WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer screening programs

  1. Stewardship and cancer screening programs in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine Marie Novinskey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As one of the four major functions of health systems, Stewardship is on the health agenda of several countries worldwide. There is, however, little empirical evidence to support or guide its implementation. To help bridge this gap, the paper aims to contribute to the empirical evidence for health system stewardship and, importantly, to offer implementers an explanatory example of what it could mean in practice. It achieves this by analyzing the experience of the Italian Cancer Screening Programs (from 2004-2009 within a comprehensive framework for health system stewardship. The analysis is largely based on primary and secondary qualitative data, using information collected from an in-depth interview, official documents, and scientific and grey literature. We describe the framework and sub-functions of stewardship, identify the stewardship activities that were carried out by the Programs, and reflect upon the operability of the framework as well as the activities that the Programs have not implemented but would benefit from doing so. The general experience and activities of the Italian Cancer Screening Programs fit well into the stewardship framework, despite not having followed it a priori. Overall, the Programs managed to implement most activities under each sub-function. As an empirical case study, they corroborated the theoretical framework and demonstrated how it could be translated into certain activities on an operational platform. Ultimately, the analysis showed that the framework of stewardship is useful for structuring and prioritizing the most important activities of a steward and, thus, provides a good benchmark for implementers.

  2. Cervical cancer screening programs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Raul; Almonte, Maribel; Pereira, Ana; Ferrer, Elena; Gamboa, Oscar A; Jerónimo, José; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2008-08-19

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have a significant burden of cervical cancer. Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are an opportunity for primary prevention and new screening methods, such as new HPV DNA testing, are promising alternatives to cytology screening that should be analyzed in the context of regional preventive programs. Cytology-based screening programs have not fulfilled their expectations and coverage does not sufficiently explain the lack of impact on screening in LAC. While improved evaluation of screening programs is necessary to increase the impact of screening on the reduction of incidence and mortality, other programmatic aspects will need to be addressed such as follow-up of positive tests and quality control. The implementation of new technologies might enhance screening performance and reduce mortality in the region. The characteristics, performance and impact of cervical cancer screening programs in LAC are reviewed in this article.

  3. Screening history in women with cervical cancer in a Danish population-based screening program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Poll, Susanne; Rygaard, Carsten;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer....

  4. Development of a Federally Funded Demonstration Colorectal Cancer Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Royalty, MS

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality among U.S. adults. In 2004, treatment costs for colorectal cancer were $8.4 billion.There is substantial evidence that colorectal cancer incidence and mortality are reduced with regular screening. The natural history of this disease is also well described: most colorectal cancers develop slowly from preexisting polyps. This slow development provides an opportunity to intervene with screening tests, which can either prevent colorectal cancer through the removal of polyps or detect it at an early stage. However, much less is known about how best to implement an effective colorectal cancer screening program. Screening rates are low, and uninsured persons, low-income persons, and persons who have not visited a physician within a year are least likely to be screened.Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has 15 years of experience supporting the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program for the underserved population, a similar national program for colorectal cancer is not in place. To explore the feasibility of implementing a national program for the underserved U.S. population and to learn which settings and which program models are most viable and cost-effective, CDC began a 3-year colorectal cancer screening demonstration program in 2005.This article describes briefly this demonstration program and the process CDC used to design it and to select program sites. The multiple-methods evaluation now under way to assess the program’s feasibility and describe key outcomes is also detailed. Evaluation results will be used to inform future activities related to organized screening for colorectal cancer.

  5. Stewardship and cancer screening programs in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Cristine Marie Novinskey; Antonio Federici

    2011-01-01

    As one of the four major functions of health systems, Stewardship is on the health agenda of several countries worldwide. There is, however, little empirical evidence to support or guide its implementation. To help bridge this gap, the paper aims to contribute to the empirical evidence for health system stewardship and, importantly, to offer implementers an explanatory example of what it could mean in practice. It achieves this by analyzing the experience of the Italian Cancer Screening Progr...

  6. [Cancer screening in Hungary: World Bank supported model programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodó, M; Döbrössy, L; Liszka, G; Ottó, S; Péter, Z

    1997-07-13

    Since 1995, a model cancer screening program has been in operation in Hungary, the overall purpose of which is to promote the establishment of effective and efficient screening programs by means of adapting the internationally agreed principles of organized screening to the needs and opportunities in Hungary. The establishment and operation of a national population-based cancer registration system is an other aim of the Program. The model program--financed partly from a loan from the World Bank, partly from local funds provided by the Government of Hungary--is to develop standard procedure for cervical, breast and colorectal screening and to end up with tested recommendations for introduction of organized screening of proved effectiveness, integrated into the health care system, on country-wide service bases in Hungary.

  7. Start-Up of the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy DeGroff, MPH

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionIn 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded five sites to implement the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP. An evaluation is being conducted that includes a multiple case study. Case study results for the start-up period, the time between initial funding and screening initiation, provide details about the program models and start-up process and reveal important lessons learned.MethodsThe multiple case study includes all five CRCSDP sites, each representing a unique case. Data were collected from August 2005 through September 2006 from documents, observations, and more than 70 interviews with program staff and stakeholders.ResultsSites differed by geographic service area, screening modality selected, and service delivery structure. Program models were influenced by two factors: preexisting infrastructure and the need to adapt programs to fit local service delivery structures. Several sites modeled program components after their National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program. Medical advisory boards convened by all sites provided clinical support for developing program policies and quality assurance plans. Partnerships with comprehensive cancer control programs facilitated access to financial and in-kind resources.ConclusionThe program models developed by the CRCSDP sites offer a range of prototypes. Case study results suggest benefits in employing a multidisciplinary staff team, assembling a medical advisory board, collaborating with local partners, using preexisting resources, designing programs that are easily incorporated into existing service delivery systems, and planning for adequate start-up time.

  8. Life expectancy of screen-detected invasive breast cancer patients compared with women invited to the Nijmegen Screening Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.M. Otten; M.J.M. Broeders (Mireille); G.J. den Heeten (Gerard); R. Holland (Roland); J. Fracheboud (Jacques); H.J. de Koning (Harry); A.L.M. Verbeek (Andre)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Screening can lead to earlier detection of breast cancer and thus to an improvement in survival. The authors studied the life expectancy of women with screen-detected invasive breast cancer (patients) compared with women invited to the breast cancer screening program in Nijme

  9. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

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    Roman, M., E-mail: Marta.Roman@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Department of Women and Children’s Health, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Skaane, P., E-mail: PERSK@ous-hf.no [Department of Radiology, Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Hofvind, S., E-mail: Solveig.Hofvind@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  10. Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  11. The 10 Pillars of Lung Cancer Screening: Rationale and Logistics of a Lung Cancer Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fintelmann, Florian J; Bernheim, Adam; Digumarthy, Subba R; Lennes, Inga T; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Gilman, Matthew D; Sharma, Amita; Flores, Efren J; Muse, Victorine V; Shepard, Jo-Anne O

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the National Lung Screening Trial data released in 2011, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force made lung cancer screening (LCS) with low-dose computed tomography (CT) a public health recommendation in 2013. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) currently reimburse LCS for asymptomatic individuals aged 55-77 years who have a tobacco smoking history of at least 30 pack-years and who are either currently smoking or had quit less than 15 years earlier. Commercial insurers reimburse the cost of LCS for individuals aged 55-80 years with the same smoking history. Effective care for the millions of Americans who qualify for LCS requires an organized step-wise approach. The 10-pillar model reflects the elements required to support a successful LCS program: eligibility, education, examination ordering, image acquisition, image review, communication, referral network, quality improvement, reimbursement, and research frontiers. Examination ordering can be coupled with decision support to ensure that only eligible individuals undergo LCS. Communication of results revolves around the Lung Imaging Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS) from the American College of Radiology. Lung-RADS is a structured decision-oriented reporting system designed to minimize the rate of false-positive screening examination results. With nodule size and morphology as discriminators, Lung-RADS links nodule management pathways to the variety of nodules present on LCS CT studies. Tracking of patient outcomes is facilitated by a CMS-approved national registry maintained by the American College of Radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  12. Recording of hormone therapy and breast density in breast screening programs: summary and recommendations of the International Cancer Screening Network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, B.; Ballard-Barbash, R.; Broeders, M.J.M.; Dowling, E.; Malila, N.; Shumak, R.; Taplin, S.; Buist, D.; Miglioretti, D.

    2010-01-01

    Breast density and the use of hormone therapy (HT) for menopausal symptoms alter the risk of breast cancer and both factors influence screening mammography performance. The International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) surveyed its 29 member countries and found that few programs record breast densit

  13. Linking International Cancer Screening Efforts

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    Drs. Sudha Sivaram and Steve Taplin speak at the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) Meeting, which brings together individuals involved in cancer screening research and cancer screening programs from the ICSN’s member countries.

  14. From cancer screening to treatment: service delivery and referral in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline W; Hanson, Vivien; Johnson, Gale D; Royalty, Janet E; Richardson, Lisa C

    2014-08-15

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to low-income and underserved women through a network of providers and health care organizations. Although the program serves women 40-64 years old for breast cancer screening and 21-64 years old for cervical cancer screening, the priority populations are women 50-64 years old for breast cancer and women who have never or rarely been screened for cervical cancer. From 1991 through 2011, the NBCCEDP provided screening and diagnostic services to more than 4.3 million women, diagnosing 54,276 breast cancers, 2554 cervical cancers, and 123,563 precancerous cervical lesions. A critical component of providing screening services is to ensure that all women with abnormal screening results receive appropriate and timely diagnostic evaluations. Case management is provided to assist women with overcoming barriers that would delay or prevent follow-up care. Women diagnosed with cancer receive treatment through the states' Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment Programs (a special waiver for Medicaid) if they are eligible. The NBCCEDP has performance measures that serve as benchmarks to monitor the completeness and timeliness of care. More than 90% of the women receive complete diagnostic care and initiate treatment less than 30 days from the time of their diagnosis. Provision of effective screening and diagnostic services depends on effective program management, networks of providers throughout the community, and the use of evidence-based knowledge, procedures, and technologies.

  15. Recommendations From the International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network on the Evaluation of the Cost of Screening Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sujha; Tangka, Florence K L; Hoover, Sonja; Nadel, Marion; Smith, Robert; Atkin, Wendy; Patnick, Julietta

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, colorectal cancer is the fourth leading cause of death from cancer and the incidence is projected to increase. Many countries are exploring the introduction of organized screening programs, but there is limited information on the resources required and guidance for cost-effective implementation. To facilitate the generating of the economics evidence base for program implementation, we collected and analyzed detailed program cost data from 5 European members of the International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network. The cost per person screened estimates, often used to compare across programs as an overall measure, varied significantly across the programs. In addition, there were substantial differences in the programmatic and clinical cost incurred, even when the same type of screening test was used. Based on these findings, several recommendations are provided to enhance the underlying methodology and validity of the comparative economic assessments. The recommendations include the need for detailed activity-based cost information, the use of a comprehensive set of effectiveness measures to adequately capture differences between programs, and the incorporation of data from multiple programs in cost-effectiveness models to increase generalizability. Economic evaluation of real-world colorectal cancer-screening programs is essential to derive valuable insights to improve program operations and ensure optimal use of available resources.

  16. Introduction of breast cancer screening in Chernihiv Oblast in the Ukraine: report of a PATH Breast Cancer Assistance Program experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotov, Vladimir; Shyyan, Roman

    2003-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer and mortality from this disease remain high in countries with limited resources such as the Ukraine. Because of a lack of mammography equipment and formal screening programs, as well as educational and other factors, breast cancer is usually diagnosed in late stages in such countries. We report the experience of the PATH Breast Cancer Assistance Program in introducing a pilot breast cancer screening program in one territory of the Ukraine, the Chernihiv oblast. The program entailed educating the public, training health care providers in clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography, opening a dedicated mammography facility, designating a center for breast cancer care, building diagnostic capacity, and fostering the formation of support groups. From 1998 to 2002, 18,000 women underwent screening with CBE and 8778 women underwent screening with mammography. When implementing the program we encountered various cultural, economic, and logistic difficulties, such as reservations about showing bare breasts in educational materials, the lack of an established system for collecting screening data, and barriers to follow-up in women with positive screening results. Screening mammography proved to be more effective in detecting small and nonpalpable lesions; 8.7% of cancers detected in the mammography group were in situ, compared with 0% in the CBE group. However, introduction of CBE as a screening modality required fewer financial resources compared with mammography and was recommended as a transitional method before the introduction of mammography screening programs in countries with limited resources. The introduction of screening was associated with favorable changes in indicators of breast cancer care, including an increase in the percentage of breast-preserving operations and new legislation to provide funding for breast cancer services. We conclude that this successful pilot program of breast cancer screening in a limited

  17. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  18. The impact of stratifying by family history in colorectal cancer screening programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Goede (S. Lucas); L. Rabeneck (L.); I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); A. Zauber (Ann); L.F. Paszat (Lawrence F.); J.S. Hoch (Jeffrey S.); J.H.E. Yong (Jean H.E.); F. Van Hees (Frank); J. Tinmouth (Jill); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn the province-wide colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program in Ontario, Canada, individuals with a family history of CRC are offered colonoscopy screening and those without are offered guaiac fecal occult blood testing (gFOBT, Hemoccult II). We used microsimulation modeling to estimat

  19. [Detection of cancer, sensitivity of the test and sensitivity of the screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launoy, G; Duffy, S W; Prevost, T C; Bouvier, V

    1998-11-01

    In assessment of screening for cancer, no distinction is usually made between the sensitivity of the screening test (St) and the sensitivity of the screening program (Sp). This paper was aimed to distinguish meaning, method for assessment and interest for each of them, and to determine their relationship. Sensitivity of the screening program can be directly assessed with data from on-going trials whilst assessment of sensitivity of screening test requires modelisation techniques, especially for assessing the mean duration of the preclinical phase of cancer. Assuming an exponential distribution of this duration, lambda as the time parameter, a mathematical relation between St and Sp is suggested as follows: [formula: see text] with r being the interval between two screening tests. The implementation of this equation with data from a mass-screening program for colorectal cancer in the department of Calvados allowed us to investigate the influence of the mean preclinical phase and the interval between two screening tests on the value of the sensitivity of the screening procedure. Such a modelisation could be useful in the development of a rational screening policy.

  20. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  1. Lung Cancer Screening

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    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  2. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  3. Testicular Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Testicular Cancer Treatment Testicular Cancer Screening Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Testicular Cancer Key Points Testicular cancer is a disease in ...

  4. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test.

  5. Follow-up of abnormal or inadequate test results in the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Bettina Kjær

    2014-01-01

    -up recommendation. However problems with delayed follow-up may threaten the effectiveness of the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program, as 20% of women are delayed and dysplasia potentially can progress into cancer. Delayed follow-up is found in situations where women either consciously or unconsciously postpone...... follow-up, or because of organizational aspects of the screening program, where communication regarding test results can fail either in content or with delay.This study will evaluate two interventions designed to increase follow-up: 1) A letter with the test result and potential recommendation for follow...

  6. Implementing women's cancer screening programs in American Indian and Alaska Native populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Paula M; Orians, Carlyn E; Liebow, Edward; Joe, Jennie R; Burhansstipanov, Linda; Erb, Julie; Kenyon, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program provides funding to tribes and tribal organizations to implement comprehensive cancer screening programs using a program model developed for state health departments. We conducted a multiple-site case study using a participatory research process to describe how 5 tribal programs implemented screening services, and to identify strategies used to address challenges in delivering services to American Indian and Alaska Native women. We analyzed data from semistructured interviews with 141 key informants, 16 focus groups with 132 program-eligible women, and program documents. Several challenges regarding the delivery of services were revealed, including implementing screening programs in busy acute-care environments, access to mammography, providing culturally sensitive care, and providing diagnostic/treatment services in rural and remote locations. Strategies perceived as successful in meeting program challenges included identifying a "champion" or main supporter of the program in each clinical setting, using mobile mammography, using female providers, and increasing the capacity to provide diagnostic services at screening sites. The results should be of interest to an international audience, including those who work with health-related programs targeting indigenous women or groups that are marginalized because of culture, geographic isolation, and/or socioeconomic position.

  7. Assessment of the effectiveness of radon screening programs in reducing lung cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Fabien; Courchesne, Mathieu; Lévesque, Benoît; Ayotte, Pierre; Leclerc, Jean-Marc; Belles-Isles, Jean-Claude; Prévost, Claude; Dessau, Jean-Claude

    2008-10-01

    The present study was aimed at assessing the health consequences of the presence of radon in Quebec homes and the possible impact of various screening programs on lung cancer mortality. Lung cancer risk due to this radioactive gas was estimated according to the cancer risk model developed by the Sixth Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations. Objective data on residential radon exposure, population mobility, and tobacco use in the study population were integrated into a Monte-Carlo-type model. Participation rates to radon screening programs were estimated from published data. According to the model used, approximately 10% of deaths due to lung cancer are attributable to residential radon exposure on a yearly basis in Quebec. In the long term, the promotion of a universal screening program would prevent less than one death/year on a province-wide scale (0.8 case; IC 99%: -3.6 to 5.2 cases/year), for an overall reduction of 0.19% in radon-related mortality. Reductions in mortality due to radon by (1) the implementation of a targeted screening program in the region with the highest concentrations, (2) the promotion of screening on a local basis with financial support, or (3) the realization of systematic investigations in primary and secondary schools would increase to 1%, 14%, and 16.4%, respectively, in the each of the populations targeted by these scenarios. Other than the battle against tobacco use, radon screening in public buildings thus currently appears as the most promising screening policy for reducing radon-related lung cancer.

  8. Initial results of the National Colorectal Cancer Screening Program in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poskus, Tomas; Strupas, Kestutis; Mikalauskas, Saulius; Bitinaitė, Dominyka; Kavaliauskas, Augustas; Samalavicius, Narimantas E; Saladzinskas, Zilvinas

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to review the National Colorectal Cancer Screening Program (the Program) in Lithuania according to the criteria set by the European Union. In Lithuania, screening services are provided free of charge to the population. The National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) reimburses the institutions for performing each service; each procedure within the Program has its own administrative code. All the information about the performance of the Program is collected in one institution - the NHIF. The results of the Program were retrieved from the database of NHIF from the start of the Program from 1 July 2009 to 1 July 2012. Descriptive analysis of epidemiological indicators was carried out. Results were compared with the references in the guidelines of the European Union for quality assurance in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and diagnosis. Information service [which involves fecal immunochemical test (FIT)] was provided to 271,396 of 890,309 50-74-year-old residents. The screening uptake was 46.0% over 3 years. During this period, 19,455 (7.2%) FITs were positive and 251,941 (92.8%) FITs were negative. Referral for colonoscopy was performed in 10,190 (52.4%) patients. Colonoscopy was performed in 12,864 (66.1%) patients. Colonoscopy did not indicate any pathological findings in 8613 (67.0%) patients. Biopsies were performed in 4251 (33.0%) patients. The rate of high-grade neoplasia reported by pathologists was 3.9%; the rate of cancer was 3.1% of all colonoscopies. The rate of CRC detected by the Program was 0.2%. The CRC screening program in Lithuania meets most of the requirements for standardized CRC screening programs. The invitation coverage and rate of referral for colonoscopy after positive FIT should be improved.

  9. Interval breast cancers: Absolute and proportional incidence and blinded review in a community mammographic screening program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonaro, Luca A., E-mail: luca.carbonaro@gmail.com [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Azzarone, Antonio [Servizio di Radiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Circolo di Melegnano, Via Pandina 1, Vizzolo Predabissi (Mi) 20070 (Italy); Paskeh, Bijan Babaei [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Brambilla, Giorgio [Dipartimento di Radiologia, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via Manzoni 56, Rozzano (Mi) 20089 (Italy); Brunelli, Silvia [Centro di Prevenzione Senologica, ULSS 20, Piazza Lambranzi, Verona 37034 (Italy); Calori, Anna [Servizio di Radiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Circolo di Melegnano, Via Pandina 1, Vizzolo Predabissi (Mi) 20070 (Italy); Caumo, Francesca [Centro di Prevenzione Senologica, ULSS 20, Piazza Lambranzi, Verona 37034 (Italy); Malerba, Paolo [Dipartimento di Radiologia, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via Manzoni 56, Rozzano (Mi) 20089 (Italy); Menicagli, Laura [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Sconfienza, Luca M. [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Vadalà, Giuseppe [Servizio di Radiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Circolo di Melegnano, Via Pandina 1, Vizzolo Predabissi (Mi) 20070 (Italy); Brambilla, Gelma; Fantini, Luigi [Servizio di Medicina Preventiva delle Comunità, ASL Milano 2, Via Friuli 2, Lacchiarella (Mi) 20084 (Italy); Ciatto, Stefano [Screening Program, ULSS 16, Padova (Italy); and others

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the first years since the beginning of a mammographic population-based screening program. Materials and methods: Women aged 49–69 were invited biennially for two-view film-screen mammography and double reading without arbitration was performed. Interval cancers (ICs) from 2001 to 2006 were identified using screening archives, local pathology archives, and hospital discharge records. The proportional incidence of IC was determined considering breast cancers expected without screening. Three offsite radiologists experienced in breast cancer screening blindly evaluated mammograms prior to diagnosis, randomly mixed with negative mammograms (1:2 ratio). Cases unrecalled at review were considered as true ICs, those recalled by only one reviewer as minimal signs, and those recalled by two or three reviewers as missed cancers. T and N stage of the reviewed ICs were evaluated and compared. Results: A total of 86,276 first level mammograms were performed. Mean recall rate was 6.8% at first and 4.6% at repeat screening. We had 476 screen-detected cancers and 145 ICs (10 of them ductal carcinomas in situ). Absolute incidence was 17 per 10,000 screening examinations. Invasive proportional incidence was 19% (44/234) in the first year, 39% (91/234) in the second year, and 29% (135/468) in the two-year interval. Of 145 ICs, 130 (90%) were reviewed mixed with 287 negative controls: 55% (71/130) resulted to be true ICs, 24% (31/130) minimal signs, and 22% (28/130) missed cancers. The rate of ICs diagnosed in the first year interval was 21% (15/71) for true ICs, 46% (13/28) for missed cancers, and 39% (12/31) for minimal signs, with a significant difference of true ICs rate compared to missed cancers rate (p = 0.012). A higher rate of T3 and T4 stages was found for missed cancers (18%, 5/28) compared to minimal signs (6%, 2/31) or true ICs (8%, 6/71), while the rate of N2 and N3 stage for both minimal signs (19%, 6/31) or missed cancers (25

  10. Assessment of required resources for implementation of national breast cancer screening program in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Nemanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. High values of standardized mortality and morbidity rates of standardized cancer mortality in Serbia, especially colorectal, cervical and breast cancer led to creation of national programs for their early detection and engagement of the international support for their implementation. Objective. Assessment of required resources (time, personnel, financial to implement the National program for screening of breast cancer in the Republic of Serbia. Methods. Three possible scenarios have been prepared (optimistic, realistic and pessimistic based on the expected coverage by screening of women aged 45 to 69 years, and time, personnel and financial feasibility estimates were made for a two-year screening cycle. Results. Time aspect of feasibility even under conditions of “relaxation” of the assumption on the number of working days during the year did not question feasibility of any of the scenarios. Personnel feasibility is only possible in the pessimistic scenario, while the financial feasibility only makes sense in optimistic scenario as the least unfavorable solution due to economies of scale. Conclusion. Establishment of the initial base of skilled radiologists and radiology technicians and the system for their continuous medical education as well as allocation of specific MoH budget line for screening program expenditures, along with donated mammographs and good organization and coordination, may provide unobstructed implementation of the National program for early detection of breast cancer in the Republic of Serbia.

  11. Comparing benefits from many possible computed tomography lung cancer screening programs: extrapolating from the National Lung Screening Trial using comparative modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela M McMahon

    Full Text Available The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST demonstrated that in current and former smokers aged 55 to 74 years, with at least 30 pack-years of cigarette smoking history and who had quit smoking no more than 15 years ago, 3 annual computed tomography (CT screens reduced lung cancer-specific mortality by 20% relative to 3 annual chest X-ray screens. We compared the benefits achievable with 576 lung cancer screening programs that varied CT screen number and frequency, ages of screening, and eligibility based on smoking.We used five independent microsimulation models with lung cancer natural history parameters previously calibrated to the NLST to simulate life histories of the US cohort born in 1950 under all 576 programs. 'Efficient' (within model programs prevented the greatest number of lung cancer deaths, compared to no screening, for a given number of CT screens. Among 120 'consensus efficient' (identified as efficient across models programs, the average starting age was 55 years, the stopping age was 80 or 85 years, the average minimum pack-years was 27, and the maximum years since quitting was 20. Among consensus efficient programs, 11% to 40% of the cohort was screened, and 153 to 846 lung cancer deaths were averted per 100,000 people. In all models, annual screening based on age and smoking eligibility in NLST was not efficient; continuing screening to age 80 or 85 years was more efficient.Consensus results from five models identified a set of efficient screening programs that include annual CT lung cancer screening using criteria like NLST eligibility but extended to older ages. Guidelines for screening should also consider harms of screening and individual patient characteristics.

  12. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastric Cancer Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... from the . There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach cancer. Several types of screening tests have been ...

  13. Cost of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program at the Mexican Social Security Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Granados-García

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the annual cost of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS. Materials and methods. This cost analysis examined regional coverage rates reported by IMSS. We estimated the number of cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and pathology evaluations, as well as the diagnostic test and treatment costs for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II and III (CIN 2/3 and cervical cancer. Diagnostic test costs were estimated using a micro-costing technique. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Results. The cost to perform 2.7 million cytology tests was nearly 38 million dollars, which represents 26.1% of the total program cost (145.4 million. False negatives account for nearly 43% of the program costs. Conclusion. The low sensitivity of the cytology test generates high rates of false negatives, which results in high institutional costs from the treatment of undetected cervical cancer cases.

  14. High resolution colonoscopy in a bowel cancer screening program improves polyp detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R Banks; Kalpesh Basherdas; Manuel Rodriguez-Justo; Laurence B Lovat; Rehan Haidry; M Adil Butt; Lisa Whitley; Judith Stein; Louise Langmead; Stuart L Bloom; Austin O'Bichere; Sara McCartney

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To compare high resolution colonoscopy (Olympus Lucera) with a megapixel high resolution system (Pentax HiLine) as an in-service evaluation.METHODS:Polyp detection rates and measures of performance were collected for 269 colonoscopy procedures.Five colonoscopists conducted the study over a three month period,as part of the United Kingdom bowel cancer screening program.ration (X2 P = 0.98),caecal intubation rates (X2 P = 0.67),or depth of sedation (X2 P = 0.64).Mild discomfort was more common in the Pentax group (X2 P = 0.036).Adenoma detection rate was significantly higher in the Pentax group (X2 test for trend P = 0.01).Most of the extra polyps detected were flat or sessile adenomas.CONCLUSION:Megapixel definition colonoscopes improve adenoma detection without compromising other measures of endoscope performance.Increased polyp detection rates may improve future outcomes in bowel cancer screening programs.

  15. Adherence to the cervical cancer screening program in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). International HIV guidelines suggest cervical screening twice the first year after HIV diagnosis and thereafter annually. Adherence to the HIV cervical screening program in Denmark is unknown. METHODS...... to guidelines were estimated. Pathology specimens were identified from The Danish Pathology Data Bank. RESULTS: We followed 1143 WLWH and 17,145 controls with no prior history of ICC for 9,509 and 157,362 person-years. The first year after HIV diagnosis 2.6% of WLWH obtained the recommended two cervical......: We studied women from a population-based, nationwide HIV cohort in Denmark and a cohort of age-matched females from the general population. Screening behaviour was assessed from 1999-2010. Adjusted odds ratios (OR's) for screening attendance in the two cohorts and potential predictors of attendance...

  16. Comprehensive evaluation of cervical cancer screening programs: the case of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Murillo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify critical screening program factors for reducing cervical cancer mortality in Colombia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Coverage, quality, and screening follow-up were evaluated in four Colombian states with different mortality rates. A case-control study (invasive cancer and healthy controls evaluating screening history was performed. RESULTS: 3-year cytology coverage was 72.7%, false negative rate 49%, positive cytology follow-up 64.2%. There was no association between screening history and invasive cancer in two states having high cytology coverage but high false negative rates. Two states revealed association between deficient screening history and invasive cancer as well as lower positive-cytology follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced number of visits between screening and treatment is more relevant when low access to health care is present. Improved quality is a priority if access to screening is available. Suitable interventions for specific scenarios and proper appraisal of new technologies are compulsory to improve cervical cancer screening. Comprehensive process-failure audits among invasive cancer cases could improve program evaluation since mortality is a late outcome.OBJETIVO: Identificar factores críticos para reducir la mortalidad por cáncer cervical en Colombia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se evaluó cobertura, calidad y seguimiento del tamizaje en cuatro departamentos con tasas de mortalidad diferenciales. Un estudio de casos (cáncer invasor y controles (sanos evaluó historia de tamizaje. RESULTADOS: Cobertura 72,7%; falsos negativos 49%; acceso a diagnóstico-tratamiento de HSIL 64,2%. La historia de tamizaje no se asoció con cáncer invasor en dos departamentos con elevada cobertura pero elevada proporción de falsos negativos. Dos departamentos con asociación entre historia de tamizaje deficiente y cáncer invasor tuvieron cobertura aceptable pero bajo acceso a diagnóstico-tratamiento. No hubo relación entre mortalidad

  17. Simulation of reduced breast cancer mortality in breast cancer screening programs; Simulacion de la reduccion de mortalidad por cancer de mama en programas de cribado mamografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, L. I.; Forastero, C.; Guirado, D.; Lallena, A. M.

    2011-07-01

    The breast cancer screening programs are an essential tool in the fight against breast cancer. Currently, many questions concerning the setup of these programs are open, namely: age range of women who undergo the same, frequency of mammography, ... The effectiveness of a program should be evaluated in terms of mortality reduction is its systematic implementation in the population. In this sense, we performed Monte Carlo simulations to assess that these reductions.

  18. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  19. Socio-economic inequalities in breast and cervical cancer screening practices in Europe: influence of the type of screening program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Palència; A. Espelt; M. Rodríguez-Sanz; R. Puigpinós; M. Pons-Vigués; M.I. Pasarín; T. Spadea; A.E. Kunst; C. Borrell

    2010-01-01

    Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using individual-level data from the WHO World Health Survey (2002) and data regarding the implementation of cancer screening programmes. The study population consisted of women from 22 European countries, aged 25-69 years for cervical cancer screening (

  20. [Cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer screening program in Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Caleffi, Maira; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer mammographic screening program implemented in Porto Alegre (Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA), Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A Markov model was constructed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of NMPOA compared to current BC diagnosis and care in the Brazilian public health system, in a hypothetical cohort of women aged 40-69 years at risk of developing breast cancer. Model parameters were collected from NMPOA and the national literature. In the NMPOA strategy, effectiveness was modeled taking into account the actual observed screening adherence. Effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in the base case was R$ 13,426 per QALY. This result was not sensitive to variation in the main model parameters in sensitivity analyses. Considering the threshold usually suggested as highly attractive in Brazil, breast cancer screening as performed in NMPOA is cost-effective in cities with high incidence of breast cancer.

  1. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J; Jakobsen, Karen V; Christensen, Ib J

    2011-01-01

    into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among......Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... colono- and sigmoidoscopy, CT- and MR-colonography, capsule endoscopy, DNA and occult blood in feces, and so on. The pros and cons of the various tests, including economic issues, are debated. Although a plethora of evaluated and validated tests even with high specificities and reasonable sensitivities...

  2. Automatic Glass-Slide Capturing System for Cervical Cancer Pre-Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor R.M. Noor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical glass-slide capturing system is becoming an important part of telemedicine, medical database and diagnostic system that involves of microscope and image acquisition device which is digital camera. One of the areas of interest is slide capturing system for cervical cancer pre-screening program. An automated microscope with FireWire digital camera will be used to acquire the image and store in digital lossless format. The capturing procedure involves of 100X and 400 X magnifications that are necessary for further diagnosis actions. The system that comes with software and hardware parts also provides image retrieval or displaying facilities for ease of user who are pathologist and cytologist to perform the screening program.

  3. First breast cancer mammography screening program in Mexico: initial results 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cuevas, Sergio; Guisa-Hohenstein, Fernando; Labastida-Almendaro, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant neoplasia worldwide. In emergent countries as Mexico, an increase has been shown in frequency and mortality, unfortunately, most cases in advanced loco-regional stages developed in young women. The success of breast screening in mortality reduction has been observed since 1995 in Western Europe and the United States, where as many as 40% mortality reduction has been achieved. Most countries guidelines recommends an annual or biannual mammography for all women >40 years of age. In 2005, FUCAM, a nonlucrative civil foundation in Mexico join with Mexico City government, initiated the first voluntary mammography screening program for women >40 years of age residing in Mexico City's Federal District. Mammographies were carried out with analogical mammographs in specially designed mobile units and were performed in the area of women's domiciles. This report includes data from the first 96,828 mammographies performed between March 2005 and December 2006. There were 1% of mammographies in Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System 0, 4, or 5 and 208 out of 949 women with abnormal mammographies (27.7%) had breast cancer, a rate of 2.1 per thousand, most of them in situ or stage I (29.4%) or stage II (42.2%) nevertheless 21% of those women with abnormal mammography did not present for further clinical and radiologic evaluation despite being personally notified at their home addresses. The breast cancer rate of Mexican women submitted to screening mammography is lower than in European or North American women. Family history of breast cancer, nulliparity, absence of breast feeding, and increasing age are factors that increase the risk of breast cancer. Most cancers were diagnosed in women's age below 60 years (68.5%) with a mean age of 53.55 corroborating previous data published. It is mandatory to sensitize and educate our population with regard to accepting to visit the Specialized Breast Centers.

  4. Establishing and Sustaining a Prospective Screening Program for Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema at the Massachusetts General Hospital: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Brunelle

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing call to prospectively screen patients with breast cancer for the development of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL following their breast cancer treatment. While the components of a prospective screening program have been published, some centers struggle with how to initiate, establish, and sustain a screening program of their own. The intent of this manuscript is to share our experience and struggles in establishing a prospective surveillance program within the infrastructure of our institution. It is our hope that by sharing our history other centers can learn from our mistakes and successes to better design their own prospective screening program to best serve their patient population.

  5. Considerations on the Oral Cancer Screening Program from a Scientific, Technological, and Social Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diosky Ferrer Vilches

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer rates have been increasing. There are several ongoing studies on this subject that specifically focus on the risk factors for this type of cancer. Addressing this problem holistically will allow analyzing this phenomenon using various approaches. For such reasons, we conducted a review of research papers published in electronic journals in SciELO and PubMed databases in order to demonstrate the contribution of the Oral Cancer Screening Program to Cuban public health and its interrelation with science, technology, and society. The assumed starting point allows stating that the science, technology and society approach is not only a field of study concerned with the complex interrelationships between science, technology, and the societies in which they develop. In addition, this approach is related to all social areas. Therefore, it is not just a matter of thought or study; it is, above all, a practical-existential problem.

  6. Adapting the Australian system: is an organized screening program feasible in Malaysia?--an overview of cervical cancer screening in both countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Rima Ma; Dahlui, Maznah; Mohamed, Majdah; Gertig, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common form of cancer that strikes Malaysian women. The National Cancer Registry in 2006 and 2007 reported that the age standardized incidence (ASR) of cervical cancer was 12.2 and 7.8 per 100,000 women, respectively. The cumulative risk of developing cervical cancer for a Malaysian woman is 0.9 for 74 years. Among all ethnic groups, the Chinese experienced the highest incidence rate in 2006, followed by Indians and Malays. The percentage cervical cancer detected at stage I and II was 55% (stage I: 21.0%, stage II: 34.0%, stage III: 26.0% and stage IV: 19.0%). Data from Ministry of Health Malaysia (2006) showed a 58.9% estimated coverage of pap smear screening conducted among those aged 30-49 years. Only a small percentage of women aged 50-59 and 50-65 years old were screened, 14% and 13.8% coverage, respectively. Incidence of cervical cancer was highest (71.6%) among those in the 60-65 age group (MOH, 2003). Currently, there is no organized population-based screening program available for the whole of Malaysia. A pilot project was initiated in 2006, to move from opportunistic cervical screening of women who attend antenatal and postnatal visits to a population based approach to be able to monitor the women through the screening pathway and encourage women at highest risk to be screened. The project was modelled on the screening program in Australia with some modifications to suit the Malaysian setting. Substantial challenges have been identified, particularly in relation to information systems for call and recall of women, as well as laboratory reporting and quality assurance. A cost-effective locally-specific approach to organized screening, that will provide the infrastructure for increasing participation in the cervical cancer screening program, is urgently required.

  7. Colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Randall W; Cannon, Jamie A; David, Donald S; Early, Dayna S; Ford, James M; Giardiello, Francis M; Halverson, Amy L; Hamilton, Stanley R; Hampel, Heather; Ismail, Mohammad K; Jasperson, Kory; Klapman, Jason B; Lazenby, Audrey J; Lynch, Patrick M; Mayer, Robert J; Ness, Reid M; Provenzale, Dawn; Rao, M Sambasiva; Shike, Moshe; Steinbach, Gideon; Terdiman, Jonathan P; Weinberg, David; Dwyer, Mary; Freedman-Cass, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Mortality from colorectal cancer can be reduced by early diagnosis and by cancer prevention through polypectomy. These NCCN Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening describe various colorectal screening modalities and recommended screening schedules for patients at average or increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. In addition, the guidelines provide recommendations for the management of patients with high-risk colorectal cancer syndromes, including Lynch syndrome. Screening approaches for Lynch syndrome are also described.

  8. Readiness of primary care clinicians to implement lung cancer screening programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Volk

    2015-01-01

    Practical needs related to identifying eligible patients, referral to screening centers, and tools for shared decision-making must be addressed before lung cancer screening can be implemented on a national scale.

  9. Superior performance of liquid-based versus conventional cytology in a population-based cervical cancer screening program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerman, H.; van Dorst, E. B. L.; Kuenen-Boumeester, V.; Hogendoorn, P. C. W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Liquid-based cytology may offer improvements over conventional cytology for cervical cancer screening. The two cytology techniques were compared in a group of 86,469 women who participated in a population-based screening program. Using a nation-wide pathology database containing both cerv

  10. Screening for Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Ovarian Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Ovarian Cancer . This recommendation is for ...

  11. Recommendations for cervical cancer screening programs in developing countries: the need for equity and technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazcano-Ponce Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The cervical cancer screening programs (CCSP have not been very efficient in the developing countries. This explains the need to foster changes on policies, standards, quality control mechanisms, evaluation and integration of new screening alternatives considered as low and high cost, as well as to regulate colposcopy practices and the foundation of HPV laboratories. Cervical cancer (CC is a disease most frequently found in poverty-stricken communities and reflecting a problem of equity at both levels gender and regional, and this, is not only due to social and economic development inequalities, but to the infrastructure and human resources necessary for primary care. For this reason, the CCSP program must be restructured, a to primarily address unprivileged rural and urban areas; b to foster actions aimed at ensuring extensive coverage as well as a similar quality of that coverage in every region; c to use screening strategies in keeping with the availability of health care services. In countries with a great regional heterogeneity, a variety of screening procedures must be regulated and standardized, including a combination of assisted visual inspection, cervical cytology and HPV detection; d regional community intervention must be set up to assess the effectiveness of using HPV detection as an strategy in addition to cervical cytology (pap smear; e the practice of colposcopy must be regulated to prevent the use of it in healthy women at a population level, thus preventing unnecessary diagnosis and treatment which not only are expensive but also causes unnecessary anxiety to women at risk; f the operation of those clinical laboratories using HPV as a detection strategy must likewise be accredited and regulated and g the CCSP program for assuring health care quality should meet the expectations of its beneficiaries, and increase the knowledge in cervical cancer related matters. Finally, though a variety of clinical tests on prophylactic and

  12. Results of National Colorectal Cancer Screening Program in Croatia (2007-2011)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miroslava Kati(c)i(c); Nata(s)a Antoljak; Milan Kujund(z)i(c); Valerija Stameni(c); Dunja Skoko Poljak; Danica Kramari(c); Davor (S)timac

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To study the epidemiologic indicators of uptake and characteristic colonoscopic findings in the Croatian National Colorectal Cancer Screening Program.METHODS:Colorectal cancer (CRC) was the second leading cause of cancer mortality in men (n =1063,49.77/100 000),as well as women (n =803,34.89/100 000) in Croatia in 2009.The Croatian National CRC Screening Program was established by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare,and its implementation started in September,2007.The coordinators were recruited in each county institute of public health with an obligation to provide fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) to the participants,followed by colonoscopy in all positive cases.The FOBT was performed by hypersensitive guaiac-based Hemognost card test (Biognost,Zagreb).The test and short questionnaire were delivered to the home addresses of all citizens aged 50-74years consecutively during a 3-year period.Each participant was required to complete the questionnaire and send it together with the stool specimen on three test cards back to the institute for further analysis.About 4% FOBT positive cases are expected in normal risk populations.A descriptive analysis was performed.RESULTS:A total of 1 056 694 individuals (born between 1933-1945 and 1952-1957) were invited to screening by the end of September 2011.In total,210 239 (19.9%) persons returned the envelope with a completed questionnaire,and 181 102 of them returned it with a correctly placed stool specimen on FOBT cards.Until now,12 477 (6.9%),FOBT-positive patients have been found,which is at the upper limit of the expected values in European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in CRC Screening and Diagnosis [European Union (EU) Guidelines].Colonoscopy was performed in 8541 cases (uptake 66%).Screening has identified CRC in 472 patients (5.5% of colonoscopied,3.8% of FOBT-positive,and 0.26% of all screened individuals).This is also in the expected range according to EU Guidelines.Polyps were found and

  13. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  14. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  15. Radiation risks in lung cancer screening programs: a comparison with nuclear industry workers and atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCunney, Robert J; Li, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that screening with low-dose CT (LDCT) scan reduced lung cancer and overall mortality by 20% and 7%, respectively. The LDCT scanning involves an approximate 2-mSv dose, whereas full-chest CT scanning, the major diagnostic study used to follow up nodules, may involve a dose of 8 mSv. Radiation associated with CT scanning and other diagnostic studies to follow up nodules may present an independent risk of lung cancer. On the basis of the NLST, we estimated the incidence and prevalence of nodules detected in screening programs. We followed the Fleischner guidelines for follow-up of nodules to assess cumulative radiation exposure over 20- and 30-year periods. We then evaluated nuclear worker cohort studies and atomic bomb survivor studies to assess the risk of lung cancer from radiation associated with long-term lung cancer screening programs. The findings indicate that a 55-year-old lung screening participant may experience a cumulative radiation exposure of up to 280 mSv over a 20-year period and 420 mSv over 30 years. These exposures exceed those of nuclear workers and atomic bomb survivors. This assessment suggests that long-term (20-30 years) LDCT screening programs are associated with nontrivial cumulative radiation doses. Current lung cancer screening protocols, if conducted over 20- to 30-year periods, can independently increase the risk of lung cancer beyond cigarette smoking as a result of cumulative radiation exposure. Radiation exposures from LDCT screening and follow-up diagnostic procedures exceed lifetime radiation exposures among nuclear power workers and atomic bomb survivors.

  16. Academic hospital staff compliance with a fecal immunochemical test-based colorectal cancer screening program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgia Vlachonikolou; Paraskevas Gkolfakis; Athanasios D Sioulas; Ioannis S Papanikolaou; Anastasia Melissaratou; Giannis-Aimant Moustafa; Eleni Xanthopoulou; Gerasimos Tsilimidos; Ioanna Tsironi; Paraskevas Filippidis; Chrysoula Malli; George D Dimitriadis; Konstantinos Triantafyllou

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To measure the compliance of an Academic Hospital staff with a colorectal cancer(CRC) screening program using fecal immunochemical test(FIT).METHODS: All employees of "Attikon" University General Hospital aged over 50 years were thoroughly informed by a team of physicians and medical students about the study aims and they were invited to undergo CRC screening using two rounds of FIT(DyoniFOB~ Combo H, DyonMed SA, Athens, Greece). The tests were provided for free and subjects tested positive were subsequently referred for colonoscopy. One year after completing the two rounds, participants were asked to be re-screened by means of the same test.RESULTS: Among our target population consisted of 211 employees, 59(27.9%) consented to participate, but only 41(19.4%) and 24(11.4%) completed the first and the second FIT round, respectively. Female gender was significantly associated with higher initial participation(P = 0.005) and test completion- first and second round-(P = 0.004 and P = 0.05) rates, respectively. Phy sician’s(13.5% vs 70.2%, P < 0.0001) participation and test completion rates(7.5% vs 57.6%, P < 0.0001 for the first and 2.3% vs 34%, P < 0.0001 for the second round) were significantly lower compared to those of the administrative/technical staff. Similarly, nurses participated(25.8% vs 70.2%, P = 0.0002) and completed the first test round(19.3% vs 57.6%, P = 0.004) in a significant lower rate than the administrative/technical staff. One test proved false positive. No participant repeated the test one year later.CONCLUSION: Despite the well-organized, guided and supervised provision of the service, the compliance of the Academic Hospital personnel with a FIT-based CRC screening program was suboptimal, especially among physicians.

  17. Breast cancer risk after diagnosis by screening mammography of nonproliferative or proliferative benign breast disease: a study from a population-based screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Xavier; Domingo, Laia; Corominas, Josep María; Torá-Rocamora, Isabel; Quintana, María Jesús; Baré, Marisa; Vidal, Carmen; Natal, Carmen; Sánchez, Mar; Saladié, Francina; Ferrer, Joana; Vernet, Mar; Servitja, Sonia; Rodríguez-Arana, Ana; Roman, Marta; Espinàs, Josep Alfons; Sala, María

    2015-01-01

    Benign breast disease increases the risk of breast cancer. This association has scarcely been evaluated in the context of breast cancer screening programs although it is a prevalent finding in mammography screening. We assessed the association of distinct categories of benign breast disease and subsequent risk of breast cancer, as well as the influence of a family history of breast cancer. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 545,171 women aged 50-69 years biennially screened for breast cancer in Spain. The median of follow-up was 6.1 years. The age-adjusted rate ratio (RR) of breast cancer for women with benign breast disease, histologically classified into nonproliferative and proliferative disease with and without atypia, compared with women without benign breast disease was estimated by Poisson regression analysis. A stratified analysis by family history of breast cancer was performed in a subsample. All tests were two-sided. The age-adjusted RR of breast cancer after diagnosis of benign breast disease was 2.51 (95 % CI: 2.14-2.93) compared with women without benign breast disease. The risk was higher in women with proliferative disease with atypia (RR = 4.56, 95 % CI: 2.06-10.07) followed by those with proliferative disease without atypia (RR = 3.58; 95 % CI = 2.61-4.91). Women with nonproliferative disease and without a family history of breast cancer remained also at increased risk of cancer (OR = 2.23, 95 % CI: 1.86-2.68). An increased risk of breast cancer was observed among screening participants with proliferative or nonproliferative benign breast disease, regardless of a family history of breast cancer. This information may be useful to explore risk-based screening strategies.

  18. Adjuvant therapy, not mammographic screening, accounts for most of the observed breast cancer specific mortality reductions in Australian women since the national screening program began in 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Robert C; Bell, Robin J; Thiagarajah, Geetha; Stevenson, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    There has been a 28% reduction in age-standardised breast cancer mortality in Australia since 1991 when the free national mammographic program (BreastScreen) began. Therefore, a comparative study between BreastScreen participation and breast cancer age specific mortality trends in Australia was undertaken for two time periods between 1991 and 2007, where women aged 50-59 and 60-69 years, who were invited to screen, were compared to women aged 40-49 and 70-79 years who were not invited, but who did have access to the program. There were mortality reductions in all four age groups between 1991-1992 and 2007, resulting in 5,849 (95% CI 4,979 to 6,718) fewer women dying of breast cancer than would have otherwise been the case. Women aged 40-49 years, who had the lowest BreastScreen participation (approximately 20%), had the largest mortality reduction: 44% (95% CI 34.8-51.2). Women aged 60-69 years, who had the highest BreastScreen participation (approximately 60%), had the smallest mortality reduction: 19% (95% CI 10.5-26.9). As BreastScreen participation by invited women aged 50-69 years only reached a maximum of about 55-60% in 1998-1999, a decline in mortality in Australian women cannot be attributed to BreastScreen prior to this time. Thus, almost 60% of the Australian decline in breast cancer mortality since 1991 cannot be attributed to BreastScreen. Therefore, mammographic screening cannot account for most of the reductions in breast cancer mortality that have occurred in Australian women since 1991 and may have contributed to over-diagnosis. Most, if not all, of the reductions can be attributed to the adjuvant hormonal and chemotherapy, which Australian women have increasingly received since 1986.

  19. Costs of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-04

    A health economist talks about studies on figuring out the costs of running a colorectal cancer screening program, and how this can lead to better screening.  Created: 4/4/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/4/2017.

  20. The impact of the Polish mass breast cancer screening program on prognosis in the Pomeranian Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokowski, Jarosław; Bartoszek, Krzystof; Kosowska, Anna; Kalinowski, Leszek; Jaśkiewicz, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mammographic screening results in diagnosis of less advanced breast cancer (BC). A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials confirmed that BC screening reduces mortality. In 2007, the National Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) was established in Poland with the crucial aim of reducing mortality from BC. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of participation in the NBCSP on prognosis. Material and methods A single institution, non-randomized retrospective study was undertaken. The study population comprised 643 patients with BC treated in the Department of Surgical Oncology (DSO) at the Medical University of Gdansk over a 4-year period, from 01.01.2007 until 31.12.2010. Patients were divided into two groups: group A – patients who participated in the NBCSP (n = 238, 37.0%); and group B – patients who did not participate in the NBCSP (n = 405, 63.0%). Results Statistical analysis revealed that group A displayed a less advanced AJCC stage (more patients in AJCC stage I, p = 0.002), lower tumor diameter (more patients with pT1, p = 0.006, and pT pNO, p = 0.01). From 2009 to 2010 the NBCSP revealed a statistically significant benefit – significantly more patients in stage 0 + I (60.7% vs. 48.8%, p = 0.018) and with tumors pT < 15 mm (48.8% vs. 35.1%, p = 0.011) were observed in group A. Conclusions The study results revealed the beneficial impact of the NBCSP. Superior prognostic factors and favorable staging were observed in women who participated in the NBCSP. PMID:28261300

  1. Principles of successful cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R A

    1999-10-01

    Screening for cancer is the application of various tests to apparently healthy individuals in order to identify who among them has occult disease, which may be either invasive disease or a precursor lesion. For any given cancer site, the potential of screening to reduce morbidity and mortality is based on well-defined criteria for the evaluation of screening effectiveness and on acceptable performance to be realized in the average community setting. Screening programs are most successful when they are organized into a system that leads to high rates of participation, high quality, and constant surveillance and evaluation. If the elements that contribute to a successful screening program are not well organized and integrated, then the fullest potential of screening will not be realized.

  2. [Colorectal cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Antoni

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of malignancies showing the greatest benefit from preventive measures, especially screening or secondary prevention. Several screening strategies are available with demonstrated efficacy and efficiency. The most widely used are the faecal occult blood test in countries with population-based screening programmes, and colonoscopy in those conducting opportunistic screening. The present article reviews the most important presentations on colorectal cancer screening at the annual congress of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Washington in 2015, with special emphasis on the medium-term results of faecal occult blood testing strategies and determining factors and on strategies to reduce the development of interval cancer after colonoscopy.

  3. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk for HPV infections. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: Giving birth to many children. Smoking cigarettes. Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill"). Having a weakened immune system . Cervical Cancer Screening ...

  4. Use of risk projection models to estimate mortality and incidence from radiation-induced breast cancer in screening programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, M [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Ferrer, S [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Villaescusa, J I [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Avda Campanar, 21 46009 Valencia (Spain); Verdu, G [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Salas, M D [Public Health General Direction, Conselleria de Sanitat de Valencia, C/Micer Masco, 31 46021 Valencia (Spain); Cuevas, M D [Assistential Service General Direction, Conselleria de Sanitat de Valencia, C/Micer Masco, 31 46021 Valencia (Spain)

    2005-02-07

    The authors report on a method to calculate radiological risks, applicable to breast screening programs and other controlled medical exposures to ionizing radiation. In particular, it has been applied to make a risk assessment in the Valencian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (VBCEDP) in Spain. This method is based on a parametric approach, through Markov processes, of hazard functions for radio-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality, with mean glandular breast dose, attained age and age-at-exposure as covariates. Excess relative risk functions of breast cancer mortality have been obtained from two different case-control studies exposed to ionizing radiation, with different follow-up time: the Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study (1950-1987) and the Life Span Study (1950-1985 and 1950-1990), whereas relative risk functions for incidence have been obtained from the Life Span Study (1958-1993), the Massachusetts tuberculosis cohorts (1926-1985 and 1970-1985), the New York post-partum mastitis patients (1930-1981) and the Swedish benign breast disease cohort (1958-1987). Relative risks from these cohorts have been transported to the target population undergoing screening in the Valencian Community, a region in Spain with about four and a half million inhabitants. The SCREENRISK software has been developed to estimate radiological detriments in breast screening. Some hypotheses corresponding to different screening conditions have been considered in order to estimate the total risk associated with a woman who takes part in all screening rounds. In the case of the VBCEDP, the total radio-induced risk probability for fatal breast cancer is in a range between [5 x 10{sup -6}, 6 x 10{sup -4}] versus the natural rate of dying from breast cancer in the Valencian Community which is 9.2 x 10{sup -3}. The results show that these indicators could be included in quality control tests and could be adequate for making comparisons between several screening programs.

  5. Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors among African American women: the Black cosmetologists promoting health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weldon Rai-nesha

    2007-04-01

    demonstrated a lack of basic knowledge about breast cancer. The Health Belief Model postulates that access to such information is an essential element in the progression toward engaging in screening behaviors. Conclusion Data from this study reflect a continuing need for increased breast cancer education for African American women. In light of the considerable mainstream information available related to breast cancer, these data reinforce the need for more breast cancer education programs that are clearly intended to attract the attention of African American women.

  6. A Peer Health Educator Program for Breast Cancer Screening Promotion: Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese Immigrant Women's Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Joanne; Frisina, Angela; Hack, Tricia; Parascandalo, Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study explored Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese immigrant women's experiences with a peer health educator program, a public health program that facilitated access to breast health information and mammography screening. Framed within critical social theory, this participatory action research project took place from July 2009 to January 2011. Ten focus groups and 14 individual interviews were conducted with 82 immigrant women 40 years of age and older. Qualitative methods were utilized. Thematic content analysis derived from grounded theory and other qualitative literature was employed to analyze data. Four dominant themes emerged: Breast Cancer Prevention focused on learning within the program, Social Support provided by the peer health educator and other women, Screening Services Access for Women centered on service provision, and Program Enhancements related to specific modifications required to meet the needs of immigrant women accessing the program. The findings provide insights into strategies used to promote breast health, mammography screening, and the improvement of public health programming. Perceived barriers that continue to persist are structural barriers, such as the provision of information on breast cancer and screening by family physicians. A future goal is to improve collaborations between public health and primary care to minimize this barrier.

  7. [Screening for breast cancer on basis of individual risk assessment for women ineligible for the national population screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asperen, C J; de Bock, G H; van der Horst, F; de Koning, H J; Rutgers, E J

    2001-01-20

    For healthy women, without malignancies in their personal histories, a positive family history for breast cancer is the single indication for individual breast surveillance outside the population screening. Management of women is based on individual risk assessment. A cumulative risk of 20% and more, as a result of a positive family history, will in practice be an indication for breast surveillance. This threshold is not evidence-based yet, nor are data available on the benefits of this surveillance efficacy. When a personal cumulative risk of more than 30% exists to develop breast cancer, a consultation with a clinical geneticist involved in a family cancer clinic should be offered. Surveillance of women with a high-risk cumulative risk should preferably be included in a prospective study design. Only in this way will data about compliance and the estimates of different ways of surveillance become available. There is no convincing evidence that population screening for women aged 40-49 years does lead to important mortality reduction in combination with a good balance between pros and cons for the women involved. Women in the age category 50-75 years, with breast cancer in their personal histories, who are not followed anymore, should be informed by their specialist about participating (again) in the population breast screening. There is no evidence of mortality reduction as a result of breast self-examination nor of palpation performed by a physician. However, awareness of the own body can be useful for early recognition of breast abnormalities; it may reduce the delay between the first recognizable symptom and the subsequently initiated therapy.

  8. Quality Assessment of Colonoscopy Reporting: Results from a Statewide Cancer Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to assess quality of colonoscopy reports and determine if physicians in practice were already documenting recommended quality indicators, prior to the publication of a standardized Colonoscopy Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS in 2007. We examined 110 colonoscopy reports from 2005-2006 through Maryland Colorectal Cancer Screening Program. We evaluated 25 key data elements recommended by CO-RADS, including procedure indications, risk/comorbidity assessments, procedure technical descriptions, colonoscopy findings, specimen retrieval/pathology. Among 110 reports, 73% documented the bowel preparation quality and 82% documented specific cecal landmarks. For the 177 individual polyps identified, information on size and morphology was documented for 87% and 53%, respectively. Colonoscopy reporting varied considerately in the pre-CO-RADS period. The absence of key data elements may impact the ability to make recommendations for recall intervals. This paper provides baseline data to assess if CO-RADS has an impact on reporting and how best to improve the quality of reporting.

  9. The cervical cancer screening program in Mexico: problems with access and coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Ponce, E C; Nájera-Aguilar, P; Buiatti, E; Alonso-de-Ruiz, P; Kuri, P; Cantoral, L; Hernández-Avila, M

    1997-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in two geographic regions of Mexico - Oaxaca (rural area) and Mexico City (urban area) - to determine the main factors for predicting participation in Cervical Cytology Screening Programs (CCSP), in populations with high mortality due to cervical cancer. We included 4,208 women aged between 15 and 49 years, randomly selected through a national household-sample frame. Knowledge of what the Pap test is used for strongly predisposes use of CCSP in Mexico City (odds ratio [OR] = 46.1, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 33.1-64.1) and Oaxaca state (OR = 61.5, CI = 42.0-89.9), as well as high socioeconomic level (Mexico: OR = 2.0, CI = 1.1-7.6; Oaxaca: OR = 4.1, CI = 3.1-5.3), high education level (Mexico: OR = 3.6, CI = 1.5-8.8; Oaxaca: OR = 5.3, CI = 2.8-10.0), and access to social security (Mexico: OR = 1.7, CI = 1.4-2.2; Oaxaca: OR = 2.2, CI = 1.8-2.7). Low coverage of the CCSP is confirmed as an important problem in Mexico.

  10. Smoking cessation intervention within the framework of a lung cancer screening program: preliminary results and clinical perspectives from the "Cosmos-II" Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippo, Lococo; Principe, Rosastella; Cesario, Alfredo; Apolone, Giovanni; Carleo, Francesco; Ialongo, Pasquale; Veronesi, Giulia; Cardillo, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Data coming from the literature investigating the effectiveness and interaction between smoking cessation (SC) and lung cancer screening (LCScr) are still sparse and inconsistent. Herein, we report the preliminary results from the ongoing lung cancer screening trial ("Cosmos-II") focusing our analysis on the inter-relationship between the SC program and the LCScr.

  11. Optimizing Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G.S. Meester (Reinier)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractColorectal cancer screening is a leading cause of cancer deaths. Screening for colorectal cancer is implemented in an increasing number of settings, but performance of programs is often suboptimal. In this thesis, advanced modeling, informed by empirical data, was used to identify ar

  12. Barriers to cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womeodu, R J; Bailey, J E

    1996-01-01

    Many barriers to cancer screening have been summarized and discussed. Barriers have been documented in all patient populations, but some groups such as ethnic minorities and the elderly face unique barriers. The barriers to cancer screening, are multifactorial, but much of the responsibility for change must lie with health care providers and the health care delivery industry. This is not to free the patient of all responsibility, but some significant barriers are beyond their direct control. Take, for example, socioeconomic status, disease knowledge, and culturally related perceptions and myths about cancer detection and treatment. The health care industry must do a better job identifying and overcoming these barriers. The significant effects of provider counseling and advice must not be underestimated. Patients must first be advised, and then further actions must be taken if they reject the screening advice. Did they refuse adherence to recommendations because they do not view themselves as susceptible, because of overwhelming personal barriers, or because of a fatalistic attitude toward cancer detection and treatment? If that is the case, physicians and health care institutions must attempt to change perceptions, educate, and personalize the message so that patients accept their disease susceptibility [table: see text]. Multiple patient and provider risk factors have been identified that can be used to target patients particularly at high risk for inadequate cancer screening and providers at high risk for performing inadequate screening. Research has clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of interventions to improve tracking of patient and physician compliance with screening recommendations. Further research is needed to show the impact of managed-care penetration and payer status on screening efforts, and incentive schemes need to be tested that reward institutions and third-party payers who develop uniform standards and procedures for cancer screening. The

  13. Advances in breast cancer screening program%乳腺癌筛查研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫淼; 柳光宇; 吕力琅; 徐望红

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women around the world. Breast cancer screening has been recognized as the primary approach to effectively improve the survival of female breast cancer. The most commonly used methods for breast cancer screening in China and other countries include mammography (MAM), ultrasonography (US), clinical breast examination (CBE) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of these screening techniques and reviewes the economic efficiency in health care of different screening techniques based on these examination approaches to provide some evidence for developing a breast cancer screening strategy with optimal cost-effectiveness for Chinese women.%乳腺癌是危害全世界女性健康最常见的恶性肿瘤.乳腺癌筛查是公认的能够有效提高女性乳腺癌生存率的主要方法.目前国内外常用的乳腺癌筛查手段包括乳房X线摄影术(钼靶X线摄影)、超声成像、临床乳腺检查和磁共振成像等.本文对这些筛查手段的优缺点进行了比较,并对基于这些手段建立的不同筛查方案在人群中的应用效果和卫生经济学评价进行综述,以期为建立符合中国国情的具有成本-效果的女性乳腺癌筛查策略提供参考和依据.

  14. Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattinger, Ann B; Mitchell, Julie L

    2016-06-07

    This issue provides a clinical overview of breast cancer screening and prevention, focusing on risk assessment, screening, prevention, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  15. Role of Protein Biomarkers in the Detection of High-Grade Disease in Cervical Cancer Screening Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Pap test was introduced in the 1940s, there has been an approximately 70% reduction in the incidence of squamous cell cervical cancers in many developed countries by the application of organized and opportunistic screening programs. The efficacy of the Pap test, however, is hampered by high interobserver variability and high false-negative and false-positive rates. The use of biomarkers has demonstrated the ability to overcome these issues, leading to improved positive predictive value of cervical screening results. In addition, the introduction of HPV primary screening programs will necessitate the use of a follow-up test with high specificity to triage the high number of HPV-positive tests. This paper will focus on protein biomarkers currently available for use in cervical cancer screening, which appear to improve the detection of women at greatest risk for developing cervical cancer, including Ki-67, p16INK4a, BD ProEx C, and Cytoactiv HPV L1.

  16. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screening tests have different risks or harms. Screening tests may cause anxiety when you are thinking about or getting ready ... is cancer when there really isn't) can cause anxiety and is usually followed by more tests (such as biopsy ), which also have risks. The ...

  17. Preventing premature deaths from breast and cervical cancer among underserved women in the United States: insights gained from a national cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary C; Wong, Faye L

    2015-05-01

    This commentary highlights some of the valuable insights gained from a special collection of papers that utilized data from the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) and appear in this special issue. The data and experiences of the NBCCEDP can inform the identification of new opportunities and directions for meeting the cancer screening needs of underserved women in a complex and changing health care environment.

  18. Gender Differences in Elders’ Participation in the National Can-cer Screening Program: Evidence from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Hyun KIM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer-screening programs are effective in reducing cancer prevalence and mortality; however, cancer remains the leading cause of death in elderly people in Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with elders’ participation in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP and differences in screening rates by gender.Methods: Original data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The sample consisted of 5,505 elderly individuals over age 60. Selected demographic variables, cancer screening participation, physical and psychological health status, and lifestyle were examined.Results: The NCSP participation rates decreased in both men and women as age increased. Private medical insurance (OR 95% CI: 1.04–1.78, one or more chronic disease (OR 95% CI: 1.07–1.71, and current smoker (OR 95% CI: 0.52–0.94 had the strongest associations with cancer screening participation among men after multivariate adjustment. In contrast, cancer screening participation among women was significantly associated only with living place (OR 95% CI: 1.06–2.203 after multivariate adjustment.Conclusions: Effective health promoting interventions for elders require individualized programs that address gender-related factors associated with elders’ participation in cancer screening programs.

  19. Visual inspection with acetic acid (via screening program: 7 years experience in early detection of cervical cancer and pre-cancers in rural South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Rani Poli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer continues to be a major public health problem in India in the absence of wide spread organised cervical screening programs. Visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA is an effective, inexpensive screening test that can be combined with simple treatment procedures for early cervical lesions, provided by trained health workers. We report 7 years experience in early detection of cervical cancer and pre-cancers using the VIA test in a community-based program in rural Andhra Pradesh, India where there are no existing organised cervical screening programs. Materials and Methods: Eligible women aged between 26 and 60 were opportunistically screened by trained health wor kers using the VIA test. Women who tested positive were further evaluated and those with cervical lesions were treated either by cryotherapy in the screening clinic or referred to a higher center. Results: A total of 18,869 women were screened by a single round of VIA testing with a positive rate of 10.75%. Biopsy proven high-grade squamous intraepithelials (HSILs were 90 (0.48% and low-grade squamous intraepithelials (LSILs were 43 (0.28%. The overall prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+ lesion rate is 1.05%. A total of 312 (1.65% cryotherapies were done and 49 women underwent hysterectomy. Conclusions: VIA by trained female health workers is a safe, acceptable, and effective test that can save lives from cervical cancer even in remote areas with few resources. These results have important implications for efficient service delivery in cervical screening programs in low-resourced settings.

  20. Colorectal cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramona M McLoughlin; Colm A O'Morain

    2006-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden worldwide.There is clear-cut evidence that screening will reduce colorectal cancer mortality and the only contentious issue is which screening tool to use.Most evidence points towards screening with fecal occult blood testing.The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests have a higher sensitivity than the guaiac-based tests.In addition,their automation and haemoglobin quantification allows a threshold for colonoscopy to be selected that can be accommodated within individual health care systems.

  1. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  2. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  3. Single reading with computer-aided detection performed by selected radiologists in a breast cancer screening program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargalló, Xavier, E-mail: xbarga@clinic.cat [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/ Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Santamaría, Gorane; Amo, Montse del; Arguis, Pedro [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/ Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Ríos, José [Biostatistics and Data Management Core Facility, IDIBAPS, (Hospital Clinic) C/ Mallorca, 183. Floor -1. Office #60. 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Grau, Jaume [Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology Unit, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/ Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Burrel, Marta; Cores, Enrique; Velasco, Martín [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/ Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • 1-The cancer detection rate of the screening program improved using a single reading protocol by experienced radiologists assisted by CAD. • 2-The cancer detection rate improved at the cost of increasing recall rate. • 3-CAD, used by breast radiologists, did not help to detect more cancers. - Abstract: Objectives: To assess the impact of shifting from a standard double reading plus arbitration protocol to a single reading by experienced radiologists assisted by computer-aided detection (CAD) in a breast cancer screening program. Methods: This was a prospective study approved by the ethics committee. Data from 21,321 consecutive screening mammograms in incident rounds (2010–2012) were read following a single reading plus CAD protocol and compared with data from 47,462 consecutive screening mammograms in incident rounds (2004–2010) that were interpreted following a double reading plus arbitration protocol. For the single reading, radiologists were selected on the basis of the appraisement of their previous performance. Results: Period 2010–2012 vs. period 2004–2010: Cancer detection rate (CDR): 6.1‰ (95% confidence interval: 5.1–7.2) vs. 5.25‰; Recall rate (RR): 7.02% (95% confidence interval: 6.7–7.4) vs. 7.24% (selected readers before arbitration) and vs. 3.94 (all readers after arbitration); Predictive positive value of recall: 8.69% vs. 13.32%. Average size of invasive cancers: 14.6 ± 9.5 mm vs. 14.3 ± 9.5 mm. Stage: 0 (22.3/26.1%); I (59.2/50.8%); II (19.2/17.1%); III (3.1/3.3%); IV (0/1.9%). Specialized breast radiologists performed better than general radiologists. Conclusions: The cancer detection rate of the screening program improved using a single reading protocol by experienced radiologists assisted by CAD, at the cost of a moderate increase of the recall rate mainly related to the lack of arbitration.

  4. Colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Frederico Ferreira Novaes de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in the world, and mortality has remained the same for the past 50 years, despite advances in diagnosis and treatment. Because significant numbers of patients present with advanced or incurable stages, patients with pre-malignant lesions (adenomatous polyps that occur as result of genetic inheritance or age should be screened, and patients with long-standing inflammatory bowel disease should undergo surveillance. There are different risk groups for CRC, as well as different screening strategies. It remains to be determined which screening protocol is the most cost-effective for each risk catagory. The objective of screening is to reduce morbidity and mortality in a target population. The purpose of this review is to analyze the results of the published CRC screening studies, with regard to the measured reduction of morbidity and mortality, due to CRC in the studied populations, following various screening procedures. The main screening techniques, used in combination or alone, include fecal occult blood tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy. Evidence from the published literature on screening methods for specific risk groups is scanty and frequently does not arise from controlled studies. Nevertheless, data from these studies, combined with recent advances in molecular genetics, certainly lead the way to greater efficacy and lower cost of CRC screening.

  5. The Peru Cervical Cancer Screening Study (PERCAPS): the design and implementation of a mother/daughter screen, treat, and vaccinate program in the Peruvian jungle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, Carolina E; Levinson, Kimberly L; Salmeron, Jorge; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Fernandez, Maria Jose Vallejos; Belinson, Jerome L

    2014-06-01

    Peru struggles to prevent cervical cancer (CC). In the jungle, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers although technology exists to detect CC precursors. This study used community based participatory research (CBPR) methods to overcome barriers. The objective was to evaluate the utility of CBPR techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for CC prevention in the Peruvian jungle. The CC prevention program used self-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) for screening, cryotherapy for treatment and the HPV vaccine Gardasil for vaccination. Community health leaders (HL) from around Iquitos participated in a two half day educational course. The HLs then decided how to implement interventions in their villages or urban sectors. The success of the program was measured by: (1) ability of the HLs to determine an implementation plan, (2) proper use of research forms, (3) participation and retention rates, and (4) participants' satisfaction. HLs successfully registered 320 women at soup kitchens, schools, and health posts. Screening, treatment, and vaccination were successfully carried out using forms for registration, consent, and results with minimum error. In the screen/treat intervention 100% of participants gave an HPV sample and 99.7% reported high satisfaction; 81% of HPV + women were treated, and 57% returned for 6-month followup. Vaccine intervention: 98% of girls received the 1st vaccine, 88% of those received the 2nd, and 65% the 3rd. CBPR techniques successfully helped implement a screen/treat and vaccinate CC prevention program around Iquitos, Peru. These techniques may be appropriate for large-scale preventive health-care interventions.

  6. Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Barriers of Screening Program among Women in Wufeng County, a High-Incidence Region of Cervical Cancer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yao Jia; Shuang Li; Ru Yang; Hang Zhou; Qunying Xiang; Ting Hu; Qinghua Zhang; Zhilan Chen; Ding Ma; Ling Feng

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cervical cancer screening is an effective method for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, but the screening attendance rate in developing countries is far from satisfactory, especially in rural areas. Wufeng is a region of high cervical cancer incidence in China. This study aimed to investigate the issues that concern cervical cancer and screening and the factors that affect women's willingness to undergo cervical cancer screening in the Wufeng area. PARTICIPANTS ...

  7. Cancer Information Summaries: Screening/Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Screening (PDQ®) patient | health professional Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®) patient | health professional Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®) patient | health professional Testicular ...

  8. An adverse event in a well-established cervical cancer screening program: an observational study of 19,000 females unsubscribed to the program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsen MB

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mette Bach Larsen,1 Hans Svanholm,1,2 Berit Andersen1 1Department of Public Health Programmes, 2Department of Pathology, Randers Regional Hospital, Randers, Denmark Introduction: In Denmark, an organized approach to cervical cancer screening has had national coverage since 1998. However, in 2013, it was discovered that 19,000 females had been unsubscribed from the Danish National Cervical Cancer Screening Program and had thus not received invitations or reminders as recommended by the health authorities. The study aims to report the essence of this adverse event and describe the outcomes of reestablishing invitations in terms of participation rates and screening results. Furthermore, patient compensations to affected females diagnosed with cervical cancer and coverage in the mass media was reported.Methods: An observational study based on information from the Danish Pathology Databank, the Department of Public Health Programs, and Infomedia (a Danish database of media coverage was carried out.Results: A total of 19,106 females were affected. Of those still in the screening age, 37.7% had been tested within 3 years or 5 years despite not receiving any invitation. A total of 21.6% reconfirmed their status as unsubscribed. Of the remaining females, 55.6% were tested within a year, and 94.6% of these test results were normal. Among females aged >64 years, 12.7% accepted the offer of a final screening test. Totally, 90% of these tests were normal. Nineteen females diagnosed with cervical cancer were compensated by the Danish Patient Compensation Association with a total of €693,000, ranging from €8,900 to €239,700. Coverage of cervical cancer screening in the mass media increased from 25 items in the 3 months prior to this adverse event to 590 items in the month when it became public.Conclusion: Even though more than one-third of the affected females were tested despite not receiving regular invitations to participate in the screening

  9. Screening for Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Keita; Takaori, Kyoichi; Traverso, L William

    2015-10-01

    Neither extended surgery nor extended indication for surgery has improved survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. According to autopsy studies, presumably 90% are metastatic. The only cure is complete removal of the tumor at an early stage before it becomes a systemic disease or becomes invasive. Early detection and screening of individuals at risk is currently under way. This article reviews the evidence and methods for screening, either familial or sporadic. Indication for early-stage surgery and precursors are discussed. Surgeons should be familiar with screening because it may provide patients with a chance for cure by surgical resection.

  10. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...... trials underway in Europe and in the USA. Our purpose is to update the readers on recent progress in medical knowledge in this field....

  11. Cervical cancer: screening, diagnosis and staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Zervoudis, Stefanos; Manav, Bachar; Tomara, Eirini; Iatrakis, George; Romanidis, Constantinos; Bothou, Anastasia; Galazios, George

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the widespread screening programs, cervical cancer remains the third most common cancer in developing countries. Based on the implementation of cervical screening programs with the referred adoption of improved screening methods in cervical cytology with the knowledge of the important role of the human papilloma virus (HPV) it's incidence is decreased in the developed world. Even if cervical HPV infection is incredibly common, cervical cancer is relatively rare. Depending on the rarity of invasive disease and the improvement of detection of pre-cancerous lesions due to the participation in screening programs, the goal of screening is to detect the cervical lesions early in order to be treated before cancer is developed. In populations with many preventive screening programs, a decrease in cervical cancer mortality of 50-75% is mentioned over the past 50 years. The preventive examination of vagina and cervix smear, Pap test, and the HPV DNA test are remarkable diagnostic tools according to the American Cancer Association guidelines, in the investigation of asymptomatic women and in the follow up of women after the treatment of pre-invasive cervical cancer. The treatment of cervical cancer is based on the FIGO 2009 cervical cancer staging.

  12. Abolishing mammography screening programs?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Biller-Andorno and Jüni (2014), in a widely debated commentary published in the May 22 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, accept the concept that mammography every 2 years from age 50 can decrease breast cancer mortality by 20%, that is, from five to four deaths per 1000 women over a 10-year period. Both the absolute and the relative risk of breast cancer death may vary depending on the baseline mortality rates in various populations and on the impact of screening mammography in re...

  13. Lung cancer screening: the European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Giulia

    2015-05-01

    European studies have contributed significantly to the understanding of lung cancer screening. Smoking within screening, quality of life, nodule management, minimally invasive treatments, cancer prevention programs, and risk models have been extensively investigated by European groups. Mortality data from European screening studies have not been encouraging so far, but long-term results of the NELSON study are eagerly awaited. Investigations on molecular markers of lung cancer are ongoing in Europe; preliminary results suggest they may become an important screening tool in the future.

  14. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Paola; Villain, Patricia; Suonio, Eero; Almonte, Maribel; Anttila, Ahti; Atkin, Wendy S; Dean, Peter B; de Koning, Harry J; Dillner, Lena; Herrero, Rolando; Kuipers, Ernst J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Minozzi, Silvia; Paci, Eugenio; Regula, Jaroslaw; Törnberg, Sven; Segnan, Nereo

    2015-12-01

    In order to update the previous version of the European Code against Cancer and formulate evidence-based recommendations, a systematic search of the literature was performed according to the methodology agreed by the Code Working Groups. Based on the review, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends: "Take part in organized cancer screening programmes for: Bowel cancer (men and women); Breast cancer (women); Cervical cancer (women)." Organized screening programs are preferable because they provide better conditions to ensure that the Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Screening are followed in order to achieve the greatest benefit with the least harm. Screening is recommended only for those cancers where a demonstrated life-saving effect substantially outweighs the potential harm of examining very large numbers of people who may otherwise never have, or suffer from, these cancers, and when an adequate quality of the screening is achieved. EU citizens are recommended to participate in cancer screening each time an invitation from the national or regional screening program is received and after having read the information materials provided and carefully considered the potential benefits and harms of screening. Screening programs in the European Union vary with respect to the age groups invited and to the interval between invitations, depending on each country's cancer burden, local resources, and the type of screening test used For colorectal cancer, most programs in the EU invite men and women starting at the age of 50-60 years, and from then on every 2 years if the screening test is the guaiac-based fecal occult blood test or fecal immunochemical test, or every 10 years or more if the screening test is flexible sigmoidoscopy or total colonoscopy. Most programs continue sending invitations to screening up to the age of 70-75 years. For breast cancer, most programs in the EU invite women starting at the age of 50 years, and not before the age

  15. Individual and community effectiveness of a cervical cancer screening program for semi-urban Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Muñoz Ledo, Adriana A; Márquez-Serrano, Margarita; Idrovo, Alvaro J; Allen-Leigh, Betania

    2014-06-01

    The effectiveness at the individual and community level of an educational intervention to increase cervical cancer screening self-efficacy among semi-urban Mexican women was evaluated and changes in reported community barriers were measured after the intervention was implemented. The educational intervention was evaluated with a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design and a control group, based on the Integrative Model of Behavior Prediction and AMIGAS project materials. For the intervention group, increased self-efficacy increased requests to obtain a Pap (p system affect the women's perceived ability to get a Pap. Better care for users is needed to increase consistent use of the test. The study shows the importance of using culturally adapted, multilevel, comprehensive interventions to achieve successful results in target populations.

  16. Referring Patients to Nurses: Outcomes and Evaluation of a Nurse Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Training Program for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Dobrow

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is a significant health burden. Several screening options exist that can detect colorectal cancer at an early stage, leading to a more favourable prognosis. However, despite years of knowledge on best practice, screening rates are still very low in Canada, particularly in Ontario. The present paper reports on efforts to increase the flexible sigmoidoscopy screening capacity in Ontario by training nurses to perform this traditionally physician-performed procedure. Drawing on American, British and local experience, a professional regulatory framework was established, and training curriculum and assessment criteria were developed. Training was initiated at Princess Margaret Hospital and Sunnybrook and Women’s College Health Sciences Centre in Toronto, Ontario. (During the study, Sunnybrook and Women’s College Health Sciences Centre was deamalgamated into two separate hospitals: Women’s College Hospital and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. Six registered nurses participated in didactic, simulator and practical training. These nurses performed a total of 77 procedures in patients, 23 of whom had polyps detected and biopsied. Eight patients were advised to undergo colonoscopy because they had one or more neoplastic polyps. To date, six of these eight patients have undergone colonoscopy, one patient has moved out of the province and another patient is awaiting the procedure. Classifying the six patients according to the most advanced polyp histology, one patient had a negative colonoscopy (no polyps found, one patient’s polyps were hyperplastic, one had a tubular adenoma, two had advanced neoplasia (tubulovillous adenomas and one had adenocarcinoma. All these lesions were excised completely at colonoscopy. Overall, many difficulties were anticipated and addressed in the development of the training program; ultimately, the project was affected most directly by challenges in encouraging family physicians to refer patients to

  17. The Effect of Education on the Early Diagnosis of Breast and Cervix Cancer on the Women's Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Participating in Screening Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaöz, Semra; Özçelik, Hanife; Talas, Melek Serpil; Akkaya, Fulya; Özkul, Fatma; Kurtuluş, Ayla; Ünlü, Fahriye

    2017-03-11

    The objective of this paper was to define the effect of education on the early diagnosis of breast and cervix cancer on the women's attitudes and behaviors regarding participating in Cancer Early Diagnosis, Screening and Training Centers-CEDSTC screening programs. This semi-experimental study was completed with 342 women. The data were collected with forms "Champion's Health Belief Model Scale Breast Cancer-HBMSBC" and "Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and the Pap Smear Test-HBMSCCPST." When the women's health beliefs before and after 6 months of the education about the early diagnosis of breast and cervical cancers are considered, it is seen that the HBMSBC subscales health motivation, breast self-examination (BSE), and evasion to mammography (MMG) decreased and BSE self-efficacy and MMG benefit attitudes increased and HBMSCCPST subscales pap smear benefit attitudes increased and evasion to pap smear attitude decreased (p < 0.05). Six months after the education, 28.4% of the women had undergone MMG, 69.9% had performed BSE, and 33.6% had undergone a pap smear test. Education regarding early diagnosis of breast and cervix cancer was found to have positive effects on the health behaviors of the women related to BSE, MMG, and pap smear tests. The women require professional education program for increasing their attitudes and behaviors for CEDSTC screening programs. We suggest regularly providing education to increase participation in early screening programs.

  18. Breast cancer screening: An outpatient clinic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Girgin

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: A multidisciplinary cancer screening program should be maintained. With such a process, the aim is to reduce the morbidity and mortality of the disease without adversely affecting the health conditions of asymptomatic individuals based on the screening. Success is brought about by the combination of individual features. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2017; 6(1.000: 23-27

  19. Towards an Optimal Interval for Prostate Cancer Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Pim J.; Roobol, Monique J.; Kranse, Ries; Zappa, Marco; Carlsson, Sigrid; Bul, Meelan; Zhu, Xiaoye; Bangma, Chris H.; Schroder, Fritz H.; Hugosson, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Background: The rate of decrease in advanced cancers is an estimate for determining prostate cancer (PCa) screening program effectiveness. Objective: Assess the effectiveness of PCa screening programs using a 2- or 4-yr screening interval. Design, setting, and participants: Men aged 55-64 yr were pa

  20. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk for HPV infections. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: Giving birth to many children. Smoking cigarettes. Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill"). Having a weakened immune system . Cervical Cancer Screening ...

  1. Cancer Screening in Older Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, Brooke; Beldowski, Kathryn; de la Paz, Amanda

    2016-04-15

    Although cancer is the second leading cause of death among persons 65 years and older, there is a paucity of clinical trial data about the effectiveness and harms of cancer screening in this population. Given the heterogeneous nature of the older population, cancer screening in these patients should not be based on age alone. Studies suggest that a life expectancy of at least 10 years is necessary to derive a survival benefit from screening for breast and colorectal cancers; therefore, screening for these cancers is not recommended in those with a life expectancy of less than 10 years. Prostate cancer screening, if performed at all, should not be performed after 69 years of age. Cervical cancer screening may be stopped after 65 years of age if the patient has an adequate history of negative screening results. An individualized approach to cancer screening decisions involves estimating life expectancy, determining the potential benefits and harms of screenings, and weighing those benefits and harms in relation to the patient's values and preferences.

  2. Screening and early detection of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Westeinde, Susan C; van Klaveren, Rob J

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer with an estimated 342,000 deaths in 2008 (20% of total) is the most common cause of death from cancer, followed by colorectal cancer (12%), breast cancer (8%), and stomach cancer (7%) in Europe. In former smokers, the absolute lung cancer risk remains higher than in never-smokers; these data therefore call for effective secondary preventive measures for lung cancer in addition to smoking cessation programs. This review presents and discusses the most recent advances in the early detection and screening of lung cancer.An overview of randomized controlled computerized tomography-screening trials is given, and the role of bronchoscopy and new techniques is discussed. Finally, the approach of (noninvasive) biomarker testing in the blood, exhaled breath, sputum, and bronchoscopic specimen is reviewed.

  3. Faecal haemoglobin concentration influences risk prediction of interval cancers resulting from inadequate colonoscopy quality: analysis of the Taiwanese Nationwide Colorectal Cancer Screening Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Chuang, Shu-Ling; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Chang, Dun-Cheng; Lee, Yi-Chia; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Chou, Chu-Kuang; Hsu, Wen-Feng; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chiu, Han-Mo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Interval colorectal cancer (CRC) after colonoscopy may affect effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening programmes. We aimed to investigate whether and how faecal haemoglobin concentration (FHbC) of faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) affected the risk prediction of interval cancer (IC) caused by inadequate colonoscopy quality in a FIT-based population screening programme. Design From 2004 to 2009, 29 969 subjects underwent complete colonoscopy after positive FIT in the Taiwanese Nationwide CRC Screening Program. The IC rate was traced until the end of 2012. The incidence of IC was calculated in relation to patient characteristics, endoscopy-related factors (such adenoma detection rate (ADR)) and FHbC. Poisson regression analysis was performed to assess the potential risk factors for colonoscopy IC. Results One hundred and sixty-two ICs developed after an index colonoscopy and the estimated incidence was 1.14 per 1000 person-years of observation for the entire cohort. Increased risk of IC was most remarkable in the uptake of colonoscopy in settings with ADR lower than 15% (adjusted relative risk (aRR)=3.09, 95% CI 1.55 to 6.18) and then higher FHbC (μg Hb/g faeces) (100–149: aRR=2.55, 95% CI 1.52 to 4.29, ≥150: aRR=2.74, 95% CI 1.84 to 4.09) with adjustment for older age and colorectal neoplasm detected at baseline colonoscopy. Similar findings were observed for subjects with negative index colonoscopy. Conclusions Colonoscopy ICs arising from FIT-based population screening programmes were mainly influenced by inadequate colonoscopy quality and independently predicted by FHbC that is associated with a priori chance of advanced neoplasm. This finding is helpful for future modification of screening logistics based on FHbC. PMID:26515543

  4. Screening for colorectal cancer: what fits best?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been shown to be effective in reducing CRC incidence and mortality. There are currently a number of screening modalities available for implementation into a population-based CRC screening program. Each screening method offers different strengths but also possesses its own limitations as a population-based screening strategy. We review the current evidence base for accepted CRC screening tools and evaluate their merits alongside their challenges in fulfilling their role in the detection of CRC. We also aim to provide an outlook on the demands of a low-risk population-based CRC screening program with a view to providing insight as to which modality would best suit current and future needs.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of non-invasive assessment in the Dutch breast cancer screening program versus usual care: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, J.M.H.; Damen, J.A.A.G.; Pijnappel, R.M.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Heeten, GJ. den; Adang, E.M.M.; Broeders, M.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increased recall rates in the Dutch breast cancer screening program call for a new assessment strategy aiming to reduce unnecessary costs and anxiety. Diagnostic work-up (usual care) includes multidisciplinary hospital assessment and is similar for all recalled women, regardless of the ra

  6. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  7. Breast cancer correlates in a cohort of breast screening program participants in Riyadh, KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad A. Al-Amri

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: The findings of the current work suggested that age at marriage, age at menopause ⩾50 years and 1st degree family history of breast cancer were risk factors for breast cancer, while, age at menopause <50 years, number of pregnancies and practicing breast feeding were protective factors against breast cancer. There was no effect of body mass index or physical inactivity. Further studies are needed to explore the hereditary, familial and genetic background risk factors in Saudi population.

  8. A Peer Health Educator Program for Breast Cancer Screening Promotion: Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese Immigrant Women’s Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Crawford

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese immigrant women’s experiences with a peer health educator program, a public health program that facilitated access to breast health information and mammography screening. Framed within critical social theory, this participatory action research project took place from July 2009 to January 2011. Ten focus groups and 14 individual interviews were conducted with 82 immigrant women 40 years of age and older. Qualitative methods were utilized. Thematic content analysis derived from grounded theory and other qualitative literature was employed to analyze data. Four dominant themes emerged: Breast Cancer Prevention focused on learning within the program, Social Support provided by the peer health educator and other women, Screening Services Access for Women centered on service provision, and Program Enhancements related to specific modifications required to meet the needs of immigrant women accessing the program. The findings provide insights into strategies used to promote breast health, mammography screening, and the improvement of public health programming. Perceived barriers that continue to persist are structural barriers, such as the provision of information on breast cancer and screening by family physicians. A future goal is to improve collaborations between public health and primary care to minimize this barrier.

  9. Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastric Cancer Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... from the . There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach cancer. Several types of screening tests have been ...

  10. Arab women's breast cancer screening practices: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Khater, Al-Hareth Al; Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum; Al Kuwari, Mohammed Ghaith; Al-Meer, Nabila; Malik, Mariam; Singh, Rajvir; Jong, Floor Christie-de

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are increasing in the Arab world and the involved women are often diagnosed at advanced stages of breast cancer. This literature review explores factors influencing Arab women's breast cancer screening behavior. Searched databases were: Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL Plus, Google Scholar, Index Medicus for WHO Eastern Mediterranean, and Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. Breast cancer screening participation rates are low. Screening programs are opportunistic and relatively new to the region. Knowledge amongst women and health care providers, professional recommendation, socio-demographic factors, cultural traditions, beliefs, religious, social support, accessibility and perceived effectiveness of screening influence screening behavior.

  11. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada;

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  12. How does early detection by screening affect disease progression?: Modeling estimated benefits in prostate cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth); G. Draisma (Gerrit); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Simulation models are essential tools for estimating benefits of cancer screening programs. Such models include a screening-effect model that represents how early detection by screening followed by treatment affects disease-specific survival. Two commonly used screening-effec

  13. Assessment of a new questionnaire for self-reported sun sensitivity in an occupational skin cancer screening program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinebrunner Beatrix

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sun sensitivity of the skin is a risk factor for the development of cutaneous melanoma and other skin cancers. Epidemiological studies on causal factors for the development of melanoma must control for sun sensitivity as a confounder. A standardized instrument for measuring sun sensitivity has not been established yet. It is assumed that many studies show a high potential of residual confounding for sun sensitivity. In the present study, a new questionnaire for the assessment of self-reported sun sensitivity is administered and examined. Methods Prior to an occupational skin cancer screening program, the 745 participating employees were asked to fill in a questionnaire for self-assessment of sun sensitivity. The questionnaire was developed by experts of the working group "Round Table Sunbeds" (RTS to limit the health hazards of sunbed use in Germany. A sun sensitivity score (RTS-score was calculated using 10 indicators. The internal consistency of the questionnaire and the agreement with other methods (convergent validity were examined. Results The RTS-score was calculated for 655 study participants who were 18 to 65 years of age. The correlation of the items among each other was between 0.12 and 0.62. The items and the RTS-score correlated between 0.46 and 0.77. The internal consistency showed a reliability coefficient with 0.82 (Cronbach's alpha. The comparison with the Fitzpatrick classification, the prevailing standard, was possible in 617 cases with a rank correlation of rs = 0.65. The categorization of the RTS-score in four risk groups showed correct classification to the four skin types of Fitzpatrick in 75% of the cases. Other methods for the assessment of sun sensitivity displayed varying agreements with the RTS-score. Conclusion The RTS questionnaire showed a sufficient internal consistency. There is a good convergent validity between the RTS-score and the Fritzpatrick classification avoiding shortcomings of the

  14. Review on the medical and health economic evidence for an inclusion of colposcopy in primary screening programs for cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocon, Marc; Mittendorf, Thomas; Roll, Stephanie; Greiner, Wolfgang; Willich, Stefan N.; von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Introduction With 3.2% of all cancer cases in 2002, cervical carcinoma is the tenth most common cancer in Germany and causes 1.8% of all cancer deaths in women in Germany. To date diagnosis in Germany solely has been based on cervical cytology which has been criticised due to its low sensitivity and consequently high rate of false negative results. Objectives How does colposcopy compare to cytological tests in terms of sensitivity and specificity, and what may be the effects of changes in screening for cervical carcinoma in Germany? Is there health economic evidence that may foster an inclusion of colposcopy into national screening programms? Methods A systematic literature review was performed, including studies that compared colposcopy to cervical cytology in terms of sensitivity and specificity. In addition, a systematic review of the relevant health economic literature was performed to analyse cost-effectiveness issues relevant to the German setting. Results A total of four studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, of which only two were of high methodologic quality. In all studies, the sensitivity of colposcopy was lower than that of cytology. In three studies the specificity of colposcopy was lower than that of cytology, in one study specificity of colposcopy and cytology was similar. No health economic data suggesting positive effects of adding colposcopy in primary screening could be identified. Discussion Only few studies have compared the test criteria of colposcopy with those of cytology for screening in cervical cancer. In all studies, sensitivity of colposcopy was even lower than the sensitivity of cytology, which has been critisized because of its low sensitivity. Conclusion Based on the present data, an inclusion of colposcopy in primary cervical cancer screening programmes can not be recommended. PMID:21289941

  15. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screening tests have different risks or harms. Screening tests may cause anxiety when you are thinking about or getting ready ... is cancer when there really isn't) can cause anxiety and is usually followed by more tests (such as biopsy ), which also have risks. The ...

  16. What dentists should know about oral cancer screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar B Kujan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the advances in the diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer, it remains one of the most devastating malignancies. Early detection and prevention is a major key in combating policy of cancer. Screening offers an important opportunity for early detection. Several screening methods, visual examination, toluidine blue, fluorescence imaging, and brush biopsy, were used in oral cancer screening programs. General dental practitioner plays an important role in such programs. Therefore, this review aimed to outline the required information, knowledge, and evidence-based practice on oral cancer screening for dentists in order to incorporate this service into their daily routine.

  17. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  18. Screening for prostatic cancer. Investigational models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Torp-Pedersen, S T

    1991-01-01

    Prostatic cancer has a long natural history and a significant preclinical period, during which the disease is detectable. Thus, this common malignancy in males fulfills some of the most important criteria for initiating screening programs. However, the still enigmatic epidemiology also includes...

  19. Colorectal Cancer Awareness and Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-06

    An oncologist (cancer doctor) shares her medical and personal advice for people between the ages of 50 and 75 about getting screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/6/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2017.

  20. A prospective multiple case study of the impact of emerging scientific evidence on established colorectal cancer screening programs: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geddie Hannah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-policy decision making is a complex and dynamic process, for which strong evidentiary support is required. This includes scientifically produced research, as well as information that relates to the context in which the decision takes place. Unlike scientific evidence, this “contextual evidence” is highly variable and often includes information that is not scientifically produced, drawn from sources such as political judgement, program management experience and knowledge, or public values. As the policy decision-making process is variable and difficult to evaluate, it is often unclear how this heterogeneous evidence is identified and incorporated into “evidence-based policy” decisions. Population-based colorectal cancer screening poses an ideal context in which to examine these issues. In Canada, colorectal cancer screening programs have been established in several provinces over the past five years, based on the fecal occult blood test (FOBT or the fecal immunochemical test. However, as these programs develop, new scientific evidence for screening continues to emerge. Recently published randomized controlled trials suggest that the use of flexible sigmoidoscopy for population-based screening may pose a greater reduction in mortality than the FOBT. This raises the important question of how policy makers will address this evidence, given that screening programs are being established or are already in place. This study will examine these issues prospectively and will focus on how policy makers monitor emerging scientific evidence and how both scientific and contextual evidence are identified and applied for decisions about health system improvement. Methods This study will employ a prospective multiple case study design, involving participants from Ontario, Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Quebec. In each province, data will be collected via document analysis and key informant interviews. Documents will include

  1. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is present in the body. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker for ... and other types of cancer, may also increase AFP levels. Specific tumor markers that may lead to ...

  2. Cancer screening in the United States, 2015: a review of current American cancer society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Brooks, Durado; Doroshenk, Mary; Fedewa, Stacey; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W; Wender, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Each year, the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its guidelines for early cancer detection along with a report on data and trends in cancer screening rates and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, we summarize current ACS cancer screening guidelines. The latest data on utilization of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) also is described, as are several issues related to screening coverage under the Affordable Care Act, including the expansion of the Medicaid program.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening - An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); A.B. Knudsen (Amy); H. Brenner (Hermann)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThere are several modalities available for a colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program. When determining which CRC screening program to implement, the costs of such programs should be considered in comparison to the health benefits they are expected to provide. Cost-effectiveness analysi

  4. European Breast Cancer Service Screening Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paci, Eugenio; Broeders, Mireille; Hofvind, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    A recent comprehensive review has been carried out to quantify the benefits and harms of the European population-based mammographic screening programs. Five literature reviews were conducted on the basis of the observational published studies evaluating breast cancer mortality reduction, breast...... seven to nine breast cancer deaths are avoided, four cases are overdiagnosed, 170 women have at least one recall followed by noninvasive assessment with a negative result, and 30 women have at least one recall followed by invasive procedures yielding a negative result. The chance of a breast cancer...... cancer overdiagnosis, and false-positive results. On the basis of the studies reviewed, the authors present a first estimate of the benefit and harm balance sheet. For every 1,000 women screened biennially from ages 50 to 51 years until ages 68 to 69 years and followed up until age 79 years, an estimated...

  5. HPV-based cervical cancer screening- facts, fiction, and misperceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Arbyn, Marc

    2017-05-01

    Several randomized trials have demonstrated that HPV-based cervical cancer screening is more effective than cytology-based screening. A pooled analysis of long-term follow-up data from these trials has shown reduced cervical cancer mortality in women screened with HPV compared to cytology. As a consequence, many health systems are currently transitioning to HPV-based screening programs. However, there are several controversies that influence whether and how HPV-based cervical cancer screening is implemented in different settings. Here, we discuss the most important controversies surrounding cervical cancer screening using primary HPV testing in light of published data from clinical trials and large observational studies. Overall, there is strong and uniform evidence for the efficacy of HPV-based screening, and little evidence for the usefulness of adding cytology to primary screening. However, there is currently limited data on optimal triage strategies for HPV-positive women, a critical component of an HPV-based screening program. There will likely be multiple choices for integrated screening programs and implementation may differ depending on risk perception, healthcare funds, assay costs, and available infrastructure, among other factors, in different settings. A particular challenge is the integration of screening and vaccination programs, since increasingly vaccinated populations will have a continuous decrease of cervical cancer risk.

  6. Acceptability of Cervical Cancer Screening in Rural Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Carolyn M.; Matos, Carla Silva; Blevins, Meridith; Cardoso, Aventina; Moon, Troy D.; Sidat, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    In Zambezia province, Mozambique, cervical cancer (CC) screening was introduced to rural communities in 2010. Our study sought to determine whether women would accept screening via pelvic examination and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) at two clinical sites near the onset of a new CC screening program. A cross-sectional descriptive study…

  7. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  8. Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Z. Gimeno García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening. Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake.

  9. MRI screening for breast cancer in women at high risk; is the Australian breast MRI screening access program addressing the needs of women at high risk of breast cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenberg, Tess [Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Familial Cancer Centre, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Mitchell, Gillian [Familial Cancer Centre, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Taylor, Donna [School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Department of Radiology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); BreastScreen Western Australia, Adelaide Terrace, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Saunders, Christobel [School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Department of General Surgery, St John of God Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening of women under 50 years old at high familial risk of breast cancer was given interim funding by Medicare in 2009 on the basis that a review would be undertaken. An updated literature review has been undertaken by the Medical Services Advisory Committee but there has been no assessment of the quality of the screening or other screening outcomes. This review examines the evidence basis of breast MRI screening and how this fits within an Australian context with the purpose of informing future modifications to the provision of Medicare-funded breast MRI screening in Australia. Issues discussed will include selection of high-risk women, the options for MRI screening frequency and measuring the outcomes of screening.

  10. Improving clinician confidence and skills: piloting a web-based learning program for clinicians in supportive care screening of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Jill; Brady, Lisa; Tobias, Tracey

    2014-03-01

    Lean thinking and quality improvement processes identified a need to develop and implement a short concise web-based program for clinicians to increase their confidence and skills in supportive care screening of cancer patients. An independent pretest-posttest design evaluated the program which consisted of three modules, a self-directed learning quiz, and multimedia. Questionnaires were completed anonymously via SurveyMonkey®. There was an increase in mean scores from pre- to post-program in perceived knowledge (pre M = 1.97 SD = .847; post M = 3.05 SD = .486; 3 months M = 2.72 SD = .575), educational preparedness (pre M = 2.33 SD = .957; post M = 3.45 SD = .510; 3 months M = 3.05 SD = .486), and confidence (pre M = 2.39 SD = .998; post M = 3.32 SD = .646; 3 months M = 3.28 SD = .826), indicating improvement in readiness to implement supportive care screening. The number of participants using the tool increased from 57.57% pre-program to 77.78% 3 months post-program. Overall, participants agreed that screening elicited more patient information (post M = 3.82 SD = 1.006; 3 months M = 3.83 SD = .786) and would assist in addressing patients' supportive care needs (post M = 4.00 SD.926; 3 months M = 3.94 SD = .998). It was unclear whether they had made more appropriate referrals as a result of their participation in the program (post M = 3.29 SD = 1.102; 3 months M = 3.11 SD = .963). The majority of participants agreed that the web-based program provided the required information to implement supportive care screening (post M = 3.83 SD = 1.032; 3 months M = 3.61 SD = .702), and that the quiz helped their learning (post M = 3.68 SD = 1.041; 3 months M = 3.65 SD = .702). This pilot indicates that provision of a short concise web-based program may improve clinicians' confidence and skills to implement supportive care

  11. Screening for cervical cancer: when theory meets reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygård Mari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cervical cancer screening reduces morbidity and mortality due to cervical cancer. However, there are many factors that determine the success of any cervical cancer prevention effort: the prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in general population, the existence of an organized screening program and the corresponding coverage, the existence and quality of the field and laboratory facilities for screening and diagnostic follow-up, and the facilities available for treating diagnosed lesions. Monitoring the patient path or "chain of action" for each patient with an abnormal screening result is of crucial importance. Cost-effectiveness models are widely used by decision-makers to determine which cervical cancer screening program would maximize health benefits within a given, usually limited, set of resources. Regardless of their level of sophistication, however, these models cannot replace empirical evaluations of the effectiveness of screening programs. Cervical cancer prevention activities need to be monitored and evaluated in each country where they are introduced to see that they meet performance standards. Policy-makers responsible for allocating resources for cervical cancer prevention have a duty to allocate resources not only for cervical cancer screening, but also for screening program surveillance.

  12. Differences between first and subsequent rounds of the MRISC breast cancer screening program for women with a familial or genetic predisposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kriege, M; Brekelmans, CTM; Boetes, C; Muller, SH; Zonderland, HM; Obdeijn, IM; Manoliu, RA; Kok, T; Rutgers, EJT; de Koning, HJ; Klijn, JGM

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND. within the Dutch MRI Screening (MRISC) study, a Dutch multicenter screening study for hereditary breast cancer, the authors investigated whether previously reported increased diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared with mammography would be maintained during subs

  13. Comparing mass screening techniques for gastric cancer in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atsushi Tashiro; Masatoshi Sano; Koichi Kinameri; Kazutaka Fujita; Yutaka Takeuchi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To discuss the efficacy of endoscopic mass screening for gastric cancer. METHODS: The data used in this study were the results of mass screening programs for gastric cancer in Niigata City from 2002 to 2004. The number of participants was 35089 in 2002, 34557 in 2003 and 36600 in 2004. The finding ratio referred to the final diagnosis of gastric cancer after a double check of endoscopic files and histological findings. The costs of identifying one case of gastric cancer were calculated based on the total expense for each screening program and additional close examinations. RESULTS: From the analysis of individual screening program with endoscopy, individual screening program with X-ray (ISX) and mass screening program with photofluorography (MSP) in reference to the finding ratio of gastric cancer, endoscopic examination was the best for detecting early gastric cancer, the finding ratio was 0.87% in 2004, approximately 2.7 and 4.6 times higher than those of the ISX and MSP groups. In addition, this novel method was the cheapest means regarding the cost of identifying one case of gastric cancer, which was estimated to be 1 608000 Japanese yen in 2004. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic mass screening is a promising method and can be effectively applied if a sufficient number of skilled endoscopists become available to staff the system and if city offices support it.

  14. [Breast cancer screening in Austria: Key figures, age limits, screening intervals and evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeitler, Klaus; Semlitsch, Thomas; Posch, Nicole; Siebenhofer, Andrea; Horvath, Karl

    2015-01-01

    In January 2014, the first nationwide quality-assured breast cancer screening program addressing women aged ≥ 40 years was introduced in Austria. As part of the process of developing a patient information leaflet, the Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) Review Center of the Medical University of Graz was charged with the task of assessing the potential benefits and harms of breast cancer screening from the available evidence. Based on these results, key figures were derived for mortality, false-positive and false-negative mammography results, and overdiagnosis, considering Austria-specific incidence rates for breast cancer and breast cancer mortality. Furthermore, the current evidence regarding age limits and screening interval, which were the subjects of controversial public discussions, was analyzed. A systematic search for primary and secondary literature was performed and additional evidence was screened, e. g., evaluation reports of European breast cancer screening programs. On the basis of the available evidence and of the Austrian breast cancer mortality and incidence rates, it can be assumed that - depending on the age group - 1 to 4 breast cancer deaths can be avoided per 1,000 women screened in a structured breast cancer screening program, while the overall mortality remains unchanged. On the other hand, 150 to 200 of these 1,000 women will be affected by false-positive results and 1 to 9 women by overdiagnosis due to the structured breast cancer screening. Therefore, the overall benefit-harm balance is uncertain. If women from 40 to 44 or above 70 years of age are considered, who can also participate in the Austrian screening program, even a negative benefit-harm balance seems possible. However, with the implementation of quality standards in breast cancer screening and the dissemination of a patient information leaflet, an improvement in the medical treatment situation, specifically in terms of informed decision-making, can be expected.

  15. Effect of radiologist experience on the risk of false-positive results in breast cancer screening programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubizarreta Alberdi, Raquel [Galician Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Public Health and Planning Directorate, Health Office, Galicia (Spain); Edificio Administrativo da Conselleria de Sanidade, Servicio de Programas Poboacionais de Cribado, Direccion Xeral de Saude Publica e Planificacion, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Llanes, Ana B.F.; Ortega, Raquel Almazan [Galician Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Public Health and Planning Directorate, Health Office, Galicia (Spain); Exposito, Ruben Roman; Collado, Jose M.V.; Oliveres, Xavier Castells [Department of Epidemiology and Evaluation, Institut Municipal d' Investigacio Medica-Parc de Salut Mar. CIBERESP, Barcelona (Spain); Queiro Verdes, Teresa [Galician Agency for Health Technology Assessment, Public Health and Planning Directorate, Health Office, Galicia (Spain); Natal Ramos, Carmen [Principality of Asturias Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Principality of Asturias (Spain); Sanz, Maria Ederra [Public Health Institute, Navarra Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Pamplona (Spain); Salas Trejo, Dolores [General Directorate Public Health and Centre for Public Health Research (CSISP), Valencia Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    To evaluate the effect of radiologist experience on the risk of false-positive results in population-based breast cancer screening programmes. We evaluated 1,440,384 single-read screening mammograms, corresponding to 471,112 women aged 45-69 years participating in four Spanish programmes between 1990 and 2006. The mammograms were interpreted by 72 radiologists. The overall percentage of false-positive results was 5.85% and that for false-positives resulting in an invasive procedure was 0.38%. Both the risk of false-positives overall and of false-positives leading to an invasive procedure significantly decreased (p < 0.001) with greater reading volume in the previous year: OR 0.77 and OR 0.78, respectively, for a reading volume 500-1,999 mammograms and OR 0.59 and OR 0.60 for a reading volume of >14,999 mammograms with respect to the reference category (<500). The risk of both categories of false-positives was also significantly reduced (p < 0.001) as radiologists' years of experience increased: OR 0.96 and OR 0.84, respectively, for 1 year's experience and OR 0.72 and OR 0.73, respectively, for more than 4 years' experience with regard to the category of <1 year's experience. Radiologist experience is a determining factor in the risk of a false-positive result in breast cancer screening. (orig.)

  16. [Lung cancer screening and management of small pulmonary nodules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Worldwide lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer. Most lung cancers are diagnosed at an advanced stage, so survival after lung cancer is generally poor. Diagnosis of lung cancer at earlier stages may be associated with an increased survival rate. This indicates that the implementation of lung cancer screening programs at the population level by means of low dose computed tomography might helpful to improve the outcome and mortality of lung cancer patients. By means of rapid advances in imaging technologies over the last decades it became possible to detect small lung nodules as small as a couple of millimeters. This recent developments require management algorithms to guide the clinical management of suspicious and indeterminate lung nodules found in computer tomography during lung cancer screening or by incidental finding.This review will focus on both, the recent advances in lung cancer screening and the guidelines for the management of small pulmonary nodules.

  17. [Overview of current modalities of colorectal cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajzrlíková, Ivana Mikoviny; Vítek, Petr

    2016-04-01

    There are one-step and two-steps programs for colorectal cancer screening. The aim of all screening examinations is to detect early stage of the disease in asymptomatic patient. The aim of this article is actual review of current screening modalities such as fecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoideoscopy, colonoscopy, CT colonography, capsule endoscopy, blood-based tests and stool DNA tests. Colonoscopy still remains the gold standard for detection of colorectal neoplasias. In majority of countries worldwide programs for colorectal cancer screening are based on immunochemical fecal occult blood test followed by colonoscopy when positive.

  18. Screening for Breast Cancer: Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Screening ... Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer Basics and ... and Diagnosis / Staging and Treatment / Selected National Cancer Institute Breast ...

  19. Evaluation of a cervical cancer screening program based on HPV testing and LLETZ excision in a low resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret McAdam

    Full Text Available We conducted studies in Vanuatu to evaluate potential screening and treatment strategies to assist with control of cervical cancer. In a pilot study of 496 women, visual inspection and cytology were evaluated as screening tests for detection of CIN 2 or worse (CIN2+, observed in 21 of 206 subjects biopsied on the basis of abnormal visual inspection or cytology. Sensitivity of visual inspection with Lugol's Iodine for detection of CIN2+ on biopsy was 0.63, specificity was 0.32, and the positive predictive value was 0.09. For HSIL cytology, sensitivity was 0.99, specificity was 0.77, and the positive predictive value was 0.88. HSIL cytology was significantly more sensitive and had a significantly higher PPV for CIN 2+ than visual inspection (p<0.01. In a further study of 514 women, we compared testing for HR HPV and cytology as predictors of biopsy proven CIN 2+. Sensitivity of HSIL cytology for CIN2+ as established by loop excision of the cervix was 0.81, specificity was 0.94, and positive predictive value was 0.48. Sensitivity of a positive test for HR HPV for detection of CIN2+ was non-significantly different from cytology at 0.81, specificity was 0.94, and positive predictive value was 0.42. Combining the two tests gave a significantly lower sensitivity of 0.63, a specificity of 0.98, and a positive predictive value of 0.68. For women over 30 in a low resource setting without access to cytology, a single locally conducted test for high risk HPV with effective intervention could reduce cervical cancer risk as effectively as intervention based on cytology conducted in an accredited laboratory.

  20. Barriers to healthcare contribute to delays in follow-up among women with abnormal cancer screening: data from the Patient Navigation Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ambili; Snyder, Frederick; Katz, Mira L.; Darnell, Julie; Dudley, Donald; Patierno, Steven R.; Sanders, Mechelle R; Valverde, Patricia A; Simon, Melissa A; Warren-Mears, Victoria; Battaglia, Tracy A.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is limited understanding of the association between barriers to care and clinical outcomes within patient navigation programs. Methods Secondary analyses of data from the intervention arms of the Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP), including navigated participants with abnormal breast and cervical cancer screening tests from 2007 to 2010. Independent variables were (a) number of unique barriers to care (0, 1, 2, or 3+) documented during patient navigation encounters and (b) presence of socio-legal barriers originating from social policy (yes/no). Median time to diagnostic resolution of index screening abnormalities was estimated using Kaplan-Meier cumulative incidence curves. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression examined the impact of barriers on time to resolution, controlling for socio-demographics and stratifying by study center. Results Among 2600 breast participants, three-quarters had barriers to care (25% 1 barrier, 16% 2 barriers and 34% 3+ barriers). Among 1387 cervical participants, more than half had barriers (31% 1 barrier, 11% 2 barriers, and 13% 3+ barriers). Among breast participants, the presence of barriers was associated with less timely resolution for any number of barriers compared to no barriers. Among cervical participants, only the presence of 2 or more barriers was associated with less timely resolution. Both types of barriers, socio-legal and other barriers, were associated with delay among breast and cervical participants. Conclusions Navigated women with barriers resolve cancer screening abnormalities at a slower rate compared to navigated women with no barriers. Further innovations in navigation care are necessary to maximize the impact of patient navigation programs nationwide. PMID:26385420

  1. Spatial Heterogeneity in Cancer Control Planning and Cancer Screening Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Lee R; Kuo, Tzy-Mey; Urato, Matthew; Subramanian, Sujha; Watson, Lisa; Anselin, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Each state is autonomous in its comprehensive cancer control (CCC) program, and considerable heterogeneity exists in the program plans. However, researchers often focus on the concept of nationally representative data and pool observations across states using regression analysis to come up with average effects when interpreting results. Due to considerable state autonomy and heterogeneity in various dimensions-including culture, politics, historical precedent, regulatory environment, and CCC efforts-it is important to examine states separately and to use geographic analysis to translate findings in place and time. We used 100 percent population data for Medicare-insured persons aged 65 or older and examined predictors of breast cancer (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening from 2001-2005. Examining BC and CRC screening behavior separately in each state, we performed 100 multilevel regressions. We summarize the state-specific findings of racial disparities in screening for either cancer in a single bivariate map of the 50 states, producing a separate map for African American and for Hispanic disparities in each state relative to whites. The maps serve to spatially translate the voluminous regression findings regarding statistically significant disparities between whites and minorities in cancer screening within states. Qualitative comparisons can be made of the states' disparity environments or for a state against a national benchmark using the bivariate maps. We find that African Americans in Michigan and Hispanics in New Jersey are significantly more likely than whites to utilize CRC screening and that Hispanics in 6 states are significantly and persistently more likely to utilize mammography than whites. We stress the importance of spatial translation research for informing and evaluating CCC activities within states and over time.

  2. A comparative study of faecal occult blood kits in a colorectal cancer screening program in a cohort of healthy construction workers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shuhaibar, M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been increasing. We evaluated uptake rates and outcomes of faecal immunochemical test (FIT) and Guaiac test (gFOBT) kits as part of a two-step CRC screening. METHODS: A 3-year CRC screening program for a defined population of construction workers was conducted. Those satisfying the inclusion criteria were provided with gFOBT or FIT kits. Individuals testing positive were invited for a colonoscopy. RESULTS: A total of 909 faecal testing kits were distributed. Age range was 53-60 years. Compliance rate was higher for FIT (58.3%) as compared to gFOBT (46.7%) (p = 0.0006). FIT detected adenomatous polyps and CRC in 37.5 and 25%, respectively, whereas; gFOBT detected 23.5 and 18%. Colonoscopies were normal in 53 and 25% tested positive by gFOBT and FIT, respectively (p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: The FIT was more cost-effective when compared with gFOBT with higher return rate, sensitivity and specificity. A comparative study of faecal occult blood kits in a CRC screening program in a healthy cohort of construction workers.

  3. Gastric cancer: prevention, screening and early diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasechnikov, Victor; Chukov, Sergej; Fedorov, Evgeny; Kikuste, Ilze; Leja, Marcis

    2014-10-14

    Gastric cancer continues to be an important healthcare problem from a global perspective. Most of the cases in the Western world are diagnosed at late stages when the treatment is largely ineffective. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-established carcinogen for gastric cancer. While lifestyle factors are important, the efficacy of interventions in their modification, as in the use of antioxidant supplements, is unconvincing. No organized screening programs can be found outside Asia (Japan and South Korea). Although several screening approaches have been proposed, including indirect atrophy detection by measuring pepsinogen in the circulation, none of them have so far been implemented, and more study data is required to justify any implementation. Mass eradication of H. pylori in high-risk areas tends to be cost-effective, but its adverse effects and resistance remain a concern. Searches for new screening biomarkers, including microRNA and cancer-autoantibody panels, as well as detection of volatile organic compounds in the breath, are in progress. Endoscopy with a proper biopsy follow-up remains the standard for early detection of cancer and related premalignant lesions. At the same time, new advanced high-resolution endoscopic technologies are showing promising results with respect to diagnosing mucosal lesions visually and targeting each biopsy. New histological risk stratifications (classifications), including OLGA and OLGIM, have recently been developed. This review addresses the current means for gastric cancer primary and secondary prevention, the available and emerging methods for screening, and new developments in endoscopic detection of early lesions of the stomach.

  4. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect...... and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated...... part of future lung cancer screening trials....

  5. Primary care perspectives on prostate cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Ted A; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Northouse, Laurel L; Fagerlin, Angela; Garlinghouse, Carol; Demers, Raymond Y; Rovner, David R; Darwish-Yassine, May; Wei, John T

    2011-06-01

    Although the effectiveness of prostate cancer screening is controversial, screening rates have risen dramatically among primary care providers in the United States. The authors' findings suggest more collaboration among primary care and specialty organizations, especially with respect to decision aid endorsement, is needed to achieve more discriminatory and patient-centered prostate cancer screening.

  6. Psychological distress following fecal occult blood test in colorectal cancer screening--a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, Klaus; Ladelund, Steen; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the possible psychological side-effect of participating in a colorectal cancer (CRC)-screening program.......To evaluate the possible psychological side-effect of participating in a colorectal cancer (CRC)-screening program....

  7. Breast Cancer Screening in Black and Hispanic Subpopulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Miller

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary objective was to examine and compare the breast cancer screening adherence rates between black (African American and Afro-Caribbean and Hispanic (foreign born Hispanic and US-born Hispanic subpopulations. Methods: Study data was collected in community settings in New York City between the years of 2011-2012. Participants (N=592 were black and Hispanic individuals who attended a breast cancer screening community outreach program. Breast cancer screening rates as well as demographic data were collected. Results: Results revealed that Afro-Caribbean and foreign-born Hispanics are at a greater risk for non-adherence in breast cancer screening compared with African Americans and US-born Hispanics. Conclusions: The majority of breast screening research and community outreach programs categorize people into broad racial and ethnic groups (e.g., black and Hispanic. The results revealed significant variability within these broader racial/ethnic categories with regard to breast cancer screening. Community outreach programs and future research efforts should target the subpopulations that are at particular risk for breast cancer screening non-adherence.

  8. Celebrity endorsements of cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robin J; Woloshin, Steven; Schwartz, Lisa M; Welch, H Gilbert

    2005-05-04

    Celebrities often promote cancer screening by relating personal anecdotes about their own diagnosis or that of a loved one. We used data obtained from a random-digit dialing survey conducted in the United States from December 2001 through July 2002 to examine the extent to which adults of screening age without a history of cancer had seen or heard or been influenced by celebrity endorsements of screening mammography, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. The survey response rate was 72% among those known to be eligible and 51% among potentially eligible people accounting for those who could not be contacted. A total of 360 women aged 40 years or older and 140 men aged 50 years or older participated in the survey. Most respondents reported they "had seen or heard a celebrity talk about" mammography (73% of women aged 40 years or older), PSA testing (63% of men aged 50 years or older), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (52% of adults aged 50 years or older). At least one-fourth of respondents who had seen or heard a celebrity endorsement said that the endorsement made them more likely to undergo mammography (25%), PSA testing (31%), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (37%).

  9. Breast Cancer Screening Program and Risk Factors Analysis in Yichang%宜昌市乳腺癌筛查及高危因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永芬

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the level of women's breast health ;Though the analysis of breast cancer screening program. We can understand the trends of Breast cancer and risk factors of breast cancer in the region and we can also find an ef ective way to improve the detection rate of early breast cancer. Method: By May 2008 to December 2009,There are 22189women in Yichang city conducted mode of "clinical breast examination-Mammography-breast ultrasound color Doppler-B model of breast cancer screening"after the implementation of breast health education. Result: There are 364 person who have breast diseases,such as Breast abnormalities, breast lump, Breast nodules; Breast discharge, Etc. Of which 43 person received surgical biopsy or hol ow needle aspiration biopsy cases diagnosed as breast changes which accounted for % . .8 cases diagnosed with breast cancer, accounted for % including 1 cases of non-inasie papil ary urothelial carcinoma .2 cases with lobule carcinoma in situ.including 1 cases of T l.Breast cancer detection rate was 10%. Conclusion: The breast cancer screening model of "clinical breast examination -Mammography - breast ultrasound color Doppler-B model of breast cancer screening"can enhance women's breast health awareness and improve early diagnosis level of breast cancer, It have some clinical expansion value.%目的通过乳腺癌的筛查,以了解本地区乳腺癌发病趋势及危险因素,探索基层医疗机构乳腺筛查方法。方法通过2008年5月~2009年12月宜昌市西陵区2多万名妇女进行乳腺保健教育实施的乳腺临床检查、红外线乳透、鉬靶、乳腺彩B超检查、病理诊断乳腺癌筛查模式进行研究。经筛查诊断乳腺癌为筛查组;2008年~2009年门诊收住院31例诊断乳腺癌患者为对照组。结果22189例妇女中筛查乳腺异常、触诊乳腺有肿块、结节、溢液或局限性增厚腺体等情况者1937例,其中43例接受手术活检或空心针穿刺活

  10. Screening for EGFR Mutations in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer Treated with Gefitinib on a Compassionate-Use Program: A Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Murray

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. EGFR is commonly expressed in cancers of the head and neck (H and N, and anti-EGFR agents have demonstrated improvements in outcomes (TTP and OS. The aim of this study was to determine EGFR gene status in H and N cancer patients treated with gefitinib and to correlate mutational status with clinico-pathological data and response. Patients and Methods. Patients with histologically confirmed H and N cancer having failed prior treatment for advanced disease entered this compassionate-use-program. Nineteen patients received gefitinib. EGFR expression was assessed by IHC, gene copy number by FISH, and mutation analysis was conducted for EGFR (18-21, KRAS, BRAF (V600E, and HER-2 exon 20. An additional TKI naive cohort of 73 patients was also screened. Results. Mutations were detected in 6/19 patients (3× EGFR, 1× KRAS, and 2× HER2-exon 20. There were no significant differences in TTP or OS for patients with somatic EGFR mutations. No BRAF mutations were detected. Conclusions. The incidence of EGFR mutations in H and N cancer in this study was 5.3%. No statistically relevant correlations between mutation or gene gain and response or survival were observed. Due to the limited number of patients and low incidence of genetic aberrations in the genes analyzed, additional studies are warranted.

  11. Transition from film to digital mammography: Impact for breast cancer screening through the national breast and cervical cancer early detection program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T. van Ravesteyn (Nicolien); L. Van Lier (Lisanne); C.B. Schechter (Clyde); D.U. Ekwueme (Donatus U.); J. Royalty (Janet); J.W. Miller (Jacqueline W.); A.M. Near (Aimee); K.A. Cronin (Kathleen); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); J.S. Mandelblatt (Jeanne); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides mammograms and diagnostic services for low-income, uninsured women aged 40-64 years. Mammography facilities within the NBCCEDP gradually shifted from plain-film to digital mammography. The pur

  12. Seventeen-years overview of breast cancer inside and outside screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo, Laia; Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina;

    2013-01-01

    Background. Long-term data on breast cancer detection in mammography screening programs are warranted to better understand the mechanisms by which screening changes the breast cancer pattern in the population. We aimed to analyze 17 years of breast cancer detection rates inside and outside...... screening in two Danish regions, emphasizing the influence of organizational differences of screening programs on the outcomes. Material and methods. We used data from two long-standing population-based mammography screening programs, Copenhagen and Fyn, in Denmark. Both programs offered biennial screening....... In Fyn, non-screened women even had a higher rate than screening participants during the first three invitation rounds. The interval cancer rate was lower in Copenhagen than in Fyn, with an increase over time in Copenhagen, but not in Fyn. Screen-detected cancers showed tumor features related...

  13. Breast cancer screening: ''reassuring'' the worried well?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert; Ryle, Mette

    2011-01-01

    of women offered screening compared to a population of women not offered screening for breast cancer. METHODS: One thousand women, aged 50-69 years, were randomly drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System to receive part I of the questionnaire Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer (COS-BC1......): the sample consisted of 500 women living in a geographical area where screening mammography had been offered for more than 10 years and 500 women living in an area where the public health authorities had never invited women to breast cancer screening. RESULTS: A total of 759 women returned the questionnaire....... Those living in areas where screening was not offered reported more negative psychosocial aspects compared to women living in areas where screening was offered. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that women tend to perceive breast cancer screening as a reassuring preventive initiative. Alternatively...

  14. Primary human papillomavirus DNA screening for cervical cancer prevention: Can the screening interval be safely extended?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Margaretha A; Bogaards, Johannes A; Meijer, Chris J L M; Berkhof, Johannes

    2015-07-15

    Cytological screening has substantially decreased the cervical cancer incidence, but even better protection may be achieved by primary high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) screening. In the Netherlands, five-yearly cytological screening for women aged 30-60 years will be replaced by primary hrHPV screening in 2016. The new screening guidelines involve an extension of the screening interval from 5 to 10 years for hrHPV-negative women aged 40 or 50 years. We investigated the impact of this program change on the lifetime cancer risks in women without an hrHPV infection at age 30, 35, 40, 45 or 50 years. The time to cancer was estimated using 14-year follow-up data from a population-based screening intervention trial and the nationwide database of histopathology reports. The new screening guidelines are expected to lead to a reduced cervical cancer risk for all age groups. The average risk reduction was 34% and was smallest (25%) among women aged 35 years. The impact of hrHPV screening on the cancer risk was sensitive to the duration from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (CIN2/3) to cancer; a small increase in the cancer risk was estimated for women aged 35 or 40 years in case a substantial proportion of CIN2/3 showed fast progression to cancer. Our results indicate that primary hrHPV screening with a ten-yearly interval for hrHPV-negative women of age 40 and beyond will lead to a further reduction in lifetime cancer risk compared to five-yearly cytology, provided that precancerous lesions progress slowly to cancer.

  15. How to improve colon cancer screening rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luiz; Ronaldo; Alberti; Diego; Paim; Carvalho; Garcia; Debora; Lucciola; Coelho; David; Correa; Alves; De; Lima; Andy; Petroianu

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is a common cause of death throughout the world and may be prevented by routine control, which can detect precancerous neoplasms and early cancers before they undergo malignant transformation or metastasis. Three strategies may improve colon cancer screening rates: convince the population about the importance of undergoing a screening test; achieve higher efficacy in standard screening tests and make them more available to the community and develop new more sensitive and efficacious screening methods and make them available as routine tests. In this light, the present study seeks to review these three means through which to increase colon cancer screening rates.

  16. Vibrational Microspectroscopy for Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona M. Lyng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibrational spectroscopy analyses vibrations within a molecule and can be used to characterise a molecular structure. Raman spectroscopy is one of the vibrational spectroscopic techniques, in which incident radiation is used to induce vibrations in the molecules of a sample, and the scattered radiation may be used to characterise the sample in a rapid and non-destructive manner. Infrared (IR spectroscopy is a complementary vibrational spectroscopic technique based on the absorption of IR radiation by the sample. Molecules absorb specific frequencies of the incident light which are characteristic of their structure. IR and Raman spectroscopy are sensitive to subtle biochemical changes occurring at the molecular level allowing spectral variations corresponding to disease onset to be detected. Over the past 15 years, there have been numerous reports demonstrating the potential of IR and Raman spectroscopy together with multivariate statistical analysis techniques for the detection of a variety of cancers including, breast, lung, brain, colon, oral, oesophageal, prostate and cervical cancer. This paper discusses the recent advances and the future perspectives in relation to cancer screening applications, focussing on cervical and oral cancer.

  17. 75 FR 70557 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Draft Policies and Procedures for Screening Safe Drinking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Protection Agency Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Draft Policies and Procedures for Screening Safe..., 2010 / Notices#0;#0; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Draft... requiring Tier 1 screening under the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) of substances for...

  18. International Collaboration Enhances Cancer Screening Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGH is working with the International Agency for Research on CancerExit Disclaimer (IARC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) on the ESTAMPA Study, a multi-centric study of cervical cancer screening and triage with HPV testing.

  19. Review of screening for pancreatic cancer in high risk individuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alina Stoita; Ian D Penman; David B Williams

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and is associated with a very poor survival. Ten percent of pancreatic cancers result from genetic susceptibility and/or familial aggregation. Individuals from families with multiple affected first-degree relatives and those with a known cancer-causing genetic mutation have been shown to be at much higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Recent efforts have focused on detecting disease at an earlier stage to improve survival in these high-risk groups. This article reviews high-risk groups, screening methods, and current screening programs and their results.

  20. Review of screening for pancreatic cancer in high risk individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoita, Alina; Penman, Ian D; Williams, David B

    2011-05-21

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and is associated with a very poor survival. Ten percent of pancreatic cancers result from genetic susceptibility and/or familial aggregation. Individuals from families with multiple affected first-degree relatives and those with a known cancer-causing genetic mutation have been shown to be at much higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Recent efforts have focused on detecting disease at an earlier stage to improve survival in these high-risk groups. This article reviews high-risk groups, screening methods, and current screening programs and their results.

  1. Cancer screening in the United States, 2013: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines, current issues in cancer screening, and new guidance on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Brooks, Durado; Cokkinides, Vilma; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W

    2013-01-01

    Each year the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its recommendations for early cancer detection, a report on data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, current ACS cancer screening guidelines are summarized, as are updated guidelines on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening with low-dose helical computed tomography. The latest data on the use of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey also are described, as are several issues related to screening coverage under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010.

  2. WELL WOMAN CLINIC - SCREENING PROGRAM FOR CERVICAL C ARCINOMAS

    OpenAIRE

    Vani Padmaja

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a common cancer occurring in women in the reproductive age group. It is also a cancer that can be easily prevented by taking Cervical Smears, staining them by the Papanicalou’s stain, diagnosing and treating them at an early stage . It is a very cost effective, sensitive, specific and easy method of early detection of cervical canc er and thereby helps in preventing the mortality and morbidity caused by invasive carcinomas. This screening program ...

  3. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary.......A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary....

  4. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W;

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our...... aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. Material and methods. Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital...... 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. Conclusion. Despite...

  5. Cancer screening in the United States, 2016: A review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Andrews, Kimberly; Brooks, Durado; DeSantis, Carol E; Fedewa, Stacey A; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Brawley, Otis W; Wender, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Each year the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its guidelines for early cancer detection, data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, we summarize current ACS cancer screening guidelines, including the update of the breast cancer screening guideline, discuss quality issues in colorectal cancer screening and new developments in lung cancer screening, and provide the latest data on utilization of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey.

  6. [Cancer screening and risk communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwarth, Odette

    2013-04-01

    In most psychological and medical research, patients are assumed to have difficulties with health statistics but clinicians not. However, studies indicate that most doctors have problems in understanding health statistics, including those of their own speciality. For example, only two out of 20 urologists knew the information relevant for a patient to make an informed decision about whether to take PSA screening for prostate cancer, just 14 out of 65 physicians in internal medicine understood that 5-year survival rates do not tell anything about screening's benefit, and merely 34 out of 160 gynecologists were able to interpret the meaning of a positive test result. This statistical illiteracy has a direct effect on patients understanding and interpretation of medical issues. Not rarely their own limited health literacy and their doctors' misinformation make them suffer through a time of emotional distress and unnecessary anxiety. The main reasons for doctors' statistical illiteracy are medical schools that ignore the importance of teaching risk communication. With little effort doctors could taught the simple techniques of risk communication, which would make most of their statistical confusion disappear.

  7. To screen or nor to screen: the prostate cancer dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson N Stone

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate (ERSPC has updated their previous seminal report on prostate cancer mortality comparing screened men to controls. Now with 13 years follow-up, the rate ratio of prostate cancer mortality was 0.79 favoring the screened population. The authors concluded that there was a "substantial reduction in prostate cancer mortality attributable to testing with prostate-specific antigen (PSA" but they also stated that a "quantification of harms" needed to be addressed. The issue of harms was not addressed by the ERSPC (at least not in this report and hence this additional statement most likely reflects the controversy currently surrounding the risks associated with over-diagnosis and treatment of indolent diseases inadvertently detected by a screening protocol. [1] In addition, the positive results from this trial conflict with those of the prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian (PLCO [2] study and require further elaboration.

  8. Decision aid for women considering breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasternack, Iris; Saalasti-Koskinen, Ulla; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the process and challenges of developing a decision aid for the national public breast cancer screening program in Finland. METHODS: An expert team with stakeholder representation used European guidelines and other literature as basis for selecting...... relevant content and format for the decision aid for breast cancer screening. Feedback from women was sought for the draft documents. RESULTS: A decision aid attached to the invitation letter for screening was considered the best way to ensure access to information. In addition, tailored letter templates...

  9. Continuous quality improvement of colorectal cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariusz; Madalinski

    2013-01-01

    Quality assurance is a key issue in colorectal cancer screening, because effective screening is able to improve primary prevention of the cancer. The quality measure may be described in terms:how well the screening test tells who truly has a disease (sensitivity) and who truly does not have a disease (specificity). This paper raises concerns about identification of the optimal screening test for colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy vs flexible sigmoidoscopy in colorectal cancer screening has been a source of ongoing debate. A multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing flexible sigmoidoscopy with usual care showed that flexible sigmoidoscopy screening is able to diminish the incidence of distal and proximal colorectal cancer, and also mortality related to the distal colorectal cancer. However, colonoscopy provides a more complete examination and remains the more sensitive exam than flexible sigmoidoscopy. Moreover, colonoscopy with polypectomy significantly reduces colorectal cancer incidence and colorectal cancer-related mortality in the general population. The article considers the relative merits of both methods and stresses an ethical aspect of patient’s involvement in decision-making. Patients should be informed not only about tests tolerability and risk of endoscopy complications, but also that different screening tests for bowel cancer have different strength to exclude colonic cancer and polyps. The authorities calculate effectiveness and costs of the screening tests, but patients may not be interested in statistics regarding flexible sigmoidoscopy screening and from an ethical point of view, they have the right to chose colonoscopy, which is able to exclude a cancer and precancerous lesions in the whole large bowel.

  10. Socio-Demographic and Cognitive Determinants of Breast Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the causes of cancer death among women. In developed countries, one out of every nine women is diagnosed with this type of cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the socio-demographic and cognitive determinants related to breast cancer screening among Iranian women’s based on the protection motivation theory (PMT. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 385 women’s aged 35 to 50 years old referred to health centers in Abadan city, the southwest of Iran, during 2016. Participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 using bivariate correlation, and logistic regression statistical tests at 95% significant level. The mean age of respondents was 39.12 years [95% CI: 38.72, 39.53], ranged from 35 to 50 years. Almost 7.5% and 19.1% of the participants had mammography and self-breast examination during last year. Age, education and positive history of breast cancer among family were the best socio-demographic predictive factors of breast cancer screening. Also among theoretical constructs of PMT, perceived severity and self-efficacy were the best predictors on breast cancer screening. Based on our result, it seems that designing and implementation of educational programs to increase seriousness about side effect of breast cancer and increase self-efficacy toward breast cancer screening behavior may be usefulness of the results in order to prevent of breast cancer.

  11. Offering Self-Sampling Kits for HPV Testing to Reach Women Who Do Not Attend in the Regular Cervical Cancer Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbyn, Marc; Castle, Philip E

    2015-05-01

    In 2016, the Netherlands will switch, as first European country, from cytology-based to HPV-based cervical cancer screening, with cytology triage for those with a positive HPV test. The new Dutch program includes sending self-sampling devices to women who do not respond to an invitation to have a cervical sample taken by their general practitioner. The cost-effectiveness of this additional strategy will depend on its capacity to recruit nonscreened women and in particular those at increased risk of cervical (pre)cancer, the possible switch of previous responders to self-sampling, the accuracy and cost of the HPV assay-self-sampler combination, and the compliance of women being self-sample HPV-positive with further follow-up. Validated PCR-based assays, detecting high-risk HPV DNA, are as accurate on self-samples as on clinician-collected samples. On the contrary, HPV assays, based on signal amplification, are less sensitive and specific on self-samples. The introduction of self-sampling strategies should be carefully prepared and evaluated in pilot studies integrated in well-organized settings before general rollout. Opt-in procedures involving a request for a self-sampler may reduce response rates. Therefore, an affordable device that can be included with the invitation to all nonattendees may yield a stronger effect on participation.

  12. Trends in Cancer Screening Rates among Korean Men and Women: Results of the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey, 2004-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Mina; Choi, Kui Son; Park, Boyoung; Lee, Yoon Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Lee, Duk-Hyoung; Kim, Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), a nationwide cross-sectional survey, has been conducted annually since 2004. The current study was conducted to report on the trends in screening rates among Korean men and women, and to evaluate policies regarding cancer screening programs implemented to reduce the burden of cancer. Materials and Methods The current study used KNCSS data. The eligible study population included men aged 40-74 years and women aged 30-74 years with no...

  13. Lung Cancer Screening with Low Dose CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroline, Chiles

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The announcement of the results of the NLST, showing a 20% reduction in lung-cancer specific mortality with LDCT screening in a high risk population, marked a turning point in lung cancer screening. This was the first time that a randomized controlled trial had shown a mortality reduction with an imaging modality aimed at early detection of lung cancer. Current guidelines endorse LDCT screening for smokers and former smokers ages 55 to 74, with at least a 30 pack year smoking history. Adherence to published algorithms for nodule follow-up is strongly encouraged. Future directions for screening research include risk stratification for selection of the screening population, and improvements in the diagnostic follow-up for indeterminate pulmonary nodules. As with screening for other malignancies, screening for lung cancer with LDCT has revealed that there are indolent lung cancers which may not be fatal. More research is necessary if we are to maximize the risk-benefit ratio in lung cancer screening. PMID:24267709

  14. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation: Guidelines on Colon Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Leddin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer affecting both men and women in Canada. Many of these cancers are preventable, and the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation (CDHF strongly support the establishment of screening programs for colorectal cancer. These guidelines discuss a number of screening options, listing the advantages and disadvantages of each. Ultimately, the test that is used for screening should be determined by patient preference, current evidence and local resources.

  15. The benefits and harms of screening for cancer with a focus on breast screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    and will be treated unnecessarily. Furthermore, more than 200 women will experience substantial psychosocial distress for months because of false-positive findings. Regular breast self-examination does not reduce breast cancer mortality, but doubles the number of biopsies, and it therefore cannot be recommended....... The effects of routine clinical breast examination are unknown, but considering the results of the breast self-examination trials, it is likely that it is harmful. The effects of screening for breast cancer with thermography, ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging are unknown. It is not clear whether......The balance between benefits and harms is delicate for cancer screening programs. By attending screening with mammography some women will avoid dying from breast cancer or receive less aggressive treatment. But many more women will be overdiagnosed, receive needless treatment, have a false...

  16. Final screening round of the NELSON lung cancer screening trial : the effect of a 2.5-year screening interval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh; van der Aalst, Carlijn; de Jong, Pim A; Heuvelmans, Marjolein; Scholten, Ernst; Lammers, Jan-Willem; van Ooijen, Peter; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Weenink, Carla; Groen, Harry; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Ten Haaf, Kevin; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Koning, Harry

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the USA annual lung cancer screening is recommended. However, the optimal screening strategy (eg, screening interval, screening rounds) is unknown. This study provides results of the fourth screening round after a 2.5-year interval in the Dutch-Belgian Lung Cancer Screening trial (NEL

  17. Breast Cancer Screening in a Low Income Managed Care Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    the morbidity and mortality of breast cancer among the population of low income women who have incomes less than 200% of the national poverty level...34Journal for Health Care for the Poor and Underserved" (see appendix). Entitled "Difficulty in Reaching Low Income Women for Screening Mammography...useful insights for future program planning and research design. Keywords: screening mammography, low income , managed care and barriers Poverty is

  18. Evaluation of mass screening for cancer : a model-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. van Oortmarssen (Gerrit)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe main goal in evaluation of screening for cancer is to assist in decision making about a screening program: Should it be initiated at all? What screening policies can be recommended: what age groups, what frequency of screening. Should special attention be paid to high risk groups? If

  19. Factors associated with breast and cervical cancer screening behavior among African immigrant women in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Nonyelum; Ghebre, Rahel G; Whembolua, Guy-Lucien; Zhang, Yan; Warfa Osman, S; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

    2014-06-01

    Immigrant populations in the United States (US) have lower cancer screening rates compared to none immigrant populations. The purpose of this study was to assess the rates of cancer screening and examine factors associated with cancer screening behavior among African immigrant women in Minnesota. A cross sectional survey of a community based sample was conducted among African immigrants in the Twin Cities. Cancer screening outcome measures were mammography and Papanicolau smear test. The revised theoretical model of health care access and utilization and the behavioral model for vulnerable populations were utilized to assess factors associated with cancer screening. Only 61 and 52% of the age eligible women in the sample had ever been screened for breast and cervical cancer respectively. Among these women, duration of residence in the US and ethnicity were significant determinants associated with non-screening. Programs to enhance screening rates among this population must begin to address barriers identified by the community.

  20. Central online quality assurance in radiology. An IT solution exemplified by the German Breast Cancer Screening Program; Zentrale Online-Qualitaetssicherung in der Radiologie. Eine IT-Loesung am Beispiel des deutschen Mammografie-Screening-Programms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czwoydzinski, J.; Girnus, R.; Sommer, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Heindel, W.; Lenzen, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Physical-technical quality assurance is one of the essential tasks of the National Reference Centers in the German Breast Cancer Screening Program. For this purpose the mammography units are required to transfer the measured values of the constancy tests on a daily basis and all phantom images created for this purpose on a weekly basis to the reference centers. This is a serious logistical challenge. To meet these requirements, we developed an innovative software tool. Materials and Methods: By the end of 2005, we had already developed web-based software (MammoControl) allowing the transmission of constancy test results via entry forms. For automatic analysis and transmission of the phantom images, we then introduced an extension (MammoControl DIANA). This was based on Java, Java Web Start, the NetBeans Rich Client Platform, the Pixelmed Java DICOM Toolkit and the ImageJ library. Results: MammoControl DIANA was designed to run locally in the mammography units. This allows automated on-site image analysis. Both results and compressed images can then be transmitted to the reference center. We developed analysis modules for the daily and monthly consistency tests and additionally for a homogeneity test. Conclusion: The software we developed facilitates the immediate availability of measurement results, phantom images, and DICOM header data in all reference centers. This allows both targeted guidance and short response time in the case of errors. We achieved a consistent IT-based evaluation with standardized tools for the entire screening program in Germany. (orig.)

  1. Breast cancer screening interventions for Arabic women: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Hwang, Jasmine

    2015-06-01

    Similar to other Middle Eastern countries, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Qatar with increasing incidence and mortality rates. High mortality rates of breast cancer in the Middle Eastern countries are primarily due to delayed diagnosis of the disease. Thus screening and early detection of breast cancer are important in reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. With the aim of updating knowledge on existing interventions and developing effective intervention programs to promote breast cancer screening in Arabic populations in Qatar, this review addresses the question: What interventions are effective in increasing breast cancer knowledge and breast cancer screening rates in Arabic populations in Arabic countries and North America? Systematic literature review was performed to answer the proposed question. As the result of the search, six research studies were identified and appraised. From the findings, we infer several insights: (a) a language-appropriate and culturally sensitive educational program is the most important component of a successful intervention regardless of the study setting, (b) multi-level interventions that target both women, men, health care professionals, and/or larger health care system are more likely to be successful than single educational interventions or public awareness campaigns, and (c) more vigorous, personal and cognitive interventions that address psychosocial factors are likely to be more effective than less personal and informative interventions. This review has important implications for health care providers, intervention planners, and researchers.

  2. Patient Beliefs About Colon Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, John W; Levy, Barcey T; Daly, Jeanette; Xu, Yinghui

    2016-03-01

    Only about half of eligible individuals undergo colon cancer screening. We have limited knowledge about the patient beliefs that adversely affect screening decisions and about which beliefs might be amenable to change through education. As part of a clinical trial, 641 rural Iowans, aged 52 to 79 years, reported their beliefs about colon cancer screening in response to a mailed questionnaire. Consenting subjects were randomized into four groups, which were distinguished by four levels of increasingly intensive efforts to promote screening. Two of the groups received mailed educational materials and completed a follow-up questionnaire, which allowed us to determine whether their beliefs about screening changed following the education. We also completed a factor analysis to identify underlying (latent) factors that might explain the responses to 33 questions about readiness, attitudes, and perceived barriers related to colon cancer screening. The strongest predictors of a patient's stated readiness to be screened were a physician's recommendation to be screened (1 point difference on 10-point Likert scale, 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.5 to 1.6 point difference), a family history of colon cancer (0.85-point Likert scale difference, 95 % CI, 0.1 to 1.6), and a belief that health-care decisions should be mostly left to physicians rather than patients (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.21, P beliefs, 11 (33 %) changed favorably following the educational intervention. In the factor analysis, the 33 items were reduced to 8 underlying factors, such as being too busy to undergo screening and worries about screening procedures. We found a limited number of underlying factors that may help explain patient resistance to colon cancer screening.

  3. Invited commentary: screening and the elusive etiology of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy

    2015-09-01

    The role of lifestyle risk factors in prostate cancer risk remains elusive despite a large number of epidemiologic studies. In a pooled analysis of data from South and East Asian countries published in this issue, Fowke et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2015;182(5):381-389) found no evidence for an association between prostate cancer mortality and obesity, alcohol, or smoking. Prostate cancer screening is very uncommon in these countries, and previous evidence for associations with lifestyle factors comes primarily from studies carried out in North America, where screening is very common. Fowke et al. concluded that screening biases are likely to explain the differences in study results. In this commentary, we discuss the potential influence of population-based cancer screening programs in estimates of association from epidemiologic studies. This highlights the importance of carefully considering the impact of screening in the analysis and interpretation of results, in order to advance our understanding of the etiology of cancers that can be detected by screening.

  4. Breast cancer screening implementation and reassurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerø, J; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Brodersen, John

    2013-01-01

    difference in reported psychosocial aspects had disappeared or been reduced because of the nationwide screening implementation. METHODS: The 1000 women included in the previous survey were posted part I of the questionnaire Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer (COS-BC1) in August 2011, nearly 5 years...

  5. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Nielsen, Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of screening for breast cancer with mammography on mortality and morbidity. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Pub...... excluded a biased trial and included 600,000 women in the analyses. Three trials with adequate randomisation did not show a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality at 13 years (relative risk (RR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79 to 1.02); four trials with suboptimal randomisation showed...... a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality with an RR of 0.75 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.83). The RR for all seven trials combined was 0.81 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.87). We found that breast cancer mortality was an unreliable outcome that was biased in favour of screening, mainly because of differential...

  6. CRCHD Launches National Colorectal Cancer Outreach and Screening Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI CRCHD launches National Screen to Save Colorectal Cancer Outreach and Screening Initiative which aims to increase colorectal cancer screening rates among racially and ethnically diverse and rural communities.

  7. Correlating Quantitative Fecal Immunochemical Test Results with Neoplastic Findings on Colonoscopy in a Population-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Program: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Shahidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer (CPAC recommends a fecal immunochemical test- (FIT- positive predictive value (PPV for all adenomas of ≥50%. We sought to assess FIT performance among average-risk participants of the British Columbia Colon Screening Program (BCCSP. Methods. From Nov-2013 to Dec-2014 consecutive participants of the BCCSP were assessed. Data was obtained from a prospectively collected database. A single quantitative FIT (NS-Plus, Alfresa Pharma Corporation, Japan with a cut-off of ≥10 μg/g (≥50 ng/mL was used. Results. 20,322 FIT-positive participants underwent CSPY. At a FIT cut-off of ≥10 μg/g (≥50 ng/mL the PPV for all adenomas was 52.0%. Increasing the FIT cut-off to ≥20 μg/g (≥100 ng/mL would increase the PPV for colorectal cancer (CRC by 1.5% and for high-risk adenomas (HRAs by 6.5% at a cost of missing 13.6% of CRCs and 32.4% of HRAs. Conclusions. As the NS-Plus FIT cut-off rises, the PPV for CRC and HRAs increases but at the cost of missed lesions. A cut-off of ≥10 μg/g (≥50 ng/mL produces a PPV for all adenomas exceeding national recommendations. Health authorities need to take into consideration endoscopic resources when selecting a FIT positivity threshold.

  8. Colorectal cancer screening:The role of CT colonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea; Laghi; Franco; Iafrate; Marco; Rengo; Cesare; Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomography colonography(CTC) in colorectal cancer(CRC) screening has two roles:one present and the other potential.The present role is,without any further discussion,the integration into established screening programs as a replacement for barium enema in the case of incomplete colonoscopy.The potential role is the use of CTC as a first-line screening method together with Fecal Occult Blood Test,sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy.However,despite the fact that CTC has been officially endorsed for CRC scre...

  9. WELL WOMAN CLINIC - SCREENING PROGRAM FOR CERVICAL C ARCINOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Padmaja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a common cancer occurring in women in the reproductive age group. It is also a cancer that can be easily prevented by taking Cervical Smears, staining them by the Papanicalou’s stain, diagnosing and treating them at an early stage . It is a very cost effective, sensitive, specific and easy method of early detection of cervical canc er and thereby helps in preventing the mortality and morbidity caused by invasive carcinomas. This screening program was conducted in the outpatient department of Gandhi hospital. All th e women between the age of 21 and 65years were included. The antenatal women were excluded. A total of 2864 women were screened and 2562 Pap smears were done. 228 High grade intraepithelial lesions [HSIL ] and 365 Low Grade intraepithelial lesions [LSIL] were diagnosed. Cervical biopsy was done. Curative treatment was offered to all those who had intraepithelial lesions on biopsy. Hence such screening programs are of great help in detecting early cancer and preventing invasive cancers. Thus reducing mortality and morbidity associated with invasive cancers

  10. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  11. Attendance in cancer screening programmes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Grazzini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The European Community recommends mammography, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes. In Italy, cancer screening programmes have been included in the Basic Healthcare Parameters (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza since 2001. Full national coverage of a population-based organized screening programme has been planned for in Italy and is being implemented. Since 2005, the Ministry of Health - Department of Prevention has formally charged The National Centre for Screening Monitoring (Osservatorio Nazionale Screening –ONS- with monitoring and promoting screening programmes nationwide. Participation of target populations is a key indicator of the impact and efficacy of a screening programme in reducing cancer mortality.

    Methods: Attendance of invitees is one of the indicators calculated every year in the quality control of Italian screening programmes. Data collection is organized by means of a structured questionnaire, sent by ONS to the referent for data collection in each Region, who then returns the completed questionnaires to the Regional Centre. Questionnaires are then sent to the National Centre. Logical and epidemiologic checks are performed at both levels. Every year ONS publishes reports on the results of the surveys. A feasibility study for a National data warehouse based on individual records is in progress. The national survey “Multiscopo sulle famiglie” and the Passi Study (Progetti delle Aziende Sanitarie per la Salute in Italia provided additional information regarding spontaneous preventive health care activities in the Italian population.

    Results: Mammography screening: In 2006, 78.2% of Italian women aged 50-69 lived in areas where organised screening was in place (theoretical extension, however, the distribution of the screening activity is not uniform (higher in Northern/Central Italy compared with Southern

  12. Prostate cancer screening: and yet it moves!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Kwiatkowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The debate of prostate cancer (PCa screening has been shaped over decades. There is a plethora of articles in the literature supporting as well as declining prostate-specific antigen (PSA screening. Does screening decrease PCa mortality? With the long-term results of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate (ERSPC the answer is clearly YES. It moves! However, in medicine there are no benefits without any harm and thus, screening has to be performed in targeted and smart way-or in other words-in a risk-adapted fashion when compared with the way it was done in the past. Here, we discuss the main findings of the ERSPC trials and provide insights on how the future screening strategies should be implemented.

  13. [Assessment of screening in women cancers and in 75 years older in Loire department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swalduz, Aurélie; Guibert, Cyril; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Guichard, Jean-Baptiste; Rivoirard, Romain; Pacaut, Cécile; Méry, Benoîte; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Eddekkaoui, Houda; Fournel, Pierre; de Laroche, Guy; Merrouche, Yacine; Magné, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    In France, there is an important interregional disparity concerning participation to cancer screening programs. The aim of this study was to assess oncologic screening practices in Loire, a French rural department, in women and in the elderly (over age 74 years). For this, two surveys were conducted. The first one was regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer in women over age 18 years living in Loire. The second survey was regarding onco-geriatric screening through two questionnaires : one for the elderly and the other for general practitioner (GP) of the department, evaluating screening for breast, colorectal, prostate, cervical and lung cancer. One hundred sixty six women were included in the first investigation mean age of 47.6 years. Ninety three point six per cent were screening for breast cancer, 19% received Human Papilloma virus vaccine, 83.1% were screening by Papanicolau smear for cervical cancer and finally, 51.7% were screening for colorectal cancer, among the one entering screening program criteria. In the second survey, 44 patients and 28 GP were included. Thirty-eight point six per cent of patients over 74 years continue screening. Only 11.4% were reluctant to screening and in 80% because of anxiety du to the results. Among GP, 50 % continued screening on two major criteria : life expectancy and performans status. The present study shows heterogeneity of screening in this department both rural and working class and gives us a societo-medical photography.

  14. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta;

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  15. Computed tomographic characteristics of interval and post screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.T.; Horeweg, N.; Koning, H.J. de; Vliegenthart, R.; Oudkerk, M.; Mali, W.P.; Jong, P.A. de

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse computed tomography (CT) findings of interval and post-screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening. METHODS: Consecutive interval and post-screen carcinomas from the Dutch-Belgium lung cancer screening trial were included. The prior screening and the diagnostic chest CT were re

  16. Cancer screening status in Korea, 2011: results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Yoon Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Seo, Hong Gwan

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the use of screening for stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers, which are included in the Korean National Cancer Screening Programme. In 2011 the National Cancer Centre in Korea conducted a nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional interview survey using multi-stage random sampling. Participants included 4,100 cancer-free men 40 years and over of age and women over 30 years of age. The lifetime screening rates for stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers were 76.2%, 54.3%, 56.1%, 79.0%, and, 74.8%, respectively. The rates of recommended screening for stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers were 64.6%, 22.9%, 35.3%, 60.4%, and 62.4%, respectively. More than 70% of all screening was attributed to organised cancer screening programmes. The main reason given for non attendance was 'no symptoms'. A greater effort is needed to increase screening rates, especially for liver and colorectal cancers.

  17. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group scr

  18. Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelli Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women’s health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2. Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5. A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease. Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer.

  19. Review of the Cervical Cancer Burden and Population-Based Cervical Cancer Screening in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Jiangli; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be a serious public health problem in the developing world, including China. Because of its large population with geographical and socioeconomic inequities, China has a high burden of cervical cancer and important disparities among different regions. In this review, we first present an overview of the cervical cancer incidence and mortality over time, and focus on diversity and disparity in access to care for various subpopulations across geographical regions and socioeconomic strata in China. Then, we describe population-based cervical cancer screening in China, and in particular implementation of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NACCSPRA) and the challenges that this program faces. These include low screening coverage, shortage of qualified health care personnel and limited funds. To improve prevention of cervical cancer and obtain better cancer outcomes, the Chinese government needs to urgently consider the following key factors: reducing disparities in health care access, collecting accurate and broadly representative data in cancer registries, expanding target population size and increasing allocation of government funding for training of personnel, improving health education for women, enhancing quality control of screening services and improving a system to increase follow up for women with positive results.

  20. Cervical cancer: screening and therapeutic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Thara, Somanathan; Esmy, Pulikottil Okkuru; Basu, Partha

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality and premature death among women in their most productive years in low- and medium-resourced countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America, despite the fact that it is an eminently preventable cancer. While cytology screening programmes have resulted in a substantial reduction of cervical cancer mortality in developed countries, they have been shown to have a wide range of sensitivity in most routine settings including in developing countries. Although liquid-based cytology improves sample adequacy, claims on improved sensitivity remain controversial. Human papillomavirus testing is more sensitive than cytology, but whether this gain represents protection against future cervical cancer is not clear. Recently, in a randomized trial, the use of visual inspection with 4% acetic acid was shown to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality. Cryotherapy and large loop excision of the transformation zone are effective and safe treatment methods for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The clinical stage of cancer is the single most important prognostic factor and should be carefully evaluated in choosing optimal treatment between surgery and radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy. At the public health level, health care infrastructure, affordability and capacity for initiating and sustaining vaccination and screening programmes are critical factors in cervical cancer control. On the other hand, an informed practitioner can utilize the multiple opportunities in routine primary care interactions for prevention, screening, early detection and prompt referral for treatment.

  1. Peptide arrays for screening cancer specific peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sahar; Mathews, Anu Stella; Byeon, Nara; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh; Kaur, Kamaljit

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, we describe a novel method to screen peptides for specific recognition by cancer cells. Seventy peptides were synthesized on a cellulose membrane in an array format, and a direct method to study the peptide-whole cell interaction was developed. The relative binding affinity of the cells for different peptides with respect to a lead 12-mer p160 peptide, identified by phage display, was evaluated using the CyQUANT fluorescence of the bound cells. Screening allowed identification of at least five new peptides that displayed higher affinity (up to 3-fold) for MDA-MB-435 and MCF-7 human cancer cells compared to the p160 peptide. These peptides showed very little binding to the control (noncancerous) human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Three of these peptides were synthesized separately and labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to study their uptake and interaction with the cancer and control cells using confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry. The results confirmed the high and specific affinity of an 11-mer peptide 11 (RGDPAYQGRFL) and a 10-mer peptide 18 (WXEAAYQRFL) for the cancer cells versus HUVECs. Peptide 11 binds different receptors on target cancer cells as its sequence contains multiple recognition motifs, whereas peptide 18 binds mainly to the putative p160 receptor. The peptide array-whole cell binding assay reported here is a complementary method to phage display for further screening and optimization of cancer targeting peptides for cancer therapy and diagnosis.

  2. Imaging and screening in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giaj Levra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the main cause of death for neoplasia in the world. Hence it’s growing the necessity to investigate screening tests to detect tumoral lesions at the early stages: several trials have been performed to establish the best method, target and frequence of the screening to offer. CT, X-ray, PET, sputum citology and CAD software are here analyzed, together with the associated statistics and bias.

  3. Subtypes of Ovarian Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiyama, Masafumi; Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the foremost cause of gynecological cancer death in the developed world, as it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. In this paper we discuss current issues, the efficacy and problems associated with ovarian cancer screening, and compare the characteristics of ovarian cancer subtypes. There are two types of ovarian cancer: Type I carcinomas, which are slow-growing, indolent neoplasms thought to arise from a precursor lesion, which are relatively common in Asia; and Type II carcinomas, which are clinically aggressive neoplasms that can develop de novo from serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC) and/or ovarian surface epithelium and are common in Europe and the USA. One of the most famous studies on the subject reported that annual screening using CA125/transvaginal sonography (TVS) did not reduce the ovarian cancer mortality rate in the USA. In contrast, a recent study in the UK showed an overall average mortality reduction of 20% in the screening group. Another two studies further reported that the screening was associated with decreased stage at detection. Theoretically, annual screening using CA125/TVS could easily detect precursor lesions and could be more effective in Asia than in Europe and the USA. The detection of Type II ovarian carcinoma at an early stage remains an unresolved issue. The resolving power of CA125 or TVS screening alone is unlikely to be successful at resolving STICs. Biomarkers for the early detection of Type II carcinomas such as STICs need to be developed. PMID:28257098

  4. Cancer screening in Korea, 2012: results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Mina; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Yoon Young; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the cancer screening rates for five types of cancer (stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervix uteri) using data from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), which is a nationwide, annual cross-sectional survey. The eligible study population included cancer-free men 40 years of age and older and women 30 years of age and older. The lifetime screening rate and screening rate with recommendation were calculated. The lifetime screening rates for gastric, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers were 77.9%, 69.9%, 65.8%, 82.9%, and 77.1%, respectively. The screening rates with recommendation were 70.9%, 21.5%, 44.7%, 70.9%, and 67.9%, respectively. The most common reason for all types of cancer was "no symptoms, " followed by "lack of time" and "fear of the examination procedure. " Efforts to facilitate participation in liver and colorectal cancer screening among Korean men and women are needed.

  5. Lung cancer screening: Is there a future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary ER O′Brien

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide with an average rate of 40-100/100,000 depending on the level of deprivation, and the rates are higher in smokers. The National Lung Screening Trial using three consecutive annual low-dose computed tomography scans is the first and largest screening study to show clear evidence of a significant reduction in lung cancer mortality in selected high-risk subjects. The many on-going European screening studies will generate information on the groups of subjects that may or may not benefit from screening (demographics, pack-years smoked, length of smoking, number of years from quitting etc. and the required frequency and duration of the intervention. Smoking cessation remains the most important tool for general improvement in health outcomes and in particular lung cancer prevention. Early intervention for investigations of symptoms that are considered mild or common could also change the outcome. Doctors and patients must become increasingly aware that these common symptoms are also potentially symptoms of lung cancer and are not ′normal′ even in smokers.

  6. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... in dozens of tiny bulbs that can produce milk. The lobes, lobules, and bulbs are linked by ...

  7. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  8. Issues and challenges in implementing cervical cancer screenings in the emergence of HPV vaccination in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntasopeepun, Phanida; Davidson, Patricia M; Srisomboon, Jatupol

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of the HPV vaccine has been a major breakthrough in preventing cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases around the globe. Cervical cancer is a significant public health problem in Thailand. Despite the long-time availability of cervical cancer screening programs in Thailand, the uptake among the target female population remains low. HPV vaccines were approved by the Food and Drug Administration of Thailand in 2007. As of March 2011, due to financial limitations, HPV vaccines have still not been included in the national immunization program under the public health benefit plans although individuals has the option to pay privately for the vaccine. This paper discusses the issues and challenges in implementing cervical cancer screening programs in the era of HPV vaccination in Thailand. Recommendations to increase the uptake of cervical cancer screening and further research to inform a policy regarding the cervical cancer screening measures are proposed.

  9. Stool Testing for Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Douglas J; Imperiale, Thomas F

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been shown to reduce CRC incidence and mortality and is widely recommended. However, despite the demonstrated benefits of screening and ongoing efforts to improve screening rates, a large percentage of the population remains unscreened. Noninvasive stool based tests offer great opportunity to enhance screening uptake. The evidence supporting the use of both fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) and stool DNA (sDNA) has been growing rapidly and both tests are now commercially available for use. Other stool biomarkers (eg, RNA and protein based) are also actively under study both for use independently and as adjuncts to the currently available tests. This mini review provides current, state of the art knowledge about noninvasive stool based screening. It includes a more detailed examination of those tests currently in use (ie, FIT and sDNA) but also provides an overview of stool testing options under development (ie, protein and RNA).

  10. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  11. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  12. Breast cancer mortality in Norway after the introduction of mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anne Helene; Lynge, Elsebeth; Njor, Sisse H;

    2013-01-01

    An organized mammography screening program was gradually implemented in Norway during the period 1996-2004. Norwegian authorities have initiated an evaluation of the program. Our study focused on breast cancer mortality. Using Poisson regression, we compared the change in breast cancer mortality...... from before to during screening in four counties starting the program early controlling for change in breast cancer mortality during the same time in counties starting the program late. A follow-up model included death in all breast cancers diagnosed during the follow-up period. An evaluation model...... to the program, the implementation of the organized mammography screening program was associated with a statistically nonsignificant decrease in breast cancer mortality of around 11%....

  13. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening: A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Rong Cai; Su-Zhan Zhang; Shu Zheng; Hong-Hong Zhu

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To investigate barriers to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in a community population. METHODS:We conducted a community-based case-control study in an urban Chinese population by questionnaire. Cases were selected from those completing both a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) case and colonoscopy in a CRC screening program in 2004. Control groups were matched by gender, age group and community. Control 1 included those having a positive FOBT but refusing a colonoscopy. Control 2 included those who refused both an FOBT and colonoscopy. RESULTS:The impact of occupation on willingness to attend a colorectal screening program differed by gender. P for heterogeneity was 0.009 for case vs control group 1, 0.01 for case versus control group 2, and 0.80 for control group 1 vs 2. Poor awareness of CRC and its screening program, characteristics of screening tests, and lack of time affected the screening rate. Financial support, fear of pain and bowel preparation were barriers to a colonoscopy as a screening test. Eighty-two percent of control group 1 and 87.1% of control group 2 were willing attend if the colonoscopy was free, but only 56.3% and 53.1%,respectively, if it was self-paid. Multivariate odds ratios for case vs control group 1 were 0.10 among those unwilling to attend a free colonoscopy and 0.50 among those unwilling to attend a self-paid colonoscopy. CONCLUSION:Raising the public awareness of CRC and its screening, integrating CRC screening into the health care system, and using a painless colonoscopy would increase its screening rate.

  14. Endoscopy in screening for digestive cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, René

    2012-12-16

    The aim of this study is to describe the role of endoscopy in detection and treatment of neoplastic lesions of the digestive mucosa in asymptomatic persons. Esophageal squamous cell cancer occurs in relation to nutritional deficiency and alcohol or tobacco consumption. Esophageal adenocarcinoma develops in Barrett's esophagus, and stomach cancer in chronic gastric atrophy with Helicobacter pylori infection. Colorectal cancer is favoured by a high intake in calories, excess weight, low physical activity. In opportunistic or individual screening endoscopy is the primary detection procedure offered to an asymptomatic individual. In organized or mass screening proposed by National Health Authorities to a population, endoscopy is performed only in persons found positive to a filter selection test. The indications of primary upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy in opportunistic screening are increasingly developing over the world. Organized screening trials are proposed in some regions of China at high risk for esophageal cancer; the selection test is cytology of a balloon or sponge scrapping; they are proposed in Japan for stomach cancer with photofluorography as a selection test; and in Europe, America and Japan; for colorectal cancer with the fecal occult blood test as a selection test. Organized screening trials in a country require an evaluation: the benefit of the intervention assessed by its impact on incidence and on the 5 year survival for the concerned tumor site; in addition a number of bias interfering with the evaluation have to be controlled. Drawbacks of screening are in the morbidity of the diagnostic and treatment procedures and in overdetection of none clinically relevant lesions. The strategy of endoscopic screening applies to early cancer and to benign adenomatous precursors of adenocarcinoma. Diagnostic endoscopy is conducted in 2 steps: at first detection of an abnormal area through changes in relief, in color or in the course of

  15. Perspectives of colorectal cancer screening in Germany 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieg, Andreas; Friedrich, Kilian

    2009-10-15

    Adequate screening methods can decrease colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality. The guaiac test for fecal occult-blood (FOBT) is part of the German CRC Screening Program since 1970 and has evidence level Ia. In randomized multicenter-studies FOBT has an average sensitivity of 24% and decreases CRC mortality up to 30%. Immunological tests for human haemoglobin (iFOBT) show better performance characteristics than guaiac FOBT, with augmented sensitivity and specificity. However, the single tests show wide differences in diagnostic performance and iFOBT is not yet covered by insurance companies although it should replace the guaiac test for CRC screening. Visual colonoscopy, which was introduced to the German National Cancer Screening Program in 2002, is the gold standard for the diagnosis of colorectal neoplasia. From 2003 to 2007 more than 2.8 million examinations have been documented in Germany. The prevalence of adenomas is around 20% and of CRC about 0.7% to 1.0% of the screenings. Seventy percent of the carcinomas detected during screening are in an early stage (UICC I and II). Furthermore, screening colonoscopy is a cost saving procedure with a low complication rate (0.25% overall). Insurance companies save 216€ for each screening colonoscopy mainly by prevention of neoplasia due to polypectomy. In Germany, virtual colonography by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging still lacks standardization of the hard and software. In experienced centres the sensitivity for CRC and large polyps of CT colonography is comparable to colonoscopy but in meta-analyses the ranking is lower. New technologies like computer-aided colonoscopies with sheath or double balloon techniques are coming up as well as capsule colonoscopy, which sensitivity for large polyps is about 70%. Advised by his physician, the patient can choose his most acceptable examination method from this whole set of screening tools.

  16. [The usefulness of fecal tests in colorectal cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Antoni

    2014-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is a paradigm of neoplasms that are amenable to preventative measures, especially screening. Currently, to carry this out, there are various strategies that have proven effective and efficient. In countries that have organized population-level screening programs, the most common strategy is fecal occult blood testing. In recent years, new methods have appeared that could constitute viable alternatives in the near future, among which the detection of changes in fecal DNA is emphasized. In this article, we review the most relevant papers on colorectal cancer screening presented at the annual meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Chicago in May 2014, with special emphasis on the medium and long-term performance of strategies to detect occult blood in feces and the first results obtained with fecal DNA testing.

  17. Stomach cancer screening and preventive behaviors in relatives of gastric cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung Min Kang; Dong Wook Shin; Young Min Kwon; Sang Min Park; Min Sun Park; Jin Ho Park; Ki Young Son; Be Long Cho

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate gastric cancer screening and preventive behaviors among the relatives of patients with gastric cancer [i.e., gastric cancer relatives (GCRs)]. METHODS: We examined the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 (KNHANES Ⅲ) database and compared the gastric cancer screening and preventive behaviors of GCRs (n = 261) with those of non-GCRs (n = 454) and controls without a family history of cancer (n = 2842). RESULTS: The GCRs were more likely to undergo gastric cancer screening compared with the control group (39.2% vs 32.3%, adjusted odds ratio: 1.43, CI: 1.05-1.95), although the absolute screening rate was low. Dietary patterns and smoking rates did not differ significantly between the groups, and a high proportion of GCRs reported inappropriate dietary habits (i.e., approximately 95% consumed excessive sodium, 30% were deficient in vitamin C, and 85% were deficient in dietary fiber). CONCLUSION: The gastric cancer screening and preventive behaviors of GCRs have yet to be improved. To increase awareness among GCRs, systematic family education programs should be implemented.

  18. Screening for lung cancer: Does MRI have a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederer, Juergen; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Hatabu, Hiroto; Schiebler, Mark L; van Beek, Edwin J R; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    While the inauguration of national low dose computed tomographic (LDCT) lung cancer screening programs has started in the USA, other countries remain undecided, awaiting the results of ongoing trials. The continuous technical development achieved by stronger gradients, parallel imaging and shorter echo time has made lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) an interesting alternative to CT. For the detection of solid lesions with lung MRI, experimental and clinical studies have shown a threshold size of 3-4mm for nodules, with detection rates of 60-90% for lesions of 5-8mm and close to 100% for lesions of 8mm or larger. From experimental work, the sensitivity for infiltrative, non-solid lesions would be expected to be similarly high as that for solid lesions, but the published data for the MRI detection of lepidic growth type adenocarcinoma is sparse. Moreover, biological features such as a longer T2 time of lung cancer tissue, tissue compliance and a more rapid uptake of contrast material compared to granulomatous diseases, in principle should allow for the multi-parametric characterization of lung pathology. Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing. There are now standardized protocols which are easy to implement on current scanner hardware configurations. The image quality has become more robust and currently ongoing studies will help to further contribute experience with multi-center, multi-vendor and multi-platform implementation of this technology. All of the required prerequisites have now been achieved to allow for a dedicated prospective large scale MRI based lung cancer screening trial to investigate the outcomes from using MRI rather than CT for lung cancer screening. This is driven by the hypothesis that MRI would reach a similarly high sensitivity for the detection of early lung cancer with fewer false positive exams (better specificity) than LDCT. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the potential role of lung MRI for the early

  19. Risk-based prostate cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X.D. Zhu (Xiaoye); P.C. Albertsen (Peter); G.L. Andriole (Gerald); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); A.J. Vickers (Andrew)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContext: Widespread mass screening of prostate cancer (PCa) is not recommended because the balance between benefits and harms is still not well established. The achieved mortality reduction comes with considerable harm such as unnecessary biopsies, overdiagnoses, and overtreatment. There

  20. Implementation and organization of lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    CT screening for lung cancer is now being implemented in the US and China on a widespread national scale but not in Europe so far. The review gives a status for the implementation process and the hurdles to overcome in the future. It also describes the guidelines and requirements for the structure...

  1. Screening for distress in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Luigi; Johansen, Christoffer; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta;

    2013-01-01

    Routine screening for distress is internationally recommended as a necessary standard for good cancer care, given its high prevalence and negative consequences on quality of life. The objective of the current study was to contribute to the Italian validation of the Distress Thermometer (DT...

  2. Too Few Current, Former Smokers Screened for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Too Few Current, Former Smokers Screened for Lung Cancer Such testing could cut death rate by 20 ... the United States don't get screened for lung cancer even though they're at increased risk for ...

  3. Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate may be similar to symptoms of prostate cancer . Enlarge Normal prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A normal prostate does not block the flow of urine from the bladder. An enlarged prostate presses on the bladder and urethra and blocks the flow of urine. See the ...

  4. [Present and future state of cancer screening for esophageal cancer and gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Hirotaka; Nagahama, Ryuji; Yoshida, Misao

    2012-01-01

    Recently, endoscopic examinations have played a major role in the diagnosis and treatment in the field of gastroenterology. It is considered that endoscopy would be an important examination for cancer screening of the esophagus and the stomach. However, endoscopic services for cancer screening are in short supply. Furthermore, we have to take the complications and poor economic benefits of endoscopy in to consideration when we apply it as a practical cancer screening system. Thus, an effective primary screening system must be provided for the endoscopic screening of cancer of the esophagus and the stomach. People with a defect in aldehyde dehydrogenase-2(ALDH2)should be distinguished by their facial flushing in drinking and for their high risks of esophageal cancer. In cases with gastric cancer screening by endoscopy, an x-ray study is expected to be a primary screening because of its efficacy. It already has been recommended for population-based screening in Japanese guidelines for gastric cancer screening. In cases with opportunistic screening of gastric cancer, patients should be allowed to choose from several studies such as the x-ray study, direct endoscopy, and the so-called high risk screening of gastric cancer for estimating risks and planning of screening for gastric cancer.

  5. Breast cancer screening controversies: who, when, why, and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetlen, Alison; Mack, Julie; Chan, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic screening is effective in reducing mortality from breast cancer. The issue is not whether mammography is effective, but whether the false positive rate and false negative rates can be reduced. This review will discuss controversies including the reduction in breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, the ideal screening candidate, and the optimal imaging modality for breast cancer screening. The article will compare and contrast screening mammography, tomosynthesis, whole-breast screening ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular breast imaging. Though supplemental imaging modalities are being utilized to improve breast cancer diagnosis, mammography still remains the gold standard for breast cancer screening.

  6. Prostate Cancer – To screen, or not to screen, is that the question?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosser Charles J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There continues to be controversy regarding serum Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA and prostate cancer screening. We anxiously await the results of two large prospective randomized clinical trials (Prostate, Lung, Colon, and Ovary-PCLO screening trial in the US and European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer-ERSPC in Europe assessing the benefits of prostate cancer screening. However the true question to answer may be which cancer to treat and when should we treat it.

  7. Attitudes towards Lung Cancer Screening in an Australian High-Risk Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra E. Flynn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine whether persons at high risk of lung cancer would participate in lung cancer screening test if available in Australia and to elicit general attitudes towards cancer screening and factors that might affect participation in a screening program. Methods. We developed a 20-item written questionnaire, based on two published telephone interview scripts, addressing attitudes towards cancer screening, perceived risk of lung cancer, and willingness to be screened for lung cancer and to undertake surgery if lung cancer were detected. The questionnaire was given to 102 current and former smokers attending the respiratory clinic and pulmonary rehabilitation programmes. Results. We gained 90 eligible responses (M:F, 69:21. Mean [SD] age was 63 [11] and smoking history was 32 [21] pack years. 95% of subjects would participate in a lung cancer screening test, and 91% of these would consider surgery if lung cancer was detected. 44% of subjects considered that they were at risk of lung cancer. This was lower in ex-smokers than in current smokers. Conclusions. There is high willingness for lung cancer screening and surgical treatment. There is underrecognition of risk among ex-smokers. This misperception could be a barrier to a successful screening or case-finding programme in Australia.

  8. Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Guide to the Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas K Rex

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The two most recent guidelines for colorectal cancer screening are those of the Agency for Healthcare Policy and Research, and the American Cancer Society. The guidelines are similar in many regards and reflect current literature, consensus opinion and compromise between members of multidisciplinary panels. The emphasis of both guidelines is to increase the options available for colorectal cancer screening. Increasing choice should expand the attractiveness of colorectal cancer screening to more patients and physicians, and the development of guidelines should help compel payers to provide reimbursement for colorectal cancer screening. These guidelines are summarized and evaluated as they pertain to colorectal cancer screening.

  9. Cervical cancer screening in Greenland, 1997-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Signe; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Kjær, Susanne K;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In spite of the high incidence of cervical cancer in Greenland, no assessment has been made of the impact of organized cervical screening, introduced in 1998, in relation to occurrence of high-grade cervical lesions. The objectives of the present study were to estimate coverage...... of the screening program and to examine possible changes in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN3) incidence in Greenland during 1997-2011 according to calendar period and age. METHODS: Using nationwide registries, we calculated age-standardized incidence rates for all women born and living in Greenland...

  10. Optimization of nodule management in CT lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein Anne

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cancer-related cause of death. Through computed tomography (CT) screening, cancer can be detected at the earliest stage, with a much greater probability of cure. After the positive outcome of the US National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), screening with low-dose CT in heavy

  11. Depression Screening and Patient Outcomes in Cancer : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Milette, Katherine; Coyne, James C.; Stefanek, Michael E.; Ziegelstein, Roy C.; Arthurs, Erin; Leavens, Allison; Palmer, Steven C.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Thombs, Brett D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several practice guidelines recommend screening for depression in cancer care, but no systematic reviews have examined whether there is evidence that depression screening benefits cancer patients. The objective was to evaluate the potential benefits of depression screening in cancer pati

  12. Cancer screening: Should cancer screening be essential component of primary health care in developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bobdey

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study highlights the availability and success of visual screening tools in early detection and mortality reduction of major neoplasia in resource-poor health care settings and recommends implementation of oral and cervical cancer screening as part of assured primary health care package in developing countries.

  13. Burden of cervical cancer and role of screening in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobdey, Saurabh; Sathwara, Jignasa; Jain, Aanchal; Balasubramaniam, Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality in women and more than a quarter of its global burden is contributed by developing countries. In India, in spite of alarmingly high figures, there is no nationwide government-sponsored screening program. This study was conducted to assess the burden of cervical cancer in India and review the performance characteristics of available cervical cancer screening tools, so as to provide evidence-based recommendations for application of most practically suited screening test to be used in resource-poor field settings. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Web of Science electronic database were searched from January 1990 to December 2015, using the keywords such as “cervical cancer”, “screening”, “early detection”, “cervical cytology” and “visual inspection”, and their corresponding MeSH terms in combination with Boolean operators “OR, AND.” Two authors independently selected studies that are published in English and conducted in India. A total of 11 studies were found to be relevant and eligible to be included in the present study. Results: In India, cervical cancer contributes to approximately 6–29% of all cancers in women. The age-adjusted incidence rate of cervical cancer varies widely among registries; highest is 23.07/100,000 in Mizoram state and the lowest is 4.91/100,000 in Dibrugarh district. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), magnified VIA, visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI), cytology (Pap smear), and human papillomavirus DNA were found to be 67.65% and 84.32%, 65.36% and 85.76%, 78.27% and 87.10%, 62.11% and 93.51%, and 77.81% and 91.54%, respectively. Conclusions: In developing countries because of lack of necessary infrastructure and quality control, high-quality cytology screening may not be feasible for wide-scale implementation. Hence, cervical cancer screening program based on visual screening test

  14. Burden of cervical cancer and role of screening in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bobdey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality in women and more than a quarter of its global burden is contributed by developing countries. In India, in spite of alarmingly high figures, there is no nationwide government-sponsored screening program. This study was conducted to assess the burden of cervical cancer in India and review the performance characteristics of available cervical cancer screening tools, so as to provide evidence-based recommendations for application of most practically suited screening test to be used in resource-poor field settings. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Web of Science electronic database were searched from January 1990 to December 2015, using the keywords such as “cervical cancer”, “screening”, “early detection”, “cervical cytology” and “visual inspection”, and their corresponding MeSH terms in combination with Boolean operators “OR, AND.” Two authors independently selected studies that are published in English and conducted in India. A total of 11 studies were found to be relevant and eligible to be included in the present study. Results: In India, cervical cancer contributes to approximately 6–29% of all cancers in women. The age-adjusted incidence rate of cervical cancer varies widely among registries; highest is 23.07/100,000 in Mizoram state and the lowest is 4.91/100,000 in Dibrugarh district. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA, magnified VIA, visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI, cytology (Pap smear, and human papillomavirus DNA were found to be 67.65% and 84.32%, 65.36% and 85.76%, 78.27% and 87.10%, 62.11% and 93.51%, and 77.81% and 91.54%, respectively. Conclusions: In developing countries because of lack of necessary infrastructure and quality control, high-quality cytology screening may not be feasible for wide-scale implementation. Hence, cervical cancer screening program based on

  15. Genetic Screening for Familial Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Carla

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Approximately 10% of gastric cancer cases show familial clustering but only 1-3% of gastric carcinomas arise as a result of inherited gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Direct proof that Hereditary Gastric Cancer a genetic disease with a germline gene defect has come from the demonstration of co-segregation of germline E-cadherin (CDH1 mutations with early onset diffuse gastric cancer in families with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance (HDGC. E-cadherin is a transmembrane calcium-dependent cell-adhesion molecule involved in cell-junction formation and the maintenance of epithelial integrity. In this review, we describe frequency and type of CDH1 mutations in sporadic and familial gastric cancer. Further we demonstrate the functional significance of some CDH1 germline missense mutations found in HDGC. We also discuss the CDH1 polymorphisms that have been associated to gastric cancer. We report other types of malignancies associated to HDGC, besides diffuse gastric cancer. Moreover, we review the data available on putative alternative candidate genes screened in familial gastric cancer. Finally, we briefly discuss the role of low-penetrance genes and Helicobacter pylori in gastric cancer. This knowledge is a fundamental step towards accurate genetic counselling, in which a highly specialised pre-symptomatic therapeutic intervention should be offered.

  16. Lung cancer screening: did we really need a randomized controlled trial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ayoubi, Adnan M; Flores, Raja M

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the USA. Within the past decade, two large trials (the National Lung Screening Trial Research and the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program) confirmed a significant role for low-dose CT (LDCT) screening in identifying early stages of cancer leading to reduced mortality in high-risk patients. Given the evidence, the US Preventive Services Task Force issued a recommendation in favour of LDCT screening for high-risk individuals. Despite the strong support for LDCT among physicians who treat lung cancer and cumulative data demonstrating a survival benefit for screening and early detection, it took more than a decade for lung cancer screening to be embraced at the policy level. With many lives lost in the interim, did we really need a randomized controlled trial to make this decision?

  17. New era of colorectal cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maysaa El Zoghbi; Linda C Cummings

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer(CRC) is the 2nd most common cancer in women and 3rd most common cancer in men worldwide. Most CRCs develop from adenomatous polyps arising from glandular epithelium. Tumor growth is initiated by mutation of the tumor suppressor gene APC and involves other genetic mutations in a stepwise process over years. Both hereditary and environmental factors contribute to the development of CRC. Screening has been proven to reduce the incidence of CRC. Screening has also contributed to the decrease in CRC mortality in the United States. However,CRC incidence and/or mortality remain on the rise in some parts of the world(Eastern Europe,Asia,and South America),likely due to factors including westernized diet,lifestyle,and lack of healthcare infrastructure. Multiple screening options are available,ranging from direct radiologic or endoscopic visualization tests that primarily detect premalignant or malignant lesions such as flexible sigmoidoscopy,optical colonoscopy,colon capsule endoscopy,computed tomographic colonography,and double contrast barium enema- to stool based tests which primarily detect cancers,including fecal DNA,fecal immunochemical test,and fecal occult blood test. The availability of some of these tests is limited to areas with high economic resources. This article will discuss CRC epidemiology,pathogenesis,risk factors,and screening modalities with a particular focus on new technologies.

  18. Fecal DNA Screening in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Richter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common type of cancer diagnosed in Canada, and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in nonsmokers. Although CRC is considered to be 90% curable if detected early, the majority of patients present with advanced stage III or IV disease. An effective screening test may significantly decrease disease burden. The present paper examines the rationale and potential of fecal DNA testing as an alternative and adjunct to other CRC screening tests. The most efficacious fecal DNA test developed to date has a sensitivity and specificity of 87.5% and 82%, respectively. The approach has a higher positive predictive value than the currently used fecal occult blood test and offers a noninvasive option to patients. It is not reliant on the presence of bleeding, which may be intermittent or altogether absent. The test is now commercially available and is supported by a number of American insurers. Current challenges include cost reduction and demonstration of mortality benefit in a rigorous clinical trial. Despite current challenges, fecal DNA testing is worth pursuing. Both the American Gastroenterological Society and the American Cancer Society maintain that molecular testing is in its infancy but is promising. Fecal DNA testing has the potential to be an exciting addition to the current armament of CRC screening options.

  19. Programs | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    OCG facilitates cancer genomics research through a series of highly-focused programs. These programs generate and disseminate genomic data for use by the cancer research community. OCG programs also promote advances in technology-based infrastructure and create valuable experimental reagents and tools. OCG programs encourage collaboration by interconnecting with other genomics and cancer projects in order to accelerate translation of findings into the clinic. Below are OCG’s current, completed, and initiated programs:

  20. Gender differences in attitudes impeding colorectal cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is the only type of cancer screening where both genders reduce risks by similar proportions with identical procedures. It is an important context for examining gender differences in disease-prevention, as CRCS significantly reduces mortality via early detection and prevention. In efforts to increase screening adherence, there is increasing acknowledgment that obstructive attitudes prevent CRCS uptake. Precise identification of the gender differences in obstructive attitudes is necessary to improve uptake promotion. This study randomly sampled unscreened, screening - eligible individuals in Ontario, employing semi-structured interviews to elicit key differences in attitudinal obstructions towards colorectal cancer screening with the aim of deriving informative differences useful in planning promotions of screening uptake. Methods N = 81 participants (49 females, 32 males), 50 years and above, with no prior CRCS, were contacted via random-digit telephone dialing, and consented via phone-mail contact. Altogether, N = 4,459 calls were made to yield N = 85 participants (1.9% response rate) of which N = 4 participants did not complete interviews. All subjects were eligible for free-of-charge CRCS in Ontario, and each was classified, via standard interview by CRCS screening decision-stage. Telephone-based, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were employed to investigate gender differences in CRCS attitudes, using questions focused on 5 attitudinal domains: 1) Screening experience at the time of interview; 2) Barriers to adherence; 3) Predictors of Adherence; 4) Pain-anxiety experiences related to CRCS; 5) Gender-specific experiences re: CRCS, addressing all three modalities accessible through Ontario’s program: a) fecal occult blood testing; b) flexible sigmoidoscopy; c) colonoscopy. Results Interview transcript analyses indicated divergent themes related to CRCS for each gender: 1) bodily intrusion, 2) perforation anxiety

  1. ColoNav: patient navigation for colorectal cancer screening in deprived areas – Study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Allary, C.; Bourmaud, A.; Tinquaut, F.; Oriol, M; Kalecinski, J.; Dutertre, V.; Lechopier, N.; Pommier, M; Benoist, Y.; Rousseau, S; Regnier, V.; Buthion, V.; Chauvin, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background The mass colorectal cancer screening program was implemented in 2008 in France, targeting 16 million French people aged between 50 and 74. The current adhesion is insufficient and the participation rate is even lower among the underserved population, increasing health inequalities within our health care system. Patient Navigation programs have proved their efficiency to promote the access to cancer screening and diagnosis. Methods/Design The purpose of the study is to assess the im...

  2. Improving colorectal cancer screening: fact and fantasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jacques

    2008-02-01

    Premalignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, such as Barrett's esophagus, long-standing ulcerative colitis, and adenomatous polyps, have a significantly increased risk for development of adenocarcinoma, most often through an intermediate stage of dysplasia. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is the second most common cancer in the United States. Because patients with colorectal cancer often present with advanced disease, the outcomes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Effective methods of early detection are essential. As non-polypoid dysplasia is not visible using conventional endoscopy, surveillance of patients with Barrett's esophagus and ulcerative colitis is performed via a system in which multiple random biopsies are obtained at prescribed intervals. Sampling error and missed diagnoses occur frequently and render current screening methods inadequate. Also, the examination of a tissue biopsy is time consuming and costly, and significant intra- and inter-observer variation may occur. The newer methods discussed herein demonstrate the potential to solve these problems by early detection of disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Conventional endoscopy is based on the observation of white light reflected off the tissue surface. Subtle changes in color and shadow reveal structural changes. New developments in optical imaging go beyond white light, exploiting other properties of light. Several promising methods will be discussed at this meeting and shall be briefly discussed below. However, few such imaging modalities have arrived at our clinical practice. Some much more practical methods to improve colorectal cancer screening are currently being evaluated for their clinical impact. These methods seek to overcome limitations other than those of detecting dysplasia not visible under white light endoscopy. The current standard practice of colorectal cancer screening utilizes colonoscopy, an uncomfortable, sometimes difficult medical

  3. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group screened by chest x-ray. On the basis of this trial, different US guidelines recently have recommended CT lung cancer screening. However, several questions regarding the implementation of lung cancer screening need to be answered. In Europe, several lung cancer screening trials are ongoing. It is planned to pool the results of the lung cancer screening trials in European randomized lung cancer CT screening (EUCT). By pooling of the data, EUCT hopes to be able to provide additional information for the discussion of some important issues regarding the implementation of lung cancer screening by low-dose CT, including: the determination of the optimal screen population, the comparison between a volume-based and diameter-based nodule management protocol, and the determination of optimal screen intervals.

  4. Predictive features of breast cancer on Mexican screening mammography patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Rojas, Juan; Garza-Montemayor, Margarita; Trevino-Alvarado, Victor; Tamez-Pena, José Gerardo

    2013-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer worldwide. In response, breast cancer screening programs are becoming common around the world and public programs now serve millions of women worldwide. These programs are expensive, requiring many specialized radiologists to examine all images. Nevertheless, there is a lack of trained radiologists in many countries as in Mexico, which is a barrier towards decreasing breast cancer mortality, pointing at the need of a triaging system that prioritizes high risk cases for prompt interpretation. Therefore we explored in an image database of Mexican patients whether high risk cases can be distinguished using image features. We collected a set of 200 digital screening mammography cases from a hospital in Mexico, and assigned low or high risk labels according to its BIRADS score. Breast tissue segmentation was performed using an automatic procedure. Image features were obtained considering only the segmented region on each view and comparing the bilateral di erences of the obtained features. Predictive combinations of features were chosen using a genetic algorithms based feature selection procedure. The best model found was able to classify low-risk and high-risk cases with an area under the ROC curve of 0.88 on a 150-fold cross-validation test. The features selected were associated to the differences of signal distribution and tissue shape on bilateral views. The model found can be used to automatically identify high risk cases and trigger the necessary measures to provide prompt treatment.

  5. Validity of data in the Danish Colorectal Cancer Screening Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomsen MK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mette Kielsholm Thomsen,1 Sisse Helle Njor,1 Morten Rasmussen,2 Dorte Linnemann,3 Berit Andersen,4 Gunnar Baatrup,5,6 Lennart Jan Friis-Hansen,7 Jens Christian Riis Jørgensen,8 Ellen Margrethe Mikkelsen1 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 2Department of Digestive Diseases K, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, 3Department of Pathology, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Herlev, 4Department of Public Health Programs, Randers Regional Hospital, Randers, 5Department of Surgery, Odense University Hospital, 6Department of Clinical Science, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, 7Center for Genomic Medicine, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 8Department of Colorectal Cancer Surgery, Vejle Hospital, Vejle, Denmark Background: In Denmark, a nationwide screening program for colorectal cancer was implemented in March 2014. Along with this, a clinical database for program monitoring and research purposes was established. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the agreement and validity of diagnosis and procedure codes in the Danish Colorectal Cancer Screening Database (DCCSD. Methods: All individuals with a positive immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT result who were invited to screening in the first 3 months since program initiation were identified. From these, a sample of 150 individuals was selected using stratified random sampling by age, gender and region of residence. Data from the DCCSD were compared with data from hospital records, which were used as the reference. Agreement, sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were estimated for categories of codes “clean colon”, “colonoscopy performed”, “overall completeness of colonoscopy”, “incomplete colonoscopy”, “polypectomy”, “tumor tissue left behind”, “number of polyps”, “lost polyps”, “risk group of polyps” and “colorectal cancer and polyps/benign tumor

  6. Can colorectal cancer mass-screening organization be evidence-based? Lessons from failures: The experimental and pilot phases of the Lazio program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Sabrina

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening programmes should be organized to translate theoretical efficacy into effectiveness. An evidence-based organizational model of colorectal cancer screening (CRCS should assure feasibility and high compliance. Methods A multidisciplinary Working Group (WG, reviewed literature and guidelines to define evidence-based recommendations. The WG identified the need for further local studies: physicians' CRCS attitudes, the effect of test type and provider on compliance, and individual reasons for non-compliance. A survey of digestive endoscopy services was conducted. A feasibility study on a target population of 300.000 has begun. Results Based on the results of population trials and on literature review the screening strategy adopted was Faecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT every two years for 50–74 year olds and, for positives, colonoscopy. The immunochemical test was chosen because it has 20% higher compliance than the Guaiac. GPs were chosen as the preferred provider also for higher compliance. Since we observed that distance is the major determinant of non-compliance, we choose GPs because they are the closest providers, both geographically and emotionally, to the public. The feasibility study showed several barriers: GP participation was low, there were administrative problems to involve GPs; opportunistic testing by the GPs; difficulties in access to Gastroenterology centres; difficulties in gathering colonoscopy results; little time given to screening activity by the gastroenterology centre. Conclusion The feasibility study highlighted several limits of the model. Most of the barriers that emerged were consequences of organisational choices not supported by evidence. The principal limit was a lack of accountability by the participating centres.

  7. Adherence to cervical cancer screening in an Italian SLE cohort

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    R. Talarico

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Papanicolau (Pap smear abnormalities are more frequently observed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE respect to the general population. The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the adherence to cervical cancer (CC screening in an Italian cohort of SLE patients and, secondly, to evaluate the disease-related factors possibly influencing the patients’ behavior. Methods: Consecutive 25 to 64 year old SLE patients and aged- matched healthy women were enrolled for the study. All patients were interviewed during ambulatory visits, at admission to the clinic or by a telephone contact; disease related variables were also collected from the clinical charts. Results: 140 SLE patients (mean age 48.3±12 years and 70 controls matched for demographic and sociocultural characteristics were enrolled. Ninety-three SLE patients (66.4% declared to perform the Pap test at least every three years (23.6% yearly and 42.8% when asked by the screening programs while 47 (33.6% did not perform regular CC screening (16.4% never did the test and 17.1% only occasionally. No significant differences were observed between patients and controls in cancer screening adherence. No significant associations were observed between the screening program behaviours and disease-related variables. Conclusions: Despite the growing evidence of an increased risk of CC in SLE, and regardless of the broad availability of screening programs and official recommendations, our results show insufficient CC surveillance among SLE patients and emphasize to rheumatologists and/or general practitioners the importance to discuss with patients this aspect during routine evaluations in order to encourage compliance to the recommended preventive measures.

  8. Intrinsic motivation factors based on the self-determinant theory for regular breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Su Mi; Jo, Heui-Sug

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors of intrinsic motivation that affect regular breast cancer screening and contribute to development of a program for strategies to improve effective breast cancer screening. Subjects were residing in South Korea Gangwon-Province and were female over 40 and under 69 years of age. For the investigation, the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) was modified to the situation of cancer screening and was used to survey 905 inhabitants. Multinominal logistic regression analyses were conducted for regular breast cancer screening (RS), one-time breast cancer screening (OS) and non-breast cancer screening (NS). For statistical analysis, IBM SPSS 20.0 was utilized. The determinant factors between RS and NS were "perceived effort and choice" and "stress and strain" - internal motivations related to regular breast cancer screening. Also, determinant factors between RS and OS are "age" and "perceived effort and choice" for internal motivation related to cancer screening. To increase regular screening, strategies that address individual perceived effort and choice are recommended.

  9. Adult hearing screening: the Cyprus Pilot Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Thodi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is the third most common condition affecting adults over 65 (Cruickshanks et al., 1998. It can affect quality of life, limiting the ability to communicate efficiently, and leading to isolation, psychological strain, and functional decline (LaForge, Spector, Sternberg, 1992; Yueh, Shapiro, MacLean, Shekelle, 2003. Communication limitations impinge on the person directly, as well as the family, friends, and social circle. Reports on hearing loss among adults indicate that less than 25% of people who can benefit from amplification are actually using hearing aids, and that people diagnosed with a hearing loss delay seeking amplification by about seven years (Kochkin, 1997. Often, family members are the driving force behind a person with a hearing loss who decides to seek help. Adult hearing screening programs might have a positive effect on raising public awareness on hearing loss and its implications, and shortening delay time for intervention. There is no routine hearing screening for the adult population in Cyprus. The health system provides hearing tests for beneficiaries upon physician recommendation or self-referral. The Cyprus pilot adult hearing screening program (ΑΠΑΣ- EVERYONE- Greek acronym for Screening- Intervention-Hearing-Participation to Life screened hearing in retired adults.

  10. Recommendations for cervical cancer screening programs in developing countries: the need for equity and technological development Recomendaciones a programas de detección oportuna de cáncer cervical en países en desarrollo: necesidad de equidad y desarrollo tecnológico

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The cervical cancer screening programs (CCSP) have not been very efficient in the developing countries. This explains the need to foster changes on policies, standards, quality control mechanisms, evaluation and integration of new screening alternatives considered as low and high cost, as well as to regulate colposcopy practices and the foundation of HPV laboratories. Cervical cancer (CC) is a disease most frequently found in poverty-stricken communities and reflecting a problem of equity at ...

  11. Comparison of digital screening mammography and screen-film mammography in the early detection of clinically relevant cancers: a multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluekens, A.M.; Holland, R.; Karssemeijer, N.; Broeders, M.J.M.; Heeten, G.J. den

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare screen-film mammography with digital mammography in a breast cancer screening program, with a focus on the clinical relevance of detected cancers. Materials and Methods: The study was approved by the regional medical ethics review board. Informed consent was not required. Before

  12. [Comparison of four drug interaction screening programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing Lorenzini, K; Reutemann, B; Samer, C F; Guignard, B; Bonnabry, P; Dayer, P; Perrier, A; Desmeules, J

    2012-10-17

    Adverse drug events (ADE) are a major public health issue, with drug-drug interactions (DDI) being one of well-recognized causes of ADE that could be preventable by the use of DDI screening software. We compared the ability of four programs to detect clinically important DDI. We tested 62 drug pairs with and 12 drug pairs without clinically important DDI. Lexi-Interact and Epocrates were the most sensitive (95%) compared to the Compendium and Theriaque (80 and 73%, respectively). The Compendium and Theriaque also showed the lowest negative predictive value. All programs showed high specificity and positive predictive value. The qualitative assessment showed the best performances for Compendium and Lexi-Interact. The last one seems to be the best screening program, but the Compendium is in French and is freely available.

  13. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  14. Breast cancer screening: the underuse of mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, S.; Baum, J.K.; Klos, D.S.; Tsou, C.V.

    1985-09-01

    The early detection of breast cancer is promoted by the American Cancer Society (ACS) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) by encouraging the regular use of three types of screening: breast self-examination (BSE), the clinical breast examination, and mammography. In August 1983, the ACS publicized seven recommendations pertaining to screening, including a revised statement about the routine use of mammography for women between the ages of 40 and 49 years. In response to the ACS statement, the present study assessed compliance with the updated recommendations for all three types of screening. The results show reasonable rates of compliance for the BSE (53%-69%) and clinical examination (70%-78%). In contrast, only 19% of the women between the ages of 35 and 49 and 25% of the women older than 50 reported complying with the recommendation to undergo one baseline screening mammogram. Some implications for health education by physicians and the professional education of physicians in the use of mammography are discussed.

  15. 78 FR 35909 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Final Policies and Procedures for Screening Safe Drinking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... AGENCY Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Final Policies and Procedures for Screening Safe Drinking... document describes EPA's final policies and procedures for requiring Tier 1 screening under the Endocrine... chemicals for potential endocrine effects. The following list of North American Industrial...

  16. Análisis costo beneficio del Programa de Detección Oportuna del Cáncer Cervicouterino Cost benefit analysis of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA HERNÁNDEZ-PEÑA

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el costo beneficio de la reorganización del Programa de Detección Oportuna del Cáncer Cervicouterino (PDOC mediante intervenciones de garantía de calidad. Material y métodos. Se siguieron tres etapas: a identificación y cuantificación de costos; b identificación y cuantificación de beneficios, y c evaluación económica del costo beneficio. Resultados. El costo unitario de operación por citología -obtención, fijación, el traslado al centro de lectura, su tinción e interpretación y la notificación de resultados- se estimó en USD$ 11.6. En conjunto, las intervenciones en calidad al PDOC elevarían el costo de cada citología en 32.7%. Sin embargo, la nueva organización generaría una razón beneficio/costo de 2 y un beneficio neto de 88 millones de dólares para los próximos cinco años. Conclusiones. La operación del programa propuesto resulta socialmente deseable, siempre y cuando las modificaciones se lleven a cabo, particularmente la capacitación, la notificación personalizada de los casos positivos, el incremento de cobertura, la introducción de mecanismos de control de calidad, el monitoreo contínuo y el tratamiento en mujeres con anormalidades detectadas.Objective. Previous researches pointed out the critical changes needed to increase the efficiency of the National Screening Programme of Cervical Cancer in Mexico. These changes were assessed through a cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents the results of that appraisal. Figures are presented as USDollars of 1996 valued as 7.5 pesos for each dollar. Results. The operational unitary cost of the integral process of the cytology –the obtention of the Pap smear, its transportation to the interpretation centre, its analysis, and the notification of results to users– was estimated in US$ 11.6. If the proposed changes are operated, the cost of each citology would increase by 32.7%. The benefit/cost ratio would be 2 and the net benefit of 88

  17. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening: comparison of screening policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van den Akker-van Marle; M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); G.J. van Oortmarssen (Gerrit); R. Boer (Rob); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Recommended screening policies for cervical cancer differ widely among countries with respect to targeted age range, screening interval, and total number of scheduled screening examinations (i.e., Pap smears). We compared the efficiency of cervical cancer-sc

  18. Correlates of Cervical Cancer Screening among Vietnamese American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace X. Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Vietnamese American women are at the greatest risk for cervical cancer but have the lowest cervical cancer screening rates. This study was to determine whether demographic and acculturation, healthcare access, and knowledge and beliefs are associated with a prior history of cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese women. Methods. Vietnamese women (n=1450 from 30 Vietnamese community-based organizations located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey participated in the study and completed baseline assessments. Logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. Overall levels of knowledge about cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus (HPV are low. Factors in knowledge, attitude, and beliefs domains were significantly associated with Pap test behavior. In multivariate analyses, physician recommendation for screening and having health insurance were positively associated with prior screening. Conclusion. Understanding the factors that are associated with cervical cancer screening will inform the development of culturally appropriate intervention strategies that would potentially lead to increasing cervical cancer screening rates among Vietnamese women.

  19. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enerly, Espen; Bonde, Jesper; Schee, Kristina;

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance....... To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP), 800 women aged 25-69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited...... alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway....

  20. Quantitative assessment model for gastric cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Chen; Wei-Ping Yu; Liang Song; Yi-Min Zhu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To set up a mathematic model for gastric cancer screening and to evaluate its function in mass screening for gastric cancer.METHODS: A case control study was carried on in 66patients and 198 normal people, then the risk and protective factors of gastric cancer were determined, including heavy manual work, foods such as small yellow-fin tuna, dried small shrimps, squills, crabs, mothers suffering from gastric diseases, spouse alive, use of refrigerators and hot food,etc. According to some principles and methods of probability and fuzzy mathematics, a quantitative assessment model was established as follows: first, we selected some factors significant in statistics, and calculated weight coefficient for each one by two different methods; second, population space was divided into gastric cancer fuzzy subset and non gastric cancer fuzzy subset, then a mathematic model for each subset was established, we got a mathematic expression of attribute degree (AD).RESULTS: Based on the data of 63 patients and 693 normal people, AD of each subject was calculated. Considering the sensitivity and specificity, the thresholds of AD values calculated were configured with 0.20 and 0.17, respectively.According to these thresholds, the sensitivity and specificity of the quantitative model were about 69% and 63%.Moreover, statistical test showed that the identification outcomes of these two different calculation methods were identical (P>0.05).CONCLUSION: The validity of this method is satisfactory.It is convenient, feasible, economic and can be used to determine individual and population risks of gastric cancer.

  1. Community-Based Health Education has Positive Influence on the Attitude to Cervical Cancer Screening among Women in Rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Sunila; Karmacharya, Biraj Man; Afset, Jan Egil; Bofin, Anna; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Syversen, Unni; Tingulstad, Solveig

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal and explore the feasibility and impact of a community-based awareness program on cervical cancer. Community-based educational meetings on cervical cancer and its prevention were conducted among women's groups in rural Nepal. Through a questionnaire, the women's baseline knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, and perceived risk of cervical cancer were identified. The willingness to participate in cervical cancer screening was compared before and after the educational meeting. The meetings were followed by a cervical cancer screening program. Among the 122 participants at the educational meeting, only 6 % had heard of cervical cancer. Their baseline knowledge of risk factors and symptoms was poor. The proportion of women willing to participate in cervical screening increased from 15.6 to 100 % after attending the educational meeting. All the study subjects participated in the screening program. Additionally, the study participants recruited a further 222 of their peers for screening. Poor knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal highlights the urgency of public awareness programs for cervical cancer at a national level. A community-based awareness program can change women's attitude to cervical screening, and women's groups can play a major role in promoting participation in cervical cancer screening programs.

  2. Obesity and Cancer Screening according to Race and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bittner Fagan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between obesity and cancer screening varies by screening test, race, and gender. Most studies on cervical cancer screening found a negative association between increasing weight and screening, and this negative association was most consistent in white women. Recent literature on mammography reports no association with weight. However, some studies show a negative association in white, but not black, women. In contrast, obese/overweight men reported higher rates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing. Comparison of prostate cancer screening, mammography, and Pap smears implies a gender difference in the relationship between screening behavior and weight. In colorectal cancer (CRC screening, the relationship between weight and screening in men is inconsistent, while there is a trend towards lower CRC screening in higher weight women.

  3. 75 FR 77869 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Second List of Chemicals for Tier 1 Screening; Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... water, Endocrine disruptors, Pesticides and pests. Dated: December 8, 2010. Stephen A. Owens, Assistant... AGENCY Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Second List of Chemicals for Tier 1 Screening; Extension of... Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program's (EDSP) second list of chemicals for Tier 1 screening. This...

  4. Canadian Physicians’ Choices for Their Own Colon Cancer Screening

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    Mamoon Raza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Compliance with colorectal cancer (CRC screening in Canada is low. The aim of the present survey was to determine whether Canadian physicians older than 50 years were pursuing colon cancer screening. Specifically, physicians were asked to identify their modality of choice and identify their barriers to screening.

  5. Prostate cancer screening with PSA: new data, old debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Sciallero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two prostate cancer screening randomised controlled trials from Europe (European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer—ERSPC and U.S. (Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Program— PLCO have been published earlier this year...

  6. Use of Evidence-Based Interventions to Address Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Djenaba A; Redwood, Diana; DeGroff, Amy; Butler, Emily L

    2016-02-12

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death among cancers that affect both men and women. Despite strong evidence of their effectiveness, CRC screening tests are underused. Racial/ethnic minority groups, persons without insurance, those with lower educational attainment, and those with lower household income levels have lower rates of CRC screening. Since 2009, CDC's Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP) has supported state health departments and tribal organizations in implementing evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to increase use of CRC screening tests among their populations. This report highlights the successful implementation of EBIs to address disparities by two CRCCP grantees: the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium (ANTHC) and Washington State's Breast, Cervical, and Colon Health Program (BCCHP). ANTHC partnered with regional tribal health organizations in the Alaska Tribal Health System to implement provider and client reminders and use patient navigators to increase CRC screening rates among Alaska Native populations. BCCHP identified patient care coordinators in each clinic who coordinated staff training on CRC screening and integrated client and provider reminder systems. In both the Alaska and Washington programs, instituting provider reminder systems, client reminder systems, or both was facilitated by use of electronic health record systems. Using multicomponent interventions in a single clinical site or facility can support more organized screening programs and potentially result in greater increases in screening rates than relying on a single strategy. Organized screening systems have an explicit policy for screening, a defined target population, a team responsible for implementation of the screening program, and a quality assurance structure. Although CRC screening rates in the United States have increased steadily over the past decade, this increase has not been seen equally across all populations. Increasing the

  7. [Cervical cancer screening in Switzerland - current practice and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untiet, Sarah; Schmidt, Nicole; Low, Nicola; Petignat, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    At the beginning of the 20th Century, cervical cancer was the leading cause of death from cancer in women. A marked decline in cervical cancer has been observed since the 1960s, in parallel with the introduction of the Papanicolau (Pap) test as a cytological screening method. Today, Pap smear screening is still the most widely used tool for cervical cancer prevention. Testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical specimens or a combination of Pap and HPV testing are also now available. In this article we compare current guidelines for cervical cancer screening in Switzerland with those in other European countries. In view of the opportunities offered by HPV testing and, since 2008, HPV vaccination, current guidelines for cervical cancer screening should be updated. Both the choice of screening tests and general organization of cervical cancer screening should be reviewed.

  8. Impact of risk factors on different interval cancer subtypes in a population-based breast cancer screening programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Blanch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interval cancers are primary breast cancers diagnosed in women after a negative screening test and before the next screening invitation. Our aim was to evaluate risk factors for interval cancer and their subtypes and to compare the risk factors identified with those associated with incident screen-detected cancers. METHODS: We analyzed data from 645,764 women participating in the Spanish breast cancer screening program from 2000-2006 and followed-up until 2009. A total of 5,309 screen-detected and 1,653 interval cancers were diagnosed. Among the latter, 1,012 could be classified on the basis of findings in screening and diagnostic mammograms, consisting of 489 true interval cancers (48.2%, 235 false-negatives (23.2%, 172 minimal-signs (17.2% and 114 occult tumors (11.3%. Information on the screening protocol and women's characteristics were obtained from the screening program registry. Cause-specific Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR of risks factors for interval cancer and incident screen-detected cancer. A multinomial regression model, using screen-detected tumors as a reference group, was used to assess the effect of breast density and other factors on the occurrence of interval cancer subtypes. RESULTS: A previous false-positive was the main risk factor for interval cancer (HR = 2.71, 95%CI: 2.28-3.23; this risk was higher for false-negatives (HR = 8.79, 95%CI: 6.24-12.40 than for true interval cancer (HR = 2.26, 95%CI: 1.59-3.21. A family history of breast cancer was associated with true intervals (HR = 2.11, 95%CI: 1.60-2.78, previous benign biopsy with a false-negatives (HR = 1.83, 95%CI: 1.23-2.71. High breast density was mainly associated with occult tumors (RRR = 4.92, 95%CI: 2.58-9.38, followed by true intervals (RRR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.18-2.36 and false-negatives (RRR = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.00-2.49. CONCLUSION: The role of women's characteristics differs among

  9. Lung cancer screening by low-dose spiral computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, RJ; Habbema, JDF; Pedersen, JH; de Koning, HJ; Oudkerk, M; Hoogsteden, HC

    2001-01-01

    The poor prognosis of lung cancer has barely changed in the last decades, but the prognosis is better when the disease is detected earlier. Lung cancer screening by chest radiography did not lead to a decrease in lung cancer mortality, presumably because the chest radiograph is a poor screening tool

  10. Performance of screening mammography: A report of the alliance for breast cancer screening in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Hye [Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keum Woo [Konyang University Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Joong [Gangneung Asan Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-07-15

    To analyze the diagnostic accuracy and trend in screening mammography in Korea. We retrospectively linked the information from hospitals participating in the Alliance of Breast Cancer Screening in Korea (ABCS-K) and the database of the National Cancer Screening Program. We calculated performance indicators, including the recall rate, cancer detection rate (CDR), positive predictive value (PPV), sensitivity, specificity, false-positive rate (FPR), and interval cancer rate (ICR). Changes in the performance indicators were calculated as the annual percent change with 95% confidence interval (CI). We enrolled 128756 cases from 10 hospitals from 2005 to 2010. The recall rate was 19.1% with a downward trend over time (-12.1% per year; 95% CI, -15.9 to -8.2). The CDR was 2.69 per 1000 examinations, without a significant trend. The PPV was 1.4% with an upward trend (20.8% per year; 95% CI, 15.2 to 26.7). The sensitivity was 86.5% without a significant trend, whereas the specificity was 81.1% with an upward trend (3.3% per year; 95% CI, 2.1 to 4.5). The FPR was 18.9% with a downward trend (-12.4% per year; 95% CI, -16.2 to -8.4). The ICR was 0.5 per 1000 negative examinations without a significant trend. There were institutional variations in the diagnostic accuracy and trend except for the CDR, sensitivity, and ICR. The sensitivity and CDR of screening mammography in the ABCS-K from 2005 to 2010 were compatible with those for Western women. The recall rate, PPV and specificity, however, were suboptimal, although they showed significant improvements over this period. A further analysis is required to explain institutional variations.

  11. The role of acculturation and collectivism in cancer screening for Vietnamese American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh B; Clark, Trenette T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of demographic variables and the interplay between collectivism and acculturation on breast and cervical cancer screening outcomes among Vietnamese American women. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 111 Vietnamese women from the Richmond, VA, metropolitan area, who participated in a larger cancer screening intervention. All participants completed measures on demographic variables, collectivism, acculturation, and cancer-screening-related variables (i.e., attitudes, self-efficacy, and screening behavior). Findings indicated that collectivism predicted both positive attitudes and higher levels of self-efficacy with regard to breast and cervical cancer screening. Collectivism also moderated the relationship between acculturation and attitudes toward breast cancer screening such that for women with low levels of collectivistic orientation, increasing acculturation predicted less positive attitudes towards breast cancer screening. This relationship was not found for women with high levels of collectivistic orientation. The current findings highlight the important roles that sociodemographic and cultural variables play in affecting health attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavior among Vietnamese women. The findings potentially inform screening programs that rely on culturally relevant values in helping increase Vietnamese women's motivation to screen.

  12. Lay Epistemology of Breast Cancer Screening Guidelines Among Appalachian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record, Rachael A; Scott, Allison M; Shaunfield, Sara; Jones, M Grace; Collins, Tom; Cohen, Elisia L

    2016-08-26

    Recent changes to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force guidelines for breast cancer screening have contributed to increased patient uncertainty regarding the timing and appropriateness of screening behaviors. To gain insight into the lay epistemology of women regarding breast cancer screening practices, we conducted in-depth, face-to-face interviews with 24 adult women living in a medically underserved Appalachian region. We found that women were unaware of breast cancer screening guidelines (i.e., start age, frequency, stop age). Qualitative analysis revealed two lay epistemological narratives establishing (a) uncertain knowledge and ambiguity about breast cancer screening guidelines but certain knowledge of other women's experiences with breast cancer diagnoses, and (b) feelings of knowing one's own body best and seeing the value in "overscreening" to save even one life. Our findings have theoretical and practical implications for scholars and practitioners seeking to improve knowledge or behavior regarding adherence to breast cancer screening recommendations.

  13. Breast cancer incidence after the introduction of mammography screening: what should be expected?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anne Louise; Olsen, Anne Helene; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A prevalence peak is expected in breast cancer incidence when mammography screening begins, but afterward the incidence still may be elevated compared with prescreening levels. It is important to determine whether this is due to overdiagnosis (ie, the detection of asymptomatic disease...... that would otherwise not have arisen clinically). In the current study, the authors examined breast cancer incidence after the introduction of mammography screening in Denmark. METHODS: Denmark has 2 regional screening programs targeting women ages 50 years to 69 years. The programs were initiated in 1991...

  14. Public Awareness of Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interventions for Increasing Screening Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno Garcia, Antonio Z.; Hernandez Alvarez Buylla, Noemi; Nicolas-Perez, David; Quintero, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer ranks as one of the most incidental and death malignancies worldwide. Colorectal cancer screening has proven its benefit in terms of incidence and mortality reduction in randomized controlled trials. In fact, it has been recommended by medical organizations either in average-risk or family-risk populations. Success of a screening campaign highly depends on how compliant the target population is. Several factors influence colorectal cancer screening uptake including sociodemographics, provider and healthcare system factors, and psychosocial factors. Awareness of the target population of colorectal cancer and screening is crucial in order to increase screening participation rates. Knowledge about this disease and its prevention has been used across studies as a measurement of public awareness. Some studies found a positive relationship between knowledge about colorectal cancer, risk perception, and attitudes (perceived benefits and barriers against screening) and willingness to participate in a colorectal cancer screening campaign. The mentioned factors are modifiable and therefore susceptible of intervention. In fact, interventional studies focused on average-risk population have tried to increase colorectal cancer screening uptake by improving public knowledge and modifying attitudes. In the present paper, we reviewed the factors impacting adherence to colorectal cancer screening and interventions targeting participants for increasing screening uptake. PMID:24729896

  15. European randomized lung cancer screening trials: Post NLST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, JK; Klaveren, R; Pedersen, JH;

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects of their ......Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects...

  16. Development of a community cancer education program: the Forsyth County, NC cervical cancer prevention project.

    OpenAIRE

    Michielutte, R; Dignan, M B; Wells, H B; Young, L. D.; Jackson, D S; Sharp, P C

    1989-01-01

    The authors outline the development and implementation of a public health education program for cervical cancer screening among black women in Forsyth County, NC. The educational program includes distributing electronic and printed information media messages, a program of direct education for women, and providing information on current issues in cervical screening to primary-care physicians. Program development was based on social marketing principles, the PRECEDE model, and the communication...

  17. Impact of screening mammography on breast cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleyer, Archie; Baines, Cornelia; Miller, Anthony B

    2016-04-15

    The degree to which observed reductions in breast cancer mortality is attributable to screening mammography has become increasingly controversial. We examined this issue with three fundamentally different approaches: (i) Chronology--the temporal relationship of the onset of breast cancer mortality decline and the national implementation of screening mammography; (ii) Magnitude--the degree to which breast cancer mortality declined relative to the amount (penetration) of screening mammography; (iii) Analogy--the pattern of mortality rate reductions of other cancers for which population screening is not conducted. Chronology and magnitude were assessed with data from Europe and North America, with three methods applied to magnitude. A comparison of eight countries in Europe and North America does not demonstrate a correlation between the penetration of national screening and either the chronology or magnitude of national breast cancer mortality reduction. In the United States, the magnitude of the mortality decline is greater in the unscreened, younger women than in the screened population and regional variation in the rate of breast cancer mortality reduction is not correlated with screening penetrance, either as self-reported or by the magnitude of screening-induced increase in early-stage disease. Analogy analysis of United States data identifies 14 other cancers with a similar distinct onset of mortality reduction for which screening is not performed. These five lines of evidence from three different approaches and additional observations discussed do not support the hypothesis that mammography screening is a primary reason for the breast cancer mortality reduction in Europe and North America.

  18. Colorectal cancer screening awareness among physicians in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzimichalis Georgios

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data comparison between SEER and EUROCARE database provided evidence that colorectal cancer survival in USA is higher than in European countries. Since adjustment for stage at diagnosis markedly reduces the survival differences, a screening bias was hypothesized. Considering the important role of primary care in screening activities, the purpose of the study was to investigate the colorectal cancer screening awareness among Hellenic physicians. Methods 211 primary care physicians were surveyed by mean of a self-reported prescription-habits questionnaire. Both physicians' colorectal cancer screening behaviors and colorectal cancer screening recommendations during usual check-up visits were analyzed. Results Only 50% of physicians were found to recommend screening for colorectal cancer during usual check-up visits, and only 25% prescribed cost-effective procedures. The percentage of physicians recommending stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy was 24% and 4% respectively. Only 48% and 23% of physicians recognized a cancer screening value for stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy. Colorectal screening recommendations were statistically lower among physicians aged 30 or less (p = 0.012. No differences were found when gender, level and type of specialization were analyzed, even though specialists in general practice showed a trend for better prescription (p = 0.054. Conclusion Contemporary recommendations for colorectal cancer screening are not followed by implementation in primary care setting. Education on presymptomatic control and screening practice monitoring are required if primary care is to make a major impact on colorectal cancer mortality.

  19. Factors associated with use of gastric cancer screening services in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young Min Kwon; Hyung Taek Lim; Kiheon Lee; Be Long Cho; Min Sun Park; Ki Young Son; Sang Min Park

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To identify the factors associated with participation in gastric cancer screening programs. METHODS: Using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 (KNHANES Ⅲ), a nationwide health-related survey in Korea, a cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the multiple factors associated with gastric cancer screening attendance among persons aged at least 40 years. The study population included 4593 individuals who completed a gastric cancer screening questionnaire and had no previous cancer history. Four groups of individual-level or environmental level covariates were considered as potential associated factors. RESULTS: Using KNHANES Ⅲ data, an estimated 31.71% of Korean individuals aged at least 40 years adhered to gastric cancer screening recommendations. Subjects who graduated from elementary school [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.66; 95% CI: 1.21-2.26], middle/high school (aOR, 1.38; 95% CI: 1.01-1.89), and university or higher (aOR, 1.64; 95% CI: 1.13-2.37) were more likely to undergo gastric cancer screening than those who received no formal education at all. The population with the highest income tertile had more attendance at gastric screening compared to those with the lowest income tertile (aOR, 1.36; 95% CI: 1.06-1.73). Gastric screening was also negatively associated with excessive alcohol consumption (aOR, 0.71; 95% CI: 0.53-0.96). A positive attitude to preventive medical evaluation was significantly associated with better participation in gastric cancer screening programs (aOR, 5.26; 95% CI: 4.35-6.35). CONCLUSION: Targeted interventions for vulnerable populations and public campaigns about preventivemedical evaluation are needed to increase gastric cancer screening participation and reduce gastric cancer mortality.

  20. Cervical Cancer Screening Knowledge and Behavior among Women Attending an Urban HIV Clinic in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Joelle I; Njoroge, Betty; Huchko, Megan J

    2015-09-01

    Cervical cancer is a highly preventable disease that disproportionately affects women in developing countries and women with HIV. As integrated HIV and cervical cancer screening programs in Sub-Saharan Africa mature, we have an opportunity to measure the impact of outreach and education efforts and identify areas for future improvement. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 106 women enrolled in care at an integrated HIV clinic in the Nyanza Province of Kenya 5 years after the start of a cervical cancer screening program. Female clinic attendees who met clinic criteria for cervical cancer screening were asked to complete an oral questionnaire assessing their cervical cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening history. Ninety-nine percent of women had heard of screening, 70 % felt at risk, and 84 % had been screened. Increased duration of HIV diagnosis was associated with feeling at risk and with a screening history. Nearly half (48 %) of women said they would not get screened if they had to pay for it.

  1. Lung cancer screening: review and performance comparison under different risk scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tota, Joseph E; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Franco, Eduardo L

    2014-02-01

    Lung cancer is currently one of the most common malignant diseases and is responsible for substantial mortality worldwide. Compared with never smokers, former smokers remain at relatively high risk for lung cancer, accounting for approximately half of all newly diagnosed cases in the US. Screening offers former smokers the best opportunity to reduce their risk of advanced stage lung cancer and there is now evidence that annual screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is effective in preventing mortality. Studies are being conducted to evaluate whether the benefits of LDCT screening outweigh its costs and potential harms and to determine the most appropriate workup for patients with screen-detected lung nodules. Program efficiency would be optimized by targeting high-risk current smokers, but low uptake among this group is a concern. Former smokers may be invited for screening; however, if fewer long-term current smokers and more former smokers with long quit duration elect to attend, this could have very adverse effects on cost and screening test parameters. To illustrate this point, we present three possible screening scenarios with lung cancer prevalence ranging from between 0.62 and 5.0 %. In summary, cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening may be improved if linked to successful smoking cessation programs and if better approaches are developed to reach very high-risk patients, e.g., long-term current smokers or others based on more accurate risk prediction models.

  2. BREAST CANCER SCREENING KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE AMONG WOMEN IN SOUTHEAST OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Heidari

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBreast cancer is the most common cancer occurring among women. The mortality rate of breast cancer can be reduced by regular breast cancer screening program. This study was carried out to identify the knowledge and practice of women about breast cancer screening in Zahedan, southeast of Iran. In this cross- sectional study, 384 women were selected as an improbability sample of women referring to Qouds maternity hospital. Knowledge and practice of them about breast cancer screening were investigated through face-to-face interview based on a purposed questionnaire, and data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Only 8.3% of women were aware of breast cancer screening methods. About breast self-examination 21.6%, and about mammography 3.4% had good knowledge. Overall knowledge of breast cancer screening was insufficient in 67.4%. There was statistically significant relationship between knowledge of breast cancer screening and level of education, history of individual breast disease, and history of breast cancer in their families (P < 0.001. There was statistically significant and inverse relationship between knowledge of how to examine the breasts and knowledge about mammography with age (P < 0.001. Practices of women in Zahedan about Breast cancer screening were very low. Only 4.5% of women performed breast self examination (BSE, on a regular basis, 4.1% had ever had a clinical breast examination (CBE, and %1.3 had a mammography throughout their life. Our findings suggest that knowledge and practice about breast cancer screening was relatively in a weak level and it needs to be improved.

  3. Are Fewer Cervical Cancer Screenings Needed After HPV Vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Are Fewer Cervical Cancer Screenings Needed After HPV Vaccine? Less testing could reduce risk of false positives ... said. Women vaccinated with earlier versions of the HPV vaccine -- which protect against the two worst cancer-causing ...

  4. Family History of Colon Cancer Calls for Earlier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164202.html Family History of Colon Cancer Calls for Earlier Screening ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- If you've got a family history of colon or rectal cancers, you probably ...

  5. Screening, HPV Vaccine Can Prevent Cervical Cancer: FDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163464.html Screening, HPV Vaccine Can Prevent Cervical Cancer: FDA Agency recommends ... cancer, which is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). An FDA-approved vaccine called Gardasil 9 protects ...

  6. Prostate Cancer Screening in Jamaica: Results of the Largest National Screening Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda F. Morrison

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is highly prevalent in Jamaica and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Our aim was to evaluate the patterns of screening in the largest organized screening clinic in Jamaica at the Jamaica Cancer Society. A retrospective analysis of all men presenting for screening at the Jamaica Cancer Society from 1995 to 2005 was done. All patients had digital rectal examinations (DRE and prostate specific antigen (PSA tests done. Results of prostate biopsies were noted. 1117 men of mean age 59.9 ± 8.2 years presented for screening. The median documented PSA was 1.6 ng/mL (maximum of 5170 ng/mL. Most patients presented for only 1 screen. There was a gradual reduction in the mean age of presentation for screening over the period. Prostate biopsies were requested on 11% of screening visits; however, only 59% of these were done. 5.6% of all persons screened were found to have cancer. Of the cancers diagnosed, Gleason 6 adenocarcinoma was the commonest grade and median PSA was 8.9 ng/mL (range 1.5–1059 ng/mL. Older men tend to screen for prostate cancer in Jamaica. However, compliance with regular maintenance visits and requests for confirmatory biopsies are poor. Screening needs intervention in the Jamaican population.

  7. The Effects of New Screening Tests in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women all over the world, mainly affecting young women. As cervical cancer is easy to prevent by early detection and treatment of the disease, screening was introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s. The number of cervical cancer c

  8. The Knowledge and Practice of Breast Cancer Screening Among Women in Kerman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Khanjani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and if diagnosed on time, the chance of treatment will increase. There is limited information about the knowledge and practice of Iranian women about early detection of breast cancer and in this study we aimed to investigate it in Kerman. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done on 120 women; from 6 randomly selected maternal and childcare centers spread around Kerman, women were questioned about the primary signs of breast cancer and the screening methods. Results: The results show that 70% of women thought that with on time detection, breast cancer can be successfully treated, but 47% had no idea about any screening method. The most common breast cancer sign mentioned by women was a painless lump. Breast self examination as the easiest and cheapest screening method was never done in 51% of women. The most common reason for not performing screening tests in the participants, was not knowing anything about it. Conclusion: Although breast cancer when diagnosed on time is treatable, the knowledge and attitude of Iranian women about breast cancer screening and the signs of breast cancer are very low. Educational programs to increase women's knowledge about breast cancer should be foreseen and performed

  9. An integrative review of guidelines for anal cancer screening in HIV-infected persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jessica S; Holstad, Marcia M; Thomas, Tami; Bruner, Deborah Watkins

    2014-07-01

    HIV-infected individuals are 28 times more likely than the general population to be diagnosed with anal cancer. An integrative review of recommendations and guidelines for anal cancer screening was performed to provide a succinct guide to inform healthcare clinicians. The review excluded studies that were of non-HIV populations, redundant articles or publications, non-English manuscripts, or nonclinical trials. The review found no formal national or international guidelines exist for routine screening of anal cancer for HIV-infected individuals. To date, no randomized control trial provides strong evidence supporting efficaciousness and effectiveness of an anal cancer screening program. The screening recommendations from seven international-, national-, and state-based reports were reviewed and synthesized in this review. These guidelines suggest anal cancer screening, albeit unproven, may be beneficial at decreasing the incidence of anal cancer. This review highlights the paucity of screening-related research and is an area of need to provide clear direction and to define standard of care for anal cancer screening in HIV-infected persons.

  10. Health Information Seeking and Cancer Screening Adherence Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneyderman, Yuliya; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Arheart, Kristopher L; Byrne, Margaret M; Kornfeld, Julie; Schwartz, Seth J

    2016-03-01

    Effective screening tools are available for many of the top cancer killers in the USA. Searching for health information has previously been found to be associated with adhering to cancer screening guidelines, but Internet information seeking has not been examined separately. The current study examines the relationship between health and cancer Internet information seeking and adherence to cancer screening guidelines for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer in a large nationally representative dataset. The current study was conducted using data from the Health Information National Trends Survey from 2003 and 2007. The study examined age-stratified models which correlated health and cancer information seeking with getting breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening on schedule, while controlling for several key variables. Internet health and cancer information seeking was positively associated with getting Pap screening on schedule, while information seeking from any sources was positively associated with getting colorectal screening on schedule. People who look for health or cancer information are more likely to get screened on schedule. Some groups of people, however, do not exhibit this relationship and, thus, may be more vulnerable to under-screening. These groups may benefit more from targeted interventions that attempt to engage people in their health care more actively.

  11. Targeted Cancer Screening in Average-Risk Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Pamela M; Freedman, Andrew N; Khoury, Muin J

    2015-11-01

    Targeted cancer screening refers to use of disease risk information to identify those most likely to benefit from screening. Researchers have begun to explore the possibility of refining screening regimens for average-risk individuals using genetic and non-genetic risk factors and previous screening experience. Average-risk individuals are those not known to be at substantially elevated risk, including those without known inherited predisposition, without comorbidities known to increase cancer risk, and without previous diagnosis of cancer or pre-cancer. In this paper, we describe the goals of targeted cancer screening in average-risk individuals, present factors on which cancer screening has been targeted, discuss inclusion of targeting in screening guidelines issued by major U.S. professional organizations, and present evidence to support or question such inclusion. Screening guidelines for average-risk individuals currently target age; smoking (lung cancer only); and, in some instances, race; family history of cancer; and previous negative screening history (cervical cancer only). No guidelines include common genomic polymorphisms. RCTs suggest that targeting certain ages and smoking histories reduces disease-specific cancer mortality, although some guidelines extend ages and smoking histories based on statistical modeling. Guidelines that are based on modestly elevated disease risk typically have either no or little evidence of an ability to affect a mortality benefit. In time, targeted cancer screening is likely to include genetic factors and past screening experience as well as non-genetic factors other than age, smoking, and race, but it is of utmost importance that clinical implementation be evidence-based.

  12. Cost-benefit analysis of screening for esophageal and gastric cardiac cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Qiang Wei; Chun-Xia Yang; Si-Han Lu; Juan Yang; Bian-Yun Li; Shi-Yong Lian; You-Lin Qiao

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, a program named “Early Detection and Early Treatment of Esophageal and Cardiac Cancer”(EDETEC) was initiated in China. A total of 8279 residents aged 40-69 years old were recruited into the EDETEC program in Linzhou of Henan Province between 2005 and 2008. Howerer, the cost-benefit of the EDETEC program is not very clear yet. We conducted herein a cost-benefit analysis of screening for esophageal and cardiac cancer. The assessed costs of the EDETEC program included screening costs for each subject, as well as direct and indirect treatment costs for esophageal and cardiac severe dyspiasia and cancer detected by screening. The assessed benefits of this program included the saved treatment costs, both direct and indirect, on esophageal and cardiac cancer, as well as the value of prolonged life due to screening, as determined by the human capital approach. The results showed the screening cost of finding esophageal and cardiac severe dysplasia or cancer ranged from ¥2707 to ¥4512, and the total cost on screening and treatment was ¥13 115-¥14 920. The cost benefit was ¥58 944-¥155 110 (the saved treatment cost, ¥17 730, plus the value of prolonged life,¥41 214-¥137 380). The ratio of benefit-to-cost (BCR) was 3.95-11.83. Our results suggest that EDETEC has a high benefit-to-cost ratio in China and could be instituted into high risk areas of China.

  13. Trends in adherence to recommended cancer screening: The US population and working cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainya C. Clarke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past decade the United States has seen a decrease in advanced cancer diagnoses. There has also been an increase in the number of cancer survivors returning to work. Cancer screening behaviors among survivors may play an important role in their return-to-work process. Adherence to a post-treatment cancer screening protocol increases early detection of secondary tumors and reduces potentially limiting side-effects. We compared screening trends among all cancer survivors, working survivors, and the general population over the last decade.Methods: Trends in adherence to recommended screening were analyzed by site-specific cancer. We used the Healthy People goals as a measure of desired adherence. We selected participants 18+ years from 1997 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS for years where detailed cancer screening information was available. Using the recommendations of the American Cancer Society as a guide, we assessed adherence to cancer screening across the decade. There were 174,393 participants. Analyses included 7,528 working cancer survivors representing 3.8 million US workers, and 119,374 adults representing more than 100 million working Americans with no cancer history.Results: The US population met the Healthy People 2010 goal for colorectal screening, but declined in all other recommended cancer screening. Cancer survivors met and maintained the HP2010 goal for all, except cervical cancer screening. Survivors had higher screening rates than the general population. Among survivors, white-collar and service occupations had higher screening rates than blue-collar survivors.Conclusions: Cancer survivors report higher screening rates than the general population. Nevertheless, national screening rates are lower than desired, and disparities exist by cancer history and occupation. Understanding existing disparities, and the impact of cancer screening on survivors is crucial as the number of working survivors

  14. [Colorectal cancer screening: an absolute necessity and an imminent reality in the French community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polus, M; Stibbe, G; Van Laethem, J-L; Adler, M; Coche, E

    2009-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a true problematic of public health. The screening is an absolute necessity. An ambitious program of screening is launched in French Community. Faecal occult blood test (FOBT) will be proposed to average risk patients in general population. A total colonoscopy will be performed if FOBT will be positive. First step colonoscopy will be proposed to high or very high risk patients. General practitioners are in the core of the multidisciplinary program.

  15. [Colorectal cancer screening: an absolute necessity and a concrete reality in the French community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polus, M; Montrieux, C; Giet, D; Louis, E; Belaiche, J; Coche, E

    2009-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is a real problem of public health. Screening is an absolute necessity. An ambitious program of screening is launched in the French Community. Faecal occult blood test will be proposed to average risk patients in the general population. A total colonoscopy will be performed if FOBT is positive. First step colonoscopy will be proposed to high or very high risk patients. General practitioners are in the core of the multi-disciplinary program.

  16. Early detection of breast cancer through population-based mammographic screening in Asian women: a comparison study between screen-detected and symptomatic breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuwa, Esther W L; Yeo, Allen W Y; Koong, Heng Nung; Wong, Chow Yin; Yong, Wei Sean; Tan, Puay Hoon; Ho, Juliana T S; Wong, Jill S L; Ho, Gay Hui

    2009-01-01

    The first nation-wide mammographic screening program in Asia, BreastScreen Singapore (BSS), was launched in Singapore in January 2002. This study compared the presentation and results of screen-detected breast cancers with symptomatic breast cancers in two affiliated high-volume institutions, one of which was an assessment centre for BSS. The medical records of patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer at the Department of General Surgery, Singapore General Hospital and the Department of Surgical Oncology, National Cancer Centre, Singapore, during the period January 2002 to December 2003 were reviewed. Clinical and pathological comparisons were made between screen-detected lesions and symptomatic lesions. Of a total of 767 cases, 640 (83.4%) were invasive carcinomas and 127 (16.6%) were ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS) lesions. Only 13.4% of them were screen-detected. Compared to symptomatic cancers, screen-detected lesions were of smaller size (median size 18 versus 23 mm), a lower stage (stages 0-2, 95 versus 83.2%) and histologic grade (grade 1-2, 71 versus 60%), with a higher incidence of DCIS (31.0 versus 14.3%) and had higher rates of breast conservation (45.6 versus 28.2%) (all p-values 20 mm, nodal involvement, cerbB2 overexpression, and advanced disease stage were independent poor prognostic factors for disease-free survival, whereas nodal involvement, advanced disease, and recurrence predicted poor cancer-specific survival. However, there was no statistically significant difference in disease-free survival or cancer-specific survival between the two groups at a median follow-up of 38 months. Screening mammography has allowed the detection of smaller and hence oncologically more favorable lesions in Asian women. Although no significant survival benefit was demonstrated in our study, a longer period of follow-up is essential before the benefit of mortality reduction, as a result of mammography screening becomes evident in our population.

  17. Primary care physicians' cancer screening recommendation practices and perceptions of cancer risk of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Harry T; Ma, Grace X; Gold, Robert S; Atkinson, Nancy L; Wang, Min Qi

    2013-01-01

    Asian Americans experience disproportionate incidence and mortality rates of certain cancers, compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Primary care physicians are a critical source for cancer screening recommendations and play a significant role in increasing cancer screening of their patients. This study assessed primary care physicians' perceptions of cancer risk in Asians and screening recommendation practices. Primary care physicians practicing in New Jersey and New York City (n=100) completed a 30-question survey on medical practice characteristics, Asian patient communication, cancer screening guidelines, and Asian cancer risk. Liver cancer and stomach cancer were perceived as higher cancer risks among Asian Americans than among the general population, and breast and prostate cancer were perceived as lower risks. Physicians are integral public health liaisons who can be both influential and resourceful toward educating Asian Americans about specific cancer awareness and screening information.

  18. Big screens with small RNAs : loss of function genetic screens to identify novel cancer genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullenders, J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis described the construction and screening of one of the first large scale RNAi libraries for use in human cells. Functional genetic screens with this library have led to the identification of novel cancer genes. These cancer genes function in several pathways including the p53 tumor suppr

  19. Update on prevention and screening of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Shaniqua L; Ferrante, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer in women in the world. During the past few decades tremendous strides have been made toward decreasing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer with the implementation of various prevention and screening strategies. The causative agent linked to cervical cancer development and its precursors is the human papillomavirus (HPV). Prevention and screening measures for cervical cancer are paramount because the ability to identify and treat the illness at its premature stage often disrupts the process of neoplasia. Cervical carcinogenesis can be the result of infections from multiple high-risk HPV types that act synergistically. This imposes a level of complexity to identifying and vaccinating against the actual causative agent. Additionally, most HPV infections spontaneously clear. Therefore, screening strategies should optimally weigh the benefits and risks of screening to avoid the discovery and needless treatment of transient HPV infections. This article provides an update of the preventative and screening methods for cervical cancer, mainly HPV vaccination, screening with Pap smear cytology, and HPV testing. It also provides a discussion of the newest United States 2012 guidelines for cervical cancer screening, which changed the age to begin and end screening and lengthened the screening intervals. PMID:25302174

  20. Screening for lung cancer: time for large-scale screening by chest computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlomi, Dekel; Ben-Avi, Ronny; Balmor, Gingy Ronen; Onn, Amir; Peled, Nir

    2014-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Age and smoking are the primary risk factors for lung cancer. Treatment based on surgical removal in the early stages of the disease results in better survival. Screening programmes for early detection that used chest radiography and sputum cytology failed to attain reduction of lung cancer mortality. Screening by low-dose computed tomography (CT) demonstrated high rates of early-stage lung cancer detection in a high-risk population. Nevertheless, no mortality advantage was manifested in small randomised control trials. A large randomised control trial in the U.S.A., the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), showed a significant relative reduction of 20% in lung cancer mortality and 6.7% reduction in total mortality, yet no reduction was evidenced in the late-stage prevalence. Screening for lung cancer by low-dose CT reveals a high level of false-positive lesions, which necessitates further noninvasive and invasive evaluations. Based primarily on the NLST eligible criteria, new guidelines have recently been developed by major relevant organisations. The overall recommendation coming out of this collective work calls for lung cancer screening by low-dose CT to be performed in medical centres manned by specialised multidisciplinary teams, as well as for a mandatory, pre-screening, comprehensive discussion with the patient about the risks and advantages involved in the process. Lung cancer screening is on the threshold of a new era, with ever more questions still left open to challenge future studies.

  1. European cervical cancer screening:experiences and results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Europe has devoted great efforts to cervical cancer screening over 30 years.The mortality was generally declining although incidence rates of cervical cancer among young women have been increasing in many countries of Europe.The efficiency of screening,however,needs to be addressed by planners for an improved cost-effectiveness in the future.

  2. An overview of innovative techniques to improve cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Esther R.; Reesink-Peters, Nathalie; Wisman, G. Bea A.; Nijman, Hans W.; van Zanden, Jelmer; Volders, Haukeline; Hollema, Harry; Suurmeijer, Albert J. H.; Schuuring, Ed; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Although current cytomorphology-based cervical cancer screening has reduced the incidence of cervical cancer, Pap-smears are associated with high false positive and false negative rates. This has spurred the search for new technologies to improve current screening. New methodologies are automation o

  3. Evaluation of cancer service screening: case referent studies recommended.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, A.L.M.; Broeders, M.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Various cancer screening trials, randomised or otherwise controlled, have demonstrated reductions in cancer mortality. As a consequence, population screening programmes have been implemented. In the mean time, major advances are being made in early detection and treatment modalities of specific canc

  4. Cancer Screening in Women with Intellectual Disabilities: An Irish perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Mary; Denieffe, Suzanne; Foran, Sinéad

    2014-01-01

    In the Republic of Ireland, more than 8000 women with intellectual disabilities (IDs), aged 20 years and over, are registered for service provision. Their health needs challenge preventative health services including breast and cervical cancer screening programmes. This review explores the literature about cancer screening participation rates and…

  5. The management of screen-detected breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Muneer; Douek, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The increased use of mammography and introduction of breast screening programmes have resulted in a rise in clinically-occult breast cancer, with one-third of all breast carcinomata diagnosed being non-palpable. These types of cancer have a unique natural history and biology compared to symptomatic breast cancer and this needs to be taken into account when considering surgery and adjuvant treatment. The majority of studies demonstrating efficacy of adjuvant treatments are largely based on patients with symptomatic breast cancer. The current evidence for the role of surgery and adjuvant therapy for screen-detected breast cancer was reviewed in light of their improved prognosis, compared to symptomatic breast cancer.

  6. 75 FR 70248 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Second List of Chemicals for Tier 1 Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    .... List of Subjects Environmental protection, Chemicals, Drinking water, Endocrine disruptors, Pesticides... AGENCY Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Second List of Chemicals for Tier 1 Screening AGENCY... chemicals and substances for which EPA intends to issue test orders under the Endocrine Disruptor...

  7. PRESSING MORTALITY RATE THROUGH SCREENING oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Widnyani Wulan Laksmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Based on World Health Organization (WHO data, oral cancer is one of malignancy with the highest mortality. In USA, there are more than 30.000 new cases every year. We can find many risk factors of oral cancer in our daily living. Moreover, it’s easy to find the main risk factors in our society, they are smoking, alcohol consumption, tobacco consumtion, viral infection, and bad oral hygiene. For the early stadium, Five-years survival rate is about 82% and 61% for all stadium. But, more than 50% of oral cancer has been distributed (metastatic regionally and also into the other organ far away from the oral itself when it’s detected. It will decrease 5-years survival rate to be less than 50%. So that, it’s really important to detect the oral cancer at the earlier stadium. Screening is the way to find the earlier stadium. Screening is done by some methods, start from the anamnesis, physical examination, toluidine blue staining, endoscopy, cytology, telomerase examination, and also PET-scan if it’s possible (because of the financial reasons. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  8. A Survey of Knowledge About and Perceived Barriers to Prostate Cancer Screening Among Medical Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbarizadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men and the second leading cause of deaths from cancer. Results of previous studies indicate the effectiveness of screening and early detection in reducing mortality from this disease. Objectives The purpose of this study was to survey the knowledge about prostate cancer and perceived barriers to prostate cancer screening among medical staff of two universities in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on 120 employees over 40 years old at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences and Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, who were selected by using simple random sampling. The data collection tool was a researcher-created questionnaire based on the study of texts and other studies. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and through analytical methods including descriptive and inferential statistics. Results The most common barriers to screening for prostate cancer were a lack of knowledge about where to go for tests and how screening tests are done (70.8%, a lack of emphasis on screening tests (59.1%, and a fear of thinking about the disease (50%. Results showed that there was no significant relationship between doing the serum antigen test and having knowledge regarding prostate cancer. But there was a significant association between prostate cancer screening and perceived barriers (P = 0.001. Conclusions Results showed that whereas knowledge by itself cannot guarantee men’s participation in prostate cancer screenings, perceived barriers can play an important role in discouraging men from cancer screening participation. Therefore, designing programs to address these barriers is very important.

  9. Breast cancer screening among females in Iran and recommendations for improved practice: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Giridhara R; Samari, Goleen; Cohen, Sharon Phoebe; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Wahbe, Randa May; Mermash, Sherin; Galal, Osman M

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer amongst women, in Iran comprising 21.4% of female cancers. There are several screening modalities for breast cancer including breast self-examination, clinical breast examination and mammography. This research reviews the literature surrounding the implementation of these screening approaches in the Islamic Republic of Iran. After initial results produced approximately 208 articles, a total of 96 articles were included because they specifically addressed epidemiological characteristics of breast cancer, culture, religion, health seeking behavior, screening programs and the health system in Iran. Literature showed that breast self-examination and clinical breast examination were most common as there is no population-based mammography screening program in Iran. Additionally, most women appear to obtain information through the mass media. Results also indicate that Islamic beliefs and preventative medicine are very much aligned and can be used to promote breast cancer screening in Iran. These results highlight that there is a need for aggressive preventative measures focusing on breast self examination and gradually moving towards national mammography programs in Iran ideally disseminated through the media with government support.

  10. Diabetes mellitus and colorectal cancer screening in the population of the Italian region Friuli Venezia Giulia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Valent

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Colorectal cancer is the most common cancer in Italy, where screening programs are now in place all over the country. We conducted a research to assess whether the use and outcomes of colorectal cancer screening are different between diabetics, who are at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer, and non-diabetics in the Italian Northeastern region Friuli Venezia Giulia. Methods: This was a retrospective population-based study which used the administrative databases of the regional health information system as the sources of information. For the two screening rounds 2010-2011 and 2012-2013, we compared adherence to the program and the results of the fecal occult blood tests and of the colonoscopy among diabetic and non-diabetic residents. Results: Overall, more than 300,000 persons were invited for the colorectal cancer screening in each round. Of them, approximately 8.8% were diabetic. In the regional population, adherence to the screening program was significantly lower among diabetics than among non-diabetics. The proportion of positive fecal occult blood tests was higher among diabetics than among non-diabetics. Among diabetics, the detection rate for initial and advanced adenomas was higher than among non-diabetics, whereas no clear pattern was observed for the detection of cancers. Conclusion: In Friuli Venezia Giulia, efforts should be directed at improving the management of diabetic patients and at reducing the inequalities in access to care due to this comorbidity.

  11. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  12. Choosing the optimal method in programmatic colorectal cancer screening: current evidence and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Antoni

    2015-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important health problem all over the world, being the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in Western countries. The most important strategy for CRC prevention is screening (i.e. secondary prevention). Since it is widely accepted that adenomas and serrated polyps are the precursors of the vast majority of CRC, early detection and removal of these lesions is associated with a reduction of CRC incidence and, consequently, mortality. Moreover, cancers detected by screening are usually diagnosed at early stages and, therefore, curable by endoscopic or surgical procedures. This review will be address CRC screening strategies in average-risk population, which is defined by those individuals, men and women, 50 years of age or older, without any additional personal or familial predisposing risk factor. In order to maximize the impact of screening and ensure high coverage and equity of access, only organized screening programs (i.e. programmatic screening) should be implemented, as opposed to case-finding or opportunistic screening. For that reason and considering that the optimal approach for colorectal screening may differ depending on the scenario, this review will be focused on the advantages and limitations of each screening strategy in an organized setting.

  13. The Quebec Association of Gastroenterology Position Paper on Colorectal Cancer Screening - 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AN Barkun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of death and the third most common cancer in Canada. Evidence suggests that screening can reduce mortality rates and the cost effectiveness of a program compares favourably with initiatives for breast and cervical cancer. The objectives of the Association des gastro-entérologues du Québec Task Force were to determine the need for a policy on screening for colorectal cancer in Quebec, to evaluate the testing methods available and to propose one or more of these alternatives as part of a formal screening program, if indicated. Fecal occult blood testing (FOBT, endoscopy (including sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, barium enema and virtual colonoscopy were considered. Although most clinical efficacy data are available for FOBT and sigmoidoscopy, there are limitations to programs based on these strategies. FOBT has a high false positive rate and a low detection yield, and even a combination of these strategies will miss 24% of cancers. Colonoscopy is the best strategy to both detect and remove polyps and to diagnose colorectal cancer, with double contrast barium enema also being a sensitive detection method. The Task Force recommended the establishment, in Quebec, of a screening program with five- to 10-yearly double contrast barium enema or 10-yearly colonoscopy for individuals aged 50 years or older at low risk. The program should include outcome monitoring, public and professional education to increase awareness and promote compliance, and central coordination with other provincial programs. The program should be evaluated; specific billing codes for screening for colorectal cancer would help facilitate this. Formal feasibility, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness studies in Quebec are now warranted.

  14. Gastric cancer screening compliance is influenced by the weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Joo; Park, Hyun Ah

    2013-07-01

    Obesity is associated with decreased compliance with cancer screening, but with an increased risk for cancer development. However, the relationship between weight status and compliance with stomach cancer screening has not been not studied as yet. We examined men and women aged between 40 and 80 years from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2009. BMI was classified into ≤18.4 kg/m (underweight), 18.5-22.9 kg/m (normal), 23-24.9 kg/m (overweight), 25.0-29.9 kg/m (moderate obesity), and ≥30.0 kg/m (severe obesity). Screening compliance was defined as undergoing stomach cancer screening every 2 years with either gastroscopy or upper gastrointestinal series. The overall screening rates of stomach cancer were 43.2 (0.9)% for men and 43.4 (0.8)% for women. After adjustment for covariates, the screening rates were higher in overweight men (adjusted odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-1.44), with a marginal significance, and significantly lower in women with severe obesity (adjusted odds ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.76). The difference was mainly driven by the lower acceptance of gastroscopy rather than upper gastrointestinal series. In conclusion, obesity is associated with lower compliance with stomach cancer screening in Korean women. Therefore, new strategies need to be developed to improve the cancer screening compliance in obese women.

  15. Lung Cancer Screening and clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. van 't Westeinde (Susan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the most frequently diagnosed major cancer worldwide and the leading cause of death from cancer. Lung cancer is divided into two subgroups: small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), accounting for 10-20% and 75% of lung cancer cases, respectivel

  16. Amblyopia prevention screening program in Northwest Iran (Ardabil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ojaghi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The present investigation showed that coverage of amblyopia screening program was not enough in Ardabil Province. To increase the screening accuracy, standard instruments and examination room must be used; more optometrists must be involved in this program and increasing the validity of obtained results for future programming.

  17. A systematic review of interventions to increase breast and cervical cancer screening uptake among Asian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Mingshan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asian population is one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in western countries. However, cancer screening uptake is consistently lower in this group than in the native-born populations. As a first step towards developing an effective cancer screening intervention program targeting Asian women, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review, without geographic, language or date limitations, to update current knowledge on the effectiveness of existing intervention strategies to enhance breast and cervical screening uptake in Asian women. Methods This study systematically reviewed studies published as of January 2010 to synthesize knowledge about effectiveness of cancer screening interventions targeting Asian women. Fifteen multidisciplinary peer-reviewed and grey literature databases were searched to identify relevant studies. Results The results of our systematic review were reported in accordance with the PRISMA Statement. Of 37 selected intervention studies, only 18 studies included valid outcome measures (i.e. self-reported or recorded receipt of mammograms or Pap smear. 11 of the 18 intervention studies with valid outcome measures used multiple intervention strategies to target individuals in a specific Asian ethnic group. This observed pattern of intervention design supports the hypothesis that employing a combination of multiple strategies is more likely to be successful than single interventions. The effectiveness of community-based or workplace-based group education programs increases when additional supports, such as assistance in scheduling/attending screening and mobile screening services are provided. Combining cultural awareness training for health care professionals with outreach workers who can help healthcare professionals overcome language and cultural barriers is likely to improve cancer screening uptake. Media campaigns and mailed culturally sensitive print materials alone may be ineffective

  18. A systematic review of interventions to increase breast and cervical cancer screening uptake among Asian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Asian population is one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in western countries. However, cancer screening uptake is consistently lower in this group than in the native-born populations. As a first step towards developing an effective cancer screening intervention program targeting Asian women, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review, without geographic, language or date limitations, to update current knowledge on the effectiveness of existing intervention strategies to enhance breast and cervical screening uptake in Asian women. Methods This study systematically reviewed studies published as of January 2010 to synthesize knowledge about effectiveness of cancer screening interventions targeting Asian women. Fifteen multidisciplinary peer-reviewed and grey literature databases were searched to identify relevant studies. Results The results of our systematic review were reported in accordance with the PRISMA Statement. Of 37 selected intervention studies, only 18 studies included valid outcome measures (i.e. self-reported or recorded receipt of mammograms or Pap smear). 11 of the 18 intervention studies with valid outcome measures used multiple intervention strategies to target individuals in a specific Asian ethnic group. This observed pattern of intervention design supports the hypothesis that employing a combination of multiple strategies is more likely to be successful than single interventions. The effectiveness of community-based or workplace-based group education programs increases when additional supports, such as assistance in scheduling/attending screening and mobile screening services are provided. Combining cultural awareness training for health care professionals with outreach workers who can help healthcare professionals overcome language and cultural barriers is likely to improve cancer screening uptake. Media campaigns and mailed culturally sensitive print materials alone may be ineffective in increasing screening

  19. Lung cancer screening: identifying the high risk cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, Michael W.; Raji, Olaide Y; John K. Field

    2015-01-01

    Low dose computed tomography (LDCT) is a viable screening tool for early lung cancer detection and mortality reduction. In practice, the success of any lung cancer screening programme will depend on successful identification of individuals at high risk in order to maximise the benefit-harm ratio. Risk prediction models incorporating multiple risk factors have been recognised as a method of identifying individuals at high risk of developing lung cancer. Identification of individuals at high ri...

  20. Health seeking behavioral analysis associated with breast cancer screening among Asian American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Wanzhen Gao,1 Sunmin Lee,2 MinQi Wang,3 Yin Tan,1 Steven E Shive,1,41Department of Public Health, Center for Asian Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA; 3Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, MD, USA; 4East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, USAObjective: The purpose of this community-based study was to apply a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model to determine the association of factors proposed in the model with breast cancer screening behaviors among Asian American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 682 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women aged 40 years and older. The frequency distribution analysis and Chi-square analysis were used for the initial screening of the following variables: sociodemographic, cultural, enabling, environmental, and social support. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on factors for breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression analysis.Results: Correlates to positive breast cancer screening included demographics (ethnicity, cultural factors (living in the United States for 15 years or more, speaking English well, enabling factors (having a regular physician to visit, health insurance covering the screening, and family/social support factors (those who had a family/friend receiving a mammogram.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that breast cancer screening programs will be more effective if they include the cultural and health beliefs, enabling, and social support factors associated with breast cancer screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in helping to increase breast cancer screening rates among Asian American women.Keywords: breast cancer screening, Vietnamese, Korean, Chinese, breast

  1. Study on Responsibilities and Evaluation of Different Departments in Cervical Cancer Screening Program for Rural Women%农村妇女宫颈癌筛查项目部门职责界定和评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖莉莉; 赵新辉; 窦岚; 井明霞

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过界定新疆宫颈癌筛查项目涉及的相关部门及其职责,评价各部门职责的履行情况,为提高新疆乃至全国宫颈癌筛查项目县(市)的工作绩效提供参考依据。方法采用文献归纳、头脑风暴、专题小组讨论等方法界定宫颈癌筛查项目的参与部门及其职责分工。采用分层抽样法抽取26个县、14个市,利用问卷调查方法,对40个县(市)参与宫颈癌筛查项目的各部门职责履行情况进行调查。结果共发放问卷40份,回收39份,其中有效问卷37份,有效回收率为92.5%。界定了新疆宫颈癌筛查项目的11个相关部门和25项部门职责。新疆宫颈癌筛查项目各部门对其职责落实情况由高到低排序依次为县(市)妇幼保健院>县(市)人民政府>县(市)卫生局>县(市)妇联>县(市)广播电视局>乡镇卫生院>县(市)计生部门>县(市)财务局>县(市)医院>县(市)民政局>县(市)公安局。结论县(市)政府和卫生行政部门应加大对乡镇卫生院的财力、人力投入;采取激励措施,增加公立医院对公共卫生项目的重视程度,使其较好地发挥医疗优势;建立社会大卫生观,协调卫生系统外部部门参与筛查。%Objective To define the responsibilities of different departments in cervical cancer screening project in Xinjiang,and to evaluate the performance of different departments′duties,so as to provide references for improving performance of cervical cancer screening program in Xinjiang and all over the country. Methods By using multiple methods, such as literature review,brainstorm and focus group discussions the responsibilities of different departments in cervical cancer screening project were defined. Through stratified sampling method,40 project counties( cities)of cervical cancer screening program ( including 26 counties and 14 cities)were randomly

  2. Understanding women's hesitancy to undergo less frequent cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerend, Mary A; Shepherd, Melissa A; Kaltz, Emily A; Davis, Whitney J; Shepherd, Janet E

    2017-02-01

    Inappropriate cervical cancer screening (e.g., screening too often) can result in unnecessary medical procedures, treatment, and psychological distress. To balance the benefits and harms, cervical cancer screening guidelines were recently modified in favor of less frequent screening (i.e., every 3 to 5 years). This study investigated women's acceptance of less frequent cervical cancer screening and their primary concerns about extending the screening interval beyond one year. A national sample of 376 U.S. women ages 21-65 completed an online survey in 2014. Predictors of willingness to get a Pap test every 3 to 5 years were identified using logistic regression. We also examined perceived consequences of less frequent screening. Over two thirds were willing to undergo less frequent screening if it was recommended by their healthcare provider. Nevertheless, nearly 20% expressed discomfort with less frequent screening and 45% were either in opposition or unsure whether they would be comfortable replacing Pap testing with primary HPV testing. Women whose most recent Pap test was (vs. was not) within the past year and women who ever (vs. never) had an abnormal Pap test were less willing to extend the screening interval. Additionally, women who typically saw an obstetrician/gynecologist or nurse practitioner for their Pap test (vs. a family physician) were less accepting of the guidelines. Hesitancy about the longer screening interval appears to stem from concern about developing cancer between screenings. Findings contribute to the growing body of research on cancer overscreening and may inform interventions for improving adherence to cancer screening guidelines.

  3. Point: cervical cancer screening guidelines should consider observational data on screening efficacy in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Alison S; Kamineni, Aruna; Weiss, Noel S

    2013-10-01

    Recent guidelines from the American Cancer Society, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology recommend cessation of cervical cancer screening at age 65 years for women with an "adequate" history of negative Papanicolaou smears. In our view, those who formulated these guidelines did not consider a growing body of evidence from nonrandomized studies that provides insight into the efficacy of cervical cancer screening among older women. First, older women are not at indefinitely low risk following negative screening results. Second, recent data from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Sweden suggest that screening of older women is associated with substantial reductions in cervical cancer incidence and mortality, even among previously screened women. It may be that after consideration of the reduced incidence of (and reduced mortality from) cervical cancer that may result from screening older women, the harms and economic costs of screening will be judged to outweigh its benefits. However, it is essential to consider the now-documented benefits of cervical screening when formulating screening guidelines for older women, and recommendations that do not do so will lack an evidence base.

  4. SubSolid Nodules in lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.Th.

    2014-01-01

    With eight million deaths in 2012 lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in the world, and the problem is still growing. As long as the goal of a total ban on smoking tobacco is not fulfilled, lung cancer screening as a means of secondary prevention has great potential. The aim of lung

  5. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauczor, H.U.; Bonomo, L.; Gaga, M.; Nackaerts, K.; Peled, N.; Prokop, M.; Remy-Jardin, M.; Stackelberg, O. von; Sculier, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the Europea

  6. The Impact of Breast Cancer Screening on Population Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T. van Ravesteyn (Nicolien)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer is an important public health problem with an estimated number of 1.38 million breast cancer cases and 458,000 deaths from the disease yearly worldwide. Randomized trials have shown that mammography screening significantly reduces breast cancer mortality. Besides the benefi

  7. Computed tomographic characteristics of interval and post screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholten, Ernst T. [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kennemer Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Haarlem (Netherlands); Horeweg, Nanda [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Harry J. de [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    To analyse computed tomography (CT) findings of interval and post-screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening. Consecutive interval and post-screen carcinomas from the Dutch-Belgium lung cancer screening trial were included. The prior screening and the diagnostic chest CT were reviewed by two experienced radiologists in consensus with knowledge of the tumour location on the diagnostic CT. Sixty-one participants (53 men) were diagnosed with an interval or post-screen carcinoma. Twenty-two (36 %) were in retrospect visible on the prior screening CT. Detection error occurred in 20 cancers and interpretation error in two cancers. Errors involved intrabronchial tumour (n = 5), bulla with wall thickening (n = 5), lymphadenopathy (n = 3), pleural effusion (n = 1) and intraparenchymal solid nodules (n = 8). These were missed because of a broad pleural attachment (n = 4), extensive reticulation surrounding a nodule (n = 1) and extensive scarring (n = 1). No definite explanation other than human error was found in two cases. None of the interval or post-screen carcinomas involved a subsolid nodule. Interval or post-screen carcinomas that were visible in retrospect were mostly due to detection errors of solid nodules, bulla wall thickening or endobronchial lesions. Interval or post-screen carcinomas without explanation other than human errors are rare. (orig.)

  8. On attitudes about colorectal cancer screening among gastrointestinal specialists and general practitioners in the Netherlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JS Terhaar sive Droste; GDN Heine; ME Craanen; H Boot; CJJ Mulder

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To find out whether there are differences in attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among gastrointestinal (GI) specialists and general practitioners (GPs) and which method is preferred in a national screening programMETHODS: Four hundred and twenty Dutch GI specialists in the Netherlands and 400 GPs in Amsterdam were questioned in 2004. Questions included demographics, affiliation, attitude towards screening both for the general population and themselves, methods of screening, family history and individual risk.RESULTS: Eighty-four percent of the GI specialists returned the questionnaire in comparison to 32% of the GPs (P < 0.001). Among the GI specialists, 92% favoured population screening whereas 51% of GPs supported population screening (P < 0.001). Of the GI specialists 95% planned to be screened themselves, while 30%of GPs intended to do so (P < 0.001). Regarding the general population, 72% of the GI specialists preferred colonoscopy as the screening method compared to 27% of the GPs (P < 0.001). The method preferred for personal screening was colonoscopy in 97% of the GI specialists, while 29% of the GPs favoured colonoscopy (P < 0.001).CONCLUSION: Screening for CRC is strongly supported by Dutch GI specialists and less by GPs. The major health issue is possibly misjudged by GPs. Since GPs play a crucial role in a successful national screening program, CRC awareness should be realized by increasing knowledge about the incidence and mortality, thus increasing awareness of the need for screening among GPs.

  9. Colorectal cancer screening: a global overview of existing programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuders, Eline H; Ruco, Arlinda; Rabeneck, Linda; Schoen, Robert E; Sung, Joseph J Y; Young, Graeme P; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks third among the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide, with wide geographical variation in incidence and mortality across the world. Despite proof that screening can decrease CRC incidence and mortality, CRC screening is only offered to a small proportion of the target population worldwide. Throughout the world there are widespread differences in CRC screening implementation status and strategy. Differences can be attributed to geographical variation in CRC incidence, economic resources, healthcare structure and infrastructure to support screening such as the ability to identify the target population at risk and cancer registry availability. This review highlights issues to consider when implementing a CRC screening programme and gives a worldwide overview of CRC burden and the current status of screening programmes, with focus on international differences.

  10. Breast Cancer Screening: What are the Last Changes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Secginli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammography, clinical breast-examination (CBE and breast self-examination (BSE are the mainly recommended screening methods for early diagnosis of breast cancer. In recent years, guidelines concerning screening methods were revised. To date, CBE and BSE are not routinely recommended for early diagnosis of breast cancer in western countries. Due to important value in decreasing breast cancer mortality rate, mammography, is the recommended breast cancer screening method; but the changes related with the time of mammography screening is rised to notice. In 2010, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF which is one of the important health authority, guidelines concerning screening mammography were revised. Accordingly, while the mammography that is recommended for women starting aged 40 years by many health authorities, the USPSTF no longer advises routine screening mammography for women aged 40–49 and for those aged ≥75.; and biennial screening is advised for those aged 50–74. It is necessary for health professionals working in breast health area to learn the last changes concerning about breast cancer screening methods. Together with CBE and BSE, it is also important to encourage women to participate mammography screening with an understanding of its benefits and risks. In this article, it is aimed to critique new guidelines about breast cancer screening methods. It is also critiqued the potential benefits and risks of mammography that is currently considered the ‘‘gold standard’’ for breast cancer screening for women. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 193-200

  11. Factors associated with cervical cancer screening amongst women of reproductive age from Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Ferraez, Laura; Suarez Allen, Rosa Etelvina; Carrillo Martinez, Jorge Ramiro; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Losa, Maria Del Refugio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the participation of women of reproductive age in a cancer screening program, and survey reasons for non-screening in a region from Mexico with high cervical cancer mortality. A total of 281 obstetric patients from a previous HPV study in a social security hospital during 2008-2009 were included. Reasons for not participating in the screening were directly asked. HPV positive patients were invited to participate in an informative workshop, and they filled in a knowledge questionnaire. The women ranged in age from 14-47 years; 123 (43.8%) had never participated in screening, of which 97 (78.9%) had their first sexual intercourse 2 to 10 years ago, resulting in 25% HPV positive. Screening history was strongly associated with 2 or more gestations (OR= 10.07, p=0.00) and older age (OR=6.69 p=0.00). When 197 women were contacted and interviewed, reasons referred for non-screening were ignorance, lack of interest or time, recent sexual onset, shame and fear. More than 50% of the workshop participants showed knowledge of HPV, while 38.9% and 25% knew about Pap smear and cervical cancer. A high percentage of women of reproductive age have never had a Pap smear. Promoting the screening program in medical facilities seems to be important in this population. New approaches to inform vulnerable individuals on the benefits of screening need to be implemented, especially for young women.

  12. Transvaginal ultrasonography in ovarian cancer screening: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Nagell Jr JR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available John R van Nagell Jr, John T HoffDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center/Markey Cancer Center, Lexington, KY, USAAbstract: Transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS is an integral part of all major ovarian cancer screening trials. TVS is accurate in detecting abnormalities in ovarian volume and morphology, but is less reliable in differentiating benign from malignant ovarian tumors. When used as the only screening test, TVS is sensitive, but has a low positive predictive value. Therefore, serum biomarkers and tumor morphology indexing are used together with TVS to identify ovarian tumors at high risk for malignancy. This allows preoperative triage of high-risk cases to major cancer centers for therapy while decreasing unnecessary surgery for benign disease. Ovarian cancer screening has been associated with a decrease in stage at detection in most trials, thereby allowing treatment to be initiated when the disease is most curable.Keywords: ovarian cancer, ultrasound, screening, serum Ca-125

  13. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Annual National Symposium on Prostate Cancer by CCRTD, CAU, March 16-19, 2014. 15. Appendix #15: Peer- reviewed scientific publication with inputs...and  Immunology Y. Tu CU Regulation of G‐Protein‐Coupled  Receptors in Prostate  Cancer     Acknowledgements: DOD CDMRP PCa Research Program PC121645...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0264 TITLE: Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ming-Fong Lin, Ph.D

  14. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  15. Screening study on new tumor marker periplakin for lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuqin Dai; Wei Li; Mian Kong; Yuzhen Zheng; Shuying Chen; Junye Wang; Linquan Zang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use lung cancer targeting binding polypeptide ZS-9 to screen cDNA library of human lung cancer and obtain ZS-9 specific ligand to confirm tumor marker of non small-cell lung cancer. Methods: Artificially synthesize biotin labeled peptide ZS-9, anchored ZS-9 in the enzyme label plate coupled by avidin, used ZS-9 as probe to screen cDNA library of human lung cancer, after screening, obtained bacteriophage clone specifically binding with anchored polypeptide ZS-9. Extracted plasmid of bacteriophage and performed sequencing after amplified by PCR. Results: It was demonstrated by bioinformatic analysis on the sequence of ligand binded by lung cancer specific peptide ZS-9 that the ligand was the cytoskeletal protein periplakin on the surface of lung cancer cells, suggesting that periplakin might be a new marker for non-small-cell lung cancer in lung cancer. Conclusion: Use specific lung cancer binding peptide to screen new tumor marker periplakin in lung cancer and further studies on its biologic functions in genesis and development of lung cancer are still needed.

  16. Men and women: beliefs about cancer and about screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whynes David K

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer screening programmes in England are publicly-funded. Professionals' beliefs in the public health benefits of screening can conflict with individuals' entitlements to exercise informed judgement over whether or not to participate. The recognition of the importance of individual autonomy in decision making requires greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs upon which people's screening choices are founded. Until recently, the technology available required that cancer screening be confined to women. This study aimed to discover whether male and female perceptions of cancer and of screening differed. Methods Data on the public's cancer beliefs were collected by means of a postal survey (anonymous questionnaire. Two general practices based in Nottingham and in Mansfield, in east-central England, sent questionnaires to registered patients aged 30 to 70 years. 1,808 completed questionnaires were returned for analysis, 56.5 per cent from women. Results Women were less likely to underestimate overall cancer incidence, although each sex was more likely to cite a sex-specific cancer as being amongst the most common cancer site. In terms of risk factors, men were most uncertain about the role of stress and sexually-transmitted diseases, whereas women were more likely to rate excessive alcohol and family history as major risk factors. The majority of respondents believed the public health care system should provide cancer screening, but significantly more women than men reported having benefiting from the nationally-provided screening services. Those who were older, in better health or had longer periods of formal education were less worried about cancer than those who had illness experiences, lower incomes, or who were smokers. Actual or potential participation in bowel screening was higher amongst those who believed bowel cancer to be common and amongst men, despite women having more substantial worries about

  17. Dynamic infrared imaging for skin cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Sebastián E.; Ramirez, David A.; Myers, Stephen A.; von Winckel, Greg; Krishna, Sanchita; Berwick, Marianne; Padilla, R. Steven; Sen, Pradeep; Krishna, Sanjay

    2015-05-01

    Dynamic thermal imaging (DTI) with infrared cameras is a non-invasive technique with the ability to detect the most common types of skin cancer. We discuss and propose a standardized analysis method for DTI of actual patient data, which achieves high levels of sensitivity and specificity by judiciously selecting pixels with the same initial temperature. This process compensates the intrinsic limitations of the cooling unit and is the key enabling tool in the DTI data analysis. We have extensively tested the methodology on human subjects using thermal infrared image sequences from a pilot study conducted jointly with the University of New Mexico Dermatology Clinic in Albuquerque, New Mexico (ClinicalTrials ID number NCT02154451). All individuals were adult subjects who were scheduled for biopsy or adult volunteers with clinically diagnosed benign condition. The sample size was 102 subjects for the present study. Statistically significant results were obtained that allowed us to distinguish between benign and malignant skin conditions. The sensitivity and specificity was 95% (with a 95% confidence interval of [87.8% 100.0%]) and 83% (with a 95% confidence interval of [73.4% 92.5%]), respectively, and with an area under the curve of 95%. Our results lead us to conclude that the DTI approach in conjunction with the judicious selection of pixels has the potential to provide a fast, accurate, non-contact, and non-invasive way to screen for common types of skin cancer. As such, it has the potential to significantly reduce the number of biopsies performed on suspicious lesions.

  18. Women's opinions about attending for breast cancer screening: Stability of cognitive determinants during three rounds of screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drossaert, C.H.C.; Boer, H.; Seydel, E.R.

    2005-01-01

    Examines women's opinions about attending breast cancer screening. Stability of beliefs and intentions towards repeat attendance at breast cancer screening; Assessment of whether cognitions changed in the course of the programme; Increase of attendance in subsequent rounds of breast cancer screening

  19. Barriers to cervical cancer screening in Mulanje, Malawi: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria K Fort

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Victoria K Fort1, Mary Sue Makin2, Aaron J Siegler1, Kevin Ault3, Roger Rochat11Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 2Mulanje Mission Hospital, Mulanje, Malawi; 3Emory University Medical School, Atlanta, Georgia, USABackground: In Malawi, cervical cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer among women, with an 80% mortality rate. The Mulanje Mission Hospital has offered free cervical cancer screening for eight years; however, patients primarily seek medical help for gynecologic complaints after the disease is inoperable.Methods: We investigated how women in rural Malawi make health-seeking decisions regarding cervical cancer screening using qualitative research methods. The study was conducted between May and August of 2009 in Mulanje, Malawi.Results: This study found that the primary cue to action for cervical cancer screening was symptoms of cervical cancer. Major barriers to seeking preventative screening included low knowledge levels, low perceived susceptibility and low perceived benefits from the service. Study participants did not view cervical cancer screening as critical health care. Interviews suggested that use of the service could increase if women are recruited while visiting the hospital for a different service.Conclusion: This study recommends that health care providers and health educators target aspects of perceived susceptibility among their patients, including knowledge levels and personal risk assessment. We believe that continued support and advertisement of cervical cancer screening programs along with innovative recruitment strategies will increase usage density and decrease unnecessary deaths from cervical cancer in Malawi.Keywords: cervical cancer, interviews, health care, Mulanje Mission Hospital

  20. Triage of HPV positive women in cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schiffman, Mark; Palmer, Timothy; Arbyn, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Despite HPV vaccines, screening will remain central for decades to control cervical cancer. Recently, HPV testing alone or with cytology was introduced as an alternative to cytology screening. However, most HPV infections are harmless and additional tests are required to identify women with progressing infections or precancer. With three options for primary screening, and without clear strategies for triage of screen-positive women, there is great confusion about the best approach. Also, increasing HPV vaccination coverage will lead to lower disease prevalence, and force new screening approaches. Currently recommended triage strategies for primary HPV screening include HPV genotyping for HPV16 and HPV18 and cytology. Other alternatives that are currently evaluated include p16/Ki-67 dual stain cytology, host methylation, and viral methylation testing. Clinical management of women with cervical cancer screening results is moving to use risk thresholds rather than individual test results. Specific risk thresholds have been defined for return to primary screening, repeat testing, referral to colposcopy, and immediate treatment. Choice of test algorithms is based on comparison of absolute risk estimates from triage tests with established clinical thresholds. Importantly, triage tests need to be evaluated together with the primary screening test and the downstream clinical management. An optimal integrated screening and triage strategy should reassure the vast majority of women that they are at very low risk of cervical cancer, send the women at highest risk to colposcopy at the right time, when disease can be colposcopically detected, and minimize the intermediate risk group that requires continued surveillance.

  1. Screening and surveillance approaches in familial pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Marcia Irene

    2008-07-01

    Screening and surveillance for pancreatic cancer and its precursors is a relatively new indication for endoscopic ultrasound. It provides an alternative approach to the ineffective treatment of mostly incurable symptomatic pancreatic cancer. It is currently reserved for individuals with an increased risk for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, such as those who have inherited genetic syndromes (eg, patients who have Peutz-Jeghers syndrome or hereditary pancreatitis, germline mutation carriers of p16 and BRCA2) and at-risk relatives of patients who have familial pancreatic cancer. This article discusses the rationale for performing screening and surveillance, the types of patients who are eligible for screening, the diagnostic modalities and technique for screening, the diagnostic yield of screening, and the ongoing research.

  2. Enhancing citizen engagement in cancer screening through deliberative democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychetnik, Lucie; Carter, Stacy M; Abelson, Julia; Thornton, Hazel; Barratt, Alexandra; Entwistle, Vikki A; Mackenzie, Geraldine; Salkeld, Glenn; Glasziou, Paul

    2013-03-20

    Cancer screening is widely practiced and participation is promoted by various social, technical, and commercial drivers, but there are growing concerns about the emerging harms, risks, and costs of cancer screening. Deliberative democracy methods engage citizens in dialogue on substantial and complex problems: especially when evidence and values are important and people need time to understand and consider the relevant issues. Information derived from such deliberations can provide important guidance to cancer screening policies: citizens' values are made explicit, revealing what really matters to people and why. Policy makers can see what informed, rather than uninformed, citizens would decide on the provision of services and information on cancer screening. Caveats can be elicited to guide changes to existing policies and practices. Policies that take account of citizens' opinions through a deliberative democracy process can be considered more legitimate, justifiable, and feasible than those that don't.

  3. Discovery – Lung Cancer Screening Saves Lives: The NLST

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI funded the National Lung Screening Trial, an eight-year study that used new technology to detect small, aggressive tumors early enough to surgically remove them. This approach reduced lung cancer deaths among participants by 20 percent.

  4. Grantee Spotlight: Dr. Kolawole Okuyemi - Improving Cervical Cancer Screening Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Kolawole Okuyumi is studying cervical cancer screening attitudes and behaviors of African immigrants and refugees in Minnesota, and introducing “cancer” and “cervix” to their everyday vocabulary.

  5. Metoder til screening for kolorektal cancer kan forbedres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad; Madsen, Mogens Rørbæk

    2014-01-01

    Screening programmes for colorectal cancer (CRC) are being implemented in various countries worldwide including Denmark. The majority of programmes rely on faecal occult blood testing with subsequent colonoscopy. This approach is challenged by limited compliance, which reduces the efficiency...

  6. Massive Endoscopic Screening for Esophageal and Gastric Cancers in a High-Risk Area of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianzhi Zheng

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the findings from a massive endoscopic screening program in a high-risk area of China and to evaluate the prognosis of patients diagnosed through endoscopic screening compared with those diagnosed at usual hospital visits because of illness.In 2006, an early detection and treatment program was initiated in Yangzhong county, China. Local residents aged 40-69 years were eligible for free endoscopic screening. Endoscopic examination was performed with Lugol's iodine staining, followed by biopsies. Patients diagnosed with esophageal or gastric cancer were referred for treatment and followed to assess their long-term survival status.From 2006 through 2012, we screened 12453 participants, including 5334 (42.8% men and 7119 (57.2% women. The average age was 52.8 ± 8.0 years. We detected 166 patients with upper digestive tract cancers, including 106 cancers in the esophagus (detection rate: 0.85% and 60 cancers in the stomach (detection rate: 0.48%. Of these patients, 98.11% with esophageal cancer and 100% with gastric cancer were defined as at the early stage. In the process of follow-up, 17 patients died from cancer-related causes, and the median survival time was greater than 85 months. The overall survival rates for 1, 3 and 5 years were 98.0%, 90.0% and 89.0%, respectively. A significant positive effect was observed for the long-term survival of patients diagnosed through massive endoscopic screening.In a high-risk population, massive endoscopic screening can identify early stage carcinoma of esophageal and gastric cancers and improve patients' prognosis through early detection and treatment.

  7. CANCER SCREENING AWARENESS AMONG NURSING STAFF IN GOVERNMENT MEDICAL COLLEGE: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Shanthilal

    2016-07-01

    were willing to undergo screening if conducted by the institute. The limitation of this study is small number of subjects; this may not represent the view of nursing staff in general. Large multi-institutional studies have to be undertaken to assess KAP among the nursing staff regarding cancer screening. CONCLUSION This data suggests that levels of knowledge and practice of cancer screening are very poor among nursing staff working in government medical college hospital. Cancer screening program should also include health care professionals in addition to general population.

  8. Evaluation of screening programmes: Stud ies on breast cancer and prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Beemsterboer, Petra

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn the past century treatment and primary prevention of disease has focussed on decreasing mortality rates (Wolleswinkel-van den Bosch, 1998). The current challenge is directed towards secondary prevention. Screening for disease is becoming increasingly part of medical practice in the Western world. Screening for cervical cancer with PAP smears and for lung cancer with chest X-rays were the first examples of cancer screening that were expected to reduce mortality (Boucot, 1948; Pa...

  9. Screening and cervical cancer cure: population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrae, B.; Andersson, T. M.-L.; Lambert, P C; Kemetli, L.; Silfverdal, L.; Strander, B.; Ryd, W.; Dillner, J.; Tornberg, S.; Sparen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether detection of invasive cervical cancer by screening results in better prognosis or merely increases the lead time until death. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants All 1230 women with cervical cancer diagnosed during 1999-2001 in Sweden prospectively followed up for an average of 8.5 years. Main outcome measures Cure proportions and five year relative survival ratios, stratified by screening history, mode of detection, age...

  10. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bo In [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Pil [Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Eun [Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Colorectal cancer is currently the second most common cancer among Korean males and the fourth most common among females. Since the majority of colorectal cancer case present following the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are vital methods in its prevention. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish national guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The proposed guidelines have been developed by the Korean Multi-Society Task Force using evidence-based methods. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been used to form the statements contained in the guidelines. This paper discusses the epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea as well as optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations.

  11. Preventing cervical cancer : overviews of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program and 2 US immunization programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kris; Curtis, C Robinette; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Stokley, Shannon; Walker, Chastity; Roland, Katherine; Benard, Vicki; Saraiya, Mona

    2008-11-15

    Three federal programs with the potential to reduce cervical cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, especially among underserved populations, are administered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP), the Vaccines for Children (VFC) Program, and the Section 317 immunization grant program. The NBCCEDP provides breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to uninsured and underinsured women. The VFC program and the Section 317 immunization grant program provide vaccines, including human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, to targeted populations at no cost for these vaccines. This article describes the programs, their histories, populations served, services offered, and roles in preventing cervical cancer through HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening. Potential long-term reduction in healthcare costs resulting from HPV vaccination is also discussed. As an example of an initiative to vaccinate uninsured women aged 19-26 years through a cancer services program, a state-based effort that was recently launched in New York, is highlighted.

  12. Prevalence and significance of psammoma bodies in cervicovaginal smears in a cervical cancer screening program with emphasis on a case of primary bilateral ovarian psammocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusiol Teresa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence and significance of psammoma bodies (PBs in the cervicovaginal smears of the screening population of Trento district (Italy, with the description of the cytological presentation of an asymptomatic bilateral ovarian psammocarcinoma. Methods From 1993 to 2006, women with PBs detected on consecutively screened cervical smears were identified from the computerized pathology database of Rovereto Hospital. The follow-up period was set from the time of cytological diagnosis to May 31st, 2007. Clinical information was obtained from retrospective review of women's medical records. The source of PBs was identified with adequate diagnostic procedures. Results PBs were found in six of the 201,231 Papanicolaou screening smears (0.0029%. Benign conditions (intrauterine device, inclusion ovarian cysts and ovarian cystoadenofibroma with PBs were found in four patients. In two cases, PBs were associated with malignant cells; a bilateral ovarian malignancy was diagnosed in both cases, a serous adenocarcinoma and a psammocarcinoma. Conclusion PBs in the cervicovaginal smears are a rare finding, associated more often with benign conditions than with malignancies. Moreover, to our knowledge, our case of primary ovarian psammocarcinoma is the first report in which the presence of malignant cells and PBs in the cervicovaginal and endometrial smears represents the first manifestation of disease.

  13. Secondary solid cancer screening following hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamoto, Y; Shah, N N; Savani, B N; Shaw, B E; Abraham, A A; Ahmed, I A; Akpek, G; Atsuta, Y; Baker, K S; Basak, G W; Bitan, M; DeFilipp, Z; Gregory, T K; Greinix, H T; Hamadani, M; Hamilton, B K; Hayashi, R J; Jacobsohn, D A; Kamble, R T; Kasow, K A; Khera, N; Lazarus, H M; Malone, A K; Lupo-Stanghellini, M T; Margossian, S P; Muffly, L S; Norkin, M; Ramanathan, M; Salooja, N; Schoemans, H; Wingard, J R; Wirk, B; Wood, W A; Yong, A; Duncan, C N; Flowers, M E D; Majhail, N S

    2015-08-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients have a substantial risk of developing secondary solid cancers, particularly beyond 5 years after HCT and without reaching a plateau overtime. A working group was established through the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation with the goal to facilitate implementation of cancer screening appropriate to HCT recipients. The working group reviewed guidelines and methods for cancer screening applicable to the general population and reviewed the incidence and risk factors for secondary cancers after HCT. A consensus approach was used to establish recommendations for individual secondary cancers. The most common sites include oral cavity, skin, breast and thyroid. Risks of cancers are increased after HCT compared with the general population in skin, thyroid, oral cavity, esophagus, liver, nervous system, bone and connective tissues. Myeloablative TBI, young age at HCT, chronic GVHD and prolonged immunosuppressive treatment beyond 24 months were well-documented risk factors for many types of secondary cancers. All HCT recipients should be advised of the risks of secondary cancers annually and encouraged to undergo recommended screening based on their predisposition. Here we propose guidelines to help clinicians in providing screening and preventive care for secondary cancers among HCT recipients.

  14. Secondary solid cancer screening following hematopoietic cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamoto, Y; Shah, NN; Savani, BN; Shaw, BE; Abraham, AA; Ahmed, IA; Akpek, G; Atsuta, Y; Baker, KS; Basak, GW; Bitan, M; DeFilipp, Z; Gregory, TK; Greinix, HT; Hamadani, M; Hamilton, BK; Hayashi, RJ; Jacobsohn, DA; Kamble, RT; Kasow, KA; Khera, N; Lazarus, HM; Malone, AK; Lupo-Stanghellini, MT; Margossian, SP; Muffly, LS; Norkin, M; Ramanathan, M; Salooja, N; Schoemans, H; Wingard, JR; Wirk, B; Wood, WA; Yong, A; Duncan, CN; Flowers, MED; Majhail, NS

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients have a substantial risk of developing secondary solid cancers, particularly beyond 5 years after HCT and without reaching a plateau overtime. A working group was established through the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation with the goal to facilitate implementation of cancer screening appropriate to HCT recipients. The working group reviewed guidelines and methods for cancer screening applicable to the general population and reviewed the incidence and risk factors for secondary cancers after HCT. A consensus approach was used to establish recommendations for individual secondary cancers. The most common sites include oral cavity, skin, breast and thyroid. Risks of cancers are increased after HCT compared with the general population in skin, thyroid, oral cavity, esophagus, liver, nervous system, bone and connective tissues. Myeloablative TBI, young age at HCT, chronic GVHD and prolonged immunosuppressive treatment beyond 24 months were well-documented risk factors for many types of secondary cancers. All HCT recipients should be advised of the risks of secondary cancers annually and encouraged to undergo recommended screening based on their predisposition. Here we propose guidelines to help clinicians in providing screening and preventive care for secondary cancers among HCT recipients. PMID:25822223

  15. "Inside and outside": Sikh women's perspectives on cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelke, Nelly D; Vollman, Ardene Robinson

    2007-03-01

    Cervical cancer can be detected at an early stage through regular screening. The literature suggests that cervical cancer in immigrant women, a growing population in Canada, is less likely to be detected early than it is in the general population, as immigrant women tend not to take advantage of screening. Culturally appropriate screening services for immigrant women are few. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted with female members of an urban Sikh community in Canada to explore perspectives on cervical cancer screening. In-depth interviews (13) and focus groups (3) were carried out to uncover challenges to cervical cancer screening. The researchers identified a prevailing theme of "inside/outside" whereby the women felt confined to their community, finding it difficult to move "outside" into Canadian society in order to participate in screening. Lack of knowledge about the importance of prevention, influence of family and community, and health-provider issues affected the women's access to screening. The results will be helpful for nurses planning and delivering screening services to Sikh women.

  16. Improving cervical cancer screening rates in an urban HIV clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Sara L; Suharwardy, Sanaa H; Bodavula, Phani; Schechtman, Kenneth; Overton, E Turner; Onen, Nur F; Lane, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women are at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer; however, screening rates remain low. The objectives of this study were to analyze a quality improvement intervention to increase cervical cancer screening rates in an urban academic HIV clinic and to identify factors associated with inadequate screening. Barriers to screening were identified by a multidisciplinary quality improvement committee at the Washington University Infectious Diseases clinic. Several strategies were developed to address these barriers. The years pre- and post-implementation were analyzed to examine the clinical impact of the intervention. A total of 422 women were seen in both the pre-implementation and post-implementation periods. In the pre-implementation period, 222 women (53%) underwent cervical cancer screening in the form of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing. In the post-implementation period, 318 women (75.3%) underwent cervical cancer screening (p screening included fewer visits attended (pre: 4.2 ± 1.5; post: 3.4 ± 1.4; p screening rates in an urban academic HIV clinic.

  17. Diagnostic and treatment procedures induced by cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); G.J. van Oortmarssen (Gerrit); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); N. van der Lubbe (Nils); H.M.A. van Agt (H. M A)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The amount of diagnostic and treatment procedures induced by cervical cancer screening has been assessed prospectively and related to mortality reduction. Assumptions are based on data from Dutch screening programmes and on a scenario for future developments. With 5 invita

  18. Compliance after 17 years of breast cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scaf-Klomp, W.; van Sonderen, F.L.P.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The motives and reasons for regular attendance, irregular attendance and drop-out were studied in women who were enrolled in a biennial breast cancer screening programme in 1975 and who were invited to each subsequent screening round until 1992. Three compliance groups were compared: 'attended all r

  19. Socioeconomic position and participation in colorectal cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B L; Jørgensen, Torben; Brasso, K

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with faecal occult blood test (FOBT) has the potential to reduce the incidence and mortality of CRC. Screening uptake is known to be inferior in people with low socioeconomic position (SEP) when compared with those with high position; however, the results of most...

  20. Prospects for population screening and diagnosis of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, John K; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Pedersen, Jesper Holst

    2013-01-01

    Deaths from lung cancer exceed those from any other type of malignancy, with 1·5 million deaths in 2010. Prevention and smoking cessation are still the main methods to reduce the death toll. The US National Lung Screening Trial, which compared CT screening with chest radiograph, yielded a mortality...

  1. Attitudes of women about breast cancer and cervical cancern screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilknur Aydin Avci

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This research revealed that the women had moderate knowlege about breast and cervical cancer screening and artcipation in screening is low. Beside, the women who had BSE and mammography had more PAP smear. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 235-239

  2. European Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trials : Post NLST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, John K.; van Klaveren, Rob; Pedersen, Jesper H.; Pastorino, Ugo; Paci, Eugino; Becker, Nikolauss; Infante, Maurizo; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Koning, Harry J.

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects of their tri

  3. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) compared two ways of detecting lung cancer: low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) and standard chest X-ray. Both chest X-rays and low-dose helical CT scans have been used to find lung cancer early, but the effects of these screening techniques on lung cancer mortality rates had not been determined. NLST enrolled 53,454 current or former heavy smokers from 33 sites and coordinating centers across the United States. | The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) compared two ways of detecting lung cancer: participants who received low-dose helical CT scans had a 20% lower risk of dying from lung cancer than participants who received standard chest X-rays.

  4. Effects of Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer of men worldwide. The number of new cases worldwide was estimated at 899,000 and accounted for 13.6% of all cancers in men in 2008. With an estimated 258,000 deaths in 2008, prostate cancer is the sixth leading cause of death

  5. Screening history of cervical cancers in Emilia-Romagna, Italy: defining priorities to improve cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paolo Giorgi; Caroli, Stefania; Mancini, Silvia; de' Bianchi, Priscilla Sassoli; Finarelli, Alba C; Naldoni, Carlo; Bucchi, Lauro; Falcini, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    Most invasive cervical cancers in industrialized countries are due to the lack of Pap test coverage, very few are due to screening failures. This study aimed at quantifying the proportion of invasive cancers occurring in nonscreened or underscreened women and that in women with a previous negative screening, that is, screening failure, during the first two screening rounds (1996-2002) and in the following rounds (2003-2008) in the Emilia-Romagna region. All cases of invasive cancers registered in the regional cancer registry between 1996 and 2008 were classified according to screening history through a record linkage with the screening programme registry. The incidence significantly decreased from 11.6/100 000 to 8.7/100 000; this decrease is due to a reduction in squamous cell cancers (annual percentage change -6.2; confidence interval: -7.8, -4.6) and advanced cancers (annual percentage change -6.6; confidence interval: -8.8, -4.3), whereas adenocarcinomas and microinvasive cancers were essentially stable. The proportion of cancers among women not yet invited and among nonresponders decreased over the two periods, from 45.5 to 33.3%. In contrast, the proportion of women with a previous negative Pap test less than 5 years and 5 years or more before cancer incidence increased from 5.7 to 13.3% and from 0.3 to 5.5%, respectively. Although nonattendance of the screening programme remains the main barrier to cervical cancer control, the introduction of a more sensitive test, such as the human papillomavirus DNA test, could significantly reduce the burden of disease.

  6. Review and research analysis of computational target methods using BioRuby and in silico screening of herbal lead compounds against pancreatic cancer using R programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayadeepa, R M; Ray, Ankita; Naik, Dhaval; Sanyal, Debendra Nath; Shah, Disha

    2014-01-01

    Plants and their natural components sophisticated with the cornerstone of traditional conventional medicinal system throughout the globe for many years and extend to furnish mankind with latest remedies. Natural Products act as lead molecules for the synthesis of various potent drugs. In the current research a study is conducted on herbal small molecule and their potential binding chemical affinity to the effect or molecules of major diseases such as pancreatic cancer. Clinical studies demonstrate correlation between Cyclin- Dependent Kinase 4 (CDK4) and malignant progression of Pancreatic Cancer. Using Bioruby Gem's we were able to analyze better characteristics of the target protein. VegaZZ and NAMD were used to minimize the energy of the target protein. Therefore identification of effective, well- tolerated targets was analyzed. Further the target protein was subjected to docking with the anti cancer inhibitors which represents a rational chemo preventive strategy using AutoDock Vina. Later using the dock score top ranked phytochemicals were analyzed for Toxicity Analysis. Using the BioRuby gem we were able to measure the distance between the amino acid. Various R scripting libraries were used to hunt the best leads, as in this case the phytochemicals. Phytochemicals such as Wedelolactones and Catechin were analyzed computationally. This study has presented the various effects of naturally occurring anti pancreatic cancer compounds Catechin, Wedelolactones that inhibits Cyclin Dependent Kinase 4. The study results reveal that compounds use less binding energy to CDK4 and inhibit its activity. Future investigation of other various wet lab studies such as cell line studies will confirm results of these two herbal chemical formulations potential ones for treating Pancreatic Cancer.

  7. Optimal colorectal cancer screening in states' low-income, uninsured populations - The case of South Carolina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Van Der Steen (Alex); A.B. Knudsen (Amy); F. Van Hees (Frank); G.P. Walter (Gailya P.); F.G. Berger (Franklin G.); V.G. Daguise (Virginie G.); K.M. Kuntz (Karen); A. Zauber (Ann); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjective To determine whether, given a limited budget, a state's low-income uninsured population would have greater benefit from a colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program using colonoscopy or fecal immunochemical testing (FIT). Data Sources/Study Setting South Carolina's low-income, u

  8. Breast Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    tion of tumor cells with red indicating the highest density of tumor cells at the primary tumor (4th mammary fat pad ) and purple/blue showing the...Idea Award Elaine Hardman and Philippe Georgel “ Maternal Consumption of Omega 3 Fatty Acids to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk in Offspring” FY09

  9. The comparative and cost-effectiveness of HPV-based cervical cancer screening algorithms in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Nicole G; Maza, Mauricio; Alfaro, Karla; Gage, Julia C; Castle, Philip E; Felix, Juan C; Cremer, Miriam L; Kim, Jane J

    2015-08-15

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in El Salvador. Utilizing data from the Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador (CAPE) demonstration project, we assessed the health and economic impact of HPV-based screening and two different algorithms for the management of women who test HPV-positive, relative to existing Pap-based screening. We calibrated a mathematical model of cervical cancer to epidemiologic data from El Salvador and compared three screening algorithms for women aged 30-65 years: (i) HPV screening every 5 years followed by referral to colposcopy for HPV-positive women (Colposcopy Management [CM]); (ii) HPV screening every 5 years followed by treatment with cryotherapy for eligible HPV-positive women (Screen and Treat [ST]); and (iii) Pap screening every 2 years followed by referral to colposcopy for Pap-positive women (Pap). Potential harms and complications associated with overtreatment were not assessed. Under base case assumptions of 65% screening coverage, HPV-based screening was more effective than Pap, reducing cancer risk by ∼ 60% (Pap: 50%). ST was the least costly strategy, and cost $2,040 per year of life saved. ST remained the most attractive strategy as visit compliance, costs, coverage, and test performance were varied. We conclude that a screen-and-treat algorithm within an HPV-based screening program is very cost-effective in El Salvador, with a cost-effectiveness ratio below per capita GDP.

  10. Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Min Qi Wang,2 Xiang S Ma,3 Steven E Shive,4 Yin Tan,5 Jamil I Toubbeh51Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 3College of Health Professions and School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 4Center for Asian Health, Temple University, and Department of Health, East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, 5Center for Asian Health, Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USABackground: The purpose of this community-based study was to develop a structural equation model for factors contributing to cervical cancer screening among Chinese American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 573 Chinese American women aged 18 years and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis, that included the following variables: access to and satisfaction with health care, and enabling and predisposing cultural and health beliefs. Structural equation model analyses were conducted on factors related to cervical cancer screening.Results: Age, marital status, employment, household income, and having health insurance, but not educational level, were significantly related to cervical screening status. Predisposing and enabling factors were positively associated with cervical cancer screening. The cultural factor was significantly related to the enabling factor or the satisfaction with health care factor.Conclusion: This model highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in relation to cervical cancer screening. These factors were significant, with cultural, predisposing, enabling, and health belief factors and access to and satisfaction with health care reinforcing the need to assist Chinese American women with poor English fluency in translation and awareness of the importance of cervical

  11. Programmatic screening for colorectal cancer: the COLONPREV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Antoni; Quintero, Enrique

    2015-03-01

    The COLONPREV study is an ongoing multicenter, nationwide, randomized controlled trial aimed at evaluating the efficacy of once-only colonoscopy and biennial fecal immunochemical testing with respect to the reduction of CRC-related mortality at 10 years in average-risk colorectal cancer screening population. Following a pragmatic approach, this study may contribute to establishing the most cost-effective strategy in a programmatic, population-based setting. In this review, we report the results obtained at the first screening round, as well as others achieved in nested evaluations using the COLONPREV dataset with the aim of clarifying some controversial issues on the different strategies of colorectal cancer screening.

  12. Family Support and Colorectal Cancer Screening among Urban African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Northouse, Laurel; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2012-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death among African Americans. Less than 50% of African Americans have had CRC screening. This study examined the relationships between family support and influence, cultural identity, CRC beliefs, and a screening informed decision among 129 urban African Americans. Family support (p < .01) significantly predicted CRC beliefs and CRC beliefs significantly predicted informed decision (p < .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family support and CRC beliefs with African Americans patients. This may improve patient-provider shared decision-making satisfaction and CRC screening adherence among African American patients.

  13. Targeted screening for colorectal cancer in high-risk individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Wong, Sunny H; Ng, Siew C; Wu, Justin C Y; Chan, Francis K L; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2015-12-01

    The idea of targeted screening for colorectal cancer based on risk profiles originates from its benefits to improve detection yield and optimize screening efficiency. Clinically, it allows individuals to be more aware of their own risk and make informed decisions on screening choice. From a public health perspective, the implementation of risk stratification strategies may better justify utilization of colonoscopic resources, and facilitate resource-planning in the formulation of population-based screening programmes. There are several at-risk groups who should receive earlier screening, and colonoscopy is more preferred. This review summarizes the currently recommended CRC screening strategies among subjects with different risk factors, and introduces existing risk scoring systems. Additional genetic, epidemiological, and clinical parameters may be needed to enhance their performance to risk-stratify screening participants. Future research studies should refine these scoring systems, and explore the adaptability, feasibility, acceptability, and user-friendliness of their use in clinical practice among different population groups.

  14. Screening for depression in terminally ill cancer patients in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akechi, Tatsuo; Okuyama, Toru; Sugawara, Yuriko; Shima, Yasuo; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2006-01-01

    This study attempted to assess the performance of several screening instruments for adjustment disorders (ADs) and major depression (MD) among terminally ill Japanese cancer patients. Two hundred and nine consecutive patients were assessed for ADs and MD using a structured clinical interview at the time of their registration with a palliative care unit, and two single-item interviews ("Are you depressed?" and "Have you lost interest?") and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were administered. Screening performance was investigated by calculating sensitivity, specificity, the positive predictive value, negative predictive value, likelihood ratio, and stratum-specific likelihood ratios. When the screening target included both an AD and MD, the HADS is a more useful screening method than the single-item interviews. Regarding screening for MD, both single-item interviews and the HADS possess useful screening performance. Different screening instruments may be recommended depending on the depressive disorders and specific populations.

  15. Breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer screening tests and overdiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2016-12-20

    The purpose of this study was to examine overdiagnosis and overtreatment related to cancer screening and to review relevant reports and studies. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and gray literature was conducted for relevant studies published between January 2000 and December 2015 reporting breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer screening tests and overdiagnosis. This study revealed no dichotomy on where screening would lower risk or cause overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Many screening tests did both, that is, at population level, there were both benefit (decreased disease-specific mortality) and harm (overdiagnosis and overtreatment). Therefore, we need to consider a balanced argument with citations for the potential benefits of screening along with the harms associated with screening. Although the benefits and harms can only be tested through randomized trials, important data from cohort studies, diagnostic accuracy studies, and modeling work can help define the extent of benefits and harms in the population. The health care cycle that prompt patients to undergo periodic screening tests is self-reinforcing. In most developed countries, screening test recommendations encourage periodic testing. Therefore, patients are continuing their screening. It is necessary for patients to become wise consumers of screening tests and make decisions with their physicians regarding further testing and treatments.

  16. Epidemiology and costs of cervical cancer screening and cervical dysplasia in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Sabrina

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We estimated the number of women undergoing cervical cancer screening annually in Italy, the rates of cervical abnormalities detected, and the costs of screening and management of abnormalities. Methods The annual number of screened women was estimated from National Health Interview data. Data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening were used to estimate the number of positive, negative and unsatisfactory Pap smears. The incidence of CIN (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia was estimated from the Emilia Romagna Cancer Registry. Patterns of follow-up and treatment costs were estimated using a typical disease management approach based on national guidelines and data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening. Treatment unit costs were obtained from Italian National Health Service and Hospital Information System of the Lazio Region. Results An estimated 6.4 million women aged 25–69 years undergo screening annually in Italy (1.2 million and 5.2 million through organized and opportunistic screening programs, respectively. Approximately 2.4% of tests have positive findings. There are approximately 21,000 cases of CIN1 and 7,000–17,000 cases of CIN2/3. Estimated costs to the healthcare service amount to €158.5 million for screening and €22.9 million for the management of cervical abnormalities. Conclusion Although some cervical abnormalities might have been underestimated, the total annual cost of cervical cancer prevention in Italy is approximately €181.5 million, of which 87% is attributable to screening.

  17. Non-melanoma skin cancer incidence and impact of skin cancer screening on incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisemann, Nora; Waldmann, Annika; Geller, Alan C; Weinstock, Martin A; Volkmer, Beate; Greinert, Ruediger; Breitbart, Eckhard W; Katalinic, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy, whose public health significance is often unrecognized. This analysis has two objectives: first, to provide up-to-date incidence estimates by sex, age group, histological type, and body site; and second, to study the impact of skin cancer screening. The impact of screening on NMSC incidence in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, is analyzed by comparing four time periods of different screening settings (no screening (1998-2000), pilot project (Skin Cancer Research to Provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany, SCREEN, 2003-2004), after SCREEN (2004-2008), and nation-wide skin cancer screening (2008-2010)) to a reference region (Saarland, Germany). Age-standardized (Europe) NMSC incidence was 119/100,000 for women and 145/100,000 for men in the most recent screening period in Schleswig-Holstein (2008-2010). During implementation of SCREEN (2003-2004), incidence increased from 81.5/100,000 to 111.5/100,000 (1998-2000) by 47% for women and 34% for men. All age groups in women were affected by the increase, but increases for men were mostly limited to the older age groups. Incidence in Saarland first increased slowly, but increased steeply with the introduction of the nation-wide skin cancer screening in 2008 (+47% for women and +40% for men, reference 2004-2008). Observed changes are most likely attributed to screening activities.

  18. A qualitative exploration of Malaysian cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooqui Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the existence of different screening methods, the response to cancer screening is poor among Malaysians. The current study aims to examine cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening and early diagnosis. Methods A qualitative methodology was used to collect in-depth information from cancer patients. After obtaining institutional ethical approval, patients with different types and stages of cancer from the three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian were approached. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English for thematic content analysis. Results Thematic content analysis yielded four major themes: awareness of cancer screening, perceived benefits of cancer screening, perceived barriers to cancer screening, and cues to action. The majority of respondents had never heard of cancer screening before their diagnosis. Some participants reported hearing about mammogram and Pap smear tests but did not undergo screening due to a lack of belief in personal susceptibility. Those who had negative results from screening prior to diagnosis perceived such tests as untrustworthy. Lack of knowledge and financial constraints were reported as barriers to cancer screening. Finally, numerous suggestions were given to improve screening behaviour among healthy individuals, including the role of mass media in disseminating the message ‘prevention is better than cure’. Conclusions Patients’ narratives revealed some significant issues that were in line with the Health Belief Model which could explain negative health behaviour. The description of the personal experiences of people with cancer could provide many cues to action for those who have never encountered this potentially deadly disease, if incorporated into health promotion activities.

  19. Increasing malnutrition during hospitalization: documentation by a nutritional screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchcofsky, G D; Kaminski, M V

    1985-01-01

    Nutritional status can change during hospitalization. To evaluate the degree of change, a nutrition screening program (NSP) that included admission and 3-week reassessment was implemented. NSP parameters were weight for height, percentage of weight loss, arm muscle circumference, triceps skinfold, serum albumin, and total lymphocyte count. Nutritional risk factors (NRF) were also recorded: cancer, nothing by mouth (NPO) for 3 or more days, loss of appetite, difficulty chewing or swallowing, persistent fever, and cancer chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Of 15,876 patients admitted during the period of March 1982 through December 1982, 583 (3.67%) were found to be suffering from malnutrition or to have NRFs. Of the 583 patients, 182 received nutritional support and were excluded from the study. The remaining patients were reassessed after 3 weeks and had significant decreases in nutritional parameters; 622 patients with deficits in one parameter (visceral or somatic) on admission had a significant decrease in all parameters (p less than .001) on 3-week assessment. There was a deterioration in nutritional status in those patients entering the hospital with NRFs only or with one low parameter.

  20. Optical screening of oral cancer: technology for emerging markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Sarif Kumar; Gupta, Lalit; Mittal, Chetan; Balakrishnan, Srinivasan; Rath, Satish Prasad; Santhosh, C; Pai, Keerthilatha M

    2007-01-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world. It is one of the most prevalent cancers in the developing countries of South Asia accounting for one third of the world burden. Sixty percent of the cancers are advanced by the time they are detected. Two methods of optical spectroscopy for detection of oral cancer have been discussed here. These methods are simple, easy to handle and non-invasive. The evaluation of the data is done automatically using pattern recognition techniques, making the screening subjective.

  1. Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is present in the body. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker for ... and other types of cancer, may also increase AFP levels. Specific tumor markers that may lead to ...

  2. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Aasmaa, Auni;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare current policy, organisation and coverage of cervical cancer screening programmes in the European Union (EU) member states with European and other international recommendations. According to the questionnaire-based survey, there are large variations in cervical...... with education, training and communication among women, medical professionals and authorities are required, accordingly. The study indicates that, despite substantial efforts, the recommendations of the Council of the EU on organised population-based screening for cervical cancer are not yet fulfilled. Decision......-makers and health service providers should consider stronger measures or incentives in order to improve cervical cancer control in Europe....

  3. Demographic, social cognitive and social ecological predictors of intention and participation in screening for colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Amy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research points to differences between predictors of intention to screen for colorectal cancer (CRC and screening behavior, and suggests social ecological factors may influence screening behavior. The aim of this study was to compare the social cognitive and social ecological predictors of intention to screen with predictors of participation. Methods People aged 50 to 74 years recruited from the electoral roll completed a baseline survey (n = 376 and were subsequently invited to complete an immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT. Results Multivariate analyses revealed five predictors of intention to screen and two predictors of participation. Perceived barriers to CRC screening and perceived benefits of CRC screening were the only predictor of both outcomes. There was little support for social ecological factors, but measurement problems may have impacted this finding. Conclusions This study has confirmed that the predictors of intention to screen for CRC and screening behaviour, although overlapping, are not the same. Research should focus predominantly on those factors shown to predict participation. Perceptions about the barriers to screening and benefits of screening are key predictors of participation, and provide a focus for intervention programs.

  4. Evaluation of complement proteins as screening markers for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Line; Christensen, Ib J; Jensenius, Jens C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Lack of symptoms results in late detection and increased mortality. Inflammation, including complement activation, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The concentrations of nine proteins......, M-ficolin and MAp44 in combination discriminate between CRC and patients without cancer. The markers did not have sufficient discriminatory value for CRC detection, but may prove useful for screening when combined with other markers....

  5. Chemical genetics and drug screening in Drosophila cancer models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mara Gladstone; Tin Tin Su

    2011-01-01

    Drug candidates often fail in preclinical and clinical testing because of reasons of efficacy and/or safety.It would be time- and cost-efficient to have screening models that reduce the rate of such false positive candidates that appear promising at first but fail later.In this regard,it would be particularly useful to have a rapid and inexpensive whole animal model that can pre-select hits from high-throughput screens but before testing in costly rodent assays.Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a potential whole animal model for drug screening.Of particular interest have been drugs that must act in the context of multi-cellularity such as those for neurological disorders and cancer.A recent review provides a comprehensive summary of drug screening in Drosophila,but with an emphasis on neurodegenerative disorders.Here,we review Drosophila screens in the literature aimed at cancer therapeutics.

  6. Prostate cancer screening: tests and algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAlthough the concept of early detection of cancer sounds intuitively logical it is not automatically so in the case of prostate cancer despite the fact that the data on incidence and mortality show that it is an important health problem. The fact that prostate cancer is in general a s

  7. Gynecologic screening in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijcken, FEM; Mourits, MJE; Kleibeuker, JH; Hollema, H; van der Zee, AGJ

    2003-01-01

    Objective. In hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), women with a mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutation have a cumulative lifetime risk of 25-50% for endometrial cancer and 8-12% for ovarian cancer. Therefore, female members of HNPCC families are offered an annual gynecologic and transvagi

  8. Screening for genes associated with ovarian cancer prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Xiao-hong; ZHANG Li; YANG Rong; FENG Jie; CHENG Ye-xia; CHENG Hong-yan; YE Xue; FU Tian-yun; CUI Heng

    2009-01-01

    Background Human epithelial ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3.ipl is more invasive and metastatic compared with its parental line SKOV3. A total of 17 000 human genome complementary DNA microarrays were used to compare the gene expression patterns of the two cell lines. Based on this, the gene expression profiles of 22 patients with ovarian cancer were analyzed by cDNA microarray, and screened the 2-fold differentially expressed genes compared with the normal ones. We screened genes relevant to clinical prognosis of serous ovarian cancer by determining the expression profiles of ovarian cancer genes to investigate cell receptor and immunity-associated genes, and as groundwork, identify ovarian cancer-associated antigens at the gene level.Methods Total RNA was extracted from 22 patients with ovarian cancer and DNA microarrays were prepared. After scanning, hybridization signals were collected and the genes that were differentially expressed twice as compared with the normal ones were screened.Results We screened 236 genes relevant to the prognosis of ovarian cancer from the 17 000 human genome cDNA microarrays. According to gene classification, 48 of the 236 genes were cell receptor or immunity-associatad genes,including 2 genes related to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, 4 genes to histological grade, 18 genes to lymph node metastasis, 11 genes to residual disease, and 13 genes to the reactivity to chemotherapy. Several functionally important genes including fibronectin 1, pericentriolar material 1, beta-2-microglobulin,PPAR binding protein were identified through review of the literature.Conclusions The cDNA microarray of ovarian cancer genes developed in this study was effective and high throughput in screening the ovarian cancer-associated genes differentially expressed. Through the studies of the cell receptor and immunity-associated genes we expect to identify the molecular biology index of ovarian cancer-associated antigens.

  9. Women's perspectives on illness in being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. Objective To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. Study design The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  10. Women's perspectives on illness when being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30-40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. OBJECTIVE: To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. STUDY DESIGN: The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  11. The potential role of breast ductoscopy in breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarakbi, W Al; Escobar, Pedro F; Mokbel, Kefah

    2005-01-01

    Breast cancer remains the most common malignancy among women in the Western world. Mammography, which is currently the main screening modality for early detection, has a low positive predictive value of only 25%, especially in young women with very dense breasts. Therefore, new screening approaches are needed for the early detection of breast cancer in all age groups. Mammary ductoscopy (MD) is a newly developed endoscopic technique that allows direct visualization and biopsy of the mammary ductal epithelium where most cancers originate. The procedure can be performed under local anesthesia in the office setting. At present, MD is used as a diagnostic adjunct in patients with pathological nipple discharge and to guide duct excision surgery. This article focuses on the potential of this technique in breast cancer screening and highlights its limitations in this context.

  12. The Danish randomized lung cancer CT screening trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper H; Ashraf, Haseem; Dirksen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer screening with low dose computed tomography (CT) has not yet been evaluated in randomized clinical trials, although several are underway. METHODS: In The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 4104 smokers and previous smokers from 2004 to 2006 were randomized to either...... cessation. Baseline CT scans were performed in 2052 participants. Pulmonary nodules were classified according to size and morphology: (1) Nodules smaller than 5 mm and calcified (benign) nodules were tabulated, (2) Noncalcified nodules between 5 and 15 mm were rescanned after 3 months. If the nodule...... lung cancer. Ten of these had stage I disease. Eleven of 17 lung cancers at baseline were treated surgically, eight of these by video assisted thoracic surgery resection. CONCLUSIONS: Screening may facilitate minimal invasive treatment and can be performed with a relatively low rate of false...

  13. Role of prevention and screening in epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddireddi Reddi Rani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is a disease with poor prognosis and high mortality among gynaecological cancers due to inaccessibility of ovary for inspection or sampling and lack of proper screening methods. Strategies to detect early ovarian cancer include estimation of serum CA-125 and transvaginal ultrasound (TVS for morphological index. Studies have shown that screening of asymptomatic average risk post-menopausal women did not show any benefit and are associated with false positive results which may lead to unnecessary surgery and resultant morbidity. The risks outweigh benefits. Present recommendation is to screen high risk women especially hereditary cancers and offer risk reducing surgery when needed. Prophylactic salpingectomy/oophorectomy may offer the opportunity to prevent ovarian cancer. More trials and more research in newer biomarkers are needed. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 941-946

  14. Programa de detección precoz de cáncer de mama: Resultados de proceso e indicadores de impacto (1990-2002 Breast Cancer Screening Program: Results of the process and impact Indicators (1990-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ascunce

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. Existe un consenso general en la recomendación de aplicar con carácter poblacional programas de cribado de cáncer de mama. El Departamento de Salud puso en marcha en el año 1990 un Programa de Detección Precoz de Cáncer de Mama, con el objetivo de disminuir la mortalidad por este tumor, que en este momento está finalizando su séptima vuelta. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar los resultados obtenidos, describiendo los principales indicadores de proceso y predictores de impacto según los factores más determinantes. Material y métodos. Se han recopilado los datos de las exploraciones de cribado realizadas desde el comienzo del programa hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2002 clasificando por edad en el momento de la exploración, tipo de exploración y vuelta. Resultados. Durante el período se han realizado 354.575 exploraciones. Indicadores de proceso: en el 11,22% se recomendó realizar una exploración adicional. El 0,67% de las mujeres han sido enviadas a unidades hospitalarias para valoración diagnóstica. Se ha confirmado un tumor maligno en el 0,34% de las mujeres exploradas. A 8,37% de las mujeres se les ha recomendado realizar una exploración intermedia antes de la nueva de cribado. Indicadores predictores de impacto: la captación global es de 88,68%, la participación global de 87,91% y la adherencia al programa de 96,32%. La tasa de detección alcanza la cifra de 3,95 por 1.000 mujeres exploradas. De los tumores detectados, 19,17% son intraductales, y 37,23% de los invasivos tienen un tamaño igual o inferior a 10 mm. El 74,89% del total de tumores no presenta invasión ganglionar. Conclusiones. Considerando las referencias que para programas de cribado establece la Unión Europea, todos los indicadores predictores calculados superan los estándares exigidos.Background. There is a general consensus on the recommendation of applying breast cancer screening programs to the population. In March 1990, the

  15. Detection of lung cancer through low-dose CT screening (NELSON) : a prespecifi ed analysis of screening test performance and interval cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horeweg, Nanda; Scholten, Ernst Th; de Jong, Pim A.; van der Aalst, Carlijn M.; Weenink, Carla; Lammers, Jan-Willem J.; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; ten Haaf, Kevin; Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh A.; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; Thunnissen, Erik; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Mali, Willem; de Koning, Harry J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low-dose CT screening is recommended for individuals at high risk of developing lung cancer. However, CT screening does not detect all lung cancers: some might be missed at screening, and others can develop in the interval between screens. The NELSON trial is a randomised trial to assess

  16. Screening and prevention of breast cancer in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Jeffrey A; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2009-09-01

    Mammography remains the mainstay of breast cancer screening. There is little controversy that mammography reduces the risk of dying from breast cancer by about 23% among women between the ages of 50 and 69 years, although the harms associated with false-positive results and overdiagnosis limit the net benefit of mammography. Women in their 70s may have a small benefit from screening mammography, but overdiagnosis increases in this age group as do competing causes of death. While new data support a 16% reduction in breast cancer mortality for 40- to 49-year-old women after 10 years of screening, the net benefit is less compelling in part because of the lower incidence of breast cancer in this age group and because mammography is less sensitive and specific in women younger than 50 years. Digital mammography is more sensitive than film mammography in young women with similar specificity, but no improvements in breast cancer outcomes have been demonstrated. Magnetic resonance imaging may benefit the highest risk women. Randomized trials suggest that self-breast examination does more harm than good. Primary prevention with currently approved medications will have a negligible effect on breast cancer incidence. Public health efforts aimed at increasing mammography screening rates, promoting regular exercise in all women, maintaining a healthy weight, limiting alcohol intake, and limiting postmenopausal hormone therapy may help to continue the recent trend of lower breast cancer incidence and mortality among American women.

  17. Ovarian Cancer Screening Method Fails to Reduce Deaths from the Disease | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    New results from the NCI-sponsored Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial show that screening for ovarian cancer with transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) and the CA-125 blood test did not result in fewer deaths from the disease compared with usual care. |

  18. Nanoscale/Molecular analysis of Fecal Colonocytes for Colorectal Cancer Screening | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Existing guidelines recommend colorectal cancer (CRC) screening for all patients over age 50. However, CRC remains the second leading cause of cancer death among Americans largely because colonoscopic screening of all the >100 million Americans over age 50 is unfeasible for both patient-related (non-compliance) and societal (inadequate endoscopic capacity and funding) reasons. |

  19. Results of the material screening program of the NEXT experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Dafni, T; Bandac, I; Bettini, A; Borges, F I G M; Camargo, M; Carcel, S; Cebrian, S; Cervera, A; Conde, C A N; Diaz, J; Esteve, R; Fernandes, L M P; Fernandez, M; Ferrario, P; Ferreira, A L; Freitas, E D C; Gehman, V M; Goldschmidt, A; Gomez, H; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Gonzalez-Diaz, D; Gutierrez, R M; Hauptman, J; Morata, J A Hernando; Herrera, D C; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Labarga, L; Laing, A; Liubarsky, I; Lorca, D; Losada, M; Luzon, G; Mari, A; Martin-Albo, J; Martinez, A; Martinez-Lema, G; Miller, T; Monrabal, F; Monserrate, M; Monteiro, C M B; Mora, F J; Moutinho, L M; Vidal, J Munoz; Nebot-Guinot, M; Nygren, D; Oliveira, C A B; Perez, J; Aparicio, J L Perez; Renner, J; Ripoll, L; Rodriguez, A; Rodriguez, J; Santos, F P; Santos, J M F dos; Segui, L; Serra, L; Shuman, D; Simon, A; Sofka, C; Sorel, M; Toledo, J F; Torrent, J; Tsamalaidze, Z; Veloso, J F C A; Villar, J A; Webb, R C; White, J T; Yahlali, N

    2014-01-01

    The 'Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC (NEXT)', intended to investigate neutrinoless double beta decay, requires extremely low background levels. An extensive material screening and selection process to assess the radioactivity of components is underway combining several techniques, including germanium gamma-ray spectrometry performed at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory; recent results of this material screening program are presented here.

  20. Recent improvement in lung cancer screening: a comparison of the results carried out in two different time periods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitajima,Takuji

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    To evaluate recent improvements in lung cancer screening, we compared the results of recently conducted lung cancer screening with those of a previous screening. This study compared the survival of lung cancer patients detected by lung cancer screening conducted between 1976 and 1984 (early period with that conducted between 1989 and 1997 (late period. Two hundred seventy-six patients with lung cancer were detected in the early period and 541 patients with lung cancer were detected in the late period. The median survival time (late : 49.8 vs. early : 27.8 months and the 5-year survival rate (late : 47.8 vs. early : 34.8% of the patients with lung cancer detected in the late period were significantly better than those in the early period (p = 0.0054. Among patients undergoing resection, the proportion of pathological stage I patients in the late period was significantly higher than that in the early period (late : 60.8 vs. early : 54.9%, p = 0.005. Multivariate analysis showed that the screening time period was a significant prognostic factor (hazard ratio = 0.685, 95% confidence interval : 0.563-0.832, p = 0.0002. These results were consistent with the findings of case-control studies of lung cancer screening programs in the late period recently conducted in Japan, which also showed a greater efficacy for screening than for previous case-control studies in the early period.

  1. Recent improvement in lung cancer screening: a comparison of the results carried out in two different time periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Takuji; Nishii, Kenji; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Shibayama, Takuo; Gemba, Kenichi; Kodani, Tsuyoshi; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tabata, Masahiro; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate recent improvements in lung cancer screening, we compared the results of recently conducted lung cancer screening with those of a previous screening. This study compared the survival of lung cancer patients detected by lung cancer screening conducted between 1976 and 1984 (early period) with that conducted between 1989 and 1997 (late period). Two hundred seventy-six patients with lung cancer were detected in the early period and 541 patients with lung cancer were detected in the late period. The median survival time (late : 49.8 vs. early : 27.8 months) and the 5-year survival rate (late : 47.8 vs. early : 34.8%) of the patients with lung cancer detected in the late period were significantly better than those in the early period (p = 0.0054). Among patients undergoing resection, the proportion of pathological stage I patients in the late period was significantly higher than that in the early period (late : 60.8 vs. early : 54.9%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that the screening time period was a significant prognostic factor (hazard ratio = 0.685, 95% confidence interval : 0.563-0.832, p = 0.0002). These results were consistent with the findings of case-control studies of lung cancer screening programs in the late period recently conducted in Japan, which also showed a greater efficacy for screening than for previous case-control studies in the early period.

  2. Sleeping Beauty screen reveals Pparg activation in metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Imran; Mui, Ernest; Galbraith, Laura; Patel, Rachana; Tan, Ee Hong; Salji, Mark; Rust, Alistair G; Repiscak, Peter; Hedley, Ann; Markert, Elke; Loveridge, Carolyn; van der Weyden, Louise; Edwards, Joanne; Sansom, Owen J; Adams, David J; Leung, Hing Y

    2016-07-19

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common adult male cancer in the developed world. The paucity of biomarkers to predict prostate tumor biology makes it important to identify key pathways that confer poor prognosis and guide potential targeted therapy. Using a murine forward mutagenesis screen in a Pten-null background, we identified peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg), encoding a ligand-activated transcription factor, as a promoter of metastatic CaP through activation of lipid signaling pathways, including up-regulation of lipid synthesis enzymes [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), ATP citrate lyase (ACLY)]. Importantly, inhibition of PPARG suppressed tumor growth in vivo, with down-regulation of the lipid synthesis program. We show that elevated levels of PPARG strongly correlate with elevation of FASN in human CaP and that high levels of PPARG/FASN and PI3K/pAKT pathway activation confer a poor prognosis. These data suggest that CaP patients could be stratified in terms of PPARG/FASN and PTEN levels to identify patients with aggressive CaP who may respond favorably to PPARG/FASN inhibition.

  3. Screening for cervical cancer in French Guiana: screening rates from 2006 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douine, M; Roué, T; Lelarge, C; Adenis, A; Thomas, N; Nacher, M

    2015-12-01

    In French Guiana, the age-standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer is four times higher than in France and the mortality rate 5.5 times higher. A survival study revealed that stage at diagnosis was the main factor influencing the prognosis, showing that early detection is crucial to increase cervical cancer survival. The present study aimed at evaluating the cervical cancer screening rate between 2006 and 2011 by age and for a 3-year period in French Guiana. All pap smears realised in French Guiana were analysed in two laboratories allowing exhaustive review of screening data. The screening rate was estimated at about 54% from 2006 to 2011, with a statistical difference between coastal and rural area (56.3% versus 18.7%). Although the methodological difference did not allow comparisons with metropolitan France, these results could be used to evaluate the impact of organised cervical cancer screening by the French Guiana Association for Organized Screening of Cancers which has been implemented in French Guiana since 2012.

  4. Intelligent Screening Systems for Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessi Jusman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advent of medical image digitalization leads to image processing and computer-aided diagnosis systems in numerous clinical applications. These technologies could be used to automatically diagnose patient or serve as second opinion to pathologists. This paper briefly reviews cervical screening techniques, advantages, and disadvantages. The digital data of the screening techniques are used as data for the computer screening system as replaced in the expert analysis. Four stages of the computer system are enhancement, features extraction, feature selection, and classification reviewed in detail. The computer system based on cytology data and electromagnetic spectra data achieved better accuracy than other data.

  5. Microfluidics: Emerging prospects for anti-cancer drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodkowic, Donald; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2010-11-10

    Cancer constitutes a heterogenic cellular system with a high level of spatio-temporal complexity. Recent discoveries by systems biologists have provided emerging evidence that cellular responses to anti-cancer modalities are stochastic in nature. To uncover the intricacies of cell-to-cell variability and its relevance to cancer therapy, new analytical screening technologies are needed. The last decade has brought forth spectacular innovations in the field of cytometry and single cell cytomics, opening new avenues for systems oncology and high-throughput real-time drug screening routines. The up-and-coming microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) technology and micro-total analysis systems (μTAS) are arguably the most promising platforms to address the inherent complexity of cellular systems with massive experimental parallelization and 4D analysis on a single cell level. The vast miniaturization of LOC systems and multiplexing enables innovative strategies to reduce drug screening expenditures while increasing throughput and content of information from a given sample. Small cell numbers and operational reagent volumes are sufficient for microfluidic analyzers and, as such, they enable next generation high-throughput and high-content screening of anti-cancer drugs on patient-derived specimens. Herein we highlight the selected advancements in this emerging field of bioengineering, and provide a snapshot of developments with relevance to anti-cancer drug screening routines.

  6. Variation in detection of ductal carcinoma in situ during screening mammography: a survey within the International Cancer Screening Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynge, E.; Ponti, A.; James, T.; Majek, O.; Euler-Chelpin, M. von; Anttila, A.; Fitzpatrick, P.; Frigerio, A.; Kawai, M.; Scharpantgen, A.; Broeders, M.J.; Hofvind, S.; Vidal, C.; Ederra, M.; Salas, D.; Bulliard, J.L.; Tomatis, M.; Kerlikowske, K.; Taplin, S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is concern about detection of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in screening mammography. DCIS accounts for a substantial proportion of screen-detected lesions but its effect on breast cancer mortality is debated. The International Cancer Screening Network conducted a comparative ana

  7. Applying the Health Belief Model in Predicting Breast Cancer Screening Behavior of Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoudiyekta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Iranian women. However, early detection of this cancer leads to a timely treatment and better prognosis, which significantly improves the survival rate in patients. Objectives The purpose of this study was to predict the breast cancer screening behavior of women who referred to health centers in Dezful, Iran, using the health belief model (HBM. Patients and Methods This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 226 women who were selected with cluster sampling method from those referred to Dezful health centers. Data collection tool was a researcher made questionnaire based on the constructs of the HBM. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and through methods of descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and regression. Results According to the findings of the study, the knowledge and performance of women were poor, and there was a significant relationship between women’s performance and variables of knowledge, perceived sensitivity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and cues to action. In addition, variables of knowledge (P = 0.001, perceived sensitivity (P = 0.022, and self-efficacy (P = 0.001 were predictors of performance in women participating in this study. Conclusions Poor knowledge and performance of women indicates a crucial need for formal educational programs to sensitize women regarding the importance of breast cancer screening. These educational programs should consider factors affecting breast cancer screening behaviors.

  8. Panel Reviews Benefits and Harms of CT Scans for Lung Cancer Screening | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    A panel of experts has reviewed the evidence regarding the benefits and harms of screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (CT) and concluded that the technology may benefit some individuals at high risk for lung cancer. But the panel cautioned that many questions remain about the potential harms of screening and how to translate screening into clinical practice. |

  9. The attitudes of primary care providers towards screening for colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús López-Torres Hidalgo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: the scientific community supports the appropriateness of colorectal cancer screening, and there is consensus on the need to raise awareness about the significance of prevention among both health care professionals and the population. The goal was to record the attitude of primary care providers towards colorectal cancer screening, as well as the main barriers to both patient and provider participation. Methods: a cross-sectional, observational study was performed of 511 professionals in Albacete Health District. Variables included views on screening effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, acceptance by providers and patients, barriers to participation, frequency of prevention recommendations, and education needs. Results: most (76 % considered screening was effective; 85 % said acceptance of fecal occult blood testing was intermediate or high, and 68.2 % this is also the case for colonoscopy when needed; 71.9 % would recommend screening should a population-based program be implemented (currently only 9.7 % recommends this. Correspondence analysis revealed that recommendation is more common when assigned populations are smaller. Conclusions: most providers consider screening is both effective and acceptable for patients. In today's situation, where screening is only performed in an opportunistic manner, the proportion of professionals who commonly recommend screening for the mid-risk population is low, especially when assigned populations are huge.

  10. Perspectives on preventive health care and barriers to breast cancer screening among Iraqi women refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadi, Altaf; Bond, Barbara; Percac-Lima, Sanja

    2012-08-01

    Since the Iraq war began in 2003, over 4 million Iraqis have been displaced. Little is known about preventive cancer care in this population, but stark disparities have been documented. The purpose of this study was to assess the perspectives of Iraqi women refugees on preventive care and perceived barriers to breast cancer screening. Interviews were conducted in Arabic with twenty Iraqi refugee women by a bilingual (English/Arabic) medical student, transcribed, translated and coded according to established qualitative content and thematic analysis procedures. Psychosocial barriers, culturally mediated beliefs, and health consequences of war were identified as major themes, ultimately showing what factors, alone and collectively, have impeded Iraqi refugee women's ability and motivation to obtain breast cancer screening. To improve cancer prevention and decrease disparities in care in this most vulnerable population, culturally appropriate health education and outreach programs, as well as further community-level targeted studies, are needed.

  11. Screening Technologies for Target Identification in Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michl, Patrick, E-mail: michlp@med.uni-marburg.de; Ripka, Stefanie; Gress, Thomas; Buchholz, Malte [Department of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, University Hospital, Philipps-University Marburg, Baldinger Strasse, D-35043 Marburg (Germany)

    2010-12-29

    Pancreatic cancer exhibits an extraordinarily high level of resistance to almost any kind of systemic therapy evaluated in clinical trials so far. Therefore, the identification of novel therapeutic targets is urgently required. High-throughput screens have emerged as an important tool to identify putative targets for diagnosis and therapy in an unbiased manner. More than a decade ago, microarray technology was introduced to identify differentially expressed genes in pancreatic cancer as compared to normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis and other cancer types located in close proximity to the pancreas. In addition, proteomic screens have facilitated the identification of differentially secreted proteins in body fluids of pancreatic cancer patients, serving as possible biomarkers. Recently, RNA interference-based loss-of-function screens have been used to identify functionally relevant genes, whose knock-down has impact on pancreatic cancer cell viability, thereby representing potential new targets for therapeutic intervention. This review summarizes recent results of transcriptional, proteomic and functional screens in pancreatic cancer and discusses potentials and limitations of the respective technologies as well as their impact on future therapeutic developments.

  12. Postpartum Depression: Screening, Diagnosis, and Management Programs 2000 through 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara P. Yawn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The value and appropriateness of universal postpartum depression (PPD screening remains controversial in the United States. To date, several PPD screening programs have been introduced and a few have been evaluated. Among those programs that have been evaluated, most report screening rates, diagnosis rates, or treatment initiation rates. Only four studies included patient outcomes such as the level of depressive symptoms at 6 to 12 months postpartum, and only two reported success in improving outcomes. Program characteristics that appear to result in low rates of diagnosis and followup after PPD screening include requirements for a formal psychiatric evaluation, the need to refer women to another site for therapy, and failure to integrate the PPD screening into the care provided at the woman’s or her child’s medical home. The two programs that reported improved outcomes were both self-contained within primary care and included specific followup, management, and therapy procedures. Both resulted in the need for outside referrals in less than 10% of women diagnosed with postpartum depression. Future studies should be based on the successful programs and their identified facilitators while avoiding identified barriers. To affect policies, the future program must report maternal outcomes going beyond the often reported process outcomes of screening, referral, and therapy initiation rates.

  13. Implementation of population screening for colorectal cancer by repeated Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT: third round

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stegeman Inge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the most common cancer in Europe with a mortality rate of almost 50%. The prognosis of patients is largely determined by the clinical and pathological stage at the time of diagnosis. Population screening has been shown to reduce CRC-related mortality rate. Most screening programs worldwide rely on fecal immunochemical testing (FIT. The effectiveness of a FIT screening program is not only influenced by initial participation rate, but also by program adherence during consecutive screening rounds. We aim to evaluate the participation rate in and yield of a third CRC screening round using FIT. Methods and design Four years after the first screening round and two years after the second round, a total number of approximately 11,000 average risk individuals (50 to 75 years of age will be invited to participate in a third round of FIT-based CRC screening. We will select individuals in the same target area as in the previous screening rounds, using the electronic database of the regional municipal administration registrations. We will invite all FIT-negatives and all non-participants in previous screening rounds, as well as eligible first time invitees who have moved into the area or have become 50 years of age. FITs will be analyzed in the special technique laboratory of the Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam. All FIT-positives will be invited for a consultation at the outpatient clinic. In the absence of contra-indications, a colonoscopy will follow at the Academic Medical Center or at the Flevohospital. The primary outcome measures are the participation rate, defined as the proportion of invitees that return a FIT in this third round of FIT-screening, and the diagnostic yield of the program. Implications This study will provide precise data on the participation in later FIT screening rounds. This enables to estimate the effectiveness of CRC screening programs that rely on repeated

  14. Experience with breast cancer, pre-screening perceived susceptibility and the psychological impact of screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Absetz, Pilvikki; Aro, Arja R; Sutton, Stephen R

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study examined whether the psychological impact of organized mammography screening is influenced by women's pre-existing experience with breast cancer and perceived susceptibility (PS) to the disease. From a target population of 16,886, a random sample of women with a normal...... responded to the follow-ups. Psychological impact was measured as anxiety (STAI-S), depression (BDI), health-related concerns (IAS), and breast cancer-specific beliefs and concerns. Data was analyzed with repeated measures analyses of variance, with estimates of effect size based on Eta-squared. Women...... normal mammograms. Experience and PS did not influence responses to different screening findings. Of the finding groups, false positives experienced most adverse effects: their risk perception increased and they reported most post-screening breast cancer-specific concerns. Furthermore, they became more...

  15. A cost-utility analysis of lung cancer screening and the additional benefits of incorporating smoking cessation interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C Villanti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A 2011 report from the National Lung Screening Trial indicates that three annual low-dose computed tomography (LDCT screenings for lung cancer reduced lung cancer mortality by 20% compared to chest X-ray among older individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Discussion has shifted from clinical proof to financial feasibility. The goal of this study was to determine whether LDCT screening for lung cancer in a commercially-insured population (aged 50-64 at high risk for lung cancer is cost-effective and to quantify the additional benefits of incorporating smoking cessation interventions in a lung cancer screening program. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The current study builds upon a previous simulation model to estimate the cost-utility of annual, repeated LDCT screenings over 15 years in a high risk hypothetical cohort of 18 million adults between age 50 and 64 with 30+ pack-years of smoking history. In the base case, the lung cancer screening intervention cost $27.8 billion over 15 years and yielded 985,284 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained for a cost-utility ratio of $28,240 per QALY gained. Adding smoking cessation to these annual screenings resulted in increases in both the costs and QALYs saved, reflected in cost-utility ratios ranging from $16,198 per QALY gained to $23,185 per QALY gained. Annual LDCT lung cancer screening in this high risk population remained cost-effective across all sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicate that repeat annual lung cancer screening in a high risk cohort of adults aged 50-64 is highly cost-effective. Offering smoking cessation interventions with the annual screening program improved the cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening between 20% and 45%. The cost-utility ratios estimated in this study were in line with other accepted cancer screening interventions and support inclusion of annual LDCT screening for lung cancer in a high risk population in clinical

  16. [CBO guideline 'Breast cancer: screening and diagnosis'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, E.; Tuut, M.K.; Verbeek, A.L.M.

    2001-01-01

    New developments in the diagnostic procedures for women with an increased risk for, or symptoms related to breast cancer led to development of new guidelines by a working group under the auspices of the Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement, the Organisation of Comprehensive Cancer Centres and

  17. The direct cost of "Thriasio" school screening program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziotou Christina

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is great diversity in the policies for scoliosis screening worldwide. The initial enthusiasm was succeeded by skepticism and the worth of screening programs has been challenged. The criticisms of school screening programs cite mainly the negative psychological impact on children and their families and the increased financial cost of visits and follow-up radiographs. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the direct cost of performing the school screening in a district hospital. Methods A cost analysis was performed for the estimation of the direct cost of the "Thriasio" school-screening program between January 2000 and May 2006. The analysis involved all the 6470 pupils aged 6–18 years old who were screened at schools for spinal deformities during this period. The factors which were taken into consideration in order to calculate the direct cost of the screening program were a the number of the examiners b the working hours, c the examiners' salary, d the cost of transportation and finally e the cost of examination per child. Results During the examined period 20 examiners were involved in the program and worked for 1949 working hours. The hourly salary for the trainee doctors was 6.80 euro, for the Health Visitors 6.70 euro and for the Physiotherapists 5.50 euro in current prices. The cost of transportation was 32 euro per year. The direct cost for the examination of each child for the above studied period was calculated to be 2.04 euro. Conclusion The cost of our school-screening program is low. The present study provides a strong evidence for the continuation of the program when looking from a financial point of view.

  18. Lay health educators within primary care practices to improve cancer screening uptake for South Asian patients: challenges in quality improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofters, AK; Vahabi, M; Prakash, V; Banerjee, L; Bansal, P; Goel, S; Dunn, S

    2017-01-01

    Background Cancer screening uptake is known to be low among South Asian residents of Ontario. The objective of this pilot study was to determine if lay health educators embedded within the practices of primary care providers could improve willingness to screen and cancer screening uptake for South Asian patients taking a quality improvement approach. Materials and methods Participating physicians selected quality improvement initiatives to use within their offices that they felt could increase willingness to screen and cancer screening uptake. They implemented initiatives, adapting as necessary, for six months. Results Four primary care physicians participated in the study. All approximated that at least 60% of their patients were of South Asian ethnicity. All physicians chose to work with a preexisting lay health educator program geared toward South Asians. Health ambassadors spoke to patients in the office and telephoned patients. For all physicians, ~60% of South Asian patients who were overdue for cancer screening and who spoke directly to health ambassadors stated they were willing to be screened. One physician was able to track actual screening among contacted patients and found that screening uptake was relatively high: from 29.2% (colorectal cancer) to 44.6% (breast cancer) of patients came in for screening within six months of the first phone calls. Although physicians viewed the health ambassadors positively, they found the study to be time intensive and resource intensive, especially as this work was additional to usual clinical duties. Discussion Using South Asian lay health educators embedded within primary care practices to telephone patients in their own languages showed promise in this study to increase awareness about willingness to screen and cancer screening uptake, but it was also time intensive and resource intensive with numerous challenges. Future quality improvement efforts should further develop the phone call invitation process, as well as

  19. 77 FR 41791 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ..., Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) (NCI) SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of... Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) (NCI). Type of Information Collection Request: Revision (OMB : 0925... designed to determine if cancer screening for prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer can...

  20. Women's perspectives on illness in being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which if untrea......Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... of analysis: naive reading, structural analysis and critical interpretation. Results These revealed that women were unprepared for screening results showing cervical cell changes, since they had no symptoms. When diagnosed, participants believed that they had early-stage cancer, leading to feelings...

  1. Building Successful Relationships in the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Pamela M; Broski, Karen G; Buys, Saundra S; Childs, Jeffery; Church, Timothy R; Gohagan, John K; Gren, Lisa H; Higgins, Darlene; Jaggi, Rachel; Jenkins, Victoria; Johnson, Christine C; Lappe, Karen; O'Brien, Barbara; Ogden, Sheryl L; Prorok, Philip C; Reding, Douglas; Shambaugh, Vicki; Yokochi, Lance A; Yurgalevitch, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research cannot succeed without funding, knowledgeable staff, and appropriate infrastructure. There are however equally important but intangible factors that are rarely considered in planning large multidisciplinary endeavors or evaluating their success. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial required extensive collaborations between individuals from many fields, including clinicians, clinical trialists, and administrators; it also addressed questions across the spectrum of cancer prevention and control. In this manuscript, we examine the experiences and opinions of trial staff regarding the building of successful relationships in PLCO. We summarize, in narrative form, data collected using open-ended questionnaires that were administered to the National Cancer Institute project officers, coordinating center staff, screening center principal investigators, and screening center coordinators in 2015, about 3 years after publication of the final primary trial manuscript. Trust, respect, listening to others, and in-person interaction were frequently mentioned as crucial to building successful relationships.

  2. Knowledge and acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Martha P; Dune, Tanaka; Shetty, Prasanna K; Shetty, Avinash K

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in India; however, participation in prevention and screening is low and the reasons for this are not well understood. In a cross-sectional survey in August 2008, 202 healthy women in Karnataka, India completed a questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Factors associated with vaccination and Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening acceptance were explored. Thirty-six percent of women had heard of HPV while 15% had heard of cervical cancer. Five percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, and 4% of women felt at risk of HPV infection. Forty-six percent of women were accepting of vaccination, but fewer (21%) were willing to have a Pap smear. Overall, knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer topics was low. Women with negative attitudes toward HPV infection were 5.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10) times more likely to accept vaccination but were not significantly more likely to accept Pap smear (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.0). Cost and a low level of perceived risk were the most frequent factors cited as potential barriers. Improving awareness of HPV and cervical cancer through health care providers in addition to increasing access to vaccination and screening through government-sponsored programs may be feasible and effective methods to reduce cervical cancer burden in India.

  3. Preventive cancer screening practices in HIV-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momplaisir, Florence; Mounzer, Karam; Long, Judith A

    2014-01-01

    As patients with HIV age, they are at risk of developing non-AIDS defining malignancies. We performed a questionnaire study to evaluate colorectal and breast cancer screening among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients seeking care from either an integrated (HIV/primary care), nonintegrated (specialized HIV), or general internal medicine clinic between August 2010 and July 2011. We performed a logistic regression to determine the odds of cancer screening. A total of 813 surveys were collected, and 762 were included in the analysis. As much as 401 were from HIV-positive patients. Patients with HIV were less likely to be current with their colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) (54.4% versus 65.0%, p=0.009); mammography rates were 24.3% versus 62.3% if done during the past year (pscreening in HIV-positive patients compared to negative controls was not statistically significant (OR 0.8; 95% CI 0.5-1.3); however, HIV-positive women remained significantly less likely to be current with breast cancer screening (BCS) whether their mammogram was completed within 1 year (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.1-0.2) or within 5 years (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.0-0.2). Integrated care was not associated with improved screening; however, having frequent visits to a primary care physician (PCP) increased the likelihood of getting screened. BCS was lower in HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative women. Frequent visits to a PCPs improved cancer screening.

  4. European randomized lung cancer screening trials: Post NLST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John K; van Klaveren, Rob; Pedersen, Jesper H; Pastorino, Ugo; Paci, Eugino; Becker, Nikolauss; Infante, Maurizo; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Koning, Harry J

    2013-10-01

    Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects of their trials at August 2010, which included 32,000 people, inclusion of UKLS pilot trial will reach 36,000. An interim analysis is planned, but the final mortality data testing is scheduled for 2015.

  5. Prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America: epidemiology and screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rocha Tourinho-Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Prostate cancer is one of the tumors with higher incidence and mortality among men in the World. Epidemiological data are influenced by life expectancy of population, available diagnostic methods, correct collection of data and quality of health services. Screening of the disease is not standardized around the World. Up till now there is no consensus about the risks versus benefits of early detection. There are still missing data about this pathology in Latin America. Objective: to revise current epidemiologic situation and early diagnosis policies of prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America. Materials and Methods: Medline, Cochrane Library and SciELO databases were reviewed on the subject of epidemiology and screening of prostate cancer. Screening research was performed in websites on national public health organizations and Latin America. Screening recommendations were obtained from those governmental organizations and from Latin American urological societies and compared to the most prominent regulatory agencies and societies of specialists and generalists from around the World. Results: Brazil and Latin America have a special position in relation to incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. In Brazil, it occupies the first position regarding incidence of cancer in men and the second cause of mortality. Central America has the highest rate of mortality of the continent with lower incidence/mortality ratios. Screening recommendations are very distinct, mainly among regulatory organs and urological societies. Conclusion: prostate cancer epidemiology is an important health public topic. Data collection related to incidence and mortality is still precarious, especially in less developed countries. It is necessary to follow-up long term screening studies results in order to conclude its benefits.

  6. Prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America: epidemiology and screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourinho-Barbosa, Rafael Rocha; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima; Glina, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Prostate cancer is one of the tumors with higher incidence and mortality among men in the World. Epidemiological data are influenced by life expectancy of population, available diagnostic methods, correct collection of data and quality of health services. Screening of the disease is not standardized around the World. Up till now there is no consensus about the risks versus benefits of early detection. There are still missing data about this pathology in Latin America. Objective: to revise current epidemiologic situation and early diagnosis policies of prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America. Materials and Methods: Medline, Cochrane Library and SciELO databases were reviewed on the subject of epidemiology and screening of prostate cancer. Screening research was performed in websites on national public health organizations and Latin America. Screening recommendations were obtained from those governmental organizations and from Latin American urological societies and compared to the most prominent regulatory agencies and societies of specialists and generalists from around the World. Results: Brazil and Latin America have a special position in relation to incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. In Brazil, it occupies the first position regarding incidence of cancer in men and the second cause of mortality. Central America has the highest rate of mortality of the continent with lower incidence/mortality ratios. Screening recommendations are very distinct, mainly among regulatory organs and urological societies. Conclusion: prostate cancer epidemiology is an important health public topic. Data collection related to incidence and mortality is still precarious, especially in less developed countries. It is necessary to follow-up long term screening studies results in order to conclude its benefits. PMID:27622278

  7. Race and colorectal cancer screening compliance among persons with a family history of cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adeyinka; O; Laiyemo; Nicole; Thompson; Carla; D; Williams; Kolapo; A; Idowu; Kathy; Bull-Henry; Zaki; A; Sherif; Edward; L; Lee; Hassan; Brim; Hassan; Ashktorab; Elizabeth; A; Platz; Duane; T; Smoot

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine compliance to colorectal cancer(CRC) screening guidelines among persons with a family history of any type of cancer and investigate racial differences in screening compliance.METHODS: We used the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey and identified 1094(27.4%)respondents(weighted population size = 21959672) without a family history of cancer and 3138(72.6%) respondents(weighted population size = 58201479) with a family history of cancer who were 50 years and older. We defined compliance with CRC screening as the use of fecal occult blood testing within 1 year, sigmoidoscopy within 5 years, or colonoscopy within 10 years. We compared compliance with CRC screening among those with and without a family member with a history of cancer. RESULTS: Overall, those with a family member with cancer were more likely to be compliant with CRC screening(64.9% vs 55.1%; OR = 1.45; 95%CI: 1.20-1.74). The absolute increase in screening rates associated with family history of cancer was 8.2% among whites. Hispanics had lowest screening rates among those without family history of cancer 41.9% but had highest absolute increase(14.7%) in CRC screening rate when they have a family member with cancer. Blacks had the lowest absolute increase in CRC screening(5.3%) when a family member has a known history of cancer. However, the noted increase in screening rates among blacks and Hispanics when they have a family member with cancer were not higher than whites without a family history of cancer:(54.5% vs 58.7%; OR = 1.16; 95%CI: 0.72-1.88) for blacks and(56.7% vs 58.7%; OR = 1.25; 95%CI: 0.72-2.18) for Hispanics.CONCLUSION: While adults with a family history of any cancer were more likely to be compliant with CRC screening guidelines irrespective of race/ethnicity, blacks and Hispanics with a family history of cancer were less likely to be compliant than whites without a family history. Increased burden from CRC among blacks may be related to poor uptake of

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of breast cancer screening among women in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Areej; Ahram, Mamoun; Al-Tarawneh, Mohammed Rasoul; Shahrouri, Manal

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing breast cancer screening in developing countries is pivotal in improving women's health. We aimed at describing knowledge of and perceived reasons for performing breast cancer screening. We interviewed 1,549 population-based randomly selected women. We found that women share limited knowledge about breast cancer screening. Few women performed screening for early detection purposes. The influence of physicians was the main reason for performing mammography. Prevalence of breast cancer screening might be enhanced by integrating screening into other medical services. Health agencies need to invite women for screening and educate them regarding the importance of screening in the absence of symptoms.

  9. Health beliefs related to breast cancer screening behaviours in women who applied to cancer early detection center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Serpil Talas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting women in Turkey. The early detection methods for breast cancer have been associated with health belief variables. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine women's health beliefs related to breast cancer screening behaviours. Methods: This study was designed as descriptive and cross-sectional survey and was performed on 344 women who applied the Nigde Cancer Early Diagnosis, Screening and Education Center between May and October 2009. The data were collected using a questionnaire which consists of socio-demographic characteristics and breast cancer risk factors and Health Belief Model Scale. Data analysis was performed using frequency and Mann-Whitney U Test. All values of p0.05. According to study results, the rate of regular BSE performance rate for women was found low. Therefore, KETEM was planned to the training programs related to breast cancer screening methods. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 265-271

  10. Awareness of endometrial cancer risk and compliance with screening in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketabi, Zohreh; Mosgaard, Berit J; Gerdes, Anne-Marie;

    2012-01-01

    Women with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) have a 40-60% lifetime risk for endometrial cancer. Guidelines in Denmark recommend gynecologic screening for female members of families with HNPCC. We estimated the knowledge of endometrial cancer risk and identified possible predictor...

  11. Prostate Cancer Screening : The effect on prostate cancer mortality and incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Leeuwen (Pim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAt first glance, deciding whether to get the PSA screening test for prostate cancer seems to be pretty straightforward and attractive. It’s a simple blood test that can pick up the prostate cancer long before your symptoms appear. After all, your prostate cancer is earlier treated result

  12. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Stackelberg, Oyunbileg von [University Hospital Heidelberg, Dept of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Member of the German Lung Research Center, Translational Lung Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Bonomo, Lorenzo [A. Gemelli University Hospital, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Gaga, Mina [Athens Chest Hospital, 7th Resp. Med. Dept and Asthma Center, Athens (Greece); Nackaerts, Kristiaan [KU Leuven-University of Leuven, University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Respiratory Diseases/Respiratory Oncology Unit, Leuven (Belgium); Peled, Nir [Tel Aviv University, Davidoff Cancer Center, Rabin Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Prokop, Mathias [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Remy-Jardin, Martine [Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette (EA 2694), CHRU et Universite de Lille, Lille (France); Sculier, Jean-Paul [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Thoracic oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Collaboration: on behalf of the European Society of Radiology (ESR) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low-dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low-dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and a quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including a biobank and an image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. (orig.)

  13. Screening for Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from a well that has high levels of arsenic . Drinking water that has been treated with chlorine . ... trials also are meant to show whether early detection (finding cancer before it causes symptoms ) decreases a ...

  14. Screening for lung cancer with low-dose CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coche, E

    2008-01-01

    Lung cancer represents the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. In the past, many attempts were made to detect the disease at an early stage and subsequently reduce its mortality. Chest X-ray was abandoned for this purpose. For several years low-dose computed tomography has been introduced as a potential tool for early screening in a high-risk population. As demonstrated in several papers, the task is not easy and researchers are faced with many difficulties. This paper reviews mainly the role of low-dose CT for early cancer screening. Results of past and current trials, controversies related to the high rate of lung nodules, cost-effectiveness, and delivered radiation dose to the patient are presented. Finally some limitations of low dose CT for lung cancer detection are explained.

  15. Lung cancer screening: Computed tomography or chest radiographs?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edwin; JR; van; Beek; Saeed; Mirsadraee; John; T; Murchison

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of mortalitydue to malignancy. The vast majority of cases of lung cancer are smoking related and the most effective way of reducing lung cancer incidence and mortality is by smoking cessation. In the Western world, smoking cessation policies have met with limited success. The other major means of reducing lung cancer deaths is to diagnose cases at an earlier more treatable stage employing screening programmes using chest radiographs or low dose computed tomography. In many countries smoking is still on the increase, and the sheer scale of the problem limits the affordability of such screening programmes. This short review article will evaluate the current evidence and potential areas of research which may benefit policy making across the world.

  16. Register-based studies of cancer screening effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Euler-Chelpin, My; Lynge, Elsebeth; Rebolj, Matejka

    2011-01-01

    registers. RESEARCH TOPICS: The register-based studies on cancer screening in Denmark could be grouped into research concerning effectiveness, in terms of mortality and incidence reduction, short-term indicators, e.g. in relation to recommended quality assurance indicators, and side effects, e.g. as false......-positive results and overdiagnosis. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that registers have proven to be a valuable tool in evaluating the effects of ongoing screening activities. As they cannot be systematically used to test new screening technologies, register-based studies should not be seen as an alternative...

  17.   Personal invitations for population-based breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saalasti-Koskinen, Ulla; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Saarenmaa, Irma;

    2010-01-01

    , leaflets) the units sent to women was collected. Results from 2005 were sent as feedback to the units. Data were analyzed descriptively, and results from the 2 years were compared. RESULTS: Screening units sent personal invitation letters usually providing fixed appointment times. Most units informed about......RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Women who are invited for breast cancer screening should get enough information about the benefits and harms of screening to make an informed decision on participation. Personal invitations are an important source of information, because all invited women receive them...

  18. Effective interventions to facilitate the uptake of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening: an implementation guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouwers Melissa C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. Several high-quality systematic reviews and practice guidelines exist to inform the most effective screening options. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. We developed an implementation guideline to answer the question: What interventions have been shown to increase the uptake of cancer screening by individuals, specifically for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers? Methods A guideline panel was established as part of Cancer Care Ontario's Program in Evidence-based Care, and a systematic review of the published literature was conducted. It yielded three foundational systematic reviews and an existing guidance document. We conducted updates of these reviews and searched the literature published between 2004 and 2010. A draft guideline was written that went through two rounds of review. Revisions were made resulting in a final set of guideline recommendations. Results Sixty-six new studies reflecting 74 comparisons met eligibility criteria. They were generally of poor to moderate quality. Using these and the foundational documents, the panel developed a draft guideline. The draft report was well received in the two rounds of review with mean quality scores above four (on a five-point scale for each of the items. For most of the interventions considered, there was insufficient evidence to support or refute their effectiveness. However, client reminders, reduction of structural barriers, and provision of provider assessment and feedback were recommended interventions to increase screening for at least two of three cancer sites studied. The final guidelines also provide advice on how the recommendations can be used and future areas for research. Conclusion Using established guideline development methodologies and the AGREE II as our methodological

  19. Effective interventions to facilitate the uptake of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening: an implementation guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. Several high-quality systematic reviews and practice guidelines exist to inform the most effective screening options. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. We developed an implementation guideline to answer the question: What interventions have been shown to increase the uptake of cancer screening by individuals, specifically for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers? Methods A guideline panel was established as part of Cancer Care Ontario's Program in Evidence-based Care, and a systematic review of the published literature was conducted. It yielded three foundational systematic reviews and an existing guidance document. We conducted updates of these reviews and searched the literature published between 2004 and 2010. A draft guideline was written that went through two rounds of review. Revisions were made resulting in a final set of guideline recommendations. Results Sixty-six new studies reflecting 74 comparisons met eligibility criteria. They were generally of poor to moderate quality. Using these and the foundational documents, the panel developed a draft guideline. The draft report was well received in the two rounds of review with mean quality scores above four (on a five-point scale) for each of the items. For most of the interventions considered, there was insufficient evidence to support or refute their effectiveness. However, client reminders, reduction of structural barriers, and provision of provider assessment and feedback were recommended interventions to increase screening for at least two of three cancer sites studied. The final guidelines also provide advice on how the recommendations can be used and future areas for research. Conclusion Using established guideline development methodologies and the AGREE II as our methodological frameworks, we developed an

  20. The evidence for low-dose CT screening of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchalski, Kathleen; Gutierrez, Antonio; Genshaft, Scott; Abtin, Fereidoun; Suh, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. An effective screening tool for early lung cancer detection has long been sought. Early chest radiograph and low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening trials were promising and demonstrated increased cancer detection. However, these studies were not able to improve lung cancer mortality. The National Lung Screening Trial resulted in decreased lung cancer mortality with LDCT screening in a high-risk population. Similar trials are currently underway in Europe. With LDCT now being widely implemented, it is paramount for radiologists to understand the evidence for lung cancer screening.

  1. ACOG Recommendations and Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about ACOG's recommendations for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  2. Small pulmonary nodules in baseline and incidence screening rounds of low-dose CT lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Joan E; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2017-02-01

    Currently, lung cancer screening by low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is widely recommended for high-risk individuals by US guidelines, but there still is an ongoing debate concerning respective recommendations for European countries. Nevertheless, the available data regarding pulmonary nodules released by lung cancer screening studies could improve future screening guidelines, as well as the clinical practice of incidentally detected pulmonary nodules on routine CT scans. Most lung cancer screening trials present results for baseline and incidence screening rounds separately, clustering pulmonary nodules initially found at baseline screening and newly detected pulmonary nodules after baseline screening together. This approach does not appreciate possible differences among pulmonary nodules detected at baseline and firstly detected at incidence screening rounds and is heavily influenced by methodological differences of the respective screening trials. This review intends to create a basis for assessing non-calcified pulmonary nodules detected during LDCT lung cancer screening in a more clinical relevant manner. The aim is to present data of non-calcified pulmonary baseline nodules and new non-calcified pulmonary incident nodules without clustering them together, thereby also simplifying translation to the clinical practice of incidentally detected pulmonary nodules. Small pulmonary nodules newly detected at incidence screening rounds of LDCT lung cancer screening may possess a greater lung cancer probability than pulmonary baseline nodules at a smaller size, which is essential for the development of new guidelines.

  3. [Cancer screening with whole-body FDG PET].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, S; Ide, M; Takagi, S; Shohtsu, A

    1996-10-01

    We are using whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) for cancer screening. A total of 1,105 healthy subjects have undergone PET studies 1,138 times in fifteen months. Emission scans were performed from the pelvis to the maxilla 45 to 60 minutes after intravenous administration of 260 to 370 MBq 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG). Malignant tumors were detected with PET in nine patients (0.81%): 2 lung cancers, 2 colonic cancers, 1 breast cancer, 1 thyroid cancer, 1 gastric cancer, 1 renal cancer, and 1 lymphoma. Eight of these patients underwent surgery (excepting the lymphoma patient). Lymph node metastasis was not observed in any of the eight cases and surgery was curative. PET scan results were negative in the cases of three prostatic cancers, one bladder cancer, and two colonic mucosal cancers. High FDG accumulations were noticed in benign lesions such as sarcoidosis, chronic thyroiditis, pulmonary tuberculoma, Warthin's tumor of the parotid gland, and chronic sinusitis. In some cases, image artifacts caused by intense myocardial FDG accumulations resulted in incomplete examinations of the lung. Occasionally, high FDG accumulations were observed in the bowel. Our study results suggest the possibility of using whole-body PET for detecting wide varieties of cancers in resectable stages.

  4. The benefits and harms of screening for cancer with a focus on breast screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    . The effects of routine clinical breast examination are unknown, but considering the results of the breast self-examination trials, it is likely that it is harmful. The effects of screening for breast cancer with thermography, ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging are unknown. It is not clear whether...

  5. Cancer Worry, Perceived Risk and Cancer Screening in First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Familial Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jenny; Hart, Tae L; Aronson, Melyssa; Crangle, Cassandra; Govindarajan, Anand

    2016-06-01

    Currently, there is a lack of evidence evaluating the psychological impact of cancer-related risk perception and worry in individuals at high risk for gastric cancer. We examined the relationships between perceived risk, cancer worry and screening behaviors among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with familial gastric cancer. FDRs of patients diagnosed with familial gastric cancer with a non-informative genetic analysis were identified and contacted. Participants completed a telephone interview that assessed socio-demographic information, cancer risk perception, cancer worry, impact of worry on daily functioning, and screening behaviors. Twenty-five FDRs completed the telephone interview. Participants reported high levels of comparative and absolute cancer risk perception, with an average perceived lifetime risk of 54 %. On the other hand, cancer-related worry scores were low, with a significant minority (12 %) experiencing high levels of worry. Study participants exhibited high levels of confidence (median = 70 %) in the effectiveness of screening at detecting a curable cancer. Participants that had undergone screening in the past showed significantly lower levels of cancer-related worry compared to those that had never undergone screening. In conclusion, individuals at high-risk for gastric cancer perceived a very high personal risk of cancer, but reported low levels of cancer worry. This paradoxical result may be attributed to participants' high levels of confidence in the effectiveness of screening. These findings highlight the importance for clinicians to discuss realistic risk appraisals and expectations towards screening with unaffected members of families at risk for gastric cancer, in an effort to help mitigate anxiety and help with coping.

  6. Scaling up cervical cancer screening in the midst of human papillomavirus vaccination advocacy in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawattananon Yot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening tests for cervical cancer are effective in reducing the disease burden. In Thailand, a Pap smear program has been implemented throughout the country for 40 years. In 2008 the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH unexpectedly decided to scale up the coverage of free cervical cancer screening services, to meet an ambitious target. This study analyzes the processes and factors that drove this policy innovation in the area of cervical cancer control in Thailand. Methods In-depth interviews with key policy actors and review of relevant documents were conducted in 2009. Data analysis was guided by a framework, developed on public policy models and existing literature on scaling-up health care interventions. Results Between 2006 and 2008 international organizations and the vaccine industry advocated the introduction of Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccine for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Meanwhile, a local study suggested that the vaccine was considerably less cost-effective than cervical cancer screening in the Thai context. Then, from August to December 2008, the MoPH carried out a campaign to expand the coverage of its cervical cancer screening program, targeting one million women. The study reveals that several factors were influential in focusing the attention of policymakers on strengthening the screening services. These included the high burden of cervical cancer in Thailand, the launch of the HPV vaccine onto the global and domestic markets, the country’s political instability, and the dissemination of scientific evidence regarding the appropriateness of different options for cervical cancer prevention. Influenced by the country’s political crisis, the MoPH’s campaign was devised in a very short time. In the view of the responsible health officials, the campaign was not successful and indeed, did not achieve its ambitious target. Conclusion The Thai case study suggests that the political crisis was a

  7. Breast Cancer Screening Interventions in Selected Counties Across US Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Shamly; Martin, Michelle Y; Levine, Robert S.; Pisu, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the types of, and the populations targeted by interventions implemented to increase breast cancer screening rates in counties with large African American populations across different US regions. Methods A brief questionnaire was administered by e-mail to county representatives from 33 states from October 2008 through March 2009. Responses were obtained from 33% of 203 targeted counties. Results Most counties (>80%) reported interventions for African American women and for women with low income. Women were exposed to different kinds of interventions depending on where they lived. Most counties in the Northeast (93%), Southwest (82%) and Midwest (100%) implemented interventions that provided free or low cost mammograms. Counties in the Southeast (83%) were more likely to report education interventions. Counties from the Southwest reported using a variety of interventions to encourage breast cancer screening. Conclusion In this selected group of counties, different types of interventions were used to increase breast cancer screening in minority and disadvantaged women. Interventions implemented were similar to those shown in the literature to be effective in increasing screening rates in specific populations. Future research should examine the use of screening interventions in a larger sample of US counties. PMID:20820899

  8. Empowering Factors Among Breast Cancer Screening Compliant Underserved Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    sex 17 Promiscuous sex (Multiple sexual, partnersý) 18 Chewing Tobacco 19 Being Female 20 Being Male 21 H. Barriers to Cancer Screening For each...Behavior among Preteen Black and White Children. JNMA, 96: (2) 200-208; 2004. 7. Elzey JD and Ahmed NU. A Whole New Life: an illness and a healing by

  9. Message from Terrence Howard: Screening for Colorectal Cancer PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    A message from the actor/musician Terrence Howard about the importance of screening for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/13/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  10. Message from Terrence Howard: Screening for Colorectal Cancer PSA (:20)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    A message from the actor/musician Terrence Howard about the importance of screening for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/13/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  11. Communicating the balance sheet in breast cancer screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giordano, L.; Cogo, C.; Patnick, J.; Paci, E.; Broeders, M.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the difficulties, there is a moral responsibility to provide the public with the best estimates of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening. METHODS: In this paper we review the issues in communication of benefits and harms of medical interventions and discuss these in terms

  12. The effects and costs of breast cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn 1986, the Dutch Ministry of Welfare, Health and Cultural Affairs asked a research group to investigate the expected effect of breast cancer screening on mortality and possibly morbidity, if implemented in the Netherlands. The research group consisted of members from 3 centres, the Dep

  13. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  14. Effects of screening for psychological distress on patient outcomes in cancer : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients identif

  15. Ovarian Cancer Screening Method Fails to Reduce Deaths from the Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    New results from the NCI-sponsored PLCO Cancer Screening Trial show that screening for ovarian cancer with transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) and the CA-125 blood test did not result in fewer deaths from the disease compared with usual care.

  16. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Denmark has had an organized screening programme for cervical cancer since the 1960s. In spite of this, almost 150 Danish women die from the disease each year. There are currently two different methods for preparation of cervical samples: conventional Papanicolaou smear and liquid......-based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...

  17. Colorectal cancer screening brochure for Latinos: focus group evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Julia L; Efuni, Elizaveta; Villagra, Cristina; DuHamel, Katherine; Jandorf, Lina

    2013-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) can be effectively prevented via screening colonoscopy, yet adherence rates remain low among Latinos. Interventions targeting individual and cultural barriers to screening are needed. We developed an educational brochure to target these barriers faced by a diverse Latino population. The objective was to evaluate the responses of the target population to the culturally and theoretically informed brochure through community member focus groups. Facilitators conducted six focus groups, stratified by gender, language, and prior colonoscopy experience. Topics included: brochure content and layout, cancer knowledge, and CRC screening determinants. Focus groups documented community members' responses to the brochure's overall message and its informational and visual components. Changes to wording, visual aids, and content were suggested to make the brochure culturally more acceptable. Results indicated relevance of the theoretically and culturally guided approach to the development of the brochure leading to refinement of its content and design.

  18. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  19. Breast cancer mortality in organised mammography screening in Denmark: comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether the previously observed 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen following the introduction of mammography screening was indeed due to screening, by using an additional screening region and five years additional follow-up....

  20. Is screening effective in detecting untreated psychiatric disorders among newly diagnosed breast cancer patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, Steven C.; Taggi, Alison; DeMichele, Angela; Coyne, James C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A key purpose of routine distress screening is to ensure that cancer patients receive appropriate mental health care. Most studies validating screening instruments overestimate the effectiveness of screening by not differentiating between patients with untreated disorders and patients wh

  1. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  2. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  3. DNA probes for papillomavirus strains readied for cervical cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, B.

    1988-11-18

    New Papillomavirus tests are ready to come to the aid of the standard Papanicolauo test in screening for cervical cancer. The new tests, which detect the strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) most commonly associated with human cervical cancer, are designed to be used as an adjunct to rather than as a replacement for the Papanicolaou smears. Their developers say that they can be used to indicated a risk of developing cancer in women whose Papanicolaou smears indicate mild cervical dysplasia, and, eventually, to detect papillomavirus infection in normal Papanicolaou smears. The rationale for HPV testing is derived from a growing body of evidence that HPV is a major factor in the etiology of cervical cancer. Three HPV tests were described recently in Chicago at the Third International Conference on Human Papillomavirus and Squamous Cervical Cancer. Each relies on DNA probes to detect the presence of papillomavirus in cervical cells and/or to distinguish the strain of papillomavirus present.

  4. What implementation interventions increase cancer screening rates? a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lent Barbara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. As part of a larger agenda to create an implementation guideline, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate interventions designed to increase the rate of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (CRC screening. The interventions considered were: client reminders, client incentives, mass media, small media, group education, one-on-one education, reduction in structural barriers, reduction in out-of-pocket costs, provider assessment and feedback interventions, and provider incentives. Our primary outcome, screening completion, was calculated as the overall median post-intervention absolute percentage point (PP change in completed screening tests. Methods Our first step was to conduct an iterative scoping review in the research area. This yielded three relevant high-quality systematic reviews. Serving as our evidentiary foundation, we conducted a formal update. Randomized controlled trials and cluster randomized controlled trials, published between 2004 and 2010, were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHinfo. Results The update yielded 66 studies new eligible studies with 74 comparisons. The new studies ranged considerably in quality. Client reminders, small media, and provider audit and feedback appear to be effective interventions to increase the uptake of screening for three cancers. One-on-one education and reduction of structural barriers also appears effective, but their roles with CRC and cervical screening, respectively, are less established. More study is required to assess client incentives, mass media, group education, reduction of out-of-pocket costs, and provider incentive interventions. Conclusion The new evidence generally aligns with the evidence and conclusions from the original systematic

  5. The clinical utility of HPV DNA testing in cervical cancer screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatla, Neerja; Moda, Nidhi

    2009-09-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be the commonest cause of death among women in developing countries, largely due to the failure to the inability to sustain effective cytology-based screening programs. While this burden may come down following implementation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, screening will still be required. HPV DNA testing is a promising new technology for cervical cancer prevention and is the most reproducible of all cervical cancer screening tests. Presently, the two assays most widely used for the detection of genital types are the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Hybrid Capture 2 assays (hc2). Rapid, affordable tests are expected to be available soon. HPV DNA testing can be used in a variety of clinical scenarios that include primary screening in women older than 30 yr; as an adjunctive test to cytology; in the triage of women with an equivocal cytologic report, e.g., ASC-US; or for follow-up post-treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). HPV DNA testing can also be performed on self-collected samples, which allows screening in remote areas and also in women who refuse gynecologic examination.

  6. Why worry about awareness in choice problems? Econometric analysis of screening for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkar, Rochelle; Fiebig, Denzil G; Haas, Marion; Viney, Rosalie

    2006-01-01

    The decision to undertake a screening test is conditional upon awareness of screening. From an econometric perspective there is a potential selection problem, if no distinction is made between aware and unaware non-screeners. This paper explores this problem through analysis of the determinants of cervical screening in Australia. Cervical cancer is one of the most preventable and curable forms of cancer. Since 1991 there has been a concerted effort in Australia to recommend and encourage women to have Pap smears every two years. The success of this program can be partly gauged by exploring the determinants of screening for cervical cancer. Using unit record data from the 1995 National Health Survey, an econometric model is developed for whether women have ever screened or not. A proportion of women in the sample contend that they have never heard of a Pap test. The analysis characterizes this group of women and accounts for their presence in the modelling. The paper demonstrates failing to model awareness can result in inconsistent parameter estimates even when the degree of censoring in the sample is relatively small.

  7. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.; Rasch, Vibeke;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values....../119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap...... of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan...

  8. Contrary to Evidence, Some Doctors Recommend Ovarian Cancer Screening | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    One in three doctors believes that screening for ovarian cancer is effective, according to a recently published survey of practicing physicians, even though substantial evidence to the contrary exists. |

  9. Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...

  10. Pancreatic Cancer Early Detection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-30

    Pancreatic Cancer; Pancreas Cancer; Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Familial Pancreatic Cancer; BRCA 1/2; HNPCC; Lynch Syndrome; Hereditary Pancreatitis; FAMMM; Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma; Peutz Jeghers Syndrome

  11. New approaches to cervical cancer screening in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Rolando; Ferreccio, Catterina; Salmerón, Jorge; Almonte, Maribel; Sánchez, Gloria Ines; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Jerónimo, José

    2008-08-19

    Cervical cancer remains an important public health problem in the Latin America and Caribbean region (LAC), with an expected significant increase in disease burden in the next decades as a result of population ageing. Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is currently unaffordable in LAC countries. However, even if vaccination was implemented, an additional two decades will be required to observe its impact on HPV related disease and cancer. With some exceptions, cytology-based screening programs have been largely ineffective to control the problem in the region, and there is a need for new approaches to the organization of screening and for use of newly developed techniques. Several research groups in LAC have conducted research on new screening methods, some of which are summarized in this paper. A recommendation to reorganize screening programs is presented considering visual inspection for very low resource areas, improvement of cytology where it is operating successfully and HPV DNA testing followed by visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) or cytology as soon as this method becomes technically and economically sustainable. This could be facilitated by the incorporation of new, low-cost HPV DNA testing methods and the use of self-collected vaginal specimens for selected groups of the population. An important requisite for screening based on HPV testing will be the quality assurance of the laboratory and the technique by validation and certification measures.

  12. Breast cancer screening disparities among immigrant women by world region of origin: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana; Lofters, Aisha; Kumar, Matthew; Glazier, Richard H

    2016-07-01

    Rates of mammography screening for breast cancer are disproportionately low in certain subgroups including low-income and immigrant women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in rates of appropriate breast cancer screening (i.e., screening mammography every 2 years) among Ontario immigrant women by world region of origin and explore the association between appropriate breast cancer screening among these women groups and individual and structural factors. A cohort of 183,332 screening-eligible immigrant women living in Ontario between 2010 and 2012 was created from linked databases and classified into eight world regions of origin. Appropriate screening rates were calculated for each region by age group and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and healthcare-related characteristics. The association between appropriate screening across the eight regions of origin and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and health-related characteristics was explored using multivariate Poisson regression. Screening varied by region of origin, with South Asian women (48.5%) having the lowest and Caribbean and Latin American women (63.7%) the highest cancer screening rates. Factors significantly associated with lower screening across the world regions of origin included living in the lowest income neighborhoods, having a refugee status, being a new immigrant, not having a regular physical examination, not being enrolled in a primary care patient enrollment model, having a male physician, and having an internationally trained physician. Multiple interventions entailing cross-sector collaboration, promotion of patient enrollment models, community engagement, comprehensive and intensive outreach to women, and knowledge translation and transfer to physicians should be considered to address screening disparities among immigrant population. Consideration should be given to design and delivery of culturally appropriate and easily accessible cancer screening programs

  13. CT-Screening for lung cancer does not increase the use of anxiolytic or antidepressant medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Iachina, Maria; Pedersen, Jesper Holst

    2012-01-01

    CT screening for lung cancer has recently been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality, but screening may have adverse mental health effects. We calculated risk ratios for prescription of anti-depressive (AD) or anxiolytic (AX) medication redeemed at Danish pharmacies for participants in The Danish...... Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST)....

  14. 76 FR 22108 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ..., Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) (NCI) SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of... Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) (NCI). Type of Information Collection Request: Revision (OMB : 0925... to determine if screening for prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer can reduce mortality...

  15. Breast cancer mortality in organised mammography screening in Denmark: comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether the previously observed 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen following the introduction of mammography screening was indeed due to screening, by using an additional screening region and five years additional follow-up.......To determine whether the previously observed 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen following the introduction of mammography screening was indeed due to screening, by using an additional screening region and five years additional follow-up....

  16. A qualitative evaluation of strategies to increase colorectal cancer screening uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinmouth, Jill; Ritvo, Paul; McGregor, S. Elizabeth; Claus, Danielle; Pasut, George; Myers, Ronald E.; Guglietti, Crissa; Paszat, Lawrence F.; Hilsden, Robert J.; Rabeneck, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To obtain data that could be used to optimize the content and design of the targeted, mailed invitations that Ontario’s provincewide colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program plans to use to increase screening uptake; to identify other strategies to increase CRC screening uptake; and to describe the effects of this qualitative work on a subsequent quantitative pilot study. Design Qualitative study using semistructured focus groups. Setting Four different Ontario communities. Participants Six focus groups comprising a total of 62 participants. Methods Six focus groups were conducted in 4 different Ontario communities. For 3 of the communities, participants were recruited from the general population by a private marketing firm, using random-digit dialing, and received a small honorarium for participating. In Sault Ste Marie, participants were convenience samples recruited from a large primary care practice and were not offered compensation. Responses were elicited regarding various strategies for promoting CRC screening. Findings represent all responses observed as well as recommendations to program planners based on focus groups observations. Main findings Key themes identified included the importance of receiving a CRC screening invitation from one’s family physician; a desire for personalized, brief communications; and a preference for succinct information in mailed materials. Strong support was indicated for direct mailing of the CRC screening kit (fecal occult blood test). Our findings substantially influenced the final design and content of the envelope and letter to be mailed in the subsequent quantitative pilot study. Conclusion We report strong support from our focus groups for a succinct, personalized invitation for CRC screening from one’s own family physician. We have also shown that qualitative evaluation can be used to provide decision makers with pertinent and timely knowledge. Our study is highly relevant to other public

  17. Hemoglobin screening: response of a Brazilian community to optional programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sérgio Ramalho

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency and the viability of three hemoglobin screening programs were investigated. They were offered on a voluntary basis to a Brazilian population and started with the analysis of blood donors, pregnant women and students. The hemoglobin screening was done through optional exams which included electrophoresis of hemoglobin and complementary hematological tests. A total of 13,670 people were tested over a period of 39 months and a total of 644 individuals with hereditary hemoglobin disorders were detected - 4.7% of the samples examined. The programs showed satisfactory indicators of viability and efficiency, expressed by the significative proportion of exams performed among the probands and their relatives.

  18. The transtheoretical model, health belief model, and breast cancer screening among Iranian women with a family history of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Farajzadegan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Participation of Iranian women with a family history of breast cancer in breast cancer screening programs is low. This study evaluates the compliance of women having a family history of breast cancer with clinical breast exam (CBE according to the stage of transtheoretical model (TTM and health belief model (HBM. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we used Persian version of champion's HBM scale to collect factors associated with TTM stages applied to screening from women over 20 years and older. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS, using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, independent t-test, and analysis of covariance. Results: Final sample size was 162 women. Thirty-three percent were in action/maintenance stage. Older women, family history of breast cancer in first-degree relatives, personal history of breast disease, insurance coverage, and a history of breast self-examination were associated with action/maintenance stage. Furthermore, women in action/maintenance stages had significantly fewer perceived barriers in terms of CBE in comparison to women in other stages (P < 0.05. There was no significant difference in other HBM subscales scores between various stages of CBE screening behavior (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The finding indicates that the rate of women in action/maintenance stage of CBE is low. Moreover, results show a strong association between perceived barriers and having a regular CBE. These clarify the necessity of promoting national target programs for breast cancer screening, which should be considered as the first preference for reducing CBE barriers.

  19. Population Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: assessment of diagnostic tools and cancers detected

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.W. Rietbergen (John)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOver the past decade, considerable debate has occurred over the question whether or not to screen asymptomatic men for prostate cancer. It is unknown whether early detection and treatment of the disease will decrease the disease specific mortality. On theoretical grounds screening may pr

  20. The impact of the regimen of screening on lung cancer cure: a comparison of I-ELCAP and NLST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Rowena; Henschke, Claudia I; Yankelevitz, David F; Boffetta, Paolo; Smith, James P

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the regimen of screening on the frequency of early diagnosis and resection in two computed tomography screening programs. The stage and size distribution of all screen-diagnosed lung cancers was compared. A total of 775 patients in the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program (I-ELCAP) and 664 patients in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) were screen-diagnosed; that is, resulting from a positive result requiring further diagnostic workup. The frequency of stage I diagnoses, resections, tumor size, and lung cancer-specific survival were determined. Cox regression was used to identify the key determinants of lung cancer cure. The frequency of clinical stage I lung cancer in I-ELCAP was 82%, and in the NLST it was 67% (Ppathologic and clinical if not resected) was 78% in I-ELCAP and 62% in the NLST (Pdeterminants of survival, independent of age, smoking history, and tumor size. The higher frequency of stage I disease and resection and smaller tumor size resulted in a significantly higher survival rate in I-ELCAP than in the NLST. These differences strongly support the importance of a specified regimen of screening, as alternative explanations have been addressed.

  1. Potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer: Tongue diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuwen; Yang, Xi; Qi, Quan; Pan, Yuefen; Chen, Yongchao; Shen, Junjun; Liao, Haihong; Ji, Zhaoning

    2016-06-01

    Tongue diagnosis, as a unique method of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), was used to discriminate physiological functions and pathological conditions by observing the changes of the tongue and tongue coating. The aims of the present study were to explore a potential screening and early diagnosis method of cancer through evaluating the differences of the images of tongue and tongue coating and the microbiome on the tongue coating. The DS01-B tongue diagnostic information acquisition system was used to photograph and analyze the tongue and tongue coating. The next-generation sequencing technology was used to determine the V2-V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA to investigate the microbiome on the tongue coating. Bioinformatics and statistical methods were used to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. Comparing with the healthy people, the number of mirror-like tongue, thick tongue coating and the moisture of tongue were increased in cancers. The dominant color of the tongue in the healthy people was reddish while it was purple in the cancers. The relative abundance of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas in the healthy people were higher than that in the cancers. We also found 6 kinds of special microorganisms at species level in cancers. The study suggested that tongue diagnosis may provide potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer.

  2. An evaluation of a health screening program for migrant women to Taiwan, China

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    Yu-Chu Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate an integrated screening program for female migrants to Taiwan. Method: We performed a mixed methodological evaluation of a public health nurse (PHN-led intervention to promote an integrated screening program for female migrants to Taiwan. The clinical case yield was determined by an audit, and staff/client questionnaires were used for the evaluation. Screening comprised surveillance for four untreated chronic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis, and liver disease, four cancers (mouth, bowel, liver, and cervix, parasitic infection, and hyperlipidemia. Results: Three hundred and thirty-six PHNs and 4751 immigrant women – with an average age of 29.2 years, most of whom were from Vietnam (44% or mainland China (41% – took part in the programme. Two thirds of screened women had no abnormalities. Further investigation was required in 1523 women, of whom 1220 were found to have significant disease. The majority of 280 PHNs (85% found the content, processes, and waiting time to be ‘highly acceptable’ and thought the program was worthwhile and could be incorporated into standard care. Conclusions: The Taipei County Comprehensive Health Screening Programme provided an accessible, free-of-charge, and preventative intervention for female migrants to Taiwan and had a good clinical case yield.

  3. Newborn Screening for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency in 11 Screening Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Antonia; Abraham, Roshini S.; Currier, Robert; Brower, Amy; Andruszewski, Karen; Abbott, Jordan K.; Baker, Mei; Ballow, Mark; Bartoshesky, Louis E.; Bonagura, Vincent R.; Bonilla, Francisco A.; Brokopp, Charles; Brooks, Edward; Caggana, Michele; Celestin, Jocelyn; Church, Joseph A.; Comeau, Anne Marie; Connelly, James A.; Cowan, Morton J.; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Dasu, Trivikram; Dave, Nina; De La Morena, Maria T.; Duffner, Ulrich; Fong, Chin-To; Forbes, Lisa; Freedenberg, Debra; Gelfand, Erwin W.; Hale, Jaime E.; Celine Hanson, I.; Hay, Beverly N.; Hu, Diana; Infante, Anthony; Johnson, Daisy; Kapoor, Neena; Kay, Denise M.; Kohn, Donald B.; Lee, Rachel; Lehman, Heather; Lin, Zhili; Lorey, Fred; Abdel-Mageed, Aly; Manning, Adrienne; McGhee, Sean; Moore, Theodore B.; Naides, Stanley J.; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Orange, Jordan S.; Pai, Sung-Yun; Porteus, Matthew; Rodriguez, Ray; Romberg, Neil; Routes, John; Ruehle, Mary; Rubenstein, Arye; Saavedra-Matiz, Carlos A.; Scott, Ginger; Scott, Patricia M.; Secord, Elizabeth; Seroogy, Christine; Shearer, William T.; Siegel, Subhadra; Silvers, Stacy K.; Stiehm, E. Richard; Sugerman, Robert W.; Sullivan, John L.; Tanksley, Susan; Tierce, Millard L.; Verbsky, James; Vogel, Beth; Walker, Rosalyn; Walkovich, Kelly; Walter, Jolan E.; Wasserman, Richard L.; Watson, Michael S.; Weinberg, Geoffrey A.; Weiner, Leonard B.; Wood, Heather; Yates, Anne B.; Puck, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) using assays to detect T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) began in Wisconsin in 2008, and SCID was added to the national recommended uniform panel for newborn screened disorders in 2010. Currently 23 states, the District of Columbia, and the Navajo Nation conduct population-wide newborn screening for SCID. The incidence of SCID is estimated at 1 in 100 000 births. OBJECTIVES To present data from a spectrum of SCID newborn screening programs, establish population-based incidence for SCID and other conditions with T-cell lymphopenia, and document early institution of effective treatments. DESIGN Epidemiological and retrospective observational study. SETTING Representatives in states conducting SCID newborn screening were invited to submit their SCID screening algorithms, test performance data, and deidentified clinical and laboratory information regarding infants screened and cases with nonnormal results. Infants born from the start of each participating program from January 2008 through the most recent evaluable date prior to July 2013 were included. Representatives from 10 states plus the Navajo Area Indian Health Service contributed data from 3 030 083 newborns screened with a TREC test. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Infants with SCID and other diagnoses of T-cell lymphopenia were classified. Incidence and, where possible, etiologies were determined. Interventions and survival were tracked. RESULTS Screening detected 52 cases of typical SCID, leaky SCID, and Omenn syndrome, affecting 1 in 58 000 infants (95%CI, 1/46 000-1/80 000). Survival of SCID-affected infants through their diagnosis and immune reconstitution was 87%(45/52), 92%(45/49) for infants who received transplantation, enzyme replacement, and/or gene therapy. Additional interventions for SCID and non-SCID T-cell lymphopenia included immunoglobulin infusions, preventive antibiotics, and avoidance of live vaccines. Variations in

  4. National Integrated School Health Screening Program in Iran

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    A Amirkhani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Screening program in schools are designed to identify children who have early signs of health problems. This study provides information about the findings of national screening program in Iran."nMethods: This national program is conducted by the Ministry of Health& Medical Education (MOHME with collaboration of the Ministry of Education & Training. This program had two major parts including 1 screening of behavioral, hearing and visual disorders, pediculosis and calculating body mass index and 2 physical examination of students, conducted by pri­mary care physicians. All services are offered free of charge. The students' parents are informed about the health status of their children."nResults: The screening program conducted in 2007-2008 included 3,124,021 students from 33 cities who were studying in the first- and third- grade- students in elementary schools, first- grade- students in middle and high schools. Of total students stud­ied, 12.48% had weight disorders, i.e. body mass index <3rd percentile or > 95th percentile. 4.77% had visual disorders, 3.95 % had head lice, 2.24% had behavioral disorders, and 0.6% had hearing disorders."nConclusion: In addition to its benefits to the students' health status, the results of this screening program help health policy mak­ers to design interventions for prevention and or early detection and treatment of the most common disorders docu­mented among school students. "n 

  5. Association of eHealth literacy with cancer information seeking and prior experience with cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyejin; Moon, Mikyung; Baeg, Jung Hoon

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is a critical disease with a high mortality rate in the US. Although useful information exists on the Internet, many people experience difficulty finding information about cancer prevention because they have limited eHealth literacy. This study aimed to identify relationships between the level of eHealth literacy and cancer information seeking experience or prior experience with cancer screening tests. A total of 108 adults participated in this study through questionnaires. Data covering demographics, eHealth literacy, cancer information seeking experience, educational needs for cancer information searching, and previous cancer screening tests were obtained. Study findings show that the level of eHealth literacy influences cancer information seeking. Individuals with low eHealth literacy are likely to be less confident about finding cancer information. In addition, people who have a low level of eHealth literacy need more education about seeking information than do those with a higher level of eHealth literacy. However, there is no significant relationship between eHealth literacy and cancer screening tests. More people today are using the Internet for access to information to maintain good health. It is therefore critical to educate those with low eHealth literacy so they can better self-manage their health.

  6. Breast cancer screening case-control study design: impact on breast cancer mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paap, E.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Puliti, D.; Paci, E.; Broeders, M.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent case-control studies on the effectiveness of population-based breast cancer screening show differences in the magnitude of breast cancer mortality reduction. We investigated the role played by aspects of the case-control study design on these differences, e.g. the definition of ca

  7. A practical approach to radiological evaluation of CT lung cancer screening examinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Xueqian; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. The Dutch-Belgian Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trial (Dutch acronym: NELSON) was launched to investigate whether screening for lung cancer by low-dose multidetector computed tomography (CT) in high-risk patients will lead

  8. Are U.S. cancer screening test patterns consistent with guideline recommendations with respect to the age of screening initiation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadiyala Srikanth

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background U.S. cancer screening guidelines communicate important information regarding the ages for which screening tests are appropriate. Little attention has been given to whether breast, colorectal and prostate cancer screening test use is responsive to guideline age information regarding the age of screening initiation. Methods The 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Social Survey and the 2003 National Health Interview Surveys were used to compute breast, colorectal and prostate cancer screening test rates by single year of age. Graphical and logistic regression analyses were used to compare screening rates for individuals close to and on either side of the guideline recommended screening initiation ages. Results We identified large discrete shifts in the use of screening tests precisely at the ages where guidelines recommend that screening begin. Mammography screening in the last year increased from 22% [95% CI = 20, 25] at age 39 to 36% [95% CI = 33, 39] at age 40 and 47% [95% CI = 44, 51] at age 41. Adherence to the colorectal cancer screening guidelines within the last year increased from 18% [95% CI = 15, 22] at age 49 to 19% [95% CI = 15, 23] at age 50 and 34% [95% CI = 28, 39] at age 51. Prostate specific antigen screening in the last year increased from 28% [95% CI = 25, 31] at age 49 to 33% [95% CI = 29, 36] and 42% [95% CI = 38, 46] at ages 50 and 51. These results are robust to multivariate analyses that adjust for age, sex, income, education, marital status and health insurance status. Conclusion The results from this study suggest that cancer screening test utilization is consistent with guideline age information regarding the age of screening initiation. Screening test and adherence rates increased by approximately 100% at the breast and colorectal cancer guideline recommended ages compared to only a 50% increase in the screening test rate for prostate cancer screening. Since information regarding the age of cancer screening

  9. 77 FR 65395 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program Correction In notice document 2012-26031 appearing on pages 65006-65009 in the issue of October 24, 2012 make...

  10. Towards personalized screening: Cumulative risk of breast cancer screening outcomes in women with and without a first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripping, Theodora Maria; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Otten, Johannes D M; den Heeten, Gerard J; Verbeek, André L M; Broeders, Mireille J M

    2016-04-01

    Several reviews have estimated the balance of benefits and harms of mammographic screening in the general population. The balance may, however, differ between individuals with and without family history. Therefore, our aim is to assess the cumulative risk of screening outcomes; screen-detected breast cancer, interval cancer, and false-positive results, in women screenees aged 50-75 and 40-75, with and without a first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer at the start of screening. Data on screening attendance, recall and breast cancer detection were collected for each woman living in Nijmegen (The Netherlands) since 1975. We used a discrete time survival model to calculate the cumulative probability of each major screening outcome over 19 screening rounds. Women with a family history of breast cancer had a higher risk of all screening outcomes. For women screened from age 50-75, the cumulative risk of screen-detected breast cancer, interval cancer and false-positive results were 9.0, 4.4 and 11.1% for women with a family history and 6.3, 2.7 and 7.3% for women without a family history, respectively. The results for women 40-75 followed the same pattern for women screened 50-75 for cancer outcomes, but were almost doubled for false-positive results. To conclude, women with a first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer are more likely to experience benefits and harms of screening than women without a family history. To complete the balance and provide risk-based screening recommendations, the breast cancer mortality reduction and overdiagnosis should be estimated for family history subgroups.

  11. Cervical cancer screening in Australia: modelled evaluation of the impact of changing the recommended interval from two to three years

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    Howard Kirsten

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Cervical Screening Program in Australia currently recommends that sexually active women between the ages of 18-70 years attend routine screening every 2 years. The publically funded National HPV Vaccination Program commenced in 2007, with catch-up in females aged 12-26 years conducted until 2009; and this may prompt consideration of whether the screening interval and other aspects of the organized screening program could be reviewed. The aim of the current evaluation was to assess the epidemiologic outcomes and cost implications of changing the recommended screening interval in Australia to 3 years. Methods We used a modelling approach to evaluate the effects of moving to a 3-yearly recommended screening interval. We used data from the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry over the period 1997-2007 to model compliance with routine screening under current practice, and registry data from other countries with 3-yearly recommendations to inform assumptions about future screening behaviour under two alternative systems for screening organisation - retention of a reminder-based system (as in New Zealand, or a move to a call-and-recall system (as in England. Results A 3-yearly recommendation is predicted to be of similar effectiveness to the current 2-yearly recommendation, resulting in no substantial change to the total number of incident cervical cancer cases or cancer deaths, or to the estimated 0.68% average cumulative lifetime risk of cervical cancer in unvaccinated Australian women. However, a 3-yearly screening policy would be associated with decreases in the annual number of colposcopy and biopsy procedures performed (by 4-10% and decreases in the number of treatments for pre-invasive lesions (by 2-4%. The magnitude of the decrease in the number of diagnostic procedures and treatments would depend on the method of screening organization, with call-and-recall screening associated with the highest reductions. The

  12. Qualidade e desempenho das colpocitologias na prevenção de câncer de colo uterino Quality and performance of pap smears in the cervical cancer screening program in a city of southern Brazil

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    Nelson Shozo Uchimura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência e analisar a qualidade e o desempenho das colpocitologias realizadas no Programa de Prevenção de Câncer de Colo Uterino no município de Maringá-PR. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo dos dados do SIS-Colo do Ministério da Saúde. Foram analisadas as variáveis idade, resultado de colpocitologia e procedência. As idades foram categorizadas em faixas etárias, a procedência distribuída em cinco regionais de saúde do município de Maringá; a colpocitologia foi categorizada conforme o Sistema Bethesda. Calculou-se a cobertura de colpocitologia dividindo-se o número de exames na população de 25 a 59 anos pelo número de mulheres nesta mesma faixa etária. RESULTADOS: As 17.664 colpocitologias coletadas, no ano de 2005, pela rede pública se distribuíram entre as mulheres com idade mínima de 12 e máxima de 82 anos, sendo 12.961 (73,4% exames na faixa entre 25 e 59 anos, considerada de maior risco para o câncer. Foram negativos para neoplasia 17.458 (98,84% exames e as alterações celulares (ASCUS/AGUS, LIEBG, LIEAG e câncer invasor totalizaram 206 (1,16%. Encontrou-se prevalência de ASCUS de 0,85% (151, de atipias celulares 1,14% (203/17.664 e a relação ASCUS/atipias celulares 2,75% (151/55. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência das alterações colpocitológicas e da ASCUS abaixo dos índices esperados, a relação ASCUS/atipias celulares em níveis elevados, a cobertura populacional insuficiente de colpocitologia compromete o desempenho da prevenção de câncer de colo uterino. A população de baixa condição sócio-econômica requer uma atenção especial e a população mais privilegiada deve ser orientada quanto a periodicidade do exame e faixa etária de maior risco.OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence and analyze quality and performance of colpocytology carried out under the Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective study of the SIS-Colo database of the

  13. When is multidimensional screening a convex program?

    CERN Document Server

    Figalli, Alessio; McCann, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    A principal wishes to transact business with a multidimensional distribution of agents whose preferences are known only in the aggregate. Assuming a twist (= generalized Spence-Mirrlees single-crossing) hypothesis and that agents can choose only pure strategies, we identify a structural condition on the preference b(x,y) of agent type x for product type y -- and on the principal's costs c(y) -- which is necessary and sufficient for reducing the profit maximization problem faced by the principal to a convex program. This is a key step toward making the principal's problem theoretically and computationally tractable; in particular, it allows us to derive uniqueness and stability of the principal's optimum strategy -- and similarly of the strategy maximizing the expected welfare of the agents when the principal's profitability is constrained. We call this condition non-negative cross-curvature: it is also (i) necessary and sufficient to guarantee convexity of the set of b-convex functions, (ii) invariant under r...

  14. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship provides a strong foundation for scientists and clinicians to train in the field of cancer prevention and control. This structured, multidisciplinary program offers early career scientists from different health disciplines a variety of postdoctoral training opportunities . | Training to form a strong foundation in cancer prevention and control for scientists and clinicians.

  15. Religiousness and prostate cancer screening in African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Alexis D; Houston, Tina R; Bjorck, Jeffrey P; Gorsuch, Richard L; Arnold, Harold L

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationship between religiousness (organized, nonorganized, and intrinsic) and religious problem solving (collaborative, deferring, and self-directing) in prostate cancer screening (PCS) attitudes and behavior. Men (N = 481) of African descent between the ages of 40 and 70 participated. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that religiousness and self-directed problem solving were associated with PCS attitudes. Intrinsic religiousness was associated with PCS attitudes after controlling for health and organized religiousness. Religiousness was not associated with PCS behavior. Intrinsic religiousness may be an important dimension of religiousness to be considered in tailoring cancer interventions for individuals from faith-based communities.

  16. Task Force Reaffirms Recommendation against Ovarian Cancer Screening | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women at average risk of ovarian cancer should not be screened for the disease, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has reaffirmed. Published in the Annals of Internal Medicine on September 11, the latest USPSTF clinical guideline does not apply to women who have symptoms of ovarian cancer or who have genetic mutations that increase their risk of ovarian cancer. |

  17. Trends in Cancer Screening Rates among Korean Men and Women: Results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), 2004-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Ha; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Choi, Kui Son; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Jin Soo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS) is a continuous nationwide survey implemented by the National Cancer Center in Korea since 2004. The purpose of the present study was to report trends in cancer screening rates for the five major cancers (stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervix uteri) in Korean men and women. Materials and Methods The study used KNCSS data collected between 2004 and 2010. The survey was conducted on Korean men aged 40-74 years and Korean women...

  18. Poor Cervical Cancer Screening Attendance and False Negatives. A Call for Organized Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, Marta; Astudillo, Aurora; Clavero, Omar; Velasco, Julio; Ibáñez, Raquel; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to describe prior negative screening history and symptoms around the time of diagnosis of incident cervical cancer (CC) cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2010 within the Asturias public health system. Methods Records from 374 women diagnosed with CC between 2000 and 2010 from all public hospitals in Asturias were retrieved. Clinical information, FIGO stage and all previous cytological data were extracted from clinical and histopathological records. Pro...

  19. Breast cancer screening in Saudi Arabia: free but almost no takers.

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    Charbel El Bcheraoui

    Full Text Available Mammography ensures early diagnosis and a better chance for treatment and recovery from breast cancer. We conducted a national survey to investigate knowledge and practices of breast cancer screening among Saudi women aged 50 years or older in order to inform the breast cancer national health programs.The Saudi Health Interview Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older. The survey included questions on socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health-care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. Female respondents were asked about knowledge and practices of self and clinical breast exams, as well as mammography.Between April and June 2013, a total of 10,735 participants completed the survey. Among respondents, 1,135 were women aged 50 years or older and were included in this analysis. About 89% of women reported not having a clinical breast exam in the past year, and 92% reported never having a mammogram. Women living in Al Sharqia had the highest rate of mammography use. Women who were educated, those who had received a routine medical exam within the last two years, and those who were diagnosed with hypertension were more likely to have had a mammogram in the past two years.Our results show very low rates of breast cancer screening in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, a country with free health services. This calls for educational campaigns to improve breast cancer screening. Addressing the barriers for breast cancer screening is a public health imperative.

  20. Effects of comorbidity on screening and early diagnosis of cancer in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terret, Catherine; Castel-Kremer, Elisabeth; Albrand, Gilles; Droz, Jean Pierre

    2009-01-01

    There is currently little data showing that older adults can derive benefit from cancer screening. Advancing age is associated with an increasing prevalence of cancer and other chronic conditions, or comorbidity, and questions remain about the interactions between comorbidity and cancer screening in the elderly population. In this Review, we assess the available evidence on the effects of comorbidity on cancer screening in elderly individuals. In view of the high heterogeneity of existing data, consistent recommendations cannot be made. Decisions on cancer screening in older adults should be based on an appropriate assessment of each individual's health status and life expectancy, the benefits and harms of screening procedures, and patient preferences. We suggest that Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment might be a necessary step to identify candidates for cancer screening in the elderly population. Specific clinical trials should be done to improve the evidence and show the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cancer screening in older adults.