptake in Asian women. Methods This study systematically reviewed studies published as of January 2010 to synthesize knowledge about effectiveness of cancer screening interventions targeting Asian women. Fifteen multidisciplinary peer-reviewed and grey literature databases were searched to identify relevant studies. Results The results of our systematic review were reported in accordance with the PRISMA Statement. Of 37 selected intervention studies, only 18 studies included valid outcome measures (i.e. self-reported or recorded receipt of mammograms or Pap smear. 11 of the 18 intervention studies with valid outcome measures used multiple intervention strategies to target individuals in a specific Asian ethnic group. This observed pattern of intervention design supports the hypothesis that employing a combination of multiple strategies is more likely to be successful than single interventions. The effectiveness of community-based or workplace-based group education programs increases when additional supports, such as assistance in scheduling/attending screening and mobile screening services are provided. Combining cultural awareness training for health care professionals with outreach workers who can help healthcare professionals overcome language and cultural barriers is likely to improve cancer screening uptake. Media campaigns and mailed culturally sensitive print materials alone may be ineffective

  19. Computed tomographic characteristics of interval and post screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholten, Ernst T. [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kennemer Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Haarlem (Netherlands); Horeweg, Nanda [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Harry J. de [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    To analyse computed tomography (CT) findings of interval and post-screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening. Consecutive interval and post-screen carcinomas from the Dutch-Belgium lung cancer screening trial were included. The prior screening and the diagnostic chest CT were reviewed by two experienced radiologists in consensus with knowledge of the tumour location on the diagnostic CT. Sixty-one participants (53 men) were diagnosed with an interval or post-screen carcinoma. Twenty-two (36 %) were in retrospect visible on the prior screening CT. Detection error occurred in 20 cancers and interpretation error in two cancers. Errors involved intrabronchial tumour (n = 5), bulla with wall thickening (n = 5), lymphadenopathy (n = 3), pleural effusion (n = 1) and intraparenchymal solid nodules (n = 8). These were missed because of a broad pleural attachment (n = 4), extensive reticulation surrounding a nodule (n = 1) and extensive scarring (n = 1). No definite explanation other than human error was found in two cases. None of the interval or post-screen carcinomas involved a subsolid nodule. Interval or post-screen carcinomas that were visible in retrospect were mostly due to detection errors of solid nodules, bulla wall thickening or endobronchial lesions. Interval or post-screen carcinomas without explanation other than human errors are rare. (orig.)

  20. Development of lung cancer CT screening operating support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Rikuta; Hanai, Kozou; Suzuki, Masahiro; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    In Japan, lung cancer death ranks first among men and third among women. Lung cancer death is increasing yearly, thus early detection and treatment are needed. For this reason, CT screening for lung cancer has been introduced. The CT screening services are roughly divided into three sections: office, radiology and diagnosis sections. These operations have been performed through paper-based or a combination of paper-based and an existing electronic health recording system. This paper describes an operating support system for lung cancer CT screening in order to make the screening services efficient. This operating support system is developed on the basis of 1) analysis of operating processes, 2) digitalization of operating information, and 3) visualization of operating information. The utilization of the system is evaluated through an actual application and users' survey questionnaire obtained from CT screening centers.

  1.   Personal invitations for population-based breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saalasti-Koskinen, Ulla; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Saarenmaa, Irma;

    2010-01-01

    objective of this study was to evaluate the information breast cancer screening units send to women invited for screening in Finland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to all breast cancer screening units in Finland in 2005 and 2008, and the information (eg, invitations, results letters......, leaflets) the units sent to women was collected. Results from 2005 were sent as feedback to the units. Data were analyzed descriptively, and results from the 2 years were compared. RESULTS: Screening units sent personal invitation letters usually providing fixed appointment times. Most units informed about...... participation free of charge and the benefits of detecting breast cancer early. Harm associated with screening was seldom mentioned; no unit mentioned the possibility of false-negative results or overtreatment. CONCLUSION: The screening units provided very variable information, which often was biased toward...

  2. Performance of computer-aided detection in false-negative screening mammograms of breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze retrospectively the abnormalities visible on the false-negative screening mammograms of patients with breast cancer and to determine the performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) in the detection of cancers. Of 108 consecutive cases of breast cancer diagnosed over a period of 6 years, of which previous screening mammograms were available, 32 retrospectively visible abnormalities (at which locations cancer later developed) were found in the previous mammograms, and which were originally reported as negative. These 32 patients ranged in age from 38 to 72 years (mean 52 years). We analyzed their previous mammographic findings, and assessed the ability of CAD to mark cancers in previous mammograms, according to the clinical presentation, the type of abnormalities and the mammographic parenchymal density. In these 32 previous mammograms of breast cancers (20 asymptomatic, 12 symptomatic), the retrospectively visible abnormalities were identified as densities in 22, calcifications in 8, and densities with calcifications in 2. CAD marked abnormalities in 20 (63%) of the 32 cancers with false-negative screening mammograms; 14 (70%) of the 20 subsequent screening-detected cancers, 5 (50%) of the 10 interval cancers, and 1 (50%) of the 2 cancers palpable after the screening interval. CAD marked 12 (50%) of the 24 densities and 9 (90%) of the 10 calcifications. CAD marked abnormalities in 7 (50%) of the 14 predominantly fatty breasts, and 13 (72%) of the 18 dense breasts. CAD-assisted diagnosis could potentially decrease the number of false-negative mammograms caused by the failure to recognize the cancer in the screening program, although its usefulness in the prevention of interval cancers appears to be limited

  3. Colon and Rectal Cancer Screening (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology. CA Cancer J Clin 2008; 58:130. Whitlock EP, Lin JS, Liles E, et al. Screening for colorectal cancer: a targeted, updated systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2008; 149:638. ...

  4. The association between general practitioners’ attitudes towards breast cancer screening and women’s screening participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Line

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer screening in Denmark is organised by the health services in the five regions. Although general practitioners (GPs are not directly involved in the screening process, they are often the first point of contact to the health care system and thus play an important advisory role. No previous studies, in a health care setting like the Danish system, have investigated the association between GPs’ attitudes towards breast cancer screening and women’s participation in the screening programme. Methods Data on women’s screening participation was obtained from the regional screening authorities. Data on GPs’ attitudes towards breast cancer screening was taken from a previous survey among GPs in the Central Denmark Region. This study included women aged 50-69 years who were registered with a singlehanded GP who had participated in the survey. Results The survey involved 67 singlehanded GPs with a total of 13,288 women on their lists. Five GPs (7% had a negative attitude towards breast cancer screening. Among registered women, 81% participated in the first screening round. Multivariate analyses revealed that women registered with a GP with a negative attitude towards breast cancer screening were 17% (95% CI: 2-34% more likely to be non-participants compared with women registered with a GP with a positive attitude towards breast cancer screening. Conclusion The GPs' attitudes may influence the participation rate even in a system where GPs are not directly involved in the screening process. However, further studies are needed to investigate this association.

  5. Breast Cancer Screening: What are the Last Changes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Secginli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammography, clinical breast-examination (CBE and breast self-examination (BSE are the mainly recommended screening methods for early diagnosis of breast cancer. In recent years, guidelines concerning screening methods were revised. To date, CBE and BSE are not routinely recommended for early diagnosis of breast cancer in western countries. Due to important value in decreasing breast cancer mortality rate, mammography, is the recommended breast cancer screening method; but the changes related with the time of mammography screening is rised to notice. In 2010, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF which is one of the important health authority, guidelines concerning screening mammography were revised. Accordingly, while the mammography that is recommended for women starting aged 40 years by many health authorities, the USPSTF no longer advises routine screening mammography for women aged 40–49 and for those aged ≥75.; and biennial screening is advised for those aged 50–74. It is necessary for health professionals working in breast health area to learn the last changes concerning about breast cancer screening methods. Together with CBE and BSE, it is also important to encourage women to participate mammography screening with an understanding of its benefits and risks. In this article, it is aimed to critique new guidelines about breast cancer screening methods. It is also critiqued the potential benefits and risks of mammography that is currently considered the ‘‘gold standard’’ for breast cancer screening for women. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 193-200

  6. Transvaginal ultrasonography in ovarian cancer screening: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Nagell Jr JR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available John R van Nagell Jr, John T HoffDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center/Markey Cancer Center, Lexington, KY, USAAbstract: Transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS is an integral part of all major ovarian cancer screening trials. TVS is accurate in detecting abnormalities in ovarian volume and morphology, but is less reliable in differentiating benign from malignant ovarian tumors. When used as the only screening test, TVS is sensitive, but has a low positive predictive value. Therefore, serum biomarkers and tumor morphology indexing are used together with TVS to identify ovarian tumors at high risk for malignancy. This allows preoperative triage of high-risk cases to major cancer centers for therapy while decreasing unnecessary surgery for benign disease. Ovarian cancer screening has been associated with a decrease in stage at detection in most trials, thereby allowing treatment to be initiated when the disease is most curable.Keywords: ovarian cancer, ultrasound, screening, serum Ca-125

  7. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  8. Screening study on new tumor marker periplakin for lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuqin Dai; Wei Li; Mian Kong; Yuzhen Zheng; Shuying Chen; Junye Wang; Linquan Zang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use lung cancer targeting binding polypeptide ZS-9 to screen cDNA library of human lung cancer and obtain ZS-9 specific ligand to confirm tumor marker of non small-cell lung cancer. Methods: Artificially synthesize biotin labeled peptide ZS-9, anchored ZS-9 in the enzyme label plate coupled by avidin, used ZS-9 as probe to screen cDNA library of human lung cancer, after screening, obtained bacteriophage clone specifically binding with anchored polypeptide ZS-9. Extracted plasmid of bacteriophage and performed sequencing after amplified by PCR. Results: It was demonstrated by bioinformatic analysis on the sequence of ligand binded by lung cancer specific peptide ZS-9 that the ligand was the cytoskeletal protein periplakin on the surface of lung cancer cells, suggesting that periplakin might be a new marker for non-small-cell lung cancer in lung cancer. Conclusion: Use specific lung cancer binding peptide to screen new tumor marker periplakin in lung cancer and further studies on its biologic functions in genesis and development of lung cancer are still needed.

  9. Study of mammography in mass screening for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to examine the rate of correct diagnosis by mammography at initial mass screening for breast cancer, we carried out a retrospective study of mammography findings in 267 cases of breast cancer detected at Asahikawa Cancer Screening Center. The screening was performed by physical examination, and in cases where disease was suspected, mammography, ultrasonography, and needle biopsy were done. Mammographically, 172 cases (64.4%) were cancer-positive, 58 cases (21.7%) were suspicious for cancer, and 37 cases (13.9%) were cancer-negative. Patients below 50 years of age and those with tumors of small diameter (<20 mm) showed a significantly lower rate of cancer positivity than patients aged 50 years or more and those with tumors 20 mm or more in diameter. Mammographic abnormalities were not specific, since these changes were also found in normal subjects and patients with benign diseases. Therefore, we concluded that mammography without physical examination at initial mass screening has a high risk of missing breast cancer. Mass screening for breast cancer should be performed by physical examination involving inspection and palpation at the first instance. If any suspicious findings are obtained, mammography, ultrasonography, and needle biopsy should be done. (author)

  10. Awareness of endometrial cancer risk and compliance with screening in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketabi, Zohreh; Mosgaard, Berit J; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ladelund, Steen; Bernstein, Inge T

    2012-01-01

    Women with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) have a 40-60% lifetime risk for endometrial cancer. Guidelines in Denmark recommend gynecologic screening for female members of families with HNPCC. We estimated the knowledge of endometrial cancer risk and identified possible predictors...... of compliance with the screening among women from families with HNPCC....

  11. Screening for breast cancer in a high-risk series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unique cohort of women at increased risk of breast cancer because of prior X-ray treatment of acute mastitis and their selected high-risk siblings were offered periodic breast cancer screening including physical examination of the breasts, mammography, and thermography. Twelve breast cancers were detected when fewer than four would have been expected based on age-specific breast cancer detection rates from the National Cancer Institute/American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Demonstration Detection Projects. Mammography was positive in all cases but physical examination was positive in only three cases. Thermography was an unreliable indicator of disease. Given the concern over radiation-induced risk, use of low-dose technique and of criteria for participation that select women at high risk of breast cancer will maximize the benefit/risk ratio for mammography screening

  12. Lung Cancer Screening: The Radiologist's Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prokop, M.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and accounts for more deaths than breast, prostate, colon, and pancreatic cancers combined. A distinct minority (15\\%) of lung cancers are diagnosed at an early stage; 5-year survival (all lung cancers) approximates 15\\%. Randomized, control

  13. Newborn screening education on the internet: a content analysis of North American newborn screening program websites

    OpenAIRE

    Araia, Makda H.; Potter, Beth K

    2011-01-01

    The Internet is a potentially important medium for communication about public health programs including newborn screening. This study explores whether the information available on official newborn screening program websites is consistent with existing guidelines regarding educational content for parents. We conducted a systematic search of the public websites of newborn screening programs in the US and Canada, identifying web pages and downloadable brochures that contained educational informa...

  14. Skin cancer screening in Okinawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, T; Ueda, M; Suzuki, T; Naruse, K; Nakamura, T; Taguchi, M; Araki, K; Nakagawa, K; Nagai, H; Hayashi, K; Watanabe, S; Ichihashi, M

    1999-04-01

    Depletion of the ozone layer has been observed on a global scale. Ozone depletion increases the amount of biologically harmful solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) that reaches the surface of the Earth, leading to an increased incidence of skin cancer. We previously reported the prevalence and incidence of actinic keratosis (AK) in Kasai City, which is located almost at the center of Japan. To evaluate the effects of different ambient annual UV doses on the prevalence and incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer and AK in Japan, we screened for skin cancer on Ie Island in Okinawa at the southern end of Japan, where the annual cumulative dose of UV is assumed to be the highest in Japan. The island had a population of 5562 in 1993. A prospective 4-year population-based study on the prevalence and incidence of cutaneous neoplasms was conducted by examining the sun-exposed skin of people over 40 years of age living on Ie Island. In 1993 1996, 86 cases of AK, nine of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and two of squamous cell carcinoma were identified. The annual prevalence of AK on Ie Island was 1159.4 in 1993, 572.8 in 1994, 1014.3 in 1995 and 988.9 per 100000 Japanese in 1996. These values were significantly higher than those in Kasai City. The annual age-adjusted odds ratios for AK of Ie Island to Kasai City were 2.79, 1.38, 2.45 and 2.39, respectively. The incidences of AK on Ie Island per 100,000 were 637.0 in 1995 and 625.5 in 1996, which were also significantly higher than those in Kasai City (223.6 in 1993 and 171.2 in 1994). The prevalence of BCC was 123.6 and the incidence was 26.1. Together with our previous reports, the present results show a possible inverse relationship between the prevalence and incidence of AK and latitude among Japanese people. PMID:10215187

  15. Integrated screening concept in women with genetic predisposition for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is in 5% of cases due to a genetic disposition. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are by far the most common breast cancer susceptibility genes. For a woman with a genetic predisposition, the individual risk of developing breast cancer sometime in her life is between 70 and 90%. Compared to the spontaneous forms of breast cancer, woman with a genetic predisposition often develop breast cancer at a much younger age. This is why conventional screening programs on the basis of mammography alone cannot be applied without modification to this high-risk group. In this article, an integrated screening concept for women with genetic prodisposition for breast cancer using breast self-examination, clinical examination, ultrasound, mammography and magnetic resonance imaging is introduced. (orig.)

  16. Amblyopia prevention screening program in Northwest Iran (Ardabil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ojaghi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The present investigation showed that coverage of amblyopia screening program was not enough in Ardabil Province. To increase the screening accuracy, standard instruments and examination room must be used; more optometrists must be involved in this program and increasing the validity of obtained results for future programming.

  17. Social support and non-participation in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line Flytkjær; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Andersen, Berit;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social support may have an impact on screening participation. We studied the association between social support in 2006, defined as frequencies of contacts, instrumental support and emotional support and participation in breast cancer screening in 2008-09. METHODS: This population......-based cohort study included 4512 women who had participated in a Health Survey in 2006 and who also were in the target group for the first round of organized breast cancer screening in the Central Denmark region in 2008-09. RESULTS: Women with infrequent contacts with friends and family in 2006 were more...... non-participation in breast cancer screening in 2008-09. Targeted social interventions may, therefore, have an impact on future screening behaviour, which calls for further research....

  18. Reasons why patients fail screening in Indian breast cancer trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An increased number of screen failure patients in a clinical trial increases time and cost required for the recruitment. Assessment of reasons for screen failure can help reduce screen failure rates and improve recruitment. Materials and Methods: We collected retrospective data of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2 positive Indian breast cancer patients, who failed screening for phase 3 clinical trials and ascertained their reasons for screen failure from screening logs. Statistical comparison was done to ascertain if there are any differences between private and public sites. Results: Of 727 patients screened at 14 sites, 408 (56.1% failed screening. The data on the specific reasons for screen failures was not available at one of the public sites (38 screen failures out of 83 screened patients. Hence, after excluding that site, further analysis is based on 644 patients, of which 370 failed screening. Of these, 296 (80% screen failure patients did not meet selection criteria. The majority -266 were HER2 negative. Among logistical issues, 39 patients had inadequate breast tissue sample. Sixteen patients withdrew their consent at private sites as compared to six at public sites. The difference between private and public sites for the above three reasons was statistically significant. Conclusion: Use of prescreening logs to reduce the number of patients not meeting selection criteria and protocol logistics, and patient counseling to reduce consent withdrawals could be used to reduce screen failure rate.

  19. Discovery – Lung Cancer Screening Saves Lives: The NLST

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI funded the National Lung Screening Trial, an eight-year study that used new technology to detect small, aggressive tumors early enough to surgically remove them. This approach reduced lung cancer deaths among participants by 20 percent.

  20. Grantee Spotlight: Dr. Kolawole Okuyemi - Improving Cervical Cancer Screening Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Kolawole Okuyumi is studying cervical cancer screening attitudes and behaviors of African immigrants and refugees in Minnesota, and introducing “cancer” and “cervix” to their everyday vocabulary.

  1. Low adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A reason for not recommending subtotal hysterectomy is the risk of cervical pathology. We aimed to evaluate cervical cancer screening and to describe cervical pathology after subtotal and total hysterectomy for benign indications. METHODS: Data regarding adherence to screening.......7% were not screened. We found a minimum of one abnormal test in 28 (10.8%) after subtotal hysterectomy and one after total hysterectomy. No cervical cancers were found. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy in a Danish population is suboptimal and some patients...... have unnecessary tests performed after total hysterectomy. Clarification of the use of cervical/vaginal smears after hysterectomy is needed to identify women at risk of cervical dysplasia or cancer. FUNDING: Research Foundation of Region Zealand, University of Southern Denmark, Nykøbing Falster...

  2. Resource Utilization and Costs during the Initial Years of Lung Cancer Screening with Computed Tomography in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Cressman, Sonya; Lam, Stephen; Tammemagi, Martin C.; Evans, William K.; Leighl, Natasha B.; Regier, Dean A; Bolbocean, Corneliu; Shepherd, Frances A.; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Manos, Daria; Liu, Geoffrey; Atkar-Khattra, Sukhinder; Cromwell, Ian; Johnston, Michael R.; Mayo, John R

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is estimated that millions of North Americans would qualify for lung cancer screening and that billions of dollars of national health expenditures would be required to support population-based computed tomography lung cancer screening programs. The decision to implement such programs should be informed by data on resource utilization and costs. Methods: Resource utilization data were collected prospectively from 2059 participants in the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Canc...

  3. Barriers to cervical cancer screening in Mulanje, Malawi: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria K Fort

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Victoria K Fort1, Mary Sue Makin2, Aaron J Siegler1, Kevin Ault3, Roger Rochat11Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 2Mulanje Mission Hospital, Mulanje, Malawi; 3Emory University Medical School, Atlanta, Georgia, USABackground: In Malawi, cervical cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer among women, with an 80% mortality rate. The Mulanje Mission Hospital has offered free cervical cancer screening for eight years; however, patients primarily seek medical help for gynecologic complaints after the disease is inoperable.Methods: We investigated how women in rural Malawi make health-seeking decisions regarding cervical cancer screening using qualitative research methods. The study was conducted between May and August of 2009 in Mulanje, Malawi.Results: This study found that the primary cue to action for cervical cancer screening was symptoms of cervical cancer. Major barriers to seeking preventative screening included low knowledge levels, low perceived susceptibility and low perceived benefits from the service. Study participants did not view cervical cancer screening as critical health care. Interviews suggested that use of the service could increase if women are recruited while visiting the hospital for a different service.Conclusion: This study recommends that health care providers and health educators target aspects of perceived susceptibility among their patients, including knowledge levels and personal risk assessment. We believe that continued support and advertisement of cervical cancer screening programs along with innovative recruitment strategies will increase usage density and decrease unnecessary deaths from cervical cancer in Malawi.Keywords: cervical cancer, interviews, health care, Mulanje Mission Hospital

  4. Family Support and Colorectal Cancer Screening among Urban African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Northouse, Laurel; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death among African Americans. Less than 50% of African Americans have had CRC screening. This study examined the relationships between family support and influence, cultural identity, CRC beliefs, and a screening informed decision among 129 urban African Americans. Family support (p < .01) significantly predicted CRC beliefs and CRC beliefs significantly predicted informed decision (p < .01). Based on study results, practitioners s...

  5. New Molecular Tools for Efficient Screening of Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz

    2001-01-01

    Cytological screening using the Pap-smear led to a remarkable reduction of the mortality of cervical cancer. However, due to subjective test criteria it is hampered by poor inter- and intra-observer agreement. More reproducible assays are expected to improve the current screening and avoid unnecessary medical intervention and psychological distress for the affected women. Cervical cancer arises as consequence of persistent high risk papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infections. Expression of two viral ...

  6. Socioeconomic Disparities across Ethnicities: An Application to Cervical Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, B.; O'Neill, C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Our aim is to investigate socioeconomic disparities in cervical cancer screening utilization among and between ethnic groups in the United States. Study Design: Observational study. Methods: Data on 26,338 women aged 21 to 64 years were obtained from the 2007 to 2011 years of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Data on cervical cancer screening utilization in the preceding 12 months and 3 years, and a range of sociodemographic characteristics were included. Analyses were...

  7. Colorectal cancer screening with odour material by canine scent detection

    OpenAIRE

    Sonoda, Hideto; Kohnoe, Shunji; Yamazato, Tetsuro; Satoh, Yuji; Morizono, Gouki; Shikata, Kentaro; Morita, Makoto; Watanabe, Akihiro; Morita, Masaru; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Fumio; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Objective Early detection and early treatment are of vital importance to the successful treatment of various cancers. The development of a novel screening method that is as economical and non-invasive as the faecal occult blood test (FOBT) for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed. A study was undertaken using canine scent detection to determine whether odour material can become an effective tool in CRC screening. Design Exhaled breath and watery stool samples were obtained fro...

  8. Screening and cervical cancer cure: population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrae, B.; Andersson, T. M.-L.; Lambert, P C; Kemetli, L.; Silfverdal, L.; Strander, B.; Ryd, W; Dillner, J; Tornberg, S; Sparen, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether detection of invasive cervical cancer by screening results in better prognosis or merely increases the lead time until death. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants All 1230 women with cervical cancer diagnosed during 1999-2001 in Sweden prospectively followed up for an average of 8.5 years. Main outcome measures Cure proportions and five year relative survival ratios, stratified by screening history, mode of detection, age...

  9. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening

  10. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E; Berry, Michael J; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

    2014-08-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening. PMID:24740973

  11. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bo In [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Pil [Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Eun [Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Colorectal cancer is currently the second most common cancer among Korean males and the fourth most common among females. Since the majority of colorectal cancer case present following the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are vital methods in its prevention. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish national guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The proposed guidelines have been developed by the Korean Multi-Society Task Force using evidence-based methods. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been used to form the statements contained in the guidelines. This paper discusses the epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea as well as optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations.

  12. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorectal cancer is currently the second most common cancer among Korean males and the fourth most common among females. Since the majority of colorectal cancer case present following the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are vital methods in its prevention. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish national guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The proposed guidelines have been developed by the Korean Multi-Society Task Force using evidence-based methods. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been used to form the statements contained in the guidelines. This paper discusses the epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea as well as optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations.

  13. Preformulated Implementation Intentions to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Cluster-Randomized Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, S. H.; Good, A; Sheeran, P.; G. Baio; Rainbow, S; Vart, G.; von Wagner, C

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate an intervention based on implementation intention principles designed to increase uptake of colorectal cancer screening, and to examine differential efficacy by socioeconomic deprivation. Method: In England, adults aged between 60 and 69 years are invited for biennial fecal occult blood testing. A test kit and an information leaflet are mailed to each individual by the "Hubs" that deliver the national screening program. In the intervention group, three preformulated imp...

  14. Value of audits in breast cancer screening quality assurance programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertse, Tanya D.; Holland, Roland; Timmers, Janine M. H.; Paap, Ellen; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to retrospectively evaluate the results of all audits performed in the past and to assess their value in the quality assurance of the Dutch breast cancer screening programme. The audit team of the Dutch Reference Centre for Screening (LRCB) conducts triennial audits of all 17 reading uni

  15. Prospects for population screening and diagnosis of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, John K; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Pedersen, Jesper Holst;

    2013-01-01

    Deaths from lung cancer exceed those from any other type of malignancy, with 1·5 million deaths in 2010. Prevention and smoking cessation are still the main methods to reduce the death toll. The US National Lung Screening Trial, which compared CT screening with chest radiograph, yielded a mortality...

  16. A Social Marketing Approach To Increasing Breast Cancer Screening Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Carol A.; Forthofer, Melinda S.; McCormack Brown, Kelli; Alfonso, Moya Lynn; Quinn, Gwen

    2000-01-01

    Used social marketing to identify factors influencing women's breast cancer screening behaviors. Data from focus groups and interviews with diverse women highlighted women's attitudes, knowledge, and barriers regarding screening. Results were used to develop a comprehensive social marketing plan to motivate irregular users of breast cancer…

  17. Attitudes of women about breast cancer and cervical cancern screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilknur Aydin Avci

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This research revealed that the women had moderate knowlege about breast and cervical cancer screening and artcipation in screening is low. Beside, the women who had BSE and mammography had more PAP smear. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 235-239

  18. Lung cancer screening: history, current perspectives, and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Divakar; Newman, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has remained the leading cause of death worldwide among all cancers. The dismal 5-year survival rate of 16% is in part due to the lack of symptoms during early stages and lack of an effective screening test until recently. Chest X-ray and sputum cytology were studied extensively as potential screening tests for lung cancer and were conclusively proven to be of no value. Subsequently, a number of studies compared computed tomography (CT) with the chest X-ray. These studies did identify lung cancer in earlier stages. However, they were not designed to prove a reduction in mortality. Later trials have focused on low-dose CT (LDCT) as a screening tool. The largest US trial – the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) – enrolled approximately 54,000 patients and revealed a 20% reduction in mortality. While a role for LDCT in lung cancer screening has been established, the issues of high false positive rates, radiation risk, and cost effectiveness still need to be addressed. The guidelines of the international organizations that now include LDCT in lung cancer screening are reviewed. Other methods that may improve earlier detection such as positron emission tomography, autofluorescence bronchoscopy, and molecular biomarkers are also discussed. PMID:26528348

  19. Analysis of previous screening examinations for patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We wanted to improve the quality of subsequent screening by reviewing the previous screening of breast cancer patients. Twenty-four breast cancer patients who underwent previous screening were enrolled. All 24 took mammograms and 15 patients also took sonograms. We reviewed the screening retrospectively according to the BI-RADS criteria and we categorized the results into false negative, true negative, true positive and occult cancers. We also categorized the causes of false negative cancers into misperception, misinterpretation and technical factors and then we analyzed the attributing factors. Review of the previous screening revealed 66.7% (16/24) false negative, 25.0% (6/24) true negative, and 8.3% (2/24) true positive cancers. False negative cancers were caused by the mammogram in 56.3% (9/16) and by the sonogram in 43.7% (7/16). For the false negative cases, all of misperception were related with mammograms and this was attributed to dense breast, a lesion located at the edge of glandular tissue or the image, and findings seen on one view only. Almost all misinterpretations were related with sonograms and attributed to loose application of the final assessment. To improve the quality of breast screening, it is essential to overcome the main causes of false negative examinations, including misperception and misinterpretation. We need systematic education and strict application of final assessment categories of BI-RADS. For effective communication among physicians, it is also necessary to properly educate them about BI-RADS

  20. Secondary solid cancer screening following hematopoietic cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamoto, Y; Shah, NN; Savani, BN; Shaw, BE; Abraham, AA; Ahmed, IA; Akpek, G; Atsuta, Y; Baker, KS; Basak, GW; Bitan, M; DeFilipp, Z; Gregory, TK; Greinix, HT; Hamadani, M; Hamilton, BK; Hayashi, RJ; Jacobsohn, DA; Kamble, RT; Kasow, KA; Khera, N; Lazarus, HM; Malone, AK; Lupo-Stanghellini, MT; Margossian, SP; Muffly, LS; Norkin, M; Ramanathan, M; Salooja, N; Schoemans, H; Wingard, JR; Wirk, B; Wood, WA; Yong, A; Duncan, CN; Flowers, MED; Majhail, NS

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients have a substantial risk of developing secondary solid cancers, particularly beyond 5 years after HCT and without reaching a plateau overtime. A working group was established through the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation with the goal to facilitate implementation of cancer screening appropriate to HCT recipients. The working group reviewed guidelines and methods for cancer screening applicable to the general population and reviewed the incidence and risk factors for secondary cancers after HCT. A consensus approach was used to establish recommendations for individual secondary cancers. The most common sites include oral cavity, skin, breast and thyroid. Risks of cancers are increased after HCT compared with the general population in skin, thyroid, oral cavity, esophagus, liver, nervous system, bone and connective tissues. Myeloablative TBI, young age at HCT, chronic GVHD and prolonged immunosuppressive treatment beyond 24 months were well-documented risk factors for many types of secondary cancers. All HCT recipients should be advised of the risks of secondary cancers annually and encouraged to undergo recommended screening based on their predisposition. Here we propose guidelines to help clinicians in providing screening and preventive care for secondary cancers among HCT recipients. PMID:25822223

  1. Screening in breast cancer: a view from the front line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammography screning presents the only real breakthrough in breast cancer in this century. Twenty-five percent of all cancer in women is breast cancer. About 50 percent of these women die from their disease. It has not been possible to reduce breast cancer mortality more than marginally by any mode of treatment. Single view mammography screening can do so, however, at the rate of 30 to 40 percent. Screening has many detractors, especially in the treatment camp. These detractors do not always act in the patients' best interests. Considering the vast resources used up until now in trying to improve on breast cancer treatment, and to little avail, it is time to divert some of these efforts to set up screening programmes wherever possible. Well handled, these are able to reduce suffering and health care costs and save lines

  2. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) compared two ways of detecting lung cancer: low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) and standard chest X-ray. Both chest X-rays and low-dose helical CT scans have been used to find lung cancer early, but the effects of these screening techniques on lung cancer mortality rates had not been determined. NLST enrolled 53,454 current or former heavy smokers from 33 sites and coordinating centers across the United States. | The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) compared two ways of detecting lung cancer: participants who received low-dose helical CT scans had a 20% lower risk of dying from lung cancer than participants who received standard chest X-rays.

  3. Development of computer aided diagnosis for lung cancer CT screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of low dose lung cancer helical CT screening to the clinical site has been the fundamental basis of research on Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) using thoracic CT images. Our purpose is the early detection of lung cancer leading to its early treatment, in order to reduce the mortality of lung cancer. From multi-slice CT, lung cancer screening has been activated more. Since CT screening contains a lot of images compared with the conventional X-ray, research and development on the utilization of computer and network using the new diagnosis support technology is required. Due to the demand from actual clinical site, the research group from The University of Tokushima has started the research and development of CAD using lung cancer CT images. We report the result and the future works. (author)

  4. Prognosis of screen-detected breast cancers: results of a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reduced mortality rate from breast carcinoma among women offered screening mammography is demonstrated after 15–20 years of follow-up. However, the assessment of 5-year overall and event-free survival could represent an earlier measure of the efficacy of mammography screening program (MSP. Methods All cases of breast cancer diagnosed in the Province of Modena between years 1996 and 2000 in women aged 50 to 69 years, were identified through the Modena Cancer Registry (MCR. Stage of disease and treatment information were obtained from clinical records. All the events occurring up to June 30, 2003 were retrieved by experienced monitors. Five-year overall and event-free survival were the principal end-points of the study. Results During a 5-year period, 587 primary breast cancers were detected by the MSP and 471 primary breast cancers were diagnosed out of the MSP. The screen-detected breast cancers were smaller, more likely node negative, with low histological grade, low proliferative activity and positive receptors status. Furthermore, the breast cancer diagnosed through the MSP more frequently received a conservative surgery. The 5-year survival rate was 94% in the screen-detected group, versus 84% in the other group (p = 0.0001. The rate of 5-year event-free survival was 89% and 75% for the MSP participants and not participants, respectively (p = 0.0001. Conclusions Our data confirm a favourable outcome of screen-detected breast cancers in terms of five-year overall and event-free survival, which reflect the good quality assurance parameters of the MSP. Finally, a cancer registry should be implemented in every area covered by screening programs.

  5. Effects of Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer of men worldwide. The number of new cases worldwide was estimated at 899,000 and accounted for 13.6% of all cancers in men in 2008. With an estimated 258,000 deaths in 2008, prostate cancer is the sixth leading cause of death

  6. Screening history of cervical cancers in Emilia-Romagna, Italy: defining priorities to improve cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paolo Giorgi; Caroli, Stefania; Mancini, Silvia; de' Bianchi, Priscilla Sassoli; Finarelli, Alba C; Naldoni, Carlo; Bucchi, Lauro; Falcini, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    Most invasive cervical cancers in industrialized countries are due to the lack of Pap test coverage, very few are due to screening failures. This study aimed at quantifying the proportion of invasive cancers occurring in nonscreened or underscreened women and that in women with a previous negative screening, that is, screening failure, during the first two screening rounds (1996-2002) and in the following rounds (2003-2008) in the Emilia-Romagna region. All cases of invasive cancers registered in the regional cancer registry between 1996 and 2008 were classified according to screening history through a record linkage with the screening programme registry. The incidence significantly decreased from 11.6/100 000 to 8.7/100 000; this decrease is due to a reduction in squamous cell cancers (annual percentage change -6.2; confidence interval: -7.8, -4.6) and advanced cancers (annual percentage change -6.6; confidence interval: -8.8, -4.3), whereas adenocarcinomas and microinvasive cancers were essentially stable. The proportion of cancers among women not yet invited and among nonresponders decreased over the two periods, from 45.5 to 33.3%. In contrast, the proportion of women with a previous negative Pap test less than 5 years and 5 years or more before cancer incidence increased from 5.7 to 13.3% and from 0.3 to 5.5%, respectively. Although nonattendance of the screening programme remains the main barrier to cervical cancer control, the introduction of a more sensitive test, such as the human papillomavirus DNA test, could significantly reduce the burden of disease. PMID:24787379

  7. Imaging screening of breast cancer: primary results in 5307 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the values of three screening methods for the detection of early breast cancer, and to analyze the features of the screening cancer. Methods: The first screening of breast cancer were performed in 5307 women who aged from 20 to 76 years with median age of 49 years. The three screening methods included physical examination with ultrasound and mammography, physical examination with mammography and mammography only. The rate of recall, biopsy, cancer detection of three methods were analyzed and the mammographic findings were reviewed. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used for the statistics. Results: The recall rates were 4.90% (49/1001), 6.90% (166/2407) and 4. 48% (85/1899) in three methods respectively, the biopsy rates were 1.60% (16/1001), 1.04% (25/2407) and 0.63% (12/1899), the cancer detection rates were 0.50% (5/1001), 0.17% (4/2407) and 0 (0/1899). There were statistical differences among the three groups (χ2=12.99,6.264,8.764, P<0.05). Physical examination with ultrasound and mammography had the highest cancer detection rate, ten breast cancers were detected and 8 were early stage breast cancer. Of seven cancers detected by mammography, only two were found by ultrasound. A cluster of calcifications were found in 2 cases, linear calcifications in 2 cases. One case presented as a asymmetric density, one as a asymmetric density with calcifications, one as multiple nodules with a cluster of calcifications. Two breast cancers presented as asymmetric density were missed on mammography and diagnosed correctly after retrospective review. Conclusion: Physical examination with ultrasound and mammography is the best method for breast cancer screening. The breast cancer can be detected by mammography earlier than other methods. (authors)

  8. Hepatitis B vaccinations among Koreans: Results from 2005 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwak Min-Son

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver cancer is one of most commonly diagnosed cancers among Koreans. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a major risk factor for liver cancer. HBV infection can be prevented by effective screening and vaccination programs. The purpose of this study is to examine the status of HBV infection and the predictors associated with HBV vaccination. Methods The study population was derived from the 2005 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS. The KNCSS is an annual cross-sectional survey that uses a nationally-representative random sampling to investigate cancer screening rates. A total of 1,786 Koreans over 40 years of age participated in this study. Results Of all the participants, 5.9% reported HBV positive (HBsAg+, HBsAb-, 41.8% were HBV negative but protected (HBsAg-, HBsAb+, and 52.3% were unprotected (HBsAg-, HBsAb-. Among unprotected individuals (n = 934, 23.1% reported to have received the vaccination. About half of those who had vaccinations completed the 3-shot vaccine series. In multiple analyses, education, having private cancer insurance, alcohol use, having regular check-up, and doing regular exercise were associated with completed HBV vaccination. Conclusion This study result suggests that we need a liver cancer education program to increase HBV awareness and to increase the liver cancer prevention message among low educated populations.

  9. Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Min Qi Wang,2 Xiang S Ma,3 Steven E Shive,4 Yin Tan,5 Jamil I Toubbeh51Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 3College of Health Professions and School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 4Center for Asian Health, Temple University, and Department of Health, East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, 5Center for Asian Health, Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USABackground: The purpose of this community-based study was to develop a structural equation model for factors contributing to cervical cancer screening among Chinese American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 573 Chinese American women aged 18 years and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis, that included the following variables: access to and satisfaction with health care, and enabling and predisposing cultural and health beliefs. Structural equation model analyses were conducted on factors related to cervical cancer screening.Results: Age, marital status, employment, household income, and having health insurance, but not educational level, were significantly related to cervical screening status. Predisposing and enabling factors were positively associated with cervical cancer screening. The cultural factor was significantly related to the enabling factor or the satisfaction with health care factor.Conclusion: This model highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in relation to cervical cancer screening. These factors were significant, with cultural, predisposing, enabling, and health belief factors and access to and satisfaction with health care reinforcing the need to assist Chinese American women with poor English fluency in translation and awareness of the importance of cervical

  10. Splicing Programs and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Germann; Lise Gratadou; Martin Dutertre; Didier Auboeuf

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies report splicing alterations in a multitude of cancers by using gene-by-gene analysis. However, understanding of the role of alternative splicing in cancer is now reaching a new level, thanks to the use of novel technologies allowing the analysis of splicing at a large-scale level. Genome-wide analyses of alternative splicing...

  11. Screening for cervical cancer: new alternatives and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lörincz Attila T

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for the clinical utility of human papillomavirus (HPV DNA testing has increased over the years and has now become very convincing. Some specific uses of HPV detection are a triage of women with cytological determinations of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US and related management strategies, b as a marker for test of cure post-treatment, and c most importantly, as an adjunct to cytology in routine cervical disease screening programs. There are many studies that support each of these applications and include 8 studies on ASC-US triage, 10 on test of cure and 13 on adjunctive or stand-alone HPV screening. The most notable investigation of ASC-US triage was ALTS, a randomized controlled trial of 3 488 women. With respect to routine HPV screening the combined studies included 77 000 women, providing as a histological endpoint more than 1 000 cases of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN or cancer. Testing methods were either the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2 test or the polymerase chain reaction (PCR test. HPV testing of women with ASC-US cytology had on average a higher sensitivity (90% and specificity (70% than repeating the cytological test (sensitivity 75%, specificity 60% and was also more sensitive than colposcopy for follow-up. As an adjunct to the Papanicolaou (Pap cytology test in routine screening, HPV DNA testing was a more sensitive indicator for prevalent high-grade CIN than either conventional or liquid cytology. A combination of HPV DNA and Papanicolaou testing had almost 100% sensitivity and negative predictive value. The specificity of the combined tests was slightly lower than the specificity of the Papanicolaou test. One "double-negative" HPV DNA and Papanicolaou test indicated a higher prognostic assurance against risk of future CIN 3 than three subsequent negative conventional Papanicolaou tests and may safely allow three-year or longer screening intervals for such low- risk women. It

  12. PSA Screening Has Led to Overtreatment of Many Prostate Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for prostate cancer with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test has led to overtreatment of many prostate cancers, including aggressive treatments in older men considered to be at low risk for progression of the disease according to a study published in the July 26, 2010 Archives of Internal Medicine.

  13. The impact of radiologists' expertise on screen results decisions in a CT lung cancer screening trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the impact of radiological expertise on screen result decisions in a CT lung cancer screening trial. In the NELSON lung cancer screening trial, the baseline CT result was based on the largest lung nodule's volume. The protocol allowed radiologists to manually adjust screen results in cases of high suspicion of benign or malignant nodule nature. Participants whose baseline CT result was based on a solid or part-solid nodule were included in this study. Adjustments by radiologists at baseline were evaluated. Histology was the reference for diagnosis or to confirm benignity and stability on subsequent CT examinations. A total of 3,318 participants (2,796 male, median age 58.0 years) were included. In 195 participants (5.9 %) the initial baseline screen result was adjusted by the radiologist. Adjustment was downwards from positive or indeterminate to negative in two and 119 participants, respectively, and from positive to indeterminate in 65 participants. None of these nodules turned out to be malignant. In 9/195 participants (4.6 %) the screen result was adjusted upwards from negative to indeterminate or indeterminate to positive; two nodules were malignant. In one in 20 cases of baseline lung cancer screening, nodules were reclassified by the radiologist, leading to a reduction of false-positive screen results. (orig.)

  14. A qualitative exploration of Malaysian cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooqui Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the existence of different screening methods, the response to cancer screening is poor among Malaysians. The current study aims to examine cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening and early diagnosis. Methods A qualitative methodology was used to collect in-depth information from cancer patients. After obtaining institutional ethical approval, patients with different types and stages of cancer from the three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian were approached. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English for thematic content analysis. Results Thematic content analysis yielded four major themes: awareness of cancer screening, perceived benefits of cancer screening, perceived barriers to cancer screening, and cues to action. The majority of respondents had never heard of cancer screening before their diagnosis. Some participants reported hearing about mammogram and Pap smear tests but did not undergo screening due to a lack of belief in personal susceptibility. Those who had negative results from screening prior to diagnosis perceived such tests as untrustworthy. Lack of knowledge and financial constraints were reported as barriers to cancer screening. Finally, numerous suggestions were given to improve screening behaviour among healthy individuals, including the role of mass media in disseminating the message ‘prevention is better than cure’. Conclusions Patients’ narratives revealed some significant issues that were in line with the Health Belief Model which could explain negative health behaviour. The description of the personal experiences of people with cancer could provide many cues to action for those who have never encountered this potentially deadly disease, if incorporated into health promotion activities.

  15. A qualitative exploration of Malaysian cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the existence of different screening methods, the response to cancer screening is poor among Malaysians. The current study aims to examine cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening and early diagnosis. Methods A qualitative methodology was used to collect in-depth information from cancer patients. After obtaining institutional ethical approval, patients with different types and stages of cancer from the three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian) were approached. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English for thematic content analysis. Results Thematic content analysis yielded four major themes: awareness of cancer screening, perceived benefits of cancer screening, perceived barriers to cancer screening, and cues to action. The majority of respondents had never heard of cancer screening before their diagnosis. Some participants reported hearing about mammogram and Pap smear tests but did not undergo screening due to a lack of belief in personal susceptibility. Those who had negative results from screening prior to diagnosis perceived such tests as untrustworthy. Lack of knowledge and financial constraints were reported as barriers to cancer screening. Finally, numerous suggestions were given to improve screening behaviour among healthy individuals, including the role of mass media in disseminating the message ‘prevention is better than cure’. Conclusions Patients’ narratives revealed some significant issues that were in line with the Health Belief Model which could explain negative health behaviour. The description of the personal experiences of people with cancer could provide many cues to action for those who have never encountered this potentially deadly disease, if incorporated into health promotion activities. PMID:23331785

  16. Transillumination in breast cancer detection: screening failures and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This prospective study of 1265 women referred to a multimodality breast diagnostic center compares the sensitivity for breast cancer detection of state-of-the-art transillumination light scanning and film-screen mammography. Of 33 biopsy-proven cancers, transillumination light scanning detected 58%, while mammography detected 97% of the cancers. Light scanning did detect 55% of the nonpalpable breast cancers, and 30% of those tumors smaller than 1 cm. Detection of breast cancer by light scanning was affected by breast size, but not architecture, and was directly related to tumor size. Although transillumination light scanning can detect some small curable breast cancers (smaller than 1 cm), it does not do so at a sensitivity adequate for screening

  17. Proposal to institutionalize criteria and quality standards for cervical cancer screening within a health care system

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Salmerón-Castro; Eduardo César Lazcano Ponce; Ricardo Pérez Cuevas; Iliana del Río Gómez; Irene Torres Torija; Mauricio Hernández Avila

    1998-01-01

    The uterine cervix is the most common cancer site for females. Approximately 52,000 new cases occur annually in Latin America, thus the need to improve efficiency and effectiveness of Cervical Cancer Screening Programs (CCSP) is mandatory to decrease the unnecessary suffering women must bear. This paper is addressing essential issues to revamp the CCSP as proposed by the Mexican official norm. A general framework for institutionaling CCSP is outlined. Furthermore, strategies to strengthen CCS...

  18. Prevalence and significance of psammoma bodies in cervicovaginal smears in a cervical cancer screening program with emphasis on a case of primary bilateral ovarian psammocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusiol Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence and significance of psammoma bodies (PBs in the cervicovaginal smears of the screening population of Trento district (Italy, with the description of the cytological presentation of an asymptomatic bilateral ovarian psammocarcinoma. Methods: From 1993 to 2006, women with PBs detected on consecutively screened cervical smears were identified from the computerized pathology database of Rovereto Hospital. The follow-up period was set from the time of cytological diagnosis to May 31 st , 2007. Clinical information was obtained from retrospective review of women′s medical records. The source of PBs was identified with adequate diagnostic procedures. Results: PBs were found in six of the 201,231 Papanicolaou screening smears (0.0029%. Benign conditions (intrauterine device, inclusion ovarian cysts and ovarian cystoadenofibroma with PBs were found in four patients. In two cases, PBs were associated with malignant cells; a bilateral ovarian malignancy was diagnosed in both cases, a serous adenocarcinoma and a psammocarcinoma. Conclusion: PBs in the cervicovaginal smears are a rare finding, associated more often with benign conditions than with malignancies. Moreover, to our knowledge, our case of primary ovarian psammocarcinoma is the first report in which the presence of malignant cells and PBs in the cervicovaginal and endometrial smears represents the first manifestation of disease.

  19. Prevalence and significance of psammoma bodies in cervicovaginal smears in a cervical cancer screening program with emphasis on a case of primary bilateral ovarian psammocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusiol Teresa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence and significance of psammoma bodies (PBs in the cervicovaginal smears of the screening population of Trento district (Italy, with the description of the cytological presentation of an asymptomatic bilateral ovarian psammocarcinoma. Methods From 1993 to 2006, women with PBs detected on consecutively screened cervical smears were identified from the computerized pathology database of Rovereto Hospital. The follow-up period was set from the time of cytological diagnosis to May 31st, 2007. Clinical information was obtained from retrospective review of women's medical records. The source of PBs was identified with adequate diagnostic procedures. Results PBs were found in six of the 201,231 Papanicolaou screening smears (0.0029%. Benign conditions (intrauterine device, inclusion ovarian cysts and ovarian cystoadenofibroma with PBs were found in four patients. In two cases, PBs were associated with malignant cells; a bilateral ovarian malignancy was diagnosed in both cases, a serous adenocarcinoma and a psammocarcinoma. Conclusion PBs in the cervicovaginal smears are a rare finding, associated more often with benign conditions than with malignancies. Moreover, to our knowledge, our case of primary ovarian psammocarcinoma is the first report in which the presence of malignant cells and PBs in the cervicovaginal and endometrial smears represents the first manifestation of disease.

  20. Developing a Culturally Responsive Breast Cancer Screening Promotion with Native Hawaiian Women in Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaopua, Lana Sue

    2008-01-01

    This article presents findings from research to develop the promotional component of a breast cancer screening program for Native Hawaiian women associated with historically Hawaiian churches in medically underserved communities. The literature on adherence to health recommendations and health promotions marketing guided inquiry on screening…

  1. Advancing Social Workers' Responsiveness to Health Disparities: The Case of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altpeter, Mary; Mitchell, James F.; Pennell, Joan

    2005-01-01

    This study provides the basis for customizing culturally responsive social work health promotion programs aimed at eliminating breast cancer screening and mortality disparities between white and African American women. Survey data collected from a random sample of 853 women in rural North Carolina were used to explore the impact of psychosocial…

  2. How to Improve the Quality of Screening Endoscopy in Korea: National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yu Kyung

    2016-07-01

    In Korea, gastric cancer screening, either esophagogastroduodenoscopy or upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS), is performed biennially for adults aged 40 years or older. Screening endoscopy has been shown to be associated with localized cancer detection and better than UGIS. However, the diagnostic sensitivity of detecting cancer is not satisfactory. The National Endoscopy Quality Improvement (QI) program was initiated in 2009 to enhance the quality of medical institutions and improve the effectiveness of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP). The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy developed quality standards through a broad systematic review of other endoscopic quality guidelines and discussions with experts. The standards comprise five domains: qualifications of endoscopists, endoscopic unit facilities and equipment, endoscopic procedure, endoscopy outcomes, and endoscopic reprocessing. After 5 years of the QI program, feedback surveys showed that the perception of QI and endoscopic practice improved substantially in all domains of quality, but the quality standards need to be revised. How to avoid missing cancer in endoscopic procedures in daily practice was reviewed, which can be applied to the mass screening endoscopy. To improve the quality and effectiveness of NCSP, key performance indicators, acceptable quality standards, regular audit, and appropriate reimbursement are necessary. PMID:27484810

  3. Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is present in the body. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker for ... and other types of cancer, may also increase AFP levels. Specific tumor markers that may lead to ...

  4. Cancer Information Summaries: Screening/Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... Editorial Board Integrative Therapies Editorial Board Levels of Evidence Levels of Evidence: Treatment Levels of Evidence: Supportive & ...

  5. Register-based studies of cancer screening effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Euler-Chelpin, My; Lynge, Elsebeth; Rebolj, Matejka

    INTRODUCTION: There are two organised cancer screening programmes in Denmark, against cervical and breast cancers. The aim with this study was to give an overview of the available register-based research regarding these two programmes, to demonstrate the usefulness of data from the national...... registers. RESEARCH TOPICS: The register-based studies on cancer screening in Denmark could be grouped into research concerning effectiveness, in terms of mortality and incidence reduction, short-term indicators, e.g. in relation to recommended quality assurance indicators, and side effects, e.g. as false...

  6. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Aasmaa, Auni;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare current policy, organisation and coverage of cervical cancer screening programmes in the European Union (EU) member states with European and other international recommendations. According to the questionnaire-based survey, there are large variations in cervical...... with education, training and communication among women, medical professionals and authorities are required, accordingly. The study indicates that, despite substantial efforts, the recommendations of the Council of the EU on organised population-based screening for cervical cancer are not yet fulfilled. Decision......-makers and health service providers should consider stronger measures or incentives in order to improve cervical cancer control in Europe....

  7. Chemical genetics and drug screening in Drosophila cancer models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mara Gladstone; Tin Tin Su

    2011-01-01

    Drug candidates often fail in preclinical and clinical testing because of reasons of efficacy and/or safety.It would be time- and cost-efficient to have screening models that reduce the rate of such false positive candidates that appear promising at first but fail later.In this regard,it would be particularly useful to have a rapid and inexpensive whole animal model that can pre-select hits from high-throughput screens but before testing in costly rodent assays.Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a potential whole animal model for drug screening.Of particular interest have been drugs that must act in the context of multi-cellularity such as those for neurological disorders and cancer.A recent review provides a comprehensive summary of drug screening in Drosophila,but with an emphasis on neurodegenerative disorders.Here,we review Drosophila screens in the literature aimed at cancer therapeutics.

  8. Epidemiology and costs of cervical cancer screening and cervical dysplasia in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Sabrina

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We estimated the number of women undergoing cervical cancer screening annually in Italy, the rates of cervical abnormalities detected, and the costs of screening and management of abnormalities. Methods The annual number of screened women was estimated from National Health Interview data. Data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening were used to estimate the number of positive, negative and unsatisfactory Pap smears. The incidence of CIN (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia was estimated from the Emilia Romagna Cancer Registry. Patterns of follow-up and treatment costs were estimated using a typical disease management approach based on national guidelines and data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening. Treatment unit costs were obtained from Italian National Health Service and Hospital Information System of the Lazio Region. Results An estimated 6.4 million women aged 25–69 years undergo screening annually in Italy (1.2 million and 5.2 million through organized and opportunistic screening programs, respectively. Approximately 2.4% of tests have positive findings. There are approximately 21,000 cases of CIN1 and 7,000–17,000 cases of CIN2/3. Estimated costs to the healthcare service amount to €158.5 million for screening and €22.9 million for the management of cervical abnormalities. Conclusion Although some cervical abnormalities might have been underestimated, the total annual cost of cervical cancer prevention in Italy is approximately €181.5 million, of which 87% is attributable to screening.

  9. Potential of casein kinase I in digestive cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Modak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Casein kinase I is a group of ubiquitous Serine/Threonine kinases that have been implicated in both normal cellular functions and several pathological conditions including Alzheimer’ s disease and cancer. Recent findings in colon and pancreatic cancer have brought tremendous attention to these molecules as potential therapeutic targets in treatment of digestive cancers. In this review, we summarize up to date what is known about this family of kinases and their involvement in carcinogenesis and other pathological conditions. Our emphasis is on their implications in digestive cancers and their potential for cancer screening and therapy.

  10. Lung cancer screening: from imaging to biomarker

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Dong; Zhang, Bicheng; Doll, Donald; Shen, Kui; Kloecker, Goetz; Freter, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Despite several decades of intensive effort to improve the imaging techniques for lung cancer diagnosis and treatment, primary lung cancer is still the number one cause of cancer death in the United States and worldwide. The major causes of this high mortality rate are distant metastasis evident at diagnosis and ineffective treatment for locally advanced disease. Indeed, approximately forty percent of newly diagnosed lung cancer patients have distant metastasis. Currently, the only potential ...

  11. Asbestos Surveillance Program Aachen (ASPA): initial results from baseline screening for lung cancer in asbestos-exposed high-risk individuals using low-dose multidetector-row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of lung cancer in a high-risk asbestos-exposed cohort using low-dose MDCT. Of a population of 5,389 former power-plant workers, 316 were characterized as individuals at highest risk for lung cancer according to a lung-cancer risk model including age, asbestos exposure and smoking habits. Of these 316, 187 (mean age: 66.6 years) individuals were included in a prospective trial. Mean asbestos exposure time was 29.65 years and 89% were smokers. Screening was performed on a 16-slice MDCT (Siemens) with low-dose technique (10/20 mAseff.; 1 mm/0.5 mm increment). In addition to soft copy PACS reading analysis on a workstation with a dedicated lung analysis software (LungCARE; Siemens) was performed. One strongly suspicious mass and eight cases of histologically proven lung cancer were found plus 491 additional pulmonary nodules (average volume: 40.72 ml, average diameter 4.62 mm). Asbestos-related changes (pleural plaques, fibrosis) were visible in 80 individuals. Lung cancer screening in this high-risk cohort showed a prevalence of lung cancer of 4.28% (8/187) at baseline screening with an additional large number of indeterminate pulmonary nodules. Low-dose MDCT proved to be feasible in this highly selected population. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of complement proteins as screening markers for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Line; Christensen, Ib J; Jensenius, Jens C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Lack of symptoms results in late detection and increased mortality. Inflammation, including complement activation, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The concentrations of nine proteins of....... CONCLUSION: CL-L1, M-ficolin and MAp44 in combination discriminate between CRC and patients without cancer. The markers did not have sufficient discriminatory value for CRC detection, but may prove useful for screening when combined with other markers....

  13. Gastric Cancer: Descriptive Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Screening, and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Parisa; Islami, Farhad; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Neal D Freedman; Kamangar, Farin

    2014-01-01

    Less than a century ago, gastric cancer (GC) was the most common cancer in the United States and perhaps throughout the world. Despite its worldwide decline in incidence over the past century, GC remains a major killer across the globe. This article reviews the epidemiology, screening, and prevention of gastric cancer. We first discuss the descriptive epidemiology of GC, including its incidence, survival, and mortality, including trends over time. Next, we characterize the risk factors for ga...

  14. Diagnostic aids in the screening of oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fedele, S.

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization has clearly indentified prevention and early detection as major objectives in the control of the oral cancer burden worldwide. At the present time, screening of oral cancer and its pre-invasive intra-epithelial stages, as well as its early detection, is still largely based on visual examination of the mouth. There is strong available evidence to suggest that visual inspection of the oral mucosa is effective in reducing mortality from oral cancer in individuals ex...

  15. Joint breast and colorectal cancer screenings in medically underserved women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Terry C; Arnold, Connie L; Wolf, Michael S; Bennett, Charles L; Liu, Dachao; Rademaker, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast and colon cancer screening in rural community clinics is underused. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative interventions designed to promote simultaneous screening for breast and colon cancer in community clinics. Methods A 3-arm, quasi-experimental evaluation was conducted during May 2008-August 2011 in 8 federally qualifed health clinics in predominately rural Louisiana. Baseline screening rates reported by the clinics was <10% for breast cancer (using mammography) and 1%-2% for colon cancer (using the fecal occult blood test [FOBT]). 744 women aged 50 years or older who were eligible for routine mammography and an FOBT were recruited. The combined screening efforts included: enhanced care; health literacy-informed education (education alone), or health literacy-informed education with nurse support (nurse support). Results Postintervention screening rates for completing both tests were 28.1% with enhanced care, 23.7% with education alone, and 38.7% with nurse support. After adjusting for age, race, and literacy, patients who received nurse support were 2.21 times more likely to complete both screenings than were those who received the education alone (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-4.38; P = .023). The incremental cost per additional woman completing both screenings was $3,987 for education with nurse support over education alone, and $5,987 over enhanced care. Limitations There were differences between the 3 arms in sociodemographic characteristics, literacy, and previous screening history. Not all variables that were significantly different between arms were adjusted for, therefore adjustments for key variables (age, race, literacy) were made in statistical analyses. Other limitations related generalizability of results. Conclusions Although joint breast and colon cancer screening rates were increased substantially over existing baseline rates in all 3 arms, the completion rate for both tests was

  16. Demographic, social cognitive and social ecological predictors of intention and participation in screening for colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Amy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research points to differences between predictors of intention to screen for colorectal cancer (CRC and screening behavior, and suggests social ecological factors may influence screening behavior. The aim of this study was to compare the social cognitive and social ecological predictors of intention to screen with predictors of participation. Methods People aged 50 to 74 years recruited from the electoral roll completed a baseline survey (n = 376 and were subsequently invited to complete an immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT. Results Multivariate analyses revealed five predictors of intention to screen and two predictors of participation. Perceived barriers to CRC screening and perceived benefits of CRC screening were the only predictor of both outcomes. There was little support for social ecological factors, but measurement problems may have impacted this finding. Conclusions This study has confirmed that the predictors of intention to screen for CRC and screening behaviour, although overlapping, are not the same. Research should focus predominantly on those factors shown to predict participation. Perceptions about the barriers to screening and benefits of screening are key predictors of participation, and provide a focus for intervention programs.

  17. Role of prevention and screening in epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddireddi Reddi Rani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is a disease with poor prognosis and high mortality among gynaecological cancers due to inaccessibility of ovary for inspection or sampling and lack of proper screening methods. Strategies to detect early ovarian cancer include estimation of serum CA-125 and transvaginal ultrasound (TVS for morphological index. Studies have shown that screening of asymptomatic average risk post-menopausal women did not show any benefit and are associated with false positive results which may lead to unnecessary surgery and resultant morbidity. The risks outweigh benefits. Present recommendation is to screen high risk women especially hereditary cancers and offer risk reducing surgery when needed. Prophylactic salpingectomy/oophorectomy may offer the opportunity to prevent ovarian cancer. More trials and more research in newer biomarkers are needed. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 941-946

  18. Women's perspectives on illness in being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. Objective To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. Study design The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  19. Women's perspectives on illness when being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30-40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. OBJECTIVE: To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. STUDY DESIGN: The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  20. Oral Cancer Screening in Dental Set Up

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a major public health problem in the United States and many other parts of the world. One in 4 deaths in the United States is due to cancer. Oral cancer (OC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Oral cancer can be divided into three clinic-pathological categories: carcinoma of the lip vermillion, carcinoma of the oral cavity proper, and carcinoma of the oropharynx. The chief predisposing factors are tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and persistent viral infections such as HPV ...

  1. Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP) seeks to improve the lives of cancer patients by finding better treatments, control mechanisms, and cures for cancer. CTEP funds a national program of cancer research, sponsoring clinical trials to evaluate new anti-cancer agents.

  2. The PLCO Cancer Screening Trial: Background, Goals, Organization, Operations, Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohagan, John K; Prorok, Philip C; Greenwald, Peter; Kramer, Barnett S

    2015-01-01

    The randomized PLCO trial was designed to answer four primary questions: does screening for these cancers using often promoted tests reduce cancer-specific mortality? Nearly 155,000 men and women were allocated to screening or usual care arms in a 1:1 ratio under a centralized, secure randomization algorithm at ten competitively selected screening centers nationwide. Screened men received PSA blood tests and digital rectal examinations. Screened women received CA125 blood tests and trans-vaginal ultrasound. Both men and women in the screened arm received anterolateral view chest x-ray and 60 cm flexible sigmoidoscopy. Blood specimens were collected at each screening visit and buccal cell DNA was collected once from the usual care participants. Histology slides were collected for cancer cases. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire covering health and risk factors and a dietary questionnaire. Data collected on standardized machine-readable forms were scanned remotely at screening and laboratory sites utilizing PLCO dedicated, NCI provided and configured computer systems for quality checks, archiving, and analysis. Comprehensive quality assurance was implemented over recruitment, consenting, randomization, screening, data management, records keeping, patient-specific screening results reporting, follow-up, and data analysis. Performance and data quality were monitored on-site and remotely by data edits, site visits, and random record audits. Specially trained and certified professionals performed screening procedures and medical record abstracting. An independent committee of medical specialists reviewed and certified case-specific cause of death. Scientific leadership was provided by NCI Project Officers, PLCO principal investigators, external consultants, and an independent data and safety monitoring board. PMID:26238115

  3. Ovarian Cancer Screening Method Fails to Reduce Deaths from the Disease | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    New results from the NCI-sponsored Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial show that screening for ovarian cancer with transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) and the CA-125 blood test did not result in fewer deaths from the disease compared with usual care. |

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis on the results of screening of lung cancer using helical CT conducted by the anti-lung cancer association (ALCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare Yen/person saved in lung cancer screening using helical CT with Yen/person in the screening using conventional direct chest X-rays conducted under the Anti-lung cancer association program of the Tokyo Health Service Association. A mathematical model for cancer screening was used to estimate net number of person relieved from lung cancer by the screening and net cost required for the screening. Finally cost-effectiveness ratios in terms of Yen/person saved were calculated and compared between the two programs. Several important variables employed in the model were as follows: 5 year survival rate in chest X-ray group was 50%, and the rate in helical CT group was 75%. Cost of screening in the chest X-ray group was 15,000 Yen, and that in the helical CT group was 25,000 Yen. Cost/person screened was 14,470 Yen for chest X-ray and 21,890 Yen for helical CT. Cost/person saved was 267 x 105 Yen in X-ray group and 112 x 105 Yen in CT group. Thus the cost was higher, but cost-effectiveness ratio was better in the CT screening group. Helical CT can be adopted for lung cancer screening in stead of chest X-ray if total cost is affordable. (author)

  5. Resource Utilization and Costs during the Initial Years of Lung Cancer Screening with Computed Tomography in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Stephen; Tammemagi, Martin C.; Evans, William K.; Leighl, Natasha B.; Regier, Dean A.; Bolbocean, Corneliu; Shepherd, Frances A.; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Manos, Daria; Liu, Geoffrey; Atkar-Khattra, Sukhinder; Cromwell, Ian; Johnston, Michael R.; Mayo, John R.; McWilliams, Annette; Couture, Christian; English, John C.; Goffin, John; Hwang, David M.; Puksa, Serge; Roberts, Heidi; Tremblay, Alain; MacEachern, Paul; Burrowes, Paul; Bhatia, Rick; Finley, Richard J.; Goss, Glenwood D.; Nicholas, Garth; Seely, Jean M.; Sekhon, Harmanjatinder S.; Yee, John; Amjadi, Kayvan; Cutz, Jean-Claude; Ionescu, Diana N.; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Martel, Simon; Soghrati, Kamyar; Sin, Don D.; Tan, Wan C.; Urbanski, Stefan; Xu, Zhaolin; Peacock, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is estimated that millions of North Americans would qualify for lung cancer screening and that billions of dollars of national health expenditures would be required to support population-based computed tomography lung cancer screening programs. The decision to implement such programs should be informed by data on resource utilization and costs. Methods: Resource utilization data were collected prospectively from 2059 participants in the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). Participants who had 2% or greater lung cancer risk over 3 years using a risk prediction tool were recruited from seven major cities across Canada. A cost analysis was conducted from the Canadian public payer’s perspective for resources that were used for the screening and treatment of lung cancer in the initial years of the study. Results: The average per-person cost for screening individuals with LDCT was $453 (95% confidence interval [CI], $400–$505) for the initial 18-months of screening following a baseline scan. The screening costs were highly dependent on the detected lung nodule size, presence of cancer, screening intervention, and the screening center. The mean per-person cost of treating lung cancer with curative surgery was $33,344 (95% CI, $31,553–$34,935) over 2 years. This was lower than the cost of treating advanced-stage lung cancer with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or supportive care alone, ($47,792; 95% CI, $43,254–$52,200; p = 0.061). Conclusion: In the Pan-Canadian study, the average cost to screen individuals with a high risk for developing lung cancer using LDCT and the average initial cost of curative intent treatment were lower than the average per-person cost of treating advanced stage lung cancer which infrequently results in a cure. PMID:25105438

  6. Risk-benefit analysis for mass screening of breast cancer utilizing mammography as a screening test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incidence of breast cancers in Japanese women is increasing steadily. Mass screening of breast cancer was started in Japan under auspices of Adult Health Promotion Act of the Japanese Government from 1987. As the first screening method, the palpation of breasts is employed at present, but it is expected to be replaced by the mammography. In this report, the risk-benefit analysis is presented between risk of breast carcinogenesis due to radiation and benefit of mass screening of breast cancer. The benefit of mass screening is taken as the net elongation of average life expectancy of women due to survival from breast cancers. The risk of mammography is taken as the net loss of average life expectancy of women due to breast carcinogenesis. In the latter, the latency time and plateau period of radiation carcinogenesis were taken into consideration in the calculation. The results show that the ages at which the benefit and risk become equal are between 30 and 35 years old when dose equivalent of mammography is between 10 and 20 mSv, that are conventionally used. However, the critical age will be reduced to 20 years old if the dose equivalent becomes 1 mSv. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that a low dose mammographic system should be developed in order to achieve 1 mSv for the mass screening of breast cancer of Japanese women. In author's opinion, this is quite feasible by employing a new digital radiography with imaging plate. (author)

  7. Screening for cervical cancer in French Guiana: screening rates from 2006 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douine, M; Roué, T; Lelarge, C; Adenis, A; Thomas, N; Nacher, M

    2015-12-01

    In French Guiana, the age-standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer is four times higher than in France and the mortality rate 5.5 times higher. A survival study revealed that stage at diagnosis was the main factor influencing the prognosis, showing that early detection is crucial to increase cervical cancer survival. The present study aimed at evaluating the cervical cancer screening rate between 2006 and 2011 by age and for a 3-year period in French Guiana. All pap smears realised in French Guiana were analysed in two laboratories allowing exhaustive review of screening data. The screening rate was estimated at about 54% from 2006 to 2011, with a statistical difference between coastal and rural area (56.3% versus 18.7%). Although the methodological difference did not allow comparisons with metropolitan France, these results could be used to evaluate the impact of organised cervical cancer screening by the French Guiana Association for Organized Screening of Cancers which has been implemented in French Guiana since 2012. PMID:26608273

  8. Race/Ethnicity, Gender, Weight Status, and Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bittner Fagan

    2011-01-01

    The literature on colorectal cancer (CRC screening is contradictory regarding the impact of weight status on CRC screening. This study was intended to determine if CRC screening rates among 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS respondent racial/ethnic and gender subgroups were influenced by weight status. Methods. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine if CRC screening use differed significantly among obese, overweight, and normal-weight individuals in race/ethnic and gender subgroups. Results. Multivariable analyses showed that CRC screening rates did not differ significantly for individuals within these subgroups who were obese or overweight as compared to their normal-weight peers. Conclusion. Weight status does not contribute to disparities in CRC screening in race/ethnicity and gender subgroups.

  9. Reducing inequities in colorectal cancer screening in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Decker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in North America. Screening using a fecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy reduces CRC mortality through the detection and treatment of precancerous polyps and early stage CRC. Although CRC screening participation has increased in recent years, large inequities still exist. Minorities, new immigrants, and those with lower levels of education or income are much less likely to be screened. This review provides an overview of the commonly used tests for CRC screening, disparities in CRC screening, and promising methods at the individual, provider, and system levels to reduce these disparities. Overall, to achieve high CRC participation rates and reduce the burden of CRC in the population, a multi-faceted approach that uses strategies at all levels to reduce CRC screening disparities is urgently required.

  10. Age-specific interval breast cancers in Japan. Estimation of the proper sensitivity of screening using a population-based cancer registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The age-specific sensitivity of a screening program was investigated using a population-based cancer registry as a source of false-negative cancer cases. A population-based screening program for breast cancer was run using either clinical breast examinations (CBE) alone or mammography combined with CBE in the Miyagi Prefecture from 1997 to 2002. Interval cancers were newly identified by linking the screening records to the population-based cancer registry to estimate the number of false-negative cases of screening program. Among 112071 women screened by mammography combined with CBE, the number of detected cancers, false-negative cases and the sensitivity were 289, 22 and 92.9%, respectively, based on the reports from participating municipalities. The number of newly found false-negative cases and corrected sensitivity when using the registry were 34 and 83.8%, respectively. In detected cancers, the sensitivity of screening by mammography combined with CBE in women ranging from 40 to 49 years of age based on a population-based cancer registry was much lower than that in women 50-59 and 60-69 years of age (40-49: 18, 71.4%, 50-59: 19, 85.8%, 60-69: 19, 87.2%). These data suggest that the accurate outcome of an evaluation of breast cancer screening must include the use of a population-based cancer registry for detecting false-negative cases. Screening by mammography combined with CBE may therefore not be sufficiently sensitive for women ranging from 40 to 49 years of age. (author)

  11. Cancer literacy as a mediator for cancer screening behaviour in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Rhee, Taeho Greg; Kim, Nam Keol

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the cancer literacy level in Korean adults and examines whether cancer literacy plays a mediating role in the relationship between population characteristics and cancer screening behaviours. We collected data from 585 community-dwelling adults in Korea using self-administered surveys and face-to-face interviews from October to December in 2009. Guided by Andersen's behavioural model, we used a structural equation model to estimate the effect of cancer literacy as a mediator and found that cancer literacy mediated cancer screening behaviour. In the individual path analysis models, cancer literacy played a significant mediating role for the use of eastern medicine, fatalism, health status and the number of chronic diseases. When controlling for other relevant covariates, we found that in the optimal path model, cancer literacy played a mediating role in the relationship between the use of eastern medicine and self-rated health status as well as cancer screening behaviour. Thus, developing community-based cancer education programmes and training clinical practitioners in eastern medicine clinics about the importance of informing their patients about regular cancer screening may be an option to boost cancer literacy and screening behaviour in Korea. PMID:25975449

  12. Panel Reviews Benefits and Harms of CT Scans for Lung Cancer Screening | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    A panel of experts has reviewed the evidence regarding the benefits and harms of screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (CT) and concluded that the technology may benefit some individuals at high risk for lung cancer. But the panel cautioned that many questions remain about the potential harms of screening and how to translate screening into clinical practice. |

  13. Sleeping Beauty screen reveals Pparg activation in metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Imran; Mui, Ernest; Galbraith, Laura; Patel, Rachana; Tan, Ee Hong; Salji, Mark; Rust, Alistair G; Repiscak, Peter; Hedley, Ann; Markert, Elke; Loveridge, Carolyn; van der Weyden, Louise; Edwards, Joanne; Sansom, Owen J; Adams, David J; Leung, Hing Y

    2016-07-19

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common adult male cancer in the developed world. The paucity of biomarkers to predict prostate tumor biology makes it important to identify key pathways that confer poor prognosis and guide potential targeted therapy. Using a murine forward mutagenesis screen in a Pten-null background, we identified peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg), encoding a ligand-activated transcription factor, as a promoter of metastatic CaP through activation of lipid signaling pathways, including up-regulation of lipid synthesis enzymes [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), ATP citrate lyase (ACLY)]. Importantly, inhibition of PPARG suppressed tumor growth in vivo, with down-regulation of the lipid synthesis program. We show that elevated levels of PPARG strongly correlate with elevation of FASN in human CaP and that high levels of PPARG/FASN and PI3K/pAKT pathway activation confer a poor prognosis. These data suggest that CaP patients could be stratified in terms of PPARG/FASN and PTEN levels to identify patients with aggressive CaP who may respond favorably to PPARG/FASN inhibition. PMID:27357679

  14. How do people interpret information about colorectal cancer screening: observations from a think-aloud study

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, S. G.; Vart, G.; Wolf, M. S.; Obichere, A; Baker, H. J.; Raine, R; Wardle, J.; Von Wagner, C.

    2013-01-01

    The English NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme biennially invites individuals aged 60-74 to participate in screening. The booklet, 'Bowel Cancer Screening: The Facts' accompanies this invitation. Its primary aim is to inform potential participants about the aims, advantages and disadvantages of colorectal cancer screening.

  15. Patient Test Preference for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Screening Uptake in an Insured Urban Minority Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Randi L; Basch, Charles E; Zybert, Patricia; Basch, Corey H; Ullman, Ralph; Shmukler, Celia; King, Fionnuala; Neugut, Alfred I

    2016-06-01

    The study examines the role of patient colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test preference and CRC screening uptake in an insured, urban minority population. Study subjects were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to promote CRC screening. The interventions were educational, with an emphasis on colonoscopy screening. Subjects were 50+ years of age, fully insured for CRC screening, and out of compliance with current CRC screening recommendations. This paper includes those who answered a question about CRC screening test preference and indicated that they intended to receive such a test in the coming year (n = 453). CRC screening uptake was ascertained from medical claims data. Regardless of test preference, few received CRC screening (22.3 %). Those preferring the home stool test (HST) were less likely to get tested than those preferring a colonoscopy (16.6 vs 29.9 %, χ(2) = 9.9, p = .002). Preference for HST was more strongly associated with beliefs about colonoscopy than with knowledge about colonoscopy. In the context of an RCT emphasizing colonoscopy screening for CRC, patients expressing a preference for HST are at heightened risk of remaining unscreened. Colonoscopy should be recommended as the preferred CRC test, but HSTs should be accessible and encouraged for patients who are averse to colonoscopy.Clinical trials.gov: Identifier: NCT02392143. PMID:26585609

  16. Factors Associated with Uptake of Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) for Cervical Cancer Screening in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orang’o, Elkanah Omenge; Wachira, Juddy; Asirwa, Fredrick Chite; Busakhala, Naftali; Naanyu, Violet; Kisuya, Job; Otieno, Grieven; Keter, Alfred; Mwangi, Ann; Inui, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cervical cancer screening has been successful in reducing the rates of cervical cancer in developed countries, but this disease remains the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to understand factors associated with limited uptake of screening services in our cervical cancer-screening program in Western Kenya. Participants and Methods Using items from a previously validated cancer awareness questionnaire repurposed for use in cervical cancer and culturally adapted for use in Kenya, we interviewed 2,505 women aged 18–55 years receiving care in gynecology clinics or seeking other services in 4 health facilities in Western Kenya between April 2014 and September 2014. We used logistic regression modeling to assess factors associated with uptake (or non-uptake), associated odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results Only two hundred and seventy-three women out of 2505 (11%) accepted VIA cervical cancer screening. Knowledge of just how women are screened for cervical cancer was significantly associated with reduced uptake of cervical cancer screening (OR: 0.53; CI 0.38–0.73) as was fear that screening would reveal a cancer (OR 0.70; CI 0.63–0.77), and reliance on prayer with the onset of illness (OR 0.43; CI 0.26–0.71). Participants who thought that one should get cervical cancer screening even if there were no symptoms were more than twice as likely to accept cervical cancer screening (OR 2.21; 95% CI 1.24–3.93). Older patients, patients living with HIV and women who do not know if bleeding immediately after sex might be a sign of cervical cancer were also more likely to accept screening (OR 1.03, CI 1.02–1.04; OR 1.78, CI 1.01–3.14; OR 2.39, CI 1.31–4.39, respectively). Conclusions In our population, a high percent of women knew that it is appropriate for all women to get cervical cancer screening, but only a small proportion of women actually got screening. There may be an

  17. Cervical cancer screening: knowledge, health perception and attendance rate among Hong Kong Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharron SK Leung

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sharron SK Leung1, Ivy Leung21School of Nursing, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong; 2Quality Healthcare Medical Services, Hong KongPurpose: Cervical cancer screening has been consistently shown to be effective in reducing the incidence rate and mortality from cervical cancer. However, cervical screening attendance rates are still far from satisfactory in many countries. Strategies, health promotion and education programs need to be developed with clear evidence of the causes and factors relating to the low attendance rate. The study aims to assess the prediction of cervical screening attendance rate by Chinese women’s knowledge about cervical cancer and cervical screening as well as their perception of health.Patients and methods: A survey with self-reported questionnaires was conducted on 385 Chinese women recruited from a community clinic in Hong Kong. Participants were Chinese women, Hong Kong residents, aged 18–65 years, able to read Chinese or English, and were not pregnant.Results: Women aged 37 years or less, with at least tertiary education, who perceived having control over their own health and had better knowledge on risk factors, were more likely to attend cervical cancer screening. Many participants had adequate general knowledge but were unable to identify correct answers on the risk factors.Conclusion: Health promotion efforts need to focus on increasing women’s knowledge on risk factors and enhancing their perceived health control by providing more information on the link between screening and early detection with lower incidence rates and mortality from cervical cancer.Keywords: cervical screening attendance, cervical cancer, health perception and knowledge, perceived health control, Chinese

  18. Screening Technologies for Target Identification in Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michl, Patrick, E-mail: michlp@med.uni-marburg.de; Ripka, Stefanie; Gress, Thomas; Buchholz, Malte [Department of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, University Hospital, Philipps-University Marburg, Baldinger Strasse, D-35043 Marburg (Germany)

    2010-12-29

    Pancreatic cancer exhibits an extraordinarily high level of resistance to almost any kind of systemic therapy evaluated in clinical trials so far. Therefore, the identification of novel therapeutic targets is urgently required. High-throughput screens have emerged as an important tool to identify putative targets for diagnosis and therapy in an unbiased manner. More than a decade ago, microarray technology was introduced to identify differentially expressed genes in pancreatic cancer as compared to normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis and other cancer types located in close proximity to the pancreas. In addition, proteomic screens have facilitated the identification of differentially secreted proteins in body fluids of pancreatic cancer patients, serving as possible biomarkers. Recently, RNA interference-based loss-of-function screens have been used to identify functionally relevant genes, whose knock-down has impact on pancreatic cancer cell viability, thereby representing potential new targets for therapeutic intervention. This review summarizes recent results of transcriptional, proteomic and functional screens in pancreatic cancer and discusses potentials and limitations of the respective technologies as well as their impact on future therapeutic developments.

  19. Screening Technologies for Target Identification in Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer exhibits an extraordinarily high level of resistance to almost any kind of systemic therapy evaluated in clinical trials so far. Therefore, the identification of novel therapeutic targets is urgently required. High-throughput screens have emerged as an important tool to identify putative targets for diagnosis and therapy in an unbiased manner. More than a decade ago, microarray technology was introduced to identify differentially expressed genes in pancreatic cancer as compared to normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis and other cancer types located in close proximity to the pancreas. In addition, proteomic screens have facilitated the identification of differentially secreted proteins in body fluids of pancreatic cancer patients, serving as possible biomarkers. Recently, RNA interference-based loss-of-function screens have been used to identify functionally relevant genes, whose knock-down has impact on pancreatic cancer cell viability, thereby representing potential new targets for therapeutic intervention. This review summarizes recent results of transcriptional, proteomic and functional screens in pancreatic cancer and discusses potentials and limitations of the respective technologies as well as their impact on future therapeutic developments

  20. Experience with breast cancer, pre-screening perceived susceptibility and the psychological impact of screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Absetz, Pilvikki; Aro, Arja R; Sutton, Stephen R

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study examined whether the psychological impact of organized mammography screening is influenced by women's pre-existing experience with breast cancer and perceived susceptibility (PS) to the disease. From a target population of 16,886, a random sample of women with a normal...... screening finding and all women with a false positive or a benign biopsy finding were included (N=1942). Data were collected with postal questionnaires 1-month before screening invitation and 2 and 12 months after screening. Response rate was 63% at baseline; 86, and 80% of the baseline participants...... responded to the follow-ups. Psychological impact was measured as anxiety (STAI-S), depression (BDI), health-related concerns (IAS), and breast cancer-specific beliefs and concerns. Data was analyzed with repeated measures analyses of variance, with estimates of effect size based on Eta-squared. Women with...

  1. The attitudes of primary care providers towards screening for colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús López-Torres Hidalgo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: the scientific community supports the appropriateness of colorectal cancer screening, and there is consensus on the need to raise awareness about the significance of prevention among both health care professionals and the population. The goal was to record the attitude of primary care providers towards colorectal cancer screening, as well as the main barriers to both patient and provider participation. Methods: a cross-sectional, observational study was performed of 511 professionals in Albacete Health District. Variables included views on screening effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, acceptance by providers and patients, barriers to participation, frequency of prevention recommendations, and education needs. Results: most (76 % considered screening was effective; 85 % said acceptance of fecal occult blood testing was intermediate or high, and 68.2 % this is also the case for colonoscopy when needed; 71.9 % would recommend screening should a population-based program be implemented (currently only 9.7 % recommends this. Correspondence analysis revealed that recommendation is more common when assigned populations are smaller. Conclusions: most providers consider screening is both effective and acceptable for patients. In today's situation, where screening is only performed in an opportunistic manner, the proportion of professionals who commonly recommend screening for the mid-risk population is low, especially when assigned populations are huge.

  2. Programa de detección precoz de cáncer de mama: Resultados de proceso e indicadores de impacto (1990-2002 Breast Cancer Screening Program: Results of the process and impact Indicators (1990-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ascunce

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. Existe un consenso general en la recomendación de aplicar con carácter poblacional programas de cribado de cáncer de mama. El Departamento de Salud puso en marcha en el año 1990 un Programa de Detección Precoz de Cáncer de Mama, con el objetivo de disminuir la mortalidad por este tumor, que en este momento está finalizando su séptima vuelta. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar los resultados obtenidos, describiendo los principales indicadores de proceso y predictores de impacto según los factores más determinantes. Material y métodos. Se han recopilado los datos de las exploraciones de cribado realizadas desde el comienzo del programa hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2002 clasificando por edad en el momento de la exploración, tipo de exploración y vuelta. Resultados. Durante el período se han realizado 354.575 exploraciones. Indicadores de proceso: en el 11,22% se recomendó realizar una exploración adicional. El 0,67% de las mujeres han sido enviadas a unidades hospitalarias para valoración diagnóstica. Se ha confirmado un tumor maligno en el 0,34% de las mujeres exploradas. A 8,37% de las mujeres se les ha recomendado realizar una exploración intermedia antes de la nueva de cribado. Indicadores predictores de impacto: la captación global es de 88,68%, la participación global de 87,91% y la adherencia al programa de 96,32%. La tasa de detección alcanza la cifra de 3,95 por 1.000 mujeres exploradas. De los tumores detectados, 19,17% son intraductales, y 37,23% de los invasivos tienen un tamaño igual o inferior a 10 mm. El 74,89% del total de tumores no presenta invasión ganglionar. Conclusiones. Considerando las referencias que para programas de cribado establece la Unión Europea, todos los indicadores predictores calculados superan los estándares exigidos.Background. There is a general consensus on the recommendation of applying breast cancer screening programs to the population. In March 1990, the

  3. Telenovela: an innovative colorectal cancer screening health messaging tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melany Cueva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alaska Native people have nearly twice the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC incidence and mortality as the US White population. Objective. Building upon storytelling as a culturally respectful way to share information among Alaska Native people, a 25-minute telenovela-style movie, What's the Big Deal?, was developed to increase CRC screening awareness and knowledge, role-model CRC conversations, and support wellness choices. Design. Alaska Native cultural values of family, community, storytelling, and humor were woven into seven, 3–4 minute movie vignettes. Written post-movie viewing evaluations completed by 71.3% of viewers (305/428 were collected at several venues, including the premiere of the movie in the urban city of Anchorage at a local movie theater, seven rural Alaska community movie nights, and five cancer education trainings with Community Health Workers. Paper and pencil evaluations included check box and open-ended questions to learn participants' response to a telenovela-style movie. Results. On written-post movie viewing evaluations, viewers reported an increase in CRC knowledge and comfort with talking about recommended CRC screening exams. Notably, 81.6% of respondents (249/305 wrote positive intent to change behavior. Multiple responses included: 65% talking with family and friends about colon screening (162, 24% talking with their provider about colon screening (59, 31% having a colon screening (76, and 44% increasing physical activity (110. Conclusions. Written evaluations revealed the telenovela genre to be an innovative way to communicate colorectal cancer health messages with Alaska Native, American Indian, and Caucasian people both in an urban and rural setting to empower conversations and action related to colorectal cancer screening. Telenovela is a promising health communication tool to shift community norms by generating enthusiasm and conversations about the importance of having recommended colorectal

  4. Implementation of population screening for colorectal cancer by repeated Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT: third round

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stegeman Inge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the most common cancer in Europe with a mortality rate of almost 50%. The prognosis of patients is largely determined by the clinical and pathological stage at the time of diagnosis. Population screening has been shown to reduce CRC-related mortality rate. Most screening programs worldwide rely on fecal immunochemical testing (FIT. The effectiveness of a FIT screening program is not only influenced by initial participation rate, but also by program adherence during consecutive screening rounds. We aim to evaluate the participation rate in and yield of a third CRC screening round using FIT. Methods and design Four years after the first screening round and two years after the second round, a total number of approximately 11,000 average risk individuals (50 to 75 years of age will be invited to participate in a third round of FIT-based CRC screening. We will select individuals in the same target area as in the previous screening rounds, using the electronic database of the regional municipal administration registrations. We will invite all FIT-negatives and all non-participants in previous screening rounds, as well as eligible first time invitees who have moved into the area or have become 50 years of age. FITs will be analyzed in the special technique laboratory of the Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam. All FIT-positives will be invited for a consultation at the outpatient clinic. In the absence of contra-indications, a colonoscopy will follow at the Academic Medical Center or at the Flevohospital. The primary outcome measures are the participation rate, defined as the proportion of invitees that return a FIT in this third round of FIT-screening, and the diagnostic yield of the program. Implications This study will provide precise data on the participation in later FIT screening rounds. This enables to estimate the effectiveness of CRC screening programs that rely on repeated

  5. Overcoming Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening Among Asian American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Ma, Grace X.; Tan, Yin

    2011-01-01

    Significant disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality exist among ethnic minority women, and in particular, among Asian American women. These disparities have been attributed primarily to differences in screening rates across ethnic/racial groups. Asian American women have one of the lowest rates of screening compared to other ethnic/racial groups. Yet Asian Americans, who comprise one of the fastest growing populations in the United States, have received the least attention in c...

  6. Socioeconomic position and participation in colorectal cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B L; Jørgensen, Torben; Brasso, K;

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with faecal occult blood test (FOBT) has the potential to reduce the incidence and mortality of CRC. Screening uptake is known to be inferior in people with low socioeconomic position (SEP) when compared with those with high position; however, the results of most...... information on education, employment, and income to encompass different but related aspects of socioeconomic stratification. Also, the impact of ethnicity and cohabiting status was analysed....

  7. Socioeconomic disparities in the uptake of breast and cervical cancer screening in Italy: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiani Gianfranco

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast and cervical cancer screening are widely recognized as effective preventive procedures in reducing cancer mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of socioeconomic disparities in the uptake of female screening in Italy, with a specific focus on different types of screening programs. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the 2004-2005 national health interview survey. A sample of 15, 486 women aged 50-69 years for mammography and one of 35, 349 women aged 25-64 years for Pap smear were analysed. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between socioeconomic factors and female screening utilization. Results Education and occupation were positively associated with attendance to both screening. Women with higher levels of education were more likely to have a mammogram than those with a lower level (OR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.10-1.49. Women of intermediate and high occupational classes were more likely to use breast cancer screening (OR = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.55-2.03, OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.40-1.91 compared to unemployed women. Women in the highest occupational class had a higher likelihood of cervical cancer screening compared to those in the lowest class (OR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.63-2.01. Among women who attended screening, those with lower levels of education and lower occupational classes were more likely than more advantaged women to attend organized screening programs rather than being screened on the basis of their own initiative. Conclusions Inequalities in the uptake of female screening widely exist in Italy. Organized screening programs may have an important role in increasing screening attendance and tackling inequalities.

  8. Mammography - importance, possibilities, current screening situation of the breast cancer and further expansion possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer still remains the most frequent cancer in women population. Incidence of breast cancer is increasing, but mortality is decreasing. The most important for decreasing of breast cancer mortality is early diagnostic, especially screening. Screening is a form of secondary prevention. Although many screening studies have shown that mammography decreases of the breast cancer death, there are still many controversies. The published recommendations for the breast screening are sometimes very different. (author)

  9. Cancer screening, prevention, and treatment in people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lara C; Stefancic, Ana; Cunningham, Amy T; Hurley, Katelyn E; Cabassa, Leopodo J; Wender, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE People with mental illness die decades earlier in the United States compared with the general population. Most of this disparity is related to preventable and treatable chronic conditions, with many studies finding cancer as the second leading cause of death. Individual lifestyle factors, such as smoking or limited adherence to treatment, are often cited as highly significant issues in shaping risk among persons with mental illness. However, many contextual or systems-level factors exacerbate these individual factors and may fundamentally drive health disparities among people with mental illness. The authors conducted an integrative review to summarize the empirical literature on cancer prevention, screening, and treatment for people with mental illness. Although multiple interventions are being developed and tested to address tobacco dependence and obesity in these populations, the evidence for effectiveness is quite limited, and essentially all prevention interventions focus at the individual level. This review identified only one published article describing evidence-based interventions to promote cancer screening and improve cancer treatment in people with mental illness. On the basis of a literature review and the experience and expertise of the authors, each section in this article concludes with suggestions at the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy levels that may improve cancer prevention, screening, and treatment in people with mental illness. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:133-151. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:26663383

  10. A cost-utility analysis of lung cancer screening and the additional benefits of incorporating smoking cessation interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C Villanti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A 2011 report from the National Lung Screening Trial indicates that three annual low-dose computed tomography (LDCT screenings for lung cancer reduced lung cancer mortality by 20% compared to chest X-ray among older individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Discussion has shifted from clinical proof to financial feasibility. The goal of this study was to determine whether LDCT screening for lung cancer in a commercially-insured population (aged 50-64 at high risk for lung cancer is cost-effective and to quantify the additional benefits of incorporating smoking cessation interventions in a lung cancer screening program. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The current study builds upon a previous simulation model to estimate the cost-utility of annual, repeated LDCT screenings over 15 years in a high risk hypothetical cohort of 18 million adults between age 50 and 64 with 30+ pack-years of smoking history. In the base case, the lung cancer screening intervention cost $27.8 billion over 15 years and yielded 985,284 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained for a cost-utility ratio of $28,240 per QALY gained. Adding smoking cessation to these annual screenings resulted in increases in both the costs and QALYs saved, reflected in cost-utility ratios ranging from $16,198 per QALY gained to $23,185 per QALY gained. Annual LDCT lung cancer screening in this high risk population remained cost-effective across all sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicate that repeat annual lung cancer screening in a high risk cohort of adults aged 50-64 is highly cost-effective. Offering smoking cessation interventions with the annual screening program improved the cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening between 20% and 45%. The cost-utility ratios estimated in this study were in line with other accepted cancer screening interventions and support inclusion of annual LDCT screening for lung cancer in a high risk population in clinical

  11. Equity and practice issues in colorectal cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, Sandy; Rozmovits, Linda; Glazier, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate overall colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates, patterns in the use of types of CRC screening, and sociodemographic characteristics associated with CRC screening; and to gain insight into physicians’ perceptions about and use of fecal occult blood testing [FOBT] and colonoscopy for patients at average risk of CRC. Design Mixed-methods study using cross-sectional administrative data on patient sociodemographic characteristics and semistructured telephone interviews with physicians. Setting Toronto, Ont. Participants Patients aged 50 to 74 years and physicians in family health teams in the Toronto Central Local Health Integration Network. Main outcome measures Rates of CRC screening by type; sociodemographic characteristics associated with CRC screening; thematic analysis using constant comparative method for semistructured interviews. Main findings Ontario administrative data on CRC screening showed lower overall screening rates among those who were younger, male patients, those who had lower income, and recent immigrants. Colonoscopy rates were especially low among those with lower income and those who were recent immigrants. Semistructured interviews revealed that physician opinions about CRC screening for average-risk patients were divided: one group of physicians accepted the evidence and recommendations for FOBT and the other group of physicians strongly supported colonoscopy for these patients, believing that the FOBT was an inferior screening method. Physicians identified specialist recommendations and patient expectations as factors that influenced their decisions regarding CRC screening type. Conclusion There was considerable variation in CRC screening by sociodemographic characteristics. A key theme that emerged from the interviews was that physicians were divided in their preference for FOBT or colonoscopy; factors that influenced physician preference included the health care system, recommendations by other

  12. 75 FR 70557 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Draft Policies and Procedures for Screening Safe Drinking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... published in the Federal Register on April 15, 2009 (74 FR 17560); however, this document was drafted with... procedures that were published in the Federal Register on April 15, 2009 (74 FR 17560) (FRL-8399-9) (FIFRA... Protection Agency Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Draft Policies and Procedures for Screening...

  13. Optoelectronic image processing for cervical cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Sharpe, John P.; Johnson, Kristina M.

    1994-05-01

    Automation of the Pap-smear cervical screening method is highly desirable as it relieves tedium for the human operators, reduces cost and should increase accuracy and provide repeatability. We present here the design for a high-throughput optoelectronic system which forms the first stage of a two stage system to automate pap-smear screening. We use a mathematical morphological technique called the hit-or-miss transform to identify the suspicious areas on a pap-smear slide. This algorithm is implemented using a VanderLugt architecture and a time-sequential ANDing smart pixel array.

  14. What to Do When a Smoker’s CT Scan Is “Normal”?: Implications for Lung Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Zurawska, Joanna H.; Jen, Rachel; Lam, Stephen; Coxson, Harvey O.; Leipsic, Jonathon; Don D Sin

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States and around the world. There are > 90 million current and ex-smokers in the United States who are at increased risk of lung cancer. The published data from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) suggest that yearly screening with low-dose thoracic CT scan in heavy smokers can reduce lung cancer mortality by 20% and all-cause mortality by 7%. However, to implement this program nationwide using the NLST inclusion...

  15. Is prostate cancer screening responsible for the negative results of prostate cancer treatment trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vinay

    2016-08-01

    Clinical guidelines continue to move away from routine prostate specific antigen screening (PSA), once a widespread medical practice. A curious difference exists between early prostate cancer and early breast cancer. While randomized trials of therapy in early breast cancer continue to show overall survival benefit, this is not the case in prostate cancer, where prostatectomy was no better than observation in a recent trial, and where early androgen deprivation is no better than late androgen deprivation. Here, I make the case that prostate cancer screening contributes so greatly to over diagnosis that even treatment trials yield null results due to contamination with non-life threatening disease. PMID:27372859

  16. Knowledge and acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Martha P; Dune, Tanaka; Shetty, Prasanna K; Shetty, Avinash K

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in India; however, participation in prevention and screening is low and the reasons for this are not well understood. In a cross-sectional survey in August 2008, 202 healthy women in Karnataka, India completed a questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Factors associated with vaccination and Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening acceptance were explored. Thirty-six percent of women had heard of HPV while 15% had heard of cervical cancer. Five percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, and 4% of women felt at risk of HPV infection. Forty-six percent of women were accepting of vaccination, but fewer (21%) were willing to have a Pap smear. Overall, knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer topics was low. Women with negative attitudes toward HPV infection were 5.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10) times more likely to accept vaccination but were not significantly more likely to accept Pap smear (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.0). Cost and a low level of perceived risk were the most frequent factors cited as potential barriers. Improving awareness of HPV and cervical cancer through health care providers in addition to increasing access to vaccination and screening through government-sponsored programs may be feasible and effective methods to reduce cervical cancer burden in India. PMID:25355525

  17. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Gaga, Mina; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Peled, Nir; Prokop, Mathias; Remy-Jardin, Martine; von Stackelberg, Oyunbileg; Sculier, Jean-Paul

    2015-07-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including biobank and image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. PMID:25929956

  18. New Molecular Tools for Efficient Screening of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytological screening using the Pap-smear led to a remarkable reduction of the mortality of cervical cancer. However, due to subjective test criteria it is hampered by poor inter- and intra-observer agreement. More reproducible assays are expected to improve the current screening and avoid unnecessary medical intervention and psychological distress for the affected women. Cervical cancer arises as consequence of persistent high risk papillomavirus (HR-HPV infections. Expression of two viral oncogenes, E6 and E7, in epithelial stem cells is required to initiate and maintain cervical carcinogenesis and results in significant overexpression of the cellular p16INK4a protein. Since this protein is not expressed in normal cervical squamous epithelia, screening for p16INK4a over-expressing cells allows to specifically identify dysplastic lesions, and significantly reduces the inter-observer disagreement of the conventional cytological or histological tests. Progression of preneoplastic lesions to invasive cancers is associated with extensive recombination of viral and cellular genomes which can be monitored by detection of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts (APOT assay derived from integrated viral genome copies. Detection of integrated type oncogene transcripts points to far advanced dysplasia or invasive cancers and thus represents a progression marker for cervical lesions. These new assays discussed here will help to improve current limitations in cervical cancer screening, diagnosis, and therapy control.

  19. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Stackelberg, Oyunbileg von [University Hospital Heidelberg, Dept of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Member of the German Lung Research Center, Translational Lung Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Bonomo, Lorenzo [A. Gemelli University Hospital, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Gaga, Mina [Athens Chest Hospital, 7th Resp. Med. Dept and Asthma Center, Athens (Greece); Nackaerts, Kristiaan [KU Leuven-University of Leuven, University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Respiratory Diseases/Respiratory Oncology Unit, Leuven (Belgium); Peled, Nir [Tel Aviv University, Davidoff Cancer Center, Rabin Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Prokop, Mathias [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Remy-Jardin, Martine [Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette (EA 2694), CHRU et Universite de Lille, Lille (France); Sculier, Jean-Paul [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Thoracic oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Collaboration: on behalf of the European Society of Radiology (ESR) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low-dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low-dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and a quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including a biobank and an image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. (orig.)

  20. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low-dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low-dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and a quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including a biobank and an image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. (orig.)

  1. Prostate Cancer Screening : The effect on prostate cancer mortality and incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Leeuwen (Pim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAt first glance, deciding whether to get the PSA screening test for prostate cancer seems to be pretty straightforward and attractive. It’s a simple blood test that can pick up the prostate cancer long before your symptoms appear. After all, your prostate cancer is earlier treated result

  2. Lung cancer screening: Computed tomography or chest radiographs?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edwin; JR; van; Beek; Saeed; Mirsadraee; John; T; Murchison

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of mortalitydue to malignancy. The vast majority of cases of lung cancer are smoking related and the most effective way of reducing lung cancer incidence and mortality is by smoking cessation. In the Western world, smoking cessation policies have met with limited success. The other major means of reducing lung cancer deaths is to diagnose cases at an earlier more treatable stage employing screening programmes using chest radiographs or low dose computed tomography. In many countries smoking is still on the increase, and the sheer scale of the problem limits the affordability of such screening programmes. This short review article will evaluate the current evidence and potential areas of research which may benefit policy making across the world.

  3. Results of the material screening program of the NEXT experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Dafni, T; Bandac, I; Bettini, A; Borges, F I G M; Camargo, M; Carcel, S; Cebrian, S; Cervera, A; Conde, C A N; Diaz, J; Esteve, R; Fernandes, L M P; Fernandez, M; Ferrario, P; Ferreira, A L; Freitas, E D C; Gehman, V M; Goldschmidt, A; Gomez, H; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Gonzalez-Diaz, D; Gutierrez, R M; Hauptman, J; Morata, J A Hernando; Herrera, D C; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Labarga, L; Laing, A; Liubarsky, I; Lorca, D; Losada, M; Luzon, G; Mari, A; Martin-Albo, J; Martinez, A; Martinez-Lema, G; Miller, T; Monrabal, F; Monserrate, M; Monteiro, C M B; Mora, F J; Moutinho, L M; Vidal, J Munoz; Nebot-Guinot, M; Nygren, D; Oliveira, C A B; Perez, J; Aparicio, J L Perez; Renner, J; Ripoll, L; Rodriguez, A; Rodriguez, J; Santos, F P; Santos, J M F dos; Segui, L; Serra, L; Shuman, D; Simon, A; Sofka, C; Sorel, M; Toledo, J F; Torrent, J; Tsamalaidze, Z; Veloso, J F C A; Villar, J A; Webb, R C; White, J T; Yahlali, N

    2014-01-01

    The 'Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC (NEXT)', intended to investigate neutrinoless double beta decay, requires extremely low background levels. An extensive material screening and selection process to assess the radioactivity of components is underway combining several techniques, including germanium gamma-ray spectrometry performed at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory; recent results of this material screening program are presented here.

  4. Risk of cancer radioinduced by mammographic screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to estimate the risk benefit of mammography, in terms of the number of lives saved/number of lives lost, in the female population of the State of Goias, Brazil, depending on the age range indicated for screening and the type of technology available

  5. Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening in Women Referred to Urban Healthcare Centers in Kerman, Iran, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadipour, Habibeh; Sheikhizade, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Breast and cervical cancers are among leading causes of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. Regular screening is very important for early detection of these cancers, but studies indicate low rates of screening participation. In this survey we studied the rate of screening participation among women 18-64 years old referred to urban health centers in Kerman, Iran in 2015. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 240 women who were selected using a multistage sampling method. Data collected using a questionnaire covered demographics and questions about common cancer screening status in women. Analysis was by SPSS 19. The mean age of participants was 31.7± 7. Most (97.1%) were married, housewives (83.3%), had high school diploma (43.8%) and a monthly income more than ten million Rls. The frequency of the Pap test performance was higher in women who were employed and with a university degree (pperformance in women over 40 years was also higher in women with university degree (p0.05). Our study found that the rate of screening participation among women is low. Investigation of the barriers, increasing the awareness of women about the importance and advantages of screening and also more incentives for health personnel especially family physicians to pay more attention to preventive programs could be effective. PMID:27165219

  6. Health beliefs related to breast cancer screening behaviours in women who applied to cancer early detection center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Serpil Talas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting women in Turkey. The early detection methods for breast cancer have been associated with health belief variables. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine women's health beliefs related to breast cancer screening behaviours. Methods: This study was designed as descriptive and cross-sectional survey and was performed on 344 women who applied the Nigde Cancer Early Diagnosis, Screening and Education Center between May and October 2009. The data were collected using a questionnaire which consists of socio-demographic characteristics and breast cancer risk factors and Health Belief Model Scale. Data analysis was performed using frequency and Mann-Whitney U Test. All values of p0.05. According to study results, the rate of regular BSE performance rate for women was found low. Therefore, KETEM was planned to the training programs related to breast cancer screening methods. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 265-271

  7. Colorectal cancer screening of high-risk populations: A national survey of physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Pascale M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of colorectal cancer can be decreased by appropriate use of screening modalities. Patients with a family history of colon cancer and of African-American ethnicity are known to be at higher risk of developing colorectal cancer. We aimed to determine if there is a lack of physician knowledge for colorectal cancer screening guidelines based on family history and ethnicity. Between February and April 2009 an anonymous web-based survey was administered to a random sample selected from a national list of 25,000 internists, family physicians and gastroenterologists. A stratified sampling strategy was used to include practitioners from states with high as well as low CRC incidence. All data analyses were performed following data collection in 2009. Results The average knowledge score was 37 ± 18% among the 512 respondents. Gastroenterologists averaged higher scores compared to internists, and family physicians, p = 0.001. Only 28% of physicians correctly identified the screening initiation point for African-Americans while only 12% of physicians correctly identified the screening initiation point and interval for a patient with a family history of CRC. The most commonly cited barriers to referring high-risk patients for CRC screening were "patient refusal" and "lack of insurance reimbursement." Conclusions There is a lack of knowledge amongst physicians of the screening guidelines for high-risk populations, based on family history and ethnicity. Educational programs to improve physician knowledge and to reduce perceived barriers to CRC screening are warranted to address health disparities in colorectal cancer.

  8. Are Religious Women More Likely to Have Breast Cancer Screening?

    OpenAIRE

    Van Ness, Peter H.; Kasl, Stanislav V; Jones, Beth A.

    2002-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate whether women who frequently attend religious services are more likely to have breast cancer screening—mammography and clinical breast examinations—than other women. Multivariate logistic regression models show that white women who attended religious services frequently had more than twice the odds of breast cancer screening than white women who attended less frequently (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.61; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.12, 6.06). The behavior of ...

  9. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer: Registration, Screening and Prognostic Biomarker Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Barrow, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of the research was to investigate the benefits of a hereditary colorectal cancer registry in the management of patients and families with Lynch syndrome. In study one, a systematic review was performed to quantify the impact of registration and screening on colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality, with comparison between familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Lynch syndrome (LS). In study two, a regional Lynch syndrome registry was utilised to evaluate the uptake ...

  10. Lung cancer screening in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Jessica; Marín, Marta; Sánchez-Salcedo, Pablo; Zulueta, Javier J.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two intimately related diseases, with great impact on public health. Annual screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) of the chest significantly reduces mortality due to lung cancer, and several scientific societies now recommend this technique. COPD, defined by the presence of airflow obstruction [forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio less than 0.70], and their clinical phenotypes, namely emph...

  11. ACOG Recommendations and Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about ACOG's recommendations for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  12. Newborn screening education on the internet: a content analysis of North American newborn screening program websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araia, Makda H; Potter, Beth K

    2011-09-01

    The Internet is a potentially important medium for communication about public health programs including newborn screening. This study explores whether the information available on official newborn screening program websites is consistent with existing guidelines regarding educational content for parents. We conducted a systematic search of the public websites of newborn screening programs in the US and Canada, identifying web pages and downloadable brochures that contained educational information. Two researchers independently reviewed all documents to determine the extent to which they included 14 key recommended educational messages. We identified 85 documents containing educational information on 46 US and 6 Canadian newborn screening program websites. The documents contained from 1 to 14 of the recommended messages. The majority of identified materials emphasized the importance and benefits of screening. The differences between US and Canadian materials were related to the importance of parental involvement in follow-up and issues of consent and storage of blood spots. Our findings are consistent with studies of non-web-based newborn screening education materials. The results emphasize the need for further evaluation of newborn screening education, including internet-based resources, particularly in terms of the impact of particular messages on parental attitudes and behaviors. PMID:22109819

  13. Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, J; McKenzie, J; Buenconsejo-Lum, L E;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccination...... insufficient, with only two of 21 countries and territories having achieved coverage of cervical cancer screening above 40%. Ten of 21 countries and territories had included HPV vaccination in their immunization schedule, but only two countries reported coverage of HPV vaccination above 60% among the targeted...... population. Key barriers to the introduction and continuation of HPV vaccination were reported to be: (i) Lack of sustainable financing for HPV vaccine programs; (ii) Lack of visible government endorsement; (iii) Critical public perception of the value and safety of the HPV vaccine; and (iv) Lack of clear...

  14. Morphological feature detection for cervical cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Sharpe, John P.; Duke, Heather J.; Stewart, Rosemary J.; Johnson, Kristina M.

    1995-03-01

    An optoelectronic system has been designed to pre-screen pap-smear slides and detect the suspicious cells using the hit/miss transform. Computer simulation of the algorithm tested on 184 pap-smear images detected 95% of the suspicious region as suspect while tagging just 5% of the normal regions as suspect. An optoelectronic implementation of the hit/miss transform using a 4f Vander-Lugt correlator architecture is proposed and demonstrated with experimental results.

  15. Breast Cancer Stage, Surgery, and Survival Statistics for Idaho’s National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program Population, 2004–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Graff, Robert; Moran, Patti; Cariou, Charlene; Bordeaux, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides access to breast and cervical cancer screening for low-income, uninsured, and underinsured women in all states and US territories. In Idaho, a rural state with very low breast and cervical cancer screening rates, this program is called Women’s Health Check (WHC). The program has been operating continuously since 1997 and served 4,719 enrollees in 2013. The objective of this study was to assess whet...

  16. Cancer Worry, Perceived Risk and Cancer Screening in First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Familial Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jenny; Hart, Tae L; Aronson, Melyssa; Crangle, Cassandra; Govindarajan, Anand

    2016-06-01

    Currently, there is a lack of evidence evaluating the psychological impact of cancer-related risk perception and worry in individuals at high risk for gastric cancer. We examined the relationships between perceived risk, cancer worry and screening behaviors among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with familial gastric cancer. FDRs of patients diagnosed with familial gastric cancer with a non-informative genetic analysis were identified and contacted. Participants completed a telephone interview that assessed socio-demographic information, cancer risk perception, cancer worry, impact of worry on daily functioning, and screening behaviors. Twenty-five FDRs completed the telephone interview. Participants reported high levels of comparative and absolute cancer risk perception, with an average perceived lifetime risk of 54 %. On the other hand, cancer-related worry scores were low, with a significant minority (12 %) experiencing high levels of worry. Study participants exhibited high levels of confidence (median = 70 %) in the effectiveness of screening at detecting a curable cancer. Participants that had undergone screening in the past showed significantly lower levels of cancer-related worry compared to those that had never undergone screening. In conclusion, individuals at high-risk for gastric cancer perceived a very high personal risk of cancer, but reported low levels of cancer worry. This paradoxical result may be attributed to participants' high levels of confidence in the effectiveness of screening. These findings highlight the importance for clinicians to discuss realistic risk appraisals and expectations towards screening with unaffected members of families at risk for gastric cancer, in an effort to help mitigate anxiety and help with coping. PMID:26493173

  17. Implementing low-dose computed tomography screening for lung cancer in Canada: implications of alternative at-risk populations, screening frequency, and duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W.K.; Flanagan, W.M.; Miller, A.B.; Goffin, J.R.; Memon, S.; Fitzgerald, N.; Wolfson, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-dose computed tomography (ldct) screening has been shown to reduce mortality from lung cancer; however, the optimal screening duration and “at risk” population are not known. Methods The Cancer Risk Management Model developed by Statistics Canada for the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer includes a lung screening module based on data from the U.S. National Lung Screening Trial (nlst). The base-case scenario reproduces nlst outcomes with high fidelity. The impact in Canada of annual screening on the number of incident cases and life-years gained, with a wider range of age and smoking history eligibility criteria and varied participation rates, was modelled to show the magnitude of clinical benefit nationally and by province. Life-years gained, costs (discounted and undiscounted), and resource requirements were also estimated. Results In 2014, 1.4 million Canadians were eligible for screening according to nlst criteria. Over 10 years, screening would detect 12,500 more lung cancers than the expected 268,300 and would gain 9200 life-years. The computed tomography imaging requirement of 24,000–30,000 at program initiation would rise to between 87,000 and 113,000 by the 5th year of an annual nlst-like screening program. Costs would increase from approximately $75 million to $128 million at 10 years, and the cumulative cost nationally over 10 years would approach $1 billion, partially offset by a reduction in the costs of managing advanced lung cancer. Conclusions Modelling various ways in which ldct might be implemented provides decision-makers with estimates of the effect on clinical benefit and on resource needs that clinical trial results are unable to provide.

  18. Cervical cancer screening in Belgium and overscreening of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerrebroeck, Helena; Makar, Amin

    2016-03-01

    There has been a marked decrease in the incidence of cervical cancer thanks to cytological screening with the Pap smear test. In Belgium, this screening is rather opportunistic. Over 39% of Belgian women between 25 and 64 years of age are never or only rarely screened by cytological tests. Moreover, there is an excess use of Pap smears because of women who rely on their yearly cervical smear and because many Pap smears are obtained from women beyond the target age range of 25 to 64 years. Sexually active adolescents are increasingly being recognized as a population distinct from adult women. They are at a high risk of acquiring the human papillomavirus (HPV), but most infections and cervical intraepithelial lesions caused by HPV are efficiently cleared by the immune system. We present a description of cervical cancer screening in Belgium using the database of the National Health Insurance Institute (RIZIV/INAMI) and the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). We describe why elimination of Pap testing in the adolescent population reduces costs and harms without increasing cervical cancer rates. Expectant management, education on the risk factors for cervical cancer and HPV persistence, and HPV vaccination are very important in adolescents and young adults. PMID:25812038

  19. Breast Cancer Screening: Cultural Beliefs and Diverse Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cassandra E.

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the role of culture in breast cancer screening behavior among African American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American/Pacific Islander, and Hispanic/Latina women. It reviews cultural beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge and their relative influence on women's decisions regarding health tests. The article explores how…

  20. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  1. Message from Terrence Howard: Screening for Colorectal Cancer PSA (:20)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    A message from the actor/musician Terrence Howard about the importance of screening for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/13/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  2. Message from Terrence Howard: Screening for Colorectal Cancer PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    A message from the actor/musician Terrence Howard about the importance of screening for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/13/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  3. Electrical Bioimpedance Analysis: A New Method in Cervical Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Lopamudra Das; Soumen Das; Jyotirmoy Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer worldwide and a disease of concern due to its high rate of incidence of about 500,000 women annually and is responsible for about 280,000 deaths in a year. The mortality and morbidity of cervical cancer are reduced through mass screening via Pap smear, but this technique suffers from very high false negativity of around 30% to 40% and hence the sensitivity of this technique is not more than 60%. Electrical bioimpedance study employing cy...

  4. The direct cost of "Thriasio" school screening program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziotou Christina

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is great diversity in the policies for scoliosis screening worldwide. The initial enthusiasm was succeeded by skepticism and the worth of screening programs has been challenged. The criticisms of school screening programs cite mainly the negative psychological impact on children and their families and the increased financial cost of visits and follow-up radiographs. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the direct cost of performing the school screening in a district hospital. Methods A cost analysis was performed for the estimation of the direct cost of the "Thriasio" school-screening program between January 2000 and May 2006. The analysis involved all the 6470 pupils aged 6–18 years old who were screened at schools for spinal deformities during this period. The factors which were taken into consideration in order to calculate the direct cost of the screening program were a the number of the examiners b the working hours, c the examiners' salary, d the cost of transportation and finally e the cost of examination per child. Results During the examined period 20 examiners were involved in the program and worked for 1949 working hours. The hourly salary for the trainee doctors was 6.80 euro, for the Health Visitors 6.70 euro and for the Physiotherapists 5.50 euro in current prices. The cost of transportation was 32 euro per year. The direct cost for the examination of each child for the above studied period was calculated to be 2.04 euro. Conclusion The cost of our school-screening program is low. The present study provides a strong evidence for the continuation of the program when looking from a financial point of view.

  5. Ovarian Cancer Screening Method Fails to Reduce Deaths from the Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    New results from the NCI-sponsored PLCO Cancer Screening Trial show that screening for ovarian cancer with transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) and the CA-125 blood test did not result in fewer deaths from the disease compared with usual care.

  6. Effects of screening for psychological distress on patient outcomes in cancer : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients identif

  7. Screening for Breast Cancer: #BeBrave: A Life-Saving Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer #BeBrave: A Life-Saving Test ... cancer survivor, you may not have gotten your screening mammogram. What is your message to other women ...

  8. Racial and ethnic disparities in U.S. cancer screening rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The percentage of U.S. citizens screened for cancer remains below national targets, with significant disparities among racial and ethnic populations, according to the first federal study to identify cancer screening disparities among Asian and Hispanic gr

  9. Screening for Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Using tobacco , especially smoking cigarettes. Having a family history of bladder cancer. Having certain changes in the genes . Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals or petroleum products in the workplace. Past treatment with radiation therapy to the pelvis or with certain anticancer drugs, ...

  10. An update in breast cancer screening and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Sanjay; Tapia, Grace; Goltsman, David; Beith, Jane

    2016-03-01

    This article provides an overview of the main controversies in a number of key areas of breast cancer management. Relevant studies that have contributed to guide the treatment of this heterogeneous disease in the field of breast screening, surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are highlighted. Mammography and ultrasound are the main methods of breast screening. MRI and tomosynthesis are emerging as new screening tools for a selected group of breast cancer patients. From a surgical perspective, oncoplastic techniques and neoadjuvant chemotherapy are improving cosmetic results in breast-conserving surgery. For high-risk patients, controversies still remain regarding prophylactic mastectomies. Finally, the appropriate management of the axilla continues evolving with the increasing role of radiotherapy as an alternative treatment to axillary dissection. PMID:26689336

  11. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Denmark has had an organized screening programme for cervical cancer since the 1960s. In spite of this, almost 150 Danish women die from the disease each year. There are currently two different methods for preparation of cervical samples: conventional Papanicolaou smear and liquid......-based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...

  12. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  13. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  14. Population screening for breast cancer in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although our understanding of the causes of breast cancer is increasing, it is as yet not possible to recommend measures to decrease its occurrence. Therefore we have to resort to a substitute called secondary prevention which aims at preventing the occurrence of metastatic breast cancer and death by detecting the primary cancer in the breast at an earlier point in its natural history. The question whether this can be achieved can only be answered by scientific study. Such studies are being called: population-based screening programmes. Screening requires one or more tests by which one can partition a population in those who probably have a cancer and those who have not. Since an early breast cancer does not produce symptoms like pain the test has to be some sort of objective assessment. In the field of detecting breast cancer we have been greatly helped by the development of a radiologic technique called mammography. Mammography basically is not an easy technique since there is little contrast between structures in the breast compared with e.g. bone. The quality of mammograms, therefore, was not very high in the pioneering era during the nineteen-fifties and -sixties. This presentation discusses a move of a few doctors in New York city: a radiologist, a surgeon and epidemiologist, to design a scientific study which could answer the question whether mammography, added to a standard clinical examination of the breast would decrease mortality from breast cancer

  15. Detection of Breast Cancer with Mammography in the First Screening Round in Relation to Expected Incidence in Different Age Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio (R) of prevalence of screening-detected breast cancer in the first screening round (P) was compared with the expected incidence rate (I) for different age groups in several screening programs. Published data on the first screening round from three Swedish randomized trials and six counties with service screening were used. The women invited to take part in the screening were aged 40-74 years. Not only P and I but also R increased with increasing age. With the youngest age group as reference, the increase was statistically significant for both invasive cancer and invasive cancer and carcinoma in situ together. The studied ratio (R) can be thought of as a measure of efficiency in detecting breast cancer cases in mammography screening. The reasons for the increase are probably that the breast tissue of younger women is denser, which makes the cancer more difficult to detect by mammography, and that slow-growing cancers tend to appear more frequently in older women

  16. Breast cancer mortality in organised mammography screening in Denmark: comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether the previously observed 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen following the introduction of mammography screening was indeed due to screening, by using an additional screening region and five years additional follow-up....

  17. Efficient management of cardiovascular risk screening programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Carol

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Health Unit, located on-site at the the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), is responsible for the implementation of the Center's Employee Environmental and Occupational Health Program. The Health Unit, Health Physics (HP), and Industrial Hygiene (IH) staffs collaborate to provide quality service to the employees at GSFC. The Health Unit staff identifies, evaluates, and ensures the control of occupational hazards on the Center. In the past, components of the Industrial Hygiene Program have included the Industrial Hygiene Health Hazard Identification Program (IHHIP), the Hearing Conservation Program (HCP), the Hazard Communication Program, and the bi-annual fume hood survey. More recently, the Environmental Health Unit has expanded its services by adding the Ergonomics Program. Various aspects of the Ergonomics Program are discussed.

  18. Scaling up cervical cancer screening in the midst of human papillomavirus vaccination advocacy in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawattananon Yot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening tests for cervical cancer are effective in reducing the disease burden. In Thailand, a Pap smear program has been implemented throughout the country for 40 years. In 2008 the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH unexpectedly decided to scale up the coverage of free cervical cancer screening services, to meet an ambitious target. This study analyzes the processes and factors that drove this policy innovation in the area of cervical cancer control in Thailand. Methods In-depth interviews with key policy actors and review of relevant documents were conducted in 2009. Data analysis was guided by a framework, developed on public policy models and existing literature on scaling-up health care interventions. Results Between 2006 and 2008 international organizations and the vaccine industry advocated the introduction of Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccine for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Meanwhile, a local study suggested that the vaccine was considerably less cost-effective than cervical cancer screening in the Thai context. Then, from August to December 2008, the MoPH carried out a campaign to expand the coverage of its cervical cancer screening program, targeting one million women. The study reveals that several factors were influential in focusing the attention of policymakers on strengthening the screening services. These included the high burden of cervical cancer in Thailand, the launch of the HPV vaccine onto the global and domestic markets, the country’s political instability, and the dissemination of scientific evidence regarding the appropriateness of different options for cervical cancer prevention. Influenced by the country’s political crisis, the MoPH’s campaign was devised in a very short time. In the view of the responsible health officials, the campaign was not successful and indeed, did not achieve its ambitious target. Conclusion The Thai case study suggests that the political crisis was a

  19. Health literacy and meeting breast and cervical cancer screening guidelines among Asians and whites in California

    OpenAIRE

    Sentell, Tetine; Braun, Kathryn L; Davis, James; Davis, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Empirical evidence regarding cancer screening and health literacy is mixed. Cancer is the leading cause of death in Asian Americans, yet screening rates are notably low. Using a population-based sample, we determined if health literacy: (1) was associated with breast and cervical cancer screening, and (2) helped to explain Asian cancer screening disparities. Methods We analyzed the 2007 California Health Interview Survey for Asian (Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Vietnamese, o...

  20. Development and Validation of the Assessment of Health Literacy in Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Hae-Ra; Huh, Boyun; Kim, Miyong T.; Kim, Jiyun; Nguyen, Tam

    2014-01-01

    For many people limited health literacy is a major barrier to effective preventive health behavior such as cancer screening, yet a comprehensive health literacy measure that is specific to breast and cervical cancer screening is not readily available. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and testing of a new instrument to measure health literacy in the context of breast and cervical cancer screening, the Assessment of Health Literacy in Cancer Screening (AHL-C). The AHL-C ...