WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer risk thresholds

  1. Between-airport heterogeneity in air toxics emissions associated with individual cancer risk thresholds and population risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Jonathan I

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airports represent a complex source type of increasing importance contributing to air toxics risks. Comprehensive atmospheric dispersion models are beyond the scope of many applications, so it would be valuable to rapidly but accurately characterize the risk-relevant exposure implications of emissions at an airport. Methods In this study, we apply a high resolution atmospheric dispersion model (AERMOD to 32 airports across the United States, focusing on benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and benzo [a]pyrene. We estimate the emission rates required at these airports to exceed a 10-6 lifetime cancer risk for the maximally exposed individual (emission thresholds and estimate the total population risk at these emission rates. Results The emission thresholds vary by two orders of magnitude across airports, with variability predicted by proximity of populations to the airport and mixing height (R2 = 0.74–0.75 across pollutants. At these emission thresholds, the population risk within 50 km of the airport varies by two orders of magnitude across airports, driven by substantial heterogeneity in total population exposure per unit emissions that is related to population density and uncorrelated with emission thresholds. Conclusion Our findings indicate that site characteristics can be used to accurately predict maximum individual risk and total population risk at a given level of emissions, but that optimizing on one endpoint will be non-optimal for the other.

  2. Prospective surveillance of women with a family history of breast cancer: auditing the risk threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, E.; Berg, J; Black, R; Bradshaw, N.; Campbell, J.; Carnaghan, H; Cetnarkyj, R; Drummond, S; Davidson, R; Dunlop, J.; Fordyce, A.; Gibbons, B; Goudie, D; Gregory, H; Holloway, S

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate current guidelines criteria for inclusion of women in special ‘breast cancer family history' surveillance programmes, records were reviewed of women referred to Scottish breast cancer family clinics between January 1994 and December 2003 but discharged as at ‘less than ‘moderate' familial risk'. The Scottish Cancer Registry was then interrogated to determine subsequent age-specific incidence of breast cancer in this cohort and corresponding Scottish population figures. Among 2074 ...

  3. Prospective surveillance of women with a family history of breast cancer: auditing the risk threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E; Berg, J; Black, R; Bradshaw, N; Campbell, J; Carnaghan, H; Cetnarkyj, R; Drummond, S; Davidson, R; Dunlop, J; Fordyce, A; Gibbons, B; Goudie, D; Gregory, H; Holloway, S; Longmuir, M; McLeish, L; Murday, V; Miedzybrodska, Z; Nicholson, D; Pearson, P; Porteous, M; Reis, M; Slater, S; Smith, K; Smyth, E; Snadden, L; Steel, M; Stirling, D; Watt, C; Whyte, C; Young, D

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate current guidelines criteria for inclusion of women in special ‘breast cancer family history' surveillance programmes, records were reviewed of women referred to Scottish breast cancer family clinics between January 1994 and December 2003 but discharged as at ‘less than ‘moderate' familial risk'. The Scottish Cancer Registry was then interrogated to determine subsequent age-specific incidence of breast cancer in this cohort and corresponding Scottish population figures. Among 2074 women, with an average follow-up of 4.0 years, 28 invasive breast cancers were recorded up to December 2003, where 14.4 were expected, a relative risk (RR) of 1.94. Eleven further breast cancers were recorded between January 2004 and February 2006 (ascertainment incomplete for this period). The overall RR for women in the study cohort exceeded the accepted ‘cutoff' level (RR=1.7) for provision of special counselling and surveillance. The highest RR was found for the age group 45–59 years and this group also generated the majority of breast cancers. The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (‘NICE') guidelines appear to be more accurate than those of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (‘SIGN') in defining ‘moderate' familial risk, and longer follow-up of this cohort could generate an evidence base for further modification of familial breast cancer services. PMID:18283300

  4. CARA Risk Assessment Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Warning remediation threshold (Red threshold): Pc level at which warnings are issued, and active remediation considered and usually executed. Analysis threshold (Green to Yellow threshold): Pc level at which analysis of event is indicated, including seeking additional information if warranted. Post-remediation threshold: Pc level to which remediation maneuvers are sized in order to achieve event remediation and obviate any need for immediate follow-up maneuvers. Maneuver screening threshold: Pc compliance level for routine maneuver screenings (more demanding than regular Red threshold due to additional maneuver uncertainty).

  5. Use of threshold-specific energy model for the prediction of effects of smoking and radon exposure on the risk of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, R; Sedlák, A; Bulko, M; Holý, K

    2014-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women. Smoking causes 80-90% of cases of lung cancer. In this study, an attempt was made to assess the impact of cigarette smoking on the risk of lung cancer by the so-called threshold-specific energy model. This model allows to analyse the biological effects of radon daughter products on the lung tissue, and is based on the assumption that the biological effect (i.e. cell inactivation) will manifest itself after the threshold-specific energy z0 deposited in the sensitive volume of the cell is exceeded. Cigarette smoking causes, among others, an increase in the synthesis of the survivin protein that protects cells from apoptosis and thereby reduces their radiosensitivity. Based on these facts, an attempt was made to estimate the shape of the curves describing the increase in the oncological effect of radiation as a function of daily cigarette consumption. PMID:24711526

  6. Atherogenic risk factors and hearing thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann;

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from...... children's day care units, financial services and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between atherogenic risk factors (blood lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), and ambulatory blood pressure) and hearing thresholds were analyzed using multiple linear regression models....... Adjusted results suggested associations between smoking, high BMI and triglyceride level and low high-density lipoprotein level and increased low-frequency hearing thresholds (average of pure-tone hearing thresholds at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 kHz). Furthermore, an increasing load of atherogenic risk factors seemed...

  7. At-Risk-of-Poverty Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Táňa Dvornáková

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC is a survey on households’ living conditions. The main aim of the survey is to get long-term comparable data on social and economic situation of households. Data collected in the survey are used mainly in connection with the evaluation of income poverty and determinationof at-risk-of-poverty rate. This article deals with the calculation of the at risk-of-poverty threshold based on data from EU-SILC 2009. The main task is to compare two approaches to the computation of at riskof-poverty threshold. The first approach is based on the calculation of the threshold for each country separately,while the second one is based on the calculation of the threshold for all states together. The introduction summarizes common attributes in the calculation of the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, such as disposable household income, equivalised household income. Further, different approaches to both calculations are introduced andadvantages and disadvantages of these approaches are stated. Finally, the at-risk-of-poverty rate calculation is described and comparison of the at-risk-of-poverty rates based on these two different approaches is made.

  8. Breast Cancer Detection Using Multilevel Thresholding

    CERN Document Server

    Rejani, Y Ireaneus Anna

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm which aims to assist the radiologist in identifying breast cancer at its earlier stages. It combines several image processing techniques like image negative, thresholding and segmentation techniques for detection of tumor in mammograms. The algorithm is verified by using mammograms from Mammographic Image Analysis Society. The results obtained by applying these techniques are described.

  9. Endometrial Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? Next Topic What causes endometrial cancer? Endometrial cancer risk factors A risk factor is anything that affects your ... to obesity, which is a well-known endometrial cancer risk factor. Many scientists think this is the main way ...

  10. CLASSICAL RISK MODEL WITH THRESHOLD DIVIDEND STRATEGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Ming; Guo Junyi

    2008-01-01

    In this article, a threshold dividend strategy is used for classical risk model.Under this dividend strategy, certain probability of ruin, which occurs in case of constant barrier strategy, is avoided. Using the strong Markov property of the surplus process and the distribution of the deficit in classical risk model, the survival probability for this model is derived, which is more direct than that in Asmussen(2000, P195, Proposition 1.10). The occupation time of non-dividend of this model is also discussed by means of Martingale method.

  11. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  12. Extreme sensitivity and the practical implications of risk assessment thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, John; Nicolich, Mark; Lewis, R Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Traditional risk-assessment theory assumes the existence of a threshold for non-cancer health effects. However, a recent trend in environmental regulation rejects this assumption in favor of non-threshold linearity for these endpoints. This trend is driven largely by two related concepts: (1) a theoretical assumption of wide-ranging human sensitivity, and (2) inability to detect thresholds in epidemiologic models. Wide-ranging sensitivity assumes a subpopulation with extreme background vulnerability, so that even trivial environmental exposures are hazardous to someone somewhere. We use examples from the real world of clinical medicine to show that this theoretical assumption is inconsistent with the biology of mammalian systems and the realities of patient care. Using examples from particulate-matter air-pollution research, we further show that failure to reject linearity is usually driven by statistical rather than biological considerations, and that nonlinear/threshold models often have a similar or better fit than their linear counterparts. This evidence suggests the existence of practical, real-world thresholds for most chemical exposures.

  13. Volumetric breast density from full-field digital mammograms and its association with breast cancer risk factors: a comparison with a threshold method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokate, M.; Kallenberg, M.G.J.; Karssemeijer, N.; Bosch, M.H.J. van den; Peeters, P.H.M.; Gils, C.H. van

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Breast density, a strong breast cancer risk factor, is usually measured on the projected breast area from film screen mammograms. This is far from ideal, as breast thickness and technical characteristics are not taken into account. We investigated whether volumetric density measurement

  14. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon cancer risk factors are things that increase the chance that you could get cancer. Some risk factors ... risk factors never get cancer. Other people get colon cancer but do not have any known risk factors. ...

  15. Stomach Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine Stomach cancer is fairly rare in the US, but ... the early stages. To estimate your risk of stomach cancer and learn about ways to lower that ...

  16. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors can affect a person’s chance of getting cancer of the pancreas. Most of these are risk factors for exocrine ... Chronic pancreatitis, a long-term inflammation of the pancreas, is linked with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (especially in smokers), but most people with pancreatitis ...

  17. Determining threshold default risk criterion for trade credit granting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To solve the problem of setting threshold default risk criterion to select retailer eligible for trade credit granting, a novel method of solving simultaneous equations is proposed. This method is based on the bilevel programming modeling of trade credit decisions as an interaction between supplier and retailer. First, the bilevel programming is set up where the supplier decides on credit terms at the top level considering a retailer's default risk, and the retailer determines the order quantity at the lowe...

  18. [The Dutch Cancer Society Cancer Risk Test].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elias, S.; Grooters, H.G.; Bausch-Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Kampman, E.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Peeters, P.H.M.; Vries, E. de; Wigger, S.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Cancer Society developed the 'KWF Kanker Risico Test' (Cancer Risk Test) to improve the information available to the Dutch population regarding cancer risk factors. This Internet test, based under licence on the American 'Your Disease Risk' test, informs users about risk factors for 12 com

  19. Contralateral breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of breast-conserving treatment approaches for breast cancer has now become a standard option for early stage disease. Numerous randomized studies have shown medical equivalence when mastectomy is compared to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy for the local management of this common problem. With an increased emphasis on patient involvement in the therapeutic decision making process, it is important to identify and quantify any unforeseen risks of the conservation approach. One concern that has been raised is the question of radiation- related contralateral breast cancer after breast radiotherapy. Although most studies do not show statistically significant evidence that patients treated with breast radiotherapy are at increased risk of developing contralateral breast cancer when compared to control groups treated with mastectomy alone, there are clear data showing the amount of scattered radiation absorbed by the contralateral breast during a routine course of breast radiotherapy is considerable (several Gy) and is therefore within the range where one might be concerned about radiogenic contralateral tumors. While radiation related risks of contralateral breast cancer appear to be small enough to be statistically insignificant for the majority of patients, there may exist a smaller subset which, for genetic or environmental reasons, is at special risk for scatter related second tumors. If such a group could be predicted, it would seem appropriate to offer either special counselling or special prevention procedures aimed at mitigating this second tumor risk. The use of genetic testing, detailed analysis of breast cancer family history, and the identification of patients who acquired their first breast cancer at a very early age may all be candidate screening procedures useful in identifying such at- risk groups. Since some risk mitigation strategies are convenient and easy to utilize, it makes sense to follow the classic 'ALARA' (as low as reasonably

  20. [The Dutch Cancer Society Cancer Risk Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Sjoerd G; Grooters, Hilda G; Bausch-Goldbohm, R A Sandra; van den Brandt, Piet A; Kampman, Ellen; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Peeters, Petra H M; de Vries, Esther; Wigger, Stefan; Kiemeney, L A L M Bart

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Cancer Society developed the 'KWF Kanker Risico Test' (Cancer Risk Test) to improve the information available to the Dutch population regarding cancer risk factors. This Internet test, based under licence on the American 'Your Disease Risk' test, informs users about risk factors for 12 common types of cancer. The test provides an estimate of individual risk of a specific type of cancer and gives specific lifestyle advice that could lower that risk. This paper describes the development of the test, how it works, and its strengths and limitations.

  1. Threshold exceedance risk assessment in complex space-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, José M.; Madrid, Ana E.; Romero, José L.

    2015-04-01

    Environmental and health impact risk assessment studies most often involve analysis and characterization of complex spatio-temporal dynamics. Recent developments in this context are addressed, among other objectives, to proper representation of structural heterogeneities, heavy-tailed processes, long-range dependence, intermittency, scaling behavior, etc. Extremal behaviour related to spatial threshold exceedances can be described in terms of geometrical characteristics and distribution patterns of excursion sets, which are the basis for construction of risk-related quantities, such as in the case of evolutionary study of 'hotspots' and long-term indicators of occurrence of extremal episodes. Derivation of flexible techniques, suitable for both the application under general conditions and the interpretation on singularities, is important for practice. Modern risk theory, a developing discipline motivated by the need to establish solid general mathematical-probabilistic foundations for rigorous definition and characterization of risk measures, has led to the introduction of a variety of classes and families, ranging from some conceptually inspired by specific fields of applications, to some intended to provide generality and flexibility to risk analysts under parametric specifications, etc. Quantile-based risk measures, such as Value-at-Risk (VaR), Average Value-at-Risk (AVaR), and generalization to spectral measures, are of particular interest for assessment under very general conditions. In this work, we study the application of quantile-based risk measures in the spatio-temporal context in relation to certain geometrical characteristics of spatial threshold exceedance sets. In particular, we establish a closed-form relationship between VaR, AVaR, and the expected value of threshold exceedance areas and excess volumes. Conditional simulation allows us, by means of empirical global and local spatial cumulative distributions, the derivation of various statistics of

  2. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factors Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... anything that increases a person’s chance of developing cancer. Although risk factors often influence the development of cancer, most do ...

  3. Cancer Risk Prediction and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer prediction models provide an important approach to assessing risk and prognosis by identifying individuals at high risk, facilitating the design and planning of clinical cancer trials, fostering the development of benefit-risk indices, and enabling estimates of the population burden and cost of cancer.

  4. Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to astronauts on the International Space Station and for future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Methods used to project risks on Earth need to be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting cancer risks from space radiation, and thus impact safety factors. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts: The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in the radiation cancer projection model. NASA s acceptable level of risk for ISS and their new lunar program have been set at the point-estimate of a 3-percent risk of exposure induced death (REID). Tissue-averaged organ dose-equivalents are combined with age at exposure and gender-dependent risk coefficients to project the cumulative occupational radiation risks incurred by astronauts. The 95% CL criteria in practice is a stronger criterion than ALARA, but not an absolute cut-off as is applied to a point projection of a 3% REID. We describe the most recent astronaut dose limits, and present a historical review of astronaut organ doses estimates from the Mercury through the current ISS program, and future projections for lunar and Mars missions. NASA s 95% CL criteria is linked to a vibrant ground based radiobiology program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and heavy ions. The near-term goal of research is new knowledge leading to the reduction of uncertainties in projection models. Risk projections involve a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. The current model for projecting space radiation

  5. Pressure Systems Stored-Energy Threshold Risk Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsen, Samuel S.

    2009-08-25

    Federal Regulation 10 CFR 851, which became effective February 2007, brought to light potential weaknesses regarding the Pressure Safety Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The definition of a pressure system in 10 CFR 851 does not contain a limit based upon pressure or any other criteria. Therefore, the need for a method to determine an appropriate risk-based hazard level for pressure safety was identified. The Laboratory has historically used a stored energy of 1000 lbf-ft to define a pressure hazard; however, an analytical basis for this value had not been documented. This document establishes the technical basis by evaluating the use of stored energy as an appropriate criterion to establish a pressure hazard, exploring a suitable risk threshold for pressure hazards, and reviewing the methods used to determine stored energy. The literature review and technical analysis concludes the use of stored energy as a method for determining a potential risk, the 1000 lbf-ft threshold, and the methods used by PNNL to calculate stored energy are all appropriate. Recommendations for further program improvements are also discussed

  6. PCOS and cancer risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeusz Issat; Artur J Jakimiuk

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects approximately 5 to 10% of women of reproductive age. It is the most common reason of anovulation in infertile women. PCOS is accompanied by such conditions as oligo- or anovulation, hipertestosteronism, lower cell sensitivity to insulin, type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Each of the above-mentioned conditions is an approved risk factor proved to predispose towards cancer. However, PCOS is also a disease entity which differs in its clinical ...

  7. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know before using this tool: The Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool was designed for use by doctors and other health providers with their patients. If you are not a health ... your personal risk of colorectal cancer. (Colorectal cancer is another way ...

  8. Bricklayers and lung cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article ‘Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case–control studies’ in the International Journal of Cancer publishes findings of an epidemiological study (in the frame of a SYNERGY-project) dedicated to the lung cancer risk among bricklayers. The authors conclude that a foc

  9. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  10. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk On This Page Why is ... over age 40 use some type of hair dye ( 1 ). Modern hair dyes are classified as permanent (or oxidative), semipermanent, ...

  11. Risk of cancer formation by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described are the difference between exposures to radiation for medical purpose and to environmental radiation at low dose, estimation of carcinogenic risk by medical radiation, and notice for referring the risk at clinical practice. ICRP employs linear non-threshold (LNT) model for risk of cancer formation even at <200 mSv for safety, with a recognition that it is scientifically obscure. The model essentially stands on data of A-bomb survivors (the Gold Standard), where the relationship between 5-10% excess relative risk (ERR) of cancer formation and dose 0.05-2.5 Sv is linear. Analyses of the secondary carcinogenesis after radiotherapy have begun to be reported since around 2005: e.g., the secondary thyroid cancer risk in pediatric patients treated with radiotherapy has a peak at 20 Gy, suggesting the actual risk depends both on the linearity of carcinogenic increase and on the exponential probability of cell death increase. On this concept, the risk of cancer formation is not always linear to dose. At the practical radiotherapy, its secondary carcinogenic risk should be estimated not only on the dose but also on other factors such as the individual organ, patient's age and attainable age/time after the treatment. In treated teen-ager patients, ERRs of mortality/Gy are 2.28 for cancers of the skin of non-malignant melanoma, 1.32 of bladder and 1.21 of thyroid and in patients of fifties, 1.15 of bladder and lung. The EER tends to become lower as the treated age is older. Pediatric cancer patients to be treated with radiotherapy should be informed about the secondary cancer that the low dose risk given by ICRP is not always appropriate, a certain cancer risk has a peak dose, and ERR of cancer mortality is not a cancer risk of an organ. Many factors like anticancers and immuno-modifiers, modify the outcome of radiotherapy and should be carefully speculated for evaluating the outcome. (T.T.)

  12. Liver Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing liver cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  13. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  14. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  15. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing pancreatic cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  16. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  17. Bladder Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing bladder cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  18. Esophageal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing esophageal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  19. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  20. Testicular Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of testicular cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  1. Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing ovarian cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  2. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  3. Cancer risks in thyroid cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, P.; Holm, L E; Lundell, G.; Bjelkengren, G.; Larsson, L. G.; Lindberg, S.; Tennvall, J.; Wicklund, H.; Boice, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    Cancer risks were studied in 834 thyroid cancer patients given 131I (4,551 MBq, average) and in 1,121 patients treated by other means in Sweden between 1950 and 1975. Record-linkage with the Swedish Cancer Register identified 99 new cancers more than 2 years after 131I therapy [standardised incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-1.75] vs 122 (SIR = 1.19; 95% CI 0.88-1.42) in patients not receiving 131I. In females treated with 131I overall SIR was 1.45 (95% CI 1.14-1....

  4. NAC selectively inhibit cancer telomerase activity: A higher redox homeostasis threshold exists in cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pengying Li; Meilin Wu; Jing Wang; Yilun Sui; Shanlin Liu; Dongyun Shi

    2016-01-01

    Telomerase activity controls telomere length, and this plays an important role in stem cells, aging and tumors. Antioxidant was shown to protect telomerase activity in normal cells but inhibit that in cancer cells, but the underlying mechanism is elusive. Here we found that 7721 hepatoma cells held a higher redox homeostasis threshold than L02 normal liver cells which caused 7721 cells to have a higher demand for ROS; MnSOD over-expression in 7721 decreased endogenous reactive oxygen species ...

  5. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt w...

  6. Work stress and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Theorell, Töres;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, is associated with the overall risk of cancer and the risk of colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers.......To investigate whether work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, is associated with the overall risk of cancer and the risk of colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers....

  7. Results of low threshold to biopsy following high-intensity focused ultrasound for localized prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L Haddad

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: A low threshold to re-biopsy post-HIFU reveals a high local failure rate of 82%. Oncological efficacy is questioned, and using high threshold to biopsy may therefore be overestimating the effectiveness of HIFU as a primary treatment for localized prostate cancer.

  8. A Threshold Model of Social Support, Adjustment, and Distress after Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinckrodt, Brent; Armer, Jane M.; Heppner, P. Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a threshold model that proposes that social support exhibits a curvilinear association with adjustment and distress, such that support in excess of a critical threshold level has decreasing incremental benefits. Women diagnosed with a first occurrence of breast cancer (N = 154) completed survey measures of perceived support…

  9. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  10. Obesity and colorectal cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obesity is a chronic and multifactor disease characterized by presence of excess body fat harmful for health. Several studies have been conducted to assess the possible risk character of different factors for colorectal cancer including the following modifying factors: a diet rich in saturated fats, a diet low in vegetables, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption and obesity. A case-control study was conducted to include 276 adult patients (93 cases and 184 controls) consecutively seen from May, 2008 to May, 2009 in the Institute of Gastroenterology determining a possible association between obesity as risk factor and colorectal cancer. Variables measures included: sex, age, skin color, body mass index, hip-waist circumference and endoscopic location of cancer. We conclude that the colorectal cancer with predominance in female sex and in white people in both groups. Obesity according to a great relation hip-waist had an strong relation with colorectal cancer, which had predominance towards distal colon in both sexes

  11. Inhalation cancer risk assessment of cobalt metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Mina; Thompson, Chad M; Brorby, Gregory P; Mittal, Liz; Proctor, Deborah M

    2016-08-01

    Cobalt compounds (metal, salts, hard metals, oxides, and alloys) are used widely in various industrial, medical and military applications. Chronic inhalation exposure to cobalt metal and cobalt sulfate has caused lung cancer in rats and mice, as well as systemic tumors in rats. Cobalt compounds are listed as probable or possible human carcinogens by some agencies, and there is a need for quantitative cancer toxicity criteria. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has derived a provisional inhalation unit risk (IUR) of 0.009 per μg/m(3) based on a chronic inhalation study of soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate; however, a recent 2-year cancer bioassay affords the opportunity to derive IURs specifically for cobalt metal. The mechanistic data support that the carcinogenic mode of action (MOA) is likely to involve oxidative stress, and thus, non-linear/threshold mechanisms. However, the lack of a detailed MOA and use of high, toxic exposure concentrations in the bioassay (≥1.25 mg/m(3)) preclude derivation of a reference concentration (RfC) protective of cancer. Several analyses resulted in an IUR of 0.003 per μg/m(3) for cobalt metal, which is ∼3-fold less potent than the provisional IUR. Future research should focus on establishing the exposure-response for key precursor events to improve cobalt metal risk assessment. PMID:27177823

  12. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may stimulate or inhibit cell growth. For example, leptin, which is more abundant in obese people, seems ... is known about the relationship between obesity and kidney cancer? Obesity has been consistently associated with renal ...

  13. Asbestos and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... done in the lab Tests on several different rodent species, using different methods of exposure, have confirmed ... Voices Blog Programs & Services Breast Cancer Support TLC Hair Loss & Mastectomy Products Hope Lodge® Lodging Rides To ...

  14. Cancer risk in systemic lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatsky, Sasha; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Labrecque, Jeremy;

    2013-01-01

    .46, 5.49) and leukemia. In addition, increased risks of cancer of the vulva (SIR 3.78, 95% CI 1.52, 7.78), lung (SIR 1.30, 95% CI 1.04, 1.60), thyroid (SIR 1.76, 95% CI 1.13, 2.61) and possibly liver (SIR 1.87, 95% CI 0.97, 3.27) were suggested. However, a decreased risk was estimated for breast (SIR 0......: These data estimate only a small increased risk in SLE (versus the general population) for cancer over-all. However, there is clearly an increased risk of NHL, and cancers of the vulva, lung, thyroid, and possibly liver. It remains unclear to what extent the association with NHL is mediated by innate versus......OBJECTIVE: To update estimates of cancer risk in SLE relative to the general population. METHODS: A multisite international SLE cohort was linked with regional tumor registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated as the ratio of observed to expected cancers. RESULTS: Across 30...

  15. Risk Determination for Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I Toki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer represents one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths worldwide and constitutes a major public health problem. Despite the advances in diagnosis and treatment, the overall five-year survival remains low, thus leading the focus of medical research towards the identification and modification of potential risk factors. This year, in ASCO Annual Meeting two interesting studies were presented. Ghani et al. (abstract #e15183 sought to investigate the effect of smoking on chemotherapy response in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, while Walker et al. (abstract #4117 presented the results of their study regarding the effect of statin use in the prevention of pancreatic cancer. Both studies concluded to useful results that along with the existing literature may further stimulate medical research towards better recognition of risk factors and the application of this knowledge in the clinical practice.

  16. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefits associated with oral contraception. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2004; 190(4 Suppl):S5–22. [ ... oral contraceptive use and risk of ovarian cancer. Obstetrics and Gynecology 1992; 80(4):708–714. [PubMed ...

  17. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laxatives to clear the colon, shows polyps clearly. DNA stool test This test checks DNA in stool cells for genetic changes that may be a sign of colorectal cancer. Screening clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the ... Screening tests have risks. False-negative test results can occur. ...

  18. Myastenia and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve Pedersen, Emil; Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between having non-thymoma myasthenia and the risk of extra-thymic cancer in a population-based setting. METHODS: A nationwide case-control study was conducted in Denmark based on medical registries. The study included all cases with a first tim...

  19. Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159652.html Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk ... June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women with a gene mutation known as BRCA1 have an increased risk ...

  20. Alcohol, Obesity Could Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160133.html Alcohol, Obesity Could Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk A third of ... at the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR). "Obesity is now linked to 11 types of cancer ...

  1. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone ... be conducted to determine whether having an induced abortion, or a miscarriage (also known as spontaneous abortion), ...

  2. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  3. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.; Schans, S.A. van de; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. METHODS: Data from

  4. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Schans, van de S.A.; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. Methods Data from the Netherla

  5. Perceptions of Cancer Risk and Cause of Cancer Risk in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kye, Su Yeon; Park, Eun Young; Oh, Kyounghee; Park, Keeho

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of perceived risk for cancer; to explore associations between sociodemographics and family history of cancer and perceived cancer risk; to identify perceived cause of cancer risk; and to examine the associations between sociodemographics and family history of cancer and perceived cause of cancer risk. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,009 participants aged 30-69 years, selected from a popu...

  6. Risk perception and cancer worries in families at increased risk of familial breast/ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mellon, Suzanne; Gold, Robin; Janisse, James; Cichon, Michelle; Tainsky, Michael A; Simon, Michael S.; Korczak, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    While families at increased risk for familial breast/ovarian cancer continue to overestimate their cancer risk with increased cancer worries about the future, few studies have examined factors that affect inherited cancer risk perception and cancer worries in both survivors and unaffected female relatives. The purpose of this study was to examine variables that may affect cancer worries and risk perceptions from a family-based perspective in a racially diverse, community-based, random sample ...

  7. A Probabilistic Spatial Dengue Fever Risk Assessment by a Threshold-Based-Quantile Regression Method

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan-Hung Chiu; Tzai-Hung Wen; Lung-Chang Chien; Hwa-Lung Yu

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the spatial characteristics of dengue fever (DF) incidences is crucial for governmental agencies to implement effective disease control strategies. We investigated the associations between environmental and socioeconomic factors and DF geographic distribution, are proposed a probabilistic risk assessment approach that uses threshold-based quantile regression to identify the significant risk factors for DF transmission and estimate the spatial distribution of DF risk regarding fu...

  8. Adipocytokines and breast cancer risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Wei-kai; XU Yu-xin; YU Ting; ZHANG Li; ZHANG Wen-wen; FU Chun-li; SUN Yu; WU Qing; CHEN Li

    2007-01-01

    Background Many researches suggested that obesity increased the risk of breast cancer, but the mechanism was currently unknown. Adipocytokines might mediate the relationship. Our study was aimed to investigate the relationship between serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin and the onset, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer.Methods Blood samples were collected from 80 newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed breast cancer patients and 50 age-matched healthy controls. Serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA); fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipids, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were assayed simultaneously.Results Serum levels of adiponectin ((8.60±2.92) mg/L vs (10.37±2.81) mg/L, P=0.001) and HDL-c were significantly decreased in breast cancer patients in comparison to controls. Serum levels of resistin ((26.35±5.36) μg/L vs (23.32±4.75)μg/L, P=0.000), leptin ((1.35±0.42) μg/L vs (1.06±0.39) μg/L, P=0.003), FBG and triglyceride (TG) in breast cancer patients were increased in contrast to controls, respectively. However, we did not find the significant difference of the serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin between premenopausal breast cancer patients and healthy controls (P=0.091, 0.109 and 0.084, respectively). The serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were significantly different between patients with lymph node metastasis (LNM) and those without LNM (P=0.001, 0.000 and 0.006, respectively).The stepwise regression analysis indicated that the tumor size had the close correlation with leptin (R2=0.414, P=0.000)and FBG (R2=0.602, P=0.000). Logistic regression analysis showed that reduced serum levels of adiponectin (OR:0.805;95%CI: 0.704-0.921; P=0.001), HDL (OR: 0.087; 95%CI: 0.011-0.691, P=0.021), elevated leptin (OR:2.235;95%CI:1.898-4.526; P=0.004) and resistin (OR: 1.335; 95%CI: 1.114-2.354; P=0.012) increased the risk for

  9. Vitamins and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Y.F. Young

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Its prevention and treatment remain a challenge to clinicians. Here we review the relationship of vitamins to PC risk. Many vitamins and related chemicals, including vitamin A, retinoids, several B vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin D and vitamin E have shown their anti-cancer activities as anti-oxidants, activators of transcription factors or factors influencing epigenetic events. Although laboratory tests including the use of animal models showed these vitamins may have anti-PC properties, whether they can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of PC in humans remains to be intensively studied subjects. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory, epidemiology and/or clinical trials on the effects of vitamins on PC prevention and/or treatment.

  10. Fuzzy sets applications for cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, P A; Dudatiev, A V; Podobna, Y Y; Molchanova, O P

    2002-09-01

    The method of cancer risk assessment on the basis of the Fuzzy Set Theory is presented. The method is based on a multifactor risk assessment of cancer diseases. The individual risk of cancer disease is evaluated as the probability of disease multiplied by the value of an individual dose. An acupuncture method of cancer risk assessments was developed. The method is based on the analysis of changes of an electromagnetic field (biofield) of a person. The method allows to determine both cancer probability and probable location of the process.

  11. Fuzzy sets applications for cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, P A; Dudatiev, A V; Podobna, Y Y; Molchanova, O P

    2002-09-01

    The method of cancer risk assessment on the basis of the Fuzzy Set Theory is presented. The method is based on a multifactor risk assessment of cancer diseases. The individual risk of cancer disease is evaluated as the probability of disease multiplied by the value of an individual dose. An acupuncture method of cancer risk assessments was developed. The method is based on the analysis of changes of an electromagnetic field (biofield) of a person. The method allows to determine both cancer probability and probable location of the process. PMID:12298344

  12. Gastric cancer: prevention, risk factors and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zali, Hakimeh; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Azodi, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Cancer starts with a change in one single cell. This change may be initiated by external agents and genetic factors. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and accounts for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. Lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast cancer cause the most cancer deaths each year. In this review, different aspects of gastric cancer; including clinical, pathological characteristic of gastric cancer, etiology, incidence, risk factors, prevention and treatme...

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Jette Brommann; Sværke, Claus; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich;

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the risk of cancer in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including which cancer sites are most affected. We examined the short- and long-term risk of lung and extrapulmonary cancer in a nationwide cohort of COPD patients....

  14. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  15. What Are the Risk Factors for Bladder Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Next Topic What causes bladder cancer? Bladder cancer risk factors A risk factor is anything that changes your ... make a person more likely to develop bladder cancer. Risk factors you can change Smoking Smoking is the most ...

  16. A Note on the Perturbed Compound Poisson Risk Model with a Threshold Dividend Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Li; Rong Wu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the Perturbed Compound Poisson Risk Model with a threshold dividend strategy (PCT). Integro-differential equations (IDE) for its Gerber-Shiu functions and dividend payments function are stated. We mally focus on deriving the boundary conditions to solve these equations.

  17. Risk of second primary cancer following differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerns remain over the risk of cancer following differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its causes. Iodine-131 (131I) and external irradiation are known to have potential carcinogenic effects. Thyroid carcinoma is a polygenic disease which may be associated with other malignancies. We investigated the incidence of second cancer and its aetiology in a cohort of 875 patients (146 men, 729 women) with differentiated thyroid carcinoma originating from Basse-Normandie, France. Cancer incidence was compared with that of the general population of the Departement du Calvados matched for age, gender and period. The cumulative proportion of second cancer was estimated using the life-table method. Factors that correlated with the risk of second cancer were studied using the Cox model. After a median follow-up of 8 years, 58 second cancers had been observed. Compared with general population incidence rates, there was an overall increased risk of second cancer in women [standardised incidence ratio (SIR)=1.52; P0.20). Increased risk related to cancers of the genitourinary tract (SIR=3.31; P131I was related to the risk. These data confirm that women with differentiated thyroid carcinoma are at risk of developing a second cancer of the genitourinary tract and kidney. Only age and medical history of primary cancer before thyroid carcinoma are risk factors for second cancer. Common environmental or genetic factors as well as long-term carcinogenic effects of primary cancer therapy should be considered. (orig.)

  18. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  19. Stressful life events and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, C; Prescott, E; Grønbaek, M;

    2006-01-01

    In a prospective cohort study in Denmark of 8736 randomly selected people, no evidence was found among 1011 subjects who developed cancer that self-reported stressful major life events had increased their risk for cancer.......In a prospective cohort study in Denmark of 8736 randomly selected people, no evidence was found among 1011 subjects who developed cancer that self-reported stressful major life events had increased their risk for cancer....

  20. A probabilistic risk assessment for dengue fever by a threshold based-quantile regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chuan-Hung; Tan, Yih-Chi; Wen, Tzai-Hung; Chien, Lung-Chang; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2014-05-01

    This article introduces an important concept "return period" to analyze potential incident rate of dengue fever by bringing together two models: the quantile regression model and the threshold-based method. The return period provided the frequency of incidence of dengue fever, and established the risk maps for potential incidence of dengue fever to point out highest risk in certain areas. A threshold-based linear quantile regression model was constructed to find significantly main effects and interactions based on collinearity test and stepwise selection, and also showed the performance of our model via pseudo R2. Finally, the spatial risk maps of the specified return periods and average incident rates were given, and indicated that high population density place (e.g., residential area), water conservancy facilities, and corresponding interactions could lead to a positive influence on dengue fever. These factors would be the key point to disease protection in a given study area.

  1. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena; Young, Charles Y. F.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin...

  2. Statin use and risk for ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, L; Dehlendorff, C; Friis, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data suggest that statin use reduces the risk for ovarian cancer. METHODS: Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified 4103 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer during 2000-2011 and age-matched them to 58,706 risk-set sampled controls. Conditional logistic regression was...... used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for epithelial ovarian cancer overall, and for histological types, associated with statin use. RESULTS: We observed a neutral association between ever use of statins and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (OR=0.98, 95% CI=0.......87-1.10), and no apparent risk variation according to duration, intensity or type of statin use. Decreased ORs associated with statin use were seen for mucinous ovarian cancer (ever statin use: OR=0.63, 95% CI=0.39-1.00). CONCLUSIONS: Statin use was not associated with overall risk for epithelial ovarian cancer...

  3. Risk of second primary cancer following differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthe, Emmanuelle; Berthet, Pascaline; Bardet, Stephane [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, CLCC Francois Baclesse, Avenue General Harris, 14076, Caen Cedex 05 (France); Henry-Amar, Michel [Service de Recherche Clinique, CLCC Francois Baclesse, Caen (France); Michels, Jean-Jacques [Service d' Anatomie Pathologique, CLCC Francois Baclesse, Caen (France); Rame, Jean-Pierre [Service de Chirurgie ORL, CLCC Francois Baclesse, Caen (France); Babin, Emmanuel [Service de Chirurgie ORL, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, Caen (France); Icard, Philippe [Service de Chirurgie Thoracique, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, Caen (France); Samama, Guy [Service de Chirurgie Generale, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, Caen (France); Galateau-Salle, Francoise [Service d' Anatomie Pathologique, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, Caen (France); Mahoudeau, Jacques [Service d' Endocrinologie, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, Caen (France)

    2004-05-01

    Concerns remain over the risk of cancer following differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its causes. Iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) and external irradiation are known to have potential carcinogenic effects. Thyroid carcinoma is a polygenic disease which may be associated with other malignancies. We investigated the incidence of second cancer and its aetiology in a cohort of 875 patients (146 men, 729 women) with differentiated thyroid carcinoma originating from Basse-Normandie, France. Cancer incidence was compared with that of the general population of the Departement du Calvados matched for age, gender and period. The cumulative proportion of second cancer was estimated using the life-table method. Factors that correlated with the risk of second cancer were studied using the Cox model. After a median follow-up of 8 years, 58 second cancers had been observed. Compared with general population incidence rates, there was an overall increased risk of second cancer in women [standardised incidence ratio (SIR)=1.52; P<0.01], but not in men (SIR=1.27; P>0.20). Increased risk related to cancers of the genitourinary tract (SIR=3.31; P<0.001), and particularly to cancer of the kidney (SIR=7.02; P<0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that age above 40 years (P<0.01) and a history of previous primary cancer (P<0.001) correlated with risk. In contrast, neither cervical irradiation nor cumulative activity of {sup 131}I was related to the risk. These data confirm that women with differentiated thyroid carcinoma are at risk of developing a second cancer of the genitourinary tract and kidney. Only age and medical history of primary cancer before thyroid carcinoma are risk factors for second cancer. Common environmental or genetic factors as well as long-term carcinogenic effects of primary cancer therapy should be considered. (orig.)

  4. Visually assessed breast density, breast cancer risk and the importance of the craniocaudal view.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffy, S.W.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Astley, S.M.; Gillan, M.G.; McGee, M.A.; Boggis, C.R.; Wilson, M.; Beetles, U.M.; Griffiths, M.A.; Jain, A.K.; Johnson, J.; Roberts, R.; Deans, H.; Duncan, K.A.; Iyengar, G.; Griffiths, P.M.; Warwick, J.; Cuzick, J.; Gilbert, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mammographic density is known to be a strong risk factor for breast cancer. A particularly strong association with risk has been observed when density is measured using interactive threshold software. This, however, is a labour-intensive process for large-scale studies. METHODS: Our ai

  5. Results of low threshold to biopsy following high-intensity focused ultrasound for localized prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Richard L Haddad; Tania A Hossack; Woo, Henry H.

    2012-01-01

    Context: There are different treatment options for localized prostate cancer. The success of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is based largely on biochemical prostate specific antigen (PSA) results. Aims: To evaluate the impact of using a low PSA threshold to perform prostate biopsies after HIFU in order to more accurately gauge treatment success. Settings and Design: Eleven patients underwent HIFU at Sydney Adventist Hospital in Sydney, 10 as primary and 1 as salvage therapy ...

  6. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  7. Predicting risk of cancer during HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; Silverberg, Michael J; Wentworth, Deborah;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection.......To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection....

  8. Hormonal contraception and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cibula, D; Gompel, A; Mueck, A O;

    2010-01-01

    Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance.......Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance....

  9. Immunosuppression and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Rebolj, Matejka; Garred, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    A markedly increased risk of cervical cancer is known in women immunosuppressed due to AIDS or therapy following organ transplantation. The aim of this review is to determine the association between other conditions affecting the immune system and the risk of cervical cancer. Patients with end...

  10. HEALTHY EATING INDEX AND OVARIAN CANCER RISK

    OpenAIRE

    Chandran, Urmila; Elisa V Bandera; Williams-King, Melony G.; Paddock, Lisa E.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Lu, Shou-En; Faulkner, Shameka; Pulick, Katherine; Olson, Sara H.

    2011-01-01

    The evidence for a role of diet on ovarian cancer prevention remains inconclusive. While many studies have evaluated individual foods and food groups, the evaluation of a comprehensive dietary quality index for predicting cancer risk has received little attention. This study investigates the association between the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), which reflects adherence to the current USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in New J...

  11. Lung cancer risk factors among women

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopoulos, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of female lung cancer in developed countries has been increasing since 1950 and particularly in France where the cigarettes consumption has also increased. Since 1980, a growing number of epidemiological surveys have pinpointed the risk of female lung cancer related to smoking. Consecutively, a debate on gender differences in lung cancer risk has appeared, but still in progress nowadays. The reproductive factors could explain these differences. In order to have recent and reliab...

  12. ABO blood group and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Hwang, Jinseub; Rostgaard, Klaus;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The associations between ABO blood group and cancer risk have been studied repeatedly, but results have been variable. Consistent associations have only been reported for pancreatic and gastric cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated associations between different ABO blood gro...... tract (mouth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophageal adenocarcinoma and stomach). DISCUSSION: Our study reconfirms the association between ABO blood group and cancer risk and exact underlying mechanisms involved needs further research....

  13. Occupational risks of sinonasal cancer in Denmark.

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, J H

    1988-01-01

    A new comprehensive data linkage system for the detailed investigation of occupational cancer has been established in the Danish Cancer Registry, providing employment histories back to 1964. All 382 cases of cancers of the sinonasal cavities diagnosed between 1970 and 1984 and kept on file in this data linkage system were analysed using standardised proportional incidence ratios (SPIR) to screen for industrial high risk areas for these malignancies in Denmark. Excess risks were confirmed amon...

  14. Serum Retinol and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, Alison M.; Watters, Joanne L; Männistö, Satu; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Snyder, Kirk; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2011-01-01

    Greater exposure to retinol (vitamin A) may prevent prostate cancer, although under some conditions it could promote cell growth and de-differentiation. The authors prospectively examined prostate cancer risk and serum retinol levels, measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography, at baseline (n = 29,104) and after 3 years (n = 22,843) in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative risk of to...

  15. Apolipoproteins, lipids and risk of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgquist, Signe; Butt, Talha; Almgren, Peter; Shiffman, Dov; Stocks, Tanja; Orho-Melander, Marju; Manjer, Jonas; Melander, Olle

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiological evidence for an obesity-cancer association is solid, whereas the association between obesity-associated lipoprotein levels and cancer is less evident. We investigated circulating levels of Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), Apolipoprotein B (ApoB), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and association to risk of overall cancer and common cancer forms. The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, a population-based prospective cohort study, enrolled 17,035 women and 11,063 men (1991-1996). Incident cancer cases were ascertained by record linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry until end of follow-up, January 1, 2012. Baseline serum levels of ApoA1 and ApoB were analyzed for the entire cohort and HDL-C and LDL-C levels in 5,281 participants. Hazard ratios, with 95% confidence interval, were calculated using Cox's proportional hazards analysis. In the entire cohort, none of the exposures were related to overall cancer risk (HRadj ApoA1 = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.95,1.01; HRadj ApoB = 1.01, 95%CI: 0.98-1.04). Among men, ApoB was positively associated with cancer risk (HRadj ApoB = 1.06, 95%CI: 1.01,1.10). Female breast cancer risk was inversely associated with ApoB (HRadj = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.86,0.99). Among both genders, ApoA1 was inversely associated with lung cancer risk (HRadj = 0.88, 95%CI: 0.80,0.97), whereas high ApoB increased lung cancer risk (HRadj = 1.08, 95%CI: 0.99,1.18). Colorectal cancer risk was increased with high ApoB (HRadj = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.01,1.16) among both genders. Apolipoprotein levels were not associated with prostate cancer incidence. Circulating levels of apolipoproteins are associated with overall cancer risk in men and across both genders with breast, lung and colorectal cancer risk. Validation of these findings may facilitate future primary prevention strategies for cancer. PMID:26804063

  16. Lifetime grain consumption and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Eliassen, A Heather; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated individual grain-containing foods and whole and refined grain intake during adolescence, early adulthood, and premenopausal years in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II. Grain-containing food intakes were reported on a baseline dietary questionnaire (1991) and every 4 years thereafter. Among 90,516 premenopausal women aged 27-44 years, we prospectively identified 3235 invasive breast cancer cases during follow-up to 2013. 44,263 women reported their diet during high school, and from 1998 to 2013, 1347 breast cancer cases were identified among these women. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of breast cancer for individual, whole and refined grain foods. After adjusting for known breast cancer risk factors, adult intake of whole grain foods was associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintile: RR 0.82; 95 % CI 0.70-0.97; P trend = 0.03), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. This association was no longer significant after further adjustment for fiber intake. The average of adolescent and early adulthood whole grain food intake was suggestively associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs lowest quintile: RR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.56-0.99; P trend = 0.09). Total refined grain food intake was not associated with risk of breast cancer. Most individual grain-containing foods were not associated with breast cancer risk. The exceptions were adult brown rice which was associated with lower risk of overall and premenopausal breast cancer (for each 2 servings/week: RR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.89-0.99 and RR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.85-0.99, respectively) and adult white bread intake which was associated with increased overall breast cancer risk (for each 2 servings/week: RR 1.02; 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), as well as breast cancer before and after menopause. Further, pasta intake was inversely associated with

  17. Screening for Psychosocial Risk in Pediatric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kazak, Anne E.; Brier, Moriah; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Reilly, Anne; Parker, Stephanie Fooks; Rogerwick, Stephanie; Ditaranto, Susan; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2012-01-01

    Major professional organizations have called for psychosocial risk screening to identify specific psychosocial needs of children with cancer and their families and facilitate the delivery of appropriate evidence-based care to address these concerns. However, systematic screening of risk factors at diagnosis is rare in pediatric oncology practice. Subsequent to a brief summary of psychosocial risks in pediatric cancer and the rationale for screening, this review identified three screening mode...

  18. Cell apoptosis and proliferation inhibition of pancreatic cancer induced by sub-threshold focused ultrasound (FUS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of sub-threshold focused ultrasound (FUS) sonication on the pancreatic cancer cell. Materials and methods: The human pancreatic carcinoma cell line PaTu 8988t suspension and pancreatic carcinoma xenograft in nude mice were sonicated by FUS using sub-threshold doses. The temperature at the focus was controlled at below 60 °C. The cell apoptosis in vitro was tested by flow cytometer at 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after FUS sonication. Colony formation was used to evaluate the cell growth inhibition of FUS in vitro. The tumor volume of the xenograft was measured before and after FUS sonication. Then the slides of the tumor were under hematoxylin–eosin (H and E) staining and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) to evaluate the effect of FUS on pancreatic carcinoma xenograft in vivo. Results: The maximum cell suspension temperature of the FUS sonication group was 55.8 ± 2.17 °C. The cell apoptosis rate peaked at 24 h after FUS sonication, the differences between the FUS sonication group and control group were statistically significant (P 3 and 1085.23 ± 217.13 mm3 (P < 0.05). H and E staining and TUNEL assay showed both necrotic and apoptotic cells. Conclusion: Sub-threshold FUS sonication could induce cell apoptosis and inhibit the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells.

  19. Radon exposure and oropharyngeal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Espinosa, Tania; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer is a multifactorial disease. Alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors. Radon is a human carcinogen linked to lung cancer risk, but its influence in other cancers is not well known. We aim to assess the effect of radon exposure on the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer through a systematic review of the scientific literature. This review performs a qualitative analysis of the available studies. 13 cohort studies were included, most of them mortality studies, which analysed the relationship between occupational or residential radon exposure with oropharyngeal cancer mortality or incidence. Most of the included studies found no association between radon exposure and oral and pharyngeal cancer. This lack of effect was observed in miners studies and in general population studies. Further research is necessary to quantify if this association really exists and its magnitude, specially performing studies in general population, preferably living in areas with high radon levels.

  20. Awareness of risk factors for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sweden and Denmark are neighbouring countries with similarities in culture, healthcare, and economics, yet notable differences in cancer statistics. A crucial component of primary prevention is high awareness of risk factors in the general public. We aimed to determine and compare...... awareness of risk factors for cancer between a Danish and a Swedish population sample, and to examine whether there are differences in awareness across age groups. Methods: Data derive from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews were conducted with 3000 adults...... in Denmark and 3070 in Sweden using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure. Data reported here relate to awareness of 13 prompted risk factors for cancer. Prevalence ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to examine associations between country, age, and awareness of risk factors...

  1. Does Metformin Reduce Cancer Risks? Methodologic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golozar, Asieh; Liu, Shuiqing; Lin, Joeseph A; Peairs, Kimberly; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    The substantial burden of cancer and diabetes and the association between the two conditions has been a motivation for researchers to look for targeted strategies that can simultaneously affect both diseases and reduce their overlapping burden. In the absence of randomized clinical trials, researchers have taken advantage of the availability and richness of administrative databases and electronic medical records to investigate the effects of drugs on cancer risk among diabetic individuals. The majority of these studies suggest that metformin could potentially reduce cancer risk. However, the validity of this purported reduction in cancer risk is limited by several methodological flaws either in the study design or in the analysis. Whether metformin use decreases cancer risk relies heavily on the availability of valid data sources with complete information on confounders, accurate assessment of drug use, appropriate study design, and robust analytical techniques. The majority of the observational studies assessing the association between metformin and cancer risk suffer from methodological shortcomings and efforts to address these issues have been incomplete. Future investigations on the association between metformin and cancer risk should clearly address the methodological issues due to confounding by indication, prevalent user bias, and time-related biases. Although the proposed strategies do not guarantee a bias-free estimate for the association between metformin and cancer, they will reduce synthesis of and reporting of erroneous results.

  2. Familial skin cancer syndromes: Increased melanoma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransohoff, Katherine J; Jaju, Prajakta D; Jaju, Prajaka D; Tang, Jean Y; Carbone, Michele; Leachman, Sancy; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2016-03-01

    Phenotypic traits, such as red hair and freckling, increase melanoma risk by 2- to 3-fold. In addition, approximately 10% of melanomas are caused by inherited germline mutations that increase melanoma risk from 4- to >1000-fold. This review highlights the key genes responsible for inherited melanoma, with an emphasis on when a patient should undergo genetic testing. Many genetic syndromes associated with increased melanoma risk are also associated with an increased risk of other cancers. Identification of these high-risk patients is essential for preventive behavior reinforcement, genetic counseling, and ensuring other required cancer screenings.

  3. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed.

  4. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:269-281, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27060854

  5. Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette T; Kjær, Susanne K; Dehlendorff, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple...... measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology....

  6. The threshold of hypothyroidism after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. A retrospective analysis of 116 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the risk factors for developing thyroid disorders based on a dose–volume histograms (DVHs) analysis. Data from a total of 116 consecutive patients undergoing 3D conformal radiation therapy for head and neck cancers was retrospectively evaluated. Radiation therapy was performed between April 2007 and December 2010. There were 108 males and 8 females included in the study. The median follow-up term was 24 months (range, 1–62 months). The thyroid function was evaluated by measuring thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels. The mean thyroid dose, and the volume of thyroid gland spared from doses ≥10, 20, 30 and 40 Gy (VS10, VS20, VS30 and VS40) were calculated for all patients. The thyroid dose and volume were calculated by the radiotherapy planning system (RTPS). The cumulative incidences of hypothyroidism were 21.1% and 36.4% at one year and two years, respectively, after the end of radiation therapy. In the DVH analyses, the patients who received a mean thyroid dose <30 Gy had a significantly lower incidence of hypothyroidism. The univariate analyses showed that the VS10, VS20, VS30 and VS40 were associated with the risk of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism was a relatively common type of late radiation-induced toxicity. A mean thyroid dose of 30 Gy may be a useful threshold for predicting the development of hypothyroidism after radiation therapy for head and neck cancers. (author)

  7. The threshold of hypothyroidism after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer: a retrospective analysis of 116 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Masayuki; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Odawara, Soichi; Suzuki, Hitomi; Niwa, Yasue; Takada, Yasuhiro; Doi, Hiroshi; Terada, Tomonori; Uwa, Nobuhiro; Sagawa, Kosuke; Hirota, Shozo

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the risk factors for developing thyroid disorders based on a dose-volume histograms (DVHs) analysis. Data from a total of 116 consecutive patients undergoing 3D conformal radiation therapy for head and neck cancers was retrospectively evaluated. Radiation therapy was performed between April 2007 and December 2010. There were 108 males and 8 females included in the study. The median follow-up term was 24 months (range, 1-62 months). The thyroid function was evaluated by measuring thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels. The mean thyroid dose, and the volume of thyroid gland spared from doses ≥10, 20, 30 and 40 Gy (VS10, VS20, VS30 and VS40) were calculated for all patients. The thyroid dose and volume were calculated by the radiotherapy planning system (RTPS). The cumulative incidences of hypothyroidism were 21.1% and 36.4% at one year and two years, respectively, after the end of radiation therapy. In the DVH analyses, the patients who received a mean thyroid dose hypothyroidism. The univariate analyses showed that the VS10, VS20, VS30 and VS40 were associated with the risk of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism was a relatively common type of late radiation-induced toxicity. A mean thyroid dose of 30 Gy may be a useful threshold for predicting the development of hypothyroidism after radiation therapy for head and neck cancers.

  8. Breast cancer susceptibility variants alter risk in familial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, A; McBurney, H J; Roberts, S A; Lalloo, F; Howell, A; Evans, D G; Newman, W G

    2010-12-01

    Recent candidate gene and genome wide association studies have revealed novel loci associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. We evaluated the effect of these breast cancer associated variants on ovarian cancer risk in individuals with familial ovarian cancer both with and without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. A total of 158 unrelated white British women (54 BRCA1/2 mutation positive and 104 BRCA1/2 mutation negative) with familial ovarian cancer were genotyped for FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3 and CASP8 variants. The p.Asp302His CASP8 variant was associated with reduced ovarian cancer risk in the familial BRCA1/2 mutation negative ovarian cancer cases (P = 0.016). The synonymous TNRC9/TOX3 (Ser51) variant was present at a significantly lower frequency than in patients with familial BRCA1/2 positive breast cancer (P = 0.0002). Our results indicate that variants in CASP8 and TNRC9/TOX3 alter the risk of disease in individuals affected with familial ovarian cancer.

  9. Healthy Living Slashes Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016 THURSDAY, June 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A healthy lifestyle that includes regular exercise and eating nutritiously can ... cancer cases, researchers said. To see whether a healthy lifestyle would result in fewer cancer cases and deaths, ...

  10. Use of disulfiram and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, G.; Friis, S.; Hallas, J.;

    2014-01-01

    disulfiram prescription using risk set sampling. Similarly, for secondary analyses, we selected case-control populations for selected tobacco-related and alcohol-related cancer types, that is, cancers of the buccal cavity, liver, lung, and colorectal cancer. Disulfiram use 1 year before cancer diagnosis......Experimental studies have indicated that disulfiram (Antabuse) has antineoplastic effects against melanoma, breast, and prostate cancer. To explore this hypothesis, we examined the association between disulfiram use and these cancers in a nationwide register-based case-control study nested within...... ever-users (>= one prescription) of disulfiram. Cases were all Danish individuals with a histologically verified first-time diagnosis of malignant melanoma, breast, or prostate cancer during 2000-2009. For each case, we selected four cancer-free controls matched for age, sex, and year of first...

  11. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR, and VDR-regulated genes. Although laboratory studies including the use of animal models have shown that vitamin D has antiprostate cancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be inconclusive and an intensively studied subject. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory and epidemiology studies on the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer prevention.

  12. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M. [Nijmegen, Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women.

  13. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  14. Increased stomach cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, M; Fossa, S D; Stovall, M;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal radiotherapy for testicular cancer (TC) increases risk for second stomach cancer, although data on the radiation dose-response relationship are sparse. METHODS: In a cohort of 22,269 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1959-1987, doses to stomach subsites were estimated...... for 92 patients who developed stomach cancer and 180 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of second primary stomach cancer was 1.45% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. The TC survivors who received...... radiotherapy (87 (95%) cases, 151 (84%) controls) had a 5.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-20.7) increased risk of stomach cancer. Risk increased with increasing stomach dose (P-trend

  15. A probabilistic spatial dengue fever risk assessment by a threshold-based-quantile regression method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Hung Chiu

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial characteristics of dengue fever (DF incidences is crucial for governmental agencies to implement effective disease control strategies. We investigated the associations between environmental and socioeconomic factors and DF geographic distribution, are proposed a probabilistic risk assessment approach that uses threshold-based quantile regression to identify the significant risk factors for DF transmission and estimate the spatial distribution of DF risk regarding full probability distributions. To interpret risk, return period was also included to characterize the frequency pattern of DF geographic occurrences. The study area included old Kaohsiung City and Fongshan District, two areas in Taiwan that have been affected by severe DF infections in recent decades. Results indicated that water-related facilities, including canals and ditches, and various types of residential area, as well as the interactions between them, were significant factors that elevated DF risk. By contrast, the increase of per capita income and its associated interactions with residential areas mitigated the DF risk in the study area. Nonlinear associations between these factors and DF risk were present in various quantiles, implying that water-related factors characterized the underlying spatial patterns of DF, and high-density residential areas indicated the potential for high DF incidence (e.g., clustered infections. The spatial distributions of DF risks were assessed in terms of three distinct map presentations: expected incidence rates, incidence rates in various return periods, and return periods at distinct incidence rates. These probability-based spatial risk maps exhibited distinct DF risks associated with environmental factors, expressed as various DF magnitudes and occurrence probabilities across Kaohsiung, and can serve as a reference for local governmental agencies.

  16. A probabilistic spatial dengue fever risk assessment by a threshold-based-quantile regression method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chuan-Hung; Wen, Tzai-Hung; Chien, Lung-Chang; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the spatial characteristics of dengue fever (DF) incidences is crucial for governmental agencies to implement effective disease control strategies. We investigated the associations between environmental and socioeconomic factors and DF geographic distribution, are proposed a probabilistic risk assessment approach that uses threshold-based quantile regression to identify the significant risk factors for DF transmission and estimate the spatial distribution of DF risk regarding full probability distributions. To interpret risk, return period was also included to characterize the frequency pattern of DF geographic occurrences. The study area included old Kaohsiung City and Fongshan District, two areas in Taiwan that have been affected by severe DF infections in recent decades. Results indicated that water-related facilities, including canals and ditches, and various types of residential area, as well as the interactions between them, were significant factors that elevated DF risk. By contrast, the increase of per capita income and its associated interactions with residential areas mitigated the DF risk in the study area. Nonlinear associations between these factors and DF risk were present in various quantiles, implying that water-related factors characterized the underlying spatial patterns of DF, and high-density residential areas indicated the potential for high DF incidence (e.g., clustered infections). The spatial distributions of DF risks were assessed in terms of three distinct map presentations: expected incidence rates, incidence rates in various return periods, and return periods at distinct incidence rates. These probability-based spatial risk maps exhibited distinct DF risks associated with environmental factors, expressed as various DF magnitudes and occurrence probabilities across Kaohsiung, and can serve as a reference for local governmental agencies. PMID:25302582

  17. Genetic testing and your cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000842.htm Genetic testing and your cancer risk To use the sharing ... with one or more of the above About Genetic Testing You may first have a an assessment to ...

  18. The Phase-type Risk Model Perturbed by Diffusion under a Threshold Dividend Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu-yuan Jiang; Zhou-jun Yang

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers a perturbed renewal risk process in which the inter-claim times have a phasetype distribution under a threshold dividend strategy.Integro-differential equations with certain boundary conditions for the moment-generating function and the mth moment of the present value of all dividends until ruin are derived.Explicit expressions for the expectation of the present value of all dividends until ruin are obtained when the claim amount distribution is from the rational family.Finally,we present an example.

  19. Patterns of Excess Cancer Risk among the Atomic Bomb Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Donald A.

    1996-05-01

    I will indicate the major epidemiological findings regarding excess cancer among the atomic-bomb survivors, with some special attention to what can be said about low-dose risks. This will be based on 1950--90 mortality follow-up of about 87,000 survivors having individual radiation dose estimates. Of these about 50,000 had doses greater than 0.005 Sv, and the remainder serve largely as a comparison group. It is estimated that for this cohort there have been about 400 excess cancer deaths among a total of about 7800. Since there are about 37,000 subjects in the dose range .005--.20 Sv, there is substantial low-dose information in this study. The person-year-Seivert for the dose range under .20 Sv is greater than for any one of the 6 study cohorts of U.S., Canadian, and U.K. nuclear workers; and is equal to about 60% of the total for the combined cohorts. It is estimated, without linear extrapolation from higher doses, that for the RERF cohort there have been about 100 excess cancer deaths in the dose range under .20 Sv. Both the dose-response and age-time patterns of excess risk are very different for solid cancers and leukemia. One of the most important findings has been that the solid cancer (absolute) excess risk has steadily increased over the entire follow-up to date, similarly to the age-increase of the background risk. About 25% of the excess solid cancer deaths occurred in the last 5 years of the 1950--90 follow-up. On the contrary most of the excess leukemia risk occurred in the first few years following exposure. The observed dose response for solid cancers is very linear up to about 3 Sv, whereas for leukemia there is statistically significant upward curvature on that range. Very little has been proposed to explain this distinction. Although there is no hint of upward curvature or a threshold for solid cancers, the inherent difficulty of precisely estimating very small risks along with radiobiological observations that many radiation effects are nonlinear

  20. Cancer risks related to electricity production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, P; Cardis, E; Vainio, H; Coleman, M P; Kogevinas, M; Nordberg, G; Parkin, D M; Partensky, C; Shuker, D; Tomatis, L

    1991-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has previously evaluated the cancer risks associated with fossil fuel-based industrial processes such as coal gastification and coke production, substances and mixtures such as coal tars, coal tar pitch and mineral oils, and a number of substances emitted from fossil-fuelled plants such as benzo[a]pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead and formaldehyde. Based on these evaluations and other evidence from the literature, the carcinogenic risks to the general population and occupational groups from the fossil fuel cycle, the nuclear fuel cycle and renewable cycles are reviewed. Cancer risks from waste disposal, accidents and misuses, and electricity distribution are also considered. No cycle appears to be totally free from cancer risk, but the quantification of the effects of such exposures (in particular of those involving potential exposure to large amounts of carcinogens, such as coal, oil and nuclear) requires the application of methods which are subject to considerable margins of error. Uncertainties due to inadequate data and unconfirmed assumptions are discussed. Cancer risks related to the operation of renewable energy sources are negligible, although there may be some risks from construction of such installations. The elements of knowledge at our disposal do not encourage any attempt toward a quantitative comparative risk assessment. However, even in the absence of an accurate quantification of risk, qualitative indication of carcinogenic hazards should lead to preventive measures.

  1. Whole Grain Intake Reduces Pancreatic Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Qiucheng; Zheng, Huazhen; Bi, Jingcheng; Wang, Xinying; Jiang, Tingting; Gao, Xuejin; Tian, Feng; Xu, Min; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Li; Ning LI; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence from epidemiology studies suggests that whole grain intake may reduce pancreatic cancer risk, but convincing evidence is scarce. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between whole grain intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Relevant observational studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane library databases for the period from January 1980 to July 2015, with no restrictions. We calculated the summary odds ratios (ORs) for...

  2. Urinary phytoestrogens and postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonkelaar, den I.; Keinan-Boker, L.; Veer, van't P.; Arts, C.J.M.; Adlercreutz, H.; Thijssen, J.H.H.; Peeters, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are defined as plant substances that are structurally or functionally similar to estradiol. We report the associations of two major phytoestrogens, genistein and enterolactone, with breast cancer risk, using urinary specimens collected 1-9 years before breast cancer was diagnosed. The

  3. Visualization of risk of radiogenic second cancer in the organs and tissues of the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiogenic second cancer is a common late effect in long term cancer survivors. Currently there are few methods or tools available to visually evaluate the spatial distribution of risks of radiogenic late effects in the human body. We developed a risk visualization method and demonstrated it for radiogenic second cancers in tissues and organs of one patient treated with photon volumetric modulated arc therapy and one patient treated with proton craniospinal irradiation. Treatment plans were generated using radiotherapy treatment planning systems (TPS) and dose information was obtained from TPS. Linear non-threshold risk coefficients for organs at risk of second cancer incidence were taken from the Biological Effects of Ionization Radiation VII report. Alternative risk models including linear exponential model and linear plateau model were also examined. The predicted absolute lifetime risk distributions were visualized together with images of the patient anatomy. The risk distributions of second cancer for the two patients were visually presented. The risk distributions varied with tissue, dose, dose-risk model used, and the risk distribution could be similar to or very different from the dose distribution. Our method provides a convenient way to directly visualize and evaluate the risks of radiogenic second cancer in organs and tissues of the human body. In the future, visual assessment of risk distribution could be an influential determinant for treatment plan scoring

  4. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer - either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents.

  5. On the expected discounted penalty functions for two classes of risk processes under a threshold dividend strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhaoyang; Xu, Wei; Sun, Decai; Han, Weiguo

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, the discounted penalty (Gerber-Shiu) functions for a risk model involving two independent classes of insurance risks under a threshold dividend strategy are developed. We also assume that the two claim number processes are independent Poisson and generalized Erlang (2) processes, respectively. When the surplus is above this threshold level, dividends are paid at a constant rate that does not exceed the premium rate. Two systems of integro-differential equations for discounted penalty functions are derived, based on whether the surplus is above this threshold level. Laplace transformations of the discounted penalty functions when the surplus is below the threshold level are obtained. And we also derive a system of renewal equations satisfied by the discounted penalty function with initial surplus above the threshold strategy via the Dickson-Hipp operator. Finally, analytical solutions of the two systems of integro-differential equations are presented.

  6. BREAST CANCER: IS OBESITY A RISK FACTOR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most epidemiological studies established obesity as an important risk factor for breast cancer. It is one of the few risk factors that women can modify. Now-a-days breast cancer is considered to be a life-style disease. The relation of obesity to breast cancer is complex one. Obesity is found to be associated with increased risk of cancer in post-menopausal women, but relation is reverse in pre-menopausal women. In these patients, obesity increases risk due to enhanced oestrogenic activity in obese females. Apart from it, other factors like Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1, Leptin has also been involved. Due to big breasts in obese females there is delay in seeking medical attention, delay in diagnosis, poor response to surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and associated complication during treatment. We study the effect of obesity (Weight, BMI, WHR as a risk factor in occurrence of breast cancer in local population of Southern part of Rajasthan in India. We found no significant association between obesity and increased risk of breast cancer in local population of this region where women are multiparous, physically active and usually do not use exogenous hormones.

  7. Risk factors of thyroid cancer in Babol, Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Moazezi, Zoleika; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Yahyahpour, Yousef; Alaleh, AliReza

    2011-01-01

    Background : Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Several risk factors were found to play a role in thyroid cancer. The purpose of the study was to determine the risk factors for thyroid cancer, in Babol, north of Iran.

  8. Knowing Their Breast Cancer Risk May Empower Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161233.html Knowing Their Breast Cancer Risk May Empower Teens Greater self-esteem noted in ... interviewed to assess their mental health, perception of breast cancer risk, and levels of distress about breast cancer. The ...

  9. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M. [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia); University of New South Wales, Kensington Campus, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Petersen, Desiree C., E-mail: dpetersen@ccia.unsw.edu.au [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia)

    2010-06-08

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk.

  10. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk

  11. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jinfu, E-mail: Jinfu.hu@phac-aspc.gc.ca [Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 785 Carling Avenue, AL: 6807B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); La Vecchia, Carlo [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri,” Via La Masa, 19-20156 Milan (Italy); Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Venezian, 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Negri, Eva [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri,” Via La Masa, 19-20156 Milan (Italy); Mery, Les [Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 785 Carling Avenue, AL: 6807B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2010-02-10

    Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84), respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC). An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29) for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10) for distal colon cancer (DCC). An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers.

  12. Tubal ligation and risk of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Brinton, L. A.; Gammon, M. D.; Coates, R J; Hoover, R. N.

    2000-01-01

    Although it has been demonstrated in previous studies that tubal ligation can have widespread effects on ovarian function, including a decrease in the risk of subsequent ovarian cancer, few studies have evaluated effects on breast cancer risk. In a population-based case–control study of breast cancer among women 20–54 years of age conducted in three geographic areas, previous tubal ligations were reported by 25.3% of the 2173 cases and 25.8% of the 1990 controls. Initially it appeared that tu...

  13. Diabetes and Thyroid Cancer Risk: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyang-Rong Shih

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic patients have a higher risk of various types of cancer. However, whether diabetes may increase the risk of thyroid cancer has not been extensively studied. This paper reviews and summarizes the current literature studying the relationship between diabetes mellitus and thyroid cancer, and the possible mechanisms linking such an association. Epidemiologic studies showed significant or nonsignificant increases in thyroid cancer risk in diabetic women and nonsignificant increase or no change in thyroid cancer risk in diabetic men. A recent pooled analysis, including 5 prospective studies from the USA, showed that the summary hazard ratio (95% confidence interval for women was 1.19 (0.84–1.69 and was 0.96 (0.65–1.42 for men. Therefore, the results are controversial and the association between diabetes and thyroid cancer is probably weak. Further studies are necessary to confirm their relationship. Proposed mechanisms for such a possible link between diabetes and thyroid cancer include elevated levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, insulin, glucose and triglycerides, insulin resistance, obesity, vitamin D deficiency, and antidiabetic medications such as insulin or sulfonylureas.

  14. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and former heavy smokers. Current smokers whose LDCT scan results show possible signs of cancer may be more likely to quit smoking. A Guide is available for patients and doctors to learn more about the benefits and harms of low-dose helical CT screening for lung cancer. Screening with chest x- ...

  15. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  16. Toxicogenetic profile and cancer risk in Lebanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaini, Hassan R; Kobeissi, Loulou

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of genetic polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes (DME) were identified among different ethnic groups. Some of these polymorphisms are associated with an increased cancer risk, while others remain equivocal. However, there is sufficient evidence that these associations become significant in populations overexposed to environmental carcinogens. Hence, genetic differences in expression activity of both Phase I and Phase II enzymes may affect cancer risk in exposed populations. In Lebanon, there has been a marked rise in reported cancer incidence since the 1990s. There are also indicators of exposure to unusually high levels of environmental pollutants and carcinogens in the country. This review considers this high cancer incidence by exploring a potential gene-environment model based on available DME polymorphism prevalence, and their impact on bladder, colorectal, prostate, breast, and lung cancer in the Lebanese population. The examined DME include glutathione S-transferases (GST), N-acetyltransferases (NAT), and cytochromes P-450 (CYP). Data suggest that these DME influence bladder cancer risk in the Lebanese population. Evidence indicates that identification of a gene-environment interaction model may help in defining future research priorities and preventive cancer control strategies in this country, particularly for breast and lung cancer.

  17. Thresholds for pulse wave velocity, urine albumin creatinine ratio and left ventricular mass index using SCORE, Framingham and ESH/ESC risk charts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Hansen, Tine W;

    2012-01-01

    Markers of subclinical target organ damage (TOD) increase cardiovascular (CV) risk prediction beyond traditional risk factors. We wanted to establish thresholds for three markers of TOD based on absolute CV risk in different risk chart categories....

  18. Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Prescott, Eva;

    2005-01-01

    Vital exhaustion, defined as feelings of depression and fatigue, has previously been investigated mainly as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the association between depressive feelings and fatigue as covered by the concept of vital exhaustion and the risk for...... cancer....

  19. What Are the Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? What are the risk factors for ovarian cancer? A risk factor is anything that changes your chance of getting ... is a risk factor for a number of cancers. But risk factors don't tell us everything. Having a risk ...

  20. Insulin resistance and breast-cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, P F; Bonfrèr, J M; van Noord, P A; Hart, A A; de Jong-Bakker, M; Nooijen, W J

    1992-10-21

    Life-style has a major influence on the incidence of breast cancer. To evaluate the effects of life-style related metabolic-endocrine factors on breast cancer risk we conducted a case-control study comparing 223 women aged 38 to 75 years presenting with operable (stage I or II) breast cancer and 441 women of the same age having no breast cancer, who participated in a population-based breast cancer screening program. Women reporting diabetes mellitus were excluded. Sera from 110 women of the same age group presenting with early stage melanoma, lymphoma or cervical cancer were used as a second 'other-cancer control group'. Serum levels of C-peptide were significantly higher in early breast cancer cases compared to controls. The same was found for the ratios C-peptide to glucose or C-peptide to fructosamine, indicating insulin resistance. Sex hormone binding globulin was inversely, triglycerides and available estradiol were positively related to C-peptide. Serum C-peptide levels were related to body mass index (BMI), and to waist/hip ratio (WHR), in particular in controls. However, the relative increase of C-peptide, C-peptide to glucose or C-peptide to fructosamine in cases was independent of BMI or WHR. The log relative risk was linearly related to the log C-peptide levels. Relative risk according to quintiles, and adjusted for age, family history, BMI and WHR, for women at the 80% level was 2.9 as compared with those at the 20% level for C-peptide. Elevated C-peptide or C-peptide to fructosamine values were not observed in the sera from women belonging to the 'other-cancer control group'. This study suggests that hyperinsulinemia with insulin resistance is a significant risk factor for breast cancer independent of general adiposity or body fat distribution. PMID:1399128

  1. Risk factors for male breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    D'Avanzo, B.; La Vecchia, C

    1995-01-01

    Risk factors for male breast cancer were investigated in a case-control study of 21 cases and 82 controls admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic, non-hormone-related diseases in the Greater Milan area between 1988 and 1994. More educated men tended to be at higher risk of breast cancer, with a multivariate odds ratio (OR) of 2.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-9.4]. The OR was 3.2 (95% CI 1.1-9.6) for those in the higher social class. Men with no offspring were at higher risk than f...

  2. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy...... on ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: Individual participant datasets from 52 epidemiological studies were analysed centrally. The principal analyses involved the prospective studies (with last hormone therapy use extrapolated forwards for up to 4 years). Sensitivity analyses included the retrospective studies....... Adjusted Poisson regressions yielded relative risks (RRs) versus never-use. FINDINGS: During prospective follow-up, 12 110 postmenopausal women, 55% (6601) of whom had used hormone therapy, developed ovarian cancer. Among women last recorded as current users, risk was increased even with

  3. Oral contraception and risk of endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueck AO

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Alfred O Mueck1, Harald Seeger1, Xiangyan Ruan2 1Department of Endocrinology and Menopause, University Women's Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany; 2Department of Gynecological Endocrinology, Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China Abstract: No placebo-controlled studies concerning hormonal contraception in general have been published, and only investigations on biological mechanisms and observational clinical studies are available. Thus, associations can be described but not their causality. Experimental studies strongly suggest protective effects of the progestagen component of hormonal contraception against development of estrogen-related (type 1 endometrial cancer. In light of this research, it seems biologically plausible that, in more than 20 published studies, a reduction in endometrial cancer risk was achieved in up to 50% of users of combined oral contraceptives (COC, compared with nonusers. Few data exist for progestin-only oral preparations. However, in view of the mechanisms involved, a reduction in cancer risk should also be expected. Whereas hormonal dose-dependency has been investigated in only a few studies, which showed a stronger risk reduction with increasing progestagenic potency, a decreased risk dependent on duration of use has been clearly demonstrated, and after stopping COC this effect has persisted for up to 20 years. Possible confounders, including family history, parity, and smoking, have been investigated in a few studies, with only a minor impact on hormonal effect of endometrial cancer risk, with the exception of obesity, which was a strong risk factor in most but not all studies. There are obvious differences in the incidence of endometrial cancer in women using COC when evaluated in absolute numbers for Western and Asian countries, being about 3–5-fold higher in the US than in Asia. Further research should include the noncontraceptive benefit of COC

  4. Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Nagle, Christina M; Whiteman, David C;

    2013-01-01

    Whilst previous studies have reported that higher BMI increases a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improv......, it does not increase risk of high-grade invasive serous cancers, and reducing BMI is therefore unlikely to prevent the majority of ovarian cancer deaths. Other modifiable factors must be identified to control this disease.......Whilst previous studies have reported that higher BMI increases a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improved...... in the last decade, we sought to examine the association in a pooled analysis of recent studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We evaluated the association between BMI (recent, maximum and in young adulthood) and ovarian cancer risk using original data from 15 case...

  5. Colorectal cancer risk in Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2008-01-01

    There is recognized increased risk for colorectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, particularly in long-standing and extensive ulcerative colitis. There also appears to be an increased rate of intestinal cancer in Crohn's disease, including both colon and small bowel sites. In Crohn's disease, evidence suggests that detection of colorectal cancer may be delayed with a worse progno sis. Some risk factors for cancer in Crohn's disease include the extent of inflammatory change within the colon and the presence of bypassed or excluded segments, inclu ding rectal "stump" cancer. In addition, the risk for other types of intestinal neoplasms may be increased in Crohn's disease, including lymphoma and carcinoid tumors. Earlier detection of colorectal cancer based on colonoscopy scre ening and surveillance may be achieved but, to date, this has not translated into a positive survival benefit. Moreo ver, newer staining methods and evolving micro-endos copic techniques show promise, but have not significantly altered management. Future research should focus on development of molecular or other bio-markers that might predict future dysplasia or cancer development in Crohn's disease.

  6. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T J

    2011-01-01

    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes. PMID:21119663

  7. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T J

    2011-01-01

    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes.

  8. Do non-targeted effects increase or decrease low dose risk in relation to the linear-non-threshold (LNT) model?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we review the evidence for departure from linearity for malignant and non-malignant disease and in the light of this assess likely mechanisms, and in particular the potential role for non-targeted effects. Excess cancer risks observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in many medically and occupationally exposed groups exposed at low or moderate doses are generally statistically compatible. For most cancer sites the dose-response in these groups is compatible with linearity over the range observed. The available data on biological mechanisms do not provide general support for the idea of a low dose threshold or hormesis. This large body of evidence does not suggest, indeed is not statistically compatible with, any very large threshold in dose for cancer, or with possible hormetic effects, and there is little evidence of the sorts of non-linearity in response implied by non-DNA-targeted effects. There are also excess risks of various types of non-malignant disease in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in other groups. In particular, elevated risks of cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease and digestive disease are observed in the A-bomb data. In contrast with cancer, there is much less consistency in the patterns of risk between the various exposed groups; for example, radiation-associated respiratory and digestive diseases have not been seen in these other (non-A-bomb) groups. Cardiovascular risks have been seen in many exposed populations, particularly in medically exposed groups, but in contrast with cancer there is much less consistency in risk between studies: risks per unit dose in epidemiological studies vary over at least two orders of magnitude, possibly a result of confounding and effect modification by well known (but unobserved) risk factors. In the absence of a convincing mechanistic explanation of epidemiological evidence that is, at present, less than persuasive, a cause-and-effect interpretation of the reported

  9. Risk, Characteristics, and Prognosis of Breast Cancer after Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Veit-Rubin, Nikolaus; Rapiti Aylward, Elisabetta; Usel, Massimo; Benhamou, Simone; Vinh Hung, Vincent; Vlastos, Georges; Bouchardy Magnin, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Patients with breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma were compared with patients with other breast cancers using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results dataset. Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors had a higher risk for breast cancer, more aggressive breast cancers, a higher risk for a second breast cancer, and a poorer prognosis.

  10. Risk of prostate, ovarian, and endometrial cancer among relatives of women with breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Tulinius, H.; Egilsson, V.; Olafsdóttir, G. H.; Sigvaldason, H

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the risk of prostate, ovarian, and endometrial cancer among relatives of patients with breast cancer. DESIGN--Cohort study of 947 pedigrees in which the proband had breast cancer, linked with the Icelandic cancer registry. SETTING--Iceland. SUBJECTS--The 947 pedigrees included 29,725 people, of whom 1539 had breast cancer, 467 had prostate cancer, 135 ovarian cancer, and 105 endometrial cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Risk of prostate, ovarian, and endometrial cancer ...

  11. Cancer Risk Assessment for the Primary Care Physician

    OpenAIRE

    Korde, Larissa A; Gadalla, Shahinaz M.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Cancer risk assessment can be divided into two major categories: assessment of familial or genetic risk and assessment of environmental factors that may be causally related to cancer. Identification of individuals with a suspected heritable cancer syndrome can lead to additional evaluation and to interventions that can substantially decrease cancer risk. Special attention should also be paid to potentially modifiable cancer ris...

  12. Risk of cancer among atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y; Kato, H; Schull, W J

    1991-12-01

    This report describes the risk of cancer and in particular cancers other than leukemia among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Attention focuses primarily on the risk of death from cancer among individuals in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effect Research Foundation in the period 1950-1985 based on the recently revised dosimetry, termed the DS86 doses. Mortality from malignant tumors is increased among A-bomb survivors as a late effect of A-bomb radiation. Besides the well-known increase of leukemia, there also has been demonstrated increase of cancer of the lung, breast, esophagus, stomach, colon, ovary, urinary bladder, thyroid, and of multiple myeloma, but no increase has yet been observed in mortality from cancer of the rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, prostate and uterus, and of malignant lymphoma. The pattern of appearance over time of radiation-induced cancer other than leukemia differs from that of leukemia. In general, radiation-induced solid cancer begins to appear after attaining the age at which the cancer is normally prone to develop (so-called cancer age), and continues to increase proportionately with the increase in mortality of the control group as it ages. Sensitivity to radiation, in terms of cancer induction, is higher for persons who were young at the time of the bomb (ATB) in general than for those who were older ATB. Furthermore, susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer tends to be higher in pre- than in post-natally exposed survivors (at least those exposed as adults). Other radiation effect modifiers and the shape of the dose response curve will also be discussed. PMID:1823367

  13. Estimation of operational value-at-risk in the presence of minimum collection threshold: An empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Chernobai, Anna; Menn, Christian; Svetlozar T. Rachev; Trück, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The recently finalized Basel II Capital Accord requires banks to adopt a procedure to estimate the operational risk capital charge. Under the Advanced Measurement Approaches, that are currently mandated for all large internationally active US banks, require the use of historic operational loss data. Operational loss databases are typically subject to a minimum recording threshold of roughly $10,000. We demonstrate that ignoring such thresholds leads to biases in corresponding parameter estima...

  14. On ionising radiation and breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cohort of 3,090 women with clinical diagnosis of benign breast disease (BBD) was studied. Of these, 1,216 were treated with radiation therapy during 1925-54 (median age 40 years). The mean dose to the breasts was 5.8 Gy (range 0-50 Gy). Among other organs the lung received the highest scattered dose (0.75 Gy; range 0.004-8.98 Gy) and the rectum the lowest (0.008 Gy; range 0-0.06 Gy). A pooled analysis of eight breast cancer incidence cohorts was done, including: tumour registry data on breast cancer incidence among women in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors; women in Massachusetts who received repeated chest fluoroscopic during lung collapse treatment for tuberculosis; women who received x-ray therapy for acute post-partum mastitis; women who were irradiated in infancy for enlarged thymus glands ; two Swedish cohorts of women who received radiation treatments during infancy for skin hemangioma; and the BBD) cohort. Together the cohorts included almost 78,000 women (-35,000 were exposed), around 1.8 million woman-years and 1500 cases. The breast cancer incidence rate as a function of breast dose was analysed using linear-quadratic Poisson regression models. Cell-killing effects and other modifying effects were incorporated through additional log-linear terms. Additive (EAR) and multiplicative (ERR) models were compared in estimating the age-at-exposure patterns and time related excess. The carcinogenic risks associated with radiation in mammographic mass screening is evaluated. Assessment was made in terms of breast cancer mortality and years of life. Effects were related to rates not influenced by a mammographic mass screening program and based on a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 40-year old women with no history of breast cancer being followed to 100 years of age. Two radiation risk assumptions were compared. The dose-response relationship is linear with little support in data for an upward curvature at low to medium doses. The competing effect

  15. On ionising radiation and breast cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, Anders

    1999-05-01

    A cohort of 3,090 women with clinical diagnosis of benign breast disease (BBD) was studied. Of these, 1,216 were treated with radiation therapy during 1925-54 (median age 40 years). The mean dose to the breasts was 5.8 Gy (range 0-50 Gy). Among other organs the lung received the highest scattered dose (0.75 Gy; range 0.004-8.98 Gy) and the rectum the lowest (0.008 Gy; range 0-0.06 Gy). A pooled analysis of eight breast cancer incidence cohorts was done, including: tumour registry data on breast cancer incidence among women in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors; women in Massachusetts who received repeated chest fluoroscopic during lung collapse treatment for tuberculosis; women who received x-ray therapy for acute post-partum mastitis; women who were irradiated in infancy for enlarged thymus glands ; two Swedish cohorts of women who received radiation treatments during infancy for skin hemangioma; and the BBD cohort. Together the cohorts included almost 78,000 women (-35,000 were exposed), around 1.8 million woman-years and 1500 cases. The breast cancer incidence rate as a function of breast dose was analysed using linear-quadratic Poisson regression models. Cell-killing effects and other modifying effects were incorporated through additional log-linear terms. Additive (EAR) and multiplicative (ERR) models were compared in estimating the age-at-exposure patterns and time related excess. The carcinogenic risks associated with radiation in mammographic mass screening is evaluated. Assessment was made in terms of breast cancer mortality and years of life. Effects were related to rates not influenced by a mammographic mass screening program and based on a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 40-year old women with no history of breast cancer being followed to 100 years of age. Two radiation risk assumptions were compared. The dose-response relationship is linear with little support in data for an upward curvature at low to medium doses. The competing effect

  16. Thresholds for Diagnosing Hypertension Based on Automated Office Blood Pressure Measurements and Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Martin G; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Paterson, J Michael; Dolovich, Lisa; Tu, Karen

    2015-09-01

    The risk of cardiovascular events in relation to blood pressure is largely based on readings taken with a mercury sphygmomanometer in populations which differ from those of today in terms of hypertension severity and drug therapy. Given replacement of the mercury sphygmomanometer with electronic devices, we sought to determine the blood pressure threshold for a significant increase in cardiovascular risk using a fully automated device, which takes multiple readings with the subject resting quietly alone. Participants were 3627 community-dwelling residents aged >65 years untreated for hypertension. Automated office blood pressure readings were obtained in a community pharmacy with subjects seated and undisturbed. This method for recording blood pressure produces similar readings in different settings, including a pharmacy and family doctor's office providing the above procedures are followed. Subjects were followed for a mean (SD) of 4.9 (1.0) years for fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. Adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were computed for 10 mm Hg increments in blood pressure (mm Hg) using Cox proportional hazards regression and the blood pressure category with the lowest event rate as the reference category. A total of 271 subjects experienced a cardiovascular event. There was a significant (P=0.02) increase in the hazard ratio of 1.66 (1.09, 2.54) at a systolic blood pressure of 135 to 144 and 1.72 (1.21, 2.45; P=0.003) at a diastolic blood pressure of 80 to 89. A significant (P=0.03) increase in hazard ratio of 1.73 (1.04, 2.86) occurred with a pulse pressure of 80 to 89. These findings are consistent with a threshold of 135/85 for diagnosing hypertension in older subjects using automated office blood pressure.

  17. Epigenetic drift, epigenetic clocks and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shijie C; Widschwendter, Martin; Teschendorff, Andrew E

    2016-05-01

    It is well-established that the DNA methylation landscape of normal cells undergoes a gradual modification with age, termed as 'epigenetic drift'. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of epigenetic drift and its potential role in cancer etiology. We propose a new terminology to help distinguish the different components of epigenetic drift, with the aim of clarifying the role of the epigenetic clock, mitotic clocks and active changes, which accumulate in response to environmental disease risk factors. We further highlight the growing evidence that epigenetic changes associated with cancer risk factors may play an important causal role in cancer development, and that monitoring these molecular changes in normal cells may offer novel risk prediction and disease prevention strategies.

  18. Epigenetic drift, epigenetic clocks and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shijie C; Widschwendter, Martin; Teschendorff, Andrew E

    2016-05-01

    It is well-established that the DNA methylation landscape of normal cells undergoes a gradual modification with age, termed as 'epigenetic drift'. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of epigenetic drift and its potential role in cancer etiology. We propose a new terminology to help distinguish the different components of epigenetic drift, with the aim of clarifying the role of the epigenetic clock, mitotic clocks and active changes, which accumulate in response to environmental disease risk factors. We further highlight the growing evidence that epigenetic changes associated with cancer risk factors may play an important causal role in cancer development, and that monitoring these molecular changes in normal cells may offer novel risk prediction and disease prevention strategies. PMID:27104983

  19. Genetic determinants of breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jingmei

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis was to identify genetic risk factors using both hypothesis-based and hypothesis-free approaches. In an attempt to identify common disease susceptibility alleles for breast cancer, we started off with a hypothesis-free approach, and performed a combined analysis of three genome-wide association studies (GWAS), involving 2,702 women of European ancestry with invasive breast cancer and 5,726 controls. As GWAS has been said to underperform for stu...

  20. Risk of treatment-related esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, L M; Gilbert, E S; Hall, P;

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use.......Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use....

  1. Increased risk for depression after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, Nis P; Johansen, Christoffer; Christensen, Jane;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the risk for first depression, assessed as incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants, among women with breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Danish national registries were used to identify 1,997,669 women with no diagnosis of cancer...... or a major psychiatric disorder. This cohort was followed from 1998 to 2011 for a diagnosis of breast cancer and for the two outcomes, hospital contact for depression and redeemed prescriptions for antidepressants. Rate ratios for incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants...... were estimated with Poisson regression models. Multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate factors associated with the two outcomes among patients with breast cancer. RESULTS: We identified 44,494 women with breast cancer. In the first year after diagnosis, the rate ratio for a hospital contact...

  2. Reducing Your Risk of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Double contrast barium enema test Computed tomography Fecal DNA test Women aged 50 years and older Women aged ... the colon. Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT): A test of a stool sample for blood, which could be a sign of cancer ... “blueprints” that code for specific traits, such as ...

  3. Cancer risk following radiotherapy of cervical cancer: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Women treated for cervical cancer were selected for study because (a) doses to body organs following radiotherapy can be accurately determined and vary sufficiently to permit dose-response evaluations, (b) organs remote from the cervix receive low-dose exposures in the range of current scientific interest, (c) treatment is relatively successful and many patients survive long enough to be at risk of late complications of radiotherapy, and (d) several nonexposed groups of women with cervical cancer are also available for comparison. In addition, population-based cancer registries provide an opportunity to inexpensively study large numbers of individuals over many decades. The careful procedures normally used by cancer registries to record second primary cancers facilitate the study of cancer incidence for which a wider view of radiation risk is expected than can be seen in investigations of mortality. Other special features of studies of cervical cancer patients include the ability to assess the effects of very large partial-body exposures, differences in organ sensitivities to radiation, interactions of radiation with biological factors such as age, and the duration of carcinogenic response

  4. Pancreatic cancer: epidemiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejs, Guenter J

    2010-01-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas has an incidence of approximately 10 per 100,000 population per year. This number pertains to Europe, North America and parts of South America (Argentina). Men are more often afflicted than women (female:male ratio of about 1:1.5, though reports vary). There has been a very small but steady increase in the incidence over the last 50 years. Unfortunately, numbers for incidence and mortality are still practically identical for this cancer. The peak of incidence is between 60 and 80 years of age. In absolute numbers, there are 8,000 cases diagnosed annually in Germany, and 33,000 in the US. Pancreatic cancer at pancreatic cancer include high-fat diet, smoking, chronic pancreatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, hereditary pancreatitis, family history of pancreatic cancer and diabetes mellitus. In chronic pancreatitis, the risk for pancreatic cancer is increased 20-fold, in hereditary pancreatitis it is 60-fold higher than in the general population. In a kindred with 2 first-degree relatives with pancreatic cancer, the risk for pancreatic cancer for other members of that kindred is 7-fold higher.

  5. Defining chromosomal translocation risks in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Marc A Hogenbirk; Heideman, Marinus R.; de Rink, Iris; Velds, Arno; Kerkhoven, Ron M.; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Jacobs, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Applying innovative integrative analyses of multifactorial genome-wide data, we now demonstrate that an open chromatin configuration, which is generically enriched promoter-proximal but not promoter-specific, is the common denominator and key translocation risk-determinant of active chromatin. The finding that gene size directly correlated with its translocation risk, in both mice and cancer patients, independently emphasized the generic irrelevance of any promoter-specific activity. These da...

  6. Cervical cancer risk factors among HIV-infected Nigerian women

    OpenAIRE

    Ononogbu, Uzoma; Almujtaba, Maryam; Modibbo, Fatima; Lawal, Ishak; Offiong, Richard; Olaniyan, Olayinka; Dakum, Patrick; Spiegelman, Donna; Blattner, William; Adebamowo, Clement

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women worldwide, and in Nigeria it is the second most common female cancer. Cervical cancer is an AIDS-defining cancer; however, HIV only marginally increases the risk of cervical pre-cancer and cancer. In this study, we examine the risk factors for cervical pre-cancer and cancer among HIV-positive women screened for cervical cancer at two medical institutions in Abuja, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 2,501 HIV-positive women part...

  7. Radiation exposure and familial aggregation of cancers as risk factors for colorectal cancer after radioiodine treatment for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In thyroid cancer patients, radioiodine treatment has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of colon carcinoma. The aim of this study in thyroid cancer patients was to evaluate the role of familial factors in the risk of colorectal cancer and their potential interaction with radioiodine exposure. Methods and Materials: We performed a case-control study on 15 colorectal cancer patients and 76 matched control subjects, nested in a cohort of 3708 thyroid cancer patients treated between 1933 and 1998. For each patient, the radiation dose delivered to the colon by radioiodine was estimated by use of standard tables. In those who received external radiation therapy, the average radiation doses delivered to the colon and rectum were estimated by use of DOSEg software. A complete familial history was obtained by face-to-face interviews, and a familial index was defined to evaluate the degree of familial aggregation. Results: The risk of colorectal cancer increased with familial aggregation of colorectal cancer (p = 0.02). After adjustment for the radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum, the risk of colorectal cancer was 2.8-fold higher (95% CI, 1.0-8.0) for patients with at least one relative affected by colorectal cancer than for patients without such a family history (p = 0.05). The radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum by 131I and external radiation therapy was associated with an increase of risk near the significance threshold (p = 0.1). No significant interaction was found between radiation dose and having an affected relative (p = 0.9). Conclusions: The role of familial background in the risk of colorectal cancer following a differentiated thyroid carcinoma appears to increase with the radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum. However, the study population was small and no interaction was found between these two factors

  8. Occupational risks of sinonasal cancer in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, J H

    1988-05-01

    A new comprehensive data linkage system for the detailed investigation of occupational cancer has been established in the Danish Cancer Registry, providing employment histories back to 1964. All 382 cases of cancers of the sinonasal cavities diagnosed between 1970 and 1984 and kept on file in this data linkage system were analysed using standardised proportional incidence ratios (SPIR) to screen for industrial high risk areas for these malignancies in Denmark. Excess risks were confirmed among men and women employed in the manufacture of footwear and other leather products and of wooden furniture. No risk significantly above expectancy was observed among wood workers outside the furniture making industry. Excess risks were also seen among men in all areas of basic metal industries (SPIR = 184-562) and in a subset of workers in industries producing metal containers (SPIR = 329-600). Most unexpected were raised risks among employees of both sexes in making cocoa, chocolate, and sugar confectionery (SPIR = 535 for men and 860 for women); these, in combination with the observed risks among female employees in canning and preserving fruits and vegetables (SPIR = 778) and in farming (SPIR = 735) may point to a common aetiology. The obscuring effect of mass significance may, however, be another explanation. The new associations discovered in this large scale linkage study must therefore await further confirmation.

  9. Occupational risks of sinonasal cancer in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, J H

    1988-05-01

    A new comprehensive data linkage system for the detailed investigation of occupational cancer has been established in the Danish Cancer Registry, providing employment histories back to 1964. All 382 cases of cancers of the sinonasal cavities diagnosed between 1970 and 1984 and kept on file in this data linkage system were analysed using standardised proportional incidence ratios (SPIR) to screen for industrial high risk areas for these malignancies in Denmark. Excess risks were confirmed among men and women employed in the manufacture of footwear and other leather products and of wooden furniture. No risk significantly above expectancy was observed among wood workers outside the furniture making industry. Excess risks were also seen among men in all areas of basic metal industries (SPIR = 184-562) and in a subset of workers in industries producing metal containers (SPIR = 329-600). Most unexpected were raised risks among employees of both sexes in making cocoa, chocolate, and sugar confectionery (SPIR = 535 for men and 860 for women); these, in combination with the observed risks among female employees in canning and preserving fruits and vegetables (SPIR = 778) and in farming (SPIR = 735) may point to a common aetiology. The obscuring effect of mass significance may, however, be another explanation. The new associations discovered in this large scale linkage study must therefore await further confirmation. PMID:3378013

  10. The low-template-DNA (stochastic) threshold--its determination relative to risk analysis for national DNA databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Peter; Puch-Solis, Roberto; Curran, James

    2009-03-01

    Although the low-template or stochastic threshold is in widespread use and is typically set to 150-200 rfu peak height, there has been no consideration on its determination and meaning. In this paper we propose a definition that is based upon the specific risk of wrongful designation of a heterozygous genotype as a homozygote which could lead to a false exclusion. Conversely, it is possible that a homozygote {a,a} could be designated as {a,F} where 'F' is a 'wild card', and this could lead to increased risk of false inclusion. To determine these risk levels, we analysed an experimental dataset that exhibited extreme drop-out using logistic regression. The derived probabilities are employed in a graphical model to determine the relative risks of wrongful designations that may cause false inclusions and exclusions. The methods described in this paper provide a preliminary solution of risk evaluation for any DNA process that employs a stochastic threshold.

  11. Standardized threshold approach using three-dimensional proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in prostate cancer localization of the entire prostate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Futterer, J.J.; Scheenen, T.W.J.; Heijmink, S.W.T.P.J.; Huisman, H.J.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.; Witjes, J.A.; Heerschap, A.; Barentsz, J.O.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the localization accuracy using 3-dimensional (3D) proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of the entire prostate with a standardized thresholds approach in prostate cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective study, 32 consecutive patie

  12. Reassessment of risk factors for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangane, Nitin; Chawla, Shweta; Anshu; Subodh, Anshu; Gupta, Subodh Sharan; Sharma, Satish M

    2007-01-01

    A total of 140 cases of histologically confirmed oral cancer were evaluated for their demographic details, dietary habits and addiction to tobacco and alcohol using a pre-designed structured questionnaire at the Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram in Central India. These cases were matched with three sets of age and sex matched controls. Oral cancer was predominant in the age group of 50-59 years. Individuals on a non-vegetarian diet appeared to be at greater risk of developing oral cancer. Cases were habituated to consuming hot beverages more frequently and milk less frequently than controls. Consumption of ghutka, a granular form of chewable tobacco and areca nut, was significantly associated with oral cancer cases. Cases had been using oral tobacco for longer duration than controls, and were habituated to sleeping with tobacco quid in their mouth. Most cases were also addicted to smoking tobacco and alcohol consumption. Bidi (a crude cigarette) smoking was most commonly associated with oral cancer. On stratified analysis, a combination of regular smoking and oral tobacco use, as well as a combination of regular alcohol intake and oral tobacco use were significantly associated with oral cancer cases. Synergistic effects of all three or even two of the risk factors - oral tobacco use, smoking and alcohol consumption- was more commonly seen in cases when compared to controls.

  13. Menarche menopause breast cancer risk individual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer; Bausch-Goldbohm, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Menarche and menopause mark the onset and cessation, respectively, of ovarian activity associated with reproduction, and affect breast cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the strengths of their effects and determine whether they depend on characteristics of the tumours or the affected wome

  14. Gene variant linked to lung cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variation of the gene NFKB1, called rs4648127, is associated with an estimated 44 percent reduction in lung cancer risk. When this information, derived from samples obtained as part of a large NCI-sponsored prevention clinical trial, was compared with d

  15. Cellular telephone use and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    expected in the Danish population. RESULTS: A total of 14,249 cancers were observed (SIR = 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.93 to 0.97) for men and women combined. Cellular telephone use was not associated with increased risk for brain tumors (SIR = 0.97), acoustic neuromas (SIR = 0.73), salivary...

  16. Dietary acrylamide intake and brain cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2009-01-01

    Background: Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, which is present in several heat-treatedfood s. In epidemiologic studies, positive associations with endometrial, ovarian, and renal cell cancer risk have been observed. The incidence of central nervous system tumors was increased upon acrylamid

  17. Nutrition and Gastric Cancer Risk: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from epidemiologic, experimental, and animal studies indicate that diet plays an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer. High intake of fresh fruit and vegetable, lycopene and lycopene-containing food products, and potentially vitamin C and selenium may reduce the risk for gastric can...

  18. Tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaanderen, Jelle; Straif, Kurt; Ruder, Avima;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified tetrachloroethylene, used in the production of chemicals and the primary solvent used in dry cleaning, as "probably carcinogenic to humans" based on limited evidence of an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry...... cleaners. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the epidemiological evidence for the association between tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer from published studies estimating occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene or in workers in the dry-cleaning industry. METHODS: Random-effects meta-analyses were...... carried out separately for occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene and employment as a dry cleaner. We qualitatively summarized exposure-response data because of the limited number of studies available. RESULTS: The meta-relative risk (mRR) among tetrachloroethylene-exposed workers was 1.08 (95% CI...

  19. Mitochondrial dysfunction and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, M; Melbye, M; Diaz, L J;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial mutations are commonly reported in tumours, but it is unclear whether impaired mitochondrial function per se is a cause or consequence of cancer. To elucidate this, we examined the risk of cancer in a nationwide cohort of patients with mitochondrial dysfunction. METHODS......: We used nationwide results on genetic testing for mitochondrial disease and the Danish Civil Registration System, to construct a cohort of 311 patients with mitochondrial dysfunction. A total of 177 cohort members were identified from genetic testing and 134 genetically untested cohort members were...... mDNA mutation, cases=13. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mitochondrial dysfunction do not appear to be at increased risk of cancer compared with the general population....

  20. Cell Phones and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... phone will be represented on a single phone company account. Do children have a higher risk of ... of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT INFORMATION Contact Us LiveHelp ...

  1. What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well as that of many other diseases and cancers. Testicular conditions Some studies have suggested that certain conditions, ... Breast Cancer In Men? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Breast Cancer ...

  2. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  3. GERD, Barrett's Esophagus and the Risk for Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts About Common Colon Cancer Screening Tests PATIENTS GERD, Barrett's Esophagus and the Risk for Esophageal Cancer ... commonly in Caucasians as well as people with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This cancer is increasing in frequency. ...

  4. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans; Olsson, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberc

  5. Breast Cancer Risk Assessment SAS Macro (Gail Model)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A SAS macro (commonly referred to as the Gail Model) that projects absolute risk of invasive breast cancer according to NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) algorithm for specified race/ethnic groups and age intervals.

  6. Hereditary cancer risk assessment: essential tools for a better approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gomy, Israel; Estevez Diz, Maria Del Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary cancer risk assessment (HCRA) is a multidisciplinary process of estimating probabilities of germline mutations in cancer susceptibility genes and assessing empiric risks of cancer, based on personal and family history. It includes genetic counseling, testing and management of at-risk individuals so that they can make well-informed choices about cancer surveillance, surgical treatment and chemopreventive measures, including biomolecular cancer therapies. Providing patients and famil...

  7. Threshold for Radon-Induced Lung Cancer From Inhaled Plutonium Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry M. Cuttler

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cohen’s lung cancer mortality data, from his test of the LNT theory, do not extend to the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL above which inhaled radon decay products begin to induce excess lung cancer mortality. Since there is concern about the level of radon in homes, it is important to set the radon limit near the NOAEL to avoid the risk of losing a health benefit. Assuming that dogs model humans, data from a study on inhaled plutonium dioxide particulates in dogs were assessed, and the NOAEL for radon-induced lung tumors was estimated to be about 2100 Bq/m3. The US Environmental Protection Agency should consider raising its radon action level from 150 to at least 1000 Bq/m3.

  8. Study on cancer risk in aircrews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, epidemic surveys on cancer risk in aircrews were performed in several countries such as USA, Canada, UK, Japan, Philippines and Denmark. Here, the authors reviewed those survey reports aiming to elucidate the effects of natural radiation due to cosmic rays, especially neutron in aircrews. Those survey reports demonstrated that incidences of cutaneous cancer, brain tumor, bladder cancer, prostatic cancer, colon cancer and leukemia were higher in the aircrews than ordinary people. The survey made with a total of 1600 women crews in Finland showed that their mean accumulated dose was 20 mSv and the risk for mammary cancer was 1.9. Moreover, the risks of mammary cancer for women crews were also reported to be higher in Denmark and Iceland. However, it was difficult to obtain conclusive information since the number of those survey subjects were not so large and there is a possibility of healthy worker's effects because the cohorts of those surveys are special, i.e., aircrews are very healthy in special. The radiation exposure on airway crews is characterized by neutron radiation, which occupies over than a half of the total dose of natural radiation. Thus, relative biological effectiveness of neutron radiation was evaluated to compare with those of gamma ray and X-ray and it was pointed out that the mammary gland is highly sensitive to neutron exposure and its RBE was comparatively large. Thus, it was thought that it is necessary to further accumulate basic information for carcinogenesis related to low-dose neutron exposure. (M.N.)

  9. Cancer surgery: risks and opportunities.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coffey, J C

    2012-02-03

    In the recent past, several papers have pointed to the possibility that tumour removal generates a permissive environment in which tumour growth is potentiated. This phenomenon has been coined "perioperative tumour growth" and whilst it represents a departure in terms of our attitude to the surgical process, this concept was first hinted at by Paget(1) himself. Despite this, the time interval immediately before and after cancer surgery (i.e. the perioperative period) remains an underutilised interval during which chemotherapeutic regimens are rarely implemented. Herein, we present a summarised review of the literature that supports the concept that tumour removal may potentiate the growth of residual neoplastic disease. We also outline current knowledge regarding underlying mechanisms and in this manner highlight potential therapeutic entry points. Finally, we emphasise the urgent need for trials of agents that could protect patients against the harmful host-tumour interactions that may occur during the perioperative period.

  10. Discrepancies between estimated and perceived risk of cancer among individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, K; Nilbert, Mef; Soller, M;

    2007-01-01

    Communicating cancer risk and recommending adequate control programs is central for genetic counseling. Individuals affected by hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) are at about 80% life-time risk of colorectal cancer and for female carriers 40-60% risk of endometrial cancer and 10-1...

  11. What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? What are the risk factors for thymus cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Thymus Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  12. What Are the Risk Factors for Gallbladder Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? What are the risk factors for gallbladder cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Gallbladder Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  13. Mediterranean dietary pattern and cancer risk in the EPIC cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couto, E.; Boffetta, P.; Lagiou, P.; Ferrari, P.; Buckland, G.; Overvad, K.; Dahm, C. C.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Cottet, V.; Trichopoulos, D.; Naska, A.; Benetou, V.; Kaaks, R.; Rohrmann, S.; Boeing, H.; von Ruesten, A.; Panico, S.; Pala, V.; Vineis, P.; Palli, D.; Tumino, R.; May, A.; Peeters, P. H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Buchner, F. L.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Gonzalez, C. A.; Navarro, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Sanchez, M-J; Amiano, P.; Barricarte, A.; Hallmans, G.; Johansson, I.; Manjer, J.; Wirfart, E.; Allen, N. E.; Crowe, F.; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N.; Moskal, A.; Slimani, N.; Jenab, M.; Romaguera, D.; Mouw, T.; Norat, T.; Riboli, E.; Trichopoulou, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although several studies have investigated the association of the Mediterranean diet with overall mortality or risk of specific cancers, data on overall cancer risk are sparse. METHODS: We examined the association between adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern and overall cancer risk

  14. Vibratory perception threshold in young and middle-aged patients at high risk of knee osteoarthritis compared to controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Shakoor, Najia; Ageberg, Eva;

    2012-01-01

    Vibratory perception threshold (VPT) is impaired in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). It is, however, not known if sensory deficits precede or follow as a consequence of OA. The aim of this study was to investigate VPT in 2 independent groups of patients with high risk of future OA (young a...

  15. Risk of Ovarian Cancer Relapse Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzuto, Ivana; Stavraka, Chara; Chatterjee, Jayanta; Borley, Jane; Hopkins, Thomas Glass; Gabra, Hani; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Huson, Les; Blagden, Sarah P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to construct a prognostic index that predicts risk of relapse in women who have completed first-line treatment for ovarian cancer (OC). Methods A database of OC cases from 2000 to 2010 was interrogated for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, grade and histological subtype of cancer, preoperative and posttreatment CA-125 level, presence or absence of residual disease after cytoreductive surgery and on postchemotherapy computed tomography scan, and time to progression and death. The strongest predictors of relapse were included into an algorithm, the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Relapse (ROVAR) score. Results Three hundred fifty-four cases of OC were analyzed to generate the ROVAR score. Factors selected were preoperative serum CA-125, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage and grade of cancer, and presence of residual disease at posttreatment computed tomography scan. In the validation data set, the ROVAR score had a sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 61%, respectively. The concordance index for the validation data set was 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.96). The score allows patient stratification into low (0.67) probability of relapse. Conclusions The ROVAR score stratifies patients according to their risk of relapse following first-line treatment for OC. This can broadly facilitate the appropriate tailoring of posttreatment care and support. PMID:25647256

  16. A polymorphic repeat in the IGF1 promoter influences the risk of endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Bolton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of high-throughput genetic assays for tandem repeats, there is a paucity of knowledge about the role they may play in disease. A polymorphic CA repeat in the promoter region of the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene (IGF1 has been studied extensively over the past 10 years for association with the risk of developing breast cancer, among other cancers, with variable results. The aim of this study was to determine if this CA repeat is associated with the risk of developing breast cancer and endometrial cancer. Using a case–control design, we analysed the length of this CA repeat in a series of breast cancer and endometrial cancer cases and compared this with a control population. Our results showed an association when both alleles were considered in breast and endometrial cancers (P=0.029 and 0.011, respectively, but this did not pass our corrected threshold for significance due to multiple testing. When the allele lengths were analysed categorically against the most common allele length of 19 CA repeats, an association was observed with the risk of endometrial cancer due to a reduction in the number of long alleles (P=0.013. This was confirmed in an analysis of the long alleles separately for endometrial cancer risk (P=0.0012. Our study found no association between the length of this polymorphic CA repeat and breast cancer risk. The significant association observed between the CA repeat length and the risk of developing endometrial cancer has not been previously reported.

  17. A polymorphic repeat in the IGF1 promoter influences the risk of endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Katherine A; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Attia, John; Bowden, Nikola A

    2016-01-01

    Due to the lack of high-throughput genetic assays for tandem repeats, there is a paucity of knowledge about the role they may play in disease. A polymorphic CA repeat in the promoter region of the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene (IGF1 has been studied extensively over the past 10 years for association with the risk of developing breast cancer, among other cancers, with variable results. The aim of this study was to determine if this CA repeat is associated with the risk of developing breast cancer and endometrial cancer. Using a case–control design, we analysed the length of this CA repeat in a series of breast cancer and endometrial cancer cases and compared this with a control population. Our results showed an association when both alleles were considered in breast and endometrial cancers (P=0.029 and 0.011, respectively), but this did not pass our corrected threshold for significance due to multiple testing. When the allele lengths were analysed categorically against the most common allele length of 19 CA repeats, an association was observed with the risk of endometrial cancer due to a reduction in the number of long alleles (P=0.013). This was confirmed in an analysis of the long alleles separately for endometrial cancer risk (P=0.0012). Our study found no association between the length of this polymorphic CA repeat and breast cancer risk. The significant association observed between the CA repeat length and the risk of developing endometrial cancer has not been previously reported. PMID:27090263

  18. Plasma leptin and colorectal cancer risk: a prospective study in Northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stattin, Pär; Palmqvist, Richard; Söderberg, Stefan; Biessy, Carine; Ardnor, Bjarne; Hallmans, Göran; Kaaks, Rudolf; Olsson, Tommy

    2003-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Circulating levels of leptin are high in obesity and strongly correlated to levels of insulin. Leptin stimulates growth of colon cancer cells. In a nested case-control study, we measured leptin levels in prediagnostic plasma from 75 men and 93 women who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer mean time 3.4 years (SD 2.4) after recruitment and among 327 control subjects. Logistic regression analyses showed increases in colorectal cancer risk in men with increasing levels of leptin, odds ratios (OR) were 1.00 (ref), 0.85 (95% C.I.=0.33-2.23), 1.04 (0.43-2.53), and 2.15 (0.89-5.22), (pfor trend=0.08). There was a distinct threshold between the third and fourth quartile of leptin, and the odds ratio for top quartile vs. three bottom quartiles was 2.28 (1.09-4.76). Adjustment for body mass index and insulin did not affect risk estimates. In separate analysis, odds ratio for top vs. bottom tertile of colon cancer was 1.96 (95% C.I.=0.72-5.29), whereas no increase was seen for rectal cancer. In women, no association between leptin and risk was seen. These data support the hypothesis that leptin is a risk marker for colorectal cancer in men, but not in women. PMID:14534736

  19. Cancer in first-degree relatives and risk of testicular cancer in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R.; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Familial aggregation of testicular cancer has been reported consistently, but it is less clear if there is any association between risk of testicular cancer and other cancers in the family. We conducted a population based case-control study to examine the relationship between risk of testicular cancer and 22 different cancers in first-degree relatives. We included 3297 cases of testicular cancer notified to the Danish Cancer Registry between 1991 and 2003. 6594 matched controls were selected ...

  20. Risk of Ipsilateral and Contralateral Cancer in BRCA Mutation Carriers with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Leila; Meric-Bernstam, Funda

    2011-01-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers with breast cancer have a high risk of ipsilateral breast cancer tumor recurrence (IBTR) and a high lifetime risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). The IBTR risk is significantly higher in women who elect breast conservation. Oophorectomy has a protective effect for both ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence and CBC. Patients with younger age of breast cancer onset have a significantly greater risk of CBC. Given the higher risk of IBTR and CBC, when indicat...

  1. Perceived risk for cancer in an urban sexual minority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer L.; Coups, Elliot; Warren, Barbara; Li, Yuelin; Ostroff, Jamie S.

    2013-01-01

    Lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals are a sexual minority experiencing elevated cancer risk factors and health disaparites, e.g., elevated tobacco use, disproportionate rates of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Little attention has been paid to cancer prevention, education, and control in sexual minorities. This study describes cancer risk perceptions and their correlates so as to generate testable hypotheses and provide a foundation for targeting cancer prevention and risk reduction efforts in this high risk population. A cross-sectional survey of affiliates of a large urban community center serving sexual minority persons yielded a study sample of 247 anonymous persons. The survey assessed demographics, absolute perceived cancer risk, cancer risk behaviors, desired lifestyle changes to reduce cancer risk, and psychosocial variables including stress, depression, and stigma. Univariate and multivariate nonparametric statistics were used for analyses. The sample was primarily white non-Hispanic, middle-aged, and > 80% had at least a high school education. Mean values for absolute perceived cancer risk (range 0–100% risk), were 43.0 (SD = 25.4) for females, and for males, 49.3 (SD = 24.3). For females, although the multivariate regression model for absolute perceived cancer risk was statistically significant (P < .05), no single model variable was significant. For men, the multivariate regression model was significant (P < .001), with endorsement of “don't smoke/quit smoking” to reduce personal cancer risk (P < .001), and greater number of sexual partners (P = .054), positively associated with absolute perceived risk for cancer. This study provides novel data on cancer risk perceptions in sexual minorities, identifying correlates of absolute perceived cancer risk for each gender and several potential foci for cancer prevention interventions with this at-risk group. PMID:20872174

  2. Blood Type Influences Pancreatic Cancer Risk | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variation in the gene that determines ABO blood type influences the risk of pancreatic cancer, according to the results of the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) for this highly lethal disease. The genetic variation, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), was discovered in a region of chromosome 9 that harbors the gene that determines blood type, the researchers reported August 2 online in Nature Genetics. |

  3. Characterizing genetic syndromes involved in cancer and radiogenic cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The COG project 2806A (1995), reviewed the On-line Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database of genetic syndromes to identify those syndromes, genes, and DNA sequences implicated in some way in the cancer process, and especially in radiogenic cancer risk. The current report describes a recent update of the survey in light of two years of further progress in the Human Genome project, and is intended to supply a comprehensive list of those genetic syndromes, genes, DNA sequences and map locations that define genes likely to be involved in cancer risk. Of the 8203 syndromes in OMIM in 1997 June, 814 are associated, even if marginally, with cancer. Of the 814 syndromes so linked, 672 have been mapped to a chromosome, and 476 have been mapped to a chromosome and had a DNA sequence associated with their messenger RNA (or cDNA) sequences. In addition, 35 syndromes have sequences not associated with map locations, and the remaining 107 have neither been mapped nor sequenced. We supply the list of the various genetic syndromes sorted by chromosome location and by OMIM descriptor, together with all the associated but unmapped and unsequenced syndromes. (author)

  4. Risk stratification strategies for cancer-associated thrombosis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorana, Alok A; McCrae, Keith R

    2014-05-01

    Rates of venous thromboembolism (VTE) vary substantially between cancer patients. Multiple clinical risk factors including primary site of cancer and systemic therapy, and biomarkers including leukocyte and platelet counts and tissue factor are associated with increased risk of VTE. However, risk cannot be reliably predicted based on single risk factors or biomarkers. New American Society of Clinical Guidelines recommend that patients with cancer be assessed for VTE risk at the time of chemotherapy initiation and periodically thereafter. This narrative review provides an update on risk stratification approaches including a validated Risk Score. Potential applications of risk assessment including targeted thromboprophylaxis are outlined. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. PMID:24862143

  5. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens;

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  6. Threshold of musculoskeletal pain intensity for increased risk of long-term sickness absence among female healthcare workers in eldercare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars L Andersen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Musculoskeletal disorders increase the risk for absenteeism and work disability. However, the threshold when musculoskeletal pain intensity significantly increases the risk of sickness absence among different occupations is unknown. This study estimates the risk for long-term sickness absence (LTSA from different pain intensities in the low back, neck/shoulder and knees among female healthcare workers in eldercare. METHODS: Prospective cohort study among 8,732 Danish female healthcare workers responding to a questionnaire in 2004-2005, and subsequently followed for one year in a national register of social transfer payments (DREAM. Using Cox regression hazard ratio (HR analysis we modeled risk estimates of pain intensities on a scale from 0-9 (reference 0, where 0 is no pain and 9 is worst imaginable pain in the low back, neck/shoulders and knees during the last three months for onset of LTSA (receiving sickness absence compensation for at least eight consecutive weeks during one-year follow-up. RESULTS: During follow-up, the 12-month prevalence of LTSA was 6.3%. With adjustment for age, BMI, smoking and leisure physical activity, the thresholds of pain intensities significantly increasing risk of LTSA for the low back (HR 1.44 [95%CI 1.07-1.93], neck/shoulders (HR 1.47 [95%CI 1.10-1.96] and knees (HR 1.43 [95%CI 1.06-1.93] were 5, 4 and 3 (scale 0-9, respectively, referencing pain intensity of 0. CONCLUSION: The threshold of pain intensity significantly increasing the risk for LTSA among female healthcare workers varies across body regions, with knee pain having the lowest threshold. This knowledge may be used in the prevention of LTSA among health care workers.

  7. Cancer Risks in Aluminum Reduction Plant Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrèche, France

    2014-01-01

    Objective and Methods: This review examines epidemiological evidence relating to cancers in the primary aluminum industry where most of what is known relates to Söderberg operations or to mixed Söderberg/prebake operations. Results and Conclusions: Increased lung and bladder cancer risks have been reported in Söderberg workers from several countries, but not in all. After adjustment for smoking, these cancer risks still increase with cumulative exposure to benzo(a)pyrene, used as an index of coal tar pitch volatiles exposure. Limited evidence has been gathered in several cohorts for an increased risk of tumors at other sites, including stomach, pancreas, rectum/rectosigmoid junction, larynx, buccal cavity/pharynx, kidney, brain/nervous system, prostate, and lymphatic/hematopoietic tissues (in particular non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, and leukemia). Nevertheless, for most of these tumor sites, the relationship with specific exposures has not been demonstrated clearly and further follow-up of workers is warranted. PMID:24806725

  8. Risk-optimized proton therapy to minimize radiogenic second cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rechner, Laura A; Eley, John G; Howell, Rebecca M;

    2015-01-01

    Proton therapy confers substantially lower predicted risk of second cancer compared with photon therapy. However, no previous studies have used an algorithmic approach to optimize beam angle or fluence-modulation for proton therapy to minimize those risks. The objectives of this study were...... to demonstrate the feasibility of risk-optimized proton therapy and to determine the combination of beam angles and fluence weights that minimizes the risk of second cancer in the bladder and rectum for a prostate cancer patient. We used 6 risk models to predict excess relative risk of second cancer. Treatment...

  9. Cancer and non-cancer risk at low doses of radiation: biological basis of radiation-environment interplay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer and non-cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation remains poorly defined due to ambiguity at low doses caused by limitations in statistical power and information available on interplay with environment. To deal with these problems, a novel non-parametric statistics was developed based on artificial neural networks theorem and applied to cancer and non-cancer risk in A-bomb survivors. The analysis revealed several unique features at low doses that could not be accounted for by nominal radiation dose alone. They include (1) threshold that varies with organ, gender and age, including cardiovascular diseases, (2) prevalence of infectious diseases, and (3) suppression of pathogenesis of HTLV1. The threshold is unique as it is manifested as negative excess relative risk, a reduction of spontaneous rate at low doses. The response is consistent with currently emerging laboratory data on DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway choice and its sustainability as epigenetic memory in accordance with histone code theory. In response to DSB, of radiation or DNA replication arrest origin, distinct and competitively operating repair pathways are instigated. Activation by low doses of restitution-directed canonical non-homologous end-joining (C-NHEJ) suppresses both error-prone alternative end-joining (Alt-NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). The latter two present major pathways to mutagenesis at stalled replication folk associated with endogenous and exogenous genotoxin such as tobacco smoke metabolites and AID-associated somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination in Ig gene. Suppression of these error-prone pathways by low doses of low LET radiation is consistent with the reduction of cancer occurrence by environmental genotoxin, immunodiversity and stable integration of retrovirus DNA, providing a significant modulator of dose linearity at low doses. Whole picture may bring about a new landscape of cancer and non-cancer molecular epidemiology which

  10. CUMULATIVE TRAUMAS AND RISK THRESHOLDS: 12-MONTH PTSD IN THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH (WMH) SURVEYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Elie G.; Friedman, Matthew J.; Hill, Eric D.; Kessler, Ronald C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Petukhova, Maria; Sampson, Laura; Shahly, Victoria; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Demyttenaere, Koen; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia E.; Haro, Josep Maria; He, Yanling; Karam, Aimee N.; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Posada-Villa, José A.; Shalev, Arieh Y.; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Zarkov, Zahari; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients exposed to multiple traumatic events (TEs) rather than a single TE have increased morbidity and dysfunction. Although epidemiological surveys in the United States and Europe also document high rates of multiple TE exposure, no population-based cross-national data have examined this issue. Methods Data were analyzed from 20 population surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative (n 51,295 aged 18+). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (3.0) assessed 12-month PTSD and other common DSM-IV disorders. Respondents with 12-month PTSD were assessed for single versus multiple TEs implicated in their symptoms. Associations were examined with age of onset (AOO), functional impairment, comorbidity, and PTSD symptom counts. Results 19.8% of respondents with 12-month PTSD reported that their symptoms were associated with multiple TEs. Cases who associated their PTSD with four or more TEs had greater functional impairment, an earlier AOO, longer duration, higher comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders, elevated hyper-arousal symptoms, higher proportional exposures to partner physical abuse and other types of physical assault, and lower proportional exposure to unexpected death of a loved one than cases with fewer associated TEs. Conclusions A risk threshold was observed in this large-scale cross-national database wherein cases who associated their PTSD with four or more TEs presented a more “complex” clinical picture with substantially greater functional impairment and greater morbidity than other cases of PTSD. PTSD cases associated with four or more TEs may merit specific and targeted intervention strategies. Depression and Anxiety 31:130–142, 2014. PMID:23983056

  11. Risk of thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma after adult leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Birgens, Henrik S;

    2011-01-01

    Patients with childhood leukemia surviving into adulthood have elevated risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); these risks cannot automatically be extrapolated to patients surviving adult leukemia. We tested whether survivors of adult leukemia...

  12. Finasteride Concentrations and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Cindy H.; Price, Douglas K.; Cathee Till; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Xiaohong Chen; Leach, Robin J; Johnson-Pais, Teresa L.; Hsing, Ann W.; Ashraful Hoque; Tangen, Catherine M.; Lisa Chu; Parnes, Howard L.; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Reichardt, Juergen K. V.; Thompson, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying dru...

  13. Screening for breast cancer in a high-risk series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unique cohort of women at increased risk of breast cancer because of prior X-ray treatment of acute mastitis and their selected high-risk siblings were offered periodic breast cancer screening including physical examination of the breasts, mammography, and thermography. Twelve breast cancers were detected when fewer than four would have been expected based on age-specific breast cancer detection rates from the National Cancer Institute/American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Demonstration Detection Projects. Mammography was positive in all cases but physical examination was positive in only three cases. Thermography was an unreliable indicator of disease. Given the concern over radiation-induced risk, use of low-dose technique and of criteria for participation that select women at high risk of breast cancer will maximize the benefit/risk ratio for mammography screening

  14. Risk factors for cancer mortality in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease with many possible causes and is currently a major public health problem in the world. Cancer can occur in individuals of all ages; however the risk of cancer increases with age. It has been estimated that 90-95% of all types of cancer can be attributed to environmental and lifestyle risk factors, and hereditary cancers account for approximately 5-10% of all cancer cases. This thesis describes several potential risk factors for mortality due to most common types of...

  15. Studies of Cancer Risk among Chernobyl liquidators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesminiene, A.; Cardis, E.; Tenet, V.; Chekin, S.; Ivanov, V. K.; Kurtinaitis, J.; Malakhova, I.; Polyakov, S.; Stengrevics, A.; Tekkel, M.

    2004-07-01

    Two cae-control studies among Chernobyl liquidators- one of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), the other of thyroid cancer risk were carried out in Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia. These studies were coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The specific objective of these studies was to estimate the radiation induced risk of these diseases among liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, and, in particular, to study the effect of exposure protraction and radiation type on the risk of radiation induced cancer in the low to medium (0-500 mSv) radiation dose range. The study population consisted of the approximately 15.000 Baltic countries, 66 000 Balarus and 65 000 Russian liquidators who worked in the 30 km zone in 1986-1987, and who were registered in the Chernobyl registry of these countries. The studies included cases diagnosed in 1993-1998 for all countries but Belarus, where the study period was extended until 2000. for controls were selected in each country from the national cohort for each case, mateched on age, gender and region of residence. Information on study subjects was obtained through face-to-face interview using a standardised questionnaire with questions on demographic factors, time place and conditions of work as a liquidator and potential risk and confoundinf factors for the tumours of interest. Ocerall 126 cases of leukaemia and NHL, 119 cases of thyroid cancer and 1060 controls were interviewed. Individual estimates of kerma in air and of dose to the bone marrow and related uncertainties were derived for each subject in the leukaemia and NHL study, using a method of analytical dose reconstruction developed whiting the study. Estimates of individual doses to the thyroid from external exposures, I-131 and long-lived isotopes were derived for all subjects in the thyroid case-control study. Dose-response analyses have been carried out. Resulting risk estimates will be presented and compared to risk estimates

  16. Studies of Cancer Risk among Chernobyl liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cae-control studies among Chernobyl liquidators- one of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), the other of thyroid cancer risk were carried out in Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia. These studies were coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The specific objective of these studies was to estimate the radiation induced risk of these diseases among liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, and, in particular, to study the effect of exposure protraction and radiation type on the risk of radiation induced cancer in the low to medium (0-500 mSv) radiation dose range. The study population consisted of the approximately 15.000 Baltic countries, 66 000 Balarus and 65 000 Russian liquidators who worked in the 30 km zone in 1986-1987, and who were registered in the Chernobyl registry of these countries. The studies included cases diagnosed in 1993-1998 for all countries but Belarus, where the study period was extended until 2000. for controls were selected in each country from the national cohort for each case, mateched on age, gender and region of residence. Information on study subjects was obtained through face-to-face interview using a standardised questionnaire with questions on demographic factors, time place and conditions of work as a liquidator and potential risk and confoundinf factors for the tumours of interest. Ocerall 126 cases of leukaemia and NHL, 119 cases of thyroid cancer and 1060 controls were interviewed. Individual estimates of kerma in air and of dose to the bone marrow and related uncertainties were derived for each subject in the leukaemia and NHL study, using a method of analytical dose reconstruction developed whiting the study. Estimates of individual doses to the thyroid from external exposures, I-131 and long-lived isotopes were derived for all subjects in the thyroid case-control study. Dose-response analyses have been carried out. Resulting risk estimates will be presented and compared to risk estimates

  17. Epidemiology, risk and outcomes of venous thromboembolism in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falanga, A; Russo, L

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is associated with a fourfold increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The risk of VTE varies according to the type of malignancy (i. e. pancreatic cancer, brain cancer, lymphoma) and its disease stage and individual factors (i. e. sex, race, age, previous VTE history, immobilization, obesity). Preventing cancer-associated VTE is important because it represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In order to identify cancer patient at particularly high risk, who need thromboprophylaxis, risk prediction models have become available and are under validation. These models include clinical risk factors, but also begin to incorporate biological markers. The major American and European scientific societies have issued their recommendations to guide the management of VTE in patients with cancer. In this review the principal aspects of epidemiology, risk factors and outcome of cancer-associated VTE are summarized.

  18. What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an oncocytoma , which is almost always benign (not cancer). Other risk factors Family history of kidney cancer People with a ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Kidney Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  19. Fruits and vegetables and the risk of epithelial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.C.J.F.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, prospective studies on fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to epithelial cancer risk were described. The main research question was whether higher intakes were related to lower risks of epithelial cancers, mainly of lung cancer.In the Seven Countries Study, at the population

  20. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tilburt Jon C; James Katherine M; Sinicrope Pamela S; Eton David T; Costello Brian A; Carey Jantey; Lane Melanie A; Ehlers Shawna L; Erwin Patricia J; Nowakowski Katherine E; Murad Mohammad H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Em...

  1. Whole Grain Intake Reduces Pancreatic Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qiucheng; Zheng, Huazhen; Bi, Jingcheng; Wang, Xinying; Jiang, Tingting; Gao, Xuejin; Tian, Feng; Xu, Min; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Li; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence from epidemiology studies suggests that whole grain intake may reduce pancreatic cancer risk, but convincing evidence is scarce. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between whole grain intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Relevant observational studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane library databases for the period from January 1980 to July 2015, with no restrictions. We calculated the summary odds ratios (ORs) for pancreatic cancer using random-effects model meta-analysis. Between-study heterogeneity was analyzed using the I2 statistic. A total of 8 studies regarding whole grain intake were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled OR of pancreatic cancer for those with high versus low whole grain intake was 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64–0.91; P = 0.002). There was no significant heterogeneity across these studies (I2 = 11.7%; Pheterogeneity = 0.339). In the subgroup analysis by geographic area, the summary ORs of developing pancreatic cancer were 0.64 (95% CI, 0.53–0.79; P < 0.001; I2 = 0%; Pheterogeneity = 0.482) in the United States (n = 4) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.63–1.43; P = 0.803; I2 = 45.6%; Pheterogeneity = 0.175) in Europe (n = 2). In the subgroup analysis by type of whole grain, the summary ORs were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.60–0.87; P = .001; I2 = 0; Pheterogeneity = 0.876) for grains (n = 4) and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.27–2.02; P = 0.554; I2 = 86.3%; Pheterogeneity = 0.007) for wheat (n = 2). A high intake of whole grains was associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Because of the absent of more cohort studies, further prospective studies need to be conducted to ensure conclusions that are more robust. PMID:26945361

  2. Short telomere length, cancer survival, and cancer risk in 47102 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Cawthon, Richard M;

    2013-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses have suggested that short telomere length was associated with increased risk of cancer. We therefore tested the hypotheses that short telomere length was associated with increased risk of cancer and with increased risk of early death after cancer....

  3. Risk of thyroid cancer among Chernobyl liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: While the increased risk of thyroid cancer is well demonstrated in people exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated areas around the Chernobyl power plant, following the accident which took place on 26 April 1986, the effect of exposure on adults remains unclear. A collaborative case-control study of thyroid cancer was set-up, nested within cohorts of Belarus, Russian and Baltic countries liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, to evaluate the radiation-induced risk of this disease among liquidators, and to assess the roles of screening and of radiation exposures in the observed increased thyroid cancer incidence among liquidators. The study population consisted of the cohorts of approximately 66,000 Belarus, 65,000 Russian and 15,000 Baltic countries liquidators who took part in the clean-up activities on the reactor site and in the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 1987. The liquidators were mainly exposed to external radiation, although substantial dose to the thyroid from iodine isotopes may have been received by liquidators who worked in May-June 1986 and by those who resided in the most contaminated territories of Belarus. Information was collected on study subjects by use of a standardized questionnaire that was administrated during a face-to-face interview with the study subject and/or a proxy (a relative or a colleague). The interview included questions on demographic factors, time, place and conditions of work as a liquidator and on potential risk and confounding factors for thyroid cancer. A method of analytical dose reconstruction, entitled RADRUE (Realistic Analytical Dose Reconstruction with Uncertainty Estimation) was developed within the study and applied to estimate individual doses to the thyroid from external radiation and related uncertainties for each subject. Approaches to derive individual thyroid dose estimates from inhaled and

  4. Establishing a family risk assessment clinic for breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulsow, Jurgen

    2012-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting European women and the leading cause of cancer-related death. A total of 15-20% of women who develop breast cancer have a family history and 5-10% a true genetic predisposition. The identification and screening of women at increased risk may allow early detection of breast cancer and improve prognosis. We established a family risk assessment clinic in May 2005 to assess and counsel women with a family history of breast cancer, to initiate surveillance, and to offer risk-reducing strategies for selected high-risk patients. Patients at medium or high risk of developing breast cancer according to NICE guidelines were accepted. Family history was determined by structured questionnaire and interview. Lifetime risk of developing breast cancer was calculated using Claus and Tyrer-Cuzick scoring. Risk of carrying a breast cancer-related gene mutation was calculated using the Manchester system. One thousand two hundred and forty-three patients have been referred. Ninety-two percent were at medium or high risk of developing breast cancer. Formal assessment of risk has been performed in 368 patients, 73% have a high lifetime risk of developing breast cancer, and 72% a Manchester score >or=16. BRCA1\\/2 mutations have been identified in 14 patients and breast cancer diagnosed in two. Our initial experience of family risk assessment has shown there to be a significant demand for this service. Identification of patients at increased risk of developing breast cancer allows us to provide individuals with accurate risk profiles, and enables patients to make informed choices regarding their follow-up and management.

  5. Breast cancer risk prediction using a clinical risk model and polygenic risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Yiwey; Hu, Donglei; Ma, Lin; Huntsman, Scott; Gard, Charlotte C; Leung, Jessica W T; Tice, Jeffrey A; Vachon, Celine M; Cummings, Steven R; Kerlikowske, Karla; Ziv, Elad

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer risk assessment can inform the use of screening and prevention modalities. We investigated the performance of the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) risk model in combination with a polygenic risk score (PRS) comprised of 83 single nucleotide polymorphisms identified from genome-wide association studies. We conducted a nested case-control study of 486 cases and 495 matched controls within a screening cohort. The PRS was calculated using a Bayesian approach. The contributions of the PRS and variables in the BCSC model to breast cancer risk were tested using conditional logistic regression. Discriminatory accuracy of the models was compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Increasing quartiles of the PRS were positively associated with breast cancer risk, with OR 2.54 (95 % CI 1.69-3.82) for breast cancer in the highest versus lowest quartile. In a multivariable model, the PRS, family history, and breast density remained strong risk factors. The AUROC of the PRS was 0.60 (95 % CI 0.57-0.64), and an Asian-specific PRS had AUROC 0.64 (95 % CI 0.53-0.74). A combined model including the BCSC risk factors and PRS had better discrimination than the BCSC model (AUROC 0.65 versus 0.62, p = 0.01). The BCSC-PRS model classified 18 % of cases as high-risk (5-year risk ≥3 %), compared with 7 % using the BCSC model. The PRS improved discrimination of the BCSC risk model and classified more cases as high-risk. Further consideration of the PRS's role in decision-making around screening and prevention strategies is merited.

  6. What Are the Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do we know what causes testicular cancer? Can testicular cancer be prevented? Previous Topic What are the key statistics about ... 2016 Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Testicular Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Testicular Cancer ...

  7. Risk factors for cancer mortality in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease with many possible causes and is currently a major public health problem in the world. Cancer can occur in individuals of all ages; however the risk of cancer increases with age. It has been estimated that 90-95% of all types of cancer can be attributed to environmental a

  8. Discussing the Risk Threshold on Environmental Risk Precautionary Principle%论环境风险预防原则中的风险阈值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萌; 缪若妮; 田信桥

    2014-01-01

    如何把环境风险预防原则确立为环境法的基本原则,一个重要的问题就是“环境风险”的界定。通过对法律意义上的环境风险进行分析,指出确立风险阈值的原因,即我国对“环境风险”的界定不清,环境风险的风险性缺乏法定依据以及不同种类的利益之间存在冲突等,进而从明确环境风险的类型、评估环境风险量度、明确责任归结三方面思考了风险阈值的确立问题。%How to make the environmental risk precautionary principle as a basic principle of environmental law principles, an important issue is the definition of "environmental risk". By analyzing environmental risks in the legal sense, clarify the reasons for the risk threshold:In China the definition of "environmental risk" is unclear, environmental risks lack legal basis, and there are conflicts between different interests. So think about the establishing of risk threshold problem from three aspects: clearing the specific types of environmental risk, assessing environmental risk measure and clear lines of responsibility attributed.

  9. Colorectal cancer risk in hamartomatous polyposis syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme; Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world, and approximately 5% of them develop in a context of inherited mutations leading to some form of familial colon cancer syndromes. Recognition and characterization of these patients have contributed to elucidate the genetic basis of CRC. Polyposis Syndromes may be categorized by the predominant histological structure found within the polyps. The aim of the present paper is to review the most important clinical features of the Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes, a rare group of genetic disorders formed by the peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenil polyposis syndrome and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome (Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalacaba and Cowden Syndromes). A literature search was performed in order to retrieve the most recent and important papers (articles, reviews, clinical cases and clinical guidelines) regarding the studied subject. We searched for terms such as “hamartomatous polyposis syndromes”, “Peutz-Jeghers syndrome”, “juvenile polyposis syndrome”, “juvenile polyp”, and “PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome” (Cowden syndrome, Bananyan-Riley-Ruvalcaba). The present article reports the wide spectrum of disease severity and extraintestinal manifestations, with a special focus on their potential to develop colorectal and other neoplasia. In the literature, the reported colorectal cancer risk for Juvenile Polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndromes are 39%-68%, 39%-57% and 18%, respectively. A review regarding cancer surveillance recommendations is also presented. PMID:25848489

  10. Measuring, and identifying predictors of, women's perceptions of three types of breast cancer risk: population risk, absolute risk and comparative risk

    OpenAIRE

    Apicella, C.; Peacock, S.J.; Andrews, L.; Tucker, K.; Daly, M B; Hopper, J L

    2009-01-01

    Although a key function of cancer genetics services is to provide risk information, to date there has been little consistency in the way in which breast cancer risk perception has been measured. The aims of the study were to measure estimates of (i) population risk, (ii) absolute risk and (iii) comparative risk of developing breast cancer for Ashkenazi Jewish women, and to determine predictors of breast cancer risk perception. Of 152 women, 107 (70%) completed all questions. The mean (s.d.) e...

  11. Occupational exposures and risk of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibañez, Miguel; Vioque, Jesús; Alguacil, Juan; de la Hera, Manuela García; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo; Carrato, Alfredo; Porta, Miquel; Kauppinen, Timo

    2010-10-01

    The objective was to analyze the relationship between occupation (and specific occupational exposures) and risk of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC). We conducted a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in Eastern Spain. We included 161 incident cases of EPC (59.6% men, 94 with histological confirmation, of whom 80% had ductal adenocarcinoma). Cases were frequency-matched with 455 controls by sex, age and province of residence. Information was elicited using structured questionnaires. Occupations were coded according to the Spanish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988. Occupational exposure to a selection of carcinogenic substances was assessed with the Finnish Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, province, education, alcohol and smoking. A higher risk of EPC was associated with having worked as 'Miners, shotfirers, stone cutters and carvers', 'Machinery mechanics and fitters', 'Building trades workers' and 'Motor vehicle drivers' in men, 'Office Clerks' in women, and 'Waiters' in both sexes. Cases with ductal adenocarcinomas were more likely to have been exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.1-15.2, p-trend = 0.04). We also observed significant associations with exposure to 'synthetic polymer dust exposure' and 'ionizing radiation'. Suggestive increases in risk were observed for 'pesticides', 'diesel and gasoline engine exhaust', and 'hydrocarbon solvents'. Results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents is associated with exocrine pancreatic cancer.

  12. Occupational exposures and risk of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to analyze the relationship between occupation (and specific occupational exposures) and risk of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC). We conducted a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in Eastern Spain. We included 161 incident cases of EPC (59.6% men, 94 with histological confirmation, of whom 80% had ductal adenocarcinoma). Cases were frequency-matched with 455 controls by sex, age and province of residence. Information was elicited using structured questionnaires. Occupations were coded according to the Spanish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988. Occupational exposure to a selection of carcinogenic substances was assessed with the Finnish Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, province, education, alcohol and smoking. A higher risk of EPC was associated with having worked as 'Miners, shotfirers, stone cutters and carvers', 'Machinery mechanics and fitters', 'Building trades workers' and 'Motor vehicle drivers' in men, 'Office Clerks' in women, and 'Waiters' in both sexes. Cases with ductal adenocarcinomas were more likely to have been exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.1-15.2, p-trend = 0.04). We also observed significant associations with exposure to 'synthetic polymer dust exposure' and 'ionizing radiation'. Suggestive increases in risk were observed for 'pesticides', 'diesel and gasoline engine exhaust', and 'hydrocarbon solvents'. Results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents is associated with exocrine pancreatic cancer.

  13. Exploring perceptions of cancer risk, neighborhood environmental risks, and health behaviors of blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, LaShanta J; Brandt, Heather M; Hardin, James W; Ingram, Lucy Annang; Wilson, Sacoby M

    2015-06-01

    Cancer risk perceptions and cancer worry are shaped by race/ethnicity, and social, economic, and environmental factors, which in turn shape health decision-making. A paucity of studies has explored risk perceptions and worry in metropolitan areas with disparate environmental conditions and cancer outcomes. This study examined perceptions of cancer risk, neighborhood environmental health risks, and risk-reducing health behaviors among Blacks. A 59-item survey was administered to respondents in Metropolitan Charleston, South Carolina from March to September 2013. A convenience sample of males and females was recruited at local venues and community events. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses (Chi square tests), and logistic regression models were estimated using SAS 9.3 software. Respondents (N = 405) were 100% Black, 81% female (n = 323), and ranged from 18 to 87 years of age (M = 49.55, SD = 15.27). Most respondents reported lower perceptions of cancer risk (37%) and equated their cancer beliefs to direct or indirect (i.e. personal or family) experiences. Low perceived cancer risk (absolute risk) was significantly associated (p diet, non-alcohol consumption, and having any colon cancer screening test. Perceived cancer risk is an important indicator of health behaviors among Blacks. Direct or indirect experiences with cancer and/or the environment and awareness of family history of cancer may explain cancer risk perceptions. PMID:25315713

  14. What Are the Risk Factors for Bile Duct Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are the risk factors for bile duct cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... to top » Guide Topics What Is Bile Duct Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  15. Cancer Risk Communication in Mainstream and Ethnic Newspapers

    OpenAIRE

    Stryker, Jo Ellen; Fishman, Jessica; Emmons, Karen Maria; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: We wanted to understand how cancer risks are communicated in mainstream and ethnic newspapers, to determine whether the 2 kinds of newspapers differ and to examine features of news stories and sources that might predict optimal risk communication. Methods: Optimal risk communication was defined as presenting the combination of absolute risk, relative risk, and prevention response efficacy information. We collected data by conducting a content analysis of cancer news coverage fro...

  16. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect...... on the risk of prostate cancer apart from adult height. METHODS: We included 5,871 men with height measured at ages 7 and 13 years in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register who also had adult (50-65 years) height measured in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Prostate cancer status was obtained...... through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate cancer risk...

  17. Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschau, Mathilde; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Jensen, Allan;

    2015-01-01

    1977-2012. Using the Danish Cancer Registry, we followed the cohort through 2012 and compared the women's cancer incidence with that of the general Danish female population by means of standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). RESULTS: Cancer was diagnosed in 279 women with PCOS (SIR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1...... cancer (N = 10, SIR = 1.8; 95% CI = 0.8-3.2); however, significantly increased risks were found for kidney, colon and brain cancers. CONCLUSION: The results of this large cohort study support those of case-control studies showing that women with PCOS are at increased risk for endometrial cancer, whereas...... their risks for breast and ovarian cancer are similar to those of women in the general population. Our finding that women with PCOS also are at increased risk for cancers of the kidney, colon and brain requires further study....

  18. Plasma Cysteinylglycine Levels and Breast Cancer Risk in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysteinylglycine, a prooxidant generated during the catabolism of glutathione, has been suggested to induce oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, leading to the development of human cancers. Observational data relating cysteinylglycine status to breast cancer risk are lacking. We prospectively ev...

  19. Non-linearity between dose and cancer risk for internally deposited alpha emitters in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of cancer in experimental animals exposed to low doses and dose rates of internally deposited alpha emitting radionuclides was analyzed in 27 animal experiments comprising 78 groups exposed to specific dose levels (dose groups). In these experiments, 3041 animals were exposed to eight different alpha emitters, by injection or by inhalation. Radiation doses ranged from about 60 mGy to more than 7 Gy. There were 1655 control animals. The target organs were the lung and the skeleton. The cancer incidence in exposed groups was compared to that predicted by the Linear No-Threshold Hypothesis (LNTH). In the 3041 exposed animals, 49 cancers were observed, against 83 predicted by the LNTHT. The LNTH appears to be a reliable risk predictor in 11 of the 78 dose groups, but it overestimates the risk in the 67 other dose groups (71 predicted cases, 8 cases observed). No cancer was observed in 53 dose groups, when 23 were predicted by the LNTH. In these 53 dose groups, the probability of not observing a single case of cancer was extremely small. These observations led to the conclusion that, at least in the case of alpha emitters with long physical and biological half-lives, the LNTH is not a good predictor of the risk of cancer. (author)

  20. Occupational risk factors for female breast cancer: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, M S; Labrèche, F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although progress has been made in identifying personal risk factors and in improving treatment for female breast cancer, incidence rates continue to increase. With women now occupying a sizable fraction of the workforce, it is worth inquiring whether there are occupational risk factors for breast cancer. This is a review of occupational studies on female breast cancer. METHODS: Suitable reports and published articles with associations of female breast cancer and occupation were i...

  1. Use of analgesic drugs and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammundsen, Henriette B; Faber, Mette T; Jensen, Allan;

    2012-01-01

    The role of analgesic drug use in development of ovarian cancer is not fully understood. We examined the association between analgesic use and risk of ovarian cancer. In addition, we examined whether the association differed according to histological types.......The role of analgesic drug use in development of ovarian cancer is not fully understood. We examined the association between analgesic use and risk of ovarian cancer. In addition, we examined whether the association differed according to histological types....

  2. LIFESTYLE AS RISK FACTOR FOR CANCER: EVIDENCE FROM HUMAN STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Naghma; Afaq, Farrukh; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    It is increasingly appreciated that the chances of developing cancer are significantly affected by the choice of our lifestyle. There are several uncontrollable risk factors which account for the majority of cancers, but we can modify our lifestyle to reduce enhanced threat of cancer. Healthy lifestyle behaviors for cancer risk reduction include a healthy diet, weight management, regular exercise, reduction in alcohol consumption and smoking cessation. In this article, we present evidences on...

  3. Quality of Life Factor as Breast Cancer Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Gledo, Ibrahim; Pranjic, Nurka; Parsko, Subhija

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have observed risk factors for breast cancer. We investigated the association between quality life factors as breast cancer risks in a case-control study in industrial Zenica- Doboj Canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: The case-control study was included 200 women, 100 without (control subjects) and 100 women with diagnosed breast cancer. We used questionnaires about breast cancer risks“ as study tool. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs...

  4. Vitamin supplement consumption and breast cancer risk: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Misotti, Alessandro M; Gnagnarella, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer globally, and studies provide contradictory results about the possible effects of vitamin supplementation to reduce cancer risk. Our aim was to conduct a review to better investigate whether vitamin supplements given orally modify breast cancer risk. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive, systematic bibliographic search of the medical literature to identify relevant studies. Case-control, cohort studies, and randomised controll...

  5. Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation: artificial neural networks inference from atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Masao S; Tachibana, Akira; Takeda, Shunichi

    2014-05-01

    Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation remains poorly defined because of ambiguity in the quantitative link to doses below 0.2 Sv in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki arising from limitations in the statistical power and information available on overall radiation dose. To deal with these difficulties, a novel nonparametric statistics based on the 'integrate-and-fire' algorithm of artificial neural networks was developed and tested in cancer databases established by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The analysis revealed unique features at low doses that could not be accounted for by nominal exposure dose, including (i) the presence of a threshold that varied with organ, gender and age at exposure, and (ii) a small but significant bumping increase in cancer risk at low doses in Nagasaki that probably reflects internal exposure to (239)Pu. The threshold was distinct from the canonical definition of zero effect in that it was manifested as negative excess relative risk, or suppression of background cancer rates. Such a unique tissue response at low doses of radiation exposure has been implicated in the context of the molecular basis of radiation-environment interplay in favor of recently emerging experimental evidence on DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice and its epigenetic memory by histone marking. PMID:24366315

  6. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukheris, Houda [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel S. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stratton, Kayla L. [Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hammond, Sue [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Mertens, Ann C. [Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L. [Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Neglia, Joseph P. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Inskip, Peter D., E-mail: inskippe@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  7. Reproductive Risk Factors for Breast Cancer: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Meshram II; Hiwarkar PA; Kulkarni PN

    2009-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is second most important cancer among Indian women. Although risk factors are not much prevalent as in western countries, incidence rate is increasing in India. The study was undertaken to study various risk factors associated with breast cancer. Methods: A hospital based group matched case control study was undertaken to identify risk factors. The study consisted of 105 hospitalized cases confirmed on histopathology and 210 group matched controls selected from urban...

  8. CORRELATION OF RISK FACTORS WITH HPE GRADING IN BREAST CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Rudramurthy; Pradeep Kumar; Avanthi; Ira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To correlate risk factors for breast cancer with Histopathological grading. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A four year retrospective study was carried out from 2009-2012. 46 cases which were reported as breast cancer in due course were reviewed with histopathological (Scarff-Bloom-Richardson) grade of the tumor and familial, hormonal and acquired risk factors. The correlation of risk factors and the histopathological grade is done by using‘t’ test. RESULTS: Among 46 cases of breast cancer, a...

  9. Scientific approach to radiation-induced cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Sobue, Tomotaka

    2011-01-01

    When evaluating cancer risk of low-dose radiation, it is difficult to distinguish the actual effect from that of chance, bias, and confounding as they become relatively large. This is why the relation between radiation doses of less than 100 mSv and cancer risk is considered unknown. Based on data of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the cancer risk at 100 mSv is calculated at 1.05 times. On the other hand, the risk ratio for the relation between passive smoking and lung cancer...

  10. Dairy consumption and ovarian cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mommers, M.; Schouten, L J; Goldbohm, R. A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2006-01-01

    Ovary cancer risk in relation to consumption of dairy products was investigated using a self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other risk factors for cancer, which was completed in 1986 by 62 573 postmenopausal women participating in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Follow-up for cancer was implemented by annual record linkage with the Netherlands Cancer Registry and a nationwide pathology registry. After 11.3 years of follow-up, data of 252 incident epithelial ovarian cancer case...

  11. Serum Oxidized Protein and Prostate Cancer Risk within the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hoque, Ashraful; Ambrosone, Christine B; Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Tangen, Cathy; Kristal, Alan; Lucia, Scott; Wang, Qiao; Kappil, Maya; Thompson, Ian; Hsing, Ann W.; Parnes, Howard; Lippman, Scott M.; Santella, Regina M.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the role of oxidative stress in prostate cancer risk, we analyzed serum levels of protein carbonyl groups in 1808 prostate cancer cases and 1805 controls, nested in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, a randomized, placebo-control trial that found finasteride decreased prostate cancer risk. There were no significant differences in protein carbonyl levels in baseline samples between those later diagnosed with prostate cancer and those without at the end of study biopsy. Adjusted ...

  12. Part of celiac population still at risk despite current gluten thresholds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins Slot, I.D.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Hamer, R.J.; Fels, van der Ine

    2015-01-01

    In order to assist celiac disease (CD) patients in making safe food choices, gluten-free food products are labelled as such. The exact meaning of the gluten-free label differs throughout the world. This paper discusses the different thresholds that are currently used to label products gluten-free

  13. Pigmentation-related phenotypes and risk of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, S J; Virtamo, J; Albanes, D

    2013-01-01

    Background: Solar ultraviolet radiation exposure has been inversely related to prostate cancer incidence and mortality, possibly mediated through vitamin D status. Pigmentation-related traits influence endogenous vitamin D synthesis and may alter risk of prostate cancer. Methods: We examined prostate cancer in relation to hair and eye colour, and skin phototype in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort. Incident cancer was diagnosed in 1982 out of 20 863 men. Multi...

  14. Gastric cancer patients at high-risk of having synchronous cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Ho Lee; Jae-Gahb Park; Jae-Moon Bae; Ja Seong Bae; Keun Won Ryu; Jong Seok Lee; Sook Ryun Park; Chan Gyoo Kim; Myoung Cheorl Kook; Il Ju Choi; Young Woo Kim

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To identify patients with a high-risk of having a synchronous cancer among gastric cancer patients.METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the prospective gastric cancer database at the National Cancer Center,Korea from December 2000 to December 2004. The clinicopathological characteristics of patients with synchronous cancers and those of patients without synchronous cancers were compared. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the risk factors for the presence of a synchronous cancer in gastric cancer patients.RESULTS: 111 of 3291 gastric cancer patients (3.4%)registered in the database had a synchronous cancer.Among these 111 patients, 109 had a single synchronous cancer and 2 patients had two synchronous cancers. The most common form of synchronous cancer was colorectal cancer (42 patients, 37.2%) followed by lung cancer (21 patients, 18.6%). Multivariate analyses revealed that elderly patients with differentiated early gastric cancer have a higher probability of a synchronous cancer.CONCLUSION: Synchronous cancers in gastric cancer patients are not infrequent. The physicians should try to find synchronous cancers in gastric cancer patients,especially in the elderly with a differentiated early gastric cancer.

  15. The risk of low doses of ionising radiation and the linear no threshold relationship debate; La controverse sur les effets des faibles doses de rayonnements ionisants et la relation lineaire sans seuil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubiana, M. [Centre Antoine Beclere, Faculte de Medecine, 75 - Paris (France); Masse, R. [11 rue du Haras, Residence Le Boqueteau, Acacias 2, 91 - Saint-Michel-sur-Orge (France); Vathaire, F. de [Institut Gustave Roussy, INSERM U 605., 94 - Villejuif (France); Averbeck, D. [Institut Curie, Section de Recherche, Lab. Raymond Latarjet, UMR2027 du CNRS, Centre Universitaire d' Orsay, 91 - Orsay (France); Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Service Medecine Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France)

    2007-04-15

    The ICRP and the B.E.I.R. VII reports recommend a linear no threshold (L.N.T.) relationship for the estimation of cancer excess risk induced by ionising radiations (IR), but the 2005 report of Medicine and Science French Academies concludes that it leads to overestimate of risk for low and very low doses. The bases of L.N.T. are challenged by recent biological and animal experimental studies which show that the defence against IR involves the cell microenvironment and the immunologic system. The defence mechanisms against low doses are different and comparatively more effective than for high doses. Cell death is predominant against low doses. DNA repairing is activated against high doses, in order to preserve tissue functions. These mechanisms provide for multicellular organisms an effective and low cost defence system. The differences between low and high doses defence mechanisms are obvious for alpha emitters which show several greys threshold effects. These differences result in an impairment of epidemiological studies which, for statistical power purpose, amalgamate high and low doses exposure data, since it would imply that cancer IR induction and defence mechanisms are similar in both cases. Low IR dose risk estimates should rely on specific epidemiological studies restricted to low dose exposures and taking precisely into account potential confounding factors. The preliminary synthesis of cohort studies for which low dose data (< 100 mSv) were available show no significant risk excess, neither for solid cancer nor for leukemias. (authors)

  16. Visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and cancer risk

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, Claire L

    2011-06-22

    Abstract Background There is a well established link between obesity and cancer. Emerging research is characterising this relationship further and delineating the specific role of excess visceral adiposity, as opposed to simple obesity, in promoting tumorigenesis. This review summarises the evidence from an epidemiological and pathophysiological perspective. Methods Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Results Numerous epidemiological studies consistently identify increased risk of developing carcinoma in the obese. Adipose tissue, particularly viscerally located fat, is metabolically active and exerts systemic endocrine effects. Putative pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and carcinogenesis include the paracrine effects of adipose tissue and systemic alterations associated with obesity. Systemic changes in the obese state include chronic inflammation and alterations in adipokines and sex steroids. Insulin and the insulin-like growth factor axis influence tumorigenesis and also have a complex relationship with adiposity. There is evidence to suggest that insulin and the IGF axis play an important role in mediating obesity associated malignancy. Conclusions There is much evidence to support a role for obesity in cancer progression, however further research is warranted to determine the specific effect of excess visceral adipose tissue on tumorigenesis. Investigation of the potential mechanisms underpinning the association, including the role of insulin and the IGF axis, will improve understanding of the obesity and cancer link and may uncover targets for intervention.

  17. Components of Metabolic Syndrome as Risk Factors for Hearing Threshold Shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Sun

    Full Text Available Hearing loss was a common, chronically disabling condition in the general population and had been associated with several inflammatory diseases. Metabolic syndrome, which was associated with insulin resistance and visceral obesity, was considered a chronic inflammatory disease. To date, few attempts had been made to establish a direct relationship between hearing loss and metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and hearing loss by analyzing the data in the reports of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004.This study included 2100 participants aged ≤ 65 years who enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2004. We examined the relationship between the presence of different features of metabolic syndrome in the participants and their pure-tone air-conduction hearing thresholds, including low-frequency and high-frequency thresholds.After adjusting for potential confounders, such as age, medical conditions, and smoking status, the participants with more components of metabolic syndrome were found to have higher hearing thresholds than those with fewer components of metabolic syndrome (p < 0.05 for a trend. The low-frequency hearing threshold was associated with individual components of metabolic syndrome, such as abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, elevated triglycerides, and a low level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (p < 0.05 for all parameters.The results indicated that the presence of a greater number of components of metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with the hearing threshold in the US adult population. Among the components of metabolic syndrome, the most apparent association was observed between low HDL and hearing loss.

  18. Chromium in drinking water: sources, metabolism, and cancer risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2011-10-17

    Drinking water supplies in many geographic areas contain chromium in the +3 and +6 oxidation states. Public health concerns are centered on the presence of hexavalent Cr that is classified as a known human carcinogen via inhalation. Cr(VI) has high environmental mobility and can originate from anthropogenic and natural sources. Acidic environments with high organic content promote the reduction of Cr(VI) to nontoxic Cr(III). The opposite process of Cr(VI) formation from Cr(III) also occurs, particularly in the presence of common minerals containing Mn(IV) oxides. Limited epidemiological evidence for Cr(VI) ingestion is suggestive of elevated risks for stomach cancers. Exposure of animals to Cr(VI) in drinking water induced tumors in the alimentary tract, with linear and supralinear responses in the mouse small intestine. Chromate, the predominant form of Cr(VI) at neutral pH, is taken up by all cells through sulfate channels and is activated nonenzymatically by ubiquitously present ascorbate and small thiols. The most abundant form of DNA damage induced by Cr(VI) is Cr-DNA adducts, which cause mutations and chromosomal breaks. Emerging evidence points to two-way interactions between DNA damage and epigenetic changes that collectively determine the spectrum of genomic rearrangements and profiles of gene expression in tumors. Extensive formation of DNA adducts, clear positivity in genotoxicity assays with high predictive values for carcinogenicity, the shape of tumor-dose responses in mice, and a biological signature of mutagenic carcinogens (multispecies, multisite, and trans-sex tumorigenic potency) strongly support the importance of the DNA-reactive mutagenic mechanisms in carcinogenic effects of Cr(VI). Bioavailability results and kinetic considerations suggest that 10-20% of ingested low-dose Cr(VI) escapes human gastric inactivation. The directly mutagenic mode of action and the incompleteness of gastric detoxification argue against a threshold in low

  19. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilburt Jon C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92% used an observational design and focused on women (70% with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although

  20. Chromosomal aberration frequency in lymphocytes predicts the risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonassi, Stefano; Norppa, Hannu; Ceppi, Marcello;

    2008-01-01

    incidence and/or mortality for an average of 10.1 years; 368 cancer deaths and 675 incident cancer cases were observed. Subjects were classified within each laboratory according to tertiles of CA frequency. The relative risk (RR) of cancer was increased for subjects in the medium [RR = 1.31, 95% confidence...... for stomach cancer [RR(medium) = 1.17 (95% CI = 0.37-3.70), RR(high) = 3.13 (95% CI = 1.17-8.39)]. Exposure to carcinogens did not modify the effect of CA levels on overall cancer risk. These results reinforce the evidence of a link between CA frequency and cancer risk and provide novel information......Mechanistic evidence linking chromosomal aberration (CA) to early stages of cancer has been recently supported by the results of epidemiological studies that associated CA frequency in peripheral lymphocytes of healthy individuals to future cancer incidence. To overcome the limitations of single...

  1. Sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer: Review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fouad Kotb

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual activity can affect prostate cancer pathogenesis in a variety of ways; including the proposed high androgen status, risk of sexually transmitted infections and the potential effect of retained carcinogens within the prostatic cells. Methods: PubMed review of all publications concerning sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer was done by two researchers. Results: Few publications could be detected and data were classified as a prostate cancer risk in association with either heterosexual or homosexual activities. Conclusion: Frequent ejaculation seems to be protective from the development of prostate cancer. Multiple sexual partners may be protective from prostate cancer, excluding the risk of sexually transmitted infections. Homosexual men are at a greater risk for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  2. Exercise May Cut Risk of 13 Cancers, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158854.html Exercise May Cut Risk of 13 Cancers, Study Suggests ... 16, 2016 MONDAY, May 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exercise may significantly reduce your risk for many types ...

  3. Substantial contribution of extrinsic risk factors to cancer development | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent research has highlighted a strong correlation between tissue-specific cancer risk and the lifetime number of tissue-specific stem-cell divisions. Whether such correlation implies a high unavoidable intrinsic cancer risk has become a key public health debate with the dissemination of the 'bad luck' hypothesis. Here we provide evidence that intrinsic risk factors contribute only modestly (less than ~10-30% of lifetime risk) to cancer development.

  4. Lung cancer incidence and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of developing lung cancer (lc) as a consequence of inhaling hot particles from the Chernobyl accident is discussed. The risk from various factors is reviewed in order to assess the rate of contribution for any of them to carcinogenic process. The conclusions are based on data reported by National Centre of Oncology, Sofia (BG). A total of 2873 new cases have been recorded in 1990. The data for the period 1970-1990 show a crude increase for males and tend to stabilization for females. The similar pattern is obtained in other countries and geographic areas with steady rise of lc cases with about 0.5% per year. The contribution of particular risk factor and its interaction with other factors is assessed on the basis of large number of epidemiologic and experimental studies. The risk of cigarette smoking, as the principal cause for lc, is discussed in various aspects - age, duration, possible dropping the habit. The assessment of another risk factor - exposure to relatively high doses of natural radon daughter products - is more complicated. As an occupational hazard in uranium mines radon and its progeny reveals an increase in excess lc incidence. Regarding radon and its daughters as an environmental risk factor in dwellings, no clear positive relationship between exposure and lc incidence has been observed. In this case the assessment for population living in areas with higher concentration of radon products have to rely on data from uranium mines. Non radiation factors as asbestos, ethers, chromates, metallic iron, nickel, beryllium and arsenic, are also considered. The combined effect of all these factors, as well as of pathological cell processes, viruses, malfunctions of immune system, is mentioned as well. The possibility of interpreting the findings from epidemiological studies within the framework of theoretical multistage models of carcinogenic process is pointed out. (author)

  5. Risk of gynecologic cancers in Danish hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boilesen, Astrid Elisabeth Bruun; Bisgaard, Marie Luise; Bernstein, Inge

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) families have an elevated risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer. The risk in Lynch syndrome families with known mutations in mismatch repair genes (MMR genes) seems to be higher than in familial colorectal cancer (CRC) famili...

  6. Dairy consumption and ovarian cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommers, M.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2006-01-01

    Ovary cancer risk in relation to consumption of dairy products was investigated using a self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other risk factors for cancer, which was completed in 1986 by 62 573 postmenopausal women participating in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Follow-up for cancer

  7. Cancer recurrence worry, risk perception, and informational-coping styles among Appalachian cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kimberly M; Shedlosky-Shoemaker, Randi; Porter, Kyle; Desimone, Philip; Andrykowski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on the psychosocial impact of the threat of cancer recurrence, underserved populations, such as those from the Appalachian region, have been understudied. To examine worry and perceived risk in cancer survivors, Appalachian and non-Appalachian cancer patients at an ambulatory oncology clinic in a university hospital were surveyed. Appalachians had significantly higher worry than non-Appalachians. Cancer type and lower need for cognition were associated with greater worry. Those with missing perceived risk data were generally older, less educated, and lower in monitoring, blunting, and health literacy. Additional resources are needed to assist Appalachians and those with cancers with poor prognoses (e.g., liver cancer, pancreatic cancer) to cope with worry associated with developing cancer again. More attention for cancer prevention is critical to improve quality of life in underserved populations where risk of cancer is greater. PMID:21240722

  8. Tea drinking and risk of pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Junbao; Chen Long; Zhu Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent results regarding tea consumption and the risk of pancreatic cancer.This study aimed to investigate whether tea consumption is related to the risk of pancreatic cancer.Methods We searched Medline,EMBASE,ISI Web of Science,and the Cochrane library for studies published up to November 2013.We used a meta-analytic approach to estimate overall odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest versus the lowest tea consumption categories.Results The summary OR for high versus no/almost never tea drinkers was 1.04 (95% CI:0.91-1.20),with no significant heterogeneity across studies (P=0.751;I2=0.0%).The OR was 0.99 (95% CI:0.77-1.28) in males and 1.01 (95% CI:0.79-1.29) in females.The OR was 1.07 (95% CI:0.85-1.34) in Asian studies,1.05 (95% CI:0.84-1.31) in European studies,and 0.98 (95% CI:0.72-1.34) in the US studies.The OR was 0.87 (95% CI:0.69-1.10) without adjustment for a history of diabetes and 1.16 (95% CI:0.97-0.39) after adjustment for a history of diabetes.The OR was 0.90 (95% CI:0.72-1.12) without adjustment for alcohol drinking and 1.16 (95% CI:0.96-1.39) after adjustment for alcohol drinking.The OR was 0.97 (95% CI:0.76-1.25) without adjustment for BMI and 1.07 (95% CI:0.87-1.31) after adjustment for BMI.Conclusion This systematic meta-analysis of cohort studies dose not provide quantitative evidence that tea consumption is appreciably related to the risk of pancreatic cancer,even at high doses.

  9. Risk Factors for Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of premenopausal breast cancer is rising throughout South Asia. Our objective was to determine the role of risk factors associated with Westernization for premenopausal breast cancer in Bangladesh. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, at four hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases were premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Controls were premenopausal women with no personal history of breast cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR for breast cancer. Results. We identified 129 age-matched pairs. The mean age of breast cancer diagnosis was 37.5 years. Each year decrease in the age of menarche significantly increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.09–2.56, P=0.02. The risk was also increased with a current body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.10–24.9, P=0.04. Age at first childbirth, parity, and breastfeeding were not significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (P>0.05. Conclusions. Age at menarche and adult weight gain were associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. Other factors associated with Westernization may not be relevant to premenopausal breast cancer risk in Bangladesh.

  10. Risk of primary non-breast cancer after female breast cancer by age at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, Lene; Christensen, Jane; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard;

    2011-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer at young age have been shown to be at higher risk of developing a new primary cancer than women diagnosed at older ages, but little is known about whether adjustment for calendar year of breast cancer diagnosis, length of follow-up, and/or breast cancer treatment...

  11. Changes in mammographic density and breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokate, A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer among women worldwide. One of the most important risk factors for breast cancer is high mammographic density. Mammographic density represents the amount of fibroglandular tissue relative to the fat tissue in the breast. Women with >75% of their b

  12. Contemporary management of low-risk bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falke, J.; Witjes, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors, the majority of which are non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) at initial presentation. Low-risk bladder cancer--defined as pTa low-grade papillary tumors--is the type of NMIBC with the most favorable oncologic outcome. Although the ris

  13. Colorectal Cancer Epidemiology: Incidence, Mortality, Survival, and Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Haggar, Fatima A.; Boushey, Robin P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the incidence, mortality, and survival rates for colorectal cancer are reviewed, with attention paid to regional variations and changes over time. A concise overview of known risk factors associated with colorectal cancer is provided, including familial and hereditary factors, as well as environmental lifestyle-related risk factors such as physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

  14. Risk Prediction Models for Other Cancers or Multiple Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing other multiple cancers over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  15. Physical activity and breast cancer risk in Chinese women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.; Ji, B.T.; Shu, X.O.; Chow, W.H.; Xue, S.; Yang, G; Li, H.L.; Rothman, N.; Gao, Y.T.; Zheng, W.; Matthews, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The influence of different types and intensities of physical activity on risk for breast cancer is unclear. Methods: In a prospective cohort of 73 049 Chinese women (40-70 years), who had worked outside the home, we studied breast cancer risk in relation to specific types of self-reporte

  16. Dietary acrylamide intake is not associated with gastrointestinal cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that was detected in several heat-treated foods, such as French fries and crisps, in 2002. Prospective studies are needed on acrylamide and human cancer risk. We prospectively investigated the association between acrylamide and gastrointestinal cancer risk.

  17. Cancer incidence after retinoblastoma - Radiation dose and sarcoma risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, FL; Boice, JD; Abramson, DH; Tarone, RE; Kleinerman, RA; Stovall, M; Goldman, MB; Seddon, JM; Tarbell, N; Fraumeni, JF; Li, FP

    1997-01-01

    Context.-There is a substantial risk of a second cancer for persons with hereditary retinoblastoma, which is enhanced by radiotherapy. Objective.-To examine long-term risk of new primary cancers in survivors of childhood retinoblastoma and quantify the role of radiotherapy in sarcoma development. De

  18. Communicating Cancer Risk Information: The Challenges of Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Johnson, Joy L.; Lovato, Chris Y.; Joab, S. Amanda

    1998-01-01

    Accurate and sensitive communication of cancer-risk information is important. Based on a literature review of 75 research reports, expert opinion papers, and clinical protocols, a synthesis of what is known about the communication of cancer-risk information is presented. Relevance of information to those not tested is discussed. (Author/EMK)

  19. Stomach cancer risk after treatment for hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Lindsay M; Dores, Graça M; Curtis, Rochelle E;

    2013-01-01

    Treatment-related stomach cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among the growing number of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, but risks associated with specific HL treatments are unclear.......Treatment-related stomach cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among the growing number of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, but risks associated with specific HL treatments are unclear....

  20. Review of screening for pancreatic cancer in high risk individuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alina Stoita; Ian D Penman; David B Williams

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and is associated with a very poor survival. Ten percent of pancreatic cancers result from genetic susceptibility and/or familial aggregation. Individuals from families with multiple affected first-degree relatives and those with a known cancer-causing genetic mutation have been shown to be at much higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Recent efforts have focused on detecting disease at an earlier stage to improve survival in these high-risk groups. This article reviews high-risk groups, screening methods, and current screening programs and their results.

  1. Prospective Evaluation of Risk Factors for Male Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Brinton, Louise A.; Richesson, Douglas A.; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Lacey, James V.; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    Most risk factors for male breast cancer have been derived from retrospective studies that may reflect selective recall. In the prospective National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study, we studied 324 920 men, among whom 121 developed breast cancer. Men who reported a first-degree relative with breast cancer had an increased risk of breast cancer (relative risk [RR] = 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19 to 3.09). Among the medical conditions examined, a new finding emerged r...

  2. Methods to Predict and Lower the Risk of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ercole

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemoprevention for prostate cancer (PCa continues to generate interest from both physicians and the patient population. The goal of chemoprevention is to stop the malignant transformation of prostate cells into cancer. Multiple studies on different substances ranging from supplements to medical therapy have been undertaken. Thus far, only the studies on 5α-reductase inhibitors (the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial [PCPT] and Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events [REDUCE] trial have demonstrated a reduction in the risk of PCa, while results from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT concluded no decreased risk for PCa with selenium or vitamin E.

  3. Risk of ovarian cancer in women with first-degree relatives with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, Marie; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Jensen, Allan;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of ovarian cancer in women with first-degree relatives with cancer at one of the four most frequent hereditary sites based on validated cancer diagnoses and to examine the association according to age at diagnosis of ovarian cancer and histology. DESIGN: Case......-control study. SETTING AND POPULATION: First-degree relatives of 554 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer and 1,564 controls were included. METHODS: Analyses were performed using multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: Ovarian cancer in a first-degree relative was significantly associated...... with ovarian cancer family history tended to be with non-mucinous tumors. Breast cancer in one first-degree female relative was not significantly associated with risk of ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Ovarian cancer in a first-degree relative is a very strong predictor of epithelial ovarian cancer, especially...

  4. Effects on elevating cancer risk in population exposed to natural radionuclide 226Ra if parent radionuclide 238U is entered the body by inhalation or ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    People have always been exposed to ionizing radiation originating from natural radionuclides including 238U, 40K, 232Th that exist in earths crust. Although received doses are small, due to the fact that threshold does not exist, there is a certain risk of developing cancer. Purpose of this study was to measure 238U concentrations in soil of Bela Crkva territory. Based on these measurements, risks of developing cancers are calculated using Monte Carlo method.(author)

  5. Risk and prognosis of endometrial cancer after tamoxifen for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, L; Beelen, MLR; Gallee, MPW; Hollema, H; Benraadt, J; van Leeuwen, FE

    2000-01-01

    Background Tamoxifen increases the risk of endometrial cancer. However, few studies have produced reliable risk estimates by duration, dose, and recency of use, or addressed the prognosis of endometrial cancers in tamoxifen-treated women. Methods We did a nationwide case-control study on the risk an

  6. Colorectal cancer risk in hamartomatous polyposissyndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fábio Guilherme Campos; Marleny Novaes Figueiredo; Carlos Augusto Real Martinez

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidityand mortality around the world, and approximately 5%of them develop in a context of inherited mutationsleading to some form of familial colon cancer syndromes.Recognition and characterization of thesepatients have contributed to elucidate the genetic basisof CRC. Polyposis Syndromes may be categorized bythe predominant histological structure found within thepolyps. The aim of the present paper is to review themost important clinical features of the HamartomatousPolyposis Syndromes, a rare group of genetic disordersformed by the peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenil polyposissyndrome and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome(Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalacaba and Cowden Syndromes).A literature search was performed in order to retrievethe most recent and important papers (articles,reviews, clinical cases and clinical guidelines) regardingthe studied subject. We searched for terms such as"hamartomatous polyposis syndromes", "Peutz-Jegherssyndrome", "juvenile polyposis syndrome", "juvenilepolyp", and "PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome"(Cowden syndrome, Bananyan-Riley-Ruvalcaba). Thepresent article reports the wide spectrum of diseaseseverity and extraintestinal manifestations, with a specialfocus on their potential to develop colorectal and otherneoplasia. In the literature, the reported colorectalcancer risk for Juvenile Polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers andPTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndromes are 39%-68%,39%-57% and 18%, respectively. A review regardingcancer surveillance recommendations is also presented.

  7. Reducing cancer risk in rural communities through supermarket interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Barent N; Lyford, Conrad P; Hensarling, Natalie; Pence, Barbara; McCool, Audrey C; Thapa, Janani; Belasco, Eric; Carter, Tyra M

    2013-09-01

    Cancer risk is high, and prevention efforts are often minimal in rural communities. Feasible means of encouraging lifestyles that will reduce cancer risk for residents of rural communities are needed. This project developed and tested a model that could be feasibly adopted by rural communities to reduce cancer risk. This model focuses on incorporating multi-faceted cancer risk education in the local supermarket. As the supermarket functions both as the primary food source and an information source in small rural communities, the supermarket focus encourages the development of a community environment supportive of lifestyles that should reduce residents' risk for cancer. The actions taken to implement the model and the challenges that communities would have in implementing the model are identified.

  8. Religion and reduced cancer risk: what is the explanation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Andreas; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Ross, Lone;

    2008-01-01

    40 years. In the studies in which adjustment was made only for age and sex, reductions were observed in the risks for lifestyle-associated cancers, i.e. those associated with tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, physical activity and reproductive factors. In the studies in which adjustment......Several studies of members of Christian religious communities have shown significantly lower risks for certain cancers amongst members than in the general population. We identified 17 epidemiological studies of the risk for cancer amongst members of Christian communities published during the past...... was also made for healthy habits, no reduction in risk for cancer was observed. We conclude that the most important factor in the correlation between membership in a religious Christian community and risk for cancer is the healthy lifestyle inherent in religious practice in these communities...

  9. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Letašiová Silvia; Medveďová Alžbeta; Šovčíková Andrea; Dušinská Mária; Volkovová Katarína; Mosoiu Claudia; Bartonová Alena

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment publish...

  10. Association of dialysis with the risks of cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yen Lin

    Full Text Available To increase the survival span after dialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD, identifying specific cancer risks is crucial in the cancer screening of these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the risks of various cancers in an incident dialysis group in comparison with a non-dialysis group.We conducted a nationwide cohort study by using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients who initially received long-term dialysis between January 1997 and December 2004, were selected and defined as the dialysis group and were matched with the non-dialysis patients (control group according to age, sex, and index year. Competing risk analysis was used to estimate cumulative incidence and subdistribution hazard ratios (SHRs of the first cancer occurrence.After consideration for the competing risk of mortality, the dialysis group showed a significantly higher 7-year cancer incidence rate than did the control group (6.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.0%-6.7% vs 1.7%; 95% CI, 1.4%-2.1%; P <0.001.The modified Cox proportional hazard model revealed that the dialysis group had significantly association with increased risks for all cancers (SHR, 3.43; 95% CI, 3.02-3.88. The risk of cancers was dominated in younger and female patients. Specific cancer risks were significantly higher in the dialysis group particularly in the development of oral, colorectal, liver, blood, breast, renal, upper urinary tract, and bladder cancer than in the control group. Multivariable stratified analyses confirmed the association between long-term dialysis and cancer in all subgroups of patients.Dialysis is associated with a higher risk of cancer in patients with ESRD. However, cancer screening in ESRD population should be a selective approach, based on individual patient health condition and life expectancy.

  11. Mediterranean Dietary Pattern and Risk of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth Couto; Sven Sandin; Marie Löf; Giske Ursin; Hans-Olov Adami; Elisabete Weiderpass

    2013-01-01

    Background A Mediterranean diet has a recognized beneficial effect on health and longevity, with a protective influence on several cancers. However, its association with breast cancer risk remains unclear. Objective We aimed to investigate whether adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern influences breast cancer risk. Design The Swedish Women’s Lifestyle and Health cohort study includes 49,258 women aged 30 to 49 years at recruitment in 1991–1992. Consumption of foods and beverages was me...

  12. Selected micronutrient intake and the risk of colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraroni, M; La Vecchia, C.; D'Avanzo, B; De Negri, E.; Franceschi, S; Decarli, A

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between estimated intake of selected micronutrients and the risk of colorectal cancer was analysed using data from a case-control study conducted in northern Italy. The study was based on 828 patients with colon cancer, 498 with rectal cancer and 2,024 controls in hospital for acute, non-neoplastic, non-digestive tract diseases. Relative risks (RRs) of intake quintiles were computed after allowance for age, sex and other major potential confounding factors, including an estim...

  13. Targeted Cancer Screening in Average-Risk Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Pamela M; Freedman, Andrew N; Khoury, Muin J

    2015-11-01

    Targeted cancer screening refers to use of disease risk information to identify those most likely to benefit from screening. Researchers have begun to explore the possibility of refining screening regimens for average-risk individuals using genetic and non-genetic risk factors and previous screening experience. Average-risk individuals are those not known to be at substantially elevated risk, including those without known inherited predisposition, without comorbidities known to increase cancer risk, and without previous diagnosis of cancer or pre-cancer. In this paper, we describe the goals of targeted cancer screening in average-risk individuals, present factors on which cancer screening has been targeted, discuss inclusion of targeting in screening guidelines issued by major U.S. professional organizations, and present evidence to support or question such inclusion. Screening guidelines for average-risk individuals currently target age; smoking (lung cancer only); and, in some instances, race; family history of cancer; and previous negative screening history (cervical cancer only). No guidelines include common genomic polymorphisms. RCTs suggest that targeting certain ages and smoking histories reduces disease-specific cancer mortality, although some guidelines extend ages and smoking histories based on statistical modeling. Guidelines that are based on modestly elevated disease risk typically have either no or little evidence of an ability to affect a mortality benefit. In time, targeted cancer screening is likely to include genetic factors and past screening experience as well as non-genetic factors other than age, smoking, and race, but it is of utmost importance that clinical implementation be evidence-based.

  14. Cancer risk of patients discharged with acute myocardial infarct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Olsen, J H

    1998-01-01

    We studied whether common shared environmental or behavioral risk factors, other than tobacco smoking, underlie both atherosclerotic diseases and cancer. We identified a group of 96,891 one-year survivors of acute myocardial infarct through the Danish Hospital Discharge Register between 1977...... and 1989. We calculated the incidence of cancer in this group by linking it to the Danish Cancer Registry for the period 1978-1993. There was no consistent excess over the expected figures for any of the categories of cancer not related to tobacco smoking. Specifically, the rates of colorectal cancer...... in acute myocardial infarct patients were similar to those of the general population, as were the rates for hormone-related cancers, including endometrial and postmenopausal breast cancers. We found a moderate increase in the risk for tobacco-related cancers, which was strongest for patients with early...

  15. Risk for unemployment of cancer survivors: A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Diderichsen, Finn;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether cancer survivors are at an increased risk for unemployment after cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 65,510 patients who were part of the workforce in the year before diagnosis and a random sample of 316,925 age and gender-matched controls were followed for up to...... that the risk for unemployment was highest amongst persons aged 50-60 years at time of diagnosis. Risk factors for unemployment were found to be manual work, medium income and vocational education. CONCLUSION: Generally, cancer patients were at a small increased risk for unemployment and low...

  16. Extreme Value Theory Approach to Simultaneous Monitoring and Thresholding of Multiple Risk Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.; Li, J.; Liu, R.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Risk assessments often encounter extreme settings with very few or no occurrences in reality.Inferences about risk indicators in such settings face the problem of insufficient data.Extreme value theory is particularly well suited for handling this type of problems.This paper uses a multivariate extr

  17. Examining intuitive risk perceptions for cancer in diverse populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer L.; Baser, Raymond; Weinstein, Neil D.; Li, Yuelin; Primavera, Louis; Kemeny, M. Margaret

    2014-01-01

    In this article we examine intuitive dimensions of personal cancer risk likelihood, which theory and empirical evidence indicate may be important elements in the risk perception process. We draw on data from a study of risk perceptions in three social groups, university students, men living in the community, and primary care patients living in urban area. The study took place in 2007-2011, in New York State (Garden City and New York City) and Boston, Massachusetts. This study used items developed from categories identified in prior qualitative research specifying emotions and attitudes activated in cancer risk determination to examine perception of cancer risks. Across three samples - university students (N=568), community men (N=182), and diverse, urban primary care patients (N=127) - we conducted exploratory factor and construct analyses. We found that the most reliable two factors within the five-factor solution were Cognitive Causation, tapping beliefs that risk thoughts may encourage cancer development, and Negative Affect in Risk, assessing negative feelings generated during the risk perception process. For these factors, there were high levels of item endorsement, especially in minority groups, and only modest associations with established cancer risk perception and worry assessments, indicating novel content. These items may prove useful in measuring and comparing intuitive cancer risk perceptions across diverse population subgroups. PMID:24999304

  18. Occupational asbestos exposure and risk of pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer in the prospective netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, N.S.M.; Vermeulen, R.; Burdorf, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kauppinen, T.; Kromhout, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To study the association between occupational asbestos exposure and pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer, specifically addressing risk associated with the lower end of the exposure distribution, risk of cancer subtypes, and the interaction between asbestos and smoking.

  19. A Prognostic Volumetric Threshold of Gross Tumor Volume in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Treated With Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romesser, Paul B.; Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Subramaniam, Rathan M.; Sakai, Osamu; Jalisi, Scharukh; Truong, Minh T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prognostic utility of a volumetric threshold for gross tumor volume (GTV) of the primary and nodal disease when accounting for the TNM classification in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT). Materials and Methods From 2004 to 2011, 79 HNC patients were treated to a median dose of 70 Gy, using intensity-modulated RT in 78.5% and 3-dimensional conformal RT in 21.5% with 83.5% receiving concurrent chemotherapy. Primary (GTV-P) and nodal (GTV-N) GTVs were derived from computed tomography (CT)-based contours for RT planning, of which 89.7% were aided by positron emission tomography-computed tomography. Local (LC), nodal (NC), distant (DC) control, and overall survival (OS) were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method. Results With a median follow-up of 27.1 months GTV-P, threshold of <32.9 mL (mean value) compared with ≥32.9 mL, correlated with improved 2-year LC (96.2% vs. 63.9%, P < 0.0001), NC (100% vs. 69.2%, P < 0.0001), DC (87.9% vs. 64.2%, P = 0.001), and OS (88.4% vs. 58.6%, P = 0.001). GTV-P demonstrated its prognostic utility in multivariate analyses when adjusted for tumor category, cancer site, and chemotherapy regimen. Nodal GTV (mean, 34.0 mL) was not predictive of nodal control and survival. Conclusions A volumetric threshold of the primary tumor may be used as an independent prognostic factor in patients with HNC undergoing definitive RT. PMID:23211218

  20. Lifestyle risk factors for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The "style of life is the unique way in which individuals try to realize their fictional final goal and meet or avoid the three main tasks of life: work, community, love" (Alfred Adler, founder of the Individual Psychology). Lifestyle refers to the way individuals live their lives and how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. The lifestyle behaviours associated to oral cancer with convincing evidence are tobacco use, betel quid chewing, alcohol drinking, low fruit and vegetable consumption (the detrimental lifestyle is high fat and/or sugar intake, resulting in low fruit and/or vegetable intake). Worldwide, 25% of oral cancers are attributable to tobacco usage (smoking and/or chewing), 7-19% to alcohol drinking, 10-15% to micronutrient deficiency, more than 50% to betel quid chewing in areas of high chewing prevalence. Carcinogenicity is dose-dependent and magnified by multiple exposures. Conversely, low and single exposures do not significantly increase oral cancer risk. These behaviours have common characteristics: (i) they are widespread: one billion men, 250 million women smoke cigarettes, 600-1200 million people chew betel quid, two billion consume alcohol, unbalanced diet is common amongst developed and developing countries; (ii) they were already used by animals and human forerunners millions of years ago because they were essential to overcome conditions such as cold, hunger, famine; their use was seasonal and limited by low availability, in contrast with the pattern of consumption of the modern era, characterized by routine, heavy usage, for recreational activities and with multiple exposures; (iii) their consumption in small doses is not recognized as detrimental by the human body and activates the dopaminergic reward system of the brain, thus giving instant pleasure, "liking" (overconsumption) and "wanting" (craving). For these reasons, effective Public Health measures aimed at preventing oral cancer and other lifestyle-related conditions

  1. Lifestyle risk factors for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The "style of life is the unique way in which individuals try to realize their fictional final goal and meet or avoid the three main tasks of life: work, community, love" (Alfred Adler, founder of the Individual Psychology). Lifestyle refers to the way individuals live their lives and how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. The lifestyle behaviours associated to oral cancer with convincing evidence are tobacco use, betel quid chewing, alcohol drinking, low fruit and vegetable consumption (the detrimental lifestyle is high fat and/or sugar intake, resulting in low fruit and/or vegetable intake). Worldwide, 25% of oral cancers are attributable to tobacco usage (smoking and/or chewing), 7-19% to alcohol drinking, 10-15% to micronutrient deficiency, more than 50% to betel quid chewing in areas of high chewing prevalence. Carcinogenicity is dose-dependent and magnified by multiple exposures. Conversely, low and single exposures do not significantly increase oral cancer risk. These behaviours have common characteristics: (i) they are widespread: one billion men, 250 million women smoke cigarettes, 600-1200 million people chew betel quid, two billion consume alcohol, unbalanced diet is common amongst developed and developing countries; (ii) they were already used by animals and human forerunners millions of years ago because they were essential to overcome conditions such as cold, hunger, famine; their use was seasonal and limited by low availability, in contrast with the pattern of consumption of the modern era, characterized by routine, heavy usage, for recreational activities and with multiple exposures; (iii) their consumption in small doses is not recognized as detrimental by the human body and activates the dopaminergic reward system of the brain, thus giving instant pleasure, "liking" (overconsumption) and "wanting" (craving). For these reasons, effective Public Health measures aimed at preventing oral cancer and other lifestyle-related conditions

  2. High-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: Definition and epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Porten, SP; Cooperberg, MR

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer represents a large majority of patients diagnosed with this disease. Precise definition and risk stratification are paramount in this group as high-risk patients have higher rates of progression and mortality and may benefit from early identification and aggressive treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: The mainstay definitions of high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer are based on grade and stage. Recently, efforts have been made to incorporate ...

  3. Risk factors and novel biomarkers in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fourkala, E.-O.

    2011-01-01

    Efforts continue to identify and validate novel risk factors / biomarkers for breast cancer and improve current risk prediction models in the general population due to ongoing issues with sensitivity and specificity. The overall goal of this PhD study is to add to this effort. Specific aims are to (1) examine which is the best source of getting notified for breast cancer diagnosis in the general population since accurate data is crucial for risk assessment studies (2) investigate the assoc...

  4. Risk of lung cancer in animals following low exposures to Radon-222 progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owing to the facts that a) large uncertainties affect the epidemiology of radon progeny-induced lung cancer in humans (especially at low exposures), and b) the rat is a good model for studying the carcinogenicity of radon progeny in humans, the risk of lung cancer following low exposures to low concentrations of radon progeny can be estimated from data obtained in the laboratory on rats exposed under controlled conditions. From the limited set of laboratory data on the induction of lung cancer in laboratory rats it appears that, at low exposures, the risk of lung cancer decreases with decreasing concentration, and that exposures of the order of 25 WLM, at an exposure rate of 2 WL do not produce any excess lung cancers. Since 20 WLM is a lifetime exposure comparable to those expected in occupational or indoors conditions and 2 WL is an exposure rate about 20 times higher dm current occupational exposures rates and 100 times higher than indoor ones, these observations may be indicative of threshold conditions for the induction of lung cancer by radon progeny. (author)

  5. Exemestane Reduces Breast Cancer Risk in High-Risk Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical trial results presented at the 2011 ASCO annual meeting showed that the aromatase inhibitor exemestane—used to treat early and advanced breast cancer—substantially reduced the risk of invasive breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women.

  6. Evaluating shielding effectiveness for reducing space radiation cancer risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss calculations of probability distribution functions (PDF) representing uncertainties in projecting fatal cancer risk from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). The PDFs are used in significance tests for evaluating the effectiveness of potential radiation shielding approaches. Uncertainties in risk coefficients determined from epidemiology data, dose and dose-rate reduction factors, quality factors, and physics models of radiation environments are considered in models of cancer risk PDFs. Competing mortality risks and functional correlations in radiation quality factor uncertainties are included in the calculations. We show that the cancer risk uncertainty, defined as the ratio of the upper value of 95% confidence interval (CI) to the point estimate is about 4-fold for lunar and Mars mission risk projections. For short-stay lunar missions (180d) or Mars missions, GCR risks may exceed radiation risk limits that are based on acceptable levels of risk. For example, the upper 95% CI exceeding 10% fatal risk for males and females on a Mars mission. For reducing GCR cancer risks, shielding materials are marginally effective because of the penetrating nature of GCR and secondary radiation produced in tissue by relativistic particles. At the present time, polyethylene or carbon composite shielding cannot be shown to significantly reduce risk compared to aluminum shielding based on a significance test that accounts for radiobiology uncertainties in GCR risk projection

  7. Evaluating Shielding Effectiveness for Reducing Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ren, Lei

    2007-01-01

    We discuss calculations of probability distribution functions (PDF) representing uncertainties in projecting fatal cancer risk from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). The PDF s are used in significance tests of the effectiveness of potential radiation shielding approaches. Uncertainties in risk coefficients determined from epidemiology data, dose and dose-rate reduction factors, quality factors, and physics models of radiation environments are considered in models of cancer risk PDF s. Competing mortality risks and functional correlations in radiation quality factor uncertainties are treated in the calculations. We show that the cancer risk uncertainty, defined as the ratio of the 95% confidence level (CL) to the point estimate is about 4-fold for lunar and Mars mission risk projections. For short-stay lunar missions (risk, however one that is mitigated effectively by shielding, especially for carbon composites structures with high hydrogen content. In contrast, for long duration lunar (>180 d) or Mars missions, GCR risks may exceed radiation risk limits, with 95% CL s exceeding 10% fatal risk for males and females on a Mars mission. For reducing GCR cancer risks, shielding materials are marginally effective because of the penetrating nature of GCR and secondary radiation produced in tissue by relativistic particles. At the present time, polyethylene or carbon composite shielding can not be shown to significantly reduce risk compared to aluminum shielding based on a significance test that accounts for radiobiology uncertainties in GCR risk projection.

  8. Efficacy of a touchscreen computer based family cancer history questionnaire and subsequent cancer risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Westman, J; Hampel, H.; Bradley, T.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—A computer based touchscreen family cancer history questionnaire was developed and implemented to facilitate the provision of cancer risk assessments for the ambulatory and outpatient populations of a free standing cancer hospital.
METHODS—A questionnaire consisting of a series of branched point decision making screens was developed which enables the participant to enter demographic data, personal cancer history, and cancer histories for first and second degree relatives. A freestan...

  9. Increased risk of cancer among relatives of patients with lung cancer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Ming; Xu Yingchun; Jin Yongtang; Xue Saoli

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Genetic factors were considered as one of the risk factors for lung cancer or other cancers. The aim of this work was to determine whether a genetic predisposition accounts for such familial aggregation of cancer among relatives of lung cancer probands. Methods A case-control study was conducted in 800 case families identified by lung cancer patients (probands), and in 800 control families identified by the probands'spouses. The data were analysed with logistic regression ...

  10. Breast cancer risk assessment using genetic variants and risk factors in a Singapore Chinese population

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Charmaine Pei Ling; Irwanto, Astrid; Salim, Agus; Yuan, Jian-Min; Liu, Jianjun; Koh, Woon Puay; Hartman, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Genetic variants for breast cancer risk identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Western populations require further testing in Asian populations. A risk assessment model incorporating both validated genetic variants and established risk factors may improve its performance in risk prediction of Asian women. Methods A nested case-control study of female breast cancer (411 cases and 1,212 controls) within the Singapore Chinese Health Study was conducted to investigat...

  11. LOW RISK PROSTATE CANCER: ACTIVE TREATMENT OR ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomašković, Igor

    2015-09-01

    The widely used screening for prostate cancer with prostate specific antigen has resulted in identification of potentially lethal prostate cancers at a much more curable stage and has been associated with significant falls in prostate cancer mortality. In spite of the fact that prostate cancer is one of the deadliest malignancies in men, the advent of sensitive diagnostic testing has also resulted in detection of low risk cancers due to the high incidence of latent prostate cancer in aging men and prolonged natural history of the disease. This, in turn, has entailed the problem of cancer overdiagnosis and subsequent overtreatment. Approximately 6 times as many men will be diagnosed with the disease as will die from it. Active surveillance appeared as a response to the clearly documented risks of overdiagnosis and overtreatment of low risk prostate cancer for localized prostate cancer. It entails initial expectant management rather than immediate therapy, with 'curative-intent' treatment deferred until there is evidence that the patient is at an increased risk of disease progression. This approach attempts to balance the risks and side effects of overtreatment against the possibility of disease progression and lost opportunity for cure. A systematic literature review brings current knowledge on the subject.

  12. Telomere length and the risk of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jin Sung; Choi, Yi Young; Lee, Won Kee; Choi, Jin Eun; Cha, Sung Ick; Kim, Yeon Jae; Kim, Chang Ho; Kam, Sin; Jung, Tae Hoon; Park, Jae Yong

    2008-07-01

    Telomeres play a key role in the maintenance of chromosome integrity and stability. There is growing evidence that short telomeres induce chromosome instability and thereby promote the development of cancer. We investigated the association of telomere length and the risk of lung cancer. Relative telomere length in peripheral blood lymphocytes was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 243 lung cancer patients and 243 healthy controls that were frequency-matched for age, sex and smoking status. Telomere length was significantly shorter in lung cancer patients than in controls (mean +/- standard deviation: 1.59 +/- 0.75 versus 2.16 +/- 1.10, P telomere length, the risk of lung cancer was found to increase as telomere length shortened (P(trend) telomere length was used as the cutoff between long and short telomeres, individuals with short telomeres were at a significantly higher risk of lung cancer than those with long telomeres (adjusted odds ratio = 3.15, 95% confidence interval = 2.12-4.67, P telomere length on the risk of lung cancer was more pronounced in patients with small cell carcinoma than in those with squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma (P = 0.001, test for homogeneity). These findings suggest that shortening of the telomeres may be a risk factor for lung cancer, and therefore, the presence of shortened telomeres may be used as a marker for susceptibility to lung cancer.

  13. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  14. Risk Factors and Epidemiology of Gastric Cancer in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Saeed; Ahmad, Mukhtiar; Asif, Hafiz Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad; Ur Rehman, Saif; Sultana, Sabira

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the 2nd most common cause of death among all cancers and is the 4th most common cancer in the world. The number of deaths due to gastric cancer is about 800,000 annually. Gastric cancer is more common in men as compared to women and is 3rd most common cancer after colorectal and breast cancers in women. A progressive rise in the incidence rate has been observed in females over the last 5 years. The highest incidence of stomach cancer is in China, South America and Eastern Europe. The incidence of gastric cancer has 20 fold variation worldwide. Global variation is linked by two factors which play important role in developing gastric cancer. One is infection with Helicobacter pylori and the 2nd is diet. South Asia is a region with low risk, despite a high prevalence of H.pylori. Gastric carcinoma is common in southern region of India. Gastric cancer is more readily treated if diagnosed early. This study aims to provide awareness about gastric cancer as well as an updated knowledge about risk factors and epidemiology of gastric cancer in Pakistan.

  15. Circulating Adipokines and Inflammatory Markers and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Cushman, Mary; Xue, Xiaonan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Strickler, Howard D.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; McTiernan, Anne; Kaplan, Robert C.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Snetselaar, Linda; Wang, Dan; Ho, Gloria Y. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adipokines and inflammation may provide a mechanistic link between obesity and postmenopausal breast cancer, yet epidemiologic data on their associations with breast cancer risk are limited. Methods: In a case-cohort analysis nested within the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study, a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women, baseline plasma samples from 875 incident breast cancer case patients and 839 subcohort participants were tested for levels of seven adipokines, namely leptin, adiponectin, resistin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, hepatocyte growth factor, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and for C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker. Data were analyzed by multivariable Cox modeling that included established breast cancer risk factors and previously measured estradiol and insulin levels. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The association between plasma CRP levels and breast cancer risk was dependent on hormone therapy (HT) use at baseline (P interaction = .003). In a model that controlled for multiple breast cancer risk factors including body mass index (BMI), estradiol, and insulin, CRP level was positively associated with breast cancer risk among HT nonusers (hazard ratio for high vs low CRP levels = 1.67, 95% confidence interval = 1.04 to 2.68, P trend = .029). None of the other adipokines were statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Following inclusion of CRP, insulin, and estradiol in a multivariable model, the association of BMI with breast cancer was attenuated by 115%. Conclusion: These data indicate that CRP is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer among HT nonusers. Inflammatory mediators, together with insulin and estrogen, may play a role in the obesity–breast cancer relation. PMID:26185195

  16. Obesity and Diabetes: The Increased Risk of Cancer and Cancer-Related Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Emily Jane; LeRoith, Derek

    2015-07-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, and both are associated with an increased incidence and mortality from many cancers. The metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes develop many years before the onset of diabetes and, therefore, may be contributing to cancer risk before individuals are aware that they are at risk. Multiple factors potentially contribute to the progression of cancer in obesity and type 2 diabetes, including hyperinsulinemia and insulin-like growth factor I, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, adipokines and cytokines, and the gut microbiome. These metabolic changes may contribute directly or indirectly to cancer progression. Intentional weight loss may protect against cancer development, and therapies for diabetes may prove to be effective adjuvant agents in reducing cancer progression. In this review we discuss the current epidemiology, basic science, and clinical data that link obesity, diabetes, and cancer and how treating obesity and type 2 diabetes could also reduce cancer risk and improve outcomes. PMID:26084689

  17. Trajectory of body shape across the lifespan and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B; Spiegelman, Donna; Must, Aviva; Wu, Kana; Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-05-15

    The influence of adiposity over life course on cancer risk remains poorly understood. We assessed trajectories of body shape from age 5 up to 60 using a group-based modeling approach among 73,581 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 32,632 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. After a median of approximately 10 years of follow-up, we compared incidence of total and obesity-related cancers (cancers of the esophagus [adenocarcinoma only], colorectum, pancreas, breast [after menopause], endometrium, ovaries, prostate [advanced only], kidney, liver and gallbladder) between these trajectories. We identified five distinct trajectories of body shape: lean-stable, lean-moderate increase, lean-marked increase, medium-stable, and heavy-stable/increase. Compared with women in the lean-stable trajectory, those in the lean-marked increase and heavy-stable/increase trajectories had a higher cancer risk in the colorectum, esophagus, pancreas, kidney, and endometrium (relative risk [RR] ranged from 1.22 to 2.56). Early life adiposity was inversely while late life adiposity was positively associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk. In men, increased body fatness at any life period was associated with a higher risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma and colorectal cancer (RR ranged from 1.23 to 3.01), and the heavy-stable/increase trajectory was associated with a higher risk of pancreatic cancer, but lower risk of advanced prostate cancer. The trajectory-cancer associations were generally stronger for non-smokers and women who did not use menopausal hormone therapy. In conclusion, trajectories of body shape throughout life were related to cancer risk with varied patterns by sex and organ, indicating a role for lifetime adiposity in carcinogenesis.

  18. External validation of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial and the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer risk calculators in a Chinese cohort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Zhu; Ding-Wei Ye; Jin-You Wang; Yi-Jun Shen; Bo Dai; Chun-Guang Ma; Wen-Jun Xiao; Guo-Wen Lin; Xu-Dong Yao; Shi-Lin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Several prediction models have been developed to estimate the outcomes of prostate biopsies.Most of these teels were designed for use with Western populations and have not been validated across different ethnic groups.Therefore,we evaluated the predictive value of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) and the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) risk calculators in a Chinese cohort.Clinicopathological information was obtained from 495 Chinese men who had undergone extended prostate biopsies between January 2009 and March 2011.The estimated probabilities of prostate cancer and high-grade disease (Gleason >6) were calculated using the PCPT and ERSPC risk calculators.Overall measures,discrimination,calibration and clinical usefulness were assessed for the model evaluation.Of these patients,28.7% were diagnosed with prostate cancer and 19.4% had high-grade disease.Compared to the PCPT model and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) threshold of 4 ng ml-1,the ERSPC risk calculator exhibited better discriminative ability for predicting positive biopsies and high-grade disease (the area under the curve was 0.831 and 0.852,respectively,P<0.01 for both).Decision curve analysis also suggested the favourable clinical utility of the ERSPC calculator in the validation dataset.Both prediction models demonstrated miscalibration:the risk of prostate cancer and high-grade disease was overestimated by approximately 20% for a wide range of predicted probabilities.In conclusion,the ERSPC risk calculator outperformed both the PCPT model and the PSA threshold of 4 ng ml-1 in predicting prostate cancer and high-grade disease in Chinese patients.However,the prediction tools derived from Western men significantly overestimated the probability of prostate cancer and high-grade disease compared to the outcomes of biopsies in a Chinese cohort.

  19. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Using Framingham Risk Score in Korean Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Jin-Young; Park, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to investigate the modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors and 10-year probability of the disease based on the Framingham risk score in cancer survivors, compared with the general population. Methods A total of 1,225 cancer survivors and 5,196 non-cancer controls who participated in the 2007–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were enrolled. We assessed modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors including smoking, body mass index, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and elevated blood glucose level. The 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease was determined by applying the Framingham cardiovascular disease risk equation among cancer survivors and non-cancer controls, ranging from 30 to 74 years old who had no overt cardiovascular diseases. Results The proportion of subjects who had higher fasting glucose levels, hemoglobin A1c levels, systolic blood pressure, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and those who had lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was significantly higher in the cancer survivors than in the non-cancer controls. The average 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease among the cancer survivors was higher than that in the non-cancer controls in both men and women. The average 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease in relation to the cancer type was significantly higher in patients with hepatic, colon, lung, breast, and gastric cancer. Conclusion Cancer survivors have a higher cardiovascular disease risk and 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease than non-cancer controls. Control of cardiovascular disease risk factors and implementation of a well-defined cardiovascular disease prevention program are needed for treating cancer survivors. PMID:27468342

  20. Refining Breast Cancer Risk Stratification: Additional Genes, Additional Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Allison W; Antoniou, Antonis C; Domchek, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic technology have enabled far more rapid, less expensive sequencing of multiple genes than was possible only a few years ago. Advances in bioinformatics also facilitate the interpretation of large amounts of genomic data. New strategies for cancer genetic risk assessment include multiplex sequencing panels of 5 to more than 100 genes (in which rare mutations are often associated with at least two times the average risk of developing breast cancer) and panels of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), combinations of which are generally associated with more modest cancer risks (more than twofold). Although these new multiple-gene panel tests are used in oncology practice, questions remain about the clinical validity and the clinical utility of their results. To translate this increasingly complex genetic information for clinical use, cancer risk prediction tools are under development that consider the joint effects of all susceptibility genes, together with other established breast cancer risk factors. Risk-adapted screening and prevention protocols are underway, with ongoing refinement as genetic knowledge grows. Priority areas for future research include the clinical validity and clinical utility of emerging genetic tests; the accuracy of developing cancer risk prediction models; and the long-term outcomes of risk-adapted screening and prevention protocols, in terms of patients' experiences and survival. PMID:27249685

  1. Isoflavones - Mechanism of Action and Impact on Breast Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Stubert, Johannes; Gerber, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Isoflavones are plant-derived substances with weak es-trogenic effects. Asian populations are high consumers of soy products which are rich in isoflavones. The lower breast cancer incidence in Asian women compared with Western women has been associated with the possibility of a preventive isoflavone effect on cancer risk. The aim of this review is to give an overview of current research data on the influence of isoflavones on the risk of primary breast cancer development as well as the risk o...

  2. Risk of Air Pollution in Relation to Cancer in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Ketzel, Matthias; Becker, Thomas;

    no exceedances of the EU air quality values. The only exceedance of US-EPA 1:100,000 cancer risk concentrations occurs for the PAH BaP in Denmark. However, the EU target value threshold for BaP is not exceeded. No emission data for BaP are available for the other countries and important uncertainties are still...... related to the Danish emissions. Long-range transport is significant except for BaP that originates mostly from residential wood combustion. It is recommended to monitor the influence from residential wood combustion more extensively, and to analyze longer time trends for long-term human exposure....

  3. Systemic risk in multiplex networks with asymmetric coupling and threshold feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholz, Rebekka; Leduc, Matt V.; Garas, Antonios; Schweitzer, Frank

    2016-06-01

    We study cascades on a two-layer multiplex network, with asymmetric feedback that depends on the coupling strength between the layers. Based on an analytical branching process approximation, we calculate the systemic risk measured by the final fraction of failed nodes on a reference layer. The results are compared with the case of a single layer network that is an aggregated representation of the two layers. We find that systemic risk in the two-layer network is smaller than in the aggregated one only if the coupling strength between the two layers is small. Above a critical coupling strength, systemic risk is increased because of the mutual amplification of cascades in the two layers. We even observe sharp phase transitions in the cascade size that are less pronounced on the aggregated layer. Our insights can be applied to a scenario where firms decide whether they want to split their business into a less risky core business and a more risky subsidiary business. In most cases, this may lead to a drastic increase of systemic risk, which is underestimated in an aggregated approach.

  4. Reduced cancer risk in vegetarians: an analysis of recent reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanou, Amy Joy; Svenson, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews current evidence regarding the relationship between vegetarian eating patterns and cancer risk. Although plant-based diets including vegetarian and vegan diets are generally considered to be cancer protective, very few studies have directly addressed this question. Most large prospective observational studies show that vegetarian diets are at least modestly cancer protective (10%-12% reduction in overall cancer risk) although results for specific cancers are less clear. No long-term randomized clinical trials have been conducted to address this relationship. However, a broad body of evidence links specific plant foods such as fruits and vegetables, plant constituents such as fiber, antioxidants and other phytochemicals, and achieving and maintaining a healthy weight to reduced risk of cancer diagnosis and recurrence. Also, research links the consumption of meat, especially red and processed meats, to increased risk of several types of cancer. Vegetarian and vegan diets increase beneficial plant foods and plant constituents, eliminate the intake of red and processed meat, and aid in achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. The direct and indirect evidence taken together suggests that vegetarian diets are a useful strategy for reducing risk of cancer. PMID:21407994

  5. Reduced cancer risk in vegetarians: an analysis of recent reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Joy Lanou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Amy Joy Lanou1, Barbara Svenson21Department of Health and Wellness, 2Ramsey Library, University of North Carolina Asheville, Asheville, NC, USAAbstract: This report reviews current evidence regarding the relationship between vegetarian eating patterns and cancer risk. Although plant-based diets including vegetarian and vegan diets are generally considered to be cancer protective, very few studies have directly addressed this question. Most large prospective observational studies show that vegetarian diets are at least modestly cancer protective (10%–12% reduction in overall cancer risk although results for specific cancers are less clear. No long-term randomized clinical trials have been conducted to address this relationship. However, a broad body of evidence links specific plant foods such as fruits and vegetables, plant constituents such as fiber, antioxidants and other phytochemicals, and achieving and maintaining a healthy weight to reduced risk of cancer diagnosis and recurrence. Also, research links the consumption of meat, especially red and processed meats, to increased risk of several types of cancer. Vegetarian and vegan diets increase beneficial plant foods and plant constituents, eliminate the intake of red and processed meat, and aid in achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. The direct and indirect evidence taken together suggests that vegetarian diets are a useful strategy for reducing risk of cancer.Keywords: diet, vegan, prevention

  6. BRCA1/BRCA2 founder mutations and cancer risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed Nielsen, Henriette; Nilbert, Mef; Petersen, Janne;

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes significantly contribute to hereditary breast cancer and ovarian cancer, but the phenotypic effect from different mutations is insufficiently recognized. We used a western Danish clinic-based cohort of 299 BRCA families to study the female cancer risk...... in mutation carriers and their untested first-degree relatives. Founder mutations were characterized and the risk of cancer was assessed in relation to the specific mutations. In BRCA1, the cumulative cancer risk at age 70 was 35 % for breast cancer and 29 % for ovarian cancer. In BRCA2, the cumulative risk...... was 44 % for breast cancer and 15 % for ovarian cancer. We identified 47 distinct BRCA1 mutations and 48 distinct mutations in BRCA2. Among these, 8 founder mutations [BRCA1 c.81-?_4986+?del, c.3319G>T (p.Glu1107*), c.3874delT and c.5213G>A (p.Gly1738Glu) and BRCA2 c.6373delA, c.7008-1G>A, c.7617+1G...

  7. Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is present in the body. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker for ... and other types of cancer, may also increase AFP levels. Specific tumor markers that may lead to ...

  8. Hormonal risk factors and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer risk by parity

    OpenAIRE

    Bodelon, C; Wentzensen, N; Schonfeld, S. J.; Visvanathan, K; Hartge, P; Park, Y; Pfeiffer, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested that several ovarian cancer risk factors differ by parity status, but these findings have not been confirmed. We evaluated whether known risk factors of ovarian cancer differ between nulliparous and parous women using data from two large prospective cohorts. Methods: Data from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial were combined for this analysis. Cox regressio...

  9. Disparities in Cancer Genetic Risk Assessment and Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Meghan L; Jones, Tarsha; Habin, Karleen

    2016-07-01

    Scientific and technologic advances in genomics have revolutionized genetic counseling and testing, targeted therapy, and cancer screening and prevention. Among younger women, African American and Hispanic women have a higher rate of cancers that are associated with hereditary cancer risk, such as triple-negative breast cancer, which is linked to poorer outcomes. Therefore, genetic testing is particularly important in diverse populations. Unfortunately, all races and ethnic groups are not well represented in current genetic testing practices, leading to disparities in cancer prevention and early detection. PMID:27314195

  10. Oral cancer: Etiology and risk factors: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy in the world. Oral cancer is of major concern in Southeast Asia primarily because of the prevalent oral habits of betel quid chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Despite recent advances in cancer diagnoses and therapies, the 5.year survival rate of oral cancer patients has remained at a dismal 50% in the last few decades. This paper is an overview of the various etiological agents and risk factors implicated in the development of oral cancer.

  11. Risk factors for subsequent endocrine-related cancer in childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; Medici, M; Peeters, R P; van der Lely, A J; Neggers, S J C M M

    2016-06-01

    Long-term adverse health conditions, including secondary malignant neoplasms, are common in childhood cancer survivors. Although mortality attributable to secondary malignancies declined over the past decades, the risk for developing a solid secondary malignant neoplasm did not. Endocrine-related malignancies are among the most common secondary malignant neoplasms observed in childhood cancer survivors. In this systematic review, we describe risk factors for secondary malignant neoplasms of the breast and thyroid, since these are the most common secondary endocrine-related malignancies in childhood cancer survivors. Radiotherapy is the most important risk factor for secondary breast and thyroid cancer in childhood cancer survivors. Breast cancer risk is especially increased in survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma who received moderate- to high-dosed mantle field irradiation. Recent studies also demonstrated an increased risk after lower-dose irradiation in other radiation fields for other childhood cancer subtypes. Premature ovarian insufficiency may protect against radiation-induced breast cancer. Although evidence is weak, estrogen-progestin replacement therapy does not seem to be associated with an increased breast cancer risk in premature ovarian-insufficient childhood cancer survivors. Radiotherapy involving the thyroid gland increases the risk for secondary differentiated thyroid carcinoma, as well as benign thyroid nodules. Currently available studies on secondary malignant neoplasms in childhood cancer survivors are limited by short follow-up durations and assessed before treatment regimens. In addition, studies on risk-modifying effects of environmental and lifestyle factors are lacking. Risk-modifying effects of premature ovarian insufficiency and estrogen-progestin replacement therapy on radiation-induced breast cancer require further study. PMID:27229933

  12. Insights from Epidemiology into Dichloromethane and Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Siegel Scott

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Dichloromethane (methylene chloride is a widely used chlorinated solvent. We review the available epidemiology studies (five cohort studies, 13 case-control studies, including seven of hematopoietic cancers, focusing on specific cancer sites. There was little indication of an increased risk of lung cancer in the cohort studies (standardized mortality ratios ranging from 0.46 to 1.21. These cohorts are relatively small, and variable effects (e.g., point estimates ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 were seen for the rarer forms of cancers such as brain cancer and specific hematopoietic cancers. Three large population-based case-control studies of incident non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Europe and the United States observed odds ratios between 1.5 and 2.2 with dichloromethane exposure (ever exposed or highest category of exposure, with higher risk seen in specific subsets of disease. More limited indications of associations with brain cancer, breast cancer, and liver and biliary cancer were also seen in this collection of studies. Existing cohort studies, given their size and uneven exposure information, are unlikely to resolve questions of cancer risks and dichloromethane exposure. More promising approaches are population-based case-control studies of incident disease, and the combination of data from such studies, with robust exposure assessments that include detailed occupational information and exposure assignment based on industry-wide surveys or direct exposure measurements.

  13. Native Women at Risk: Addressing Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Kay M. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses outcomes of a conference that brought together representatives from Indian tribes, state health departments, the Indian Health Service, the Mayo Clinic, and the American Cancer Society, to address the high rate of cervical cancer among American Indian women. Describes barriers to health care and plans to promote cancer screening among…

  14. Low Risk Prostate Cancer and Active Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bul (Meelan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe first part of this thesis comprises an introduction to prostate cancer and screening (chapter 1). The European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) has shown an effect of screening on prostate cancer mortality in favor of the screening population, however, contro

  15. Risk assessment models for cancer-associated venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutia, Mrinal; White, Richard H; Wun, Ted

    2012-07-15

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in cancer patients, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Several factors, including procoagulant agents secreted by tumor cells, immobilization, surgery, indwelling catheters, and systemic treatment (including chemotherapy), contribute to an increased risk of VTE in cancer patients. There is growing interest in instituting primary prophylaxis in high-risk patients to prevent incident (first-time) VTE events. The identification of patients at sufficiently high risk of VTE to warrant primary thromboprophylaxis is essential, as anticoagulation may be associated with a higher risk of bleeding. Current guidelines recommend the use of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in postoperative and hospitalized cancer patients, as well as ambulatory cancer patients receiving thalidomide or lenalidomide in combination with high-dose dexamethasone or chemotherapy, in the absence of contraindications to anticoagulation. However, the majority of cancer patients are ambulatory, and currently primary thromboprophylaxis is not recommended for these patients, even those considered at very high risk. In this concise review, the authors discuss risk stratification models that have been specifically developed to identify cancer patients at high risk for VTE, and thus might be useful in future studies designed to determine the potential benefit of primary thromboprophylaxis.

  16. Meta analysis of risk factors for colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Chen; Jiong-Liang Qiu; Yang Zhang; Yu-Wan Zhao

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the risk factors for colorectal cancer in China.METHODS: A meta-analysis of the risk factors of colorectal cancer was conducted for 14 case-control studies, and reviewed 14 reports within 13 years which included 5034cases and 5205 controls. Dersimonian and Laird random effective models were used to process the results.RESULTS: Meta analysis of the 14 studies demonstrated that proper physical activites and dietary fibers were protective factors (pooled OR<0.8), while fecal mucohemorrhage,chronic diarrhea and polyposis were highly associated with colorectal cancer (all pooled OR>4). The stratified results showed that different OR values of some factors were due to geographic factors or different resourses.CONCLUSION: Risks of colorectal cancer are significantly associated with the histories of intestinal diseases or relative symptoms, high lipid diet, emotional trauma and family history of cancers. The suitable physical activities and dietary fibers are protective factors.

  17. Gene-environment interaction and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Anja; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Schmidt, Marjanka K

    2016-01-19

    Hereditary, genetic factors as well as lifestyle and environmental factors, for example, parity and body mass index, predict breast cancer development. Gene-environment interaction studies may help to identify subgroups of women at high-risk of breast cancer and can be leveraged to discover new genetic risk factors. A few interesting results in studies including over 30,000 breast cancer cases and healthy controls indicate that such interactions exist. Explorative gene-environment interaction studies aiming to identify new genetic or environmental factors are scarce and still underpowered. Gene-environment interactions might be stronger for rare genetic variants, but data are lacking. Ongoing initiatives to genotype larger sample sets in combination with comprehensive epidemiologic databases will provide further opportunities to study gene-environment interactions in breast cancer. However, based on the available evidence, we conclude that associations between the common genetic variants known today and breast cancer risk are only weakly modified by environmental factors, if at all.

  18. Yet Another Mammography Measure to Evaluate Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Brandt, Sami; Nielsen, Mads

    Background: Breast density has been shown to improve breast cancer risk assessment in several large studies. Currently, however, the density is not used to assess risk in standard clinical procedures or included in general breast cancer risk assessment tools such as Wolfe Patterns (Wolfe et al 1997...... propose a novel data driven measures taking not just the density but also the texture and its heterogeneity into account. By use of computerized pattern recognition techniques, the local texture may be scored for disposition of breast cancer development. Objective: Investigate to which degree the local...... of the statistical analysis when their scores were computed. This was always done leaving a case and a control out simultaneously to treat both classes equal. Results: The categorical score significantly separated cancer and control (p=0.001) and also interval and screen cancers (p=0.04). Similar results were...

  19. Estimating cancer risks to adults undergoing body CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study is to estimate cancer risks from the amount of radiation used to perform body computed tomography (CT) examination. The ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator was used to compute values of organ doses for adult body CT examinations. The radiation used to perform each examination was quantified by the dose-length product (DLP). Patient organ doses were converted into corresponding age and sex dependent cancer risks using data from BEIR VII. Results are presented for cancer risks per unit DLP and unit effective dose for 11 sensitive organs, as well as estimates of the contribution from 'other organs'. For patients who differ from a standard sized adult, correction factors based on the patient weight and antero-posterior dimension are provided to adjust organ doses and the corresponding risks. At constant incident radiation intensity, for CT examinations that include the chest, risks for females are markedly higher than those for males, whereas for examinations that include the pelvis, risks in males were slightly higher than those in females. In abdominal CT scans, risks for males and female patients are very similar. For abdominal CT scans, increasing the patient age from 20 to 80 resulted in a reduction in patient risks of nearly a factor of 5. The average cancer risk for chest/abdomen/pelvis CT examinations was ∼26 % higher than the cancer risk caused by 'sensitive organs'. Doses and radiation risks in 80 kg adults were ∼10 % lower than those in 70 kg patients. Cancer risks in body CT can be estimated from the examination DLP by accounting for sex, age, as well as patient physical characteristics. (authors)

  20. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis and High Risk Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma

  1. Systemic risk in multiplex networks with asymmetric coupling and threshold feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Burkholz, Rebekka; Garas, Antonios; Schweitzer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We study cascades on a two-layer multiplex network, with asymmetric feedback that depends on the coupling strength between the layers. Based on an analytical branching process approximation, we calculate the systemic risk measured by the final fraction of failed nodes on a reference layer. The results are compared with the case of a single layer network that is an aggregated representation of the two layers. We find that systemic risk in the two-layer network is smaller than in the aggregated one only if the coupling strength between the two layers is small. Above a critical coupling strength, systemic risk is increased because of the mutual amplification of cascades in the two layers. We even observe sharp phase transitions in the cascade size that are less pronounced on the aggregated layer. Our insights can be applied to a scenario where firms decide whether they want to split their business into a less risky core business and a more risky subsidiary business. In most cases, this may lead to a drastic incr...

  2. The readability of online breast cancer risk assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Sarah; Milbrandt, Melissa; Kaphingst, Kimberly; James, Aimee; Colditz, Graham

    2015-11-01

    Numerous breast cancer risk assessment tools that allow users to input personal risk information and obtain a personalized breast cancer risk estimate are available on the Internet. The goal of these tools is to increase screening awareness and identify modifiable health behaviors; however, the utility of this risk information is limited by the readability of the material. We undertook this study to assess the overall readability of breast cancer risk assessment tools and accompanying information, as well as to identify areas of suggested improvement. We searched for breast cancer risk assessment tools, using five search terms, on three search engines. All searches were performed on June 12, 2014. Sites that met inclusion criteria were then assessed for readability using the suitability assessment of materials (SAM) and the SMOG readability formula (July 1, 2014–January 31, 2015). The primary outcomes are the frequency distribution of overall SAM readability category (superior, adequate, or not suitable) and mean SMOG reading grade level. The search returned 42 sites were eligible for assessment, only 9 (21.4 %) of which achieved an overall SAM superior rating, and 27 (64.3 %) were deemed adequate. The average SMOG reading grade level was grade 12.1 (SD 1.6, range 9–15). The readability of breast cancer risk assessment tools and the sites that host them is an important barrier to risk communication. This study demonstrates that most breast cancer risk assessment tools are not accessible to individuals with limited health literacy skills. More importantly, this study identifies potential areas of improvement and has the potential to heighten a physician’s awareness of the Internet resources a patient might navigate in their quest for breast cancer risk information.

  3. Anthropometry and the Risk of Lung Cancer in EPIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dewi, Nikmah Utami; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Johansson, Mattias;

    2016-01-01

    The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer......, and the average length of follow-up was 11 years. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models in which we modeled smoking variables with cubic splines. Overall, there was a significant inverse association between BMI (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and the risk of lung cancer after adjustment...... positively associated with lung cancer risk (for the highest category of waist circumference vs. the lowest, hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.50). Given the decline of the inverse association between BMI and lung cancer over time, the association is likely at least partly due to weight...

  4. Automatic breast cancer risk assessment from digital mammograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Brandt, Sami; Karssemeijer, N;

    Purpose: Textural characteristics of the breast tissue structure on mammogram have been shown to improve breast cancer risk assessment in several large studies. Currently, however, the texture is not used to assess risk in standard clinical procedures or involved in general breast cancer risk...... have investigated a fully automatic and robust risk assessment tool that can take not just the density but also the texture and heterogeneity of the breast tissue into account. By the use of computerized pattern recognition and machine learning techniques, the local texture may be scored......-control study (Otten et al, 2005) includes mammograms (MLO view) of 245 patients diagnosed with breast cancer in the subsequent 2-4 years (123 interval and 122 screen detected cancers) and 250 matched controls. We use the state-of-the-art anatomical breast coordinate system (Brandt et al, submitted) where every...

  5. Software Speeds Up Analysis of Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161117.html Software Speeds Up Analysis of Breast Cancer Risk: Study ... 22, 2016 THURSDAY, Sept. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Software that quickly analyzes mammograms and patient history to ...

  6. Doctors Should Bone Up on CT Scan Cancer Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159909.html Doctors Should Bone Up on CT Scan Cancer Risks Many not aware of exact radiation ... July 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Doctors routinely order CT scans as diagnostic tools. But many are ill-informed ...

  7. What Are the Risk Factors for Anal Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have few or no known risk factors. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection Most squamous cell anal cancers ... to be linked to infection by the human papilloma virus (HPV), the same virus that causes cervical ...

  8. Submission Form for Peer-Reviewed Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have information about a peer-reviewd cancer risk prediction model that you would like to be considered for inclusion on this list, submit as much information as possible through the form on this page.

  9. Eat well, keep well and reduce your risk of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    This leaflet highlights Northern Ireland's incidence of cancer as an important public health concern, and explains how eating more fruit, vegetables and other fibre rich foods can significantly reduce our risk of getting the disease.

  10. Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... studies have used detailed questionnaires to examine participants’ meat consumption and meat cooking methods to estimate HCA and ... A, et al. A large prospective study of meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk: An investigation of potential ...

  11. Risk-optimized proton therapy to minimize radiogenic second cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton therapy confers substantially lower predicted risk of second cancer compared with photon therapy. However, no previous studies have used an algorithmic approach to optimize beam angle or fluence-modulation for proton therapy to minimize those risks. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the feasibility of risk-optimized proton therapy and to determine the combination of beam angles and fluence weights that minimizes the risk of second cancer in the bladder and rectum for a prostate cancer patient. We used 6 risk models to predict excess relative risk of second cancer. Treatment planning utilized a combination of a commercial treatment planning system and an in-house risk-optimization algorithm. When normal-tissue dose constraints were incorporated in treatment planning, the risk model that incorporated the effects of fractionation, initiation, inactivation, repopulation and promotion selected a combination of anterior and lateral beams, which lowered the relative risk by 21% for the bladder and 30% for the rectum compared to the lateral-opposed beam arrangement. Other results were found for other risk models. (paper)

  12. Obesity and Diabetes: The Increased Risk of Cancer and Cancer-Related Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Emily Jane; LeRoith, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, and both are associated with an increased incidence and mortality from many cancers. The metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes develop many years before the onset of diabetes and, therefore, may be contributing to cancer risk before individuals are aware that they are at risk. Multiple factors potentially contribute to the progression of cancer in obesity and type 2 diabetes, including hyperinsulinemi...

  13. Diabetes mellitus, other medical conditions and familial history of cancer as risk factors for pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, D.T. (Debra T.); Schiffman, M; Everhart, J; Goldstein, A.; Lillemoe, K D; Swanson, G.M.; Schwartz, A. G.; Brown, L.M.; Greenberg, R S; Schoenberg, J. B.; Pottern, L M; Hoover, R. N.; Fraumeni, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    In a population-based case-control study of pancreatic cancer conducted in three areas of the USA, 484 cases and 2099 controls were interviewed to evaluate the aetiologic role of several medical conditions/interventions, including diabetes mellitus, cholecystectomy, ulcer/gastrectomy and allergic states. We also evaluated risk associated with family history of cancer. Our findings support previous studies indicating that diabetes is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, as well as a possible c...

  14. Risk perception after genetic counseling in patients with increased risk of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rantala Johanna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Counselees are more aware of genetics and seek information, reassurance, screening and genetic testing. Risk counseling is a key component of genetic counseling process helping patients to achieve a realistic view for their own personal risk and therefore adapt to the medical, psychological and familial implications of disease and to encourage the patient to make informed choices 12. The aim of this study was to conceptualize risk perception and anxiety about cancer in individuals attending to genetic counseling. Methods The questionnaire study measured risk perception and anxiety about cancer at three time points: before and one week after initial genetic counseling and one year after completed genetic investigations. Eligibility criteria were designed to include only index patients without a previous genetic consultation in the family. A total of 215 individuals were included. Data was collected during three years period. Results Before genetic counseling all of the unaffected participants subjectively estimated their risk as higher than their objective risk. Participants with a similar risk as the population overestimated their risk most. All risk groups estimated the risk for children's/siblings to be lower than their own. The benefits of preventive surveillance program were well understood among unaffected participants. The difference in subjective risk perception before and directly after genetic counseling was statistically significantly lower in all risk groups. Difference in risk perception for children as well as for population was also statistically significant. Experienced anxiety about developing cancer in the unaffected subjects was lower after genetic counseling compared to baseline in all groups. Anxiety about cancer had clear correlation to perceived risk of cancer before and one year after genetic investigations. The affected participants overestimated their children's risk as well as risk for anyone in

  15. Risk Factors of Lymph Edema in Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Shahpar, Haghighat; Atieh, Akbari; Maryam, Ansari; Fatemeh, Homaei Shandiz; Massoome, Najafi; Mandana, Ebrahimi; Masud, Yunesian; Hamid Reza, Mirzaei; Mohammad Esmaeil, Akbari

    2013-01-01

    Background. Lymphedema secondary to breast cancer treatment is a common and serious problem for disease survivors. The objective of the current study was to identify the risk factors of secondary lymphedema after breast carcinoma treatment. Materials & Methods. The breast cancer patients who were followed up in three centers in Tehran and Mashhad in 2010 were recruited in the study. The circumference measurement was used for defining lymphedema. Results. Among 410 breast cancer patients, 123 ...

  16. Citrus Fruit Intake Substantially Reduces the Risk of Esophageal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Anqiang; Zhu, Chengpei; Fu, Lilan; Wan, Xueshuai; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haohai; Miao, Ruoyu; He, Lian; Sang, Xinting; ZHAO, HAITAO

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many epidemiologic studies indicate a potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and various cancers. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The authors conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from inception until July 2014. Studies presenting information about citrus intake and esophageal cancer were analyzed. The authors extracted the categories of...

  17. How to reduce your cancer risk: mechanisms and myths

    OpenAIRE

    Nahleh Z; Bhatti NS; Mal M

    2011-01-01

    Zeina Nahleh1, Narinder Singh Bhatti2, Meenakshi Mal21Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, TTUHSC-Paul L Foster School of Medicine, El Paso, TX, USA; 2Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, IndiaAbstract: Cancer prevention continues to be a high research priority and the most optimal way to ultimately lower the economic and psychological burden of cancer. Many known risk factors associated with cancer are related to dietary and lifestyle factors ...

  18. Insights from Epidemiology into Dichloromethane and Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Cheryl Siegel Scott; Cooper, Glinda S.; Bale, Ambuja S.

    2011-01-01

    Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) is a widely used chlorinated solvent. We review the available epidemiology studies (five cohort studies, 13 case-control studies, including seven of hematopoietic cancers), focusing on specific cancer sites. There was little indication of an increased risk of lung cancer in the cohort studies (standardized mortality ratios ranging from 0.46 to 1.21). These cohorts are relatively small, and variable effects (e.g., point estimates ranging from 0.5 to 2.0) we...

  19. REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AND COLORECTAL CANCER RISK. Case - control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Ruseva; Radka Lazarova; Ilko Kosturkov; Vesselina Ianachkova; Stella Yordanova; Zhivka Boneva; Diana Nikolovska

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The role of the female sex hormones in the etiology of the disease is very intriguing. Reproductive factors are surrogate measure of lifetime exposition to the sex hormones. Purpose: Our aim is to investigate the association between the reproductive factors and colorectal carcinoma risk. Materials and methods: We include 234 Bulgarian women in our study – 117 cases with colorectal cancer and the same number of healthy contr...

  20. Identifying patients at risk of emergency admission for colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, D.; Walker, K.; Kuryba, A; Finan, P; Scott, N.; Van Der Meulen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients whose colorectal cancer is treated after an emergency admission tend to have late-stage cancer and a poor prognosis. We identified risk factors for an emergency admission by linking data from the National Bowel Cancer Audit (NBCA) and the English Hospital Episode Statistics (HES), an administrative database of all admissions to English National Health Service hospitals, which includes data on mode of admission. Methods: We identified all adults included in the NBCA with a...

  1. Risk factors for ovarian cancer: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, M.; Beral, V; SMITH, P.

    1989-01-01

    A hospital-based case-control study of ovarian cancer was conducted in London and Oxford between October 1978 and February 1983. Menstrual characteristics, reproductive and contraceptive history and history of exposure to various environmental factors were compared between 235 women with histologically diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer and 451 controls. High gravidity, hysterectomy, female sterilisation and oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer. Infert...

  2. Breast cancer risk in metabolically healthy but overweight postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Marc J; Xie, Xianhong; Xue, Xiaonan; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Rohan, Thomas E; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Ho, Gloria Y F; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Greco, Theresa; Yu, Herbert; Beasley, Jeannette; Strickler, Howard D

    2015-01-15

    Adiposity is an established risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. Recent data suggest that high insulin levels in overweight women may play a major role in this relationship, due to insulin's mitogenic/antiapoptotic activity. However, whether overweight women who are metabolically healthy (i.e., normal insulin sensitivity) have elevated risk of breast cancer is unknown. We investigated whether overweight women with normal insulin sensitivity [i.e., homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, or fasting insulin level, within the lowest quartile (q1)] have increased breast cancer risk. Subjects were incident breast cancer cases (N = 497) and a subcohort (N = 2,830) of Women's Health Initiative (WHI) participants with available fasting insulin and glucose levels. In multivariate Cox models, metabolically healthy overweight women, defined using HOMA-IR, were not at elevated risk of breast cancer compared with metabolically healthy normal weight women [HRHOMA-IR, 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-1.42]. In contrast, the risk among women with high (q3-4) HOMA-IRs was elevated whether they were overweight (HRHOMA-IR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.19-2.60) or normal weight (HRHOMA-IR, 1.80; 95% CI, 0.88-3.70). Similarly, using fasting insulin to define metabolic health, metabolically unhealthy women (insulin q3-4) were at higher risk of breast cancer regardless of whether they were normal weight (HRinsulin, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.01-4.22) or overweight (HRinsulin, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.35-2.99), whereas metabolically healthy overweight women did not have significantly increased risk of breast cancer (HRinsulin, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.64-1.42) relative to metabolically healthy normal weight women. Metabolic health (e.g., HOMA-IR or fasting insulin) may be more biologically relevant and more useful for breast cancer risk stratification than adiposity per se. PMID:25593034

  3. Breast Cancer Risk – Genes, Environment and Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Fasching, P. A.; Ekici, A B; Adamietz, B. R.; Wachter, D. L.; Hein, A; Bayer, C. M.; Häberle, L.; Loehberg, C. R.; Jud, S.M.; Heusinger, K.; Rübner, M.; Rauh, C.; Bani, M. R.; Lux, M. P.; Schulz-Wendtland, R.

    2011-01-01

    The information available about breast cancer risk factors has increased dramatically during the last 10 years. In particular, studies of low-penetrance genes and mammographic density have improved our understanding of breast cancer risk. In addition, initial steps have been taken in investigating interactions between genes and environmental factors. This review concerns with actual data on this topic. Several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) with a case–control design, as well as larg...

  4. Factors affecting recognition of cancer risks of nuclear workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Kneale, G. W.; Stewart, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To discover whether direct estimates of the risks of cancer for nuclear workers agree with indirect estimates based on survivors of the atomic bomb; whether relations between age at exposure and risk of cancer are the same for workers and survivors, and whether dosimetry standards are sufficiently uniform to allow pooling of data from different nuclear industrial sites. METHOD--Data from five nuclear sites in the United States were included in a cohort analysis that as well as con...

  5. Cancer Risk Map for the Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss calculations of the median and 95th percentile cancer risks on the surface of Mars for different solar conditions. The NASA Space Radiation Cancer Risk 2010 model is used to estimate gender and age specific cancer incidence and mortality risks for astronauts exploring Mars. Organ specific fluence spectra and doses for large solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) at various levels of solar activity are simulated using the HZETRN/QMSFRG computer code, and the 2010 version of the Badhwar and O Neill GCR model. The NASA JSC propensity model of SPE fluence and occurrence is used to consider upper bounds on SPE fluence for increasing mission lengths. In the transport of particles through the Mars atmosphere, a vertical distribution of Mars atmospheric thickness is calculated from the temperature and pressure data of Mars Global Surveyor, and the directional cosine distribution is implemented to describe the spherically distributed atmospheric distance along the slant path at each elevation on Mars. The resultant directional shielding by Mars atmosphere at each elevation is coupled with vehicle and body shielding for organ dose estimates. Astronaut cancer risks are mapped on the global topography of Mars, which was measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter. Variation of cancer risk on the surface of Mars is due to a 16-km elevation range, and the large difference is obtained between the Tharsis Montes (Ascraeus, Pavonis, and Arsia) and the Hellas impact basin. Cancer incidence risks are found to be about 2-fold higher than mortality risks with a disproportionate increase in skin and thyroid cancers for all astronauts and breast cancer risk for female astronauts. The number of safe days on Mars to be below radiation limits at the 95th percent confidence level is reported for several Mission design scenarios.

  6. Depot medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera) and risk of breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    C. Paul; Skegg, D C; Spears, G F

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether use of the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera) affects the risk of breast cancer in women. DESIGN--A population based case-control study. SETTING--Nationwide community study. SUBJECTS--891 Women aged 25-54 with newly diagnosed breast cancer were compared with 1864 women selected at random from the electoral rolls. INTERVENTION--Women were interviewed by telephone about past use of contraceptives and about possible risk fact...

  7. Breast cancer risk in metabolically healthy but overweight postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Marc J; Xie, Xianhong; Xue, Xiaonan; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Rohan, Thomas E; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Ho, Gloria Y F; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Greco, Theresa; Yu, Herbert; Beasley, Jeannette; Strickler, Howard D

    2015-01-15

    Adiposity is an established risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. Recent data suggest that high insulin levels in overweight women may play a major role in this relationship, due to insulin's mitogenic/antiapoptotic activity. However, whether overweight women who are metabolically healthy (i.e., normal insulin sensitivity) have elevated risk of breast cancer is unknown. We investigated whether overweight women with normal insulin sensitivity [i.e., homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, or fasting insulin level, within the lowest quartile (q1)] have increased breast cancer risk. Subjects were incident breast cancer cases (N = 497) and a subcohort (N = 2,830) of Women's Health Initiative (WHI) participants with available fasting insulin and glucose levels. In multivariate Cox models, metabolically healthy overweight women, defined using HOMA-IR, were not at elevated risk of breast cancer compared with metabolically healthy normal weight women [HRHOMA-IR, 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-1.42]. In contrast, the risk among women with high (q3-4) HOMA-IRs was elevated whether they were overweight (HRHOMA-IR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.19-2.60) or normal weight (HRHOMA-IR, 1.80; 95% CI, 0.88-3.70). Similarly, using fasting insulin to define metabolic health, metabolically unhealthy women (insulin q3-4) were at higher risk of breast cancer regardless of whether they were normal weight (HRinsulin, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.01-4.22) or overweight (HRinsulin, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.35-2.99), whereas metabolically healthy overweight women did not have significantly increased risk of breast cancer (HRinsulin, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.64-1.42) relative to metabolically healthy normal weight women. Metabolic health (e.g., HOMA-IR or fasting insulin) may be more biologically relevant and more useful for breast cancer risk stratification than adiposity per se.

  8. Physical activity and breast cancer risk in Chinese women

    OpenAIRE

    Pronk, A; Ji, B-T; Shu, X-O; Chow, W-H; Xue, S; Yang, G; Li, H-L; Rothman, N.; Gao, Y-T; Zheng, W.; Matthews, C E

    2011-01-01

    Background: The influence of different types and intensities of physical activity on risk for breast cancer is unclear. Methods: In a prospective cohort of 73 049 Chinese women (40–70 years), who had worked outside the home, we studied breast cancer risk in relation to specific types of self-reported and work history-related physical activity, including adolescent and adult exercise and household activity and walking and cycling for transportation. Occupational sitting time and physical activ...

  9. Physical activity and breast cancer risk in Chinese women

    OpenAIRE

    Pronk, A; Ji, B. T.; Shu, X. O.; Chow, W H; Xue, S; Yang, G; H.L. Li; Rothman, N.; Gao, Y. T.; Zheng, W.; Matthews, C E

    2011-01-01

    Background: The influence of different types and intensities of physical activity on risk for breast cancer is unclear. Methods: In a prospective cohort of 73 049 Chinese women (40-70 years), who had worked outside the home, we studied breast cancer risk in relation to specific types of self-reported and work history-related physical activity, including adolescent and adult exercise and household activity and walking and cycling for transportation. Occupational sitting time and physical activ...

  10. Photosensitizing medication use and risk of skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Jeanette; Boyd, Heather A; Hansen, Anne;

    2010-01-01

    Many commonly used medications, including both medications for long-term (daily) use and short-term use (treatment courses of finite duration), have photosensitizing properties. Whether use of these medications affects skin cancer risk, however, is unclear.......Many commonly used medications, including both medications for long-term (daily) use and short-term use (treatment courses of finite duration), have photosensitizing properties. Whether use of these medications affects skin cancer risk, however, is unclear....

  11. Progestin and breast cancer risk: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Marsha; Porter, Nancy; Orekoya, Olubunmi; Hebert, James R; Adams, Swann Arp; Bennett, Charles L; Steck, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review summarizes research on the use of progestin and breast cancer risk. Although mainly used for contraception, progestin can help treat menstrual disorders, and benign breast, uterine, and ovarian diseases. Breast cancer is the leading site of new, non-skin, cancers in females in the United States, and possible factors that may modulate breast cancer risk need to be identified. ProQuest (Ann Arbor, MI) and PubMed-Medline (US National Library of Medicine, Bethesda MD, USA) databases were used to search for epidemiologic studies from 2000 to 2015 that examined the association between progestin and breast cancer. Search terms included epidemiologic studies + progesterone or progestin or progestogen or contraceptive or contraceptive agents + breast cancer or breast neoplasms. A total of six studies were included in the review. Five of the six studies reported no association between progestin-only formulations (including norethindrone oral contraceptives, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, injectable, levonorgestrel system users, implantable and intrauterine devices) and breast cancer risk. Duration of use was examined in a few studies with heterogeneous results. Unlike studies of other oral contraceptives, studies indicate that progestin-only formulations do not increase the risk of breast cancer, although the literature is hampered by small sample sizes. Future research is needed to corroborate these findings, as further understanding of synthetic progesterone may initiate new prescription practices or guidelines for women's health.

  12. Starting Hormone Therapy at Menopause Increases Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to a January 28, 2011 article in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, women who start taking menopausal hormone therapy around the time of menopause have a higher risk of breast cancer than women who begin taking hormones a few years later.

  13. Risk factors for anastomotic dehiscence in colon cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gessler, Bodil; Bock, David; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this was to assess potential risk factors for anastomotic dehiscence in colon cancer surgery in a national cohort. METHODS: All patients, who had undergone a resection of a large bowel segment with an anastomosis between 2008 and 2011, were identified in the Swedish Colon Cancer...

  14. Common filaggrin gene mutations and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Sørensen, Erik;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As carriers of filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations may have a compromised cervical mucosal barrier against human papillomavirus infection, our primary objective was to study their risk of cervical cancer. METHODS: We genotyped 586 cervical cancer patients for the two most common FLG mutati...

  15. Metabolites of tobacco smoking and colorectal cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Amanda J.; Boca, Simina; Freedman, Neal D.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Huang, Wen-Yi; Sinha, Rashmi; Sampson, Joshua N.; Moore, Steven C

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies report inconsistent and modest associations between smoking and colorectal cancer. Serum hydroxycotinine captures smoking behavior and metabolic variation, and is associated with a 2.7-fold increased risk of incident colorectal cancer, supporting a role for tobacco in this malignancy.

  16. 7q21-rs6964587 and breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milne, Roger L; Lorenzo-Bermejo, Justo; Burwinkel, Barbara;

    2011-01-01

    Using the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, the authors previously reported that the single nucleotide polymorphism 7q21-rs6964587 (AKAP9-M463I) is associated with breast cancer risk. The authors have now assessed this association more comprehensively using 16 independent case-control studies....

  17. Radiation and cancer risk in atomic-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, K; Ozasa, K; Okubo, T

    2012-03-01

    With the aim of accurately assessing the effects of radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has, over several decades, conducted studies of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, comprising 93 000 atomic-bomb survivors and 27 000 controls. Solid cancer: the recent report on solid cancer incidence found that at age 70 years following exposure at age 30 years, solid cancer rates increase by about 35%  Gy(-1) for men and 58% Gy(-1) for women. Age-at-exposure is an important risk modifier. In the case of lung cancer, cigarette smoking has been found to be an important risk modifier. Radiation has similar effects on first-primary and second-primary cancer risks. Finally, radiation-associated increases in cancer rates appear to persist throughout life. Leukaemia: the recent report on leukaemia mortality suggests that radiation effects on leukaemia mortality persisted for more than 50 years. Moreover, significant dose-response for myelodysplastic syndrome was observed in Nagasaki LSS members even 40-60 years after radiation exposure. Future perspective: given the continuing solid cancer increase in the survivor population, the LSS will likely continue to provide important new information on radiation exposure and solid cancer risks for another 15-20 years, especially for those exposed at a young age. PMID:22394591

  18. Progestin and breast cancer risk: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Marsha; Porter, Nancy; Orekoya, Olubunmi; Hebert, James R; Adams, Swann Arp; Bennett, Charles L; Steck, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review summarizes research on the use of progestin and breast cancer risk. Although mainly used for contraception, progestin can help treat menstrual disorders, and benign breast, uterine, and ovarian diseases. Breast cancer is the leading site of new, non-skin, cancers in females in the United States, and possible factors that may modulate breast cancer risk need to be identified. ProQuest (Ann Arbor, MI) and PubMed-Medline (US National Library of Medicine, Bethesda MD, USA) databases were used to search for epidemiologic studies from 2000 to 2015 that examined the association between progestin and breast cancer. Search terms included epidemiologic studies + progesterone or progestin or progestogen or contraceptive or contraceptive agents + breast cancer or breast neoplasms. A total of six studies were included in the review. Five of the six studies reported no association between progestin-only formulations (including norethindrone oral contraceptives, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, injectable, levonorgestrel system users, implantable and intrauterine devices) and breast cancer risk. Duration of use was examined in a few studies with heterogeneous results. Unlike studies of other oral contraceptives, studies indicate that progestin-only formulations do not increase the risk of breast cancer, although the literature is hampered by small sample sizes. Future research is needed to corroborate these findings, as further understanding of synthetic progesterone may initiate new prescription practices or guidelines for women's health. PMID:26700034

  19. Lifestyle Plays Bigger Part Than Genes In Cancer Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江素序

    2000-01-01

    The world’s biggest study of cancer in twins has shown that the risk ofdeveloping the disease depends on how you live rather than who are your parents.Although genetic factors play a minor role in some cancers, including those of the

  20. What Are the Risk Factors for Stomach Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People with PJS have an increased risk of cancers of the breast, colon, pancreas , stomach, and several other organs. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the gene STK1 . A family history of stomach cancer People with first-degree relatives (parents, siblings, or ...

  1. BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BP. Fanconi anemia and the development of leukemia. Best practice & research. Clinical Haematology 2014; 27(3-4):214- ... 2007; 39(2):165–167. [PubMed Abstract] Related Resources Cancer Genetics Risk ... and Human Services National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute ...

  2. Occupational lung cancer risk among men in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preller, L.; Balder, H.F.; Tielemans, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To assess male lung cancer risks for industrial sectors in the Netherlands and to estimate the proportion of lung cancer attributed to working in specific industrial sectors. Methods: Associations were studied among men aged 55-69 years (n = 58 279) from the prospective Netherlands Cohor

  3. Aromatase Inhibitors and Other Compounds for Lowering Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  4. Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection-Associated Risk of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Shen, Zhaojun; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As whether Chlamydia trachomatis infection increases the risk of cervical cancer is controversial in the literature, we performed a meta-analysis. Based on a comprehensive search of publications in the Medline, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases, we identified and extracted data from all relevant articles examining C. trachomatis infection and the risk of cervical cancer. The quality of each included study was assessed according to the 9-star Newcastle–Ottawa scale. The strength of association between the C. trachomatis and risk of cervical cancer was estimated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). This review was registered at PROSPERO with registration No. CRD42014015672. A total of 22 studies with 4291 cervical cancer cases and 7628 controls were identified. Overall, C. trachomatis was significantly linked to increased cervical cancer risk in prospective studies (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.88–2.61, P papilloma virus and C. trachomatis has a higher risk of cervical cancer (OR = 4.03, 95% CI: 3.15–5.16, P papilloma virus infections. This approach will not only protect against pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility, but may also prevent cervical cancer. PMID:27043670

  5. A KRAS-variant in Ovarian Cancer Acts as a Genetic Marker of Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ratner, Elena; Lu, Lingeng; Boeke, Marta; Barnett, Rachel; Nallur, Sunitha; Chin, Lena J; Pelletier, Cory; Blitzblau, Rachel; Tassi, Renata; Paranjape, Trupti; Hui, Pei; Andrew K Godwin; Yu, Herbert; Risch, Harvey; Rutherford, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the single most deadly form of women’s cancer, typically presenting as an advanced disease at diagnosis in part due to a lack of known risk factors or genetic markers of risk. The KRAS oncogene and altered levels of the microRNA let-7 are associated with an increased risk of developing solid tumors. In this study, we investigated a hypothesized association between an increased risk of ovarian cancer and a variant allele of KRAS at rs61764370, referred to as the KRAS-variant,...

  6. Cancer in first-degree relatives and risk of testicular cancer in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2011-11-15

    Familial aggregation of testicular cancer has been reported consistently, but it is less clear if there is any association between risk of testicular cancer and other cancers in the family. We conducted a population-based case-control study to examine the relationship between risk of testicular cancer and 22 different cancers in first-degree relatives. We included 3,297 cases of testicular cancer notified to the Danish Cancer Registry between 1991 and 2003. A total of 6,594 matched controls were selected from the Danish Civil Registration System, which also provided the identity of 40,104 first-degree relatives of case and controls. Familial cancer was identified by linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry, and we used conditional logistic regression to analyze whether cancer among first-degree relatives was associated with higher risk of testicular cancer. Rate ratio for testicular cancer was 4.63 (95% CI: 2.41-8.87) when a father, 8.30 (95% CI: 3.81-18.10) when a brother and 5.23 (95% CI: 1.35-20.26) when a son had testicular cancer compared to no familial testicular cancer. Results were similar when analyses were stratified by histologic subtypes of testicular cancer. Familial non-Hodgkin lymphoma and esophageal cancer were associated with testicular cancer; however, these may be chance findings. The familial aggregation of testicular and possibly other cancers may be explained by shared genes and/or shared environmental factors, but the mutual importance of each of these is difficult to determine. PMID:21207375

  7. Cardiovascular risk during hormonal treatment in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this review is to provide information on cardiovascular risk following androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer patients and to suggest potential prevention and management strategies. Androgen deprivation therapy can cause peripheral insulin resistance, increase fat mass and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and induce type 2 diabetes. While recent studies have reported an association in patients with prostate cancer between ADT and increased risk of cardiovascular events, other studies have not detected the association. However, at this time, it is plausible that ADT could increase cardiovascular risk because of the adverse effect of ADT on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. It is advisable that prostate cancer patients in whom ADT is initiated be referred to their physician, who will carefully monitor them for potential metabolic effects. Therefore, physicians should be informed about these potential side effects. This especially applies to men aged >65 years and those with pre-existing cardiovascular comorbidities. Adopting a healthy lifestyle including a balanced diet and regular physical activity is recommended. Patients with cardiovascular disease should receive appropriate preventive therapies, including lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, glucose-lowering, and antiplatelet therapy. ADT should preferably not be unnecessarily administered to prostate cancer patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, certainly not to those in whom the risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality is low. The physician should carefully weigh the potential benefits of ADT against the possible risks in individual patients with prostate cancer

  8. TRICHOMONOSIS AND SUBSEQUENT RISK OF PROSTATE CANCER IN THE PROSTATE CANCER PREVENTION TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Alderete, John F.; Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Hsing, Ann W.; Zenilman, Jonathan M; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    We previously observed a positive association between a history of trichomonosis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the protozoan, Trichomonas vaginalis, and prostate cancer risk in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. To determine the reproducibility of this finding, we conducted a second, prospective investigation of trichomonosis and prostate cancer in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Participants were men ≥55 years of age with no evidence of prostate cancer at enrollmen...

  9. Cancer Recurrence Worry, Risk Perception, and Informational-Coping Styles among Appalachian Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Kimberly M.; Shedlosky-Shoemaker, Randi; Porter, Kyle; DeSimone, Philip; Andrykowski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on the psychosocial impact of the threat of cancer recurrence, underserved populations, such as those from the Appalachian region, have been understudied. To examine worry and perceived risk in cancer survivors, cancer patients at an ambulatory oncology clinic in a university hospital were surveyed. Appalachians had significantly higher worry than non-Appalachians. Cancer type and lower need for cognition were associated with greater worry. Those with missing perc...

  10. Perceptions of Cancer Controllability and Cancer Risk Knowledge: The Moderating Role of Race, Ethnicity, and Acculturation

    OpenAIRE

    RAMÍREZ, A. SUSANA; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Oh, April; Vengoechea, Bryan Leyva; Moser, Richard P; Vanderpool, Robin C.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2013-01-01

    Literature suggests racial/ethnic minorities, particularly those who are less-acculturated, have stronger fatalistic attitudes toward cancer than do non-Latino Whites. Knowledge of cancer prevention is also lower among racial/ethnic minorities. Moreover, low knowledge about cancer risk factors is often associated with fatalistic beliefs. Our study examined fatalism and cancer knowledge by race/ethnicity and explored whether race/ethnicity moderate the association of fatalism with knowledge of...

  11. Prevalence and risk factors for cervical cancer and pre-cancerous lesions in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Makuza, Jean Damascène; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Muhimpundu, Marie Aimee; Pace, Lydia Eleanor; Ntaganira, Joseph; Riedel, David James

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cervical cancer prevalence in Rwanda has not been well-described. Visual inspection with acetic acid or Lugol solution has been shown to be effective for cervical cancer screening in low resource settings. The aim of the study is to understand the prevalence and risk factors for cervical cancer and pre- cancerous lesions among Rwandan women between 30 and 50 old undergoing screening. Methods This cross-sectional analytical study was done in 3 districts of Rwanda from October 2010...

  12. Dietary consumption patterns and laryngeal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastarakos, Petros V; Vassileiou, Andrianna; Delicha, Evie; Kikidis, Dimitrios; Protopapas, Dimosthenis; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a case-control study to investigate the effect of diet on laryngeal carcinogenesis. Our study population was made up of 140 participants-70 patients with laryngeal cancer (LC) and 70 controls with a non-neoplastic condition that was unrelated to diet, smoking, or alcohol. A food-frequency questionnaire determined the mean consumption of 113 different items during the 3 years prior to symptom onset. Total energy intake and cooking mode were also noted. The relative risk, odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression analysis. We found that the total energy intake was significantly higher in the LC group (p analysis (p analysis (p = 0.029; OR: 1.16). LC patients also consumed significantly more fried food (p = 0.036); this difference also remained significant in the logistic regression model (p = 0.026; OR: 5.45). The LC group also consumed significantly more seafood (p = 0.012); the difference persisted after logistic regression analysis (p = 0.009; OR: 2.48), with the consumption of shrimp proving detrimental (p = 0.049; OR: 2.18). Finally, the intake of zinc was significantly higher in the LC group before and after logistic regression analysis (p = 0.034 and p = 0.011; OR: 30.15, respectively). Cereal consumption (including pastas) was also higher among the LC patients (p = 0.043), with logistic regression analysis showing that their negative effect was possibly associated with the sauces and dressings that traditionally accompany pasta dishes (p = 0.006; OR: 4.78). Conversely, a higher consumption of dairy products was found in controls (p analysis showed that calcium appeared to be protective at the micronutrient level (p < 0.001; OR: 0.27). We found no difference in the overall consumption of fruits and vegetables between the LC patients and controls; however, the LC patients did have a greater consumption of cooked tomatoes and cooked root vegetables (p = 0.039 for both), and the controls had more

  13. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: 12 ways to reduce your cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Joachim; Espina, Carolina; Villain, Patricia; Herrero, Rolando; Leon, Maria E; Minozzi, Silvia; Romieu, Isabelle; Segnan, Nereo; Wardle, Jane; Wiseman, Martin; Belardelli, Filippo; Bettcher, Douglas; Cavalli, Franco; Galea, Gauden; Lenoir, Gilbert; Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Nicula, Florian Alexandru; Olsen, Jørgen H; Patnick, Julietta; Primic-Zakelj, Maja; Puska, Pekka; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Wiestler, Otmar; Zatonski, Witold

    2015-12-01

    This overview describes the principles of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer and provides an introduction to the 12 recommendations to reduce cancer risk. Among the 504.6 million inhabitants of the member states of the European Union (EU28), there are annually 2.64 million new cancer cases and 1.28 million deaths from cancer. It is estimated that this cancer burden could be reduced by up to one half if scientific knowledge on causes of cancer could be translated into successful prevention. The Code is a preventive tool aimed to reduce the cancer burden by informing people how to avoid or reduce carcinogenic exposures, adopt behaviours to reduce the cancer risk, or to participate in organised intervention programmes. The Code should also form a base to guide national health policies in cancer prevention. The 12 recommendations are: not smoking or using other tobacco products; avoiding second-hand smoke; being a healthy body weight; encouraging physical activity; having a healthy diet; limiting alcohol consumption, with not drinking alcohol being better for cancer prevention; avoiding too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation; avoiding cancer-causing agents at the workplace; reducing exposure to high levels of radon; encouraging breastfeeding; limiting the use of hormone replacement therapy; participating in organised vaccination programmes against hepatitis B for newborns and human papillomavirus for girls; and participating in organised screening programmes for bowel cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer. PMID:26164654

  14. Brief Report: Family cancer history affecting risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective cohort of Chinese women

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Gwen; Shu, Xiao Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Ji, Bu-Tian; Cook, Michael Blaise; YANG, Gong; Li, Hong-Lan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zheng, Wei; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2009-01-01

    An elevated risk of colorectal cancer has been associated with sporadic colorectal cancer in first degree relatives, mostly in Western populations. Limited data exists from traditionally low-risk areas, such as Asia, where the prevalence of risk factors may differ. We examined the association of family history of cancer and subsequent colorectal cancer risk in a cohort of traditionally low-risk Chinese women.

  15. Cancer risks posed by aflatoxin M1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, D P; Cullen, J M; Hsieh, L S; Shao, Y; Ruebner, B H

    1985-01-01

    The suspect milk-borne carcinogen, aflatoxin M1 (AFM), was produced and isolated from the rice culture of the fungus Aspergillus flavus NRRL3251 for confirmation and determination of the potency of its carcinogenicity in the male adult Fischer rat. The carcinogen was mixed into an agar-based, semisynthetic diet at 0, 0.5, 5, and 50 ppb (microgram/kg) and was fed to groups of animals continuously for 19-21 months. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB), of which AFM is a metabolite, at 50 ppb was used as a positive control. Hepatocarcinogenicity of AFM was detected at 50 ppb, but not at 5 or 0.5 ppb, with a potency of 2-10% that of AFB. A low incidence of intestinal adenocarcinomas was found in the AFM 50 ppb group, but not in any other groups. At 0.5 ppb, the action level enforced by the U.S.A. Food and Drug Administration, AFM induced no liver lesions in the rats but stimulated the animals' growth. On the average, the rats in the 0.5 ppb group weighed 11% (p less than 0.001) more than those in the control group. This increased growth was associated with increased feed intake. Based on the biological activity of AFM at the relevant low doses and the estimated level of human exposure to AFM through consumption of milk, the cancer risk posed by this contaminant for human adults is assessed to be very low. For infants, further studies are warranted because milk constitutes the major ingredient of the infant diet and because infant animals have been shown to be more sensitive to the carcinogenicity of AFB than adult animals.

  16. Active Smoking, Passive Smoking, and Breast Cancer Risk: Findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingsong; Kikuchi, Shogo; Tamakoshi, Koji; Wakai, Kenji; Kondo, Takaaki; Niwa, Yoshimitsu; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Nishio, Kazuko; Suzuki, Sadao; Tokudome, Shinkan; Yamamoto, Akio; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Mori, Mitsuru; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2008-01-01

    Background Evidence is lacking regarding the relationship between cigarette smoking and breast cancer in Japanese women. We examined the association between breast cancer incidence and active and passive smoking in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk. Methods Our study comprised 34,401 women aged 40-79 years who had not been diagnosed previously with breast cancer and who provided information on smoking status at baseline (1988-1990). The subjects were followed from enrollment until December 31, 2001. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between breast cancer incidence and tobacco smoke. Results During 271,412 person-years of follow-up, we identified 208 incident cases of breast cancer. Active smoking did not increase the risk of breast cancer, with a HR for current smokers of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.32-1.38). Furthermore, an increased risk of breast cancer was not observed in current smokers who smoked a greater number of cigarettes each day. Overall, passive smoking at home or in public spaces was also not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among nonsmokers. Women who reported passive smoking during childhood had a statistically insignificant increase in risk (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.84-1.85), compared with those who had not been exposed during this time. Conclusion Smoking may not be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in this cohort of Japanese women. PMID:18403857

  17. Tobacco and lung cancer: risks, trends, and outcomes in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Graham W; Cummings, K Michael

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use, primarily associated with cigarette smoking, is the largest preventable cause of cancer mortality, responsible for approximately one-third of all cancer deaths. Approximately 85% of lung cancers result from smoking, with an additional fraction caused by secondhand smoke exposure in nonsmokers. The risk of lung cancer is dose dependent, but can be dramatically reduced with tobacco cessation, especially if the person discontinues smoking early in life. The increase in lung cancer incidence in different countries around in the world parallels changes in cigarette consumption. Lung cancer risks are not reduced by switching to filters or low-tar/low-nicotine cigarettes. In patients with cancer, continued tobacco use after diagnosis is associated with poor therapeutic outcomes including increased treatment-related toxicity, increased risk of second primary cancer, decreased quality of life, and decreased survival. Tobacco cessation in patients with cancer may improve cancer treatment outcomes, but cessation support is often not provided by oncologists. Reducing the health related effects of tobacco requires coordinated efforts to reduce exposure to tobacco, accurately assess tobacco use in clinical settings, and increase access to tobacco cessation support. Lung cancer screening and coordinated international tobacco control efforts offer the promise to dramatically reduce lung cancer mortality in the coming decades.

  18. Optical transillumination spectroscopy of breast tissue for cancer risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilge, Lothar; Blyschak, Kristina; Simick, Michelle; Jong, Roberta A.

    2003-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in women. The lifetime risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer is approximately 1 in 10 thereby the highest out of all cancers. Breast cancer screening programs have been shown to decrease the mortality rates of women between ages 50-69, since cancers are detected at an earlier, more favourable stage. It is apparent that the development of breast cancer is a slow process following initial transformation of the breast tissue. Hence, there has been a strong effort within the research community to understand risk factors for the disease. Risk factors are defined as those characteristics that are more common in people with the disease when compared to the normal population. Quantification of an individual's breast cancer rate may lead that individual to modify her lifestyle and/or diet. Lifestyle changes could lead to a reduction in the incidence of breast cancer. Anatomically, the presence of increased amounts of fibroglandular tissue raises the estimated risk by up to 6 fold (correct for age), hence representing one of the strongest known risk factors pertaining to the entire female population. In this study the relative area of mammographic densities within a mammogram will be used as a global risk assessment tool. It has been shown previously that quantification of water, lipids, haemoglobin and other tissue chromophores of the optically interrogated breast tissue, which also gives rise to the mammographic densities, is feasible through near-infrared spectroscopy. Thus, the hypothesis for this study is that optical transillumination spectroscopy provides consistent and/or complementary information to conventional mammography in quantifying breast tissue density.

  19. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  20. Insulin-Sensitizers, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Gynaecological Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Lauretta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical, early phase clinical trials and epidemiological evidence support the potential role of insulin-sensitizers in cancer prevention and treatment. Insulin-sensitizers improve the metabolic and hormonal profile in PCOS patients and may also act as anticancer agents, especially in cancers associated with hyperinsulinemia and oestrogen dependent cancers. Several lines of evidence support the protection against cancer exerted by dietary inositol, in particular inositol hexaphosphate. Metformin, thiazolidinediones, and myoinositol postreceptor signaling may exhibit direct inhibitory effects on cancer cell growth. AMPK, the main molecular target of metformin, is emerging as a target for cancer prevention and treatment. PCOS may be correlated to an increased risk for developing ovarian and endometrial cancer (up to threefold. Several studies have demonstrated an increase in mortality rate from ovarian cancer among overweight/obese PCOS women compared with normal weight women. Long-term use of metformin has been associated with lower rates of ovarian cancer. Considering the evidence supporting a higher risk of gynaecological cancer in PCOS women, we discuss the potential use of insulin-sensitizers as a potential tool for chemoprevention, hypothesizing a possible rationale through which insulin-sensitizers may inhibit tumourigenesis.

  1. Insulin-Sensitizers, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Gynaecological Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretta, Rosa; Lanzolla, Giulia; Vici, Patrizia; Mariani, Luciano; Moretti, Costanzo

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical, early phase clinical trials and epidemiological evidence support the potential role of insulin-sensitizers in cancer prevention and treatment. Insulin-sensitizers improve the metabolic and hormonal profile in PCOS patients and may also act as anticancer agents, especially in cancers associated with hyperinsulinemia and oestrogen dependent cancers. Several lines of evidence support the protection against cancer exerted by dietary inositol, in particular inositol hexaphosphate. Metformin, thiazolidinediones, and myoinositol postreceptor signaling may exhibit direct inhibitory effects on cancer cell growth. AMPK, the main molecular target of metformin, is emerging as a target for cancer prevention and treatment. PCOS may be correlated to an increased risk for developing ovarian and endometrial cancer (up to threefold). Several studies have demonstrated an increase in mortality rate from ovarian cancer among overweight/obese PCOS women compared with normal weight women. Long-term use of metformin has been associated with lower rates of ovarian cancer. Considering the evidence supporting a higher risk of gynaecological cancer in PCOS women, we discuss the potential use of insulin-sensitizers as a potential tool for chemoprevention, hypothesizing a possible rationale through which insulin-sensitizers may inhibit tumourigenesis. PMID:27725832

  2. Myeloperoxidase genotype, fruit and vegetable consumption, and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Gammon, Marilie D; Santella, Regina M; Gaudet, Mia M; Britton, Julie A; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Terry, Mary Beth; Neugut, Alfred I; Josephy, P David; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2004-10-15

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an antimicrobial enzyme in the breast, generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) endogenously. An MPO G463A polymorphism exists in the promoter region, with the variant A allele conferring lower transcription activity than the common G allele. Because oxidative stress may play a role in breast carcinogenesis, we evaluated MPO genotypes in relation to breast cancer risk among 1,011 cases and 1,067 controls from the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (1996-1997). We also assessed the potential modifying effects of dietary antioxidants and hormonally related risk factors on these relationships. Women over 20 years with incident breast cancer who were residents of Nassau and Suffolk Counties, NY, were identified as potential cases. Population-based controls were frequency matched by 5-year age groups. Genotyping was performed with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) technology, and suspected breast cancer risk factors and usual dietary intake were assessed during an in-person interview. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Having at least one A allele was associated with an overall 13% reduction in breast cancer risk. When consumption of fruits and vegetables and specific dietary antioxidants were dichotomized at the median, inverse associations with either GA or AA genotypes were most pronounced among women who consumed higher amounts of total fruits and vegetables (odds ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.97); this association was not noted among the low-consumption group (P for interaction = 0.04). Relationships were strongest among premenopausal women. Results from this first study of MPO genotypes and breast cancer risk indicate that MPO variants, related to reduced generation of ROS, are associated with decreased breast cancer risk, and emphasize the importance of fruit and vegetable consumption in reduction of breast

  3. Lung cancer risk among textile workers in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmickiene, Irena; Stukonis, Mecys

    2007-01-01

    Background The textile industry is one of the largest employers in Lithuania. IARC monograph concludes that working in the textile manufacturing industry entails exposures that are possibly carcinogenic to humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk of lung cancer incidence in textile industry workers by the type of job and evaluate the relation between occupational textile dusts exposure and lung cancer risk in a cohort. Methods Altogether 14650 textile workers were included in this retrospective study and were followed from 1978 to 2002. Lung cancer risk was analyzed using the standardized incidence ratios (SIR) calculated by the person-years method. The expected number of cases was calculated by indirect methods using Lithuanian incidence rates. Results During the period of 25 years 70 cancer cases for male and 15 for female were identified. The SIR for male was 0.94 (95% CI PI 0.73–1.19), for female 1.36 (95% CI 0.76–2.25). The lung cancer risk for male in the cotton textile production unit was significantly lower after 10 years of employment (SIR = 0.34; 95% CI 0.12–0.73). The lung cancer risk decreased with level of exposure to textile dust (p for trends was <0.05): the SIR for the low, medium, high and very high level of cumulative exposure were 1.91 (95% CI 0.92–3.51), 1.30 (95% CI 0.52–2.69), 0.77 (95% CI 0.21–1.96), and 0.24 (95% CI 0.03–0.86) respectively. Conclusion In our study the exposure to cotton textile dust at workplaces for male is associated with adverse lung cancer risk effects. High level of exposure to cotton dusts appears to be associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer in cotton textile workers. PMID:18021389

  4. Risk factors for sporadic colorectal cancer in southern Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Sheng Wei; Jia-Chun Lu; Lei Wang; Ping Lan; Hong-Jun Zhao; Zhi-Zhong Pan; Jun Huang; Jian-Ping Wang

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the role of smoking, alcohol drinking, family history of cancer, and body mass index (BMI) in sporadic colorectal cancer in southern Chinese.METHODS:A hospital-based case-control study was conducted from July 2002 to December 2008. There were 706 cases and 723 controls with their sex and age (within 5 years) matched. An unconditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between smoking, alcohol drinking, family history of cancer, BMI and sporadic colorectal cancer. RESULTS:No positive association was observed between smoking status and sporadic colorectal cancer risk. Compared with the non alcohol drinkers, the current and former alcohol drinkers had an increased risk of developing sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) (adjusted OR = 8.61 and 95% CI = 6.15-12.05; adjusted OR = 2.30, 95% CI = 1.27-4.17). Moreover, the increased risk of developing sporadic CRC was increased risk of developing sporadic CRC was significant in those with a positive family history of cancer (adjusted OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.12-3.34) and in those with their BMI ≥ 24.0 kg/m2 (adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.10-1.75). Stratification analysis showed that the risk of developing both colon and rectal cancers was increased in current alcohol drinkers (adjusted OR = 7.60 and 95% CI = 5.13-11.25; adjusted OR = 7.52 and 95% CI = 5.13-11.01) and in those with their BMI ≥ 24.0 kg/m2 (adjusted OR = 1.38 and 95% CI = 1.04-1.83; adjusted OR = 1.35 and 95% CI = 1.02-1.79). The risk of developing colon cancer, but not rectal cancer, was found in former alcohol drinkers and in those with a positive family history of cancer (adjusted OR = 2.51 and 95% CI = 1.24-5.07; adjusted OR = 1.82 and 95% CI = 1.17-2.82).CONCLUSION:Alcohol drinking, high BMI (≥ 24.0 kg/m2) and positive family history of cancer are the independent risk factors for colorectal cancer in southern Chinese.

  5. Epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors for renal cell cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Lipworth

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Loren Lipworth1,2, Robert E Tarone1,2, Lars Lund2,3, Joseph K McLaughlin1,21International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD, USA; 2Department of Medicine (JKM, RET and Preventive Medicine (LL, Vanderbilt University Medical Center and Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN, USA; 3Department of Urology, Viborg Hospital, Viborg, DenmarkAbstract: Incidence rates of renal cell cancer, which accounts for 85% of kidney cancers, have been rising in the United States and in most European countries for several decades. Family history is associated with a two- to four-fold increase in risk, but the major forms of inherited predisposition together account for less than 4% of renal cell cancers. Cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most consistently established risk factors. Analgesics have not been convincingly linked with renal cell cancer risk. A reduced risk of renal cell cancer among statin users has been hypothesized but has not been adequately studied. A possible protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption is the only moderately consistently reported dietary finding, and, with the exception of a positive association with parity, evidence for a role of hormonal or reproductive factors in the etiology of renal cell cancer in humans is limited. A recent hypothesis that moderate levels of alcohol consumption may be protective for renal cell cancer is not strongly supported by epidemiologic results, which are inconsistent with respect to the categories of alcohol consumption and the amount of alcohol intake reportedly associated with decreased risk. For occupational factors, the weight of the evidence does not provide consistent support for the hypotheses that renal cell cancer may be caused by asbestos, gasoline, or trichloroethylene exposure. The established determinants of renal cell cancer, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension, account for less than half of these cancers. Novel epidemiologic approaches

  6. HIV tropism and decreased risk of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A Hessol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the first two decades of the U.S. AIDS epidemic, and unlike some malignancies, breast cancer risk was significantly lower for women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection compared to the general population. This deficit in HIV-associated breast cancer could not be attributed to differences in survival, immune deficiency, childbearing or other breast cancer risk factors. HIV infects mononuclear immune cells by binding to the CD4 molecule and to CCR5 or CXCR4 chemokine coreceptors. Neoplastic breast cells commonly express CXCR4 but not CCR5. In vitro, binding HIV envelope protein to CXCR4 has been shown to induce apoptosis of neoplastic breast cells. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that breast cancer risk would be lower among women with CXCR4-tropic HIV infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a breast cancer nested case-control study among women who participated in the WIHS and HERS HIV cohort studies with longitudinally collected risk factor data and plasma. Cases were HIV-infected women (mean age 46 years who had stored plasma collected within 24 months of breast cancer diagnosis and an HIV viral load≥500 copies/mL. Three HIV-infected control women, without breast cancer, were matched to each case based on age and plasma collection date. CXCR4-tropism was determined by a phenotypic tropism assay. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for breast cancer were estimated by exact conditional logistic regression. Two (9% of 23 breast cancer cases had CXCR4-tropic HIV, compared to 19 (28% of 69 matched controls. Breast cancer risk was significantly and independently reduced with CXCR4 tropism (adjusted odds ratio, 0.10, 95% CI 0.002-0.84 and with menopause (adjusted odds ratio, 0.08, 95% CI 0.001-0.83. Adjustment for CD4+ cell count, HIV viral load, and use of antiretroviral therapy did not attenuate the association between infection with CXCR4-tropic HIV and breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Low

  7. Cancer Risk and Surveillance in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folseraas, Trine; Boberg, Kirsten Muri

    2016-02-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic, progressive disease characterized by inflammatory and fibrosing strictures of the biliary tree. PSC is associated with a high lifetime risk of hepatobiliary and colorectal cancers. The nature of the carcinogenic process in PSC is not well established. The lack of diagnostic methods for early detection and the limited therapeutic options for cholangiocarcinoma constitute a major challenge in the current handling of PSC patients. The article reviews the risk for cancer development in PSC and discusses surveillance strategies for PSC-associated cancers.

  8. Breast cancer after bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, A-B; Crüger, Dorthe Gylling; Gerster, M;

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the incidence of breast cancer after risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) in healthy BRCA mutation carriers. This study is a long-term follow-up of 307 BRCA mutation carriers of whom 96 chose RRM. None of the study participants had a previous history of breast or ovarian...... cancer nor had they undergone RRM or risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) prior to the time of BRCA testing. The annual incidence of post-mastectomy breast cancer was 0.8% compared with 1.7% in the non-operated group. Implications of these findings in relation to genetic counseling...

  9. Risk factors associated with oesophageal cancer in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    OpenAIRE

    Vizcaino, A. P.; Parkin, D M; Skinner, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents information on risk factors for oesophageal cancer in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. The data analysed were from the Cancer Registry of Bulawayo for the years 1963-77, when all registered patients were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. The age-standardised incidence rates in the urban population of Bulawayo in the first 10 year period were 58.6 per 100,000 in men and 8.1 in women. The distribution of risk factors was assessed in 881 oesophageal cancer cases (826 male, 55 f...

  10. Cancer risk in aluminum reduction plant workers (Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, J.J.; Demers, P.A.; Le, N.D.; Friesen, M.D.; Lorenzi, M.F.; Fang, R.; Gallagher, R.P. [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    A 14-year update to a previously published historical cohort study of aluminum reduction plant workers was conducted. All men with three or more years at an aluminum reduction plant in British Columbia (BC), Canada between the years 1954 and 1997 were included; a total of 6,423 workers. A total of 662 men were diagnosed with cancer, representing a 400% increase from the original study. Standardized mortality and incidence ratios were used to compare the cancer mortality and incidence of the cohort to that of the BC population. Poisson regression was used to examine risk by cumulative exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV) measured as benzene soluble materials (BSM) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The risk for bladder cancer was related to cumulative exposure to CTPV measured as BSM and BaP (p trends < 0.001), and the risk for stomach cancer was related to exposure measured by BaP (p trend BaP < 0.05). The risks for lung cancer (p trend < 0.001), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (p trend < 0.001), and kidney cancer (p trend < 0.01) also increased with increasing exposure, although the overall rates were similar to that of the general population. Analysis of the joint effect of smoking and CTPV exposure on cancer showed the observed dose-response relationships to be independent of smoking.

  11. Active and passive smoking and risk of ovarian cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, J. A.; Odunuga, O. O.; Rodabaugh, K J; Reid, M.E.; Menezes, R. J.; Moysich, K B

    2009-01-01

    Cancer epidemiologyCancer type:ovarian cancerStudy design:case-controlStudy size:434 cases, 868 controlsDescription of cohort(s) studied:434 women with promary epithelial ovarian, peritoneal, fallopian tube cancer, 868 women randomly selectedExposure(s) evaluated:ETSConfounders controlled for:smoking habitsImpact on risk: nonsmokers with ETS EXPOSURE, OR 0.68, 95%CI 0.47-0.99Current smokers with ETS exposure, OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.34-0.9Never smokres with ETS exposure, OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.1-1.48, P=...

  12. High-Risk Prostate Cancer : From Definition to Contemporary Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastian, Patrick J.; Boorjian, Stephen A.; Bossi, Alberto; Briganti, Alberto; Heidenreich, Axel; Freedland, Stephen J.; Montorsi, Francesco; Roach, Mack; Schroder, Fritz; van Poppel, Hein; Stief, Christian G.; Stephenson, Andrew J.; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: High-risk prostate cancer (PCa) is a potentially lethal disease. It is clinically important to identify patients with high-risk PCa early on because they stand to benefit the most from curative therapy. Because of recent advances in PCa management, a multimodal approach may be advantageous.

  13. Social ties and risk for cancer - a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, C.; Prescott, E.; Gronbaek, M.;

    2009-01-01

    Background. Poor social support and small social networks have been associated with increased risks for conditions such as coronary heart disease as well as with overall mortality. We investigated the association between social ties and risk for cancer. Material and methods. The study sample cons...

  14. Pancreatic cancer risk after treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Dores, G. M.; Curtis, R E; van Leeuwen, F E; Stovall, M.; P Hall; Lynch, C F; Smith, S.A.; Weathers, R. E.; Storm, H H; Hodgson, D. C.; Kleinerman, R. A.; Joensuu, H.; Johannesen, T.B.; M. Andersson; Holowaty, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Risk of subsequent pancreatic cancer among Hodgkin lymphoma survivors increased significantly with both increasing radiation dose to the pancreatic tumor location and increasing number of alkylating agent-containing cycles of chemotherapy. Especially high risks were observed among patients who received both subdiaphragmatic radiotherapy and ≥6 cycles of alkylating agent-containing chemotherapy.

  15. Effect of dutasteride on the risk of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriole, G.L.; Bostwick, D.G.; Brawley, O.W.; Gomella, L.G.; Marberger, M.; Montorsi, F.; Pettaway, C.A.; Tammela, T.L.J.; Teloken, C.; Tindall, D.J.; Somerville, M.C.; Wilson, T.H.; Fowler, I.L.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Schrier, B.P.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a study to determine whether dutasteride reduces the risk of incident prostate cancer, as detected on biopsy, among men who are at increased risk for the disease. METHODS: In this 4-year, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, we com

  16. MINI REVIEW - EPIGENETIC PROCESSES AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment encourages the use of mechanistic data in the assessment of human cancer risk at low (environmental) exposure levels. The key events that define a particular mode of action for tumor fo...

  17. [Cancer morbidity risks among workers of asbestos-cement productions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornaia, A M; Varivonchik, D V; Kundiev, Iu I; Fedorenko, Z P; Gorokh, E L; Gulak, L O; Vitte, P N; Karakashian, A N; Lepeshkina, T R; Martynovskaia, T Iu

    2008-01-01

    The retrospective assessment of morbidity rates and cancer pathology risks in workers of asbestosis-cement enterprises of Ukraine has been made. It was established that annual cancer morbidity among workers makes 88,1 per 100 000 of workers (RR = 0.26, CI 95 % 0.06-1.01). The most often cancer pathology was located in digestive organs (48.1%), respiratory organs (18.5%) (lung cancer--11.1%). The mesothelioma of pleura, peritoneum and pericardium were not found. The risks (odds ratio--OR) of cancer morbidity were increased for such organs as: respiratory organs (OR = 2.37), skin (OR = 1.78), digestive organs (OR = 1.34). PMID:18467971

  18. Green tea’s effects in the breast cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pardos-Sevilla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals like catechins from green tea might modify the epigenome and transcirptome of tumoral cells. The objective of the present review is to retrospectively evaluate literature examining the mechanisms throughout the green tea could exert a protective effect on breast cancer risk. In this work, more than 100 articles published during the last 15 years that relate tea consumption and breast cancer prevalence and development have been analysed. Green tea polyphenols can reduce risk of breast cancer throughout the inhibition of estrogenic and chemotoxic activity in liver, stimulation of metabolic pathway of glutathione conjugation, improvement of the metabolic syndrome, as well as control of immune system regulation, oxidative stress and DNA methylation. Although in vitro and animal studies show the potential ability of green tea polyphenols to act against breast cancer, the lack of experiments in humans, are the major factors in limiting us to conduct dietary recommendations based on scientific evidence for the management of patients with breast cancer.

  19. Cancer Risk and Diet in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available India is a developing country with one of the most diverse populations and diets in the world. Cancer rates in India are lower than those seen in Western countries, but are rising with increasing migration of rural population to the cities, increase in life expectancy and changes in lifestyles. In India, rates for oral and oesophageal cancers are some of the highest in the world. In contrast, the rates for colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers are one of the lowest. Studies of Indian immigrants in Western societies indicate that rates of cancer and other chronic diseases, such as coronary heart disease and diabetes, increase dramatically after a generation in the adopted country. Change of diet is among the factors that may be responsible for the changing disease rates. Diet in India encompasses diversity unknown to most other countries, with many dietary patterns emanating from cultural and religious teachings that have existed for thousands of years. Very little is known, however, about the role of the Indian diet in causation of cancer or its role, if any, in prevention of cancer, although more attention is being focused on certain aspects of the Indian diet, such as vegetarianism, spices, and food additives. Of particular interest for cancer prevention is the role of turmeric (curcumin, an ingredient in common Indian curry spice. Researchers also have investigated cumin, chilies, kalakhar, Amrita Bindu, and various plant seeds for their apparent cancer preventive properties. Few prospective studies, however, have been conducted to investigate the role of Indian diet and its various components in prevention of cancer. From a public health perspective, there is an increasing need to develop cancer prevention programs responsive to the unique diets and cultural practices of the people of India.

  20. Finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy H Chau

    Full Text Available In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT, finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying drug concentrations.Data for this nested case-control study are from the PCPT. Cases were drawn from men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer and matched controls. Finasteride concentrations were measured using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry validated assay. The association of serum finasteride concentrations with prostate cancer risk was determined by logistic regression. We also examine whether polymorphisms in the enzyme target and metabolism genes of finasteride are related to drug concentrations using linear regression.Among men with detectable finasteride concentrations, there was no association between finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk, low-grade or high-grade, when finasteride concentration was analyzed as a continuous variable or categorized by cutoff points. Since there was no concentration-dependent effect on prostate cancer, any exposure to finasteride intake may reduce prostate cancer risk. Of the twenty-seven SNPs assessed in the enzyme target and metabolism pathway, five SNPs in two genes, CYP3A4 (rs2242480; rs4646437; rs4986910, and CYP3A5 (rs15524; rs776746 were significantly associated with modifying finasteride concentrations. These results suggest that finasteride exposure may reduce prostate cancer risk and finasteride concentrations are affected by genetic variations in genes responsible for altering its metabolism pathway.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00288106.

  1. High-Risk and Low-Risk Human Papillomavirus and the Absolute Risk of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia or Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louise T; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Munk, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the absolute risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or cervical cancer (CIN 3 or worse) after detection of low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and after a negative high-risk HPV test. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, consecutive liquid-based cer...

  2. Inflammatory bowel disease, cancer and medication: Cancer risk in the Dutch population-based IBDSL cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Tim R A; Wintjens, Dion S J; Jeuring, Steven F G; Wassink, Maartje H H; Romberg-Camps, Marielle J L; Oostenbrug, Liekele E; Sanduleanu, Silvia; Hameeteman, Wim H; Zeegers, Maurice P; Masclee, Ad A; Jonkers, Daisy M; Pierik, Marie J

    2016-09-15

    The management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has changed since the mid-1990s (e.g., use of thiopurines/anti-TNFα agents, improved surveillance programs), possibly affecting cancer risk. To establish current cancer risk in IBD, updates are warranted from cohorts covering this time span, and detailed enough to study associations with phenotype and medication. We studied intestinal-, extra-intestinal- and overall cancer risk in the Dutch population-based IBDSL cohort. In total, 1,157 Crohn's disease (CD) and 1,644 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were diagnosed between 1991 and 2011, and followed until 2013. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for CD and UC separately, as well as for gender-, phenotype-, disease duration-, diagnosis era- and medication groups. We found an increased risk for colorectal cancer in CD patients with colon involvement (SIR 2.97; 95% CI 1.08-6.46), but not in the total CD or UC population. In addition, CD patients were at increased risk for hematologic- (2.41; 1.04-4.76), overall skin- (1.55; 1.06-2.19), skin squamous cell- (SCC; 3.83; 1.83-7.04) and overall cancer (1.28; 1.01-1.60), whereas UC patients had no increased risk for extra-intestinal- and overall cancer. Finally, in a medication analysis on CD and UC together, long-term immunosuppression exposure (>12 months) was associated with an increased risk for hematologic cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, SCC and overall cancer, and this increase was mainly attributed to thiopurines. IBD patients with long-term immunosuppression exposure can be considered as having a higher cancer risk, and our data support the advice in recent IBD guidelines to consider skin cancer screening in these patients. PMID:27170593

  3. Vitamin D metabolic pathway genes and pancreatic cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Arem

    Full Text Available Evidence on the association between vitamin D status and pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. This inconsistency may be partially attributable to variation in vitamin D regulating genes. We selected 11 vitamin D-related genes (GC, DHCR7, CYP2R1, VDR, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP27A1, RXRA, CRP2, CASR and CUBN totaling 213 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and examined associations with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Our study included 3,583 pancreatic cancer cases and 7,053 controls from the genome-wide association studies of pancreatic cancer PanScans-I-III. We used the Adaptive Joint Test and the Adaptive Rank Truncated Product statistic for pathway and gene analyses, and unconditional logistic regression for SNP analyses, adjusting for age, sex, study and population stratification. We examined effect modification by circulating vitamin D concentration (≤50, >50 nmol/L for the most significant SNPs using a subset of cohort cases (n = 713 and controls (n = 878. The vitamin D metabolic pathway was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk (p = 0.830. Of the individual genes, none were associated with pancreatic cancer risk at a significance level of p<0.05. SNPs near the VDR (rs2239186, LRP2 (rs4668123, CYP24A1 (rs2762932, GC (rs2282679, and CUBN (rs1810205 genes were the top SNPs associated with pancreatic cancer (p-values 0.008-0.037, but none were statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Associations between these SNPs and pancreatic cancer were not modified by circulating concentrations of vitamin D. These findings do not support an association between vitamin D-related genes and pancreatic cancer risk. Future research should explore other pathways through which vitamin D status might be associated with pancreatic cancer risk.

  4. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis will increase the risk of lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Junyao; Yang Ming; Li Ping; Su Zhenzhong; Gao Peng; Zhang Jie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the studies investigating the increased risk of lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).Data sources Data cited in this review were obtained mainly from PubMed and Medline from 1999 to 2013 and highly regarded older publications were also included.Study selection We identified,retrieved and reviewed the information on the frequency,risk factors,anatomical features,histological types,clinical manifestations,computed tomography findings and underlying mechanisms of lung cancer in IPF patients.Results The prevalence rates of lung cancer in patients with IPF (4.8% to 48%) are much higher than patients without IPF (2.0% to 6.4%).The risk factors for lung cancer in IPF include smoking,male gender,and age.Lung cancers often occur in the peripheral lung zones where fibrotic changes are predominant.Adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common types of lung cancer in patients with IPF.Radiologic features of these patients include peripherally located,ill-defined mass mimicking air-space disease.The underlying mechanisms of the development of lung cancer in patients with IPF have not been fully understood,but may include the inflammatory response,epithelial injury and/or abnormalities,aberrant fibroblast proliferation,epigenetic and genetic changes,reduced cell-to-cell communication,and activation of specific signaling pathways.Conclusions These findings suggest that IPF is associated with increased lung cancer risk.It is necessary to raise the awareness of lung cancer risk in IPF patients among physicians and patients.

  5. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoxu Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences). Controls were equally matched and selected fro...

  6. Tool Weighs Benefits, Risks of Raloxifene or Tamoxifen to Prevent Breast Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have developed a benefit-risk index to help guide decisions on whether postmenopausal women at increased risk of developing breast cancer should take raloxifene or tamoxifen to reduce that risk. |

  7. Balancing Life with an Increased Risk of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helle Vendel; Nilbert, Mef; Bernstein, Inge;

    2014-01-01

    Possibilities to undergo predictive genetic testing for cancer have expanded, which implies that an increasing number of healthy individuals will learn about cancer predisposition. Knowledge about how an increased risk of disease influences life in a long-term perspective is largely unknown, which...... identified and formed the essence of the phenomenon "living with knowledge about risk." Family context influences how experiences and knowledge are interpreted and transformed into thoughts and feelings, which relates to how risk is approached and handled. The constitutions influence each other in a dynamic...

  8. Validating genetic risk associations for ovarian cancer through the international Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, C L; Near, A M; Van Den Berg, D J;

    2009-01-01

    The search for genetic variants associated with ovarian cancer risk has focused on pathways including sex steroid hormones, DNA repair, and cell cycle control. The Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) identified 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes in these pathways, which had...... been genotyped by Consortium members and a pooled analysis of these data was conducted. Three of the 10 SNPs showed evidence of an association with ovarian cancer at P... and risk of ovarian cancer suggests that this pathway may be involved in ovarian carcinogenesis. Additional follow-up is warranted....

  9. Cancer Genetics Risk Assessment and Counseling (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary in which cancer risk perception, risk communication, and risk counseling are discussed. The summary also contains information about recording and analyzing a family history of cancer and factors to consider when offering genetic testing.

  10. Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms and subsequent cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, H.; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Christiansen, C.F.;

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, including essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), are at increased risk of new hematologic malignancies, but their risk of nonhematologic malignancies remains unknown. In the present study, we...

  11. Impact of family history of breast cancer on tumour characteristics, treatment, risk of second cancer and survival among men with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchardy Magnin, Christine; Rapiti Aylward, Elisabetta; Fioretta, Gérald; Schubert, Hyma; Chappuis, Pierre; Vlastos, Georges; Benhamou, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer patients have a higher risk of developing a second primary cancer, but whether this risk differs according to the family history of breast or ovarian cancers remains to be elucidated. We aimed to determine the effect of a positive family history among men diagnosed with breast cancer on tumour characteristics, treatment, second cancer occurrence and overall survival.

  12. Anthropometric and hormonal risk factors for male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinton, Louise A; Cook, Michael B; McCormack, Valerie;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly because of its relative rarity. Although genetic factors are involved, less is known regarding the role of anthropometric and hormonally related risk factors. METHODS: In the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium.......41; 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.86). CONCLUSIONS: Consistent findings across case-control and cohort investigations, complemented by pooled analyses, indicated important roles for anthropometric and hormonal risk factors in the etiology of male breast cancer. Further investigation should focus on potential roles...... significantly associated with risk, relations that were independent of BMI. Diabetes also emerged as an independent risk factor (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.37). There were also suggestive relations with cryptorchidism (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 0.96 to 4.94) and orchitis (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.02 to 1...

  13. Increased risk of antidepressant use in childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, J.F.; Cederkvist, L;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Childhood cancer survivors are at risk of both somatic and mental late effects, but large population-based studies of depression are lacking. METHODS: Risk of antidepressant use was evaluated in a population-based cohort of 5452 Danish children treated for cancer in 1975-2009 by linkage to the...... National Prescription Drug Database, which worldwide is the oldest nationwide registry of prescription medication. Hazard ratios (HRs) for antidepressant use were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards model stratified on sex, with population comparisons as referents. RESULTS: Overall, childhood cancer...... survivors were at increased risk of having antidepressants prescribed (HR, 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3-1.5). The excess absolute risk of antidepressant use was 2.5 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 1.7-3.3), equivalent to an excess of 2.5 survivors for every 100 survivors followed for 10years...

  14. Consumption of vegetables and fruit and the risk of bladder cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büchner, F.L.; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B.; Ros, M.M.; Kampman, E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies found inconsistent associations between vegetables and fruit consumption and the risk of bladder cancer. We therefore investigated the association between vegetable and fruit consumption and the risk of bladder cancer among participants of the European Prospective Inve

  15. Green tea and risk of breast cancer in Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anna H; Yu, Mimi C; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Hankin, Jean; Pike, Malcolm C

    2003-09-10

    There is substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence implicating tea polyphenols as chemopreventive agents against various cancers. However, epidemiologic data obtained from mainly Western populations are not supportive of a protective role of tea, mainly black tea, in the etiology of breast cancer. Much less is known about the relationship between green tea and breast cancer risk. During 1995-1998, we conducted a population-based, case-control study of breast cancer among Chinese, Japanese and Filipino women in Los Angeles County and successfully interviewed 501 breast cancer patients and 594 control subjects. Detailed information on menstrual and reproductive factors; dietary habits, including intake of black and green tea; and other lifestyle factors was collected. Risk of breast cancer was not related to black tea consumption. In contrast, green tea drinkers showed a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer, and this was maintained after adjusting for age, specific Asian ethnicity, birthplace, age at menarche, parity, menopausal status, use of menopausal hormones, body size and intake of total calories and black tea. Compared to women who did not drink green tea regularly (i.e., less than once a month), there was a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing amount of green tea intake, adjusted odds ratios being 1.00, 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.99) and 0.53 (95% CI 0.35-0.78), respectively, in association with no, 0-85.7 and >85.7 ml of green tea per day. The significant inverse association between risk of breast cancer and green tea intake remained after further adjustment for other potential confounders, including smoking; alcohol, coffee and black tea intake; family history of breast cancer; physical activity; and intake of soy and dark green vegetables. While both green tea and soy intake had significant, independent protective effects on breast cancer risk, the benefit of green tea was primarily observed among subjects who were low

  16. Risk of ovarian cancer and the NF-κB pathway: genetic association with IL1A and TNFSF10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Bridget; Block, Matthew S; Bamlet, William R; Vierkant, Robert A; Kalli, Kimberly R; Fogarty, Zachary; Rider, David N; Sellers, Thomas A; Tworoger, Shelley S; Poole, Elizabeth; Risch, Harvey A; Salvesen, Helga B; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Baglietto, Laura; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Trabert, Britton; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Whittemore, Alice S; Sieh, Weiva; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Bandera, Elisa V; Orlow, Irene; Terry, Kathryn; Goodman, Marc T; Thompson, Pamela J; Cook, Linda S; Rossing, Mary Anne; Ness, Roberta B; Narod, Steven A; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Butzow, Ralf; Dörk, Thilo; Pejovic, Tanja; Campbell, Ian; Le, Nhu D; Bunker, Clareann H; Bogdanova, Natalia; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Eccles, Diana; Paul, James; Wu, Anna H; Gayther, Simon A; Hogdall, Estrid; Heitz, Florian; Kaye, Stanley B; Karlan, Beth Y; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gronwald, Jacek; Hogdall, Claus K; Lambrechts, Diether; Fasching, Peter A; Menon, Usha; Schildkraut, Joellen; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Levine, Douglas A; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Cramer, Daniel; Flanagan, James M; Phelan, Catherine M; Brown, Robert; Massuger, Leon F A G; Song, Honglin; Doherty, Jennifer A; Krakstad, Camilla; Liang, Dong; Odunsi, Kunle; Berchuck, Andrew; Jensen, Allan; Lubinski, Jan; Nevanlinna, Heli; Bean, Yukie T; Lurie, Galina; Ziogas, Argyrios; Walsh, Christine; Despierre, Evelyn; Brinton, Louise; Hein, Alexander; Rudolph, Anja; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Olson, Sara H; Harter, Philipp; Tyrer, Jonathan; Vitonis, Allison F; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aben, Katja K; Pike, Malcolm C; Ramus, Susan J; Wik, Elisabeth; Cybulski, Cezary; Lin, Jie; Sucheston, Lara; Edwards, Robert; McGuire, Valerie; Lester, Jenny; du Bois, Andreas; Lundvall, Lene; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Szafron, Lukasz M; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Yang, Hannah; Beckmann, Matthias W; Pelttari, Liisa M; Van Altena, Anne M; van den Berg, David; Halle, Mari K; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Schwaab, Ira; Chandran, Urmila; Menkiszak, Janusz; Ekici, Arif B; Wilkens, Lynne R; Leminen, Arto; Modugno, Francesmary; Friel, Grace; Rothstein, Joseph H; Vergote, Ignace; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Sobiczewski, Piotr; Kelemen, Linda E; Pharoah, Paul D P; Moysich, Kirsten; Knutson, Keith L; Cunningham, Julie M; Fridley, Brooke L; Goode, Ellen L

    2014-02-01

    A missense single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the immune modulatory gene IL1A has been associated with ovarian cancer risk (rs17561). Although the exact mechanism through which this SNP alters risk of ovarian cancer is not clearly understood, rs17561 has also been associated with risk of endometriosis, an epidemiologic risk factor for ovarian cancer. Interleukin-1α (IL1A) is both regulated by and able to activate NF-κB, a transcription factor family that induces transcription of many proinflammatory genes and may be an important mediator in carcinogenesis. We therefore tagged SNPs in more than 200 genes in the NF-κB pathway for a total of 2,282 SNPs (including rs17561) for genotype analysis of 15,604 cases of ovarian cancer in patients of European descent, including 6,179 of high-grade serous (HGS), 2,100 endometrioid, 1,591 mucinous, 1,034 clear cell, and 1,016 low-grade serous, including 23,235 control cases spanning 40 studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. In this large population, we confirmed the association between rs17561 and clear cell ovarian cancer [OR, 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.76-0.93; P = 0.00075], which remained intact even after excluding participants in the prior study (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.75-0.95; P = 0.006). Considering a multiple-testing-corrected significance threshold of P < 2.5 × 10(-5), only one other variant, the TNFSF10 SNP rs6785617, was associated significantly with a risk of ovarian cancer (low malignant potential tumors OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.79-0.91; P = 0.00002). Our results extend the evidence that borderline tumors may have a distinct genetic etiology. Further investigation of how these SNPs might modify ovarian cancer associations with other inflammation-related risk factors is warranted. PMID:24272484

  17. Breast cancer radiotherapy and cardiac risk

    OpenAIRE

    Anusheel Munshi; Kaustav Talapatra; Debanarayan Dutta

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women in the developed world and its incidence in the developing world is on the rise. Management of breast cancer requires a multimodality approach and an integration of the services of surgery, radiation, and medical oncology. Radiotherapy after mastectomy or breast conservation leads to reduction in local recurrence by two-thirds. Recent trials and metaanalyses have also demonstrated overall survival benefit with radiotherapy...

  18. Kimchi and soybean pastes are risk factors of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Mei Nan; Heon Kim; Jin-Woo Park; Young-Jin Song; Hyo-Yung Yun; Joo-Seung Park; Taisun Hyun; Sei-Jin Youn; Yong-Dae Kim; Jong-Won Kang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This case-control study investigated the effects of kimchi, soybean paste, fresh vegetables, nonfermented alliums, nonfermented seafood, nonfermented soybean foods, and the genetic polymorphisms of some metabolic enzymes on the risk of gastric cancer in Koreans.METHODS: We studied 421 gastric cancer patients and 632 age- and sex-matched controls. Subjects completed a structured questionnaire regarding their food intake pattern. Polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1),cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) were investigated. RESULTS: A decreased risk of gastric cancer was noted among people with high consumption of nonfermented alliums and nonfermented seafood. On the other hand, consumption of kimchi, and soybean pastes was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Individuals with the CYP1A1 Ile/Val or Val/Val genotype showed a significantly increased risk for gastric cancer. Increased intake of kimchi or soybean pastes was a significant risk factor for the CYP1A1 Ile/Ile, the CYP2E1 c1/c1, the GSTM1 non-null,the GSTT1 non-null, or the ALDH2 *1/*1 genotype. In addition, eating soybean pastes was associated with the increased risk of gastric cancer in individuals with the GSTM1 null type. Nonfermented alliums were significant in individuals with the CYP1A1 Ile/Ile, the CYP2E1 c1/c2or c2/c2, the GSTT1 null, the GSTT1 non-null, or the ALDH2 * 1/*2 or *2/*2 genotype, nonfermented seafood was those with the CYP1A1 Ile/Ile, the CYP2E1 c1/c1, the ALDH2 * 1/*1 genotype or any type of GSTM1 or GSTT1. In homogeneity tests, the odds ratios of eating kimchi for gastric cancer according to the GSTM1 or GSTT1 genotypewere not homogeneous.CONCLUSION: Kimchi, soybean pastes, and the CYP1A1 Ile/Val or Val/Val are risk factors, and nonfermented seafood and alliums are protective factors against gastric cancer in Koreans. Salt or some chemicals contained

  19. Experience of parental cancer in childhood is a risk factor for psychological distress during genetic cancer susceptibility testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Brocker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; Van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study explores the effect of age at the time of parental cancer diagnosis or death on psychological distress and cancer risk perception in individuals undergoing genetic testing for a specific cancer susceptibility. Patients and methods: Cancer-related distress, worry and risk perce

  20. Cancer risk in relation to serum copper levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, R J; Weiss, N S; Daling, J R; Rettmer, R L; Warnick, G R

    1989-08-01

    A nested, matched case-control study was conducted to assess the relationship between serum levels of copper and the subsequent risk of cancer. One hundred thirty-three cases of cancer were identified during 1974-1984 among 5000 members of a northwest Washington State employee cohort from whom serum specimens had been previously obtained and stored. Two hundred forty-one controls were selected at random from the cohort and were matched to the cases on the basis of age, sex, race, and date of blood draw. Serum copper levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Risk of a subsequent diagnosis of cancer was positively associated with serum copper levels, but only among those cases diagnosed within 4 years of the time the serum specimens were collected. Among cases diagnosed more than 4 years after specimen collection, there was no consistent association between serum copper levels and risk. Adjustment for age, sex, race, occupational status, cigarette smoking, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, and, among females, use of exogenous hormones had no appreciable effect on these relationships. The findings suggest that the presence of cancer may increase serum copper levels several years prior to its diagnosis. They are less supportive of the hypothesis that serum copper levels affect cancer risk.

  1. Mediterranean Diet and cancer risk: an open issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni; Silvestris, Franco

    2016-09-01

    The traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s meets the characteristics of an anticancer diet defined by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AIRC). A diet rich of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits, limited in high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat), red meat and foods high in salt, without sugary drinks and processed meat is recommended by the WCRF/AIRC experts to reduce the risk of cancer. The aim of this review was to examine whether Mediterranean Diet is protective or not against cancer risk. Three meta-analyses of cohort studies reported that a high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet significantly reduces the risk of cancer incidence and/or mortality. Nevertheless, the Mediterranean dietary pattern defined in the studies' part of the meta-analyses has qualitative and/or quantitative differences compared to the Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Therefore, the protective role of the Mediterranean Diet against cancer has not definitely been established. In epidemiological studies, a universal definition of the Mediterranean Diet, possibly the traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s, could be useful to understand the role of this dietary pattern in cancer prevention.

  2. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and risk of lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Koshiol

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a risk factor for distal stomach cancer, and a few small studies have suggested that H. pylori may be a potential risk factor for lung cancer. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study of 350 lung adenocarcinoma cases, 350 squamous cell carcinoma cases, and 700 controls nested within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC cohort of male Finnish smokers. Controls were one-to-one matched by age and date of baseline serum draw. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies against H. pylori whole-cell and cytotoxin-associated gene (CagA antigens, we calculated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs for associations between H. pylori seropositivity and lung cancer risk using conditional logistic regression. H. pylori seropositivity was detected in 79.7% of cases and 78.5% of controls. After adjusting for pack-years and cigarettes smoked per day, H. pylori seropositivity was not associated with either adenocarcinoma (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.75-1.6 or squamous cell carcinoma (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.77-1.7. Results were similar for CagA-negative and CagA-positive H. pylori seropositivity. Despite earlier small studies suggesting that H. pylori may contribute to lung carcinogenesis, H. pylori seropositivity does not appear to be associated with lung cancer.

  3. Mediterranean Diet and cancer risk: an open issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni; Silvestris, Franco

    2016-09-01

    The traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s meets the characteristics of an anticancer diet defined by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AIRC). A diet rich of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits, limited in high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat), red meat and foods high in salt, without sugary drinks and processed meat is recommended by the WCRF/AIRC experts to reduce the risk of cancer. The aim of this review was to examine whether Mediterranean Diet is protective or not against cancer risk. Three meta-analyses of cohort studies reported that a high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet significantly reduces the risk of cancer incidence and/or mortality. Nevertheless, the Mediterranean dietary pattern defined in the studies' part of the meta-analyses has qualitative and/or quantitative differences compared to the Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Therefore, the protective role of the Mediterranean Diet against cancer has not definitely been established. In epidemiological studies, a universal definition of the Mediterranean Diet, possibly the traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s, could be useful to understand the role of this dietary pattern in cancer prevention. PMID:27251477

  4. Mediterranean dietary pattern and risk of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Couto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Mediterranean diet has a recognized beneficial effect on health and longevity, with a protective influence on several cancers. However, its association with breast cancer risk remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern influences breast cancer risk. DESIGN: The Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort study includes 49,258 women aged 30 to 49 years at recruitment in 1991-1992. Consumption of foods and beverages was measured at enrollment using a food frequency questionnaire. A Mediterranean diet score was constructed based on the consumption of alcohol, vegetables, fruits, legumes, cereals, fish, the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fat, and dairy and meat products. Relative risks (RR for breast cancer and specific tumor characteristics (invasiveness, histological type, estrogen/progesterone receptor status, malignancy grade and stage associated with this score were estimated using Cox regression controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: 1,278 incident breast cancers were diagnosed. Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was not statistically significantly associated with reduced risk of breast cancer overall, or with specific breast tumor characteristics. A RR (95% confidence interval for breast cancer associated with a two-point increment in the Mediterranean diet score was 1.08 (1.00-1.15 in all women, and 1.10 (1.01-1.21 and 1.02 (0.91-1.15 in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. When alcohol was excluded from the Mediterranean diet score, results became not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern did not decrease breast cancer risk in this cohort of relatively young women.

  5. Risk Stratification in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: An Ongoing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omry-Orbach, Gal

    2016-01-28

    Thyroid cancer is an increasingly common malignancy, with a rapidly rising prevalence worldwide. The social and economic ramifications of the increase in thyroid cancer are multiple. Though mortality from thyroid cancer is low, and most patients will do well, the risk of recurrence is not insignificant, up to 30%. Therefore, it is important to accurately identify those patients who are more or less likely to be burdened by their disease over years and tailor their treatment plan accordingly. The goal of risk stratification is to do just that. The risk stratification process generally starts postoperatively with histopathologic staging, based on the AJCC/UICC staging system as well as others designed to predict mortality. These do not, however, accurately assess the risk of recurrence/persistence. Patients initially considered to be at high risk may ultimately do very well yet be burdened by frequent unnecessary monitoring. Conversely, patients initially thought to be low risk, may not respond to their initial treatment as expected and, if left unmonitored, may have higher morbidity. The concept of risk-adaptive management has been adopted, with an understanding that risk stratification for differentiated thyroid cancer is dynamic and ongoing. A multitude of variables not included in AJCC/UICC staging are used initially to classify patients as low, intermediate, or high risk for recurrence. Over the course of time, a response-to-therapy variable is incorporated, and patients essentially undergo continuous risk stratification. Additional tools such as biochemical markers, genetic mutations, and molecular markers have been added to this complex risk stratification process such that this is essentially a continuum of risk. In recent years, additional considerations have been discussed with a suggestion of pre-operative risk stratification based on certain clinical and/or biologic characteristics. With the increasing prevalence of thyroid cancer but stable mortality

  6. Risk Stratification in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: An Ongoing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omry-Orbach, Gal

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is an increasingly common malignancy, with a rapidly rising prevalence worldwide. The social and economic ramifications of the increase in thyroid cancer are multiple. Though mortality from thyroid cancer is low, and most patients will do well, the risk of recurrence is not insignificant, up to 30%. Therefore, it is important to accurately identify those patients who are more or less likely to be burdened by their disease over years and tailor their treatment plan accordingly. The goal of risk stratification is to do just that. The risk stratification process generally starts postoperatively with histopathologic staging, based on the AJCC/UICC staging system as well as others designed to predict mortality. These do not, however, accurately assess the risk of recurrence/persistence. Patients initially considered to be at high risk may ultimately do very well yet be burdened by frequent unnecessary monitoring. Conversely, patients initially thought to be low risk, may not respond to their initial treatment as expected and, if left unmonitored, may have higher morbidity. The concept of risk-adaptive management has been adopted, with an understanding that risk stratification for differentiated thyroid cancer is dynamic and ongoing. A multitude of variables not included in AJCC/UICC staging are used initially to classify patients as low, intermediate, or high risk for recurrence. Over the course of time, a response-to-therapy variable is incorporated, and patients essentially undergo continuous risk stratification. Additional tools such as biochemical markers, genetic mutations, and molecular markers have been added to this complex risk stratification process such that this is essentially a continuum of risk. In recent years, additional considerations have been discussed with a suggestion of pre-operative risk stratification based on certain clinical and/or biologic characteristics. With the increasing prevalence of thyroid cancer but stable mortality

  7. Cancer risks in Nordic immigrants and their offspring in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, K; Li, X

    2002-12-01

    Numerous migrant studies on cancer have been carried out, but little data are available on cancer incidence upon inter-European migration. We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyse cancer risk among Nordic immigrants and their offspring in Sweden. The parental population had entered Sweden in their 20s and they had become parents in Sweden. Finns were the largest immigrant group including approximately 183,000 parents and 278,000 offspring. We calculated the standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and 90 or 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 26 cancer sites using native Swedes as a reference. Cancers in the first generation immigrants followed the rates in the countries of origin, reaching high SIRs for tobacco-related, cervical and testicular cancer among Danes and for stomach cancer among Finns. Only a few cancers, such as cervical cancer was increased in the second generation. At many sites, particularly among the Finns, protection was observed in the first generation. At three sites, breast, ovary and urinary bladder, where plausible evidence for protection was found even among offspring, this was not reinforced among the offspring of compatriot parents, which is inconsistent with heritable effects. Protection against melanoma was strongest among the offspring of compatriots, but the contribution of cultural factors cannot be excluded. As the parents immigrated to Sweden in their 20s, their cancer pattern, including habits and life style, appeared to be set before that age because the differences to Swedes persisted even in cancers that predominate in old age. Immigrant populations would appear to be attractive subjects to study etiological factors of cancer at sites where causes remain poorly understood, such as testicular cancer. PMID:12460788

  8. Population cancer risks associated with coal mining: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiley D Jenkins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coal is produced across 25 states and provides 42% of US energy. With production expected to increase 7.6% by 2035, proximate populations remain at risk of exposure to carcinogenic coal products such as silica dust and organic compounds. It is unclear if population exposure is associated with increased risk, or even which cancers have been studied in this regard. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of English-language manuscripts published since 1980 to determine if coal mining exposure was associated with increased cancer risk (incidence and mortality. RESULTS: Of 34 studies identified, 27 studied coal mining as an occupational exposure (coal miner cohort or as a retrospective risk factor but only seven explored health effects in surrounding populations. Overall, risk assessments were reported for 20 cancer site categories, but their results and frequency varied considerably. Incidence and mortality risk assessments were: negative (no increase for 12 sites; positive for 1 site; and discordant for 7 sites (e.g. lung, gastric. However, 10 sites had only a single study reporting incidence risk (4 sites had none, and 11 sites had only a single study reporting mortality risk (2 sites had none. The ecological study data were particularly meager, reporting assessments for only 9 sites. While mortality assessments were reported for each, 6 had only a single report and only 2 sites had reported incidence assessments. CONCLUSIONS: The reported assessments are too meager, and at times contradictory, to make definitive conclusions about population cancer risk due to coal mining. However, the preponderance of this and other data support many of Hill's criteria for causation. The paucity of data regarding population exposure and risk, the widespread geographical extent of coal mining activity, and the continuing importance of coal for US energy, warrant further studies of population exposure and risk.

  9. The associations between a polygenic score, reproductive and menstrual risk factors and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Shaneda Warren; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Hampton, John M.; Figueroa, Jonine D; Skinner, Halcyon G.; Engelman, Corinne D; Klein, Barbara E.; Titus, Linda J.; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated whether 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in genome-wide association studies interact with one another and with reproductive and menstrual risk factors in association with breast cancer risk. DNA samples and information on parity, breastfeeding, age at menarche, age at first birth, and age at menopause were collected through structured interviews from 1484 breast cancer cases and 1307 controls who participated in a population-based case-control study conducted ...

  10. Tuberculosis, smoking and risk for lung cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seri; Mok, Yejin; Jeon, Christina; Jee, Sun Ha; Samet, Jonathan M

    2016-12-01

    Among the exposures associated with risk for lung cancer, a history of tuberculosis (TB) is one potentially important factor, given the high prevalence of TB worldwide. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the associations of preexisting pulmonary TB with lung cancer incidence and mortality. The cohort consisted of 1,607,710 Korean adults covered by the National Health Insurance System who had a biennial national medical examination during 1997-2000. During up to 16 years of follow-up, there were 12,819 incident cases of lung cancer and 9,562 lung cancer deaths. Using Cox proportional hazards models and controlling for age, cigarette smoking and other covariates, the presence of underlying TB was significantly associated with increased risk for lung cancer incidence (HR 1.37 in men with 95% CI 1.29-1.45; HR 1.49 in women with 95% CI 1.28-1.74) and mortality (HR 1.43 in men with 95% CI 1.34-1.52; HR 1.53 in women with 95% CI 1.28-1.83). We also observed a dose-response relationship between number of cigarettes smoked daily and lung cancer risk. There was no evidence for synergism between a history of TB and smoking. The elevation in risk is relatively modest, particularly in comparison to that from smoking, and a prior history of TB is not likely to be useful risk indicator for clinical purposes. In populations with high prevalence of TB, it can be considered for incorporation into models for lung cancer risk prediction. PMID:27521774

  11. Radiation induced cancer risk, detriment and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recommendations on radiation protection limits for workers and for the public depend mainly on the total health detriment estimated to be the result of low dose ionizing radiation exposure. This detriment includes the probability of a fatal cancer, an allowance for the morbidity due to non-fatal cancer and the probability of severe hereditary effects in succeeding generations. In a population of all ages, special effects on the fetus particularly the risk of mental retardation at defined gestational ages, should also be included. Among these components of detriment after low doses, the risk of fatal cancer is the largest and most important. The estimates of fatal cancer risk used by ICRP in the 1990 recommendations were derived almost exclusively from the study of the Japanese survivors of the atomic bombs of 1945. How good are these estimates? Uncertainties associated with them, apart from those due to limitations in epidemiological observation and dosimetry, are principally those due to projection forward in time and extrapolation from high dose and dose rate to low dose and dose rate, each of which could after the estimate by a factor of 2 or so. Recent estimates of risk of cancer derived directly from low dose studies are specific only within very broad ranges of risk. Nevertheless, such studies are important as confirmation or otherwise of the estimates derived from the atomic bomb survivors. Recent U.S. British and Russian studies are examined in this light. (author)

  12. Body fat and risk of colorectal cancer among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Heo, Moonseong; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Messina, Catherine; Thomson, Cynthia A; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Rohan, Thomas E

    2013-06-01

    Studies of the relationship between anthropometric indices of obesity and colorectal cancer risk in women have shown only weak and inconsistent associations. Given the limitations of such indices, we used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived measures of body fat obtained in the Women's Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and risk of incident colorectal cancer. We compared these risk estimates with those obtained using conventional anthropometric measurements (body mass index and waist circumference). After exclusions, the study population consisted of 11,124 postmenopausal women with DXA measurements at baseline and no history of colorectal cancer. After a median follow-up period of 12.9 years, 169 incident colorectal cancer cases were ascertained. Cox's proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95 % confidence intervals for the exposures of interest. Neither DXA-derived body fat measures nor anthropometric measures showed significant associations with risk. In view of the limited number of cases, we cannot rule out the existence of weak associations of these measures with risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:23546610

  13. Risk of Second Cancers According to Radiation Therapy Technique and Modality in Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy, E-mail: berringtona@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Wong, Jeannette; Kleinerman, Ruth; Kim, Clara; Morton, Lindsay [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) techniques for prostate cancer are evolving rapidly, but the impact of these changes on risk of second cancers, which are an uncommon but serious consequence of RT, are uncertain. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of risks of second cancer according to RT technique (>10 MV vs ≤10 MV and 3-dimensional [3D] vs 2D RT) and modality (external beam RT, brachytherapy, and combined modes) in a large cohort of prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The cohort was constructed using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database. We included cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in patients 66 to 84 years of age from 1992 to 2004 and followed through 2009. We used Poisson regression analysis to compare rates of second cancer across RT groups with adjustment for age, follow-up, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and comorbidities. Analyses of second solid cancers were based on the number of 5-year survivors (n=38,733), and analyses of leukemia were based on number of 2-year survivors (n=52,515) to account for the minimum latency period for radiation-related cancer. Results: During an average of 4.4 years' follow-up among 5-year prostate cancer survivors (2DRT = 5.5 years; 3DRT = 3.9 years; and brachytherapy = 2.7 years), 2933 second solid cancers were diagnosed. There were no significant differences in second solid cancer rates overall between 3DRT and 2DRT patients (relative risk [RR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91-1.09), but second rectal cancer rates were significantly lower after 3DRT (RR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.40-0.88). Rates of second solid cancers for higher- and lower-energy RT were similar overall (RR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.06), as were rates for site-specific cancers. There were significant reductions in colon cancer and leukemia rates in the first decade after brachytherapy compared to those after external beam RT. Conclusions: Advanced treatment planning may have reduced rectal

  14. Definition of optimal percentage threshold of SUVmax by comparison of 18F-FDG PET/CT metabolism volume with pathological volume of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-jun WANG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To define an optimal maximum standardized uptake value(SUVmaxthreshold of 18F-fluorodeoxygluose(18F-FDG in delineating metabolic tumor volume of cervical cancer by comparing positron emission tomography and computed tomography(PET/CT with pathological volume of the tumor. Methods Twelve patients with cervical cancer prospectively underwent a PET/CT scan. Different SUVmax thresholds, including10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45% and 50%, were screened from PET images to obtain the corresponding PET metabolism gross tumor volume(GTV. Pathological slices were prepared after the operation for determination of the edge and area of the tumor. Pathological tumor volumes were measured from each slice, and they were then combined to derive the pathological GTV. An optimal PET GTV wasdefined when PET GTV was closest to the pathological tumor volume, and SUVmax threshold corresponding to the optimal PET GTV was named as the optimal SUVmax threshold. Results The optimal SUVmax threshold was between 30% and 50% with an mean value of40.83%±6.07%in all the 12patients. There was no significant statistical difference between the pathological GTV and PET GTV with aSUVmax threshold of 41%(P=0.352, and they were well correlated with each other with a coefficient of 0.99(P=0.000. Conclusions PET optimal SUVmax thresholdderivedby comparison with pathological GTV is of great significance in improving the curative effect of intensified modulated radiation herapy(IMRT.

  15. Uncertainties in Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides. An Uncertainty Analysis for Risk Coefficients Reported in Federal Guidance Report No. 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, David [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Nelson, Christopher [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2007-01-01

    Federal Guidance Report No. 13 (FGR 13) provides risk coefficients for estimation of the risk of cancer due to low-level exposure to each of more than 800 radionuclides. Uncertainties in risk coefficients were quantified in FGR 13 for 33 cases (exposure to each of 11 radionuclides by each of three exposure pathways) on the basis of sensitivity analyses in which various combinations of plausible biokinetic, dosimetric, and radiation risk models were used to generate alternative risk coefficients. The present report updates the uncertainty analysis in FGR 13 for the cases of inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides and expands the analysis to all radionuclides addressed in that report. The analysis indicates that most risk coefficients for inhalation or ingestion of radionuclides are determined within a factor of 5 or less by current information. That is, application of alternate plausible biokinetic and dosimetric models and radiation risk models (based on the linear, no-threshold hypothesis with an adjustment for the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor) is unlikely to change these coefficients by more than a factor of 5. In this analysis the assessed uncertainty in the radiation risk model was found to be the main determinant of the uncertainty category for most risk coefficients, but conclusions concerning the relative contributions of risk and dose models to the total uncertainty in a risk coefficient may depend strongly on the method of assessing uncertainties in the risk model.

  16. Nitrosamines and Heme Iron and Risk of Prostate Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakszyn, Paula G.; Allen, Naomi E.; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Key, Timothy J.; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Tjonneland, Anne; Fons-Johnsen, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Teucher, Birgit; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Oikonomou, Eleni; Sarantopoulou, Maria; Saieva, Calogero; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Huerta, Jose M.; Ardanaz, Eva; Arguelles, Marcial V.; Molina-Montes, Esther; Larranaga, Nerea; Wirfaelt, Elisabet; Wallstrom, Peter; Johansson, Mattias; Stattin, Paer; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Riboli, Elio

    2012-01-01

    Background: The evidence about nitrosamines and heme iron intake and cancer risk is limited, despite the biologic plausibility of the hypothesis that these factors might increase cancer risk. We investigated the association between dietary nitrosamines and heme iron and the risk of prostate cancer a

  17. Modeling risk stratification in human cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Rème, Thierry; Hose, Dirk; Theillet, Charles; Klein, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    International audience MOTIVATION: Despite huge prognostic promises, gene expression-based survival assessment is rarely used in clinical routine. Main reasons include difficulties in performing and reporting analyses and restriction in most methods to one high-risk group with the vast majority of patients being unassessed. The present study aims at limiting these difficulties by (i) mathematically defining the number of risk groups without any a priori assumption; (ii) computing the risk ...

  18. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Results Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine) and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline), which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking), and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Conclusion Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) are well known risk

  19. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letašiová Silvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Results Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline, which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking, and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Conclusion Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline

  20. Risk of cancer after blood transfusion from donors with subclinical cancer: a retrospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Reilly, Marie;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although mechanisms for detection of short-term complications after blood transfusions are well developed, complications with delayed onset, notably transmission of chronic diseases such as cancer, have been difficult to assess. Our aim was to investigate the possible risk of cancer...... transmission from blood donors to recipients through blood transfusion. METHODS: We did a register-based retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence among patients who received blood from donors deemed to have a subclinical cancer at the time of donation. These precancerous donors were diagnosed......, and essentially complete, population and health-care registers. The risk of cancer in exposed recipients relative to that in recipients who received blood from non-cancerous donors was estimated with multivariate Poisson regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors. FINDINGS: Of the 354 094 transfusion...

  1. Cancer risk from low dose radiation depends directly on the organ mass in a general model of radiation-induced cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z W

    2014-04-01

    Current methods of evaluating radiation-induced cancer risk depend on the organ dose but not explicitly on extensive quantities such as the organ mass. However, at the same organ dose, one may expect the larger number of cells in a larger organ to lead to a higher cancer risk. Here the author introduces organ- and radiation type-specific cell cancer risk coefficients and obtains analytical relations between cancer risk and the radiation environment, which contains the dependence of cancer risk on organ masses. The excess cancer risk induced by low dose radiation for an organ is shown to be directly proportional to the organ mass. Therefore the total excess risk for all solid cancers depends directly on organ masses and consequently on body weight or size. This method is also being compared with three existing methods of evaluating the radiation-induced cancer risk, and special cases where this formulation matches each method are demonstrated. The results suggest that the direct dependence of cancer risk on organ masses needs to be checked against existing epidemiological data and, if verified, should be included in the methodology for the evaluation of radiation-induced cancer risk, in particular the individual risk. This dependence is also expected to affect the cancer risk transport from one population group to another that is different in organ mass, body weight or height. PMID:24562066

  2. Benign Proliferative Breast Lesions and Risk of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Erel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Benign breast lesions (BBL includes a wide variety of histologic entities, which have been broadly classified into non-proliferative lesions, proliferative lesions without atypia, and hyperplasia with atypia. With the increased use of mammography, more benign lesions are being detected, and in order to estimate the risk of breast cancer for specific histologic categories is of great importance to guide clinical management. Women with proliferative lesions without atypia are at slightly increased risk of subsequent breast cancer, whereas women with proliferative lesions with atypia have a higher risk. The risk is 1.5- 2-fold in women with proliferative lesions without atypia, 4-5-fold in women with proliferative lesions with atypia, and 8-10 fold in women with ductal carcinoma in situ. Age at diagnosis of BBL, menopausal status, family history of breast cancer in a first-degree relative, and time since BBL diagnosis on risk of breast cancer are important for risk evaluation. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(3.000: 155-167

  3. Environmental risk factors for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Claudia; Simon, Peter; Weiss, F Ulrich; Fluhr, Gabriele; Weber, Eckhard; Gärtner, Simone; Behn, Claas O; Kraft, Matthias; Ringel, Jörg; Aghdassi, Ali; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis has long been thought to be mainly associated with immoderate alcohol consumption. The observation that only ∼10% of heavy drinkers develop chronic pancreatitis not only suggests that other environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, are potent additional risk factors, but also that the genetic component of pancreatitis is more common than previously presumed. Either disease-causing or protective traits have been indentified for mutations in different trypsinogen genes, the gene for the trypsin inhibitor SPINK1, chymotrypsinogen C, and the cystic fibrosis transmembane conductance regulator (CFTR). Other factors that have been proposed to contribute to pancreatitis are obesity, diets high in animal protein and fat, as well as antioxidant deficiencies. For the development of pancreatic cancer, preexisting chronic pancreatitis, more prominently hereditary pancreatitis, is a risk factor. The data on environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer are, with the notable exception of tobacco smoke, either sparse, unconfirmed or controversial. Obesity appears to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer in the West but not in Japan. Diets high in processed or red meat, diets low in fruits and vegetables, phytochemicals such as lycopene and flavonols, have been proposed and refuted as risk or protective factors in different trials. The best established and single most important risk factor for cancer as well as pancreatitis and the one to clearly avoid is tobacco smoke. PMID:21734390

  4. Evaluation of skin cancer risk for lunar and Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; George, Kerry A.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    Methods used to estimate the probability of excess incidence of skin cancer from space radiation exposure must take into consideration the variability of dose to different areas of the body and the individual factors that may contribute to increased risk, including skin pigment and synergistic effects from combined ionizing and UV exposure. We have estimated the skin cancer risk for future lunar and Mars missions using: (1) the multiplicative risk model for transferring the Japanese survivor data to the US population, (2) epidemiological data for the increased risk for skin locations exposed to combined UV and ionizing radiation, and (3) models of space radiation environments, transport, and anatomical shielding for 5260 skin loci. We have estimated that the probability for increased skin cancer risk from solar particle events varies more than 10-fold depending on the individual and area of skin exposed. We show that a skin cancer risk greater than 1% could occur for astronauts with light skin and hair color following exposure to medium or large class solar particle events during future lunar base operations, or from exposure to galactic cosmic rays during Mars missions.

  5. Cancer risks among residents of Manitoba Indian reserves, 1970-79

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    A descriptive epidemiologic study of malignant neoplasms among residents of Indian reserves in Manitoba from 1970 to 1979 based on the Manitoba Cancer Registry revealed an unusual pattern. There was a greater risk for kidney cancer in both sexes and for gallbladder and invasive cervical cancer in women. The risk was reduced, however, for cancer of the lung in men and of the breast in women, cancers with a high incidence in the general Canadian population. Overall the risk for cancer was lower...

  6. Risk Factors, Preventive Practices, and Health Care Among Breast Cancer Survivors, United States, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Homan, Sherri G.; Kayani, Noaman; Yun, Shumei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We compared behavioral risk factors and preventive measures among female breast cancer survivors, female survivors of other types of cancers, and women without a history of cancer. Survivorship health care indicators for the 2 groups of cancer survivors were compared. Methods Using data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we calculated the proportion of women with risk factors and their engagement in preventive practices, stratified by cancer status (cancer ...

  7. Cancer risk among patients with congenital heart defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Morten; Garne, Ester; Sværke, Claus;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess cancer risk in congenital heart defect patients, with and without Down's syndrome, compared with the general population. METHODS: We identified all patients born and diagnosed with congenital heart defects from 1977 to 2008 using the Danish National Registry of...... Patients, covering all Danish hospitals. We compared cancer incidence in the congenital heart defect cohort with that expected in the general population (∼5.5 million) using the Danish Cancer Registry, and computed age- and gender-standardised incidence ratios. RESULTS: We identified 15,905 congenital...... heart defect patients, contributing a total of 151,172 person-years at risk; the maximum length of follow-up was 31 years (median 8 years). In all, 53 patients were diagnosed with cancer, including 30 female and 23 male patients (standardised incidence ratio = 1.63; 95% confidence interval: 1...

  8. Diet, Supplement Use, and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results From the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kristal, Alan R.; Arnold, Kathryn B.; Neuhouser, Marian L; Goodman, Phyllis; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Albanes, Demetrius; Thompson, Ian M

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined nutritional risk factors for prostate cancer among 9,559 participants in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (United States and Canada, 1994–2003). The presence or absence of cancer was determined by prostate biopsy, which was recommended during the trial because of an elevated prostate-specific antigen level or an abnormal digital rectal examination and was offered to all men at the trial's end. Nutrient intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and a str...

  9. Risk of second cancer from scattered radiation of intensity-modulated radiotherapies with lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dong Wook; Chung, Weon Kuu; Shin, Dongoh; Hong, Seongeon; Park, Sung Ho; Park, Sung-Yong; Chung, Kwangzoo; Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Lee, Hyun-ho; Yoon, Myonggeun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the risk of secondary cancer from scattered and leakage doses following intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) and tomotherapy (TOMO) in patients with lung cancer. Methods IMRT, VMAT and TOMO were planned for five lung cancer patients. Organ equivalent doses (OEDs) are estimated from the measured corresponding secondary doses during irradiation at various points 20 to 80 cm from the iso-center by using radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeter ...

  10. Managing the risk of invasive breast cancer in women at risk for breast cancer and osteoporosis: the role of raloxifene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor G Vogel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Victor G VogelThe University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Magee-Womens Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Raloxifene hydrochloride is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM that has antiestrogenic effects on breast and endometrial tissue and estrogenic effects on bone, lipid metabolism, and blood clotting. Raloxifene significantly improves serum lipids and serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk, but it has no significant effect on the risk of primary coronary events. A meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of raloxifene for osteoporosis showed the odds of fracture risk were 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.49–0.74 for raloxifene 60 mg/day compared with placebo. During 8 years of follow-up in an osteoporosis trial, the raloxifene group had a 76% reduction in the incidence of invasive ER-positive breast cancer compared with the placebo group. In the STAR trial, the incidence of invasive breast cancer was 4.30 per 1000 women-years with raloxifene and 4.41 per 1000 with tamoxifen; RR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.82–1.28. The effect of raloxifene on invasive breast cancer was, therefore, equivalent to that of tamoxifen with more favorable rates of adverse effects including uterine malignancy and clotting events. Millions of postmenopausal women could derive net benefit from raloxifene through reduced rates of fracture and invasive breast cancer.Keywords: raloxifene, osteoporosis, breast cancer risk reduction

  11. CYP17 genetic polymorphism, breast cancer, and breast cancer risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosone, Christine B; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Furberg, Helena; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Bowman, Elise D.; Ahmed, Sabrina; Graham, Saxon; Vena, John E; Shields, Peter G.

    2003-01-01

    Background Findings from previous studies regarding the association between the CYP17 genotype and breast cancer are inconsistent. We investigated the role of the MspAI genetic polymorphism in the 5' region of CYP17 on risk of breast cancer and as a modifier of reproductive risk factors. Methods Questionnaire and genotyping data were obtained from a population-based, case–control study of premenopausal (n = 182) and postmenopausal (n = 214) European-American Caucasian women in western New Yor...

  12. Animal foods, protein, calcium and prostate cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, N.E.; Key, T.J.; Appleby, P.N.; Travis, R.C.; Roddam, A.W.; Tjonneland, A.; Johnsen, N.F.; Overvad, K.; Linseisen, J.; Rohrmann, S.; Boeing, H.; Pischon, T.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Kiemeney, L.; Tagliabue, G.; Palli, D.; Vineis, P.; Tumino, R.; Trichopoulou, A.; Kassapa, C.; Trichopoulos, D.; Ardanaz, E.; Larranaga, N.; Tormo, M.J.; Gonzalez, C.A.; Quiros, J.R.; Sanchez, M.J.; Bingham, S.; Khaw, K.T.; Manjer, J.; Berglund, G.; Stattin, P.; Hallmans, G.; Slimani, N.; Ferrari, P.; Rinaldi, S.; Riboli, E.

    2008-01-01

    We examined consumption of animal foods, protein and calcium in relation to risk of prostate cancer among 142 251 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Associations were examined using Cox regression, stratified by recruitment centre and adjusted for height, weight

  13. Animal foods, protein, calcium and prostate cancer risk : the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, N. E.; Key, T. J.; Appleby, P. N.; Travis, R. C.; Roddam, A. W.; Tjonneland, A.; Johnsen, N. F.; Overvad, K.; Linseisen, J.; Rohrmann, S.; Boeing, H.; Pischon, T.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Kiemeney, L.; Tagliabue, G.; Palli, D.; Vineis, P.; Tumino, R.; Trichopoulou, A.; Kassapa, C.; Trichopoulos, D.; Ardanaz, E.; Larranaga, N.; Tormo, M-J; Gonzalez, C. A.; Quiros, J. R.; Sanchez, M-J; Bingham, S.; Khaw, K-T; Manjer, J.; Berglund, G.; Stattin, P.; Hallmans, G.; Slimani, N.; Ferrari, P.; Rinaldi, S.; Riboli, E.

    2008-01-01

    We examined consumption of animal foods, protein and calcium in relation to risk of prostate cancer among 142 251 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Associations were examined using Cox regression, stratified by recruitment centre and adjusted for height, weight

  14. The Lymphedema and Gynecologic Cancer (LEG) Study: Incidence, Risk Factors, and | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The proposed study, "Lymphedema and Gynecologic cancer (LEG): Incidence, Risk Factors and Impact", will innovatively utilize the cooperative group setting of the GOG (Gynecologic Oncology Group) to prospectively study 1300 women newly diagnosed with cervical, endometrial, or vulvar cancer to determine the incidence and impact of lower extremity lymphedema following surgical treatment of these diseases. |

  15. Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Prescott, Eva;

    2005-01-01

    Vital exhaustion, defined as feelings of depression and fatigue, has previously been investigated mainly as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the association between depressive feelings and fatigue as covered by the concept of vital exhaustion and the risk...

  16. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors)

  17. Expected lung cancer risk from radon daughter exposure in dwelllings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different concepts and approaches for the assessment of the lung cancer risk of populations from indoor exposure and its decay products are outlined. They proceed from the epidemiological data on the excess lung cancer frequency observed among Rn-exposed uranium miners and γ-exposed atomic bomb survivors, taking into account appropriate correction factors for indoor conditions. Inparticular a proportional hazard model is presented which enables an individual - and population - related risk assessment. The results lead to the conclusion that at the present time probably about 10-20% of the total observed lung cancer frequency in the Swedish population might be associated with the indoor inhalation of 222-Rn daughters. For most other countries these values are about a factor 0.5 lower. The absolute radiation risk for males is probably about a factor 2-3 higher than that for females. (Author)

  18. Genetic tests to identify risk for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Julie; Venne, Vickie; Berse, Brygida

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the currently available genetic tests that identify hereditary risk for breast cancer. Data sources Systematic review of scientific literature, clinical practice guidelines, and data published by test manufacturers. Conclusion Changes in gene patent laws and advances in sequencing technologies have resulted in rapid expansion of genetic testing. While BRCA1/2 are the most recognized genes linked to breast cancer, several laboratories now offer multi-gene panels to detect many risk-related mutations. Implication for Nursing Practice Genetic testing will be increasingly important in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer. Oncology and advanced practice nurses need to understand risk factors, significance of various genetic tests, and patient counseling. PMID:25951739

  19. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors).

  20. Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Washio, Masakazu; Sakauchi, Fumio; SONODA, Tomoko; Ikeda, Toshiko; Mori, Mitsuru

    2003-01-01

    The incidence of kidney cancer and resulting mortality has been increasing in recent years. Its incidence is highest in Western and Northern Europe and North America, moderate in Japan, and low elsewhere in Asia. Although the incidence of kidney cancer in Japan is lower than in the other developed countries, there is no doubt that there has been an increasing occurrence of this disease recently in Japan, which may be partly due to the adoption of a Western life style.Obesity/overweight is ass...

  1. Tamoxifen for women at high risk of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nazarali SA; Narod SA

    2014-01-01

    Safia A Nazarali, Steven A Narod Women's College Research Institute, Women's College Hospital, and The University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Abstract: Tamoxifen has been used as a treatment for women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer for roughly four decades and has been approved as chemoprevention for over ten years. Although tamoxifen has been proven to be beneficial in preventing breast cancer in high-risk women, its use has not been widely embraced. To ...

  2. Effect of Psychosocial Factors on Cancer Risk and Survival

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial factors such as personality traits and depression may alter immune and endocrine function, with possible effects on cancer incidence and survival. Although these factors have been extensively studied as risk and prognostic factors for cancer, the associations remain unclear. The author used data from prospective cohort studies in population-based and clinical databases to investigate these relations. The findings do not support the hypotheses that personality traits and depressio...

  3. Reduced cancer risk in vegetarians: an analysis of recent reports

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Joy Lanou; Barbara Svenson

    2010-01-01

    Amy Joy Lanou1, Barbara Svenson21Department of Health and Wellness, 2Ramsey Library, University of North Carolina Asheville, Asheville, NC, USAAbstract: This report reviews current evidence regarding the relationship between vegetarian eating patterns and cancer risk. Although plant-based diets including vegetarian and vegan diets are generally considered to be cancer protective, very few studies have directly addressed this question. Most large prospective observational studies show that veg...

  4. Telomerase Activity and the Risk of Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Choi, Jin Eun; Jung, Deuk Kju; Choi, Yi Young; Kang, Hyo Gyoung; Lee, Won-Kee; Yoo, Seung Soo; Lim, Jeong-Ok; PARK, JAE YONG

    2012-01-01

    Telomerase play a key role in the maintenance of telomere length and chromosome integrity. We have evaluated the association between telomerase activity and the risk of lung cancer in peripheral blood. Telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured by a PCR-designed telomeric repeat amplification protocol in 63 lung cancer patients and 190 healthy controls that were matched for age, gender, and smoking status. Telomerase activity was significantly lower in the lung can...

  5. Oral microbiome and oral and gastrointestinal cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Chen, Calvin Y.; Hayes, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates human oral bacteria in the etiology of oral and gastrointestinal cancers. Epidemiological studies consistently report increased risks of these cancers in men and women with periodontal disease or tooth loss, conditions caused by oral bacteria. More than 700 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity, including at least 11 bacterial phyla and 70 genera. Oral bacteria may activate alcohol and smoking-related carcinogens locally or act systemically, through c...

  6. Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Patients With Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kuan, Ai-Seon; Chen, San-Chi; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Hung, Man-Hsin; Hung, Yi-Ping; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Improvements in therapeutic modalities have prolonged the survival of gastric cancer patients. Comorbidities such as thromboembolic events that emerge as a result of disease complexities and/or treatments received have not been considered. The objectives of this study are to examine the relationship between gastric cancer and ischemic stroke, and to determine predictive risk factors. A nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using data from the Taiwan National Health I...

  7. [Shift work and risk of cancer and coronary heart diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Johnni; Lassen, Christina Funch

    2014-01-20

    Shift and night work are among the most frequent occupational exposures. Such work schedules involve exposure to light-at-night, which may reduce normal nocturnal melatonin production, create circadian rhythm disruption, sleep deprivation and unhealthy lifestyle. There is strong experimental evidence that light-at-night and circadian disruption may increase the risk of cancer and coronary heart diseases. There is emerging, but limited epidemiologic evidence that night shift work may increase breast cancer and certain cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24629681

  8. Radon potential, geologic formations, and lung cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Ellen J.; Yevgeniya Gokun; William M. Andrews Jr.; Bethany L. Overfield; Heather Robertson; Amanda Wiggins; Mary Kay Rayens

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to radon is associated with approximately 10% of U.S. lung cancer cases. Geologic rock units have varying concentrations of uranium, producing fluctuating amounts of radon. This exploratory study examined the spatial and statistical associations between radon values and geological formations to illustrate potential population-level lung cancer risk from radon exposure. Method: This was a secondary data analysis of observed radon values collected in 1987 from homes (N = ...

  9. Risk factors for breast cancer in nulliparous women

    OpenAIRE

    Fioretti, F; Tavani, A; C. Bosetti; Vecchia, C La; De Negri, E.; F. Barbone; Talamini, R.; Franceschi, S

    1999-01-01

    The relation between hormonal and lifestyle factors and breast cancer risk in nulliparae was investigated using data from two case-control studies conducted in Italy between 1983 and 1994. The study included 1041 nulliparae with histologically confirmed incident breast cancer and 1002 nulliparous controls admitted to hospital for a wide range of acute, non-neoplastic, nonhormone-related diseases. In premenopausal nulliparae, there was an inverse relation with age at menarche [odds ratios (OR)...

  10. MicroRNA related polymorphisms and breast cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Khan

    Full Text Available Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in microRNAs (miRNA or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer. We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS. Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC. Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated significantly with breast cancer risk: rs1045494 (odds ratio (OR 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.88-0.96, rs1052532 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99, rs10719 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94-0.99, rs4687554 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99, and rs3134615 (OR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05 located in the 3' UTR of CASP8, HDDC3, DROSHA, MUSTN1, and MYCL1, respectively. DROSHA belongs to miRNA machinery genes and has a central role in initial miRNA processing. The remaining genes are involved in different molecular functions, including apoptosis and gene expression regulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether the miRNA binding site SNPs are the causative variants for the observed risk effects.

  11. MicroRNA Related Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sofia; Greco, Dario; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Milne, Roger L.; Muranen, Taru A.; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Liu, Jianjun; Hall, Per; Irwanto, Astrid; Humphreys, Keith; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Gibson, Lorna; Aitken, Zoe; Hopper, John L.; Tsimiklis, Helen; Bui, Minh; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Southey, Melissa C.; Apicella, Carmel; Stone, Jennifer; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel A.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lichtner, Peter; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hunter, David J.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Veer, Laura J. V. a. n't.; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Schrauder, Michael G.; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, Pilar M.; Perez, Jose I. A.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Brown, Judith; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Vachon, Celine; Olson, Janet E.; Lambrechts, Diether; Moisse, Matthieu; Paridaens, Robert; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Mulot, Claire; Marme, Frederick; Burwinkel, Barbara; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A. E. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Asperen, Christi J.; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Barile, Monica; Mariani, Paolo; Hooning, Maartje J.; Martens, John W. M.; Collée, J. Margriet; Jager, Agnes; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Giles, Graham G.; McLean, Catriona; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Jones, Michael; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Easton, Douglas F.; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer. We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS). Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER) and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated significantly with breast cancer risk: rs1045494 (odds ratio (OR) 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88–0.96), rs1052532 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95–0.99), rs10719 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94–0.99), rs4687554 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95–0.99, and rs3134615 (OR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01–1.05) located in the 3′ UTR of CASP8, HDDC3, DROSHA, MUSTN1, and MYCL1, respectively. DROSHA belongs to miRNA machinery genes and has a central role in initial miRNA processing. The remaining genes are involved in different molecular functions, including apoptosis and gene expression regulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether the miRNA binding site SNPs are the causative variants for the observed risk effects. PMID:25390939

  12. MicroRNA related polymorphisms and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sofia; Greco, Dario; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Milne, Roger L; Muranen, Taru A; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K; Liu, Jianjun; Hall, Per; Irwanto, Astrid; Humphreys, Keith; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Gibson, Lorna; Aitken, Zoe; Hopper, John L; Tsimiklis, Helen; Bui, Minh; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Southey, Melissa C; Apicella, Carmel; Stone, Jennifer; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel A; van der Luijt, Rob B; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lichtner, Peter; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Chanock, Stephen J; Hunter, David J; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Van't Veer, Laura J; Hogervorst, Frans B; Fasching, Peter A; Schrauder, Michael G; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, Pilar M; Perez, Jose I A; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Pharoah, Paul D P; Dunning, Alison M; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Brown, Judith; Couch, Fergus J; Wang, Xianshu; Vachon, Celine; Olson, Janet E; Lambrechts, Diether; Moisse, Matthieu; Paridaens, Robert; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Mulot, Claire; Marme, Frederick; Burwinkel, Barbara; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Asperen, Christi J; Kristensen, Vessela N; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E; Ambrosone, Christine B; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Barile, Monica; Mariani, Paolo; Hooning, Maartje J; Martens, John W M; Collée, J Margriet; Jager, Agnes; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Giles, Graham G; McLean, Catriona; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Jones, Michael; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Easton, Douglas F; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer. We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS). Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER) and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated significantly with breast cancer risk: rs1045494 (odds ratio (OR) 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-0.96), rs1052532 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99), rs10719 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94-0.99), rs4687554 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99, and rs3134615 (OR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05) located in the 3' UTR of CASP8, HDDC3, DROSHA, MUSTN1, and MYCL1, respectively. DROSHA belongs to miRNA machinery genes and has a central role in initial miRNA processing. The remaining genes are involved in different molecular functions, including apoptosis and gene expression regulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether the miRNA binding site SNPs are the causative variants for the observed risk effects.

  13. Dietary acrylamide and cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelucchi, Claudio; Bosetti, Cristina; Galeone, Carlotta; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2015-06-15

    The debate on the potential carcinogenic effect of dietary acrylamide is open. In consideration of the recent findings from large prospective investigations, we conducted an updated meta-analysis on acrylamide intake and the risk of cancer at several sites. Up to July 2014, we identified 32 publications. We performed meta-analyses to calculate the summary relative risk (RR) of each cancer site for the highest versus lowest level of intake and for an increment of 10 µg/day of dietary acrylamide, through fixed-effects or random-effects models, depending on the heterogeneity test. Fourteen cancer sites could be examined. No meaningful associations were found for most cancers considered. The summary RRs for high versus low acrylamide intake were 0.87 for oral and pharyngeal, 1.14 for esophageal, 1.03 for stomach, 0.94 for colorectal, 0.93 for pancreatic, 1.10 for laryngeal, 0.88 for lung, 0.96 for breast, 1.06 for endometrial, 1.12 for ovarian, 1.00 for prostate, 0.93 for bladder and 1.13 for lymphoid malignancies. The RR was of borderline significance only for kidney cancer (RR = 1.20; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.00-1.45). All the corresponding continuous estimates ranged between 0.95 and 1.03, and none of them was significant. Among never-smokers, borderline associations with dietary acrylamide emerged for endometrial (RR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.00-1.51) and ovarian (RR = 1.39; 95% CI, 0.97-2.00) cancers. This systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies indicates that dietary acrylamide is not related to the risk of most common cancers. A modest association for kidney cancer, and for endometrial and ovarian cancers in never smokers only, cannot be excluded.

  14. Risk Prediction Model for Colorectal Cancer: National Health Insurance Corporation Study, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Aesun Shin; Jungnam Joo; Hye-Ryung Yang; Jeongin Bak; Yunjin Park; Jeongseon Kim; Jae Hwan Oh; Byung-Ho Nam

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer have been rapidly increasing in Korea during last few decades. Development of risk prediction models for colorectal cancer in Korean men and women is urgently needed to enhance its prevention and early detection. METHODS: Gender specific five-year risk prediction models were developed for overall colorectal cancer, proximal colon cancer, distal colon cancer, colon cancer and rectal cancer. The model was developed using data from a po...

  15. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Giles, Graham G.; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E.; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J.; Joshi, Amit D.; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I. Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of eviden

  16. Dietary zinc, copper and selenium, and risk of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabir, Somdat; Spitz, Margaret R; Barrera, Stephanie L; Beaver, Shao Hua; Etzel, Carol; Forman, Michele R

    2007-03-01

    Zinc, copper and selenium are important cofactors for several enzymes that play a role in maintaining DNA integrity. However, limited epidemiologic research on these dietary trace metals and lung cancer risk is available. In an ongoing study of 1,676 incident lung cancer cases and 1,676 matched healthy controls, we studied the associations between dietary zinc, copper and selenium and lung cancer risk. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of lung cancer for all subjects by increasing quartiles of dietary zinc intake were 1.0, 0.80 (0.65-0.99), 0.64 (0.51-0.81), 0.57 (0.42-0.75), respectively (p trend = 0.0004); similar results were found for men. For dietary copper, the ORs and 95% CI for all subjects were 1.0, 0.59 (0.49-0.73), 0.51 (0.41-0.64), 0.34 (0.26-0.45), respectively (p trend cancer with increased dietary zinc intake were also found for all ages, BMI > 25, current smokers, pack-years copper intake was associated with protective trends (p copper intakes are associated with reduced risk of lung cancer. Given the known limitations of case-control studies, these findings must be interpreted with caution and warrant further investigation.

  17. Risk factors for lymphoedema in women with breast cancer: A large prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbreath, S L; Refshauge, K M; Beith, J M; Ward, L C; Ung, O A; Dylke, E S; French, J R; Yee, J; Koelmeyer, L; Gaitatzis, K

    2016-08-01

    A prospective study was conducted to identify women at increased risk for lymphoedema (LE) based on axillary surgery. Assessment occurred prior to surgery, within 4 weeks, and at 6, 12 and 18 months following surgery. Following post-surgery assessment, women were asked to complete weekly diaries regarding events that occurred in the previous week. Risk factors were grouped into demographic, lifestyle, breast cancer treatment-related, arm swelling-related, and post-surgical activities. Bioimpedance spectroscopy thresholds were used to determine presence of LE. At 18-months, 241 women with 5 nodes removed, independent risk factors included presence of arm swelling at 12-months (Odds Ratio (OR): 13.5, 95% CI 4.8, 38.1; P 5 nodes removed and who maintained weekly diaries, only blood drawn from the 'at-risk' arm was identified as a potential risk (OR 2.0; 0.8, 5.2). For women with ≥5 nodes removed, arm swelling in the first year poses a very strong risk for presence of LE at 18-months. PMID:27183497

  18. A prospective study of occupation and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeegers, Maurice P A; Friesema, Ingrid H M; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2004-03-01

    A wide variety of occupations has been associated with prostate cancer in previous retrospective studies. Most attention has been paid to farming, metal working, and the rubber industry. Today, these results cannot be affirmed with confidence, because many associations could be influenced by recall bias, have been inconsistent, or have not been confirmed satisfactory in subsequent studies. This study was conducted to investigate and confirm these important associations in a large prospective cohort study. The authors conducted a prospective cohort study among 58,279 men. In September 1986, the cohort members (55-69 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire on potential cancer risk factors, including job history. Related job codes were clustered in professional groups. These predefined clusters were investigated in 3 time windows: 1) profession ever performed, 2) longest profession ever held, and 3) last profession held at baseline. Follow up for incident prostate cancer was established by linkage to cancer registries until December 1993. A case-cohort approach was used based on 830 cases and 1525 subcohort members. To minimize false-positive results, 99% confidence intervals (99% CI) were calculated. Although moderately decreased prostate cancer risks were found for electricians, farmers, firefighters, woodworkers, textile workers, butchers, salesmen, teachers, and clerical workers, none of the relative risks (RR) were found to be statistically significant. For road transporters, metal workers, and managers, no association with prostate cancer risk was found. Although the RR for railway workers, mechanics, welders, chemists, painters, and cooks was moderately increased, these estimates were not statistically significant. For men who reported to have ever worked in the rubber industry, we found a substantially increased prostate cancer risk, but not statistically significant (RR, 4.18; 99% CI = 0.22-80.45). For policemen, we found a substantial and

  19. [Lung cancer screening - risk stratification : Who should undergo screening?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, L; Prosch, H

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths in Europa and the USA. In approximately 75 % of lung cancer patients, bronchogenic carcinoma is detected at an advanced tumor stage; therefore, therapeutic options which aim at curing the disease in these patients are limited and treatment is mostly palliative. A relatively good prognosis is reserved for the minority of patients where the tumor is detected at an early stage and treatment is potentially curative. For this reason, early diagnosis of lung cancer could save lives. Retrospective analyses of the US national lung screening trial (NLST) showed that especially high-risk populations (e. g. higher age, positive smoking history, overweight and a positive family history for lung cancer) benefit most from lung cancer screening. Thus, the effectiveness of computed tomography (CT) screening can be improved by focusing on high-risk populations. This review article summarizes the risk stratification models of the large European and American screening studies and discusses possible future biomarkers for risk stratification. PMID:27495786

  20. Genetic susceptibility loci, pesticide exposure and prostate cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Koutros

    Full Text Available Uncovering SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms-environment interactions can generate new hypotheses about the function of poorly characterized genetic variants and environmental factors, like pesticides. We evaluated SNP-environment interactions between 30 confirmed prostate cancer susceptibility loci and 45 pesticides and prostate cancer risk in 776 cases and 1,444 controls in the Agricultural Health Study. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Multiplicative SNP-pesticide interactions were calculated using a likelihood ratio test. After correction for multiple tests using the False Discovery Rate method, two interactions remained noteworthy. Among men carrying two T alleles at rs2710647 in EH domain binding protein 1 (EHBP1 SNP, the risk of prostate cancer in those with high malathion use was 3.43 times those with no use (95% CI: 1.44-8.15 (P-interaction= 0.003. Among men carrying two A alleles at rs7679673 in TET2, the risk of prostate cancer associated with high aldrin use was 3.67 times those with no use (95% CI: 1.43, 9.41 (P-interaction= 0.006. In contrast, associations were null for other genotypes. Although additional studies are needed and the exact mechanisms are unknown, this study suggests known genetic susceptibility loci may modify the risk between pesticide use and prostate cancer.