WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer risk exposure

  1. Cancer risks after radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    A general overview of the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer induction is presented. The relationship between the degree of risk and absorbed dose is examined. Mortality from radiation-induced cancer in the US is estimated and percentages attributable to various sources are given

  2. Tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaanderen, Jelle; Straif, Kurt; Ruder, Avima

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified tetrachloroethylene, used in the production of chemicals and the primary solvent used in dry cleaning, as "probably carcinogenic to humans" based on limited evidence of an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry...... cleaners. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the epidemiological evidence for the association between tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer from published studies estimating occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene or in workers in the dry-cleaning industry. METHODS: Random-effects meta-analyses were...... carried out separately for occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene and employment as a dry cleaner. We qualitatively summarized exposure-response data because of the limited number of studies available. RESULTS: The meta-relative risk (mRR) among tetrachloroethylene-exposed workers was 1.08 (95% CI...

  3. Occupational exposures and risk of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santibanez, Miguel; Vioque, Jesus; Alguacil, Juan; Hera, Manuela Garcia de la; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo; Carrato, Alfredo; Porta, Miquel; Kauppinen, Timo

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to analyze the relationship between occupation (and specific occupational exposures) and risk of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC). We conducted a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in Eastern Spain. We included 161 incident cases of EPC (59.6% men, 94 with histological confirmation, of whom 80% had ductal adenocarcinoma). Cases were frequency-matched with 455 controls by sex, age and province of residence. Information was elicited using structured questionnaires. Occupations were coded according to the Spanish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988. Occupational exposure to a selection of carcinogenic substances was assessed with the Finnish Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, province, education, alcohol and smoking. A higher risk of EPC was associated with having worked as 'Miners, shotfirers, stone cutters and carvers', 'Machinery mechanics and fitters', 'Building trades workers' and 'Motor vehicle drivers' in men, 'Office Clerks' in women, and 'Waiters' in both sexes. Cases with ductal adenocarcinomas were more likely to have been exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.1-15.2, p-trend = 0.04). We also observed significant associations with exposure to 'synthetic polymer dust exposure' and 'ionizing radiation'. Suggestive increases in risk were observed for 'pesticides', 'diesel and gasoline engine exhaust', and 'hydrocarbon solvents'. Results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents is associated with exocrine pancreatic cancer.

  4. Occupational exposure and ovarian cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nhu D; Leung, Andy; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Gallagher, Richard P; Swenerton, Kenneth D; Demers, Paul A; Cook, Linda S

    2014-07-01

    Relatively little work has been done concerning occupational risk factors in ovarian cancer. Although studies conducted in occupational settings have reported positive associations, their usefulness is generally limited by the lack of information on important confounders. In a population-based case-control study, we assessed risk for developing epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) associated with occupational exposure while accounting for important confounders. Participants were identified through provincial population-based registries. Lifetime occupational history and information on potential confounding factors were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression and the likelihood ratio test were used to assess EOC risk with each occupation (or industry), relative to all other occupations (or industries), adjusting for potential confounders including body mass index, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy, parity, age at first childbirth, age at menarche, age at menopause, family history of breast and ovarian cancer in mother and sister(s), tubal ligation, partial oophorectomy, and hysterectomy. Occupations and industries were coded according to the Canadian Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) and Standard Industrial Classification (SIC). Significant excess risk was observed for several groups of teaching occupations, including SOC 27, teaching and related (adjusted OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.15-2.81) and SOC 279, other teaching and related (adjusted OR 3.11, 95% CI 1.35-8.49). Significant excess was also seen for a four-digit occupational group SOC 4131, bookkeepers and accounting clerks (adjusted OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.30-6.80). Industrial sub-groups showing significant excess risk included SIC 65, other retail stores (adjusted OR 2.19, 95 % CI 1.16-4.38); SIC 85, educational service (adjusted OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.00-2.13); and SIC 863, non-institutional health services (adjusted OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.13-6.52). Our study found

  5. Cancer risks following diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A. [National Institutes of Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, EPS 7044, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2006-09-15

    The growing use of interventional and fluoroscopic imaging in children represents a tremendous benefit for the diagnosis and treatment of benign conditions. Along with the increasing use and complexity of these procedures comes concern about the cancer risk associated with ionizing radiation exposure to children. Children are considerably more sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation than adults, and children have a longer life expectancy in which to express risk. Numerous epidemiologic cohort studies of childhood exposure to radiation for treatment of benign diseases have demonstrated radiation-related risks of cancer of the thyroid, breast, brain and skin, as well as leukemia. Many fewer studies have evaluated cancer risk following diagnostic radiation exposure in children. Although radiation dose for a single procedure might be low, pediatric patients often receive repeated examinations over time to evaluate their conditions, which could result in relatively high cumulative doses. Several cohort studies of girls and young women subjected to multiple diagnostic radiation exposures have been informative about increased mortality from breast cancer with increasing radiation dose, and case-control studies of childhood leukemia and postnatal diagnostic radiation exposure have suggested increased risks with an increasing number of examinations. Only two long-term follow-up studies of cancer following cardiac catheterization in childhood have been conducted, and neither reported an overall increased risk of cancer. Most cancers can be induced by radiation, and a linear dose-response has been noted for most solid cancers. Risks of radiation-related cancer are greatest for those exposed early in life, and these risks appear to persist throughout life. (orig.)

  6. Cancer risks following diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A.

    2006-01-01

    The growing use of interventional and fluoroscopic imaging in children represents a tremendous benefit for the diagnosis and treatment of benign conditions. Along with the increasing use and complexity of these procedures comes concern about the cancer risk associated with ionizing radiation exposure to children. Children are considerably more sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation than adults, and children have a longer life expectancy in which to express risk. Numerous epidemiologic cohort studies of childhood exposure to radiation for treatment of benign diseases have demonstrated radiation-related risks of cancer of the thyroid, breast, brain and skin, as well as leukemia. Many fewer studies have evaluated cancer risk following diagnostic radiation exposure in children. Although radiation dose for a single procedure might be low, pediatric patients often receive repeated examinations over time to evaluate their conditions, which could result in relatively high cumulative doses. Several cohort studies of girls and young women subjected to multiple diagnostic radiation exposures have been informative about increased mortality from breast cancer with increasing radiation dose, and case-control studies of childhood leukemia and postnatal diagnostic radiation exposure have suggested increased risks with an increasing number of examinations. Only two long-term follow-up studies of cancer following cardiac catheterization in childhood have been conducted, and neither reported an overall increased risk of cancer. Most cancers can be induced by radiation, and a linear dose-response has been noted for most solid cancers. Risks of radiation-related cancer are greatest for those exposed early in life, and these risks appear to persist throughout life. (orig.)

  7. Dietary Mutagen Exposure and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Donghui; Sue Day, Rena; Bondy, Melissa L.; Sinha, Rashmi; Nguyen, Nga T.; Evans, Douglas B.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Hassan, Manal M.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between dietary exposure to food mutagens and risk of pancreatic cancer, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center during June 2002 to May 2006. Atotal of 626 cases and 530 noncancer controls were frequency matched for race, sex and age (±5 years). Dietary exposure information was collected via personal interview using a meat preparation questionnaire. A significantly greater portion of the cases tha...

  8. Lung cancer risk and exposure from incorporated plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshurnikova, N.A.; Bolotnikova, M.G.; Il'in, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Coefficients of risk of death from lung cancer caused by incorporated plutonium for the personnel of the Mayak plant, working there since its foundation are obtained. Values of mortality from lung cancer are analysed as well as individual incorporated dose per lung assessed from regular measurement of plutonium in the urine and radiometry of autopsy material and from the results of individual photocontrol of external exposure. It was shown that the risk of death from lung cancer caused by external gamma-irradiation is statistically unreliable, whereas that from disease caused by incorporated plutonium is dose-dependent. The risk of death from lung cancer is two times higher for the personnel with increased level of plutonium carriership as against the level stated in ICRP Publication 60. The conclusion is made that hygienic standards for lung exposure should be specified. 11 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  9. Dietary mutagen exposure and risk of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Donghui; Day, Rena Sue; Bondy, Melissa L; Sinha, Rashmi; Nguyen, Nga T; Evans, Douglas B; Abbruzzese, James L; Hassan, Manal M

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the association between dietary exposure to food mutagens and risk of pancreatic cancer, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center during June 2002 to May 2006. A total of 626 cases and 530 noncancer controls were frequency matched for race, sex and age (+/-5 years). Dietary exposure information was collected via personal interview using a meat preparation questionnaire. A significantly greater portion of the cases than controls showed a preference to well-done pork, bacon, grilled chicken, and pan-fried chicken, but not to hamburger and steak. Cases had a higher daily intake of food mutagens and mutagenicity activity (revertants per gram of daily meat intake) than controls did. The daily intakes of 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), as well as the mutagenic activity, were significant predictors for pancreatic cancer (P = 0.008, 0.031, and 0.029, respectively) with adjustment of other confounders. A significant trend of elevated cancer risk with increasing DiMeIQx intake was observed in quintile analysis (P(trend) = 0.024). A higher intake of dietary mutagens (those in the two top quintiles) was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of pancreatic cancer among those without a family history of cancer but not among those with a family history of cancer. A possible synergistic effect of dietary mutagen exposure and smoking was observed among individuals with the highest level of exposure (top 10%) to PhIP and BaP, P(interaction) = 0.09 and 0.099, respectively. These data support the hypothesis that dietary mutagen exposure alone and in interaction with other factors contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer.

  10. Occupational asbestos exposure and risk of pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer in the prospective netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, N.S.M.; Vermeulen, R.; Burdorf, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kauppinen, T.; Kromhout, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To study the association between occupational asbestos exposure and pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer, specifically addressing risk associated with the lower end of the exposure distribution, risk of cancer subtypes, and the interaction between asbestos and smoking.

  11. Environmental exposures, breast development and cancer risk: Through the looking glass of breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Michele R; Winn, Deborah M; Collman, Gwen W; Rizzo, Jeanne; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2015-07-01

    This review summarizes the report entitled: Breast Cancer and the Environment: Prioritizing Prevention, highlights research gaps and the importance of focusing on early life exposures for breast development and breast cancer risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Styrene exposure and risk of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, James; Infante, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Styrene is widely used in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, resins, polyesters and plastics. Styrene and the primary metabolite styrene-7,8-oxide are genotoxic and carcinogenic. Long-term chemical carcinogenesis bioassays showed that styrene caused lung cancers in several strains of mice and mammary cancers in rats and styrene-7,8-oxide caused tumours of the forestomach in rats and mice and of the liver in mice. Subsequent epidemiologic studies found styrene workers had increased mortality or incidences of lymphohematopoietic cancers (leukaemia or lymphoma or all), with suggestive evidence for pancreatic and esophageal tumours. No adequate human studies are available for styrene-7,8-oxide although this is the primary and active epoxide metabolite of styrene. Both are genotoxic and form DNA adducts in humans. PMID:21724974

  13. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Weiderpass

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr. For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1: alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure. Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  14. Risk of Lung Cancer and Indoor Radon Exposure in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baysson, H.; Tirmarche, M.; Tymen, G.; Ducloy, F.; Laurier, D.

    2004-01-01

    It is well established that radon exposure increases risks of lung cancer among underground miners. to estimate the lung cancer risk linked to indoor radon exposure, a hospital based case-control study was carried out in France, With a focus on precise reconstruction of past indoor radon exposure over the 30 years preceding the lung cancer diagnosis. The investigation rook place from 1992 to 1998 in four regions of France: Auvergne, Brittany, Languedoc and Limousin. During face-to-face interviews a standardized questionnaire was used to ascertain demographic characteristics, information on active and passive smoking, occupational exposure, medical history as well as extensive details on residential history. Radon concentrations were measured in the dwellings where subjects had lived at least one year during the 5-30 year period before interview. Measurements of radon concentrations were performed during a 6-month period, using two Kodalpha LR 115 detectors, one in the living room and one in the bedroom. The time-weighted average (TWA) radon concentration for a subject during the 5-30 year period before interview was based on radon concentrations over all addresses occupied by the subject weighted by the number of years spent at each address. For the time intervals without available measurements, we imputed the region-specific arithmetic average of radon concentrations for measured addresses of control subjects. Lung cancer risk was examined in relation to indoor radon exposure after adjustment for age, sex, region, cigarette smoking and occupational exposure. The estimated relative a risk per 100 Bq/m''3 was 1.04, at the borderline of statistical significance (95 percent Confidence Interval: 0.99, 1..1). These results are in agreement with results from other indoor radon case-control studies and with extrapolations from underground miners studies. (Author) 31 refs

  15. Occuptional radiation exposures and thyroid cancer risk among radiologic technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Mina [Dankook University Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Young [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Jae Kwan [National Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Young Won [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Medical radiation workers were among the earliest occupational groups exposed to external ionizing radiation due to their administration of a range of medical diagnostic procedures and accounted for 7.4 million worldwide in 2008. Ionizing radiation is the confirmed human carcinogen for most organ sites. The aims of the study is to evaluate the association between occupational practices including radiation exposure and thyroid cancer risk among radiologic technologists. We found no significant association between the risk of thyroid cancer and the majority of work practices among diagnostic radiation technologists in general. However workers performing fluoroscopy and interventional procedures showed increased risks although the lack of a clear exposure– response gradient makes it difficult to draw clear conclusions. Future studies with larger sample size and detailed work practices implementation are needed to clarify the role of occupational radiation work in thyroid cancer carcinogenesis.

  16. Occuptional radiation exposures and thyroid cancer risk among radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin; Ha, Mina; Kim, Jae Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Jin, Young Won

    2016-01-01

    Medical radiation workers were among the earliest occupational groups exposed to external ionizing radiation due to their administration of a range of medical diagnostic procedures and accounted for 7.4 million worldwide in 2008. Ionizing radiation is the confirmed human carcinogen for most organ sites. The aims of the study is to evaluate the association between occupational practices including radiation exposure and thyroid cancer risk among radiologic technologists. We found no significant association between the risk of thyroid cancer and the majority of work practices among diagnostic radiation technologists in general. However workers performing fluoroscopy and interventional procedures showed increased risks although the lack of a clear exposure– response gradient makes it difficult to draw clear conclusions. Future studies with larger sample size and detailed work practices implementation are needed to clarify the role of occupational radiation work in thyroid cancer carcinogenesis.

  17. Indoor radon exposure in Norway and lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanner, T.; Dybing, E.

    1990-01-01

    The risk for lung cancer due to indoor radon in Norway was estimated. The risk factor recommended by the World Health Organization was used. Corrections were made for time not spent at home and type of activity. On the basis of measurements by the Norwegian National Institute for Radiation Hygiene in 7,500 homes, Strand et al estimated that the average concentration of radon daughters in the bedroom of Norwegian dwellings was 26.5 Bq/m 3 (EER). The level of exposure during time spent outside the home was assumed to be 10% of that at home. It was calculated that indoor radon exposure may cause 75-225 lung cancer deaths per year. This corresponds to about 5-15% of all lung cancer deaths in Norway. The risk for lung cancer death per 1,000 deaths at an indoor radon decay product level of 100 Bq/m 3 was calculated on the basis of various reports in the paper. The results show that the present risk estimate is lower than most of the other estimates

  18. Solid cancer risks from radiation exposure for the Australian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, K.N.

    2003-01-01

    Estimates are made of the risks to the Australian population as a function of age and gender for mortality or morbidity for all solid cancers after exposure to radiation. Excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models are used. The model coefficients are re-evaluated for radiation doses expressed as effective dose using data from the Japanese Life Span Study. Life-table methods are used throughout and the risk measures studied are: the risk of exposure related death, RERD and the risk of exposure related cancer, RERC. Australian life-table data and the age-specific cancer incidence and mortality rates of Australian males and females are taken from recent published tables. No dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor is applied. Sources of uncertainty used to calculate the confidence regions for the estimated risks include the statistical uncertainties of the model parameters and of the extrapolation of the risks beyond the period supported by the epidemiological data. Summary values of the risks are reported as averages of those calculated from the ERR and the EAR models. For males, the mortality risks per sievert range from 14% for 0-9 year age group, 7% at 30-39 years and 4% at 50-59 years. Corresponding values for females are 20%, 10% and 6%. Incidence risks are higher: for males the estimates are 32% for the 0-9 year group, 12% at 30-39 and 5% at 50-59. Corresponding values for females are 56%, 20% and 8%. The 90% confidence regions are about ± 50% of these values. Estimates are given for the risks from CT whole-body scanning or virtual colonoscopy which could be used for cancer screening. If used at 3 year intervals and the effective dose per procedure is 10 mSv, then the RERD for males beginning screening at 40, 50 and 60 years is 0.4%, 0.3% and 0.1%, respectively and for females, 0.6%, 0.4% and 0.2%, respectively. RERD estimates for a 5 year interval between screens are about one-third smaller. Copyright (2003) Australasian College of

  19. Radiation exposure and risk of pediatric thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, Megumi

    2012-01-01

    A large amount of radioactive substances were released in air following the Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011), of which subsequent medical and pediatric events are reported herein. Many residents who had lived close to the Plant had to dwell in the evacuation area. The risk of their pediatric thyroid cancer has become a subject of anxiety since the incidence of the cancer alone is known to have increased post Chernobyl nuclear accident. The cancer is quite rare in the pediatric field, the tissue type is mostly of differentiated papillocarcinoma, and the long prognosis is reportedly as good as that of the cancer not due to radiation exposure if surgically treated appropriately. After the Accident, Radiation Medical Science Center for Fukushima Health Management Survey was founded in Fukushima Medical University, where the whole lifetime health management of Fukushima prefectural residents is to be continued. Among them, the ultrasonic examination of the thyroid started in Oct. 2011 to 360 thousands children of the age 20 mm cyst or >5 mm solid node. It is important to carefully watch the health of children involving their mental side as they suffer from the experience of ''exposed'', rather than the actual physical effect. (T.T.)

  20. Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure and Its Impact on Skin Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Holman, Dawn M.; Maguire-Eisen, Maryellen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To review research and evidence-based resources on skin cancer prevention and early detection and their importance for oncology nurses. Data Sources Journal articles, federal reports, cancer surveillance data, behavioral surveillance data. Conclusion Most cases of skin cancer are preventable. Survivors of many types of cancer are at increased risk of skin cancers. Implications for Nursing Practice Oncology nurses can play an important role in protecting their patients from future skin cancer morbidity and mortality. PMID:27539279

  1. Selenium Exposure and Cancer Risk: an Updated Meta-analysis and Meta-regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xianlei; Wang, Chen; Yu, Wanqi; Fan, Wenjie; Wang, Shan; Shen, Ning; Wu, Pengcheng; Li, Xiuyang; Wang, Fudi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between selenium exposure and cancer risk. We identified 69 studies and applied meta-analysis, meta-regression and dose-response analysis to obtain available evidence. The results indicated that high selenium exposure had a protective effect on cancer risk (pooled OR = 0.78; 95%CI: 0.73–0.83). The results of linear and nonlinear dose-response analysis indicated that high serum/plasma selenium and toenail selenium had the efficacy on cancer prevention. However, we did not find a protective efficacy of selenium supplement. High selenium exposure may have different effects on specific types of cancer. It decreased the risk of breast cancer, lung cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, and prostate cancer, but it was not associated with colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, and skin cancer. PMID:26786590

  2. Genetic susceptibility loci, pesticide exposure and prostate cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Koutros

    Full Text Available Uncovering SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms-environment interactions can generate new hypotheses about the function of poorly characterized genetic variants and environmental factors, like pesticides. We evaluated SNP-environment interactions between 30 confirmed prostate cancer susceptibility loci and 45 pesticides and prostate cancer risk in 776 cases and 1,444 controls in the Agricultural Health Study. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Multiplicative SNP-pesticide interactions were calculated using a likelihood ratio test. After correction for multiple tests using the False Discovery Rate method, two interactions remained noteworthy. Among men carrying two T alleles at rs2710647 in EH domain binding protein 1 (EHBP1 SNP, the risk of prostate cancer in those with high malathion use was 3.43 times those with no use (95% CI: 1.44-8.15 (P-interaction= 0.003. Among men carrying two A alleles at rs7679673 in TET2, the risk of prostate cancer associated with high aldrin use was 3.67 times those with no use (95% CI: 1.43, 9.41 (P-interaction= 0.006. In contrast, associations were null for other genotypes. Although additional studies are needed and the exact mechanisms are unknown, this study suggests known genetic susceptibility loci may modify the risk between pesticide use and prostate cancer.

  3. Gestational Exposure as Epigenetic Modifier of Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    tumor promotion in adult life is influenced by prior exposure to carcinogens in early life . The main purpose of this project is to investigate whether...development of triple- negative breast cancers (TNBC). Major findings: Preliminary data acquired through the support of this grant indicate that: 1...methylation of genes associated with the TNBC phenotype in offspring; Aim 2: To examine the combinatorial effects of gestational and postpubertal

  4. A case control study of breast cancer risk and exposure to injectable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case control study of breast cancer risk and exposure to injectable progestogen contraceptives. R. Bailie, J Katzenellenbogen, M. Hoffman, G Schierhout, H Truter, D Dent, A Gudgeon, J van Zyl, L Rosenberg, S Shapiro ...

  5. Canadian individual risks of radon-induced lung cancer for different exposure profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing

    2005-01-01

    Indoor radon has been determined to be the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. There is an increasing need among radiation practitioners to have numerical values of lung cancer risks for men and women, ever-smokers and never-smokers exposed to radon in homes. This study evaluates individual risks for the Canadian population exposed to radon in homes at different radon concentrations and for different periods of their lives. Based on the risk model developed recently by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), individual risks of radon-induced lung cancers are calculated with Canadian age-specific rates for overall and lung cancer mortalities (1996-2000) as well as the Canadian smoking prevalence data in 2002. Convenient tables of lifetime relative risks are constructed for lifetime exposures and short exposures between any two age intervals from 0 to 110, and for various radon concentrations found in homes from 50 to 1000 Bq/m3. The risk of developing lung cancer from residential radon exposure increases with radon concentration and exposure duration. For short exposure periods, such as 10 or 20 years, risks are higher in middle age groups (30-50) compared especially to the later years. Individuals could lower their risks significantly by reducing radon levels earlier in life. The tables could help radiation protection practitioners to better communicate indoor radon risk to members of the public.

  6. Lifetime attributable risk for cancer from occupational radiation exposure among radiologic technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Medical radiation workers were among the earliest occupational groups exposed to external ionizing radiation due to their administration of a range of medical diagnostic procedures. Ionizing radiation is a confirmed human carcinogen for most organ sites. This study, therefore, was aimed to estimate lifetime cancer risk from occupational exposure among radiologic technologists that has been recruited in 2012-2013. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure.

  7. Lifetime attributable risk for cancer from occupational radiation exposure among radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-01-01

    Medical radiation workers were among the earliest occupational groups exposed to external ionizing radiation due to their administration of a range of medical diagnostic procedures. Ionizing radiation is a confirmed human carcinogen for most organ sites. This study, therefore, was aimed to estimate lifetime cancer risk from occupational exposure among radiologic technologists that has been recruited in 2012-2013. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure.

  8. Dust exposure and the risk of cancer in cement industry workers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Kim, Tae-Woo; Jang, Seunghee; Ryu, Hyang-Woo

    2013-03-01

    Cement is used widely in the construction industry, though it contains hazardous chemicals such as hexavalent chromium. Several epidemiological studies have examined the association between cement dust exposure and cancer, but these associations have proved inconclusive. In the present study, we examined the association between dust exposure and cancer in cement industry workers in Korea. Our cohort consisted of 1,324 men who worked at two Portland cement manufacturing factories between 1997 and 2005. We calculated cumulative dust exposures, then categorized workers into high and low dust exposure groups. Cancer cases were identified between 1997 and 2005 by linking with the national cancer registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for all workers and the high and low dust exposure groups, respectively. The SIR for overall cancers in all workers was increased (1.35, 95% CI: 1.01-1.78). The SIR for stomach cancer in the high dust exposure group was increased (2.18, 95% CI: 1.19-3.65), but there was no increased stomach cancer risk in the low dust exposure group. The SIR for rectal cancer in all workers was increased (3.05, 95% CI: 1.32-6.02). Rectal cancer risk was similar in the high and low exposure groups. Our findings suggest a potential association between exposure in the cement industry and an increased risk of stomach and rectal cancers. However, due to the small number of cases, this association should be further investigated in a study with a longer follow-up period and adjustment for confounders. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Occupational exposures to leaded and unleaded gasoline engine emissions and lung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengting; Siemiatycki, Jack; Lavoué, Jérôme; Pasquet, Romain; Pintos, Javier; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Richardson, Lesley; Ho, Vikki

    2018-04-01

    To determine whether occupational exposure to gasoline engine emissions (GEE) increased the risk of lung cancer and more specifically whether leaded or unleaded GEE increased the risk. Two population-based case-control studies were conducted in Montreal, Canada. The first was conducted in the early 1980s and included many types of cancer including lung cancer. The second was conducted in the late 1990s and focused on lung cancer. Population controls were used in both studies. Altogether, there were 1595 cases and 1432 population controls. A comprehensive expert-based exposure assessment procedure was implemented and exposure was assessed for 294 agents, including unleaded GEE, leaded GEE and diesel engine emissions (DEE). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate ORs between various metrics of GEE exposure and lung cancer, adjusting for smoking, DEE and other potential confounders. About half of all controls were occupationally exposed to GEE. Irrespective of the metrics of exposure (any exposure, duration of exposure and cumulative exposure) and the type of lung cancer, and the covariates included in models, none of the point estimates of the ORs between occupational exposure to leaded or unleaded GEE and lung cancer were above 1.0. Pooling two studies, the OR for any exposure to leaded GEE was 0.82 (0.68-1.00). Our results do not support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to GEE increases the risk of lung cancer. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Lung cancer risk and workplace exposures in black men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, J E; Stellman, S D; Richie, J P; Wynder, E L

    1998-02-01

    There are little data on workplace exposures and lung cancer risk in blacks. An ongoing case-control study of lung cancer that included 550 black men and women with lung cancer and 386 age-matched controls was examined by reported occupational exposures and job titles. In men, significant associations were observed with reported exposure to asbestos [odds ratio (OR), 1.8; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.03-3.1] and coal dust (OR, 2.8; 95% CI 1.1-7.0). Elevated but nonsignificant risks of 1.4 or more were detected for the following occupations: police/security guards, farmers/farm workers, laborers, and motor-vehicle drivers. In women, nonsignificant increased risks were found with reported exposure to paint (OR, 1.8) and gas fumes (OR, 4.9). Women employed as farmers/farm workers and building maintenance workers had elevated but nonsignificant risks.

  11. Estimation of baseline lifetime risk of developed cancer related to radiation exposure in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoliang; Niu Haowei; Sun Quanfu; Ma Weidong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To introduce the general international method for estimation of lifetime risk of developed cancer, and to estimate the lifetime risk baseline values of several kinds of cancers related to radiation exposures in China. Methods: The risk estimation was based on the data from Chinese Cancer Registry Annual Report (2010) and China Population and Employment Statistics Yearbook (2009), and made according to the method previously published by National Cancer Institute (NCI) in USA. Results: The lifetime risk of all cancer in China in 2007 was estimated to be 27.77%, that of lung cancer 5.96%, that of breast cancer for female 3.34%, that of all leukemia 0.14%, that of thyroid cancer 0.37%. The lifetime risks of all cancer were estimated to be 32.74% for males and 24.73% for females, and that was 36.47% for urban residents and 26.79% for rural people. Conclusions: The lifetime risk of all cancer for males in 2007 was about 1.25 times as much as that for females. The value of all cancer for urban residents was about 1.35 times as much as that for rural residents. The lifetime risk of developed cancers in 2007 in China is lower than that in the developed countries,such as Japan. (authors)

  12. Risk of lung cancer in animals following low exposures to Radon-222 progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duport, P.; Monchaux, G.; Morlier, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Owing to the facts that a) large uncertainties affect the epidemiology of radon progeny-induced lung cancer in humans (especially at low exposures), and b) the rat is a good model for studying the carcinogenicity of radon progeny in humans, the risk of lung cancer following low exposures to low concentrations of radon progeny can be estimated from data obtained in the laboratory on rats exposed under controlled conditions. From the limited set of laboratory data on the induction of lung cancer in laboratory rats it appears that, at low exposures, the risk of lung cancer decreases with decreasing concentration, and that exposures of the order of 25 WLM, at an exposure rate of 2 WL do not produce any excess lung cancers. Since 20 WLM is a lifetime exposure comparable to those expected in occupational or indoors conditions and 2 WL is an exposure rate about 20 times higher dm current occupational exposures rates and 100 times higher than indoor ones, these observations may be indicative of threshold conditions for the induction of lung cancer by radon progeny. (author)

  13. Occupational exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation and the risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Cheryl E; Demers, Paul A; Kalia, Sunil; Hystad, Perry; Villeneuve, Paul J; Nicol, Anne-Marie; Kreiger, Nancy; Koehoorn, Mieke W

    2016-11-01

    Preventable risk factors for prostate cancer are poorly understood; sun exposure is a possible protective factor. The goal of this study was to investigate prostate cancer risk in outdoor workers, a population with high sun exposure. Prostate cancer cases and controls from a large study (conducted between 1994 and 1997) were used for this analysis. A job exposure matrix (JEM) was used to assign solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) at work as moderate (2 to hours outside/day) or high (≥6 hours). Average daily satellite UV-B measures were linked to the latitude/longitude of the residences of each participant. Several other exposure metrics were also examined, including ever/never exposed and standard erythemal dose by years (SED×years). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between solar UVR exposure and the odds of prostate cancer. A total of 1638 cases and 1697 controls were included. Men of Indian and Asian descent had reduced odds of prostate cancer (ORs 0.17 (0.08 to 0.35) and 0.25 (0.15 to 0.41), respectively) compared with Caucasian men, as did single men (OR 0.76 (0.58 to 0.98)) compared with married men. Overall, no statistically significant associations were observed between sun exposure and prostate cancer with 1 exception. In the satellite-enhanced JEM that considered exposure in high category jobs only, prostate cancer odds in the highest quartile of cumulative exposure was decreased compared with unexposed men (OR 0.68 (0.51 to 0.92)). This study found limited evidence for an association with prostate cancer, with the exception of 1 statistically significant finding of a decreased risk among workers with the longest term and highest sun exposure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation and lung cancer risk in Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockwell, H.G.; Lyman, G.H.; Waltz, J.

    1986-01-01

    The phosphate deposits of central Florida contain levels of uranium and its daughter products 30-60 times greater than average soils. A case-control study was conducted to assess the risk of lung cancer associated with living on these phosphateic soils. Using the records of the state-wide Florida Cancer Data System to address this issue, all cases of lung cancer among Florida residents in 1981 were identified (n = 7049). Information was obtained regarding residence, age, sex, race, and smoking habits. Controls consisted of 6643 individuals with cancers of the colon or rectum. Residents of the central Florida phosphate region experienced a significant increase in lung cancer risk compared to other Florida residents (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4). Excess risks appeared concentrated among squamous cell cancer (OR = 1.6) and small cell cancer (OR = 1.6). When smoking habits as well as residential area was considered, no significant excess risk, associated with residence, was observed among nonsmokers or light smokers. Area residents smoking a pack or more per day experienced a 70% increase in lung cancer risk compared to individuals smoking a similar amount but living elsewhere. Highest risks were observed among persons with squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.1) and small cell cancer (OR = 2.5) who smoked more than 40 cigarettes a day. Results suggest exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation increases the lung cancer risk of residents of this area

  15. Systematic Review of Studies of Workplace Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Lung Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhuo WANG

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been reported that there was a close relationship between lung cancer risk and environmental tobacco smoke at workplace. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Methods By searching Medline, CENTRAL (the Cochrane central register of controlledtrials, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI and VIP et al, we collected both domestic and overseas published documents on workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk. Random or fixed effect models were applied to conduct systematic review on the study results, the combined odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated as well. Results 22 reports were included into the combined analysis, which indicated that 25% lung cancer risk was increased by exposing to workplace environment tobacco smoke (OR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.13-1.39, P < 0.001. For female the increased risk was 22% (OR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.05-1.42, P=0.011. For male the increased risk was 54%, but it does not reach the statistical significance (OR=1.54, 95%CI: 0.74-3.18, P=0.247. Conclusion Workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor of lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Especially for non-smoking women who expose to workplace environment tobacco smoke have a close relationship with lung cancer.

  16. Case-control study of tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer risk in Delaware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathcock H Leroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoke exposure may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, although the evidence supporting the association is inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study in Delaware, incorporating detailed exposure assessment for active and secondhand smoke at home and in the workplace. Methods Primary invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed among female Delaware residents, ages 40–79, in 2000–2002 were identified through the Delaware cancer registry (n = 287. Delaware drivers license and Health Care Finance Administration records were used to select age frequency-matched controls for women Results A statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer was observed for ever having smoked cigarettes (odds ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–1.99. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between breast cancer risk and total years smoked, cigarettes per day, or pack-years. Neither residential nor workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with breast cancer. Recalculations of active smoking risks using a purely unexposed reference group of women who were not exposed to active or secondhand smoking did not indicate increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusion These findings do not support an association between smoking and breast cancer.

  17. Prospective study of ultraviolet radiation exposure and risk of breast cancer in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamoiski, Rachel D., E-mail: rachel.zamoiski@nih.gov; Freedman, D. Michal; Linet, Martha S.; Kitahara, Cari M.; Liu, Wayne; Cahoon, Elizabeth K.

    2016-11-15

    Although there are few environmental risk factors for breast cancer, some epidemiologic studies found that exposure to solar UV radiation (UVR) may lower risk. Prior epidemiologic studies are limited by narrow ambient UVR ranges and lack lifetime exposure assessment. To address these issues, we studied a cohort with residences representing a wide range of ambient UVR. Using the nationwide U.S. Radiologic Technologists study (USRT), we examined the association between breast cancer risk and UVR based on ambient UVR, time outdoors, a combined variable of ambient UVR and time outdoors (combined UVR), and sun susceptibility factors. Participants reported location of residence and hours spent outdoors during five age periods. Ambient UVR was derived by linking satellite-based annual UVR estimates to self-reported residences. Lifetime values were calculated by averaging these measures accounting for years spent in that location. We examined the risk of breast cancer among 36,725 participants (n=716 cases) from baseline questionnaire completion (2003–2005) through 2012–2013 using Cox proportional hazards models. Breast cancer risk was unrelated to ambient UVR (HR for lifetime 5th vs 1st quintile=1.22, 95% CI: 0.95–1.56, p-trend=0.36), time outdoors (HR for lifetime 5th vs 1st quintile=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68–1.10, p-trend=0.46), or combined UVR (HR lifetime 5th vs 1st quintile =0.85, 95% CI: 0.67–1.08, p-trend=0.46). Breast cancer risk was not associated with skin complexion, eye or hair color, or sunburn history. This study does not support the hypothesis that UVR exposure lowers breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Prior studies of UVR and breast cancer are inconsistent and limited. • We assessed UVR exposure across the lifetime and in three ways. • Conducted a prospective analysis of UVR exposure and breast cancer risk. • No association of any UVR exposure metric at any age with breast cancer risk. • Our findings suggest UVR exposure

  18. Prospective study of ultraviolet radiation exposure and risk of breast cancer in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamoiski, Rachel D.; Freedman, D. Michal; Linet, Martha S.; Kitahara, Cari M.; Liu, Wayne; Cahoon, Elizabeth K.

    2016-01-01

    Although there are few environmental risk factors for breast cancer, some epidemiologic studies found that exposure to solar UV radiation (UVR) may lower risk. Prior epidemiologic studies are limited by narrow ambient UVR ranges and lack lifetime exposure assessment. To address these issues, we studied a cohort with residences representing a wide range of ambient UVR. Using the nationwide U.S. Radiologic Technologists study (USRT), we examined the association between breast cancer risk and UVR based on ambient UVR, time outdoors, a combined variable of ambient UVR and time outdoors (combined UVR), and sun susceptibility factors. Participants reported location of residence and hours spent outdoors during five age periods. Ambient UVR was derived by linking satellite-based annual UVR estimates to self-reported residences. Lifetime values were calculated by averaging these measures accounting for years spent in that location. We examined the risk of breast cancer among 36,725 participants (n=716 cases) from baseline questionnaire completion (2003–2005) through 2012–2013 using Cox proportional hazards models. Breast cancer risk was unrelated to ambient UVR (HR for lifetime 5th vs 1st quintile=1.22, 95% CI: 0.95–1.56, p-trend=0.36), time outdoors (HR for lifetime 5th vs 1st quintile=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68–1.10, p-trend=0.46), or combined UVR (HR lifetime 5th vs 1st quintile =0.85, 95% CI: 0.67–1.08, p-trend=0.46). Breast cancer risk was not associated with skin complexion, eye or hair color, or sunburn history. This study does not support the hypothesis that UVR exposure lowers breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Prior studies of UVR and breast cancer are inconsistent and limited. • We assessed UVR exposure across the lifetime and in three ways. • Conducted a prospective analysis of UVR exposure and breast cancer risk. • No association of any UVR exposure metric at any age with breast cancer risk. • Our findings suggest UVR exposure

  19. Cancer risk from incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs associated with coal-tar-sealed pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent (2009-10) studies documented significantly higher concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in settled house dust in living spaces and soil adjacent to parking lots sealed with coal-tar-based products. To date, no studies have examined the potential human health effects of PAHs from these products in dust and soil. Here we present the results of an analysis of potential cancer risk associated with incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs in settings near coal-tar-sealed pavement. Exposures to benzo[a]pyrene equivalents were characterized across five scenarios. The central tendency estimate of excess cancer risk resulting from lifetime exposures to soil and dust from nondietary ingestion in these settings exceeded 1 × 10–4, as determined using deterministic and probabilistic methods. Soil was the primary driver of risk, but according to probabilistic calculations, reasonable maximum exposure to affected house dust in the first 6 years of life was sufficient to generate an estimated excess lifetime cancer risk of 6 × 10–5. Our results indicate that the presence of coal-tar-based pavement sealants is associated with significant increases in estimated excess lifetime cancer risk for nearby residents. Much of this calculated excess risk arises from exposures to PAHs in early childhood (i.e., 0–6 years of age).

  20. Occupational exposure to organic solvents and risk of male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laouali, Nasser; Pilorget, Corinne; Cyr, Diane

    2018-01-01

    models. Results Lifetime cumulative exposure to trichloroethylene >23.9 ppm years was associated with an increased MBC risk, compared to non-exposure [OR (95% CI): 2.1 (1.2-4.0); P trend .... In addition, a possible role for benzene and ethylene glycol in MBC risk was suggested, but no exposure-response trend was observed. Conclusions These findings add to the evidence of an increased risk of breast cancer among men professionally exposed to trichloroethylene and possibly to benzene or ethylene...

  1. Variations with time and age in the relative risks of solid cancer incidence after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R.; de Vathaire, F.; Charles, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Japanese atomic bomb survivor cancer incidence dataset and data on five groups exposed to radiation for medical reasons in childhood are analysed and evidence found for a reduction in the radiation-induced relative risk of cancers other than leukaemia with increasing time since exposure and age at exposure. The rate of the reductions in relative risk with time since exposure are not significantly different for those exposed in childhood and for those exposed in adulthood, if adjustment is made for the effects on the relative risk of age at exposure. For those irradiated in childhood, there is a statistically significant annual reduction of 5.8% (95% Cl 2.8, 8.9) in excess relative risk, and there are no strong indications of inter-cohort heterogeniety in the speed of reduction of relative risk. After adjustment for the effects of age at exposure, there is a significant annual reduction of 3.6% (95% Cl 1.6, 5.6) in excess relative risk in all age-at-exposure groups. There are significant reductions of 5.2% (95% Cl 3.7, 6.8) in excess relative risk per year of age at exposure. There are statistically significant (P = 0.04) interactions between the exponential adjustments to the excess relative risk for age at exposure and time since exposure in the Japanese data, but no indications (P = 0.38) of such interactions when powers of time since exposure and attained age are used to adjust the excess relative risk, so that the fit of the model with power adjustments is to be preferred to that of the model with exponential adjustments. (author)

  2. Environmental Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Zhang

    Full Text Available Association between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB exposure and breast cancer risk has been widely studied, but the results remain controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the evidences from observational studies on PCB exposure and breast cancer risk.Relevant studies with data on internal PCB dose were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, CBM and CNKI databases through November 2014. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were applied to assess the association between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk. Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis and publication bias test were also performed. To further explore the association between specific groups of PCB congeners and breast cancer, we examined the PCB congeners classified, according to their structural, biological and pharmacokinetics properties, as group I (potentially estrogenic, group II (potentially anti-estrogenic and immunotoxic, dioxin-like, and group III (phenobarbital, CYP1A and CYP2B inducers, biologically persistent.Of 660 studies screened, 25 studies which met criteria were selected, involving a total of 12866 participants (6088 cases and 6778 controls from eight countries. The results showed that the risk of breast cancer was associated with group II (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.40 and group III (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09-1.43 PCBs, but not with group I (OR = 1.10, 95%CI: 0.97-1.24 PCBs or total PCB exposure (OR = 1.09, 95%CI: 0.97-1.22.Our meta-analysis based on the selected studies found group II and group III PCB exposure might contribute to the risk of breast cancer. More studies in developing countries with higher PCB levels are needed, as well as studies to explore the relationships between mixtures of organochlorine compounds and breast cancer risk.

  3. Some statistical considerations related to the estimation of cancer risk following exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, C.E.; Pierce, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Statistical theory and methodology provide the logical structure for scientific inference about the cancer risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. Although much is known about radiation carcinogenesis, the risk associated with low-level exposures is difficult to assess because it is too small to measure directly. Estimation must therefore depend upon mathematical models which relate observed risks at high exposure levels to risks at lower exposure levels. Extrapolated risk estimates obtained using such models are heavily dependent upon assumptions about the shape of the dose-response relationship, the temporal distribution of risk following exposure, and variation of risk according to variables such as age at exposure, sex, and underlying population cancer rates. Expanded statistical models, which make explicit certain assumed relationships between different data sets, can be used to strengthen inferences by incorporating relevant information from diverse sources. They also allow the uncertainties inherent in information from related data sets to be expressed in estimates which partially depend upon that information. To the extent that informed opinion is based upon a valid assessment of scientific data, the larger context of decision theory, which includes statistical theory, provides a logical framework for the incorporation into public policy decisions of the informational content of expert opinion

  4. Children's exposure to diagnostic medical radiation and cancer risk: epidemiologic and dosimetric considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linet, Martha S.; Rajaraman, Preetha [National Cancer Institute, Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kim, Kwang pyo [National Cancer Institute, Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kyung Hee University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi (Korea)

    2009-02-15

    While the etiology of most childhood cancers is largely unknown, epidemiologic studies have consistently found an association between exposure to medical radiation during pregnancy and risk of childhood cancer in offspring. The relation between early life diagnostic radiation exposure and occurrence of pediatric cancer risks is less clear. This review summarizes current and historical estimated doses for common diagnostic radiologic procedures as well as the epidemiologic literature on the role of maternal prenatal, children's postnatal and parental preconception diagnostic radiologic procedures on subsequent risk of childhood malignancies. Risk estimates are presented according to factors such as the year of birth of the child, trimester and medical indication for the procedure, and the number of films taken. The paper also discusses limitations of the methods employed in epidemiologic studies to assess pediatric cancer risks, the effects on clinical practice of the results reported from the epidemiologic studies, and clinical and public health policy implications of the findings. Gaps in understanding and additional research needs are identified. Important research priorities include nationwide surveys to estimate fetal and childhood radiation doses from common diagnostic procedures, and epidemiologic studies to quantify pediatric and lifetime cancer risks from prenatal and early childhood exposures to diagnostic radiography, CT, and fluoroscopically guided procedures. (orig.)

  5. Children's exposure to diagnostic medical radiation and cancer risk: epidemiologic and dosimetric considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linet, Martha S.; Rajaraman, Preetha; Kim, Kwang pyo

    2009-01-01

    While the etiology of most childhood cancers is largely unknown, epidemiologic studies have consistently found an association between exposure to medical radiation during pregnancy and risk of childhood cancer in offspring. The relation between early life diagnostic radiation exposure and occurrence of pediatric cancer risks is less clear. This review summarizes current and historical estimated doses for common diagnostic radiologic procedures as well as the epidemiologic literature on the role of maternal prenatal, children's postnatal and parental preconception diagnostic radiologic procedures on subsequent risk of childhood malignancies. Risk estimates are presented according to factors such as the year of birth of the child, trimester and medical indication for the procedure, and the number of films taken. The paper also discusses limitations of the methods employed in epidemiologic studies to assess pediatric cancer risks, the effects on clinical practice of the results reported from the epidemiologic studies, and clinical and public health policy implications of the findings. Gaps in understanding and additional research needs are identified. Important research priorities include nationwide surveys to estimate fetal and childhood radiation doses from common diagnostic procedures, and epidemiologic studies to quantify pediatric and lifetime cancer risks from prenatal and early childhood exposures to diagnostic radiography, CT, and fluoroscopically guided procedures. (orig.)

  6. Testicular cancer risk associated with occupational radiation exposure: a systematic literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousif, Lamya; Blettner, Maria; Hammer, Gael P; Zeeb, Hajo, E-mail: yousif@imbei.uni-mainz.d [Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics (IMBEI), University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Strasse 69, 55131 Mainz (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease, affecting mainly young men aged 15-49. There have been some recent reports that it might be associated with radiation exposure. We have systematically reviewed this topic. English-language articles published between 1990 and 2008 studying the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and testicular cancer were included. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the EPHPP checklist. For ionising radiation we subdivided study populations into occupational groups. No pooled analysis was performed due to the heterogeneity of studies. Seven case-control and 30 cohort studies were included in the review. For radiation workers, one incidence study showed a significant increase and four showed no effect. Eight mortality studies did not indicate an effect while four showed a non-significant increase. Incidence among persons with military exposure was not increased in two studies and non-significantly increased in another two. Among aircrew studies, one showed no effect against five with slight increases. Medical exposure studies showed no increases. For EMF exposure, three studies showed no effect, two reported a significant and four a non-significant increase in incidence. Overall, there was very limited evidence for associations between occupational ionising radiation and testicular cancer, while there were some positive associations for EMF. Testicular cancer mortality is generally low and was not associated with radiation. New incidence studies are recommended to investigate the association between radiation exposure and testicular cancer where exposure is better specified and individually estimated. (review)

  7. Cancer Risk Assessment From Multi-Exposure to Chloroform in Drinking Water of Ilam City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Arman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Among various trihalomethane (THM compounds, chloroform is considered to be the main compound and was selected as an indicator of THMs in this study. This study aims to calculate and assess the lifetime cancer risks resulting from chloroform intakes of various exposure routes in Ilam’s urban drinking water. The samples were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID. The results showed that average chloroform concentrations in different districts were between 20 and 30.3 μg/L, and the highest concentrations were detected in district 4 with a value of 32.2 μg/L. All water samples contained concentrations of chloroform below the standards of the world health organization (WHO and the institute of standards and industrial research of Iran (ISIRI. Assessment of lifetime cancer risks was carried out using prediction models for different exposure routes, including ingestion, inhalation, and dermal routes for people living in Ilam city. The highest risk from chloroform seems to be from the oral ingestion route, followed by inhalation and dermal absorption. The maximum and minimum lifetime cancer risks were 6.59 × 10 - 6 and 5.95 × 10 - 6 in districts 4 and 3, respectively. It was also concluded that the average lifetime cancer risk was 6.26 × 10 - 6 in all districts. Based on the population data, the total number of expected lifetime cancer cases from exposure to chloroform is 1 for Ilam city.

  8. The risk of childhood cancer from intrauterine and preconceptional exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeford, R.

    1995-01-01

    The findings of studies investigating whether exposures to ionizing radiation before birth, either pre- or post-conception, increase the risk of childhood cancer have provoked much scientific controversy. An epidemiological association between the abdominal exposure or pregnant women to diagnostic X-rays and childhood cancer was first reported in the 1950s, while an association between the recorded dose of radiation received occupationally by fathers before the conception of their offspring and childhood leukemia was reported only recently in 1990. The scientific interpretation of these particular statistical associations is by no means straightforward, but the latest analyses of intrauterine irradiation and childhood cancer indicate that a causal inference is likely. Scientific committees have adopted risk coefficients for the intrauterine exposure of somatic tissues, which for childhood leukemia are comparable to those accepted for exposure in infancy, although questions remain about the level of risk of childhood solid tumors imparted by exposure to radiation in utero and shortly after birth. In contrast, the association has been found to be restricted to children born in one village, it does not extend to cancers other than leukemia, and it is markedly inconsistent with the established body of knowledge on radiation-induced hereditary disease. A causal interpretation of this association has effectively been abandoned by scientific authorities. 84 refs., 1 tab

  9. BYSTANDER EFFECTS, GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIATION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an increased interest in utilizing mechanistic data in support of the cancer risk assessment process for ionizing radiation and environmental chemical exposures. In this regard the use of biologically based dose-response models is particularly advocated. The aim is to pr...

  10. Early life exposure to famine and colorectal cancer risk: A role for epigenetic mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, L.A.E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Bruïne, A.P. de; Wouters, K.A.D.; Hulsmans, S.; Spiertz, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Herman, J.G.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Engeland, M. van

    2009-01-01

    Background: Exposure to energy restriction during childhood and adolescence is associated with a lower risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Epigenetic dysregulation during this critical period of growth and development may be a mechanism to explain such observations. Within the Netherlands

  11. The associations between the environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and breast cancer risk and progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) are chlorinated biphenyl compounds with wide applications in the industry.In spite of a ban on their production in the late 1970s,PCBs,as a group of POPs,are still persistent and widely spread in the environment,posing potential threats to human health.The role of PCBs as etiologic agents for breast cancer has been intensively explored in a variety of in vivo,animal and epidemiologic studies.Initial investigations indicated higher levels of PCBs in mammary tissues or sera corresponded to the occurrence of breast cancer,but later studies showed no positive association between PCB exposure and breast cancer development.More recent data suggested that the CYP1A1 m2 polymorphisms might add increased risk to the etiology of breast cancer in women with environmental exposure to PCBs.PCBs are implicated in advancing breast cancer progression,and our unpublished data reveals that PCBs activate the ROCK signaling to enhance breast cancer metastasis.Therefore,the correlation between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk warrants further careful investigations.

  12. Design issues in epidemiologic studies of indoor exposure to Rn and risk of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubin, J.H.; Samet, J.M.; Weinberg, C.

    1990-01-01

    Recent data on indoor air quality have indicated that Rn (222Rn) and its decay products are frequently present in domestic environments. Their presence in indoor air raises concerns about an increase in lung cancer risk for the general population. To directly evaluate lung cancer risk from domestic exposure to Rn and its decay products, as well as to evaluate risk assessments derived from studies of Rn-exposed underground miners, several epidemiologic studies of indoor Rn exposure have been initiated or are planned. This paper calculates sample sizes required for a hypothetical case-control study to address several important hypotheses and shows the impact of difficult problems associated with estimating a subject's Rn exposure. We consider the effects of subject mobility, choice of the exposure response trend which is used to characterize an alternative hypothesis, and errors in the estimation of exposure. Imprecise estimation of Rn exposure arises from errors in the measurement device, exposure to Rn decay products from sources outside the home, inability to measure exposures over time in current as well as previous residences, and the unknown relationship between measured concentration and lung dose of alpha energy from the decay of Rn and its progeny. These methodological problems can result in large discrepancies between computed and actual study power. Failure to anticipate these problems in the design of a study can result in inaccurate estimates of power. We conclude that case-control studies of indoor Rn and lung cancer may require substantial numbers of subjects in order to address the many questions of importance that burden current risk assessments with uncertainty. We suggest pooling data from studies with the largest numbers of cases and with the most precise estimates of Rn exposure as the best approach for meeting present research needs

  13. Projected lifetime cancer risks from exposure to regional radioactive fallout in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Charles E; Bouville, André; Apostoaei, Iulian; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Radioactive fallout from nuclear test detonations during 1946-1958 at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands (MI) exposed populations living elsewhere in the MI archipelago. A comprehensive analysis, presented in seven companion papers, has produced estimates of tissue-specific radiation absorbed dose to MI residents at all historically inhabited atolls from internal (ingested) and external irradiation resulting from exposure to radioactive fallout, by calendar year, and by age of the population at time of exposure. The present report deals, for the first time, with the implications of these doses for cancer risk among exposed members of the MI population. Radiation doses differed by geographic location and year of birth, and radiation-related cancer risk depends upon age at exposure and age at observation for risk. Using dose-response models based on committee reports published by the National Research Council and the National Institutes of Health, we project that, during the lifetimes of members of the MI population potentially exposed to ionizing radiation from weapons test fallout deposited during the testing period (1948-1958) and from residual radioactive sources during the subsequent 12 y (1959-1970), perhaps 1.6% (with 90% uncertainty range 0.4% to 3.4%) of all cancers might be attributable to fallout-related radiation exposures. By sub-population, the projected proportion of cancers attributable to radiation from fallout from all nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands is 55% (28% to 69%) among 82 persons exposed in 1954 on Rongelap and Ailinginae, 10% (2.4% to 22%) for 157 persons exposed on Utrik, and 2.2% (0.5% to 4.8%) and 0.8% (0.2% to 1.8%), respectively, for the much larger populations exposed in mid-latitude locations including Kwajalein and in southern locations including Majuro. By cancer type, point estimates of attributable risk varied, by location, between 12% and 95% for thyroid cancer, between 2% and 78% for leukemia, and

  14. Wood dust exposure and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, David G; Langley, Mary E; Chia, Kwan Leung; Woodman, Richard J; Shanahan, E Michael

    2015-12-01

    Occupational lung cancers represent a major health burden due to their increasing prevalence and poor long-term outcomes. While wood dust is a confirmed human carcinogen, its association with lung cancer remains unclear due to inconsistent findings in the literature. We aimed to clarify this association using meta-analysis. We performed a search of 10 databases to identify studies published until June 2014. We assessed the lung cancer risk associated with wood dust exposure as the primary outcome and with wood dust-related occupations as a secondary outcome. Random-effects models were used to pool summary risk estimates. 85 publications were included in the meta-analysis. A significantly increased risk for developing lung cancer was observed among studies that directly assessed wood dust exposure (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.39, n=33) and that assessed wood dust-related occupations (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.23, n=59). In contrast, a reduced risk for lung cancer was observed among wood dust (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.99, n=5) and occupation (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.98, n=1) studies originating in Nordic countries, where softwood dust is the primary exposure. These results were independent of the presence of adjustment for smoking and exposure classification methods. Only minor differences in risk between the histological subtypes were identified. This meta-analysis provides strong evidence for an association between wood dust and lung cancer, which is critically influenced by the geographic region of the study. The reasons for this region-specific effect estimates remain to be clarified, but may suggest a differential effect for hardwood and softwood dusts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Radon progeny exposure and lung cancer risk: Analyses of a cohort of Newfoundland fluorspar miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, H.I.; Villeneuve, P.J.

    1995-07-01

    A cohort study of the mortality experience (1950-1990) of 1744 underground miners and 321 millers or surface workers has been conducted. Excess mortality among underground miners was noted for cancers of the lung, buccal cavity, pharynx and mouth, urinary tract and for silicosis and pneumoconioses. A highly statistically significant relationship was noted between radon daughter exposure and risk of dying of lung cancer; the small numbers of buccal cavity/pharynx cancers (n = 6) precluded meaningful analysis of exposure-response. No statistically significant excess was found for any cause of death among surface workers. The exposure-response data for lung cancer were fitted to various mathematical models. The model selected included terms for attained age, cumulative dose, dose rate and time since last exposure. Because risk varies according to each of these factors, a single summary risk estimate was felt to be misleading. The joint effects of radon and smoking could not be adequately assessed using this cohort. (author). 46 refs., 16 tabs., 1 fig

  16. Evaluation of exposure to pioglitazone and risk of prostate cancer: a nested case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, Naomi; Bennett, Dimitri; Hunger, Matthias; Dolin, Paul; Thompson, Paula L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Investigate potential association between pioglitazone exposure and risk of prostate cancer. Research design and methods Nested, matched case–control study. UK primary care data (Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) GOLD) linked to inpatient (Hospital Episode Statistics (HES)) and cancer registry (National Cancer Information Network (NCIN)) data. English men aged ≥40 years diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, January 1, 2001 to January 5, 2015. Cases, with prostate cancer diagnosis, matched with up to 4 controls by age, cohort entry date and region. ORs for association of exposure to pioglitazone to incident prostate cancer, adjusted for potential confounders. Results From a cohort of 47 772 men with 243 923 person-years follow-up, 756 definite cases of prostate cancer were identified. Incidence was 309.9/100 000 person-years (95% CI 288.6 to 332.8). Pioglitazone use was not associated with prostate cancer risk; adjusted OR 0.759, 95% CI 0.502 to 1.148. Analyses showed no difference when possible cases, prostate cancer in CPRD GOLD only, included (adjusted OR 0.726, 95% CI 0.510 to 1.034). No association when adjusted for channeling bias (OR 0.778, 95% CI 0.511 to 1.184) or limited to an index date prior to July 1, 2011 (adjusted OR 0.508, 95% CI 0.294 to 0.879), despite prostate-specific antigen screening occurring more frequently among cases than controls (81.6% of 756 definite cases cf. 24.2% of 2942 controls (pworld, nested matched case–control study, exposure to pioglitazone was not associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. PMID:28074141

  17. The theoretical risk of non-melanoma skin cancer from environmental radon exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eatough, J.P.; Henshaw, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    The skin cancer risk theoretically attributable to radon associated alpha particle radiation is calculated on the basis of recent dosimetry, and published radiation risk factors. The results suggest that of the order of 2% (range 1%-10%) of non-melanoma skin cancers in the UK may be associated with radon exposure at the average UK radon concentration of 20 Bq m -3 . The range quoted is due solely to uncertainties in the estimate of the radon dose to the basal layer of the skin, and additional sources of uncertainty are discussed. The estimate is dependent on the assumption that the target cells for radiation induced skin cancer lie in the basal layer of the epidermis, and that irradiation of the dermis is not necessary for skin cancer induction. Due to the effect of ultraviolet radiation on the risk factors for ionising radiation, ultraviolet radiation exposure must also be involved in the induction of the majority of any skin cancer cases linked to radon exposure. (author)

  18. Non-melanoma skin cancer: occupational risk from UV light and arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdu, Simona

    2014-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) has a significant impact on public health and health care costs as a result of high morbidity and disfigurement due to the destruction of surrounding tissues. Although the mortality rates of these tumors are low, the high incidence rates determine a considerable number of deaths. NMSC is the most common type of skin cancer, representing about 1/3 of all malignancies diagnosed worldwide each year. The most common NMSC are basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Studies on humans and experimental animals indicate that ultraviolet (UV) light and arsenic play important roles in the development of these skin malignancies. Several epidemiological studies have investigated the risk of developing NMSC and the potential link between exposure to sunlight and arsenic in the agricultural and industrial occupational settings. To date, the published literature suggests that there is no apparent skin cancer risk as regards workplace exposure to artificial UV light or arsenic. Concerning UV light from sun exposure at the workplace, most published studies indicated an elevated risk for SCC, but are less conclusive for BCC. Many of these studies are limited by the methodology used in the evaluation of occupational exposure and the lack of adjustment for major confounders. Therefore, further epidemiological studies are required to focus on exposure assessment at the individual level as well as potential interactions with other occupational and non-occupational exposures and individual susceptibility. In doing so, we can better quantify the true risk of skin cancer in exposed workers and inform effective public health prevention programs.

  19. [Estimation of the excess of lung cancer mortality risk associated to environmental tobacco smoke exposure of hospitality workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M José; Nebot, Manel; Juárez, Olga; Ariza, Carles; Salles, Joan; Serrahima, Eulàlia

    2006-01-14

    To estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with environmental tobacco (ETS) smoke exposure among hospitality workers. The estimation was done using objective measures in several hospitality settings in Barcelona. Vapour phase nicotine was measured in several hospitality settings. These measurements were used to estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with ETS exposure for a 40 year working life, using the formula developed by Repace and Lowrey. Excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with ETS exposure was higher than 145 deaths per 100,000 workers in all places studied, except for cafeterias in hospitals, where excess lung cancer mortality risk was 22 per 100,000. In discoteques, for comparison, excess lung cancer mortality risk is 1,733 deaths per 100,000 workers. Hospitality workers are exposed to ETS levels related to a very high excess lung cancer mortality risk. These data confirm that ETS control measures are needed to protect hospital workers.

  20. PROLARM: Cancer risk from medical diagnostic exposures is strongly dependent upon patients' prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschner, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Matthias; Dietlein, Markus; Schicha, Harald

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: a) To evaluate the impact of the reduced life expectancy of patients (compared to a non-patient group with same age distribution) on their risk of developing cancer from the diagnostic use of radiation. b) To find an approximation to such reduction in risk which depends only on the patient's age, a, and his life expectancy, but is independent of the choice of values for the baseline risk of cancer incidence, m(a), and the enhanced relative risk ERR(a) from radiation exposure. Method: The lifetime attributable risk LAR (of a radiation-induced malignancy to manifest itself) is a function of age at exposure, e, and given by integrating over attained age, a, the product of ERR(a), baseline cancer risk m(a) and the relative probability of surviving to age a, S'(a,e). We define a 'prognosis-based LAR modifier' (PROLARM) as the ratio of risks for non-patient, LAR(a), and patient, LAR p (a), a dimensionless quantity that gives a measure of reduction of LAR due to the patient's prognosis. With the survival of the patient group, S p ' (a,e), and for any choice of fitted function for ERR(a) like those used in BEIR VII report, PROLARM ≥∫d'(a,e) da/∫S p '(a,e) da, i.e. the ratio of the survival integrals gives a lower (thus conservative) estimate of the reduction in risk. Results: The method was applied to n=4285 patients with metastatic breast cancer for whom survival as a function of age at metastasis was known. Figure shows that LAR is decreased significantly for all ages at exposure. At younger ages, this decrease is more pronounced (PROLARM ≥ 20 for e ≤ 65). Example: using ERR values of BEIR VII, the LAR due to 10 mSv effective dose at age a = 50 would drop from 1.2 E-3 for non-patient to 4.3E-5 for a patient, i.e. by a factor (PROLARM) of 29. Using only survival data, that factor is 27 (but no LAR can be computed). In other words: 10 mSv for a patient correspond risk-wise to 0.4 mSv for non-patient. The method can be applied to any pathology

  1. Lung cancer attributable to indoor radon exposure in France using different risk models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catelinois, O.C.; Laurier, D.L.; Rogel, A.R.; Billon, S.B.; Tirmarche, M.T.; Hemon, Dh.; Verger, P.V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Radon exposure is omnipresent for the general public, but at variable levels, because radon mainly comes from granitic and volcanic subs oils as well as from certain construction materials. Inhalation of radon is the main source of exposure to radioactivity in the general population of most countries. In 1988, the International Agency for Research on Cancer declared radon to be carcinogenic for humans (lung cancer): radon is classed in the group 1. The exposure of the overall general population to a carcinogenic component led scientists to assess the lung cancer risk associated to indoor radon. The aim of this work is to provide the first lung cancer risk assessment associated with indoor radon exposure in France, using all available epidemiological results and performing an uncertainty analysis. The number of lung cancer deaths potentially associated with radon in houses is estimated for the year 1999 according to several dose-response relationships which come from either cohorts of miners or joint analysis of residential case-controls studies. The variability of indoor radon exposure in France and uncertainties related to each of the dose-response relationships are considered. The assessment of lung cancer risk associated with domestic radon exposure considers 10 dose-response relationships resulting from miners cohorts and case-control studies in the general population. A critical review of available data on smoking habits has been performed and allowed to consider the interaction between radon and tobacco. The exposure data come from measurements campaigns carried out since the beginning of the 1980's by the Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety and the Health General Directory in France. The French lung cancer mortality data are provided by the INSERM. Estimates of the number of attributable cancers are carried out for the whole country, stratified by 8 large regions and b y 96 departments for the year 1999

  2. Exposure to uranium and cancer risk: a review of epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirmarche, M.; Baysson, H.; Telle-Lamberton, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: At the end of 2000, certain diseases including leukemia were reported among soldiers who participated in the Balkan and in the Gulf wars. Depleted uranium used during these conflicts was considered as a possible cause. Its radiotoxicity is close to that of natural uranium. This paper reviews the epidemiological knowledge of uranium, the means of exposure and the associated risk of cancer. Methods: The only available epidemiological data concerns nuclear workers exposed to uranium. A review of the international literature is proposed by distinguishing between uranium miners and other workers of the nuclear industry. French studies are described in details. Results: In ionizing radiation epidemiology, contamination by uranium is often cited as a risk factor, but the dose-effect relationship is rarely studied. Retrospective assessment of individual exposure is generally insufficient. Moreover, it is difficult to distinguish between uranium radiotoxicity, its chemical toxicity and the radiotoxicity of its progeny. A causal relation between lung cancer and radon exposure, a gas derived from the decay of uranium, has been demonstrated in epidemiological studies of miners. Among other nuclear workers exposed to uranium, there is a mortality deficit from all causes (healthy worker effect). No cancer site appears systematically in excess compared to the national population; very few studies describe a dose-response relationship. Conclusion: Only studies with a precise reconstruction of doses and sufficient numbers of workers will allow a better assessment of risks associated with uranium exposure at levels encountered in industry or during conflicts using depleted uranium weapons. (author)

  3. Occupational exposure to endotoxins and lung cancer risk: results of the ICARE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khedher, Soumaya; Neri, Monica; Guida, Florence; Matrat, Mireille; Cenée, Sylvie; Sanchez, Marie; Menvielle, Gwenn; Molinié, Florence; Luce, Danièle; Stücker, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the role of occupational exposure to endotoxins in lung cancer in a French population-based case-control study (ICARE (Investigation of occupational and environmental causes of respiratory cancers)). Detailed information was collected on the occupational history and smoking habits from 2926 patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer and 3555 matched controls. We evaluated each subject's endotoxin exposure after cross referencing International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) codes (for job tasks) and Nomenclature d'Activités Françaises (NAF) codes (for activity sectors). Endotoxin exposure levels were attributed to each work environment based on literature reports. ORs and 95% CIs were estimated using unconditional logistic regression models and controlled for main confounding factors. An inverse association between exposure to endotoxins and lung cancer was found (OR=0.80, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.95). Negative trends were shown with duration and cumulative exposure, and the risk was decreased decades after exposure cessation (all statistically significant). Lung cancer risk was particularly reduced among workers highly exposed (eg, in dairy, cattle, poultry, pig farms), but also in those weakly exposed (eg, in waste treatment). Statistically significant interactions were shown with smoking, and never/light smokers were more sensitive to an endotoxin effect than heavy smokers (eg, OR=0.14, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.32 and OR=0.80, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.40, respectively, for the quartiles with the highest cumulative exposure, compared with those never exposed). Pronounced inverse associations were shown with adenocarcinoma histological subtype (OR=0.37, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.55 in the highly exposed). Our findings suggest that exposure to endotoxins, even at a low level, reduces the risk of lung cancer. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  4. Transplacental exposure to environmental carcinogens: Association with childhood cancer risks and the role of modulating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucic, A; Guszak, V; Mantovani, A

    2017-09-01

    Biological responses to carcinogens from environmental exposure during adulthood are modulated over years or decades. Conversely, during transplacental exposure, the effects on the human foetus change within weeks, intertwining with developmental mechanisms: even short periods of transplacental exposure may be imprinted in the organism for a lifetime. The pathways leading to childhood and juvenile cancers, such as leukaemias, neuroblastoma/brain tumours, hepatoblastoma, and Willm's tumour involve prenatally-induced genomic, epigenomic and/or non-genomic effects caused by xenobiotics. Pregnant women most often live in complex environmental settings that cause transplacental exposure of the foetus to xenobiotic mixtures. Mother-child biomonitoring should integrate the analysis of chemicals/radiation present in the living and workplace environment with relevant risk modulators related to life style. The interdisciplinary approach for transplacental cancer risk assessment in high-pressure areas should be based on an integrated model for mother-child exposure estimation via profiling the exposure level by water quality analysis, usage of emission grids, and land use maps. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Estimation of lung cancer risk from environmental exposure to airborne plutonium from the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    A three-phase study was undertaken to (1) determine the nature of disagreement among scientists concerning risk of environmental release of plutonium, (2) develop an analytic procedure for determining risk based on clearly stated principles defensible by reference to the literature, and (3) develop estimates of radiation dose to the lung from exposure to plutonium in ambient air for the purpose of evaluating risk to an individual with a specified age and smoking history. Eleven epidemiologists, biostatisticians and radiation scientists participated in Phase I of the study. It was shown that no clearly stated analytical principles for risk estimation were in common use, resulting in widely divergent risk estimates. Five of these disagreeing scientists in Phase I (including all cancer epidemiologists in the Denver metropolitan area) were chosen for Phase II of the study. A single analytic procedure was developed which was unanimously agreed upon. This procedure was dependent on the estimate of dose to the lung from ambient air levels of Rocky Flats plutonium. In Phase III of the study, a panel of four radiation scientists developed a procedure for estimation of dose to the lung from chronic exposure to plutonium ambient air levels. Results from all phases of the study were used to develop a method for estimation of relative risk of lung cancer for an individual, given plutonium dose to the lung, age, smoking history and other radiation exposure

  6. LIFETIME LUNG CANCER RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH INDOOR RADON EXPOSURE BASED ON VARIOUS RADON RISK MODELS FOR CANADIAN POPULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing

    2017-04-01

    This study calculates and compares the lifetime lung cancer risks associated with indoor radon exposure based on well-known risk models in the literature; two risk models are from joint studies among miners and the other three models were developed from pooling studies on residential radon exposure from China, Europe and North America respectively. The aim of this article is to make clear that the various models are mathematical descriptions of epidemiologically observed real risks in different environmental settings. The risk from exposure to indoor radon is real and it is normal that variations could exist among different risk models even when they were applied to the same dataset. The results show that lifetime risk estimates vary significantly between the various risk models considered here: the model based on the European residential data provides the lowest risk estimates, while models based on the European miners and Chinese residential pooling with complete dosimetry give the highest values. The lifetime risk estimates based on the EPA/BEIR-VI model lie within this range and agree reasonably well with the averages of risk estimates from the five risk models considered in this study. © Crown copyright 2016.

  7. Quantification of the lung cancer risk from radon daughter exposure in dwellings - an epidemiological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edling, C.; Wingren, G.; Axelson, O.

    1986-01-01

    Some epidemiological studies have suggested a relationship between the concentration of decay products from radon, i.e., radon daughter exposure, in dwellings and lung cancer. Further experiences made from radon measurements have indicated that both building material and particularly the radioactivity in the ground is of importance for the leakage of radon into the houses. In Sweden, a survey is now ongoing in 15 municipalities with alum shale deposits, and in one area a case-referent evaluation has been made, considering building materials, ground conditions and smoking habits. The size of the study is small, but the results suggest that a risk is at hand and that there is a multiplicative effect from smoking and radon daughter exposure. About 30% of the lung cancers in the studied population might be attributable to elevated and potentially avoidable exposure to radon and radon daughters. (author)

  8. Effect of the number of cigarettes smoked and of radon exposure on the lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, R.; Holy, K.; Sedlak, A.

    2012-01-01

    The relation between the extent of cigarette smoking and the lung cancer risk in people exposed to radon was examined. The changes in the airway geometry due to an increased production of mucus caused by smoking were taken into account. The mucous layer protects the target cells from the effects of ionizing radiation. The radiation risk per unit exposure decreases with the number of cigarettes smoked, in contrast to the total risk, which increases to stagnate in the range of extensive daily cigarette smoking. Lung damage in chronic smokers should be taken into account, though. (orig.)

  9. Radiation exposure and familial aggregation of cancers as risk factors for colorectal cancer after radioiodine treatment for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubino, Carole; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Doyon, Francoise; Shamsaldin, Akhtar; Abbas, Tahaa Moncef; Caillou, Bernard; Colonna, Marc; Cecarreli, Claudia; Schvartz, Claire; Bardet, Stephane; Langlois, Christiane B.Sc.; Ricard, Marcel; Schlumberger, Martin; Vathaire, Florent de

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: In thyroid cancer patients, radioiodine treatment has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of colon carcinoma. The aim of this study in thyroid cancer patients was to evaluate the role of familial factors in the risk of colorectal cancer and their potential interaction with radioiodine exposure. Methods and Materials: We performed a case-control study on 15 colorectal cancer patients and 76 matched control subjects, nested in a cohort of 3708 thyroid cancer patients treated between 1933 and 1998. For each patient, the radiation dose delivered to the colon by radioiodine was estimated by use of standard tables. In those who received external radiation therapy, the average radiation doses delivered to the colon and rectum were estimated by use of DOS E g software. A complete familial history was obtained by face-to-face interviews, and a familial index was defined to evaluate the degree of familial aggregation. Results: The risk of colorectal cancer increased with familial aggregation of colorectal cancer (p = 0.02). After adjustment for the radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum, the risk of colorectal cancer was 2.8-fold higher (95% CI, 1.0-8.0) for patients with at least one relative affected by colorectal cancer than for patients without such a family history (p = 0.05). The radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum by 131 I and external radiation therapy was associated with an increase of risk near the significance threshold (p = 0.1). No significant interaction was found between radiation dose and having an affected relative (p = 0.9). Conclusions: The role of familial background in the risk of colorectal cancer following a differentiated thyroid carcinoma appears to increase with the radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum. However, the study population was small and no interaction was found between these two factors

  10. Joint analysis of French and Czech uranium miners: lung cancer risk at low radon exposure rates and modifying effects of time since exposure and age at exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladislav Tomasek; Agnes Rogel; Margot Tirmarche; Dominique Laurier

    2006-01-01

    The present analysis was conducted in the frame of European project 'Quantification of lung cancer risk after low radon exposure and low exposure rate: synthesis from epidemiologic and experimental data'. The overall goal of the project related to uranium miners was the evaluation of lung cancer dose-response relationship and of dose rate effects among European uranium miners exposed to low doses and low dose rates of radon decay products. In addition, modifying factors like attained age, age at exposure and time since exposure were investigated. The joint analysis of French and Czech uranium miners was conducted mainly in order to increase the statistical power and to allow a more detailed description of the variation of dose-response relationship in time. (N.C.)

  11. Joint analysis of French and Czech uranium miners: lung cancer risk at low radon exposure rates and modifying effects of time since exposure and age at exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladislav Tomasek [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic); Agnes Rogel; Margot Tirmarche; Dominique Laurier [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    The present analysis was conducted in the frame of European project 'Quantification of lung cancer risk after low radon exposure and low exposure rate: synthesis from epidemiologic and experimental data'. The overall goal of the project related to uranium miners was the evaluation of lung cancer dose-response relationship and of dose rate effects among European uranium miners exposed to low doses and low dose rates of radon decay products. In addition, modifying factors like attained age, age at exposure and time since exposure were investigated. The joint analysis of French and Czech uranium miners was conducted mainly in order to increase the statistical power and to allow a more detailed description of the variation of dose-response relationship in time. (N.C.)

  12. Residential radon exposure and lung cancer risk in Misasa, Japan. A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobue, Tomotaka; Lee, Valerie S.; Ye, Weimin; Tanooka, Hiroshi; Mifune, Masaaki; Suyama, Akihiko; Koga, Taeko; Morishima, Hiroshige; Kondo, Sohei

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate an association between residential radon exposure and risk of lung cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Misasa Town, Tottori Prefecture, Japan. The case series consisted of 28 people who had died of lung cancer in the years 1976-96 and 36 controls chosen randomly from the residents in 1976, matched by sex and year of birth. Individual residential radon concentrations were measured for 1 year with alpha track detectors. The average radon concentration was 46 Bq/m 3 for cases and 51 Bq/m 3 for controls. Compared to the level of 24 or less Bq/m 3 , the adjusted odds ratios of lung cancer associated with radon levels of 25-49, 50-99 and 100 or more Bq/m 3 , were 1.13 (95% confidence interval; 0.29-4.40), 1.23 (0.16-9.39) and 0.25 (0.03-2.33), respectively. None of the estimates showed statistical significance, due to small sample size. When the subjects were limited to only include residents of more than 30 years, the estimates did not change substantially. This study did not find that the risk pattern of lung cancer, possibly associated with residential radon exposure, in Misasa Town differed from patterns observed in other countries. (author)

  13. Study of epidemiological risk of lung cancer in Mexico due indoor radon exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles, A.; Espinosa, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this work the lifetime relative risks (LRR) of lung cancer due to exposure to indoor 222Rn on the Mexican population is calculated. Cigarette smoking is the number one risk factor for lung cancer (LC), because that, to calculate the number of cases of LC due to exposure to 222Rn is necessary considers the number of cases of LC for smoking cigarette. The lung cancer mortality rates published by the "Secretaría de Salud" (SSA), the mexican population data published by the "Consejo Nacional de Población" (CONAPO), smoking data in the mexican population, published by the "Comisión Nacional Contra las Adicciones" (CONADIC), the "Organización Panamericana de la Salud" (OPS) and indoor 222Rn concentrations in Mexico published in several recent studies are used. To calculate the lifetime relative risks (LRR) for different segments of the Mexican population, firstly the Excess Relative Risk (ERR) is calculated using the method developed by the BEIR VI committee and subsequently modified by the USEPA and published in the report "EPA Assessment of Risks from Radon in Homes". The excess relative risks were then used to calculate the corresponding lifetime relative risks, again using the method developed by the BEIR VI committee. The lifetime relative risks for Mexican male and female eversmokers and Mexican male and female never-smokers were calculated for radon concentrations spanning the range found in recent studies of indoor radon concentrations in Mexico. The lifetime relative risks of lung cancer induced by lifetime exposure to the mexican average indoor radon concentration were estimated to be 1.44 and 1.40 for never-smokers mexican females and males respectively, and 1.19 and 1.17 for ever-smokers Mexican females and males respectively. The Mexican population LRR values obtained in relation to the USA and Canada LRR published values in ever-smokers for both gender are similar with differences less than 4%, in case of never-smokers in relation with Canada

  14. Cancer risks related to low-level RF/MW exposures, including cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigielski, Stanislaw

    2013-09-01

    For years, radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiations have been applied in the modern world. The rapidly increasing use of cellular phones called recent attention to the possible health risks of RF/MW exposures. In 2011, a group of international experts organized by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon) concluded that RF/MW radiations should be listed as a possible carcinogen (group 2B) for humans. Three meta-analyses of case-control studies have concluded that using cell phones for more than ten years was associated with an increase in the overall risk of developing a brain tumor. The Interphone Study, the largest health-related case-control international study of use of cell phones and head and neck tumors, showed no statistically significant increases in brain cancers related to higher amounts of cell phone use, but excess risk in a small subgroup of more heavily exposed users associated with latency and laterality was reported. So far, the published studies do not show that mobile phones could for sure increase the risk of cancer. This conclusion is based on the lack of a solid biological mechanism, and the fact that brain cancer rates are not going up significantly. However, all of the studies so far have weaknesses, which make it impossible to entirely rule out a risk. Mobile phones are still a new technology and there is little evidence about effects of long-term use. For this reason, bioelectromagnetic experts advise application of a precautionary resources. It suggests that if people want to use a cell phone, they can choose to minimize their exposure by keeping calls short and preferably using hand-held sets. It also advises discouraging children from making non essential calls as well as also keeping their calls short.

  15. Occupational exposures to engine exhausts and other PAHs and breast cancer risk: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rajni; Glass, Deborah C; Heyworth, Jane S; Saunders, Christobel; Fritschi, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Some previous studies have suggested that exposure to engine exhausts may increase risk of breast cancer. In a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Western Australia we assessed occupational exposure to engine exhausts using questionnaires and telephone interviews. Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression. We found no association between risk of breast cancer and occupational exposure to diesel exhaust (OR 1.07, 95%CI: 0.81-1.41), gasoline exhaust (OR 0.98, 95%CI: 0.74-1.28), or other exhausts (OR 1.08, 95%CI: 0.29-4.08). There were also no significant dose- or duration-response relationships. This study did not find evidence supporting the association between occupational exposures to engine exhausts and breast cancer risk. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:437-444, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Sun Exposure, Vitamin D Receptor Genetic Variants, and Risk of Breast Cancer in the Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satagopan, Jaya; Sima, Camelia S.; Orlow, Irene; Mujumdar, Urvi; Coble, Joseph; Roy, Pampa; Yoo, Sarah; Sandler, Dale P.; Alavanja, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence suggests a negative relation between sunlight exposure and breast cancer risk. The hypothesized mechanism is sunlight-induced cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D. Objectives: Our goal was to examine sun exposure and its interaction with vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene variants on breast cancer risk. Methods: We examined sun exposure and breast cancer incidence among 31,021 private pesticide applicators’ wives, including 578 cases, enrolled in the prospective Agricultural Health Study cohort and followed 8.6 years on average. We estimated interactions between sun exposure, VDR variants, and breast cancer in a nested case–control study comprising 293 cases and 586 matched controls. Information on sun exposure was obtained by questionnaire at cohort enrollment. Relative risks were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression for the cohort data and conditional logistic regression for the nested case–control data. Results: We observed a small decrease in breast cancer risk in association with usual sun exposure of ≥ 1 hr/day (versus sun exposure may be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer, but we did not find clear evidence of modification by VDR variants. Larger studies are warranted, particularly among populations in whom low levels of usual sun exposure can be more precisely characterized. Citation: Engel LS, Satagopan J, Sima CS, Orlow I, Mujumdar U, Coble J, Roy P, Yoo S, Sandler DP, Alavanja MC. 2014. Sun exposure, vitamin D receptor genetic variants, and risk of breast cancer in the Agricultural Health Study. Environ Health Perspect 122:165–171; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206274 PMID:24252436

  17. Systematic review and meta-analysis of glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ellen T; Delzell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis rigorously examines the relationship between glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancer (LHC) including NHL, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), multiple myeloma (MM), and leukemia. Meta-relative risks (meta-RRs) were positive and marginally statistically significant for the association between any versus no use of glyphosate and risk of NHL (meta-RR = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-1.6, based on six studies) and MM (meta-RR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0-1.9; four studies). Associations were statistically null for HL (meta-RR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.7-1.6; two studies), leukemia (meta-RR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6-1.5; three studies), and NHL subtypes except B-cell lymphoma (two studies each). Bias and confounding may account for observed associations. Meta-analysis is constrained by few studies and a crude exposure metric, while the overall body of literature is methodologically limited and findings are not strong or consistent. Thus, a causal relationship has not been established between glyphosate exposure and risk of any type of LHC.

  18. Colorectal cancer risk and nitrate exposure through drinking water and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo-Herrera, Nadia; Gràcia-Lavedan, Esther; Boldo, Elena; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; Molina, Antonio J; Fernández, Tania; Martín, Vicente; La Vecchia, Carlo; Bosetti, Cristina; Tavani, Alessandra; Polesel, Jerry; Serraino, Diego; Gómez Acebo, Inés; Altzibar, Jone M; Ardanaz, Eva; Burgui, Rosana; Pisa, Federica; Fernández-Tardón, Guillermo; Tardón, Adonina; Peiró, Rosana; Navarro, Carmen; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Moreno, Victor; Righi, Elena; Aggazzotti, Gabriella; Basagaña, Xavier; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Kogevinas, Manolis; Villanueva, Cristina M

    2016-07-15

    Ingested nitrate leads to the endogenous synthesis of N-nitroso compounds (NOCs), animal carcinogens with limited human evidence. We aimed to evaluate the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) associated with nitrate exposure in drinking water and diet. A case-control study in Spain and Italy during 2008-2013 was conducted. Hospital-based incident cases and population-based (Spain) or hospital-based (Italy) controls were interviewed on residential history, water consumption since age 18, and dietary information. Long-term waterborne ingested nitrate was derived from routine monitoring records, linked to subjects' residential histories and water consumption habits. Dietary nitrate intake was estimated from food frequency questionnaires and published food composition databases. Odd ratios (OR) were calculated using mixed models with area as random effect, adjusted for CRC risk factors and other covariables. Generalized additive models (GAMs) were used to analyze exposure-response relationships. Interaction with endogenous nitrosation factors and other covariables was also evaluated. In total 1,869 cases and 3,530 controls were analyzed. Average waterborne ingested nitrate ranged from 3.4 to 19.7 mg/day, among areas. OR (95% CIs) of CRC was 1.49 (1.24, 1.78) for >10 versus ≤5 mg/day, overall. Associations were larger among men versus women, and among subjects with high red meat intake. GAMs showed increasing exposure-response relationship among men. Animal-derived dietary nitrate was associated with rectal, but not with colon cancer risk. In conclusion, a positive association between CRC risk and waterborne ingested nitrate is suggested, mainly among subgroups with other risk factors. Heterogeneous effects of nitrate from different sources (water, animal and vegetables) warrant further research. © 2016 UICC.

  19. Agent Orange exposure, Vietnam War veterans, and the risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamie, Karim; DeVere White, Ralph W; Lee, Dennis; Ok, Joon-Ha; Ellison, Lars M

    2008-11-01

    It has been demonstrated that Agent Orange exposure increases the risk of developing several soft tissue malignancies. Federally funded studies, now nearly a decade old, indicated that there was only a weak association between exposure and the subsequent development of prostate cancer. Because Vietnam War veterans are now entering their 60s, the authors reexamined this association by measuring the relative risk of prostate cancer among a cohort of men who were stratified as either exposed or unexposed to Agent Orange between the years 1962 and 1971 and who were followed during the interval between 1998 and 2006. All Vietnam War era veterans who receive their care in the Northern California Veteran Affairs Health System were stratified as either exposed (n=6214) or unexposed (n=6930) to Agent Orange. Strata-specific incidence rates of prostate cancer (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision code 185.0) were calculated. Differences in patient and disease characteristics (age, race, smoking history, family history, body mass index, finasteride exposure, prebiopsy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, clinical and pathologic stage, and Gleason score) were assessed with chi-square tests, t tests, a Cox proportional hazards model, and multivariate logistic regression. Twice as many exposed men were identified with prostate cancer (239 vs 124 unexposed men, respectively; odds ratio [OR], 2.19; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.75-2.75). This increased risk also was observed in a Cox proportional hazards model from the time of exposure to diagnosis (hazards ratio [HR], 2.87; 95% CI, 2.31-3.57). The mean time from exposure to diagnosis was 407 months. Agent Orange-exposed men were diagnosed at a younger age (59.7 years; 95% CI, 58.9-60.5 years) compared with unexposed men (62.2 years; 95% CI, 60.8-63.6 years), had a 2-fold increase in the proportion of Gleason scores 8 through 10 (21.8%; 95% CI, 16.5%-27%) compared with unexposed men (10.5%; 95% CI, 5

  20. 0177 Exposure to styrene and the risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Skovgaard; Hansen, J; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Styrene was incorporated in the 12(th) Report on Carcinogens (RoC) based on sufficient experimental evidence in animals. The human evidence has been evaluated as limited by RoC and IARC. The objective of this study was to analyse the risk of haematopoetic malignancies and other cancers...... following occupational styrene exposure. METHOD: The cohort consists of 74 902 workers (84% men) in the Danish reinforced plastics industry, originating from 481 companies ever producing reinforced plastics in Denmark 1964-2009. We identified all workers in the National Supplementary Pension Fund Registry...

  1. Cancer mortality risk of nuclear power workers due to the exposure of ionising radiation in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, F.; Seitz, G.; Hammer, G.P.; Blettner, M.

    2006-01-01

    A cohort study of German nuclear power workers was set up to investigate overall and cancer mortality risk related to a chronic exposure to ionising radiation of low-level dose. The German study was performed as a part of an international study carried out by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon. First results of the international study have been published recently [1]. German data are not yet included in this analysis. The German cohort consists of 4844 employees from 10 nuclear power plants. All persons who worked in these nuclear power plants in 1991 or started employment between 1991 und 1997 are included (except for employees of one plant, whose observation period started in 1992). These persons accumulated about 31,000 person years. Overall, 68 deaths were observed in the observation period between 1.1.1991-31.12.1997. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were computed for all causes of death, all cancers, cardiovascular diseases, external causes, and all other causes. Overall, a strong healthy worker effect was observed (SMR=0.52 [95% CI: 0.41;0.67]). No increase in total cancer mortality was seen (SMR=0.85 [95% CI: 0.53;1.30]). However, numbers are too small for stable risk estimates and further effort is under way to complete the cohort in terms of power plants and to extend the follow-up until 2005. (authors)

  2. Cancer mortality risk of nuclear power workers due to the exposure of ionising radiation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehringer, F.; Seitz, G. [Berufsgenossenschaft der Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik, Koln (Germany); Hammer, G.P.; Blettner, M. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitat Mainz, Institut fur Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik des Klinikums (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    A cohort study of German nuclear power workers was set up to investigate overall and cancer mortality risk related to a chronic exposure to ionising radiation of low-level dose. The German study was performed as a part of an international study carried out by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon. First results of the international study have been published recently [1]. German data are not yet included in this analysis. The German cohort consists of 4844 employees from 10 nuclear power plants. All persons who worked in these nuclear power plants in 1991 or started employment between 1991 und 1997 are included (except for employees of one plant, whose observation period started in 1992). These persons accumulated about 31,000 person years. Overall, 68 deaths were observed in the observation period between 1.1.1991-31.12.1997. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were computed for all causes of death, all cancers, cardiovascular diseases, external causes, and all other causes. Overall, a strong healthy worker effect was observed (SMR=0.52 [95% CI: 0.41;0.67]). No increase in total cancer mortality was seen (SMR=0.85 [95% CI: 0.53;1.30]). However, numbers are too small for stable risk estimates and further effort is under way to complete the cohort in terms of power plants and to extend the follow-up until 2005. (authors)

  3. Risk of breast cancer following exposure to tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water in Cape Cod, Massachusetts: reanalysis of a case-control study using a modified exposure assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster Thomas F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetrachloroethylene (PCE is an important occupational chemical used in metal degreasing and drycleaning and a prevalent drinking water contaminant. Exposure often occurs with other chemicals but it occurred alone in a pattern that reduced the likelihood of confounding in a unique scenario on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. We previously found a small to moderate increased risk of breast cancer among women with the highest exposures using a simple exposure model. We have taken advantage of technical improvements in publically available software to incorporate a more sophisticated determination of water flow and direction to see if previous results were robust to more accurate exposure assessment. Methods The current analysis used PCE exposure estimates generated with the addition of water distribution modeling software (EPANET 2.0 to test model assumptions, compare exposure distributions to prior methods, and re-examine the risk of breast cancer. In addition, we applied data smoothing to examine nonlinear relationships between breast cancer and exposure. We also compared a set of measured PCE concentrations in water samples collected in 1980 to modeled estimates. Results Thirty-nine percent of individuals considered unexposed in prior epidemiological analyses were considered exposed using the current method, but mostly at low exposure levels. As a result, the exposure distribution was shifted downward resulting in a lower value for the 90th percentile, the definition of "high exposure" in prior analyses. The current analyses confirmed a modest increase in the risk of breast cancer for women with high PCE exposure levels defined by either the 90th percentile (adjusted ORs 1.0-1.5 for 0-19 year latency assumptions or smoothing analysis cut point (adjusted ORs 1.3-2.0 for 0-15 year latency assumptions. Current exposure estimates had a higher correlation with PCE concentrations in water samples (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.65, p

  4. Estimate of lifetime excess lung cancer risk due to indoor exposure to natural radon-222 daughters in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si-Young Chang; Jeong-Ho Lee; Chung-Woo Ha

    1993-01-01

    Lifetime excess lung cancer risk due to indoor 222 Rn daughters exposure in Korea was quantitatively estimated by a modified relative risk projection model proposed by the U.S. National Academy of Science and the recent Korean life table data. The lifetime excess risk of lung cancer death attributable to annual constant exposure to Korean indoor radon daughters was estimated to be about 230/10 6 per WLM, which seemed to be nearly in the median of the range of 150-450/10 6 per WLM reported by the UNSCEAR in 1988. (1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  5. Exposure to hazardous air pollutants and risk of incident breast cancer in the nurses' health study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jaime E; Bertrand, Kimberly A; DuPre, Natalie; James, Peter; Vieira, Verónica M; VoPham, Trang; Mittleman, Maggie R; Tamimi, Rulla M; Laden, Francine

    2018-03-27

    Findings from a recent prospective cohort study in California suggested increased risk of breast cancer associated with higher exposure to certain carcinogenic and estrogen-disrupting hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). However, to date, no nationwide studies have evaluated these possible associations. Our objective was to examine the impacts of mammary carcinogen and estrogen disrupting HAPs on risk of invasive breast cancer in a nationwide cohort. We assigned HAPs from the US Environmental Protection Agency's 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment to 109,239 members of the nationwide, prospective Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). Risk of overall invasive, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (ER+), and ER-negative (ER-) breast cancer with increasing quartiles of exposure were assessed in time-varying multivariable proportional hazards models, adjusted for traditional breast cancer risk factors. A total of 3321 invasive cases occurred (2160 ER+, 558 ER-) during follow-up 1989-2011. Overall, there was no consistent pattern of elevated risk of the HAPs with risk of breast cancer. Suggestive elevations were only seen with increasing 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane exposures (multivariable adjusted HR of overall breast cancer = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.98-1.29; ER+ breast cancer HR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.30; ER- breast cancer HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.61; each in the top exposure quartile compared to the lowest). Exposures to HAPs during adulthood were not consistently associated with an increased risk of overall or estrogen-receptor subtypes of invasive breast cancer in this nationwide cohort of women.

  6. Estimation of health risks from radiation exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, M.L.

    1983-08-01

    An informal presentation is given of the cancer and genetic risks from exposures to ionizing radiations. The risks from plausible radiation exposures are shown to be comparable to other commonly encountered risks.

  7. Estimation of health risks from radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randolph, M.L.

    1983-08-01

    An informal presentation is given of the cancer and genetic risks from exposures to ionizing radiations. The risks from plausible radiation exposures are shown to be comparable to other commonly encountered risks

  8. Residential radon exposure and risk of incident hematologic malignancies in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teras, Lauren R., E-mail: lauren.teras@cancer.org [Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States); Diver, W. Ryan [Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States); Turner, Michelle C. [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, University of Ottawa, Ottawa (Canada); Krewski, Daniel [McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, University of Ottawa, Ottawa (Canada); School of Epidemiology, Public Health and Disease Prevention, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Sahar, Liora [Statistics and Evaluation Center, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ward, Elizabeth [Intramural Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States); Gapstur, Susan M. [Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Dosimetric models show that radon, an established cause of lung cancer, delivers a non-negligible dose of alpha radiation to the bone marrow, as well as to lymphocytes in the tracheobronchial epithelium, and therefore could be related to risk of hematologic cancers. Studies of radon and hematologic cancer risk, however, have produced inconsistent results. To date there is no published prospective, population-based study of residential radon exposure and hematologic malignancy incidence. We used data from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort established in 1992, to examine the association between county-level residential radon exposure and risk of hematologic cancer. The analytic cohort included 140,652 participants (66,572 men, 74,080 women) among which 3019 incident hematologic cancer cases (1711 men, 1308 women) were identified during 19 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for radon exposure and hematologic cancer risk. Women living in counties with the highest mean radon concentrations (>148 Bq/m{sup 3}) had a statistically significant higher risk of hematologic cancer compared to those living in counties with the lowest (<74 Bq/m{sup 3}) radon levels (HR=1.63, 95% CI:1.23–2.18), and there was evidence of a dose-response relationship (HR{sub continuous}=1.38, 95% CI:1.15–1.65 per 100 Bq/m{sup 3}; p-trend=0.001). There was no association between county-level radon and hematologic cancer risk among men. The findings of this large, prospective study suggest residential radon may be a risk factor for lymphoid malignancies among women. Further study is needed to confirm these findings. - Highlights: • This is the first prospective, general population study of residential radon and risk of hematologic cancer. • Findings from this study suggest that residential radon exposure may be a risk factor

  9. Residential radon exposure and risk of incident hematologic malignancies in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teras, Lauren R.; Diver, W. Ryan; Turner, Michelle C.; Krewski, Daniel; Sahar, Liora; Ward, Elizabeth; Gapstur, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Dosimetric models show that radon, an established cause of lung cancer, delivers a non-negligible dose of alpha radiation to the bone marrow, as well as to lymphocytes in the tracheobronchial epithelium, and therefore could be related to risk of hematologic cancers. Studies of radon and hematologic cancer risk, however, have produced inconsistent results. To date there is no published prospective, population-based study of residential radon exposure and hematologic malignancy incidence. We used data from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort established in 1992, to examine the association between county-level residential radon exposure and risk of hematologic cancer. The analytic cohort included 140,652 participants (66,572 men, 74,080 women) among which 3019 incident hematologic cancer cases (1711 men, 1308 women) were identified during 19 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for radon exposure and hematologic cancer risk. Women living in counties with the highest mean radon concentrations (>148 Bq/m 3 ) had a statistically significant higher risk of hematologic cancer compared to those living in counties with the lowest (<74 Bq/m 3 ) radon levels (HR=1.63, 95% CI:1.23–2.18), and there was evidence of a dose-response relationship (HR continuous =1.38, 95% CI:1.15–1.65 per 100 Bq/m 3 ; p-trend=0.001). There was no association between county-level radon and hematologic cancer risk among men. The findings of this large, prospective study suggest residential radon may be a risk factor for lymphoid malignancies among women. Further study is needed to confirm these findings. - Highlights: • This is the first prospective, general population study of residential radon and risk of hematologic cancer. • Findings from this study suggest that residential radon exposure may be a risk factor for lymphoid

  10. Biomarkers of Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Racial/Ethnic Groups at High Risk for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolchan, Eric T.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus; Cassel, Kevin D.; Pagano, Ian; Franke, Adrian A.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe’aimoku; Sy, Angela; Alexander, Linda A.; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Johnson, C. Anderson; Antonio, Alyssa; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Clanton, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure among Native Hawaiians, Filipinos, and Whites, groups that have different lung cancer risk. Methods. We collected survey data and height, weight, saliva, and carbon monoxide (CO) levels from a sample of daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 179). Mean measures of nicotine, cotinine, cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, trans 3′ hydroxycotinine, the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), and expired CO were compared among racial/ethnic groups. Results. The geometric means for cotinine, the cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, and CO did not significantly differ among racial/ethnic groups in the adjusted models. After adjusting for gender, body mass index, menthol smoking, Hispanic ethnicity, and number of cigarettes smoked per day, the NMR was significantly higher among Whites than among Native Hawaiians and Filipinos (NMR = 0.33, 0.20, 0.19, P ≤ .001). The NMR increased with increasing White parental ancestry. The NMR was not significantly correlated with social–environmental stressors. Conclusions. Racial/ethnic groups with higher rates of lung cancer had slower nicotine metabolism than Whites. The complex relationship between lung cancer risk and nicotine metabolism among racial/ethnic groups needs further clarification. PMID:25880962

  11. Nitrogen-nitrate exposure from drinking water and colorectal cancer risk for rural women in Wisconsin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Jane A; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Gangnon, Ronald E; Hampton, John M; Bersch, Andrew J; Kanarek, Marty S; Newcomb, Polly A

    2008-09-01

    One unintentional result of widespread adoption of nitrogen application to croplands over the past 50 years has been nitrate contamination of drinking water with few studies evaluating the risk of colorectal cancer. In our population-based case-control study of 475 women age 20-74 years with colorectal cancer and 1447 community controls living in rural Wisconsin, drinking water nitrate exposure were interpolated to subjects residences based on measurements which had been taken as part of a separate water quality survey in 1994. Individual level risk factor data was gathered in 1990-1992 and 1999-2001. Logistic regression models estimated the risk of colorectal cancer for the study period, separately and pooled. In the pooled analyses, an overall colorectal cancer risk was not observed for exposure to nitrate-nitrogen in the highest category (> or =10 ppm) compared to the lowest category (cancer cases in the highest compared to the lowest category. Statistically significant increased distal colon or rectal cancer risk was not observed. These results suggest that if an association exists with nitrate-nitrogen exposure from residential drinking water consumption, it may be limited to proximal colon cancer.

  12. Phthalate exposure, flavonoid consumption and breast cancer risk among Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérida-Ortega, Ángel; Hernández-Alcaraz, César; Hernández-Ramírez, Raúl U; García-Martínez, Angélica; Trejo-Valdivia, Belem; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Svensson, Katherine; Cebrián, Mariano E; Franco-Marina, Francisco; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate if selected phthalate exposure and flavonoid intake interact on breast cancer (BC) risk. Interviews and urine samples were obtained from 233 women with histologically confirmed BC and 221 healthy controls matched by age and place of residence, from various states of northern Mexico. Urinary metabolites concentrations of diethyl phthalate (DEP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) were determined by solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography/isotope dilution/tandem mass spectrometry. Using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, consumption of five types of flavonoids (anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, flavanones, flavones and flavonols) was estimated according to three food groups: vegetables, fruits and legumes-oil seeds. A higher intake of anthocyanidins and flavan-3-ols (from vegetables), synergistically increased the negative association between BBzP and BC. No other significant flavonoid-phthalate multiplicative interactions on the risk for BC were found. The consumption of some flavonoids may interact with exposure to phthalates on the risk of BC. Epidemiological and underlying mechanisms information is still insufficient and requires further investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Early life exposure to famine and colorectal cancer risk: a role for epigenetic mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A E Hughes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to energy restriction during childhood and adolescence is associated with a lower risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC. Epigenetic dysregulation during this critical period of growth and development may be a mechanism to explain such observations. Within the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer, we investigated the association between early life energy restriction and risk of subsequent CRC characterized by the (promoter CpG island methylation phenotype (CIMP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Information on diet and risk factors was collected by baseline questionnaire (n = 120,856. Three indicators of exposure were assessed: place of residence during the Hunger Winter (1944-45 and World War II years (1940-44, and father's employment status during the Economic Depression (1932-40. Methylation specific PCR (MSP on DNA from paraffin embedded tumor tissue was performed to determine CIMP status according to the Weisenberger markers. After 7.3 years of follow-up, 603 cases and 4631 sub-cohort members were available for analysis. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals for CIMP+ (27.7% and CIMP- (72.3% tumors according to the three time periods of energy restriction, adjusted for age and gender. Individuals exposed to severe famine during the Hunger Winter had a decreased risk of developing a tumor characterized by CIMP compared to those not exposed (HR 0.65, 95%CI: 0.45-0.92. Further categorizing individuals by an index of '0-1' '2-3' or '4-7' genes methylated in the promoter region suggested that exposure to the Hunger Winter was associated with the degree of promoter hypermethylation ('0-1 genes methylated' HR = 1.01, 95%CI:0.74-1.37; '2-3 genes methylated' HR = 0.83, 95% CI:0.61-1.15; '4-7 genes methylated' HR = 0.72, 95% CI:0.49-1.04. No associations were observed with respect to the Economic Depression and WWII years. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study indicating that

  14. Age at exposure and attained age variations of cancer risk in the Japanese A-bomb and radiotherapy cohorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.schneider@uzh.ch [Institute of Physics, Science Faculty, University of Zürich, Zürich 8057, Switzerland and Radiotherapy Hirslanden, Uwe Schneider Institute of Radiotherapy, Witellikerstr. 40, Zürich 8032 (Switzerland); Walsh, Linda [Institute of Physics, Science Faculty, University of Zürich, Zürich 8057, Switzerland and BfS - Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Radiation Protection and Health, Neuherberg 85764 (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Phenomenological risk models for radiation-induced cancer are frequently applied to estimate the risk of radiation-induced cancers at radiotherapy doses. Such models often include the effect modification, of the main risk to radiation dose response, by age at exposure and attained age. The aim of this paper is to compare the patterns in risk effect modification by age, between models obtained from the Japanese atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivor data and models for cancer risks previously reported for radiotherapy patients. Patterns in risk effect modification by age from the epidemiological studies of radiotherapy patients were also used to refine and extend the risk effect modification by age obtained from the A-bomb survivor data, so that more universal models can be presented here. Methods: Simple log-linear and power functions of age for the risk effect modification applied in models of the A-bomb survivor data are compared to risks from epidemiological studies of second cancers after radiotherapy. These functions of age were also refined and fitted to radiotherapy risks. The resulting age models provide a refined and extended functional dependence of risk with age at exposure and attained age especially beyond 40 and 65 yr, respectively, and provide a better representation than the currently available simple age functions. Results: It was found that the A-bomb models predict risk similarly to the outcomes of testicular cancer survivors. The survivors of Hodgkin’s disease show steeper variations of risk with both age at exposure and attained age. The extended models predict solid cancer risk increase as a function of age at exposure beyond 40 yr and the risk decrease as a function of attained age beyond 65 yr better than the simple models. Conclusions: The standard functions for risk effect modification by age, based on the A-bomb survivor data, predict second cancer risk in radiotherapy patients for ages at exposure prior to 40 yr and attained ages

  15. Age at exposure and attained age variations of cancer risk in the Japanese A-bomb and radiotherapy cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Uwe; Walsh, Linda

    2015-08-01

    Phenomenological risk models for radiation-induced cancer are frequently applied to estimate the risk of radiation-induced cancers at radiotherapy doses. Such models often include the effect modification, of the main risk to radiation dose response, by age at exposure and attained age. The aim of this paper is to compare the patterns in risk effect modification by age, between models obtained from the Japanese atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivor data and models for cancer risks previously reported for radiotherapy patients. Patterns in risk effect modification by age from the epidemiological studies of radiotherapy patients were also used to refine and extend the risk effect modification by age obtained from the A-bomb survivor data, so that more universal models can be presented here. Simple log-linear and power functions of age for the risk effect modification applied in models of the A-bomb survivor data are compared to risks from epidemiological studies of second cancers after radiotherapy. These functions of age were also refined and fitted to radiotherapy risks. The resulting age models provide a refined and extended functional dependence of risk with age at exposure and attained age especially beyond 40 and 65 yr, respectively, and provide a better representation than the currently available simple age functions. It was found that the A-bomb models predict risk similarly to the outcomes of testicular cancer survivors. The survivors of Hodgkin's disease show steeper variations of risk with both age at exposure and attained age. The extended models predict solid cancer risk increase as a function of age at exposure beyond 40 yr and the risk decrease as a function of attained age beyond 65 yr better than the simple models. The standard functions for risk effect modification by age, based on the A-bomb survivor data, predict second cancer risk in radiotherapy patients for ages at exposure prior to 40 yr and attained ages before 55 yr reasonably well. However, for

  16. Assessment of risks associated to ionizing radiations: lung cancers after domestic radon exposure and thyroid cancers after accidental exposure to radioactive iodines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catelinois, O.

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a critical analysis of quantitative risk assessment in the field of ionizing radiation and to provide new estimates of attributable risks for particular situations of environmental exposure to ionizing radiation. This work is based on knowledge about dose-response relationships and ionizing radiation exposure of the general population. The work focuses on two different situations that both present an important interest for public health: lung cancer associated with domestic radon exposures (natural situation) and thyroid cancer associated with the Chernobyl accident fallout (accidental situation). The assessment of lung cancer risk associated with domestic radon exposure considers 10 dose-response relationships resulting from miner cohorts and case-control studies in the general population. A critical review of available data on smoking habits has been performed and allowed to consider the interactions between radon and tobacco. The exposure data come from measurements campaigns carried out since the beginning of the 1980 by the Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety and the Health General Directory in France. The French lung cancer mortality data are provided by the I.N.S.E.R.M.. Estimates of the number of attributable cancers are carried out for the whole country, stratified by 8 large regions (Z.E.A.T.) and by 96 departments for the year 1999 allowing to perform a sensibility analysis according to the geographical level of calculation. Uncertainties associated to risk coefficients and exposures have been quantified and it's impact on risk estimates is calculated. The estimated number of deaths attributable to domestic radon exposure ranges from 543 (90% uncertainty interval (U.I.): 75-1,097) to 3,108 (90% U.I.: 2,996-3,221). The corresponding risk fractions range from 2.2% (90% U.I.: 0.3%-4.4%) to 12.4% (90% U.I.: 11.9%-12.8%). The assessment of thyroid cancer risk in the most exposed area of France due to the

  17. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and electromagnetic fields in relation to the risk of thyroid cancer in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lope, Virginia; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Gustavsson, Per; Floderus, Birgitta; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Silva, Agustín; Pollán, Marina

    2006-08-01

    This study sought to ascertain the risk of thyroid cancer in relation to occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELFMF) in a cohort representative of Sweden's gainfully employed population. A historical cohort of 2 992 166 gainfully employed Swedish male and female workers was followed up from 1971 through 1989. Exposure to ELFMF and ionizing radiation was assessed using three job exposure matrices based on industrial branch or occupational codes. Relative risks (RR) for male and female workers, adjusted for age and geographic area, were computed using log-linear Poisson models. Occupational ELFMF exposure showed no effect on the risk of thyroid cancer in the study. However, female workers exposed to high intensities of ionizing radiation registered a marked excess risk (RR 1.85, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.02-3.35]. This trend was not in evidence among the men. While the study confirms the etiologic role of ionizing radiation, with a higher incidence of thyroid cancer being recorded for the most-exposed female workers, our results do not support the possibility of occupational exposure to ELFMF being a risk factor for the development of thyroid cancer.

  18. Mutations in ATM, Radiation Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk Among Black and White Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schubert, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    .... An important and unresolved question of breast cancer etiology is whether there are other genes which have a more moderate effect on breast cancer risk, possibly involving more women than do other inherited mutations...

  19. Mutations in ATM, Radiation Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk Among Black and White Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Mary

    1997-01-01

    .... An important and unresolved question of breast cancer etiology is whether there are other genes which have a more moderate effect on breast cancer risk, possibly involving more women than do other inherited mutations...

  20. Mutations in ATM, Radiation Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk Among Black and White Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schubert, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    .... An important and unresolved question of breast cancer etiology is whether there are other genes which have a more moderate effect on breast cancer risk, possibly involving more women than do other inherited mutations...

  1. In utero exposure to persistent organic pollutants in relation to testicular cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Bavel, Bert; Lindström, Gunilla; Eriksson, Mikael; Carlberg, Michael

    2006-02-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common tumour type in young men. In Sweden the annual age-adjusted incidence increased significantly by 2.4% during the time period 1984-1993 and during 1994-2003 by 1.4%. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals during the foetal period has been postulated to be a risk factor. In this investigation we studied the concentrations of chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (pp'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordanes and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in 58 cases with testicular cancer and 61 age-matched controls. Furthermore, case and control mothers were also asked to participate and 44 case mothers and 45 control mothers agreed. No significant differences were found between cases and controls. Case mothers had in general higher concentrations of these chemicals. For the sum of PCBs an odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-10 was calculated using the median concentration for the controls as cut-off value. For HCB OR = 4.4, CI = 1.7-12 and for PBDE OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.02-6.0 were obtained, whereas OR was not significantly increased for pp'-DDE and sum of chlordanes. The cases were born during a period with high concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in humans. The decline of the increasing incidence of testicular cancer during recent years may reflect decreasing body burden of certain POPs since the 1980s.

  2. Breast cancer risk in relation to occupations with exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors: a Canadian case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brophy James T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals and carcinogens, some of which may not yet have been classified as such, are present in many occupational environments and could increase breast cancer risk. Prior research has identified associations with breast cancer and work in agricultural and industrial settings. The purpose of this study was to further characterize possible links between breast cancer risk and occupation, particularly in farming and manufacturing, as well as to examine the impacts of early agricultural exposures, and exposure effects that are specific to the endocrine receptor status of tumours. Methods 1005 breast cancer cases referred by a regional cancer center and 1146 randomly-selected community controls provided detailed data including occupational and reproductive histories. All reported jobs were industry- and occupation-coded for the construction of cumulative exposure metrics representing likely exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors. In a frequency-matched case–control design, exposure effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results Across all sectors, women in jobs with potentially high exposures to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors had elevated breast cancer risk (OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18-1.73, for 10 years exposure duration. Specific sectors with elevated risk included: agriculture (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.82; bars-gambling (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 0.94-5.53; automotive plastics manufacturing (OR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.47-4.88, food canning (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.00-5.53, and metalworking (OR = 1.73; 95% CI, 1.02-2.92. Estrogen receptor status of tumors with elevated risk differed by occupational grouping. Premenopausal breast cancer risk was highest for automotive plastics (OR = 4.76; 95% CI, 1.58-14.4 and food canning (OR = 5.70; 95% CI, 1.03-31.5. Conclusions These observations support hypotheses linking breast cancer risk and exposures likely to include carcinogens and

  3. Breast cancer risk in relation to occupations with exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors: a Canadian case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals and carcinogens, some of which may not yet have been classified as such, are present in many occupational environments and could increase breast cancer risk. Prior research has identified associations with breast cancer and work in agricultural and industrial settings. The purpose of this study was to further characterize possible links between breast cancer risk and occupation, particularly in farming and manufacturing, as well as to examine the impacts of early agricultural exposures, and exposure effects that are specific to the endocrine receptor status of tumours. Methods 1005 breast cancer cases referred by a regional cancer center and 1146 randomly-selected community controls provided detailed data including occupational and reproductive histories. All reported jobs were industry- and occupation-coded for the construction of cumulative exposure metrics representing likely exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors. In a frequency-matched case–control design, exposure effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results Across all sectors, women in jobs with potentially high exposures to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors had elevated breast cancer risk (OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18-1.73, for 10 years exposure duration). Specific sectors with elevated risk included: agriculture (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.82); bars-gambling (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 0.94-5.53); automotive plastics manufacturing (OR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.47-4.88), food canning (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.00-5.53), and metalworking (OR = 1.73; 95% CI, 1.02-2.92). Estrogen receptor status of tumors with elevated risk differed by occupational grouping. Premenopausal breast cancer risk was highest for automotive plastics (OR = 4.76; 95% CI, 1.58-14.4) and food canning (OR = 5.70; 95% CI, 1.03-31.5). Conclusions These observations support hypotheses linking breast cancer risk and exposures likely to include carcinogens and endocrine disruptors, and

  4. Breast cancer risk in relation to occupations with exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors: a Canadian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, James T; Keith, Margaret M; Watterson, Andrew; Park, Robert; Gilbertson, Michael; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Beck, Matthias; Abu-Zahra, Hakam; Schneider, Kenneth; Reinhartz, Abraham; Dematteo, Robert; Luginaah, Isaac

    2012-11-19

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals and carcinogens, some of which may not yet have been classified as such, are present in many occupational environments and could increase breast cancer risk. Prior research has identified associations with breast cancer and work in agricultural and industrial settings. The purpose of this study was to further characterize possible links between breast cancer risk and occupation, particularly in farming and manufacturing, as well as to examine the impacts of early agricultural exposures, and exposure effects that are specific to the endocrine receptor status of tumours. 1005 breast cancer cases referred by a regional cancer center and 1146 randomly-selected community controls provided detailed data including occupational and reproductive histories. All reported jobs were industry- and occupation-coded for the construction of cumulative exposure metrics representing likely exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors. In a frequency-matched case-control design, exposure effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Across all sectors, women in jobs with potentially high exposures to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors had elevated breast cancer risk (OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18-1.73, for 10 years exposure duration). Specific sectors with elevated risk included: agriculture (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.82); bars-gambling (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 0.94-5.53); automotive plastics manufacturing (OR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.47-4.88), food canning (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.00-5.53), and metalworking (OR = 1.73; 95% CI, 1.02-2.92). Estrogen receptor status of tumors with elevated risk differed by occupational grouping. Premenopausal breast cancer risk was highest for automotive plastics (OR = 4.76; 95% CI, 1.58-14.4) and food canning (OR = 5.70; 95% CI, 1.03-31.5). These observations support hypotheses linking breast cancer risk and exposures likely to include carcinogens and endocrine disruptors, and demonstrate the value of detailed work

  5. Respiratory cancer risks associated with low-level nickel exposure: an integrated assessment based on animal, epidemiological, and mechanistic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seilkop, Steven K; Oller, Adriana R

    2003-04-01

    Increased lung and nasal cancer risks have been reported in several cohorts of nickel refinery workers, but in more than 90% of the nickel-exposed workers that have been studied there is little, if any evidence of excess risk. This investigation utilizes human exposure measurements, animal data from cancer bioassays of three nickel compounds, and a mechanistic theory of nickel carcinogenesis to reconcile the disparities in lung cancer risk among nickel-exposed workers. Animal data and mechanistic theory suggest that the apparent absence of risk in workers with low nickel exposures is due to threshold-like responses in lung tumor incidence (oxidic nickel), tumor promotion (soluble nickel), and genetic damage (sulfidic nickel). When animal-based lung cancer dose-response functions for these compounds are extrapolated to humans, taking into account interspecies differences in deposition and clearance, differences in particle size distributions, and human work activity patterns, the predicted risks at occupational exposures are remarkably similar to those observed in nickel-exposed workers. This provides support for using the animal-based dose-response functions to estimate occupational exposure limits, which are found to be comparable to those in current use.

  6. An estimate of the radiation-induced cancer risk from the whole-body stray radiation exposure in neutron radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    1980 BEIR III risk factors have been used to estimate the secondary cancer risks from the whole-body stray radiation exposures occurring in neutron radiotherapy. Risks were calculated using linear, linear-quadratic and quadratic dose-response models for the gamma component of the stray radiation. The linear dose-response model was used to calculate risk for the neutron component of the stray radiation. These estimates take into consideration for the first time the age and sex distribution of patients undergoing neutron therapy. Changes in risk as a function of the RBE (10-100) assigned to the stray neutron radiation component have also been assessed. Excess risks in neutron-treated patients have been compared with excess risks for photon-treated patients and with the expected incidence of cancer in a normal population having the same age and sex distribution. Results indicate that it will be necessary to tolerate a higher incidence of secondary cancers in patients undergoing fast neutron therapy than is the case with conventional photon therapy. For neutron RBEs of less than 50 the increased risk is only a fraction of the normal expected incidence of cancer in this population. Comparison of the radiation-induced risk with reported normal tissue complication rates in the treatment volume indicates that the excess cancer risk is substantially lower than the risk from other late normal tissue effects. (author)

  7. Age-at-exposure effects on risk estimates for non-cancer mortality in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Muirhead, Colin R; Hunter, Nezahat

    2005-01-01

    Statistically significant increases in non-cancer disease mortality with radiation dose have been observed among survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The increasing trends arise particularly for diseases of the circulatory, digestive, and respiratory systems. Rates for survivors exposed to a dose of 1 Sv are elevated by about 10%, a smaller relative increase than that for cancer. The aetiology of this increased risk is not yet understood. Neither animal nor human studies have found clear evidence for excess non-cancer mortality at the lower range of doses received by A-bomb survivors. In this paper, we examine the age and time patterns of excess risks in the A-bomb survivors. The results suggest that the excess relative risk of non-cancer disease mortality might be highest for exposure at ages 30-49 years, and that those exposed at ages 0-29 years might have a very low excess relative risk compared with those exposed at older ages. The differences in excess relative risk for different age-at-exposure groups imply that the dose response relationships for non-cancer disease mortality need to be modelled with adjustment for age-at-exposure

  8. Self-reported exposure to pesticides in residential settings and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graber Nora J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticides are widely used in households to control insects and weeds. Several studies, over the past decades, have examined the possible relationship of serum concentration of organochlorine pesticides and the development of breast cancer. However, little data exists regarding an association between self-reported, residential exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. We, therefore, present a case-control study examining self-reported exposure to household pesticides with regard to associated risk of breast cancer. Methods This study was conducted in the area in and around New York City, NY and included 1205 patients (447 cases and 758 controls. Cases were defined as women with newly diagnosed breast cancer or carcinoma in-situ, while controls included women with benign breast diseases or those undergoing non-breast related surgery. All patients were asked a series of questions to determine their pesticide exposure, including the type of pesticide, location of exposure (inside vs. outside the home, who applied the pesticide (self vs. a professional and duration of pesticide use. Logistic regression models were used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results The most common pests encountered in participants' homes were ants, carpenter ants, and cockroaches. The calculated adjusted odds ratios for both self and professionally applied pesticides, specifically against the above mentioned insects, with regard to breast cancer risk were 1.25 (95% CI: 0.79-1.98 and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.65-1.73, respectively. Similarly, odds ratios and confidence intervals were calculated for other types of pesticides. Conclusions Overall, the results of our study did not show an association between self-reported exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. Future studies, utilizing a larger sample size and more specific detail on time frame of pesticide exposure, are needed to

  9. Domestic Radon Exposure and Risk of Childhood Cancer: A Prospective Census-Based Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauri, D.; Spycher, B.; Huss, A.; Zimmermann, F.; Grotzer, M.; von der Weid, N.; Weber, D.; Spoerri, A.; Kuehni, C.E.; Röösli, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In contrast with established evidence linking high doses of ionizing radiation with childhood cancer, research on low-dose ionizing radiation and childhood cancer has produced inconsistent results.Objective: We investigated the association between domestic radon exposure and childhood

  10. Sunlight exposure during leisure activities and risk of prostate cancer in Montréal, Canada, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jennifer; Lavoué, Jérôme; Parent, Marie-Élise

    2014-07-28

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading cause of cancer in men in many developed countries, but no modifiable risk factors have been identified. A handful of analytical studies have suggested a possible etiological role for sunlight exposure. We report here on the association between leisure-time sunlight exposure during adulthood and PCa risk in the context of a population-based case-control study. In all, 1,904 PCa cases were ascertained across Montreal French hospitals between 2005 and 2009. Concurrently, 1,962 population controls, frequency matched to cases by age (±5 years), were selected from the electoral list for French-speakers in Greater Montreal. Interviews elicited the frequency of engagement in any leisure activity during adulthood. This was used to derive cumulative sunlight exposure indices: a cumulative number of leisure activities events entailing sunlight exposure and a cumulative duration of sunlight exposure during leisure activities. Unconditional logistic regression was conducted to yield odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for estimating the association between sunlight exposure indices and PCa risk, adjusting for age, ancestry, family history of PCa, PCa screening, education, solar protection, body mass index and physical activity. Compared with men in the upper quartile category for the number of sunlight exposure events, men never exposed during leisure time had an OR of 1.32 (95% CI: 0.82-2.14). ORs were 1.11, 0.91 and 1.00 for the first to the third quartiles of exposure, respectively. Similar results were observed for cumulative duration of exposure to sunlight, and by PCa aggressiveness. These findings provide little evidence of an association between sunlight exposure during leisure-time and PCa risk. Men with no sunlight exposure appeared at somewhat higher risks but none of the estimates achieved statistical significance.

  11. Leisure time activities related to carcinogen exposure and lung cancer risk in never smokers. A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; García-Lavandeira, José Antonio; Torres-Durán, María; Prini-Guadalupe, Luciana; Parente-Lamelas, Isaura; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Montero-Martínez, Carmen; González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio; Martínez, Cristina; Castro-Añón, Olalla; Mejuto-Martí, María José

    2014-01-01

    We aim to assess the relationship between leisure time activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances and lung cancer risk in a hospital-based case-control study performed in never smokers. We included never smoking cases with anatomopathologically confirmed lung cancer and never smoking controls undergoing trivial surgery, at 8 Spanish hospitals. The study was conducted between January 2011 and June 2013. Participants were older than 30 and had no previous neoplasms. All were personally interviewed focusing on lifestyle, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, occupational history and leisure time activities (including duration of such activities). Results were analyzed through logistic regression and adjusted also by residential radon and education level. We included 513 never smokers, 191 cases and 322 controls. The OR for those performing the studied leisure time activities was 1.43 (95%CI 0.78–2.61). When we restricted the analysis to those performing do-it-yourself activities for more than 10 years the OR was 2.21 (95%CI 0.93–5.27). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure did not modify this association. The effect for the different lung cancer histological types was very close to significance for adenocarcinoma but only when these activities were performed for more than 10 years. We encourage health professionals to recommend protective measures for those individuals while performing these hobbies to reduce the risk of lung cancer. - Highlights: • Some leisure time activities are associated with the exposure to carcinogenic substances. • These activities are model-making, painting (artistic or not), furniture refinishing or wood working. • Few studies have assessed lung cancer risk due to these hobbies and none in never-smokers. • Leisure activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances present higher lung cancer risk. • The risk is higher when these activities are performed for more than 10 years

  12. Leisure time activities related to carcinogen exposure and lung cancer risk in never smokers. A case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.ruano@usc.es [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública CIBERESP, Barcelona (Spain); García-Lavandeira, José Antonio [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Department of Preventive Medicine, A Coruña University Hospital Complex, Coruña (Spain); Torres-Durán, María [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Service of Neumology, University Hospital Complex of Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Prini-Guadalupe, Luciana [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Parente-Lamelas, Isaura [Service of Neumology, Ourense Hospital Complex, Ourense (Spain); Leiro-Fernández, Virginia [Service of Neumology, University Hospital Complex of Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Montero-Martínez, Carmen [Service of Neumology, University Hospital Complex of A Coruña, Coruña (Spain); González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio [Service of Neumology, Santiago de Compostela University Clinic Hospital, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Martínez, Cristina [National Institute of Silicosis, University Hospital of Asturias, Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Castro-Añón, Olalla [Service of Neumology, Hospital Lucus Augusti, Lugo (Spain); Mejuto-Martí, María José [Service of Neumology, Hospital Arquitecto Marcide, Ferrol (Spain); and others

    2014-07-15

    We aim to assess the relationship between leisure time activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances and lung cancer risk in a hospital-based case-control study performed in never smokers. We included never smoking cases with anatomopathologically confirmed lung cancer and never smoking controls undergoing trivial surgery, at 8 Spanish hospitals. The study was conducted between January 2011 and June 2013. Participants were older than 30 and had no previous neoplasms. All were personally interviewed focusing on lifestyle, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, occupational history and leisure time activities (including duration of such activities). Results were analyzed through logistic regression and adjusted also by residential radon and education level. We included 513 never smokers, 191 cases and 322 controls. The OR for those performing the studied leisure time activities was 1.43 (95%CI 0.78–2.61). When we restricted the analysis to those performing do-it-yourself activities for more than 10 years the OR was 2.21 (95%CI 0.93–5.27). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure did not modify this association. The effect for the different lung cancer histological types was very close to significance for adenocarcinoma but only when these activities were performed for more than 10 years. We encourage health professionals to recommend protective measures for those individuals while performing these hobbies to reduce the risk of lung cancer. - Highlights: • Some leisure time activities are associated with the exposure to carcinogenic substances. • These activities are model-making, painting (artistic or not), furniture refinishing or wood working. • Few studies have assessed lung cancer risk due to these hobbies and none in never-smokers. • Leisure activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances present higher lung cancer risk. • The risk is higher when these activities are performed for more than 10 years.

  13. Thyroid cancer in the Marshallese: relative risk of short-lived internal emitters and external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessard, E.T.; Brill, A.B.; Adams, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    In a study of the comparative effects of internal versus external irradiation of the thyroid in young people, we determined that the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times less thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The authors determined this finding for a group of 85 Marshall Islands children, who were less than 10 years of age at the time of exposure and who were accidentally exposed to internal and external thyroid radiation at an average level of 1400 rad. The external risk coefficient ranged between 2.5 and 4.9 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk, and thus, from our computations, the internal risk coefficient for the Marshallese children was estimated to range between 1.0 and 1.4 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk. In contrast, for individuals more than 10 years of age at the time of exposure, the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times more thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The external risk coefficients for the older age groups were reported in the above literature to be in the range of 1.0 to 3.3 cancers per million person-rad-years-at risk. The authors computed internal risk coefficients of 3.3 to 8.1 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk for adolescent and adult groups. This higher sensitivity to cancer induction in the exposed adolescents and adults, is different from that seen in other exposed groups. The small number of cancers in the exposed population and the influence of increased levels of TSH, nonuniform irradiation of the thyroid, and thyroid cell killing at high dose make it difficult to draw firm conclusions from these studies. 14 references, 8 tables

  14. Cancer risk disparities between hispanic and non-hispanic white populations: the role of exposure to indoor air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hun, Diana E; Siegel, Jeffrey A; Morandi, Maria T; Stock, Thomas H; Corsi, Richard L

    2009-12-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing minority group in the United States; however, minimal information is available on their cancer risks from exposures to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and how these risks compare to risks to non-Hispanic whites. We estimated the personal exposure and cancer risk of Hispanic and white adults who participated in the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study. We evaluated 12 of the sampled volatile organic compounds and carbonyls and identified the HAPs of most concern and their possible sources. Furthermore, we examined sociodemographic factors and building characteristics. Cumulative cancer risks (CCRs) estimated for Hispanics (median = 519 x 10(-6), 90th percentile = 3,968 x 10(-6)) and for whites (median = 443 x 10(-6), 90th percentile = 751 x 10(-6)) were much greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) benchmark of 10(-6). Cumulative risks were dominated by formaldehyde and p-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB) and, to a lesser extent, by acetaldehyde, chloroform, and benzene. Exposure to all of these compounds except benzene was primarily due to indoor residential sources. Hispanics had statistically higher CCRs than did whites (p exposure to p-DCB, chloroform, and benzene. Formaldehyde was the largest contributor to CCR for 69% of Hispanics and 88% of whites. Cancer risks for pollutants emitted indoors increased in houses with lower ventilation rates. Hispanics appear to be disproportionately affected by certain HAPs from indoor and outdoor sources. Policies that aim to reduce risk from exposure to HAPs for the entire population and population subgroups should consider indoor air pollution.

  15. Radiation related cancer risk after ionization radiation exposure to the Bulgarian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chobanova, N.; Vasilev, G.; Hadjieva, T.

    2008-01-01

    Average annual individual effective dose of natural radiation background (NRB) for the Bulgarian population is estimated to be 2.33 mSv.a -1 (from 1.60 to 3.06). NRB has been considered nearly constant in time, but during the 20th century the radiation above NRB has gradually increased. It was mainly caused by the medical X-ray and radionuclide diagnostics, radiation treatment, occupational radiation, global radioactive fallout, Chernobyl accident, exploitation of thermal power and nuclear power stations, etc. For the years 1950-2000 collective dose from NRB represents 965 000 man.Sv and radiation over NRB gives 1 042 800 man.Sv. Population risk following radiation exposure is estimated mainly on stochastic health effect by implementation of the so-called Linear non-threshold model (LNM) dose-effect. It postulates no dose threshold for radiation-induced health effects. Using different models, assumptions and assessments, authors have determined the contribution of lethal radiogenic cancer to Bulgarian spontaneous cancer rate to be from 3.7% to 20.6%. Numerous contradictions and concepts about the LNM still persist, because from statistical point of view, LNM can neither be proved nor rejected. (authors)

  16. Surrogates of Long-Term Vitamin D Exposure and Ovarian Cancer Risk in Two Prospective Cohort Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, Jennifer; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Tworoger, Shelley S.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental evidence and ecologic studies suggest a protective role of vitamin D in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, epidemiologic studies using individual level data have been inconsistent. We evaluated ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation, vitamin D intake, and predicted plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels as long-term surrogates of vitamin D exposure within the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. We estimated incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of overall ovarian cancer and by histologic subtype using Cox proportional hazards models. Between 1976 and 2010 in NHS and 1989 and 2011 in NHSII, we identified a total of 1,225 incident epithelial ovarian cancer cases (NHS: 970, NHSII: 255) over 4,628,648 person-years of follow-up. Cumulative average UV-B exposure was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in NHS (P trend = 0.08), but was associated with reduced risk in NHSII (highest vs. lowest category RR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.89; P trend < 0.01). When stratified by histologic subtype, UV-B flux was positively associated with risk of serous tumors in NHS (P trend < 0.01), but inversely associated in NHSII (P trend = 0.01). Adjusted for confounders, ovarian cancer risk was not associated with vitamin D intake from food or supplements or with predicted 25(OH)D levels. Our study does not strongly support a protective role for vitamin D in ovarian cancer risk

  17. Surrogates of Long-Term Vitamin D Exposure and Ovarian Cancer Risk in Two Prospective Cohort Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Prescott

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental evidence and ecologic studies suggest a protective role of vitamin D in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, epidemiologic studies using individual level data have been inconsistent. We evaluated ultraviolet (UV-B radiation, vitamin D intake, and predicted plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] levels as long-term surrogates of vitamin D exposure within the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS and NHSII. We estimated incidence rate ratios (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for risk of overall ovarian cancer and by histologic subtype using Cox proportional hazards models. Between 1976 and 2010 in NHS and 1989 and 2011 in NHSII, we identified a total of 1,225 incident epithelial ovarian cancer cases (NHS: 970, NHSII: 255 over 4,628,648 person-years of follow-up. Cumulative average UV-B exposure was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in NHS (Ptrend = 0.08, but was associated with reduced risk in NHSII (highest vs. lowest category RR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.89; Ptrend < 0.01. When stratified by histologic subtype, UV-B flux was positively associated with risk of serous tumors in NHS (Ptrend < 0.01, but inversely associated in NHSII (Ptrend = 0.01. Adjusted for confounders, ovarian cancer risk was not associated with vitamin D intake from food or supplements or with predicted 25(OHD levels. Our study does not strongly support a protective role for vitamin D in ovarian cancer risk.

  18. Secondhand smoke exposure and risk of lung cancer in Japan: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Megumi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Wakai, Kenji; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Katanoda, Kota

    2016-10-01

    Systematic evaluation of the association between secondhand smoke exposure and lung cancer in Japan has yet to be conducted. Here, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between secondhand smoke and lung cancer in Japanese non-smokers. Relevant studies were collected from the MEDLINE and Ichushi Web databases using a combination of search terms and Medical Subject Headings. Eligible studies were identified, and relative risks or odds ratios were extracted to calculate pooled risk estimates. This procedure was performed independently by at least two authors. Stratified analyses were carried out according to study design, publication year, and whether or not potential confounding variables were accounted for. The presence of publication bias was assessed via funnel plots. We identified four cohort studies and five case-control studies. Quantitative synthesis was conducted only for secondhand smoke exposure in the home during adulthood. Of the 12 populations included in meta-analysis, positive secondhand smoke exposure-lung cancer associations were observed in 11, whereas an inverse association was found in the remaining 1. The pooled relative risk of lung cancer associated with secondhand smoke exposure was 1.28 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.48). We found no evidence of publication bias, and a significant association remained even when potentially missing studies were included (pooled relative risk: 1.26; 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.46). The results were stable across different subgroup analyses, including by study design, publication year, and when adjusting for confounding variables. Secondhand smoke exposure in the home during adulthood results in a statistically significant increase in the risk of lung cancer. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Thyroid cancer in the Marshallese: relative risk of short-lived internal emitters and external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessard, E.T.; Brill, A.B.; Adams, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    In a study of the comparative effects of internal versus external irradiation of the thyroid in young people, we determined that the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times less thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. We determined this finding for a group of 85 Marshall Islands children, who were less than 10 years of age at the time of exposure and who were accidentially exposed to internal and external thyroid radiation at an average level of 1400 rad. The external risk coefficient ranged between 2.5 and 4.9 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk, and thus, from our computations, the internal risk coefficient for the Marshallese children was estimated to range between 1.0 and 1.4 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk. In contrast, for individual more than 10 years of age at the time of exposure, the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times more thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The external risk coefficients for the older age groups were reported in the literature to be in the range of 1.0 to 3.3 cancers per million person-rad-years-at risk. We computed internal risk coefficients of 3.3 to 8.1 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk for adolescent and adult groups. This higher sensitivity to cancer induction in the exposed adolescents and adults, is different from that seen in other exposed groups. 14 refs., 8 tabs

  20. Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Cancer from Exposure Inorganic Arsenic in Duplicate Food by Villagers in Ronphibun, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Piyawat Saipan

    2010-01-01

    Ronphibun district is a district in Nakorn Si Thammarat province, within southern Thailand. This district is the site of several former tin mines that were in operation 100 years ago. Arsenic contamination caused by past mining activities remains in the area. The specific purpose of this study was conducted to assess cancer risk in people living within Ronphibun district from exposure to inorganic arsenic via duplicate food using probabilistic risk assessment. A hundred and fifty duplicate fo...

  1. Estimated dietary dioxin exposure and breast cancer risk among women from the French E3N prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjou, Aurélie M N; Fervers, Béatrice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Philip, Thierry; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure

    2015-03-17

    Dioxins are environmental and persistent pollutants mostly emitted from combustion facilities (e.g. waste incinerators, metal and cement industries). Known to be endocrine disrupting chemicals, dioxins are suspected to increase breast cancer (BC) risk. Although diet is considered the primary source of dioxin exposure, no previous study has been published on dietary dioxin exposure in relation to BC risk. We aimed to assess dietary dioxin exposure among women from the E3N cohort and estimate BC risk associated with this exposure. The study included 63,830 women from the E3N cohort who completed a diet history questionnaire (DHQ) in 1993 and were followed until 2008. Dietary dioxin exposure was estimated by combining consumption data from the E3N DHQ and food dioxin contamination data from a French national monitoring program. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox models adjusted for BC risk factors. Mean dietary dioxin exposure was estimated at 1.3 ± 0.4 pg/kg body weight (BW)/day. A 0.4 pg/kg BW/d increase in dioxin intake was not associated with overall BC risk (HR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.05). A significant decrease in risk of estrogen receptor negative (ER-)/progesterone receptor negative (PR-) tumors was observed among post-menopausal women in the upper quartile of estimated dioxin intake (HR for Q4 vs. Q1: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.96; P for trend across quartiles = 0.0463). Overall, no association between estimated dietary dioxin exposure and BC risk was found among E3N women. Further studies should include both dietary and environmental exposures to determine whether low-dose dioxin exposure is associated with BC risk.

  2. Cadmium exposure and endometrial cancer risk: A large midwestern U.S. population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane A McElroy

    Full Text Available Estrogen-mimicking chemicals, such as cadmium, may be associated with increased susceptibility to hormone-dependent cancers, though supporting data are sparse, particularly for endometrial cancer. The Health and Environmental Exposure Research (HEER study worked with the Arkansas Central Cancer Registry, Iowa Cancer Registry and Missouri Cancer Registry to obtain names of women diagnosed with endometrial cancer who were willing to be contacted for participation in our case control study. Voter registration lists from Iowa and Missouri were used to randomly select similarly aged women as represented in the case population. Participants were interviewed by telephone to obtain information on known or suspected endometrial risk factors. Urine kits were sent to participants for home collection and returned for analysis. Our case-control study consisted of 631 incident cases of endometrial cancer diagnosed from January 2010 to October 2012 and 879 age-matched population-based controls, ages 18-81 years (mean age 65 years. We quantified cadmium amounts in urine and standardized these values through creatinine adjustment. Using data from all survey completers, we developed a multivariable model for endometrial cancer. Creatinine-adjusted cadmium concentration was added to this model. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for endometrial cancer were calculated. After multivariable adjustment, higher creatinine-adjusted cadmium exposure was associated with a statistically significant increase of endometrial cancer risk (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03-1.44. Our results provide evidence that cadmium may increase the risk of endometrial cancer, possibly through estrogenic effects.

  3. Thyroid exposure in Ukrainian and White Russian children following the Chernobyl disaster and the resultant risk of acquiring thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.

    2005-01-01

    After a presentation of the main strong and weak points of various studies on the risk of acquiring thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl disaster this study summarises the results of a recent ecological study. 175,800 measurements of 1 31I activity in the human thyroid gland performed in the contaminated regions of the Ukraine and White Russia during the first weeks after the Chernobyl disaster served as a starting point for this study on thyroid exposure in Ukrainian and White Russian children following the Chernobyl disaster and the resultant risk of acquiring thyroid cancer. More than 10 measurements were performed in each of altogether 1,114 locations. Age and sex-specific doses were calculated for each of these locations within the 1968-85 birth cohort. 95% of all dose values were within the range of 0.017 to 0.69 Gy. Since 1990 the incidence of thyroid cancer within the study area has increased at a markedly higher rate than one would expect on the basis of the cohort members' growing age. In the period from 1990 to 2001 1,091 cases of surgery for thyroid cancer were reported. The additional absolute risk per 10 4 PY Gy was calculated as 2.5 (95% CI: 2.3;2.9). The additional relative risk per dose was calculated as 10 (95% CI: 8;12) Gy -1 . These results are consistent with risk values found for thyroid cancer after external exposure during childhood. Assuming that the calculated risk values also apply for the intervention level of 0.05 Gy at which iodine tablets are distributed in the event of a major release of radioiodide this means that within the period of 4 to 15 years following the exposure 3 additional cases of thyroid cancer are expected to occur within a collective of 20,000 children and adolescents. This is equivalent to a 50% increase in the spontaneous incidence of the disease

  4. Sun exposure habits and health risk-related behaviours among individuals with previous history of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Magnus; Faresjö, Ashild; Faresjö, Tomas

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate possible associations between UV exposure and other health risk behaviours in different social environments and in regard to previous history of skin cancer. In two closely-located, equally-sized cities in Sweden, representing different social environments (blue collar and white collar), patients aged 55-69 years, diagnosed with skin cancer (study group, n=489) or seborrhoeic keratosis (control group, n=664), were identified through a regional Health Care Register, and were given a questionnaire mapping for sun habits, tobacco smoking, alcohol use, and physical activity. A previous history of skin cancer was associated with reduced UV exposure (phistory of skin cancer appears to promote increased UV protection. In contrast to alcohol/smoking habits, no association between social environment and sun habits was found.

  5. Exposure to low-dose radiation and the risk of breast cancer among women with a familial or genetic predisposition: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen-van der Weide, Marijke C.; Greuter, Marcel J.W.; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; Jansen, Liesbeth; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Bock, Geertruida H. de

    2010-01-01

    Women with familial or genetic aggregation of breast cancer are offered screening outside the population screening programme. However, the possible benefit of mammography screening could be reduced due to the risk of radiation-induced tumours. A systematic search was conducted addressing the question of how low-dose radiation exposure affects breast cancer risk among high-risk women. A systematic search was conducted for articles addressing breast cancer, mammography screening, radiation and high-risk women. Effects of low-dose radiation on breast cancer risk were presented in terms of pooled odds ratios (OR). Of 127 articles found, 7 were selected for the meta-analysis. Pooled OR revealed an increased risk of breast cancer among high-risk women due to low-dose radiation exposure (OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9- 1.8). Exposure before age 20 (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1) or a mean of ≥5 exposures (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0) was significantly associated with a higher radiation-induced breast cancer risk. Low-dose radiation increases breast cancer risk among high-risk women. When using low-dose radiation among high-risk women, a careful approach is needed, by means of reducing repeated exposure, avoidance of exposure at a younger age and using non-ionising screening techniques. (orig.)

  6. BYSTANDER EFFECTS GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIAION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    BYSTANDER EFFECTS, GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIATION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURESR. Julian PrestonEnvironmental Carcinogenesis Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27711, USAThere ...

  7. ADVISORY ON UPDATED METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING CANCER RISKS FROM EXPOSURE TO IONIZING RADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) published the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) committee's report (BEIR VII) on risks from ionizing radiation exposures in 2006. The Committee analyzed the most recent epidemiology from the important exposed cohorts and factor...

  8. Risk of thyroid cancer following exposure to 131I early in life: A combined analysis of six studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesminiene, Ausrele; Tenet, Vanesa; Cardis, Elisabeth; Astakhova, Larisa; Davis, Scott; Kopecky, Kenneth J.; Ivanov, Victor; Stepanenko, Valeri; Malakhova, Irina; Simon, Steven; Bouville, Andre; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Trott, Klaus; Negri, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Several recent studies have investigated the association between the risk of thyroid cancer and exposure to radio-iodines, following the Chernobyl accident, fall-out from weapons testing or releases from nuclear installations. These studies have been carried out in Belarus, Russia, French Polynesia, the US (Hanford site) and the Marshall Islands, in populations with different genetic backgrounds and different distributions of host and environmental risk factors, and most have collected information on a number of possible confounding or modifying factors. A formal combined analysis of studies of thyroid cancer in relation to 131 I exposure in childhood and adolescence was performed in an attempt to maximise the information concerning risks from exposure to iodine radioisotopes. The objectives of the analyses were: a) to evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer related to exposure to 131 I in childhood and adolescence; and b) to evaluate the role of environmental and host factors that may modify radiation-induced thyroid cancer risk. These include: age at exposure, stable iodine intake, genetic background, history of thyroid diseases, diet and reproductive history. The criteria for inclusion of studies in the combined analyses, which were defined a priori, included availability of individual or individualised estimates of radiation dose to the thyroid and adequate diagnostic confirmation of thyroid cancer. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze the relation between radiation dose and risk of thyroid cancer. It was applied in the standard fashion to case-control studies. For cohort studies, 'case-control sets' were defined on the basis of the 'risk sets' for each individual case. The distribution of total thyroid dose was highly skewed, with the majority of subjects in almost all studies having received relatively low doses, particularly in French Polynesia. The dose to the thyroid was mainly from exposure to 131 I, except in the Marshall Islands

  9. Risks of cancer - All sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This chapter describes the BEIR Committee's radiation risk models and the total risks of cancer following whole body exposure. This report focuses on the data from A-bomb survivors since this cohort contains persons of all ages at exposure. Because of large statistical uncertainties, it was not possible for the committee to provide risk estimates for cancers at all specific sites of interest. Estimates were made for risk of leukemia, breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and cancers of the respiratory and digestive systems. To obtain an estimate of the total risk of mortality from all cancers, the committee also modeled cancers other than those listed above as a group

  10. Long-term nitrite inhalant exposure and cancer risk in MSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Anupriya; Uno, Hajime; Holman, Alex; Lorenz, David R.; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Gabuzda, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Nitrite inhalants (poppers) are commonly used recreational drugs among MSM and were previously associated with elevated rates of high-risk sexual behavior, HIV and human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) seroconversion, and transient immunosuppressive effects in experimental models. Whether long-term popper use is associated with cancer risk among MSM in the HAART era is unclear. Design: Prospective cohort study of cancer risk in 3223 HIV-infected and uninfected MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study from 1996–2010. Methods: Poisson regression models were used to examine the association between heavy popper use (defined as daily or weekly use for at least 1 year) and risk of individual cancers or composite category of virus-associated cancers. Results: Among all participants, heavy popper use was not associated with increased risk of any individual cancers. Among HIV-uninfected men aged 50–70, heavy popper use was associated with increased risk of virus-associated cancer with causes linked to human papillomavirus, HHV-8, and Epstein–Barr virus in models adjusted for demographics, number of sexual partners, immunological parameters (CD4+ cell counts or CD4+/CD8+ ratios), and hepatitis B and C viruses [incidence rate ratio (IRR), 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.24, 1.05–9.96], or sexually transmitted infections (IRR 3.03, 95% CI, 1.01–9.09), as was cumulative use over a 5-year period (IRR 1.012, 95% CI 1.003–1.021; P = 0.007). There was no significant association between heavy popper use and virus-associated cancer in HIV-infected men. Conclusions: Long-term heavy popper use is associated with elevated risk of some virus-associated cancers with causes related to human papillomavirus, HHV-8, and Epstein–Barr virus infections in older HIV-uninfected MSM independent of sexual behavior and immunological parameters. PMID:28441176

  11. Sarcoma risk after radiation exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrington de Gonzalez Amy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sarcomas were one of the first solid cancers to be linked to ionizing radiation exposure. We reviewed the current evidence on this relationship, focusing particularly on the studies that had individual estimates of radiation doses. There is clear evidence of an increased risk of both bone and soft tissue sarcomas after high-dose fractionated radiation exposure (10 + Gy in childhood, and the risk increases approximately linearly in dose, at least up to 40 Gy. There are few studies available of sarcoma after radiotherapy in adulthood for cancer, but data from cancer registries and studies of treatment for benign conditions confirm that the risk of sarcoma is also increased in this age-group after fractionated high-dose exposure. New findings from the long-term follow-up of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors suggest, for the first time, that sarcomas can be induced by acute lower-doses of radiation (

  12. Assessment of cancer and noncancer health risks from exposure to PAHs in street dust in the Tamale Metropolis, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Cobbina, Samuel J; Armah, Frederick A; Luginaah, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of a broader initiative to characterize, quantify and assess the human health risk associated with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust along the Trans-ECOWAS highway in West Africa. In the first part, PAHs were characterized and quantified in low- and high-traffic zones. In this study, cancer and noncancer human health risks from exposure to (PAHs) in street dust in the Tamale metropolis, Ghana were assessed in accordance with the USEPA risk assessment guidelines. The results of the study as obtained from inhalation of benzo [a] anthracene (BaA), benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), benzo [k] fluoranthene (BkF) and chrysene via central tendency exposure parameters (CTE) by trespassers (street hawkers including children and adults) in street dust within low traffic zones in the Tamale metropolis are 1.6E-02, 4.7E-02, 1.8E-03, and 1.6E-04 respectively. For reasonable maximum exposure parameters (RME), risk values of 1.2E-01, 3.5E-01, 1.3E-02 and 1.2E-03 respectively were obtained for benzo [a] anthracene, benzo [a] pyrene, benzo [k] fluoranthene and chrysene. Hazard index for acenaphthene, anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorine, naphthalene and pyrene in the CTE and RME scenarios were 2.2, 3.E-01, 2.6, 2.6, 100, 38 and 12, 1.7,15, 14, 550, 210 respectively. Generally, the cancer health risk associated with inhalation of benzo [a] anthracene, benzo [a] pyrene, benzo [k] fluoranthene and chrysene revealed that resident adults and children in the Tamale metropolis are at risk from exposure to these chemicals. The results of this preliminary assessment that quantified PAH related health risks along this part of the Trans-ECOWAS highway revealed that, there is the need for regulatory agencies to put in comprehensive measures to mitigate the risks posed to these categories of human receptors.

  13. Breast Cancer Risk After Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma : Influence of Gonadal Hormone Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, Inge M; Opstal-van Winden, Annemieke W J; Aleman, Berthe M P; Janus, Cécile P M; van Eggermond, Anna M; De Bruin, Marie L; Hauptmann, Michael; Krol, Augustinus D G; Schaapveld, Michael; Broeks, Annegien; Kooijman, Karen R; Fase, Sandra; Lybeert, Marnix L; Zijlstra, Josée M; van der Maazen, Richard W M; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Diallo, Ibrahima; de Vathaire, Florent; Russell, Nicola S; van Leeuwen, Flora E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young women treated with chest radiation therapy (RT) for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) experience a strongly increased risk of breast cancer (BC). It is unknown whether endogenous and exogenous gonadal hormones affect RT-associated BC risk. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study

  14. Estimating cancer risk in relation to tritium exposure from routine operation of a nuclear-generating station in Pickering, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanigaratne, S; Holowaty, E; Jiang, H; Norwood, T A; Pietrusiak, M A; Brown, P

    2013-09-01

    Evidence suggests that current levels of tritium emissions from CANDU reactors in Canada are not related to adverse health effects. However, these studies lack tritium-specific dose data and have small numbers of cases. The purpose of our study was to determine whether tritium emitted from a nuclear-generating station during routine operation is associated with risk of cancer in Pickering, Ontario. A retrospective cohort was formed through linkage of Pickering and north Oshawa residents (1985) to incident cancer cases (1985-2005). We examined all sites combined, leukemia, lung, thyroid and childhood cancers (6-19 years) for males and females as well as female breast cancer. Tritium estimates were based on an atmospheric dispersion model, incorporating characteristics of annual tritium emissions and meteorology. Tritium concentration estimates were assigned to each cohort member based on exact location of residence. Person-years analysis was used to determine whether observed cancer cases were higher than expected. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine whether tritium was associated with radiation-sensitive cancers in Pickering. Person-years analysis showed female childhood cancer cases to be significantly higher than expected (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-3.38). The issue of multiple comparisons is the most likely explanation for this finding. Cox models revealed that female lung cancer was significantly higher in Pickering versus north Oshawa (HR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.23-4.46) and that tritium was not associated with increased risk. The improved methodology used in this study adds to our understanding of cancer risks associated with low-dose tritium exposure. Tritium estimates were not associated with increased risk of radiationsensitive cancers in Pickering.

  15. Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Cancer from Exposure Inorganic Arsenic in Duplicate Food by Villagers in Ronphibun, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyawat Saipan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ronphibun district is a district in Nakorn Si Thammarat province, within southern Thailand. This district is the site of several former tin mines that were in operation 100 years ago. Arsenic contamination caused by past mining activities remains in the area. The specific purpose of this study was conducted to assess cancer risk in people living within Ronphibun district from exposure to inorganic arsenic via duplicate food using probabilistic risk assessment. A hundred and fifty duplicate food samples were collected from participants. Inorganic arsenic concentrations are determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Inorganic arsenic concentrations in duplicate food ranged from 0.16 to 0.42 μg/g dry weight. The probabilistic carcinogenic risk levels were 6.76 x 10-4 and 1.74 x 10-3 based on the 50th and 95th percentile, respectively. Risk values for people in Ronphibun from exposure to inorganic arsenic remained higher than the acceptable target risk. Sensitivity analysis indicted that exposure duration and concentrations of arsenic in food were the two most influential of cancer risk estimates.

  16. Estimating the risks of cancer mortality and genetic defects resulting from exposures to low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhl, T.E.; Hansen, W.R.

    1984-05-01

    Estimators for calculating the risk of cancer and genetic disorders induced by exposure to ionizing radiation have been recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations, the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the International Committee on Radiological Protection. These groups have also considered the risks of somatic effects other than cancer. The US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has discussed risk estimate procedures for radiation-induced health effects. The recommendations of these national and international advisory committees are summarized and compared in this report. Based on this review, two procedures for risk estimation are presented for use in radiological assessments performed by the US Department of Energy under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). In the first procedure, age- and sex-averaged risk estimators calculated with US average demographic statistics would be used with estimates of radiation dose to calculate the projected risk of cancer and genetic disorders that would result from the operation being reviewed under NEPA. If more site-specific risk estimators are needed, and the demographic information is available, a second procedure is described that would involve direct calculation of the risk estimators using recommended risk-rate factors. The computer program REPCAL has been written to perform this calculation and is described in this report. 25 references, 16 tables

  17. Estimating the risks of cancer mortality and genetic defects resulting from exposures to low levels of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhl, T.E.; Hansen, W.R.

    1984-05-01

    Estimators for calculating the risk of cancer and genetic disorders induced by exposure to ionizing radiation have been recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations, the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the International Committee on Radiological Protection. These groups have also considered the risks of somatic effects other than cancer. The US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has discussed risk estimate procedures for radiation-induced health effects. The recommendations of these national and international advisory committees are summarized and compared in this report. Based on this review, two procedures for risk estimation are presented for use in radiological assessments performed by the US Department of Energy under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). In the first procedure, age- and sex-averaged risk estimators calculated with US average demographic statistics would be used with estimates of radiation dose to calculate the projected risk of cancer and genetic disorders that would result from the operation being reviewed under NEPA. If more site-specific risk estimators are needed, and the demographic information is available, a second procedure is described that would involve direct calculation of the risk estimators using recommended risk-rate factors. The computer program REPCAL has been written to perform this calculation and is described in this report. 25 references, 16 tables.

  18. Cancer and non-cancer health effects from food contaminant exposures for children and adults in California: a risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt Rainbow

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the absence of current cumulative dietary exposure assessments, this analysis was conducted to estimate exposure to multiple dietary contaminants for children, who are more vulnerable to toxic exposure than adults. Methods We estimated exposure to multiple food contaminants based on dietary data from preschool-age children (2–4 years, n=207, school-age children (5–7 years, n=157, parents of young children (n=446, and older adults (n=149. We compared exposure estimates for eleven toxic compounds (acrylamide, arsenic, lead, mercury, chlorpyrifos, permethrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, chlordane, DDE, and dioxin based on self-reported food frequency data by age group. To determine if cancer and non-cancer benchmark levels were exceeded, chemical levels in food were derived from publicly available databases including the Total Diet Study. Results Cancer benchmark levels were exceeded by all children (100% for arsenic, dieldrin, DDE, and dioxins. Non-cancer benchmarks were exceeded by >95% of preschool-age children for acrylamide and by 10% of preschool-age children for mercury. Preschool-age children had significantly higher estimated intakes of 6 of 11 compounds compared to school-age children (p Conclusions Dietary strategies to reduce exposure to toxic compounds for which cancer and non-cancer benchmarks are exceeded by children vary by compound. These strategies include consuming organically produced dairy and selected fruits and vegetables to reduce pesticide intake, consuming less animal foods (meat, dairy, and fish to reduce intake of persistent organic pollutants and metals, and consuming lower quantities of chips, cereal, crackers, and other processed carbohydrate foods to reduce acrylamide intake.

  19. Connecting gastrointestinal cancer risk to cadmium and lead exposure in the Chaoshan population of Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xueqiong; Peng, Lin; Xu, Xijin; Chen, Yanrong; Zhang, Yuling; Huo, Xia

    2018-04-17

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) pose a serious threat to human health because of its carcinogenicity. China ranks first according to the Global Cancer Report for 2014 in newly diagnosed gastrointestinal cancers and cancer deaths. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of Cd and Pb burden with the risk of gastrointestinal cancers in a hospital-based case-control study from southern regions of China, Chaoshan area. A total of 279 hospitalized patients were recruited in this study, of which 167 were gastrointestinal cancer cases (70 esophageal cancer, 51 gastric cancer, and 46 colorectal cancer), and 112 controls were recruited from two hospitals in the Chaoshan area of southeast China. Basic clinical data and information on gender, age, and other demographic characteristics were collected from medical records. Blood Cd and Pb levels were detected by graphite furnace atomizer absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS). Blood Cd/Pb levels and over-limit ratios between cases and controls were compared by Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) as measures of relative risk and explored the relationships between blood Cd/Pb levels and gastrointestinal cancer risk and clinicopathological characteristics. Median levels of blood Cd and Pb in cases (2.12 and 60.03 μg/L, respectively) were significantly higher than those of controls (1.47 and 53.84 μg/L, respectively). The over-limit ratios for Cd (≥ 5 μg/L) and Pb (≥ 100 μg/L) in the cases were both higher than that of controls. Blood Cd levels had a tendency to accumulate in the human body with gender, age, and tobacco smoking, while blood Pb levels only were associated with tobacco smoking. The logistic regression model illustrated that gastrointestinal cancers were significantly associated with blood Cd levels and blood Pb levels. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in patients with T3 + T4 stage were markedly higher than in patients

  20. Risk of thyroid cancer after exposure to fertility drugs: results from a large Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, C.G.; Jensen, A.; Sharif, H.

    2008-01-01

    of 54 362 women with infertility problems referred to Danish fertility clinics in the period 1963-1998 was established. A detailed data collection including information about type and amount of treatment was conducted. Using case-cohort techniques, we calculated rate ratios (RRs) of thyroid cancer......BACKGROUND: Findings from the few epidemiological studies that have investigated thyroid cancer risk after fertility drugs have been inconclusive. Using data from the largest cohort of infertile women to date, we examined the effects of fertility drugs on thyroid cancer risk. METHODS: A cohort...... associated with different fertility drugs after adjustment for age at first live birth. RESULTS: A total of 29 thyroid cancers were identified during follow-up through 2000. Use of clomiphene [RR = 2.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-4.82] or progesterone (RR = 10.14; 95% CI: 1.93-53.33) was associated...

  1. New views on the hypothesis of respiratory cancer risk from soluble nickel exposure; and reconsideration of this risk's historical sources in nickel refineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heller James G

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction While epidemiological methods have grown in sophistication during the 20th century, their application in historical occupational (and environmental health research has also led to a corresponding growth in uncertainty in the validity and reliability of the attribution of risk in the resulting studies, particularly where study periods extend back in time to the immediate postwar era (1945–70 when exposure measurements were sporadic, unsystematically collected and primitive in technique; and, more so, to the pre-WWII era (when exposure data were essentially non-existent. These uncertainties propagate with animal studies that are designed to confirm the carcinogenicity by inhalation exposure of a chemical putatively responsible for historical workplace cancers since exact exposure conditions were never well characterized. In this report, we present a weight of scientific evidence examination of the human and toxicological evidence to show that soluble nickel is not carcinogenic; and, furthermore, that the carcinogenic potencies previously assigned by regulators to sulphidic and oxidic nickel compounds for the purposes of developing occupational exposure limits have likely been overestimated. Methods Published, file and archival evidence covering the pertinent epidemiology, biostatistics, confounding factors, toxicology, industrial hygiene and exposure factors, and other risky exposures were examined to evaluate the soluble nickel carcinogenicity hypothesis; and the likely contribution of a competing workplace carcinogen (arsenic on sulphidic and oxidic nickel risk estimates. Findings Sharp contrasts in available land area and topography, and consequent intensity of production and refinery process layouts, likely account for differences in nickel species exposures in the Kristiansand (KNR and Port Colborne (PCNR refineries. These differences indicate mixed sulphidic and oxidic nickel and arsenic exposures in KNR's historical

  2. Quantification of lung cancer risk after low radon exposure and low exposure rate: synthesis from epidemiological and experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timarche, M.

    2004-03-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas produced during the decay of uranium 238 that is present in soil. It was classified as a human lung carcinogen in 1988, based on evidence both from animal studies and from human studies of miners with high levels of radon exposure. Radon is present everywhere; therefore the quantification of the risk associated with exposure to it is a key public health issue. The project aimed to analyse the risk associated with radon inhalation at low doses and at low rates of exposure. It involved researchers from three different fields: epidemiology, animal experiments and mechanistic modelling and provided a unique opportunity to study the influence of dose rate, mainly in the range of low daily exposures over long periods, by analysing in parallel results from both animal and epidemiological studies. The project comprised 6 work packages (W.P.). Firstly, the partners involved in epidemiology and animal experiments worked on the validation and the analysis of the data. Secondly, the data from W.P.1 and W.P.4 were transferred to the partners involved in W.P.5 for the application of mechanistic models. In the final step a synthesis of the results was prepared. (N.C)

  3. Quantification of lung cancer risk after low radon exposure and low exposure rate: synthesis from epidemiological and experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timarche, M

    2004-03-15

    Radon is a radioactive gas produced during the decay of uranium 238 that is present in soil. It was classified as a human lung carcinogen in 1988, based on evidence both from animal studies and from human studies of miners with high levels of radon exposure. Radon is present everywhere; therefore the quantification of the risk associated with exposure to it is a key public health issue. The project aimed to analyse the risk associated with radon inhalation at low doses and at low rates of exposure. It involved researchers from three different fields: epidemiology, animal experiments and mechanistic modelling and provided a unique opportunity to study the influence of dose rate, mainly in the range of low daily exposures over long periods, by analysing in parallel results from both animal and epidemiological studies. The project comprised 6 work packages (W.P.). Firstly, the partners involved in epidemiology and animal experiments worked on the validation and the analysis of the data. Secondly, the data from W.P.1 and W.P.4 were transferred to the partners involved in W.P.5 for the application of mechanistic models. In the final step a synthesis of the results was prepared. (N.C)

  4. Surrogates of Long-Term Vitamin D Exposure and Ovarian Cancer Risk in Two Prospective Cohort Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, Jennifer, E-mail: jennifer.prescott@channing.harvard.edu; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Tworoger, Shelley S. [Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 181 Longwood Ave. Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2013-11-22

    Experimental evidence and ecologic studies suggest a protective role of vitamin D in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, epidemiologic studies using individual level data have been inconsistent. We evaluated ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation, vitamin D intake, and predicted plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels as long-term surrogates of vitamin D exposure within the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. We estimated incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of overall ovarian cancer and by histologic subtype using Cox proportional hazards models. Between 1976 and 2010 in NHS and 1989 and 2011 in NHSII, we identified a total of 1,225 incident epithelial ovarian cancer cases (NHS: 970, NHSII: 255) over 4,628,648 person-years of follow-up. Cumulative average UV-B exposure was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in NHS (P{sub trend} = 0.08), but was associated with reduced risk in NHSII (highest vs. lowest category RR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.89; P{sub trend} < 0.01). When stratified by histologic subtype, UV-B flux was positively associated with risk of serous tumors in NHS (P{sub trend} < 0.01), but inversely associated in NHSII (P{sub trend} = 0.01). Adjusted for confounders, ovarian cancer risk was not associated with vitamin D intake from food or supplements or with predicted 25(OH)D levels. Our study does not strongly support a protective role for vitamin D in ovarian cancer risk.

  5. Lung cancer risk in relation to traffic-related nano/ultrafine particle-bound PAHs exposure: a preliminary probabilistic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chung-Min; Chio, Chia-Pin; Chen, Wei-Yu; Ju, Yun-Ru; Li, Wen-Hsuan; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Chen, Szu-Chieh; Ling, Min-Pei

    2011-06-15

    Exposures to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been linked to human lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess lung cancer risk caused by inhalation exposure to nano/ultrafine particle-bound PAHs at the population level in Taiwan appraised with recent published data. A human respiratory tract model was linked with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to estimate deposition fraction and internal organic-specific PAHs doses. A probabilistic risk assessment framework was developed to estimate potential lung cancer risk. We reanalyzed particle size distribution, total-PAHs, particle-bound benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P) and PM concentrations. A dose-response profile describing the relationships between external B[a]P concentration and lung cancer risk response was constructed based on population attributable fraction (PAF). We found that 90% probability lung cancer risks ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-4) for traffic-related nano and ultrafine particle-bound PAHs, indicating a potential lung cancer risk. The particle size-specific PAF-based excess annual lung cancer incidence rate due to PAHs exposure was estimated to be less than 1 per 100,000 population, indicating a mild risk factor for lung cancer. We concluded that probabilistic risk assessment linked PAF for limiting cumulative PAHs emissions to reduce lung cancer risk plays a prominent role in future government risk assessment program. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Lung cancer risk, exposure to radon and tobacco consumption in a nested case-control study of French uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuraud, K.; Billon, S.; Bergot, D.; Tirmarche, M.; Laurier, D.; Caer, S.; Quesne, B.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: A nested case-control study was conducted among the French uranium miners cohort in order to assess the effect of protract ed radon exposure on lung cancer risk taking into account tobacco consumption. Material and methods: One hundred uranium miners employed by the French company CEA-COGEMA and who died of a lung cancer between 1980 and 1994 were identified as cases among the cohort. For each case, five controls were randomly matched on birth period and attained age at the time of death of the corresponding case. Cumulated radon exposure during employment was reconstructed for each of these 100 cases and 500 controls. Smoking habits were retrospectively determined from three complementary sources: 1) medical files, 2) forms filled in by occupational physicians and 3) questionnaires applied in face-to-face interviews, phone calls or mailings. Analysis was performed by conditional logistic regression using a linear excess relative risk (ERR) model. A multiplicative model was fitted to assess the joint effect of radon exposure and smoking on lung cancer risk. Results: Smoking status was established for 62 cases and 320 controls and two categories ('ever smokers' vs. 'never smokers') were defined. Ninety percent of the cases and 73% of the controls were classified as 'ever smokers'. Mean five-year lagged cumulated radon exposures were 82.0 and 47.6 working level months (WLM) for the cases and the controls, respectively. The excess relative risk per WLM (ERR/WLM) was 1.1% with a 95%-confidence interval (CI) of 0.2-2.0%. When adjusting for smoking, radon exposure effect was little modified (ERR/WLM = 0.8%, 95% -CI = 0.1- 2.8%). The effect of smoking on lung cancer risk was comparable to results reported in previous miners cohorts (OR = 3.04, 95% -CI = 1.20-7.70). Discussion: A consequent effort was carried out to collect smoking status from three sources for the miners included in this nested case-control study. This analysis shows that, when adjusting on

  7. Epidemiologic studies of occupational pesticide exposure and cancer: regulatory risk assessments and biologic plausibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquavella, John; Doe, John; Tomenson, John; Chester, Graham; Cowell, John; Bloemen, Louis

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies frequently show associations between self-reported use of specific pesticides and human cancers. These findings have engendered debate largely on methodologic grounds. However, biologic plausibility is a more fundamental issue that has received only superficial attention. The purpose of this commentary is to review briefly the toxicology and exposure data that are developed as part of the pesticide regulatory process and to discuss the applicability of this data to epidemiologic research. The authors also provide a generic example of how worker pesticide exposures might be estimated and compared to relevant toxicologic dose levels. This example provides guidance for better characterization of exposure and for consideration of biologic plausibility in epidemiologic studies of pesticides.

  8. Uncertainties in Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides. An Uncertainty Analysis for Risk Coefficients Reported in Federal Guidance Report No. 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, David [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Nelson, Christopher [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2007-01-01

    Federal Guidance Report No. 13 (FGR 13) provides risk coefficients for estimation of the risk of cancer due to low-level exposure to each of more than 800 radionuclides. Uncertainties in risk coefficients were quantified in FGR 13 for 33 cases (exposure to each of 11 radionuclides by each of three exposure pathways) on the basis of sensitivity analyses in which various combinations of plausible biokinetic, dosimetric, and radiation risk models were used to generate alternative risk coefficients. The present report updates the uncertainty analysis in FGR 13 for the cases of inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides and expands the analysis to all radionuclides addressed in that report. The analysis indicates that most risk coefficients for inhalation or ingestion of radionuclides are determined within a factor of 5 or less by current information. That is, application of alternate plausible biokinetic and dosimetric models and radiation risk models (based on the linear, no-threshold hypothesis with an adjustment for the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor) is unlikely to change these coefficients by more than a factor of 5. In this analysis the assessed uncertainty in the radiation risk model was found to be the main determinant of the uncertainty category for most risk coefficients, but conclusions concerning the relative contributions of risk and dose models to the total uncertainty in a risk coefficient may depend strongly on the method of assessing uncertainties in the risk model.

  9. REVIEW OF DRAFT REVISED BLUE BOOK ON ESTIMATING CANCER RISKS FROM EXPOSURE TO IONIZING RADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1994, EPA published a report, referred to as the “Blue Book,” which lays out EPA’s current methodology for quantitatively estimating radiogenic cancer risks. A follow-on report made minor adjustments to the previous estimates and presented a partial analysis of the uncertainti...

  10. Endotoxin exposure and lung cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature on agriculture and cotton textile workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenters, V.C.; Basinas, I.; Beane Freeman, L.E.; Boffetta, P.; Checkoway, H.; Coggon, D.; Portengen, L.; Sim, M.; Wouters, I.M.; Heederik, D.; Vermeulen, R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between exposure to endotoxins and lung cancer risk by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies of workers in the cotton textile and agricultural industries; industries known for high exposure levels of endotoxins. METHODS: Risk

  11. A method for determining weights for excess relative risk and excess absolute risk when applied in the calculation of lifetime risk of cancer from radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Linda [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Radiation Protection and Health, Oberschleissheim (Germany); University of Manchester, The Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Schneider, Uwe [University of Zurich, Vetsuisse Faculty, Zurich (Switzerland); Radiotherapy Hirslanden AG, Aarau (Switzerland)

    2013-03-15

    Radiation-related risks of cancer can be transported from one population to another population at risk, for the purpose of calculating lifetime risks from radiation exposure. Transfer via excess relative risks (ERR) or excess absolute risks (EAR) or a mixture of both (i.e., from the life span study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bomb survivors) has been done in the past based on qualitative weighting. Consequently, the values of the weights applied and the method of application of the weights (i.e., as additive or geometric weighted means) have varied both between reports produced at different times by the same regulatory body and also between reports produced at similar times by different regulatory bodies. Since the gender and age patterns are often markedly different between EAR and ERR models, it is useful to have an evidence-based method for determining the relative goodness of fit of such models to the data. This paper identifies a method, using Akaike model weights, which could aid expert judgment and be applied to help to achieve consistency of approach and quantitative evidence-based results in future health risk assessments. The results of applying this method to recent LSS cancer incidence models are that the relative EAR weighting by cancer solid cancer site, on a scale of 0-1, is zero for breast and colon, 0.02 for all solid, 0.03 for lung, 0.08 for liver, 0.15 for thyroid, 0.18 for bladder and 0.93 for stomach. The EAR weighting for female breast cancer increases from 0 to 0.3, if a generally observed change in the trend between female age-specific breast cancer incidence rates and attained age, associated with menopause, is accounted for in the EAR model. Application of this method to preferred models from a study of multi-model inference from many models fitted to the LSS leukemia mortality data, results in an EAR weighting of 0. From these results it can be seen that lifetime risk transfer is most highly weighted by EAR only for stomach cancer. However

  12. Effect of Genetic Polymorphisms and Long-Term Tobacco Exposure on the Risk of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Zoraida; Santiago, Catalina; Chicharro, Luis Miguel; Reinoso-Barbero, Luis; Tejerina, Alejandro; Bandrés, Fernando; Gómez-Gallego, Félix

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco smoke contains many potentially harmful compounds that may act differently and at different stages in breast cancer development. The focus of this work was to assess the possible role of cigarette smoking (status, dose, duration or age at initiation) and polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes involved in tobacco carcinogen metabolism (CYP1A1, CYP2A6) or in DNA repair (XRCC1, APEX1, XRCC3 and XPD) in breast cancer development. Methods: We designed a case control study with 297 patients, 217 histologically verified breast cancers (141 smokers and 76 non-smokers) and 80 healthy smokers in a cohort of Spanish women. Results: We found an association between smoking status and early age at diagnosis of breast cancer. Among smokers, invasive carcinoma subtype incidence increased with intensity and duration of smoking (all Ptrend cancer (OR = 7.12 (1.98–25.59)). Conclusions: Our results support the main effect of CYP1A1 in estrogenic metabolism rather than in tobacco carcinogen activation in breast cancer patients and also confirmed the hypothesis that CYP1A1 Ile462Val, in association with long periods of active smoking, could be a breast cancer risk factor. PMID:27754415

  13. Analysis of intervention strategies for inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and associated lung cancer risk based on a Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Zhao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to evaluate and compare interventions for reducing exposure to air pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a widely found air pollutant in both indoor and outdoor air. This study presents the first application of the Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model to quantify the effects of different intervention strategies on inhalation exposure to PAHs and the associated lung cancer risk. The method was applied to the population in Beijing, China, in the year 2006. Several intervention strategies were designed and studied, including atmospheric cleaning, smoking prohibition indoors, use of clean fuel for cooking, enhancing ventilation while cooking and use of indoor cleaners. Their performances were quantified by population attributable fraction (PAF) and potential impact fraction (PIF) of lung cancer risk, and the changes in indoor PAH concentrations and annual inhalation doses were also calculated and compared. The results showed that atmospheric cleaning and use of indoor cleaners were the two most effective interventions. The sensitivity analysis showed that several input parameters had major influence on the modeled PAH inhalation exposure and the rankings of different interventions. The ranking was reasonably robust for the remaining majority of parameters. The method itself can be extended to other pollutants and in different places. It enables the quantitative comparison of different intervention strategies and would benefit intervention design and relevant policy making.

  14. Analysis of intervention strategies for inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and associated lung cancer risk based on a Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhou

    Full Text Available It is difficult to evaluate and compare interventions for reducing exposure to air pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, a widely found air pollutant in both indoor and outdoor air. This study presents the first application of the Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model to quantify the effects of different intervention strategies on inhalation exposure to PAHs and the associated lung cancer risk. The method was applied to the population in Beijing, China, in the year 2006. Several intervention strategies were designed and studied, including atmospheric cleaning, smoking prohibition indoors, use of clean fuel for cooking, enhancing ventilation while cooking and use of indoor cleaners. Their performances were quantified by population attributable fraction (PAF and potential impact fraction (PIF of lung cancer risk, and the changes in indoor PAH concentrations and annual inhalation doses were also calculated and compared. The results showed that atmospheric cleaning and use of indoor cleaners were the two most effective interventions. The sensitivity analysis showed that several input parameters had major influence on the modeled PAH inhalation exposure and the rankings of different interventions. The ranking was reasonably robust for the remaining majority of parameters. The method itself can be extended to other pollutants and in different places. It enables the quantitative comparison of different intervention strategies and would benefit intervention design and relevant policy making.

  15. Monte Carlo mixture model of lifetime cancer incidence risk from radiation exposure on shuttle and international space station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, L.E.; Cucinotta, F.A.

    1999-01-01

    Estimating uncertainty in lifetime cancer risk for human exposure to space radiation is a unique challenge. Conventional risk assessment with low-linear-energy-transfer (LET)-based risk from Japanese atomic bomb survivor studies may be inappropriate for relativistic protons and nuclei in space due to track structure effects. This paper develops a Monte Carlo mixture model (MCMM) for transferring additive, National Institutes of Health multiplicative, and multiplicative excess cancer incidence risks based on Japanese atomic bomb survivor data to determine excess incidence risk for various US astronaut exposure profiles. The MCMM serves as an anchor point for future risk projection methods involving biophysical models of DNA damage from space radiation. Lifetime incidence risks of radiation-induced cancer for the MCMM based on low-LET Japanese data for nonleukemia (all cancers except leukemia) were 2.77 (90% confidence limit, 0.75-11.34) for males exposed to 1 Sv at age 45 and 2.20 (90% confidence limit, 0.59-10.12) for males exposed at age 55. For females, mixture model risks for nonleukemia exposed separately to 1 Sv at ages of 45 and 55 were 2.98 (90% confidence limit, 0.90-11.70) and 2.44 (90% confidence limit, 0.70-10.30), respectively. Risks for high-LET 200 MeV protons (LET=0.45 keV/μm), 1 MeV α-particles (LET=100 keV/μm), and 600 MeV iron particles (LET=180 keV/μm) were scored on a per particle basis by determining the particle fluence required for an average of one particle per cell nucleus of area 100 μm 2 . Lifetime risk per proton was 2.68x10 -2 % (90% confidence limit, 0.79x10 -3 %-0.514x10 -2 %). For α-particles, lifetime risk was 14.2% (90% confidence limit, 2.5%-31.2%). Conversely, lifetime risk per iron particle was 23.7% (90% confidence limit, 4.5%-53.0%). Uncertainty in the DDREF for high-LET particles may be less than that for low-LET radiation because typically there is very little dose-rate dependence. Probability density functions for

  16. Radon exposure and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Vukovic, B.; Faj, Z.; Radolic, V.; Suveljak, B.

    2003-01-01

    Although studies of radon exposure have established that Rn decay products are a cause of lung cancer among miners, the lung cancer risk to the general population from indoor radon remains unclear and controversial. Our epidemiological investigation of indoor radon influence on lung cancer incidence was carried out for 201 patients from the Osijek town. Ecological method was applied by using the town map with square fields of 1 km 2 and the town was divided into 24 fields. Multiple regression study for the lung cancer rate on field, average indoor radon exposure and smoking showed a positive linear double regression for the mentioned variables. Case-control study showed that patients, diseased of lung cancer, dwelt in homes with significantly higher radon concentrations, by comparison to the average indoor radon level of control sample. (author)

  17. Exposure to uranium and cancer risk: a review of epidemiological studies; Exposition a l'uranium et risque de cancer: une revue des etudes epidemiologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirmarche, M.; Baysson, H.; Telle-Lamberton, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Service de Radiobiologie et d' Epidemiologie, Dir. de la Radioprotection de l' Homme, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2004-02-01

    Objective: At the end of 2000, certain diseases including leukemia were reported among soldiers who participated in the Balkan and in the Gulf wars. Depleted uranium used during these conflicts was considered as a possible cause. Its radiotoxicity is close to that of natural uranium. This paper reviews the epidemiological knowledge of uranium, the means of exposure and the associated risk of cancer. Methods: The only available epidemiological data concerns nuclear workers exposed to uranium. A review of the international literature is proposed by distinguishing between uranium miners and other workers of the nuclear industry. French studies are described in details. Results: In ionizing radiation epidemiology, contamination by uranium is often cited as a risk factor, but the dose-effect relationship is rarely studied. Retrospective assessment of individual exposure is generally insufficient. Moreover, it is difficult to distinguish between uranium radiotoxicity, its chemical toxicity and the radiotoxicity of its progeny. A causal relation between lung cancer and radon exposure, a gas derived from the decay of uranium, has been demonstrated in epidemiological studies of miners. Among other nuclear workers exposed to uranium, there is a mortality deficit from all causes (healthy worker effect). No cancer site appears systematically in excess compared to the national population; very few studies describe a dose-response relationship. Conclusion: Only studies with a precise reconstruction of doses and sufficient numbers of workers will allow a better assessment of risks associated with uranium exposure at levels encountered in industry or during conflicts using depleted uranium weapons. (author)

  18. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO TRICHLOROETHYLENE AND CANCER RISK FOR WORKERS AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    BAHR, DEBRA E.; ALDRICH, TIMOTHY E.; SEIDU, DAZAR; BRION, GAIL M.; TOLLERUD, DAVID J.; MULDOON, SUSAN; REINHART, NANCY; YOUSEEFAGHA, AHMED; MCKINNEY, PAUL; HUGHES, THERESE; CHAN, CAROLINE; RICE, CAROL; BREWER, DAVID E.; FREYBERG, RONALD W.; MOHLENKAMP, ADRIANE MOSER; HAHN, KRISTEN; HORNUNG, RICHARD; HO, MONA; DASTIDAR, ANIRUDDHA; FREITAS, SAMANTHA; SAMAN, DANIEL; RAVDAL, HEGE; SCUTCHFIELD, DOUGLAS; EGER, KENNETH J.; MINOR, STEVE

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) became operational in 1952; it is located in the western part of Kentucky. We conducted a mortality study for adverse health effects that workers may have suffered while working at the plant, including exposures to chemicals. Materials and Methods We studied a cohort of 6820 workers at the PGDP for the period 1953 to 2003; there were a total of 1672 deaths to cohort members. Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a specific concern for this workforce; exposure to TCE occurred primarily in departments that clean the process equipment. The Life Table Analysis System (LTAS) program developed by NIOSH was used to calculate the standardized mortality ratios for the worker cohort and standardized rate ratio relative to exposure to TCE (the U.S. population is the referent for age-adjustment). LTAS calculated a significantly low overall SMR for these workers of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.72–0.79). A further review of three major cancers of interest to Kentucky produced significantly low SMR for trachea, bronchus, lung cancer (0.75, 95% CI: 0.72–0.79) and high SMR for Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (1.49, 95% CI: 1.02–2.10). Results No significant SMR was observed for leukemia and no significant SRRs were observed for any disease. Both the leukemia and lung cancer results were examined and determined to reflect regional mortality patterns. However, the Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma finding suggests a curious amplification when living cases are included with the mortality experience. Conclusions Further examination is recommended of this recurrent finding from all three U.S. Gaseous Diffusion plants. PMID:21468904

  19. Case control study of the geographic variability of exposure to disinfectant byproducts and risk for rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerson Peter A

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of byproducts that result from the disinfection of drinking water vary within a water distribution system. This prompted us to question whether the risk for rectal cancer also varies, depending upon one's long term geographic location within the system. Such a geographic distribution in rectal cancer risk would follow naturally from an association between level of byproduct and rectal cancer risk. We assess the effects of estimated geographic variability in exposure to some of the components of the trihalomethane group of disinfectant byproducts (DBPs on the odds ratios and probabilities for rectal cancer in white males in a case control study of 128 cases and 253 controls, conducted in Monroe County, Western New York State, U.S.A. The study was designed around health data initially collected at the University at Buffalo (Department of Social and Preventative Medicine as part of the Upstate New York Diet Study, and trihalomethane (THM data collected from a separate independent study of THMs conducted by Monroe County Department of Health. Case participants were chosen from hospital pathology records. The controls are disease-free white males between 35–90 years old, living in Monroe County, and chosen from control groups for studies from cancer of five other (unrelated sites. Using a combination of case control methodology and spatial analysis, the spatial patterns of THMs and individual measures of tap water consumption provide estimates of the effects of ingestion of specific amounts of some DBPs on rectal cancer risk. Trihalomethane (THM data were used to spatially interpolate levels at the taps of cases and controls, and odds ratios were estimated using logistic regression to assess the effects of estimated THM exposure dose on cancer risk, adjusting for alcohol, dietary beta carotene intake, tap water intake, and total caloric intake. Results Trihalomethane levels varied spatially within the county; although

  20. Cancer risk of incremental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in electrocautery smoke for mastectomy personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsin-Shun; Liu, Shi-Ping; Uang, Shi-Nian; Yang, Li-Ru; Lee, Shien-Chih; Liu, Yao-Jen; Chen, Dar-Ren

    2014-02-04

    Electrocautery applications in surgical operations produce evasive odorous smoke in the cleanest operation rooms. Because of the incomplete combustion of electrical current in the tissues and blood vessels during electrocautery applications, electrocautery smoke (ES) containing significant unknown chemicals and biological forms is released. The potential hazards and cancer risk should be further investigated from the perspective of the occupational health of surgical staff. The particle number concentration and the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ES were thoroughly investigated in 10 mastectomies to estimate the cancer risk for surgical staff. The particle number concentration and gaseous/particle PAHs at the surgeons' and anesthetic technologists' (AT) breathing heights were measured with a particle counter and filter/adsorbent samplers. PAHs were soxhlet-extracted, cleaned, and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Abundant submicron particles and high PAH concentrations were found in ES during regular surgical mastectomies. Most particles in ES were in the size range of 0.3 to 0.5 μm, which may potentially penetrate through the medical masks into human respiration. The average particle/gaseous phase PAH concentrations at the surgeon's breathing height were 131 and 1,415 ng/m³, respectively, which is 20 to 30 times higher than those in regular outdoor environments. By using a toxicity equivalency factor, the cancer risk for the surgeons and anesthetic technologists was calculated to be 117 × 10(-6) and 270 × 10(-6), respectively; the higher cancer risk for anesthetic technologists arises due to the longer working hours in operation rooms. The carcinogenic effects of PAHs in ES on the occupational health of surgical staff should not be neglected. The use of an effective ES evacuator or smoke removal apparatus is strongly suggested to diminish the ES hazards to surgical staff.

  1. Occupational exposure to diesel engine emissions and risk of lung cancer: evidence from two case-control studies in Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintos, Javier; Parent, Marie-Elise; Richardson, Lesley; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2012-11-01

    To examine the risk of lung cancer among men associated with exposure to diesel engine emissions incurred in a wide range of occupations and industries. 2 population-based lung cancer case-control studies were conducted in Montreal. Study I (1979-1986) comprised 857 cases and 533 population controls; study II (1996-2001) comprised 736 cases and 894 population controls. A detailed job history was obtained, from which we inferred lifetime occupational exposure to 294 agents, including diesel engine emissions. ORs were estimated for each study and in the pooled data set, adjusting for socio-demographic factors, smoking history and selected occupational carcinogens. While it proved impossible to retrospectively estimate absolute exposure concentrations, there were estimates and analyses by relative measures of cumulative exposure. Increased risks of lung cancer were found in both studies. The pooled analysis showed an OR of lung cancer associated with substantial exposure to diesel exhaust of 1.80 (95% CI 1.3 to 2.6). The risk associated with substantial exposure was higher for squamous cell carcinomas (OR 2.09; 95% CI 1.3 to 3.2) than other histological types. Joint effects between diesel exhaust exposure and tobacco smoking are compatible with a multiplicative synergistic effect. Our findings provide further evidence supporting a causal link between diesel engine emissions and risk of lung cancer. The risk is stronger for the development of squamous cell carcinomas than for small cell tumours or adenocarcinomas.

  2. Pollution level, inhalation exposure and lung cancer risk of ambient atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Taiyuan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Zhonghuan; Duan Xiaoli; Tao Shu; Qiu Weixun; Liu Di; Wang Yilong; Wei Siye; Wang Bin; Jiang Qiujing; Lu Bin; Song Yunxue; Hu Xinxin

    2013-01-01

    Passive air samplers were deployed to collect both gas and particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Taiyuan between 2009 and 2010. Annual average concentrations of BaP equivalent concentration (B[a]P eq ) in background, rural and urban areas were 2.90 ± 0.29, 23.2 ± 30.8 and 27.4 ± 28.1 ng/m 3 , respectively, with higher concentration in the winter than in other seasons. The median B[a]P eq concentrations of annual inhalation exposure were estimated to be in the range of 103–347 ng/d for all population groups in rural as well as in urban areas. The median values of incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) induced by whole year inhalation exposure for all groups were basically larger than 10 −6 , with higher values in winter than in other seasons and in urban than in rural area. In the same season and area, the ILCR of adults was larger than other age groups and that of females was a little higher than males. - Highlights: ► The median values of ILCR were higher in winter than in other seasons. ► The median values of ILCR were higher in urban than in rural area. ► In the same season and area, the ILCR of adults was larger than other age groups. ► In the same season and area, the ILCR of females was a little higher than males. ► Exposure level and the cancer slope factor influenced the ILCR greatly. - The inhalation exposure and lung cancer risk of ambient atmospheric PAHs changed for different seasons, areas and population groups in Taiyuan, China.

  3. Occupational exposure to ultraviolet radiation and risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in a multinational European study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Surdu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that ambient sunlight plays an important role in the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC. However, there is ongoing controversy regarding the relevance of occupational exposure to natural and artificial ultraviolet radiation (UV radiation. OBJECTIVES: We investigated potential associations between natural and artificial UV radiation exposure at work with NMSC in a case-control study conducted in Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia. METHODS: Occupational exposures were classified by expert assessment for 527 controls and 618 NMSC cases (515 basal cell carcinoma, BCC. Covariate information was collected via interview and multiple logistic regression models were used to assess associations between UV exposure and NMSC. RESULTS: Lifetime prevalence of occupational exposure in the participants was 13% for natural UV radiation and 7% for artificial UV radiation. Significant negative associations between occupational exposure to natural UV radiation and NMSC were detected for all who had ever been exposed (odds ratio (OR 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.27-0.80; similar results were detected using a semi-quantitative metric of cumulative exposure. The effects were modified by skin complexion, with significantly decreased risks of BCC among participants with light skin complexion. No associations were observed in relation to occupational artificial UV radiation exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The protective effect of occupational exposure to natural UV radiation was unexpected, but limited to light-skinned people, suggesting adequate sun-protection behaviors. Further investigations focusing on variations in the individual genetic susceptibility and potential interactions with environmental and other relevant factors are planned.

  4. Human cancer risk estimation for 1,3-butadiene: An assessment of personal exposure and different microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huy, Lai Nguyen; Lee, Shun Cheng; Zhang, Zhuozhi

    2018-03-01

    This study estimated the lifetime cancer risk (LCR) attributable to 1,3-butadiene (BD) personal exposure and to other microenvironments, including residential home, outdoor, in-office, in-vehicle, and dining. Detailed life expectancy by country (WHO), inhalation rate and body weight by gender reported by USEPA were used for the calculation, focusing on adult population (25≤Agepersonal exposure exceeded the USEPA benchmark of 1×10 -6 in many cities. For outdoor BD exposure, LCR estimations in 45 out of 175 cities/sites (sharing 26%) exceeded the USEPA benchmark. Out of the top 20 cities having high LCR estimations, developing countries contributed 19 cities, including 14, 3, 1, 1 cities in China, India, Chile, and Pakistan. One city in the United States was in the list due to the nearby industrial facilities. The LCR calculations for BD levels found in residential home, in-vehicle and dining microenvironments also exceeded 1×10 -6 in some cities, while LCR caused by in-office BD levels had the smallest risk. Four cities/regions were used for investigating source distributions to total LCR results because of their sufficient BD data. Home exposure contributed significantly to total LCR value (ranging 56% to 86%), followed by in-vehicle (4% to 38%) and dining (4 to 7%). Outdoor microenvironment shared highly in Tianjin with 6%, whereas in-office contributed from 2-3% for all cities. High LCR estimations found in developing countries highlighted the greater cancer risk caused by BD in other cities without available measurement data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantification of inorganic arsenic exposure and cancer risk via consumption of vegetables in southern selected districts of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Zahir Ur; Khan, Sardar; Qin, Kun; Brusseau, Mark L; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Din, Islamud

    2016-01-01

    Human exposures to arsenic (As) through different pathways (dietary and non-dietary) are considered to be one of the primary worldwide environmental health risks to humans. This study was conducted to investigate the presence of As in soil and vegetable samples collected from agricultural lands located in selected southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province, Pakistan. We examined the concentrations of total arsenic (TAs), organic species of As such as monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsonic acid (DMA), and inorganic species including arsenite (AsIII) and arsenate (AsV) in both soil and vegetable. The data were used to determine several parameters to evaluate human health risk, including bioconcentration factor (BCF) from soil to plant, average daily intake (ADI), health risk index (HRI), incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILTCR), and hazard quotient (HQ). The total As concentration in soil samples of the five districts ranged from 3.0-3.9 mg kg−1, exhibiting minimal variations from site to site. The mean As concentration in edible portions of vegetable samples ranged from 0.03-1.38 mg kg−1. It was observed that As concentrations in 75% of the vegetable samples exceeded the safe maximum allowable limit (0.1 mg kg−1) set by WHO/FAO. The highest value of ADI for As was measured for M. charantia, while the lowest was for A. chinense. The results of this study revealed minimal health risk (HI vegetables for the local inhabitants. The ILTCR values for inorganic As indicated a minimal potential cancer risk through ingestion of vegetables. In addition, the HQ values for total As were <1, indicating minimal non-cancer risk. PMID:26820935

  6. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... hormone therapy and for tumors that express hormone receptors . Obesity is also a risk factor for breast ...

  7. Occupational exposure to radon for underground tourist routes in Poland: Doses to lung and the risk of developing lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Walczak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Radon concentrations for 31 Polish underground tourist routes were analyzed. The equivalent dose to the lung, the effective dose and the relative risk were calculated for employees of the analyzed routes on the grounds of information on radon concentrations, work time, etc. Material and Methods: The relative risk for lung cancers was calculated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR VI Committee model. Equivalent doses to the lungs of workers were determined using the coefficients calculated by the Kendall and Smith. The conversion coefficient proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA in the report No. 33 was used for estimating the effective doses. Results: In 13 routes, the effective dose was found to be above 1 mSv/year, and in 3 routes, it exceeded 6 mSv/year. For 5 routes, the equivalent dose to lungs was higher than 100 mSv/year, and in 1 case it was as high as 490 mSv/year. In 22.6% of underground workplaces the risk of developing lung cancer among employees was about 2 times higher than that for the general population, and for 1 tourist route it was about 5 times higher. The geometric mean of the relative risk of lung cancer for all workers of underground tourist routes was 1.73 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.6–1.87. Routes were divided into: caves, mines, post-military underground constructions and urban underground constructions. Conclusions: The difference between levels of the relative risk of developing lung cancer for all types of underground tourist routes was not found to be significant. If we include the professional group of the employees of underground tourist routes into the group of occupational exposure, the number of persons who are included in the Category A due to occupational exposure may increase by about 3/4. The professional group of the employees of underground tourist routes should be monitored for their exposure to radon. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5:687

  8. Occupational exposure to radon for underground tourist routes in Poland: Doses to lung and the risk of developing lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Katarzyna; Olszewski, Jerzy; Politański, Piotr; Zmyślony, Marek

    2017-07-14

    Radon concentrations for 31 Polish underground tourist routes were analyzed. The equivalent dose to the lung, the effective dose and the relative risk were calculated for employees of the analyzed routes on the grounds of information on radon concentrations, work time, etc. The relative risk for lung cancers was calculated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VI Committee model. Equivalent doses to the lungs of workers were determined using the coefficients calculated by the Kendall and Smith. The conversion coefficient proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the report No. 33 was used for estimating the effective doses. In 13 routes, the effective dose was found to be above 1 mSv/year, and in 3 routes, it exceeded 6 mSv/year. For 5 routes, the equivalent dose to lungs was higher than 100 mSv/year, and in 1 case it was as high as 490 mSv/year. In 22.6% of underground workplaces the risk of developing lung cancer among employees was about 2 times higher than that for the general population, and for 1 tourist route it was about 5 times higher. The geometric mean of the relative risk of lung cancer for all workers of underground tourist routes was 1.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6-1.87). Routes were divided into: caves, mines, post-military underground constructions and urban underground constructions. The difference between levels of the relative risk of developing lung cancer for all types of underground tourist routes was not found to be significant. If we include the professional group of the employees of underground tourist routes into the group of occupational exposure, the number of persons who are included in the Category A due to occupational exposure may increase by about 3/4. The professional group of the employees of underground tourist routes should be monitored for their exposure to radon. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):687-694. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC

  9. The risks of leukaemia and other cancers in Seascale from radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stather, J.W.; Dionian, J.; Brown, J.; Fell, T.P.; Muirhead, C.R.

    1986-04-01

    Including new data in the radiation dose calculations for the Seascale study population of 1225 children and young persons, followed to 20 years of age or 1980, has, with modifications to dosimetric models, increased the predicted number of radiation-induced leukaemia resulting from Sallafield discharges from 0.01 to 0.016. Risk to the average child in the study, from the discharges, is now calculated as about 1 in 75,000 with a maximum risk of about 1 in 30,000 for children born in the mid-1950s. For the four fatal leukemias to be attributed to the Sellafield operations, the calculated average risk for all the children would have to be increased about 250 times. Estimate of the overall risk of radiation-induced leukaemia in the study population, from combined sources, has increased by less than 10% of the previous estimate and the total number of cases is still rounded to 0.1, as in R171. Risk to the average child is now calculated as about 1 in 12,250, about two thirds from natural background, 16% from Sellafield discharges, and 9% each from weapons fallout and medical exposure. (U.K.)

  10. Exposure to biomass smoke as a risk factor for oesophageal and gastric cancer in low-income populations: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayamba, Violet; Heimburger, Douglas C; Morgan, Douglas R; Atadzhanov, Masharip; Kelly, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Upper gastrointestinal cancers contribute significantly to cancer-related morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, but they continue to receive limited attention. The high incidence in young adults remains unexplained, and the risk factors have not been fully described. A literature search was conducted using the electronic database PubMed. Beginning from January 1980 to February 2016, all articles evaluating biomass smoke exposure with oesophageal and gastric cancer were reviewed. Over 70% of the African population relies on biomass fuel, meaning most Africans are exposed to biomass smoke throughout their lives. Cigarette smoke is an established risk factor for upper gastrointestinal cancers, and some of its carcinogenic constituents are also present in biomass smoke. We found eight case-control studies reporting associations between exposure to biomass smoke and oesophageal cancer, and two linking biomass smoke to gastric cancer. All of these papers reported significant positive associations between exposure and cancer risk. Further research is needed in order to fully define the constituents of biomass smoke, which could each have varying specific and synergistic or independent contributions to the development of upper gastrointestinal cancers. Exposure to biomass smoke is an environmental factor influencing the development of upper gastrointestinal cancers, especially in low-resource settings.

  11. Cadmium Exposure as a Putative Risk Factor for the Development of Pancreatic Cancer: Three Different Lines of Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Buha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although profoundly studied, etiology of pancreatic cancer (PC is still rather scant. Exposure to cadmium (Cd, a ubiquitous metal associated with well-established toxic and carcinogenic properties, has been hypothesized to one putative cause of PC. Hence, we analyzed recently published observational studies, meta-analyses, and experimental animal and in vitro studies with the aim of summarizing the evidence of Cd involvement in PC development and describing the possible mechanisms. Consolidation of epidemiological data on PC and exposure to Cd indicated a significant association with an elevated risk of PC among general population exposed to Cd. Cadmium exposure of laboratory animals was showed to cause PC supporting the findings suggested by human studies. The concordance with human and animal studies is buttressed by in vitro studies, although in vitro data interpretation is problematic. In most instances, only significant effects are reported, and the concentrations of Cd are excessive, which would skew interpretation. Previous reports suggest that oxidative stress, apoptotic changes, and DNA cross-linking and hypermethylation are involved in Cd-mediated carcinogenesis. Undoubtedly, a significant amount of work is still needed to achieve a better understanding of the Cd involvement in pancreatic cancer which could facilitate prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of this fatal disease.

  12. Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Household cleaning and pesticide products may contribute to breast cancer because many contain endocrine disrupting chemicals or mammary gland carcinogens. This population-based case-control study investigated whether use of household cleaners and pesticides increases breast cancer risk. Methods Participants were 787 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1988 and 1995 and 721 controls. Telephone interviews asked about product use, beliefs about breast cancer etiology, and established and suspected breast cancer risk factors. To evaluate potential recall bias, we stratified product-use odds ratios by beliefs about whether chemicals and pollutants contribute to breast cancer; we compared these results with odds ratios for family history (which are less subject to recall bias) stratified by beliefs about heredity. Results Breast cancer risk increased two-fold in the highest compared with lowest quartile of self-reported combined cleaning product use (Adjusted OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.3) and combined air freshener use (Adjusted OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.0). Little association was observed with pesticide use. In stratified analyses, cleaning products odds ratios were more elevated among participants who believed pollutants contribute "a lot" to breast cancer and moved towards the null among the other participants. In comparison, the odds ratio for breast cancer and family history was markedly higher among women who believed that heredity contributes "a lot" (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.9, 3.6) and not elevated among others (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5, 1.1). Conclusions Results of this study suggest that cleaning product use contributes to increased breast cancer risk. However, results also highlight the difficulty of distinguishing in retrospective self-report studies between valid associations and the influence of recall bias. Recall bias may influence higher odds ratios for product use among participants who believed that chemicals and

  13. Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zota, Ami R; Aschengrau, Ann; Rudel, Ruthann A; Brody, Julia Green

    2010-07-20

    Household cleaning and pesticide products may contribute to breast cancer because many contain endocrine disrupting chemicals or mammary gland carcinogens. This population-based case-control study investigated whether use of household cleaners and pesticides increases breast cancer risk. Participants were 787 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1988 and 1995 and 721 controls. Telephone interviews asked about product use, beliefs about breast cancer etiology, and established and suspected breast cancer risk factors. To evaluate potential recall bias, we stratified product-use odds ratios by beliefs about whether chemicals and pollutants contribute to breast cancer; we compared these results with odds ratios for family history (which are less subject to recall bias) stratified by beliefs about heredity. Breast cancer risk increased two-fold in the highest compared with lowest quartile of self-reported combined cleaning product use (Adjusted OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.3) and combined air freshener use (Adjusted OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.0). Little association was observed with pesticide use. In stratified analyses, cleaning products odds ratios were more elevated among participants who believed pollutants contribute "a lot" to breast cancer and moved towards the null among the other participants. In comparison, the odds ratio for breast cancer and family history was markedly higher among women who believed that heredity contributes "a lot" (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.9, 3.6) and not elevated among others (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5, 1.1). Results of this study suggest that cleaning product use contributes to increased breast cancer risk. However, results also highlight the difficulty of distinguishing in retrospective self-report studies between valid associations and the influence of recall bias. Recall bias may influence higher odds ratios for product use among participants who believed that chemicals and pollutants contribute to breast cancer

  14. Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudel Ruthann A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Household cleaning and pesticide products may contribute to breast cancer because many contain endocrine disrupting chemicals or mammary gland carcinogens. This population-based case-control study investigated whether use of household cleaners and pesticides increases breast cancer risk. Methods Participants were 787 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1988 and 1995 and 721 controls. Telephone interviews asked about product use, beliefs about breast cancer etiology, and established and suspected breast cancer risk factors. To evaluate potential recall bias, we stratified product-use odds ratios by beliefs about whether chemicals and pollutants contribute to breast cancer; we compared these results with odds ratios for family history (which are less subject to recall bias stratified by beliefs about heredity. Results Breast cancer risk increased two-fold in the highest compared with lowest quartile of self-reported combined cleaning product use (Adjusted OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.3 and combined air freshener use (Adjusted OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.0. Little association was observed with pesticide use. In stratified analyses, cleaning products odds ratios were more elevated among participants who believed pollutants contribute "a lot" to breast cancer and moved towards the null among the other participants. In comparison, the odds ratio for breast cancer and family history was markedly higher among women who believed that heredity contributes "a lot" (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.9, 3.6 and not elevated among others (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5, 1.1. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that cleaning product use contributes to increased breast cancer risk. However, results also highlight the difficulty of distinguishing in retrospective self-report studies between valid associations and the influence of recall bias. Recall bias may influence higher odds ratios for product use among participants who believed

  15. An etiologic prediction model incorporating biomarkers to predict the bladder cancer risk associated with occupational exposure to aromatic amines: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Carta, Angela; Arici, Cecilia; Pavanello, Sofia; Porru, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Background No etiological prediction model incorporating biomarkers is available to predict bladder cancer risk associated with occupational exposure to aromatic amines. Methods Cases were 199 bladder cancer patients. Clinical, laboratory and genetic data were predictors in logistic regression models (full and short) in which the dependent variable was 1 for 15 patients with aromatic amines related bladder cancer and 0 otherwise. The receiver operating characteristics approach was adopted; th...

  16. Radiation Exposure and Thyroid Cancer Risk After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Comparison with the Chernobyl Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, S; Takamura, N; Ohtsuru, A; Suzuki, S

    2016-09-01

    The actual implementation of the epidemiological study on human health risk from low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposure and the comprehensive long-term radiation health effects survey are important especially after radiological and nuclear accidents because of public fear and concern about the long-term health effects of low-dose radiation exposure have increased considerably. Since the Great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan, Fukushima Prefecture has started the Fukushima Health Management Survey Project for the purpose of long-term health care administration and medical early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Especially on a basis of the lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident, both thyroid examination and mental health care are critically important irrespective of the level of radiation exposure. There are considerable differences between Chernobyl and Fukushima regarding radiation dose to the public, and it is very difficult to estimate retrospectively internal exposure dose from the short-lived radioactive iodines. Therefore, the necessity of thyroid ultrasound examination in Fukushima and the intermediate results of this survey targeting children will be reviewed and discussed in order to avoid any misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the high detection rate of childhood thyroid cancer. © World Health Organisation 2016. All rights reserved. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  17. Radiation Exposure and Thyroid Cancer Risk After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Comparison with the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, S.; Takamura, N.; Ohtsuru, A.; Suzuki, S.

    2016-01-01

    The actual implementation of the epidemiological study on human health risk from low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposure and the comprehensive long-term radiation health effects survey are important especially after radiological and nuclear accidents because of public fear and concern about the long-term health effects of low-dose radiation exposure have increased considerably. Since the Great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan, Fukushima Prefecture has started the Fukushima Health Management Survey Project for the purpose of long-term health care administration and medical early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Especially on a basis of the lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident, both thyroid examination and mental health care are critically important irrespective of the level of radiation exposure. There are considerable differences between Chernobyl and Fukushima regarding radiation dose to the public, and it is very difficult to estimate retrospectively internal exposure dose from the short-lived radioactive iodines. Therefore, the necessity of thyroid ultrasound examination in Fukushima and the intermediate results of this survey targeting children will be reviewed and discussed in order to avoid any misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the high detection rate of childhood thyroid cancer. (authors)

  18. Time-dependent effect of intensity of smoking and of occupational exposure to asbestos on the risk of lung cancer: results from the ICARE case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévêque, Emilie; Lacourt, Aude; Luce, Danièle; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Guénel, Pascal; Stücker, Isabelle; Leffondré, Karen

    2018-05-18

    To estimate the impact of intensity of both smoking and occupational exposure to asbestos on the risk of lung cancer throughout the whole exposure history. Data on 2026 male cases and 2610 male controls came from the French ICARE (Investigation of occupational and environmental causes of respiratory cancers) population-based, case-control study. Lifetime smoking history and occupational history were collected from standardised questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Occupational exposure to asbestos was assessed using a job exposure matrix. The effects of annual average daily intensity of smoking (reported average number of cigarettes smoked per day) and asbestos exposure (estimated average daily air concentration of asbestos fibres at work) were estimated using a flexible weighted cumulative index of exposure in logistic regression models. Intensity of smoking in the 10 years preceding diagnosis had a much stronger association with the risk of lung cancer than more distant intensity. By contrast, intensity of asbestos exposure that occurred more than 40 years before diagnosis had a stronger association with the risk of lung cancer than more recent intensity, even if intensity in the 10 years preceding diagnosis also had a significant effect. Our results illustrate the dynamic of the effect of intensity of both smoking and occupational exposure to asbestos on the risk of lung cancer. They confirm that the timing of exposure plays an important role, and suggest that standard analytical methods assuming equal weights of intensity over the whole exposure history may be questionable. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Endotoxin exposure and lung cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature on agriculture and cotton textile workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenters, Virissa; Basinas, Ioannis; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Boffetta, Paolo; Checkoway, Harvey; Coggon, David; Portengen, Lützen; Sim, Malcolm; Wouters, Inge M; Heederik, Dick; Vermeulen, Roel

    2010-04-01

    To examine the association between exposure to endotoxins and lung cancer risk by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies of workers in the cotton textile and agricultural industries; industries known for high exposure levels of endotoxins. Risk estimates were extracted from studies published before 2009 that met predefined quality criteria, including 8 cohort, 1 case-cohort, and 2 case-control studies of cotton textile industry workers, and 15 cohort and 2 case-control studies of agricultural workers. Summary risk estimates were calculated using random effects meta-analyses. Potential sources of heterogeneity were explored through subgroup analyses. The summary risk of lung cancer was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.57-0.90) for textile workers and 0.62 (0.52-0.75) for agricultural workers. The relative risk of lung cancer was below 1.0 for most subgroups defined according to sex, study design, outcome, smoking adjustment, and geographic area. Two studies provided quantitative estimates of endotoxin exposure and both studies tended to support a dose-dependent protective effect of endotoxins on lung cancer risk. Despite several limitations, this meta-analysis based on high-quality studies adds weight to the hypothesis that occupational exposure to endotoxin in cotton textile production and agriculture is protective against lung cancer.

  20. Toxicogenomic outcomes predictive of forestomach carcinogenesis following exposure to benzo(a)pyrene: Relevance to human cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, Sarah, E-mail: Sarah.Labib@hc-sc.gc.ca; Guo, Charles H., E-mail: Charles.Guo@hc-sc.gc.ca; Williams, Andrew, E-mail: Andrew.Williams@hc-sc.gc.ca; Yauk, Carole L., E-mail: Carole.Yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca; White, Paul A., E-mail: Paul.White@hc-sc.gc.ca; Halappanavar, Sabina, E-mail: Sabina.Halappanavar@hc-sc.gc.ca

    2013-12-01

    Forestomach tumors are observed in mice exposed to environmental carcinogens. However, the relevance of this data to humans is controversial because humans lack a forestomach. We hypothesize that an understanding of early molecular changes after exposure to a carcinogen in the forestomach will provide mode-of-action information to evaluate the applicability of forestomach cancers to human cancer risk assessment. In the present study we exposed mice to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), an environmental carcinogen commonly associated with tumors of the rodent forestomach. Toxicogenomic tools were used to profile gene expression response in the forestomach. Adult Muta™Mouse males were orally exposed to 25, 50, and 75 mg BaP/kg-body-weight/day for 28 consecutive days. The forestomach was collected three days post-exposure. DNA microarrays, real-time RT-qPCR arrays, and protein analyses were employed to characterize responses in the forestomach. Microarray results showed altered expression of 414 genes across all treatment groups (± 1.5 fold; false discovery rate adjusted P ≤ 0.05). Significant downregulation of genes associated with phase II xenobiotic metabolism and increased expression of genes implicated in antigen processing and presentation, immune response, chemotaxis, and keratinocyte differentiation were observed in treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. A systematic comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the forestomach from the present study to differentially expressed genes identified in human diseases including human gastrointestinal tract cancers using the NextBio Human Disease Atlas showed significant commonalities between the two models. Our results provide molecular evidence supporting the use of the mouse forestomach model to evaluate chemically-induced gastrointestinal carcinogenesis in humans. - Highlights: • Benzo(a)pyrene-mediated transcriptomic response in the forestomach was examined. • The immunoproteosome subunits and MHC class I

  1. Thyroid Cancer Induction: Nitrates as Independent Risk Factors or Risk Modulators after Radiation Exposure, with a Focus on the Chernobyl Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Valentina M; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    In recent decades, differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) incidence has been increasing worldwide. The important contributions to this phenomenon of "overdiagnosis" driven by wider use of improved ultrasound systems are amply documented, notwithstanding the "real" carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, e.g., from the Chernobyl accident or health care interventions. Less well understood is the role of nitrates - as environmental pollutants, in diet, and in medication - in thyroid carcinogenesis. Increasing exposure to nitrates is associated with rising incidence of esophageal, stomach, bladder, and colon cancers. Recent data suggest that in agricultural areas with higher mean nitrate levels in groundwater, DTC risk is also elevated. Our work in Belarus after Chernobyl has shown that children in districts with high nitrate concentrations in drinking water had significantly higher thyroid cancer incidence after irradiation than did their counterparts in areas with lower nitrate concentrations. Notwithstanding thyroid shielding, increasing use of computed tomography and dental X-rays heightens radiation exposure of the salivary glands in the general population, especially in children and adolescents. When nitrate intake is increased, salivary gland irradiation may potentially result in carcinogenic elevations in plasma nitric oxide concentrations. In conclusion, excess nitrate intake seems to be an independent risk factor for DTC. Additionally, we hypothesize from our data that high nitrate levels modulate the carcinogenic effect of radiation on the thyroid. Cohort studies, case-control studies, or both, are needed to quantify the effects of nitrates on DTC risk in the presence or absence of radiation exposure, e.g., that associated with diagnostic or therapeutic health care interventions.

  2. Association between lifetime exposure to passive smoking and risk of breast cancer subtypes defined by hormone receptor status among non-smoking Caucasian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta Strumylaite

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is inconsistently associated with breast cancer. Although some studies suggest that breast cancer risk is related to passive smoking, little is known about the association with breast cancer by tumor hormone receptor status. We aimed to explore the association between lifetime passive smoking and risk of breast cancer subtypes defined by estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status among non-smoking Caucasian women. A hospital-based case-control study was performed in 585 cases and 1170 controls aged 28-90 years. Information on lifetime passive smoking and other factors was collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was used for analyses restricted to the 449 cases and 930 controls who had never smoked actively. All statistical tests were two-sided. Adjusted odds ratio of breast cancer was 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.72-1.41 in women who experienced exposure to passive smoking at work, 1.88 (95% CI: 1.38-2.55 in women who had exposure at home, and 2.80 (95% CI: 1.84-4.25 in women who were exposed at home and at work, all compared with never exposed regularly. Increased risk was associated with longer exposure: women exposed ≤ 20 years and > 20 years had 1.27 (95% CI: 0.97-1.66 and 2.64 (95% CI: 1.87-3.74 times higher risk of breast cancer compared with never exposed (Ptrend 0.05. There was evidence of interaction between passive smoking intensity and menopausal status in both overall group (P = 0.02 and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer group (P < 0.05. In Caucasian women, lifetime exposure to passive smoking is associated with the risk of breast cancer independent of tumor hormone receptor status with the strongest association in postmenopausal women.

  3. Constitution of a group of Czech and French uranium miners in order to estimate lung cancer risk linked to low chronic exposure to radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirmarche, M.; Tomasek, L.

    1996-01-01

    West Bohemian and French uranium miners are characterized by a long duration of exposure to radon and its decay products, in comparison to most of the other groups of miners, studied in the recent international joint analysis by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in USA. This analysis has confirmed the linearly increasing risk of lung cancer by cumulative radon exposure, describing the different factors that may influence this dose-response relationship. One of the main factors presently discussed is the influence of the exposure-rate effect: in other words, has the same cumulated exposure spread over 10 years the same risk of lung cancer as if it is cumulated in 2 years? The implication of an inverse exposure-rate effect for low chronic exposures as well as some methodological approaches will be discussed and tested by using the data of the Czech and French cohorts. These two cohorts present annual exposures varying by a factor of 5 to 10, French exposure rates being close or even less than 0.1 Working Level during the last 20 years. The project is integrated in a larger European project on uranium miners, co-ordinated by IPSN. (author)

  4. Non-cancer health risk assessment from exposure to cyanide by resident adults from the mining operations of Bogoso Gold Limited in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, S; Dodoo, D K; Okai-Sam, F; Essumang, D K

    2006-07-01

    Cyanide is a very toxic chemical that is used to extract gold from its ores. Wastewaters from gold mining companies such as Bogoso Gold Limited (BGL) contain cyanide and other potentially toxic chemicals that have adverse effects on human beings and aquatic organisms. This study was conducted to evaluate the human health risk assessment from exposure to free cyanide via oral and dermal contact of surface/underground water by resident adults within the concession of Bogoso Gold Limited. The chronic non-cancer health risk from exposure to cyanide in River Bogo Upstream is 230 and 43 (by Central Tendency Exposure (CTE) parameters respectively). This means that approximately 230 and 43 resident adults are likely to suffer diseases related to cyanide intoxication via oral and dermal contact respectively. For chronic exposure to River Bogo Downstream by resident adults, the non-cancer health risks are: 0.031 and 0.57 via oral and dermal contact for CTE parameters respectively, which also means that, the non-cancer health risks associated with cyanide intoxication is negligible as the hazard index is less than 1.0 via oral and dermal contacts respectively. The results showed that health risk for acute exposure to cyanide by the resident adults is very high. Hence the residents attribute most of the unexplained deaths in the communities to accidental ingestion and dermal contact of cyanide water.

  5. Organochlorine exposures influence on breast cancer risk and survival according to estrogen receptor status: a Danish cohort-nested case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Høyer, Annette P; Jørgensen, Torben; Rank, Fritz; Grandjean, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between breast cancer and organochlorine exposure is controversial and complex. As estrogen receptor positive and negative breast cancer may represent different entities of the disease, this study was undertaken to evaluate organochlorines influence on breast cancer risk and survival according to receptor status. The background material stems from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (Denmark 1976-78). The breast cancer risk was investigated in a cohort nested case-control design including 161 cases and twice as many breast cancer free controls. The cases served as a cohort in the survival analysis. Serum organochlorine concentrations were determined by gaschromotography. The observed increased breast cancer risk associated with exposure to dieldrin derived from women who developed an estrogen receptor negative (ERN) tumor (Odds ratio [OR] I vs. IV quartile, 7.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-46.1, p-value for linear trend 0.01). Tumors in women with the highest dieldrin serum level were larger and more often spread at the time of diagnosis than ERP tumors. The risk of dying was for the remaining evaluated compounds higher among patients with ERP breast cancer when compared to those with ERN. In the highest quartile of polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB) it was more than 2-fold increased (Relative risk [RR] I vs. IV quartile, 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.7), but no dose-response relation was apparent. The results do not suggest that exposure to potential estrogenic organochlorines leads to development of an ERP breast cancer. A possible adverse effect on prognosis of hormone-responsive breast cancers needs to be clarified

  6. Through the looking glass at early-life exposures and breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forman, Michele R.; Cantwell, Marie M.; Ronckers, Cécile; Zhang, Yawei

    2005-01-01

    The global increase in the proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer, inadequate access to screening and high cost of treatment for breast cancer argue strongly for a greater focus on preventive strategies. But at what age is it appropriate to begin targeting preventive approaches? The

  7. Exposure to an atomic bomb explosion is a risk factor for in-hospital death after esophagectomy to treat esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Y; Takeishi, K; Guntani, A; Tsujita, E; Yoshinaga, K; Matsuyama, A; Hamatake, M; Maeda, T; Tsutsui, S; Matsuda, H; Ishida, T

    2015-01-01

    Esophagectomy, one of the most invasive of all gastrointestinal operations, is associated with a high frequency of postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether exposure to the atomic bomb explosion at Hiroshima in 1945 might be a preoperative risk factor for in-hospital mortality after esophagectomy in esophageal cancer patients. We thus reviewed the outcomes of esophagectomy in 31 atomic bomb survivors with esophageal cancer and 96 controls (also with cancer but without atomic bomb exposure). We compared the incidences of postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality. Of the clinicopathological features studied, mean patient age was significantly higher in atomic bomb survivors than in controls. Of the postoperative complications noted, atomic bomb survivors experienced a longer mean period of endotracheal intubation and higher incidences of severe pulmonary complications, severe anastomotic leakage, and surgical site infection. The factors associated with in-hospital mortality were exposure to the atomic bomb explosion, pulmonary comorbidities, and electrocardiographic abnormalities. Multivariate analysis revealed that exposure to the atomic bomb explosion was an independent significant preoperative risk factor for in-hospital mortality. Exposure to the atomic bomb explosion is thus a preoperative risk factor for in-hospital death after esophagectomy to treat esophageal cancer. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  8. Cancer risk to First Nations’ people from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons near in-situ bitumen extraction in Cold Lake, Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Alberta oil sands are an important economic resource in Canada, but there is growing concern over the environmental and health effects as a result of contaminant releases and exposures. Recent studies have shown a temporal and spatial trend of increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in sediments and snowpack near the Athabasca oil sands operations (i.e., open pit mines), but thus far similar studies have not been done for the Cold Lake region where steam assisted gravity drainage (in situ) extraction is performed. Methods Many PAHs are known mutagenic carcinogens, and this study measured soil and atmospheric concentrations of PAHs in the Cold Lake region to assess the excess lifetime cancer risk posed to the First Nations’ inhabitants of the region. Using both deterministic and probabilistic risk assessment methods, excess lifetime cancer risks were calculated for exposures from inhalation or inadvertent soil ingestion. Results The mean excess cancer risk for First Nations’ people through ingestion who engage in traditional wilderness activities in the Cold Lake region was 0.02 new cases per 100,000 with an upper 95% risk level of 0.07 cases per 100,000. Exposure to PAHs via inhalation revealed a maximum excess lifetime cancer risk of less than 0.1 cases per 100,000. Conclusions Excess lifetime risk values below 1 case per 100,000 is generally considered negligible, thus our analyses did not demonstrate any significant increases in cancer risks associated with PAH exposures for First Nations people inhabiting the Cold Lake region. PMID:24520827

  9. Occupational trichloroethylene exposure and kidney cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karami, S.; Lan, Q.; Rothman, N.; Stewart, P.A.; Lee, K.M.; Vermeulen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Moore, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Inconsistent epidemiological findings, debate over interpretation, and extrapolation of findings from animal studies to humans have produced uncertainty surrounding the carcinogenicity of trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure in occupational settings. We updated meta-analyses of published

  10. In Utero Exposure to Cadmium, Mammary Gland Development, and Breast Cancer Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webster, Jennifer D

    2007-01-01

    .... Previous studies have shown that in utero exposure to cadmium at the levels present in some human environments accelerated puberty onset and altered some of the indicators of mammary gland development in rats...

  11. Lung cancer risk assessment due to traffic-generated particles exposure in urban street canyons: A numerical modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scungio, M; Stabile, L; Rizza, V; Pacitto, A; Russi, A; Buonanno, G

    2018-08-01

    Combustion-generated nanoparticles are responsible for negative health effects due to their ability to penetrate in the lungs, carrying toxic compounds with them. In urban areas, the coexistence of nanoparticle sources and particular street-building configurations can lead to very high particle exposure levels. In the present paper, an innovative approach for the evaluation of lung cancer incidence in street canyon due to exposure to traffic-generated particles was proposed. To this end, the literature-available values of particulate matter, PAHs and heavy metals emitted from different kind of vehicles were used to calculate the Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR) at the tailpipe. The estimated ELCR was then used as input data in a numerical CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model that solves the mass, momentum, turbulence and species transport equations, in order to evaluate the cancer risk in every point of interest inside the street canyon. Thus, the influence of wind speed and street canyon geometry (H/W, height of building, H and width of the street, W) on the ELCR at street level was evaluated by means of a CFD simulation. It was found that the ELCR calculated on the leeward and windward sides of the street canyon at a breathable height of 1.5 m, for people exposed 15 min per day for 20 years, is equal to 1.5 × 10 -5 and 4.8 × 10 -6 , respectively, for wind speed of 1 m/s and H/W equal to 1. The ELCR at street level results higher on the leeward side for aspect ratios equal to 1 and 3, while for aspect ratio equal to 2 it is higher on the windward side. In addition, the simulations showed that with the increasing of wind speed the ELCR becomes lower everywhere in the street canyon, due to the increased in dispersion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of chronic exposure of hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine on the risk of cancer, metastasis, and death: a population-based cohort study on patients with connective tissue diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, L; Nazareth, I; Petersen, I

    2017-01-01

    Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine may reduce the risk of cancer as they inhibit autophagy, in particular, in people with connective tissue diseases. The hazard ratios of cancers, metastases, and death were assessed in adults with connective tissue diseases prescribed hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine for at least 1 year in comparison with unexposed individuals with the same underlying conditions. A competing risk survival regression analysis was performed. Data were extracted from the Health Improvement Network UK primary care database. Eight thousand nine hundred and ninety-nine individuals exposed to hydroxychloroquine (98.6%) or chloroquine (1.4%) and 24,118 unexposed individuals were included in the study (median age: 56 [45-66] years, women: 76.8%). When compared to the unexposed group, individuals exposed to hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine were not at lower risk of non-skin cancers (adjusted sub-distribution hazard ratio [sHR]: 1.04 [0.92-1.18], p =0.54), hematological malignancies (adjusted sHR: 1.00 [0.73-1.38], p =0.99), or skin cancers (adjusted sHR: 0.92 [0.78-1.07], p =0.26). The risk of metastasis was not significantly different between the two groups. However, it was significantly lower during the exposure period when compared with the unexposed (adjusted sHR: 0.64 [0.44-0.95] for the overall population and 0.61 [0.38-1.00] for those diagnosed with incident cancers). The risk of death was also significantly lower in those exposed to hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (adjusted HR: 0.90 [0.81-1.00] in the overall population and 0.78 [0.64-0.96] in those diagnosed with incident cancer). Individuals on long-term exposure to hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine are not at lower risk of cancer. However, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine may lower the risk of metastatic cancer and death.

  13. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  14. Excess relative risk of solid cancer mortality after prolonged exposure to naturally occurring high background radiation in Yangjiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Quanfu; Tao Zufan [Ministry of Health, Beijing (China). Lab. of Industrial Hygiene; Akiba, Suminori (and others)

    2000-10-01

    A study was made on cancer mortality in the high-background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China. Based on hamlet-specific environmental doses and sex- and age-specific occupancy factors, cumulative doses were calculated for each subject. In this article, we describe how the indirect estimation was made on individual dose and the methodology used to estimate radiation risk. Then, assuming a linear dose response relationship and using cancer mortality data for the period 1979-1995, we estimate the excess relative risk per Sievert for solid cancer to be -0.11 (95% CI, -0.67, 0.69). Also, we estimate the excess relative risks of four leading cancers in the study areas, i.e., cancers of the liver, nasopharynx, lung and stomach. In addition, we evaluate the effects of possible bias on our risk estimation. (author)

  15. Coefficients calculations of conversion of cancer risk for occupational exposure using Monte Carlo simulations in cardiac procedures of interventionist radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, William S.; Neves, Lucio P.; Perini, Ana P.; Caldas, Linda V.E.; Maia, Ana F.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac procedures are among the most common procedures in interventional radiology (IR), and can lead to high medical and occupational exposures, as in most cases are procedures complex and long lasting. In this work, conversion coefficients (CC) for the risk of cancer, normalized by kerma area product (KAP) to the patient, cardiologist and nurse were calculated using Monte Carlo simulation. The patient and the cardiologist were represented by anthropomorphic simulators MESH, and the nurse by anthropomorphic phantom FASH. Simulators were incorporated into the code of Monte Carlo MCNPX. Two scenarios were created: in the first (1), lead curtain and protective equipment suspended were not included, and in the second (2) these devices were inserted. The radiographic parameters employed in Monte Carlo simulations were: tube voltage of 60 kVp and 120 kVp; filtration of the beam and 3,5 mmAl beam area of 10 x 10 cm 2 . The average values of CCs to eight projections (in 10 -4 / Gy.cm 2 were 1,2 for the patient, 2,6E-03 (scenario 1) and 4,9E-04 (scenario 2) for cardiologist and 5,2E-04 (scenario 1) and 4,0E-04 (Scenario 2) to the nurse. The results show a significant reduction in CCs for professionals, when the lead curtain and protective equipment suspended are employed. The evaluation method used in this work can provide important information on the risk of cancer patient and professional, and thus improve the protection of workers in cardiac procedures of RI

  16. DDT Exposure in Utero and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Barbara A; La Merrill, Michele; Krigbaum, Nickilou Y; Yeh, Gregory; Park, June-Soo; Zimmermann, Lauren; Cirillo, Piera M

    2015-08-01

    Currently no direct evidence links in utero dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exposure to human breast cancer. However, in utero exposure to another xenoestrogen, diethylstilbestrol, predicts an increased breast cancer risk. If this finding extends to DDT, it could have far-reaching consequences. Many women were heavily exposed in utero during widespread DDT use in the 1960s. They are now reaching the age of heightened breast cancer risk. DDT exposure persists and use continues in Africa and Asia without clear knowledge of the consequences for the next generation. In utero exposure to DDT is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. This was a case-control study nested in a prospective 54-year follow-up of 9300 daughters in the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort (n = 118 breast cancer cases, diagnosed by age 52 y and 354 controls matched on birth year). Kaiser Foundation Health Plan members who received obstetric care in Alameda County, California, from 1959 to 1967, and their adult daughters participated in the study. Daughters' breast cancer diagnosed by age 52 years as of 2012 was measured. Maternal o,p'-DDT predicted daughters' breast cancer (odds ratio fourth quartile vs first = 3.7, 95% confidence interval 1.5-9.0). Mothers' lipids, weight, race, age, and breast cancer history did not explain the findings. This prospective human study links measured DDT exposure in utero to risk of breast cancer. Experimental studies are essential to confirm results and discover causal mechanisms. Findings support classification of DDT as an endocrine disruptor, a predictor of breast cancer, and a marker of high risk.

  17. Recent mortality statistics for distally exposed A-bomb survivors: The lifetime cancer risk for exposure under 50 cGy (rad)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaum, R.H.; Belsey, R.E.; Koehnlein, W.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of mortality statistics from the most recent Life Span Study reports of Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors (covering both the 1950-1982 and the 1950-1985 follow-up periods) indicates a significant difference (p < 0.001) in cancer mortality rates between two distally exposed groups of survivors with organ-absorbed radiation doses under 40 cSv. This implies a mean incremental lifetime cancer risk (exclusive of leukemias) of about 25 excess fatal cancers per 10,000 persons exposed to one additional cSv (rem) of ionizing radiation for persons who had been exposed to doses in the range 1-40 cSv above background levels. This risk value is independent of whether the original (T65DR) dosimetry assignments (choosing a value of 10 for the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons) or the new dosimetry estimates (DS86) are used. The present estimate of A-bomb survivor radiogenic cancer risk associated with low dose exposure was obtained directly from the observed cancer deaths in the low-dose exposure groups without reliance on model-dependent extrapolation from high-dose data. This low-dose risk estimate is about ten times larger than the risk estimates adopted previously by national and international radiation commissions as a basis for current radiation safety guidelines for workers and the general public. (author)

  18. Excess lifetime cancer mortality risk attributable to radiation exposure from computed tomography examinations in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chodick, Gabriel; Ronckers, Cécile M.; Shalev, Varda; Ron, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    The use of computed tomography in Israel has been growing rapidly during recent decades. The major drawback of this important technology is the exposure to ionizing radiation, especially among children who have increased organ radiosensitivity and a long lifetime to potentially develop

  19. Cancer risk from inorganics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swierenga, S.H.; Gilman, J.P.; McLean, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Inorganic metals and minerals for which there is evidence of carcinogenicity are identified. The risk of cancer from contact with them in the work place, the general environment, and under conditions of clinical (medical) exposure is discussed. The evidence indicates that minerals and metals most often influence cancer development through their action as cocarcinogens. The relationship between the physical form of mineral fibers, smoking and carcinogenic risk is emphasized. Metals are categorized as established (As, Be, Cr, Ni), suspected (Cd, Pb) and possible carcinogens, based on the existing in vitro, animal experimental and human epidemiological data. Cancer risk and possible modes of action of elements in each class are discussed. Views on mechanisms that may be responsible for the carcinogenicity of metals are updated and analysed. Some specific examples of cancer risks associated with the clinical use of potentially carcinogenic metals and from radioactive pharmaceuticals used in therapy and diagnosis are presented. Questions are raised as to the effectiveness of conventional dosimetry in accurately measuring risk from radiopharmaceuticals. 302 references

  20. Comparative oesophageal cancer risk assessment of hot beverage consumption (coffee, mate and tea): the margin of exposure of PAH vs very hot temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaru, Alex O; Rullmann, Anke; Farah, Adriana; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira; Stern, Mariana C; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2018-03-01

    Consumption of very hot (> 65 °C) beverages is probably associated with increased risk of oesophageal cancer. First associations were reported for yerba mate and it was initially believed that high content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) might explain the risk. Later research on other beverage groups such as tea and coffee, which are also consumed very hot, found associations with increased risk of oesophageal cancer as well. The risk may therefore not be inherent in any compound contained in mate, but due to temperature. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the risk of PAH in comparison with the risk of the temperature effect using the margin of exposure (MOE) methodology. The human dietary benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene) exposure through consumption of coffee, mate, and tea was estimated. The oesophageal cancer risk assessment for both PAH and temperature was conducted using the MOE approach. Considering differences in the transfer of the PAH from the leaves of mate and tea or from the ground coffee to the infusion, and considering the different preparation methods, exposures may vary considerably. The average individual exposure in μg/kg bw/day arising from consumption of 1 cup (0.2 L) of infusion was highest for mate (2.85E-04 BaP and 7.22E-04 PAH4). The average per capita exposure in μg/kg bw/day was as follows: coffee (4.21E-04 BaP, 4.15E-03 PAH4), mate (4.26E-03 BaP, 2.45E-02 PAH4), and tea (8.03E-04 BaP, 4.98E-03 PAH4). For all individual and population-based exposure scenarios, the average MOE for BaP and PAH4 was > 100,000 independent of beverage type. MOE values in this magnitude are considered as a very low risk. On the contrary, the MOE for the temperature effect was estimated as PAH exposure may pose an oesophageal cancer risk. Consumer education on risks associated with consumption of 'very hot' beverages and policy measures to threshold

  1. Dietary and Environmental Exposure to Cadmium and the Risk of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    number of full-term pregnancies), total duration of breastfeeding (months), oral contraceptive use (ever/never), and hormone replacement therapy... contraceptives was associated with higher unadjusted (p=0.005) and U-CdCr 41# concentrations (p=0.001). In univariate analyses, there was no relationship...Environ Health A 63:321-350. Dhooge, W, Den Hond, E, et al. 2010. Internal exposure to pollutants and body size in Flemish adolescents and adults

  2. PSA-Based Screening Outcomes, Dietary Heterocyclic Amine Exposure, and Prostate Cancer Risk in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    was conducted specifically to determine whether meat intake or meat-related mutagens, including PhIP, was associated with increased PC risk ( Cross ... Cross et al., 2005). Other intakes were not found to be associated with increased PC risk. No separate analysis was done of study results by race...369. Block G., Hartman A.M., Dresser C.M., Carroll M.D., Gannon J., and Gardner L. A data-based approach to diet questionnaire design and testing. Am

  3. A Validated Clinical Risk Prediction Model for Lung Cancer in Smokers of All Ages and Exposure Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markaki, Maria; Tsamardinos, Ioannis; Langhammer, Arnulf

    2018-01-01

    Lung cancer causes >1·6 million deaths annually, with early diagnosis being paramount to effective treatment. Here we present a validated risk assessment model for lung cancer screening. The prospective HUNT2 population study in Norway examined 65,237 people aged >20years in 1995-97. After a median...

  4. Combined effect of radon exposure and smoking on lung cancer risk - result of a case-control study among Czech miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    Because of the predominant role of cigarette smoking as a cause of lung cancer, an understanding of the joint effect of smoking and radon exposure is needed for the assessment of the risk from radon. The aim of the present work is to verify differences in smoking specific risk coefficients observed earlier (BEIR VI). The present study includes two cohorts of uranium miners in west and central Bohemia and one cohort of burnt clay miners exposed to radon. In the nested study, for each case of lung cancer (observed in 1954-2007) with smoking data up to three controls were selected from all cohort members matched by year of birth, age, and the cohort. Data on smoking in the study were collected from subjects in person, from medical records, and from relatives. The statistical assessment of the study was based on conditional logistic regression with linear dependence of estimated relative risk on radon exposure

  5. Analysis of the joint effects of radon exposure and smoking on lung cancer risk in three nested case-control studies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuraud, Klervi; Laurier, Dominique; Schnelzer, Maria; Grosche, Bernd; Tomasek, Ladislav

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Objectives: Three case-control studies nested in the French (Fr), German (Ge) and Czech (Cz) cohorts of uranium miners were conducted in the frame of a European research Project, named Alpha-Risk, on the quantification of risks associated with multiple radiation exposures. These case-control studies aimed at assessing the effect of protracted radon exposure on lung cancer risk taking into account individual tobacco consumption. Material and methods: In the three case-control studies, cases were miners of the corresponding cohort who died of lung cancer (100, 704, 672 cases for the Fr, Ge and Cz study, respectively). For each case, controls were randomly matched on birth period and attained age at the time of death of the corresponding case (500, 1398 and 1491 controls for the Fr, Ge and Cz study, respectively). Cumulated radon exposure during employment was obtained from ambient and individual measurements for the Fr and Cz studies, and from a job exposure matrix for the Ge study. Smoking habits were retrospectively determined from medical archives and questionnaires applied in face-to-face interviews, phone calls or mailings. Analysis was performed by conditional logistic regression using a linear excess relative risk (ERR) model. A multiplicative model was fitted to assess the joint effect of radon exposure and smoking on lung cancer risk. Results: Smoking status was established for 62, 421, and 672 cases and 320, 620, and 1491 controls for the Fr, Ge, and Cz study, respectively. Two categories ('ever smokers' vs. 'never smokers') were defined. The percentages of 'ever-smokers' were 90%, 95%, and 92% for the cases and 73%, 75%, and 73% for the controls, for the Fr, Ge and Cz study, respectively. Mean five-year lagged cumulated radon exposures were 115, 717 and 174 working level months (WLM) for the cases, and 71, 505 and 118 WLM for the controls, for the Fr, Ge and Cz study, respectively. The excess relative risk per WLM (ERR/WLM) was 0.98% with a 95

  6. Risk factors for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    It is no longer reasonable to divide cancers into those that are genetic in origin and those that are environmental in origin. With rare exception, carcinogenesis involves environmental factors that directly or indirectly exert a change in the cell's genome. Virtually all causes of cancer are multifactorial, sometimes involving an inherited predisposition to the carcinogenic effects of environmental factors, which include chemicals, ionizing radiation, and oncogenic virus. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process including induction, promotion, and progression. Initiation requires an irreversible change in the cellular genome, whereas promotion is commonly associated with prolonged and reversible exposure. Tumor progression results in genotypic and phenotypic changes associated with tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Most information on human cancer risk is based on epidemiologic studies involving both exposed and unexposed individuals. The quality of such studies depends on their ability to assess the strength of any association of exposure and disease and careful attention to any potential bias. Few cancers are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. Several preneoplastic conditions, however, are clearly inherited and several malignancies demonstrate weak familial patterns. Environmental factors may exert their effect on DNA in a random fashion, but certain consistent changes, including specific translocations of genetic information, are often found. Currently, there is great interest in the close proximity of certain oncogenes governing growth control to the consistent chromosomal changes observed. Such changes may represent a final common pathway of action for environmental carcinogens. Sufficient laboratory and epidemiologic evidence exists to establish a causal association of several chemical agents with cancer

  7. Gestational Exposure to Soy Isoflavones and Epigenetic Regulation of Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Accomplishments………..…………………………………………...5 4. Impact…………………………...……………………………………13 5. Changes/Problems...….………………………………………………14 6. Products ...ER progesterone (PR), and epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (Her2) (ER-/PR-/Her2-) (15). The CpG methylation of the BRCA-1 gene is associated...dealing with breast cancer but also groups involved in food production , biomedical communities and society as a whole. 5. CHANGES/PROBLEMS: Nothing to

  8. Paternal occupational exposure to pesticides or herbicides as risk factors for cancer in children and young adults: a case-control study from the North of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Mark S; Hammal, Donna M; Dorak, M Tevfik; McNally, Richard J Q; Parker, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Researchers in numerous studies have suggested that preconception paternal occupational exposures to various substances, including pesticides and herbicides, may be involved in the etiology of childhood cancers. Using data from the Northern Region Young Persons' Malignant Disease Registry, the authors investigated whether paternal occupations likely to involve such exposures, as recorded at the time of a child's birth, were associated with children's cancer risk. The authors matched cases (n = 4,723), on sex and year of birth, to controls from 2 independent sources: (1) all other patients from the registry with a different cancer and (2) 100 cancer-free individuals per case from the Cumbrian Births Database. An inverse association existed, particularly in males, between lymphoid leukemia and paternal occupations with likely exposures to pesticides and/or herbicides. However, this was not significant after stratifying by residential status (urban versus rural). Results do not support a role for preconception paternal occupational exposures to pesticides or herbicides in the etiology of childhood cancer.

  9. Bayesian Algorithm Implementation in a Real Time Exposure Assessment Model on Benzene with Calculation of Associated Cancer Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos A. Kassomenos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was the development of a reliable modeling platform to calculate in real time the personal exposure and the associated health risk for filling station employees evaluating current environmental parameters (traffic, meteorological and amount of fuel traded determined by the appropriate sensor network. A set of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs was developed to predict benzene exposure pattern for the filling station employees. Furthermore, a Physiology Based Pharmaco-Kinetic (PBPK risk assessment model was developed in order to calculate the lifetime probability distribution of leukemia to the employees, fed by data obtained by the ANN model. Bayesian algorithm was involved in crucial points of both model sub compartments. The application was evaluated in two filling stations (one urban and one rural. Among several algorithms available for the development of the ANN exposure model, Bayesian regularization provided the best results and seemed to be a promising technique for prediction of the exposure pattern of that occupational population group. On assessing the estimated leukemia risk under the scope of providing a distribution curve based on the exposure levels and the different susceptibility of the population, the Bayesian algorithm was a prerequisite of the Monte Carlo approach, which is integrated in the PBPK-based risk model. In conclusion, the modeling system described herein is capable of exploiting the information collected by the environmental sensors in order to estimate in real time the personal exposure and the resulting health risk for employees of gasoline filling stations.

  10. Bayesian algorithm implementation in a real time exposure assessment model on benzene with calculation of associated cancer risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, Dimosthenis A; Karakitsios, Spyros P; Gotti, Alberto; Papaloukas, Costas L; Kassomenos, Pavlos A; Pilidis, Georgios A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the current study was the development of a reliable modeling platform to calculate in real time the personal exposure and the associated health risk for filling station employees evaluating current environmental parameters (traffic, meteorological and amount of fuel traded) determined by the appropriate sensor network. A set of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) was developed to predict benzene exposure pattern for the filling station employees. Furthermore, a Physiology Based Pharmaco-Kinetic (PBPK) risk assessment model was developed in order to calculate the lifetime probability distribution of leukemia to the employees, fed by data obtained by the ANN model. Bayesian algorithm was involved in crucial points of both model sub compartments. The application was evaluated in two filling stations (one urban and one rural). Among several algorithms available for the development of the ANN exposure model, Bayesian regularization provided the best results and seemed to be a promising technique for prediction of the exposure pattern of that occupational population group. On assessing the estimated leukemia risk under the scope of providing a distribution curve based on the exposure levels and the different susceptibility of the population, the Bayesian algorithm was a prerequisite of the Monte Carlo approach, which is integrated in the PBPK-based risk model. In conclusion, the modeling system described herein is capable of exploiting the information collected by the environmental sensors in order to estimate in real time the personal exposure and the resulting health risk for employees of gasoline filling stations.

  11. Lung Cancer Risk and Residential Exposure to Air Pollution: A Korean Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Dirga Kumar; Kim, Hwan Cheol; Choi, Chang Min; Shin, Myung Hee; Shim, Young Mog; Leem, Jong Han; Ryu, Jeong Seon; Nam, Hae Seong; Park, Sung Min

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in Koreans. This was a population-based case-control study covering 908 lung cancer patients and 908 controls selected from a random sample of people within each Korean province and matched according to age, sex, and smoking status. We developed land-use regression models to estimate annual residential exposure to particulate matter (PM₁₀) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) over a 20-year exposure period. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Increases in lung cancer incidence (expressed as adjusted OR) were 1.09 (95% CI: 0.96-1.23) with a ten-unit increase in PM₁₀ (μg/m³) and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.00-1.22) with a ten-unit increase in NO₂ (ppb). Tendencies for stronger associations between air pollution and lung cancer incidence were noted among never smokers, among those with low fruit consumption, and among those with a higher education level. Air pollution was more strongly associated with squamous cell and small cell carcinomas than with adenocarcinoma of the lung. This study provides evidence that PM10 and NO₂ contribute to lung cancer incidence in Korea. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017

  12. Epidemiological survey of radiation workers. Risk of leukemia and solid cancer by low level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi, Kouichi

    2011-01-01

    An interim report on the epidemiological survey of cohort involving radiation workers in the nuclear power plants in Japan was introduced. It consists of eight chapters such as introduction, the objects of mortality rate survey from death causes and creating a cohort, the method of tracking the life and death, analytical methods of mortality rate, analytical results, confounded effects of life style, discussion: contrast the report on the mortality rate of solid cancer except leukemia in Japan and other countries and the conclusions. The subjects of mortality rate of the forth survey were about 277,000 workers including from the first to the third survey. In a prospective cohort study, 203,904 workers were screened for analytical study, and they included 14,224 deaths (5,711 from malignant neoplasm, 6,310 from nonmalignant neoplasm and 1,995 from extrinsic death). The analytical results were shown by three types of death caused from leukemia, malignant neoplasm except for leukemia and nonmalignant neoplasm. Analytical results of the mortality rate from death caused in third and forth study, change of analytical results from the first to the forth observation period were illustrated. (S.Y.)

  13. Calculating disability-adjusted life years (DALY) as a measure of excess cancer risk following radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, K; Kai, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper has proposed that disability-adjusted life year (DALY) can be used as a measure of radiation health risk. DALY is calculated as the sum of years of life lost (YLL) and years lived with disability (YLD). This multidimensional concept can be expressed as a risk index without a probability measure to avoid the misuse of the current radiation detriment at low doses. In this study, we calculated YLL and YLD using Japanese population data by gender. DALY for all cancers in Japan per 1 Gy per person was 0.84 year in men and 1.34 year in women. The DALY for all cancers in the Japanese baseline was 4.8 in men and 3.5 in women. When we calculated the ICRP detriment from the same data, DALYs for the cancer sites were similar to the radiation detriment in the cancer sites, excluding leukemia, breast and thyroid cancer. These results suggested that the ICRP detriment overestimate the weighting fraction of leukemia risk and underestimate the weighting fraction of breast and thyroid cancer. A big advantage over the ICRP detriment is that DALY can calculate the risk components for non-fatal diseases without the data of lethality. This study showed that DALY is a practical tool that can compare many types of diseases encountered in public health. (paper)

  14. Lung cancer mortality (1950-80) in relation to radon daughter exposure in a cohort of workers at the Eldorado Port Radium uranium mine: possible modification of risk by exposure rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, G.R.; Nair, R.C.; Newcombe, H.B.; Miller, A.B.; Burch, J.D.; Abbatt, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    A cohort study of 2103 workers employed between 1942 and 1960 at a uranium mine in the Northwest Territories, Canada, was conducted. A total of 57 lung cancer deaths was observed (expected = 24.73, P less than .0001). There was a highly significant linear relationship between exposure and increased risk of lung cancer, giving estimates for the relative and attributable risk coefficients of 0.27 per working level month (WLM) and 3.10 per WLM per 10(6) person-years. These risk coefficients were substantially less than those estimated from the experience of miners in the Beaverlodge mine, which have previously been reported. Any biases in the present estimates are likely to have been upward, and therefore they probably represent an upper limit. The major difference between the two mine cohorts is in the exposure rate, since the Port Radium miners were exposed to much greater concentrations of radon daughters than the Beaverlodge miners. It is postulated that risk of lung cancer from radon daughter exposure may be modified by exposure rate, for which hypothesis there is some support from other epidemiologic data

  15. Bayesian Algorithm Implementation in a Real Time Exposure Assessment Model on Benzene with Calculation of Associated Cancer Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Sarigiannis, Dimosthenis A.; Karakitsios, Spyros P.; Gotti, Alberto; Papaloukas, Costas L.; Kassomenos, Pavlos A.; Pilidis, Georgios A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the current study was the development of a reliable modeling platform to calculate in real time the personal exposure and the associated health risk for filling station employees evaluating current environmental parameters (traffic, meteorological and amount of fuel traded) determined by the appropriate sensor network. A set of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) was developed to predict benzene exposure pattern for the filling station employees. Furthermore, a Physiology Based...

  16. Estimating the risk of bladder and kidney cancer from exposure to low-levels of arsenic in drinking water, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Jacques, Nathalie; Brown, Patrick; Nauta, Laura; Boxall, James; Parker, Louise; Dummer, Trevor J B

    2018-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water impacts health. Highest levels of arsenic have been historically observed in Taiwan and Bangladesh but the contaminant has been affecting the health of people globally. Strong associations have been confirmed between exposure to high-levels of arsenic in drinking water and a wide range of diseases, including cancer. However, at lower levels of exposure, especially near the current World Health Organization regulatory limit (10μg/L), this association is inconsistent as the effects are mostly extrapolated from high exposure studies. This ecological study used Bayesian inference to model the relative risk of bladder and kidney cancer at these lower concentrations-0-2μg/L; 2-5μg/L and; ≥5μg/L of arsenic-in 864 bladder and 525 kidney cancers diagnosed in the study area, Nova Scotia, Canada between 1998 and 2010. The model included proxy measures of lifestyle (e.g. smoking) and accounted for spatial dependencies. Overall, bladder cancer risk was 16% (2-5μg/L) and 18% (≥5μg/L) greater than that of the referent group (water arsenic-levels within the current the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental chemical exposures and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Stanley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As a hormone-sensitive condition with no single identifiable cause, breast cancer is a major health problem. It is characterized by a wide range of contributing factors and exposures occurring in different combinations and strengths across a lifetime that may be amplified during periods of enhanced developmental susceptibility and impacted by reproductive patterns and behaviours. The vast majority of cases are oestrogen-receptor positive and occur in women with no family history of the disease suggesting that modifiable risk factors are involved. A substantial body of evidence now links oestrogen-positive breast cancer with environmental exposures. Synthetic chemicals capable of oestrogen mimicry are characteristic of industrial development and have been individually and extensively assessed as risk factors for oestrogen-sensitive cancers. Existing breast cancer risk assessment tools do not take such factors into account. In the absence of consensus on causation and in order to better understand the problem of escalating incidence globally, an expanded, integrated approach broadening the inquiry into individual susceptibility breast cancer is proposed. Applying systems thinking to existing data on oestrogen-modulating environmental exposures and other oestrogenic factors characteristic of Westernisation and their interactions in the exposure, encompassing social, behavioural, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors, can assist in understanding cancer risks and the pursuit of prevention strategies. A new conceptual framework based on a broader understanding of the “system” that underlies the development of breast cancer over a period of many years, incorporating the factors known to contribute to breast cancer risk, could provide a new platform from which government and regulators can promulgate enhanced and more effective prevention strategies.

  18. Effects of chronic exposure of hydroxychloroquine/ chloroquine on the risk of cancer, metastasis, and death: a population-based cohort study on patients with connective tissue diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardet L

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available L Fardet,1–3 I Nazareth,1 I Petersen1 1Department of Primary Care and Population Health, University College London, UK; 2Department of Dermatology, Henri Mondor Hospital AP-HP, Créteil, France; 3Equipe d’Accueil 7379 EpiDermE, Université Paris Est Créteil, Créteil, France Background: Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine may reduce the risk of cancer as they inhibit autophagy, in particular, in people with connective tissue diseases.Methods: The hazard ratios of cancers, metastases, and death were assessed in adults with connective tissue diseases prescribed hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine for at least 1 year in comparison with unexposed individuals with the same underlying conditions. A competing risk survival regression analysis was performed. Data were extracted from the Health Improvement Network UK primary care database.Results: Eight thousand nine hundred and ninety-nine individuals exposed to hydroxychloroquine (98.6% or chloroquine (1.4% and 24,118 unexposed individuals were included in the study (median age: 56 [45–66] years, women: 76.8%. When compared to the unexposed group, individuals exposed to hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine were not at lower risk of non-skin cancers (adjusted sub-distribution hazard ratio [sHR]: 1.04 [0.92–1.18], p=0.54, hematological malignancies (adjusted sHR: 1.00 [0.73–1.38], p=0.99, or skin cancers (adjusted sHR: 0.92 [0.78–1.07], p=0.26. The risk of metastasis was not significantly different between the two groups. However, it was significantly lower during the exposure period when compared with the unexposed (adjusted sHR: 0.64 [0.44–0.95] for the overall population and 0.61 [0.38–1.00] for those diagnosed with incident cancers. The risk of death was also significantly lower in those exposed to hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (adjusted HR: 0.90 [0.81–1.00] in the overall population and 0.78 [0.64–0.96] in those diagnosed with incident cancer.Conclusion: Individuals on long-term exposure

  19. Exposure to welding fumes increases lung cancer risk among light smokers but not among heavy smokers: evidence from two case–control studies in Montreal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallières, Eric; Pintos, Javier; Lavoué, Jérôme; Parent, Marie-Élise; Rachet, Bernard; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2012-01-01

    We investigated relationships between occupational exposure to gas and arc welding fumes and the risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to these agents throughout the spectrum of industries. Two population-based case–control studies were conducted in Montreal. Study I (1979–1986) included 857 cases and 1066 controls, and Study II (1996–2001) comprised 736 cases and 894 controls. Detailed job histories were obtained by interview and evaluated by an expert team of chemist–hygienists to estimate degree of exposure to approximately 300 substances for each job. Gas and arc welding fumes were among the agents evaluated. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lung cancer using logistic regression, adjusting for smoking history and other covariates. The two studies provided similar results, so a pooled analysis was conducted. Among all subjects, no significant association was found between lung cancer and gas welding fumes (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.9–1.4) or arc welding fumes (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.8–1.2). However, when restricting attention to light smokers, there was an increased risk of lung cancer in relation to gas welding fumes (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.7–4.8) and arc welding fumes (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3–3.8), with even higher OR estimates among workers with the highest cumulative exposures. In conclusion, there was no detectable excess risk of lung cancer due to welding fumes among moderate to heavy smokers; but among light smokers we found an excess risk related to both types of welding fumes. PMID:23342253

  20. Exposure to welding fumes increases lung cancer risk among light smokers but not among heavy smokers: evidence from two case-control studies in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallières, Eric; Pintos, Javier; Lavoué, Jérôme; Parent, Marie-Élise; Rachet, Bernard; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2012-08-01

    We investigated relationships between occupational exposure to gas and arc welding fumes and the risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to these agents throughout the spectrum of industries. Two population-based case-control studies were conducted in Montreal. Study I (1979-1986) included 857 cases and 1066 controls, and Study II (1996-2001) comprised 736 cases and 894 controls. Detailed job histories were obtained by interview and evaluated by an expert team of chemist-hygienists to estimate degree of exposure to approximately 300 substances for each job. Gas and arc welding fumes were among the agents evaluated. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lung cancer using logistic regression, adjusting for smoking history and other covariates. The two studies provided similar results, so a pooled analysis was conducted. Among all subjects, no significant association was found between lung cancer and gas welding fumes (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.9-1.4) or arc welding fumes (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.8-1.2). However, when restricting attention to light smokers, there was an increased risk of lung cancer in relation to gas welding fumes (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.7-4.8) and arc welding fumes (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3-3.8), with even higher OR estimates among workers with the highest cumulative exposures. In conclusion, there was no detectable excess risk of lung cancer due to welding fumes among moderate to heavy smokers; but among light smokers we found an excess risk related to both types of welding fumes.

  1. Society's general exposure to risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidstone, R.F.

    1981-10-01

    Canadian and world experience with accidents and disease is reviewed in order to identify risk information that might extend the societal perspective on health risk beyond daily concerns. The level of exposure to catastrophic risks is compared to that associated with commonly experienced risks. An examination of current and historical levels of Canadian mortality risk is included. The association between mortality risk and Canadian industrial activity is also examined. Some prospects for utilizing these risk benchmarks are then discussed

  2. Exposure to magnetic field and brain cancer among child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, L.

    2008-01-01

    The risk of childhood brain cancer as a function of magnetic field exposure has been studied less than the risk of leukemia. this updated meta-analysis of thirteen epidemiologic studies thus provides an important contribution to the literature. No increased risk of brain cancer was found, and there were no differences by method of exposure assessment. Doubt remains only for the highest exposure levels, for which very limited data are available. (author)

  3. Estimation of the excess lifetime cancer risk from radon exposure in some buildings of Kufa Technical Institute, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abid Abojassim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of international health organizations consider the exposure to residential radon as the second main cause of lung cancer after cigarette smoking. It was found that there is no database on radon concentrations for the Kufa Technical Institute buildings in the literature. This therefore triggers a special need for radon measurement in some Kufa Technical Institute buildings. This study aims to investigate the indoor radon levels inside the Kufa Technical Institute buildings for the first time using different radon measurement methods such as active (RAD-7 and passive (LR-115 Type II methods. Seventy eight of Solid-State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs LR-115 Type II were distributed at four buildings within the study area. The LR-115 Type II detectors were exposed in the study area for three months period. In parallel to the latter, seventy two active measurements were conducted using RAD-7 in the same buildings for correlation investigation purposes between the two kinds of measurements (i.e. passive and active.The results demonstrate that the radon concentrations were generally low, ranging from 38.4 to 77.2 Bq/m3, with a mean value of 50 Bq/m3. The mean of the equilibrium equivalent radon concentration and annual effective dose were assessed to be 19.9 Bq/m3 and 1.2 mS/y, respectively; the excess lifetime lung cancer risk was approximately 11.6 per million personal. A high correlation was found between the methods of measurements (i.e. LR-115 Type II and RAD-7, R2 = 0.99 which is significant at P < 0.001. The results of this work revealed that the Radon concentration was below the action level set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency of 148 Bq/m3. This therefore indicates that no radiological health hazard exists. However, the relatively high concentrations in some classrooms can be addressed by the natural ventilation or the classrooms being supplied with suction fans.

  4. Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Zota, Ami R; Aschengrau, Ann; Rudel, Ruthann A; Brody, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Household cleaning and pesticide products may contribute to breast cancer because many contain endocrine disrupting chemicals or mammary gland carcinogens. This population-based case-control study investigated whether use of household cleaners and pesticides increases breast cancer risk. Methods Participants were 787 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1988 and 1995 and 721 controls. Telephone interviews asked about product use, beliefs abou...

  5. DNA methylome changes by estradiol benzoate and bisphenol A links early-life environmental exposures to prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Ana; Zhang, Xiang; Cheung, Yuk-Yin; Tang, Wan-Yee; Chen, Jing; Ye, Shu-Hua; Medvedovic, Mario; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Prins, Gail S; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2016-09-01

    Developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), 17β-estradiol-3-benzoate (EB) and bisphenol A (BPA), increases susceptibility to prostate cancer (PCa) in rodent models. Here, we used the methylated-CpG island recovery assay (MIRA)-assisted genomic tiling and CpG island arrays to identify treatment-associated methylome changes in the postnatal day (PND)90 dorsal prostate tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats neonatally (PND1, 3, and 5) treated with 25 µg/pup or 2,500 µg EB/kg body weight (BW) or 0.1 µg BPA/pup or 10 µg BPA/kg BW. We identified 111 EB-associated and 86 BPA-associated genes, with 20 in common, that have significant differentially methylated regions. Pathway analysis revealed cancer as the top common disease pathway. Bisulfite sequencing validated the differential methylation patterns observed by array analysis in 15 identified candidate genes. The methylation status of 7 (Pitx3, Wnt10b, Paqr4, Sox2, Chst14, Tpd52, Creb3l4) of these 15 genes exhibited an inverse correlation with gene expression in tissue samples. Cell-based assays, using 5-aza-cytidine-treated normal (NbE-1) and cancerous (AIT) rat prostate cells, added evidence of DNA methylation-mediated gene expression of 6 genes (exception: Paqr4). Functional connectivity of these genes was linked to embryonic stem cell pluripotency. Furthermore, clustering analyses using the dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed that expression of this set of 7 genes was associated with recurrence-free survival of PCa patients. In conclusion, our study reveals that gene-specific promoter methylation changes, resulting from early-life EDC exposure in the rat, may serve as predictive epigenetic biomarkers of PCa recurrence, and raises the possibility that such exposure may impact human disease.

  6. Endogenous versus exogenous exposure to N-nitroso compounds and gastric cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST) study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakszyn, Paula; Bingham, Sheila A; Pera, Guillem; Agudo, Antonio; Luben, Robert; Welch, Ailsa; Boeing, Heiner; Giudice, Giuseppe del; Palli, Domenico; Saieva, Calogero; Krogh, Vittorio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Berglund, Göran; Simán, Henrik; Hallmans, Göran; Sanchez, María José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Quirós, José Ramón; Key, Timothy J; Allen, Naomi E; Lund, Eiliv; Carneiro, Fátima; Linseisen, Jakob; Nagel, Gabriele; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Peeters, Petra H M; Numans, Mattijs E; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Fenger, Claus; Stenling, Roger; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos Alberto

    2006-01-01

    The risk of gastric cancer (GC) associated with dietary intake of nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and endogenous formation of nitroso compounds (NOCs) was investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The study included 521,457 individuals and 314 incident

  7. Endogenous versus exogenous exposure to N-Nitroso compounds and gastric cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST) study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakszyn, P.; Bingham, S.; Pera, G.; Agudo, A.; Luben, R.; Welch, A.; Boeing, H.; Giudice, G. del; Palli, D.; Saieva, C.; Krogh, V.; Sacerdote, C.; Tumino, R.; Panico, S.; Berglund, G.; Simán, H.; Hallmans, G.; Sanchez, M.J.; Larrañaga, N.; Barricarte, A.; Chirlaque, M.D.; Quirós, J.R.; Key, T.J.; Allen, N.; Lund, E.; Carneiro, F.; Linseisen, J.; Nagel, G.; Overvad, K.; Tjønneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Ocké, M.O.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Numans, M.E.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Trichopoulou, A.; Fenger, C.; Stenling, R.; Ferrari, P.; Jenab, M.; Norat, T.; Riboli, E.; Gonzalez, C.A.

    The risk of gastric cancer (GC) associated with dietary intake of Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and endogenous formation of Nitroso compounds (NOCs) was investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The study included 521,457 individuals and 314 incident

  8. Excess relative risk for solid cancer mortality during prolonged exposure to high-background natural radiation in Yangjiang area of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Quanfu; Tao Zufan; Yuan Yongling; Zou Jianming; Cha Yongru; Jian Yuannu; Wei Luxin; Akiba, S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the excess relative risk for solid cancer associated with chronically exposure to high-background natural radiation in Yangjiang area of China. Methods: Based on hamlet-specific environmental doses and sex-and age-specific occupancy factors, the authors calculated cumulative doses for each cohort member. Assuming a linear dose response relationship and using cancer mortality data for the period 1979-1995 and Poisson model, the authors estimated the excess relative risk (ERR) for solid cancer. Results: The ERR per Sv of all solid cancer is estimated to be -0.11 (95% CI, -0.67, 0.69 to 95%). The corresponding figures for cancers of liver, nasopharynx, lungs and stomach are -0.99 (-1.60, 0.10), 0.10 (-1.21, 3.28), -0.68 (-1.58, 1.66) and -0.27 (-1.37, 2.69) respectively. Conclusion: The association between ERR of solid cancer and dose can not be found

  9. The perception of exposure to environmental risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautard, Eric

    2014-10-01

    This publication reports and comments the results of a survey performed every 6 years on the perception of exposure to environmental risks. It notably comments the evolution between 2007 and 2013 of the perception of exposure to different types of risks: seismic risks, terrorism, major industrial risks, flooding risks, nuclear risks, food-related risks, risks related to climate change, unemployment, air pollution, and cancer. The perceptions of inhabitants of cities exposed or not exposed to some risks (industrial, climate, flooding) are compared. Risks are ranked from very important to not important at all. The influence of the existence of a risk when choosing to settle in a dwelling is also assessed, as well as the already lived consequences of catastrophes, the level of concern about possible consequences of a catastrophe, the respective roles of the State and citizen in the field of risk prevention, the opinions on law efficiency to protect people and goods, the knowledge of prevention arrangements against natural and technological risk, the level of confidence in public action regarding risks to which interviewed people are actually exposed (industrial risks, risks related to climate, flooding)

  10. Assessment of risk for asthma initiation and cancer and heart disease deaths among patrons and servers due to secondhand smoke exposure in restaurants and bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiling; Bohac, David L; Gundel, Lara A; Hewett, Martha J; Apte, Michael G; Hammond, S Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite efforts to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), only 5% of the world's population enjoy smoke-free restaurants and bars. Methods Lifetime excess risk (LER) of cancer death, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) death and asthma initiation among non-smoking restaurant and bar servers and patrons in Minnesota and the US were estimated using weighted field measurements of SHS constituents in Minnesota, existing data on tobacco use and multiple dose-response models. Results A continuous approach estimated a LER of lung cancer death (LCD) of 18×10−6(95% CI 13 to 23×10−6) for patrons visiting only designated non-smoking sections, 80×10−6(95% CI 66 to 95×10−6) for patrons visiting only smoking venues/sections and 802×10−6(95% CI 658 to 936×10−6) for servers in smoking-permitted venues. An attributable-risk (exposed/non-exposed) approach estimated a similar LER of LCD, a LER of IHD death about 10−2 for non-smokers with average SHS exposure from all sources and a LER of asthma initiation about 5% for servers with SHS exposure at work only. These risks correspond to 214 LCDs and 3001 IHD deaths among the general non-smoking population and 1420 new asthma cases among non-smoking servers in the US each year due to SHS exposure in restaurants and bars alone. Conclusions Health risks for patrons and servers from SHS exposure in restaurants and bars alone are well above the acceptable level. Restaurants and bars should be a priority for governments’ effort to create smoke-free environments and should not be exempt from smoking bans. PMID:23407112

  11. Explanation on 'no age-at-exposure effect on the relative risk of breast cancer in atomic-bomb survivors'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori; Sakata, Ritsu

    2013-01-01

    Preston et al. reported in the 2007 paper that 'there was no indication of a significant age-at-exposure effect on the breast cancer ERR'. The 'effect' here did not mean health effect but statistical effectiveness in describing the ERR. Specifically, ERR will be the same regardless of the age at exposure when the survivors reached the same age, say 70 years old. But it was confusing. In this review, possible pitfalls in understanding epidemiologic results will be explained so that epidemiologists and biologists can better understand each other. The epidemiologic results show that in some tissues including breast, the observed high risk following young age exposure is solely due to occurrence of excess young-onset cases, which gave rise to the same ERR at age 70 regardless of age at exposure. In other words, there is no unique radiation fingerprint associated with age at exposure when the irradiated tissue reached to 70 years old. This notion may look counter-intuitive to apply for breast cancer because the tissue structure drastically changes with age. Possible reasons are discussed. (author)

  12. Occupational exposure to solvents and bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadkhale, Kishor; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2017-01-01

    logistic regression model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Increased risks were observed for trichloroethylene (HR 1.23, 95% 95% CI 1.12-1.40), toluene (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.38), benzene (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.31), aromatic hydrocarbon solvents (HR 1...... of occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, aromatic hydrocarbon solvents, benzene and toluene and the risk of bladder cancer....

  13. Risk estimates for exposure to alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The primary scope of this report is to evaluate the risk of lung cancer from occupational exposure to short-lived daughters of radon and thoron. The Subcommittee on Risk Estimates considers that inhalation of radon and thoron daughters is the major radiation hazard from alpha radiation in uranium mining. The secondary scope of this report is the consideration of the applicability of the risk estimates derived from miners to the general public. The risk to members of the public from radium-226 in drinking water is also considered. Some research requirments are suggested

  14. Exposure to diagnostic radiation and risk of breast cancer among carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations: retrospective cohort study (GENE-RAD-RISK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpe, Anouk; Andrieu, Nadine; Easton, Douglas F.; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Cardis, Elisabeth; Noguès, Catherine; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lasset, Christine; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Paterson, Joan; Manders, Peggy; van Asperen, Christi J.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Hauptmann, Michael; Goldgar, David; Rookus, Matti A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Fourme, Emmanuelle; Lidereau, Rosette; Stevens, Denise; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Chompret, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Bonadona, Valérie; Gauducheau, René; de Sienne, Catherine; Lortholary, Alain; Frénay, Marc; Faivre, Laurence; Sobol, Hagay; Huiart, Laetitia; Longy, Michel; Nguyen, Tan Dat; Gladieff, Laurence; Guimbaud, Rosine; Gesta, Paul; Vennin, Philippe; Adenis, Claude; Chevrier, Annie; Rossi, Annick; Perrin, Jean; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Limacher, Jean-Marc; Dugast, Catherine; Courlancy, Polyclinique; Demange, Liliane; Zattara-Cannoni, Hélène; Dreyfus, Hélène; Noruzinia, Mehrdad; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Gregory, Helen; Cole, Trevor; Burgess, Lucy; Rogers, Mark; Hughes, Lisa; Brewer, Carole; Davidson, Rosemarie; Bradshaw, Nicola; Izatt, Louise; Pichert, Gabriella; Langman, Caroline; Chu, Carol; Miller, Julie; Evans, Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Shenton, Andrew; Side, Lucy; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Page, Elizabeth; Castro, Elena; Houlston, Richard; Rahman, Nazneen; Shanley, Susan; Cook, Jackie; Baxter, Lauren; Hodgson, Shirley; Goff, Sheila; Eccles, Diana; Verhoef, Senno; Brohet, Richard; Hogervorst, Frans; van 't Veer, Laura; van Leeuwen, Flora; Rookus, Matti; Collée, Margriet; van den Ouweland, Ans; Kriege, Mieke; Schutte, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje; Seynaeve, Caroline; Tollenaar, Rob; van Asperen, Christi; Wijnen, Juul; Devilee, Peter; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn; Ausems, Margreet; van der Luijt, Rob; Aalfs, Cora; van Os, Theo; Gille, Hans; Gomez-Garcia, Encarna; Blok, Rien; Oosterwijk, Jan; van der Hout, Annemiek; Vasen, Hans; van Leeuwen, Inge

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the risk of breast cancer associated with diagnostic radiation in carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations. Retrospective cohort study (GENE-RAD-RISK). Three nationwide studies (GENEPSO, EMBRACE, HEBON) in France, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands, 1993 female carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations

  15. Genetic toxicology and cancer risk assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choy, Wai Nang

    2001-01-01

    ... their risks to humans are obvious goals for the protection of public health. When exposure is unavoidable, an accurate estimation of human risk as a result of exposure is essential for making regulatory decisions. Quantitative cancer risk assessment is an intricate process that utilizes knowledge from many different scien...

  16. Cancer excess after arsenic exposure from contaminated milk powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Tsuda, Toshihide; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Long-term exposure to inorganic arsenic is related to increased risk of cancer in the lung, skin, bladder, and, possibly, other sites. However, little is known about the consequences of developmental exposures in regard to cancer risk. During early summer in 1955, mass arsenic poisoning of infant...... occurred in the western part of Japan because of contaminated milk powder. Okayama Prefecture was most severely affected. We examined whether the affected birth cohorts in this prefecture experienced increased cancer mortality....

  17. Risk factors for human papillomavirus exposure and co-factors for cervical cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonte, Maribel; Albero, Ginesa; Molano, Mónica; Carcamo, César; García, Patricia J; Pérez, Gonzalo

    2008-08-19

    The incidence of cervical cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is among the highest in the world. Because there are major demographic shifts happening in LAC countries (population growth, urbanization and ageing) cervical cancer incidence and mortality will likely continue to be a significant public health problem. Overall human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in the LAC general population has been found to be 2-fold higher than the average worldwide prevalence. The large HPV and cancer burden may be explained by the highly prevalent HPV variants of HPV types -16 and 18, which have an increased oncogenic potential. Given the major mode of transmission of genital HPV is sexual, certain, patterns of sexual behaviour (early age at first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners and sexual behaviour of the partner) are associated with an increased risk of HPV genital acquisition. Although HPV infection is necessary for carcinogenesis, certain co-factors (high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives, smoking and co-infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)) help in the progression from infection to cancer. Many studies that have contributed to this evidence have been carried out in LAC and are reviewed and summarised in this article. Since HPV vaccines will likely take years to implement, and many more years to show impact on disease, cervical cancer screening programmes remain as the key intervention to control disease in LAC in the years to come.

  18. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11/12/2014 Risk Calculator About the Tool Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors Download SAS and Gauss Code Page ... Rectal Cancer: Prevention, Genetics, Causes Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps Cancer Risk Prediction Resources Update November ...

  19. Occupational risk and lifetime exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapp, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Any lowering of annual radiation limits for occupational exposure should be based on industry experience with lifetime doses and not on a worst case career exposure of 47 years. Two decades of experience show a lifetime accumulation of less than 1.5 rem for workers with measurable exposure. This is 5% of the normal lifetime exposure of Americans to natural and medical radiation. Any epidemiology of the US nuclear power workforce's two decade long exposure would have to focus on excess leukemia. Application of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki cancer mortality shows that too few leukemias would be expressed to permit a feasible epidemiology. Ionizing radiation appears to be a mild carcinogen as compared to physical and chemical agents presented in the occupational environment. A realistic factor in determining any change in occupational exposure limits for ionizing radiation should take into account the past performance of the licensee and potential health effects applicable to the workplace. Specifically, the lifetime exposure data for workers at nuclear power plants and naval shipyards should be considered. The nuclear industry and the US Navy have detailed data on the annual exposure of workers with a combined collective exposure approaching 1 million worker-rem. The lifetime dose for naval personnel and shipyard workers averages 1.1 rem J 1990. Shipyard workers have an annual dose of 0.28 rem per work-year and a mean exposure time of 4.4 years. The data apply to workers with measurable dose

  20. A margin of exposure approach to assessment of non-cancerous risk of diethyl phthalate based on human exposure from bottled water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Jeddi, Maryam; Rastkari, Noushin; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Yunesian, Masud; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Daryabeygi, Reza

    2015-12-01

    Phthalates may be present in food due to their widespread presence as environmental contaminants or due to migration from food contact materials. Exposure to phthalates is considered to be potentially harmful to human health as well. Therefore, determining the main source of exposure is an important issue. So, the purpose of this study was (1) to measure the release of diethyl phthalate (DEP) in bottled water consumed in common storage conditions specially low temperature and freezing conditions; (2) to evaluate the intake of DEP from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water and health risk assessment; and (3) to assess the contribution of the bottled water to the DEP intake against the tolerable daily intake (TDI) values. DEP migration was investigated in six brands of PET-bottled water under different storage conditions room temperature, refrigerator temperature, freezing conditions (40 °C ,0 °C and -18 °C) and outdoor] at various time intervals by magnetic solid extraction (MSPE) using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Eventually, a health risk assessment was conducted and the margin of exposure (MOE) was calculated. The results indicate that contact time with packaging and storage temperatures caused DEP to be released into water from PET bottles. But, when comprising the DEP concentration with initial level, the results demonstrated that the release of phthalates were not substantial in all storage conditions especially at low temperatures ( children > lactating women > teenagers > adults > pregnant women), but in all target groups, the MOE was much higher than 1000, thus, low risk is implied. Consequently, PET-bottled water is not a major source of human exposure to DEP and from this perspective is safe for consumption.

  1. Is exposure to Agent Orange a risk factor for hepatocellular cancer?-A single-center retrospective study in the U.S. veteran population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Padmini; Hazratjee, Nyla; Opris, Dan; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Markert, Ronald

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 15% to 35% of those with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) related cirrhosis will develop hepatocellular cancer (HCC). With this burden increasing across the globe, identification of risk factors for HCC has become imperative. Exposure to Agent Orange has been implicated as a possible risk factor for liver cancer in a study from the Republic of Korea. However, there has been no study in U.S. veterans with CHC and cirrhosis that has evaluated exposure to Agent Orange as a risk factor for HCC. We conducted a retrospective study of U.S. military veterans diagnosed with CHC and cirrhosis over a period of 14 years to evaluate potential risk factors for HCC including exposure to Agent Orange. We retrospectively reviewed 390 patients with confirmed CHC-related cirrhosis between 2000 and 2013 and identified patients with HCC. We compared demographic, laboratory, and other clinical characteristics of patients with and without HCC. The mean age of the cohort was 51 years (SD =7.5), with the majority being male (98.5%). Seventy-nine of 390 (20.2%) patients developed HCC, diagnosed on average 8 (SD =4.8) years after diagnosis of CHC. Nearly half (49.4%) were Childs A, 40.5% were Childs B, and 10.1% were Childs C. HCC patients were more likely to be African American than non-HCC patients (40.5% vs. 25.4%, P=0.009) and to be addicted to alcohol (86.1% vs. 74.3%, P=0.027). A trend toward significance was seen in the HCC group for exposure to Agent Orange (16.5% vs. 10.0%, P=0.10) and smoking addiction (88.6% vs. 80.7%, P=0.10). Consequently, race, alcohol addiction, Agent Orange exposure, and smoking addiction were included in the multivariable logistic regression (MLR) analysis. Alcohol addiction [odds ratio (OR) =2.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-4.43] and African American race (OR =2.07; 95% CI, 1.22-3.51) were found to be the only two definitive independent risk factors for HCC in our sample. African American race and alcohol addiction were independent risk

  2. An etiologic prediction model incorporating biomarkers to predict the bladder cancer risk associated with occupational exposure to aromatic amines: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Carta, Angela; Arici, Cecilia; Pavanello, Sofia; Porru, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    No etiological prediction model incorporating biomarkers is available to predict bladder cancer risk associated with occupational exposure to aromatic amines. Cases were 199 bladder cancer patients. Clinical, laboratory and genetic data were predictors in logistic regression models (full and short) in which the dependent variable was 1 for 15 patients with aromatic amines related bladder cancer and 0 otherwise. The receiver operating characteristics approach was adopted; the area under the curve was used to evaluate discriminatory ability of models. Area under the curve was 0.93 for the full model (including age, smoking and coffee habits, DNA adducts, 12 genotypes) and 0.86 for the short model (including smoking, DNA adducts, 3 genotypes). Using the "best cut-off" of predicted probability of a positive outcome, percentage of cases correctly classified was 92% (full model) against 75% (short model). Cancers classified as "positive outcome" are those to be referred for evaluation by an occupational physician for etiological diagnosis; these patients were 28 (full model) or 60 (short model). Using 3 genotypes instead of 12 can double the number of patients with suspect of aromatic amine related cancer, thus increasing costs of etiologic appraisal. Integrating clinical, laboratory and genetic factors, we developed the first etiologic prediction model for aromatic amine related bladder cancer. Discriminatory ability was excellent, particularly for the full model, allowing individualized predictions. Validation of our model in external populations is essential for practical use in the clinical setting.

  3. Health risk assessment of exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Hiromitsu

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential process for evaluating the human health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation and for determining acceptable levels of exposure. There are two major components of radiation risk assessment: a measure of exposure level and a measure of disease occurrence. For quantitative estimation of health risks, it is important to evaluate the association between exposure and disease occurrence using epidemiological or experimental data. In these approaches, statistical risk models are used particularly for estimating cancer risks related to exposure to low levels of radiation. This paper presents a summary of basic models and methods of risk assessment for studying exposure-risk relationships. Moreover, quantitative risk estimates are subject to several sources of uncertainty due to inherent limitations in risk assessment studies. This paper also discusses the limitations of radiation risk assessment. (author)

  4. Interactions between smoking and other exposures associated with lung cancer risk in women: diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubík, A; Zatloukal, P; Tomásek, L; Pauk, N; Havel, L; Dolezal, J; Plesko, I

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study is to estimate the differences in the impact of diet and physical exercise on lung cancer risk in female nonsmokers vs. smokers, and reveal interactions, if any. In a hospital based case-control study, data collected by in-person interviews from 569 female lung cancer cases and 2120 controls were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression stratifying by appropriate factors. Protective effects were observed for intake of milk/dairy products (OR=0.57, 95%CI 0.35-0.94), vegetables (OR=0.60, 95%CI 0.40-0.91), apples (OR=0.69), wine (OR=0.77), and physical exercise (OR=0.59, 95%CI 0.42-0.83) among smokers only, while no similar effects were found among nonsmokers. In contrast, the intake of black tea was associated with a protective effect (OR=0.66, 95%CI 0.47-0.94) among nonsmokers only. Comparing the effects of dietary items and physical activity on lung cancer risk among nonsmokers versus smokers, statistically significant effect modifications were found for black tea (P 0.005), and milk/dairy products (P 0.047). Borderline effect modifications emerged for physical exercise (P 0.077). These results indicate protective effects of some components of healthful diet and physical exercise among smokers, and of the intake of black tea among nonsmokers. The observed interactions of the impact of black tea, milk/dairy products and physical activity upon lung cancer risk in women at different levels of the smoking habit deserve further studies.

  5. Assessment of ecological studies examining the risk of thyroid cancer in children through radiation exposure following the nuclear power plant disaster in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blettner, M.; Jacob, P.; Kaiser, C.J.; Bertelsmann, H.; Kutschmann, M.

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies can be divided into studies with an individual database (cohort studies, case control studies) and studies with aggregate data (ecological studies). The former have the advantage that they can make use of methods based on risk models and examine dose-effect curves with due consideration to potential confounders, but the drawback of being expensive. Studies based on aggregate data can take account of large case numbers at comparatively low cost. However, ecological studies are also associated with serious methodological problems, especially when the goal is to find causal links (''ecological bias''). Thus it is well known that variations in a confounding factor (such as smoking in a study on lung cancer through radon) can invalidate the results of studies based on aggregate data. On the other hand, the only studies to have produced quantitative results on the risk of acquiring thyroid cancer through 131 I exposure during childhood in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster happen to be based on aggregate data. The purpose of the present paper is to examine problems associated with ecological studies which have already been in the focus of many studies of epidemiological methodology in terms of whether they are relevant to studies investigating connections between thyroid cancer and 131 I exposure. It also presents the results of several simulation studies which examine the degree of distortion associated with ecological analyses

  6. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of skin cancer. Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about skin cancer: Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Genetics ...

  7. Regulation of L1 expression and retrotransposition by melatonin and its receptor: implications for cancer risk associated with light exposure at night

    Science.gov (United States)

    deHaro, Dawn; Kines, Kristine J.; Sokolowski, Mark; Dauchy, Robert T.; Streva, Vincent A.; Hill, Steven M.; Hanifin, John P.; Brainard, George C.; Blask, David E.; Belancio, Victoria P.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of long interspersed element-1 (L1) is upregulated in many human malignancies. L1 can introduce genomic instability via insertional mutagenesis and DNA double-strand breaks, both of which may promote cancer. Light exposure at night, a recently recognized carcinogen, is associated with an increased risk of cancer in shift workers. We report that melatonin receptor 1 inhibits mobilization of L1 in cultured cells through downregulation of L1 mRNA and ORF1 protein. The addition of melatonin receptor antagonists abolishes the MT1 effect on retrotransposition in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, melatonin-rich, but not melatonin-poor, human blood collected at different times during the circadian cycle suppresses endogenous L1 mRNA during in situ perfusion of tissue-isolated xenografts of human cancer. Supplementation of human blood with exogenous melatonin or melatonin receptor antagonist during the in situ perfusion establishes a receptor-mediated action of melatonin on L1 expression. Combined tissue culture and in vivo data support that environmental light exposure of the host regulates expression of L1 elements in tumors. Our data imply that light-induced suppression of melatonin production in shift workers may increase L1-induced genomic instability in their genomes and suggest a possible connection between L1 activity and increased incidence of cancer associated with circadian disruption. PMID:24914052

  8. Radiation exposures: risks and realities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh, G.

    2010-01-01

    Discovery of radioactivity in 1869 by Henry Becquerel and artificial radioactivity by Irene Curie in 1934 led to the development of nuclear field and nuclear materials in 20th century. They are widely used for man-kind across the globe in electricity production, carbon dating, treatment and diagnosis of diseases etc. While deriving benefits and utilizing nuclear resources for the benefit of man-kind, it is inevitable that exposure to radiation can not be avoided. Radiation exists all around us either natural or man-made which can not be totally eliminated or avoided. Radiation exposures from natural background contribute 2.4 to 3.6 mSv in a year. Radiation exposures incurred by a member of public due to nuclear industries constitute less than one hundredth of annual dose due to natural background. Hence it is important to understand the risk posed by radiation and comparison of radiation risk with various risks arising due to other sources. Studies have indicated that risks due to environmental pollution, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, heart diseases are far higher in magnitude compared to radiation risks from man made sources. This paper brings about the details and awareness regarding radiation exposures, radiation risk, various risks associated with other industries and benefits of radiation exposures. (author)

  9. Polymorphisms in phase I and phase II genes and breast cancer risk and relations to persistent organic pollutant exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Eiberg, Hans; Long, Manhai

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that chemicals belonging to the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as perfluorinated compounds (PFAS) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are risk factors in Breast Cancer (BC) development in Greenlandic Inuit women. The present case-control study...... on BC risk in Greenlandic Inuit women. METHODS: The study population consisted of 31 BC cases and 115 matched controls, with information on serum levels of POPs. Genotyping was conducted for CYP1A1 (Ile462Val; rs1048943), CYP1B1 (Leu432Val; rs1056836), COMT (Val158Met; rs4680), CYP17A1 (A1> A2; rs743572...... aimed to investigate the main effect of polymorphisms in genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and estrogen biosynthesis, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, COMT and CYP17, CYP19 and the BRCA1 founder mutation in relation to BC risk and to explore possible interactions between the gene polymorphisms and serum POP levels...

  10. Review of radon and lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.; Hornung, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Radon, a long-established cause of lung cancer in uranium and other underground miners, has recently emerged as a potentially important cause of lung cancer in the general population. The evidence for widespread exposure of the population to radon and the well-documented excess of lung cancer among underground miners exposed to radon decay products have raised concern that exposure to radon progeny might also be a cause of lung cancer in the general population. To date, epidemiological data on the lung cancer risk associated with environmental exposure to radon have been limited. Consequently, the lung cancer hazard posed by radon exposure in indoor air has been addressed primarily through risk estimation procedures. The quantitative risks of lung cancer have been estimated using exposure-response relations derived from the epidemiological investigations of uranium and other underground miners. We review five of the more informative studies of miners and recent risk projection models for excess lung cancer associated with radon. The principal models differ substantially in their underlying assumptions and consequently in the resulting risk projections. The resulting diversity illustrates the substantial uncertainty that remains concerning the most appropriate model of the temporal pattern of radon-related lung cancer. Animal experiments, further follow-up of the miner cohorts, and well-designed epidemiological studies of indoor exposure should reduce this uncertainty. 18 references

  11. TNF-α expression, risk factors, and inflammatory exposures in ovarian cancer: evidence for an inflammatory pathway of ovarian carcinogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mamta; Babic, Ana; Beck, Andrew H.; Terry, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokines, like tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), are elevated in ovarian cancer. Differences in cytokine expression by histologic subytpe or ovarian cancer risk factors can provide useful insight into ovarian cancer risk and etiology. We used ribonucleic acid (RNA) in-situ hybridization to assess TNF-α and IL-6 expression on tissue microarray slides from 78 epithelial ovarian carcinomas (51 serous, 12 endometrioid, 7 clear cell, 2 mucinous, 6 other) from a population-based case control study. Cytokine expression was scored semi-quantitatively and odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using polytomous logistic regression. TNF-α was expressed in 46% of the tumors while sparse IL-6 expression was seen only 18% of the tumors. For both markers, expression was most common in high grade serous carcinomas followed by endometrioid carcinomas. Parity was associated with a reduced risk of TNF-α positive (OR=0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.7 for 3 or more children versus none) but not TNF-α negative tumors (p-heterogeneity=0.02). In contrast, current smoking was associated with a nearly three fold increase in risk of TNF-α negative (OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 6.6) but not TNF-α positive tumors (p-heterogeneity = 0.06). Our data suggests that TNF-α expression in ovarian carcinoma varies by histologic subtype and provides some support for the role of inflammation in ovarian carcinogenesis. The novel associations detected in our study need to be validated in a larger cohort of patients in future studies. PMID:27068525

  12. Risk of cancer incidence before the age of 15 years after exposure to ionising radiation from computed tomography: results from a German cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krille, L. [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Mainz (Germany); International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France); Dreger, S.; Zeeb, H. [University of Bremen, Leibniz - Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology - BIPS, Research Focus Health Sciences Bremen, Bremen (Germany); Schindel, R.; Blettner, M. [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Mainz (Germany); Albrecht, T. [Vivantes, Klinikum Neukoelln, Institut fuer Radiologie und Interventionelle Therapie, Berlin (Germany); Asmussen, M. [Zentralinstitut fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik, Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Barkhausen, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig Holstein, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Berthold, J.D. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Hannover (Germany); Chavan, A. [Klinikum Oldenburg GmbH, Institut fuer Diagnostische and Interventionelle Radiologie, Oldenburg (Germany); Claussen, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Forsting, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Essen (Germany); Gianicolo, E.A.L. [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Mainz (Germany); National Research Council, Institute of Clinical Physiology, Lecce (Italy); Jablonka, K. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik und Nuklearmedizin, Bremen (Germany); Jahnen, A. [Centre de Recherche Public Henri Tudor, Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Langer, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Klinik fuer Radiologie, Freiburg (Germany); Laniado, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus Dresden, Institut und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Dresden (Germany); Lotz, J. [Universitaetsmedizin Goettingen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Goettingen (Germany); Mentzel, H.J. [Universitaetsklinikum Jena, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Sektion Kinderradiologie, Jena (Germany); Queisser-Wahrendorf, A. [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz, Zentrum fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Mainz (Germany); Rompel, O. [Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen, Radiologisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); Schlick, I. [Klinikum Nuernberg Sued, Institut fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Nuremberg (Germany); Schneider, K.; Seidenbusch, M. [Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Dr. von Haunersches Kinderspital, Munich (Germany); Schumacher, M. [Universitaetsklinik Freiburg, Klinik fuer Neuroradiologie, Neurozentrum, Freiburg (Germany); Spix, C. [University Medical Center Mainz, German Childhood Cancer Registry, Mainz (Germany); Spors, B. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Kinderradiologie, Standort Campus Virchow Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Staatz, G. [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Sektion Kinderradiologie, Mainz (Germany); Vogl, T. [Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt/Main, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Frankfurt (Germany); Wagner, J. [Vivantes, Klinikum im Friedrichshain, Institut fuer Radiologie und Interventionelle Therapie, Berlin (Germany); Weisser, G. [Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this cohort study was to assess the risk of developing cancer, specifically leukaemia, tumours of the central nervous system and lymphoma, before the age of 15 years in children previously exposed to computed tomography (CT) in Germany. Data for children with at least one CT between 1980 and 2010 were abstracted from 20 hospitals. Cancer cases occurring between 1980 and 2010 were identified by stochastic linkage with the German Childhood Cancer Registry (GCCR). For all cases and a sample of non-cases, radiology reports were reviewed to assess the underlying medical conditions at time of the CT. Cases were only included if diagnosis occurred at least 2 years after the first CT and no signs of cancer were recorded in the radiology reports. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) using incidence rates from the general population were estimated. The cohort included information on 71,073 CT examinations in 44,584 children contributing 161,407 person-years at risk with 46 cases initially identified through linkage with the GCCR. Seven cases had to be excluded due to signs possibly suggestive of cancer at the time of first CT. Overall, more cancer cases were observed (O) than expected (E), but this was mainly driven by unexpected and possibly biased results for lymphomas. For leukaemia, the SIR (SIR = O/E) was 1.72 (95 % CI 0.89-3.01, O = 12), and for CNS tumours, the SIR was 1.35 (95 % CI 0.54-2.78, O = 7). Despite careful examination of the medical information, confounding by indication or reverse causation cannot be ruled out completely and may explain parts of the excess. Furthermore, the CT exposure may have been underestimated as only data from the participating clinics were available. This should be taken into account when interpreting risk estimates. (orig.)

  13. Risk of cancer incidence before the age of 15 years after exposure to ionising radiation from computed tomography: results from a German cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krille, L; Dreger, S; Schindel, R; Albrecht, T; Asmussen, M; Barkhausen, J; Berthold, J D; Chavan, A; Claussen, C; Forsting, M; Gianicolo, E A L; Jablonka, K; Jahnen, A; Langer, M; Laniado, M; Lotz, J; Mentzel, H J; Queißer-Wahrendorf, A; Rompel, O; Schlick, I; Schneider, K; Schumacher, M; Seidenbusch, M; Spix, C; Spors, B; Staatz, G; Vogl, T; Wagner, J; Weisser, G; Zeeb, H; Blettner, M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this cohort study was to assess the risk of developing cancer, specifically leukaemia, tumours of the central nervous system and lymphoma, before the age of 15 years in children previously exposed to computed tomography (CT) in Germany. Data for children with at least one CT between 1980 and 2010 were abstracted from 20 hospitals. Cancer cases occurring between 1980 and 2010 were identified by stochastic linkage with the German Childhood Cancer Registry (GCCR). For all cases and a sample of non-cases, radiology reports were reviewed to assess the underlying medical conditions at time of the CT. Cases were only included if diagnosis occurred at least 2 years after the first CT and no signs of cancer were recorded in the radiology reports. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) using incidence rates from the general population were estimated. The cohort included information on 71,073 CT examinations in 44,584 children contributing 161,407 person-years at risk with 46 cases initially identified through linkage with the GCCR. Seven cases had to be excluded due to signs possibly suggestive of cancer at the time of first CT. Overall, more cancer cases were observed (O) than expected (E), but this was mainly driven by unexpected and possibly biased results for lymphomas. For leukaemia, the SIR (SIR = O/E) was 1.72 (95 % CI 0.89-3.01, O = 12), and for CNS tumours, the SIR was 1.35 (95 % CI 0.54-2.78, O = 7). Despite careful examination of the medical information, confounding by indication or reverse causation cannot be ruled out completely and may explain parts of the excess. Furthermore, the CT exposure may have been underestimated as only data from the participating clinics were available. This should be taken into account when interpreting risk estimates.

  14. Occupational and environmental exposures and cancers in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Dana; Boffetta, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a decline in cancers attributable to environmental and occupational carcinogens of asbestos, arsenic, and indoor and outdoor air pollution in high-income countries. For low- to middle-income countries (LMICs), however, these exposures are likely to increase as industrialization expands and populations grow. The aim of this study was to review the evidence on the cancer risks and burdens of selected environmental and occupational exposures in less-developed economies. A causal association has been established between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma and lung cancer. For arsenic exposure, there is strong evidence of bladder, skin, lung, liver, and kidney cancer effects. Women are at the highest risk for lung cancer due to indoor air pollution exposure; however, the carcinogenic effect on the risk for cancer in children has not been studied in these countries. Cancer risks associated with ambient air pollution remain the least studied in LMICs, although reported exposures are higher than World Health Organization, European, and US standards. Although some associations between lung cancer and ambient air pollutants have been reported, studies in LMICs are weak or subject to exposure misclassification. For pulmonary cancers, tobacco smoking and respiratory diseases have a positive synergistic effect on cancer risks. A precise quantification of the burden of human cancer attributable to environmental and occupational exposures in LMICs is uncertain. Although the prevalence of carcinogenic exposures has been reported to be high in many such countries, the effects of the exposures have not been studied due to varying country-specific limitations, some of which include lack of resources and government support. Copyright © 2014 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P; Meckbach, R; Ulanovski, A; Schotola, C; Proehl, G [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Kenigsberg, J; Buglova, E; Kruk, J [Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Likhtarev, I; Kovgan, L; Vavilov, S; Chepurniy, M [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Inst., Kyiv (Ukraine); Tronko, M; Bogdanova, T [Institute of Endocrinolgoy and Metabolism of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Shinkarev, S; Gavrilin, Y [All-Russian Public Organization of Invalids ' Chernobylets' , Scientific Center ' FENIX' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Demidchik, Y [Thyroid Cancer Center, Minsk (Belarus)

    2005-07-01

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  16. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R.; Ulanovski, A.; Schotola, C.; Proehl, G.; Kenigsberg, J.; Buglova, E.; Kruk, J.; Likhtarev, I.; Kovgan, L.; Vavilov, S.; Chepurniy, M.; Tronko, M.; Bogdanova, T.; Shinkarev, S.; Gavrilin, Y.; Demidchik, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the 131 I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the 131 I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  17. Thyroid exposure, cancer incidence and excess risk in Belarus and Ukraine in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Kaiser, J.C.; Kenigsberg, J.E.; Vavilov, S.E.; Tronko, M.D.; Shinkarev, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Estimates of excess thyroid cancer risks are performed based on data for 469 settlements in Belarus and for 719 settlements in Ukraine in which more than 10 measurements of the 1 31I activity in the human thyroid were performed during the first seven weeks after the Chernobyl accident. Methods were developed to derive from the whole set of measurements representative age and gender dependencies of thyroid doses in cities and in rural areas as well as scaling factors for each of the settlements with which estimates of age and gender specific doses for each of the settlements could be derived. The risk analyses is performed with population data for the year 1986 and with all thyroid cancer cases among the birth cohort 1968 to 1985 from the 1188 settlements that were operated in the period 1986 to 2001. In a second study, simulation calculations are performed in order to explore the ecological bias in studies as they are performed with settlement specific data in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident. Based on methods, that were developed by Lubin for exploring the ecologic bias due to smoking in indoor radon studies of lung cancer, the possible influence of enhanced medical surveillance of the thyroid (screening effects) was investigated. Calculations were performed by simulating thyroid doses of 366,397 children in a total of 743 settlements and assuming a linear dependence of the risk on dose and various scenarios of the screening. The ecologic bias was estimated for each of the scenarios. Two analytical equations allow the exact numerical computation of the bias which is determined by the screening factor, the number of screened individuals, and some covariance terms in the input data

  18. Radiation exposure and infant cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watari, T [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1974-12-01

    Medical exposures accompanied by an increase in radiation use in the field of pediatrics were described. Basic ideas and countermeasures to radiation injuries were outlined. In order to decrease the medical exposure, it is necessary for the doctor, x-ray technician and manufacturer to work together. The mechanism and characteristics of radio carcinogenesis were also mentioned. Particularly, the following two points were described: 1) How many years does it take before carcinogenesis appears as a result of radiation exposure in infancy 2) How and when does the effect of fetus exposure appear. Radiosensitivity in infants and fetuses is greater than that of an adult. The occurrence of leukemia caused by prenatal exposure was reviewed. The relation between irradiation for therapy and morbidity of thyroid cancer was mentioned. Finally, precautions necessary for infants, pregnant women and nursing mothers when using radioisotopes were mentioned.

  19. Cancer risk as a radiation detriment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, A.; Komppa, T.; Servomaa, K.

    1992-11-01

    Potential radiation detriment means a risk of cancer or other somatic disease, genetic damage of fetal injury. Quantative information about the relation between a radiation dose and cancer risk is needed to enable decision-making in radiation protection. However, assessment of cancer risk by means of the radiation dose is controversial, as epidemiological and biological information about factors affecting the origin of cancers show that risk assessment is imprecise when the radiation dose is used as the only factor. Focusing on radiation risk estimates for breast cancer, lung cancer and leukemia, the report is based on the models given in the Beir V report, on sources of radiation exposure and the uncertainty of risk estimates. Risk estimates are assessed using the relative risk model and the cancer mortality rates in Finland. Cancer incidence and mortality rates for men and women are shown in graphs as a function of age and time. Relative risks are shown as a function of time after exposure and lifetime risks as a function of age at exposure. Uncertainty factors affecting the radiation risk are examined from the point of view of epidemiology and molecular biology. (orig.)

  20. A case-control study of the relationship between the risk of colon cancer in men and exposures to occupational agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, M S; Parent, M E; Siemiatycki, J; Désy, M; Nadon, L; Richardson, L; Lakhani, R; Latreille, B; Valois, M F

    2001-06-01

    We conducted a population-based case-control study in Montreal, Canada, to explore associations between hundreds of occupational circumstances and several cancer sites, including colon. We interviewed 497 male patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of colon cancer, 1514 controls with cancers at other sites, and 533 population-based controls. Detailed job histories and relevant potential confounding variables were obtained, and the job histories were translated by a team of chemists and industrial hygienists into a history of occupational exposures. We found that there was reasonable evidence of associations for men employed in nine industry groups (adjusted odds ranging from 1.1 to 1.6 per a 10-year increase in duration of employment), and in 12 job groups (OR varying from 1.1 to 1.7). In addition, we found evidence of increased risks by increasing level of exposures to 21 occupational agents, including polystyrene (OR for "substantial" exposure (OR(subst)) = 10.7), polyurethanes (OR(subst) = 8.4), coke dust (OR(subst) = 5.6), mineral oils (OR(subst) = 3.3), polyacrylates (OR(subst) = 2.8), cellulose nitrate (OR(subst) = 2.6), alkyds (OR(subst) = 2.5), inorganic insulation dust (OR(subst) = 2.3), plastic dusts (OR(subst) = 2.3), asbestos (OR(subst) = 2.1), mineral wool fibers (OR(subst) = 2.1), glass fibers (OR(subst) = 2.0), iron oxides (OR(subst) = 1.9), aliphatic ketones (OR(subst) = 1.9), benzene (OR(subst) = 1.9), xylene (OR(subst) = 1.9), inorganic acid solutions (OR(subst) = 1.8), waxes, polishes (OR(subst) = 1.8), mononuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (OR(subst) = 1.6), toluene (OR(subst) = 1.6), and diesel engine emissions (OR(subst) = 1.5). Not all of these effects are independent because some exposures occurred contemporaneously with others or because they referred to a group of substances. We have uncovered a number of occupational associations with colon cancer. For most of these agents, there are no published data to support or refute our

  1. Thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, J; Schneider, A B

    2000-04-01

    The thyroid gland is one of the most sensitive organs for radiation-induced oncogenesis and the magnitude of the risk from external radiation is well understood. This is not the case for internal radiation derived from the radioiodines, a matter of practical importance because of medical use and potential accidental exposure. This article reviews current knowledge derived from the follow-up of patients receiving diagnostic or therapeutic 131I and populations exposed to radioactive fallout. The latter includes the nuclear power station accident at Chernobyl and the results of atomic bomb development and testing at Hanford, the Nevada Test Site and the Marshall Islands. The most cogent information comes from Chernobyl where an epidemic of childhood thyroid cancer has followed exposure to radioiodine that was mainly 131I. Although much has been learned from this experience about the nature of radioiodine induced thyroid cancer in young children, the reconstruction of thyroid radiation doses is too preliminary to provide accurate knowledge of the risk in comparison to that from external radiation. In the Marshall Islands, much of the exposure was from short-lived radioiodines as well as external radiation, obviating the possibility to determine the risk from 131I. Exposure to 131I in the continental United States from atomic bomb testing is expected to have caused some thyroid cancers, but only in the immediate vicinity of the Nevada Test Site has any evidence of radiation-induced thyroid neoplasms been adduced. This evidence is minimally significant statistically, and not significant for thyroid cancer per se. Medical use of radioiodine has not been observed to cause thyroid cancer but very few of the patients studied were young children, the group most sensitive to thyroid radiation. Despite these limitations, this information is sufficient to make some suggestions concerning protective measures in the case of nuclear accidents and the follow up of individuals who

  2. Improvement of the projection models for radiogenic cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Jian

    2005-01-01

    Calculations of radiogenic cancer risk are based on the risk projection models for specific cancer sites. Improvement has been made for the parameters used in the previous models including introductions of mortality and morbidity risk coefficients, and age-/ gender-specific risk coefficients. These coefficients have been applied to calculate the radiogenic cancer risks for specific organs and radionuclides under different exposure scenarios. (authors)

  3. Indoor exposure to particles emitted by biomass-burning heating systems and evaluation of dose and lung cancer risk received by population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, L; Buonanno, G; Avino, P; Frattolillo, A; Guerriero, E

    2018-04-01

    Homes represent a critical microenvironment in terms of air quality due to the proximity to main particle sources and the lack of proper ventilation systems. Biomass-fed heating systems are still extensively used worldwide, then likely emitting a significant amount of particles in indoor environments. Nonetheless, research on biomass emissions are limited to their effects on outdoor air quality then not properly investigating the emission in indoor environments. To this purpose, the present paper aims to evaluate the exposure to different airborne particle metrics (including both sub- and super-micron particles) and attached carcinogenic compounds in dwellings where three different heating systems were used: open fireplaces, closed fireplaces and pellet stoves. Measurements in terms of particle number, lung-deposited surface area, and PM fraction concentrations were measured during the biomass combustion activities, moreover, PM 10 samples were collected and chemically analyzed to obtain mass fractions of carcinogenic compounds attached onto particles. Airborne particle doses received by people exposed in such environments were evaluated as well as their excess lung cancer risk. Most probable surface area extra-doses received by people exposed to open fireplaces on hourly basis (56 mm 2  h -1 ) resulted one order of magnitude larger than those experienced for exposure to closed fireplaces and pellet stoves. Lifetime extra risk of Italian people exposed to the heating systems under investigation were larger than the acceptable lifetime risk (10 -5 ): in particular, the risk due to the open fireplace (8.8 × 10 -3 ) was non-negligible when compared to the overall lung cancer risk of typical Italian population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of risks associated to ionizing radiations: lung cancers after domestic radon exposure and thyroid cancers after accidental exposure to radioactive iodines; Evaluation des risques associes aux rayonnements ionisants: cancers du poumon apres exposition domestique au radon et cancers de la thyroide apres exposition accidentelle aux iodes radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catelinois, O

    2004-09-15

    The aim of this work is to develop a critical analysis of quantitative risk assessment in the field of ionizing radiation and to provide new estimates of attributable risks for particular situations of environmental exposure to ionizing radiation. This work is based on knowledge about dose-response relationships and ionizing radiation exposure of the general population. The work focuses on two different situations that both present an important interest for public health: lung cancer associated with domestic radon exposures (natural situation) and thyroid cancer associated with the Chernobyl accident fallout (accidental situation). The assessment of lung cancer risk associated with domestic radon exposure considers 10 dose-response relationships resulting from miner cohorts and case-control studies in the general population. A critical review of available data on smoking habits has been performed and allowed to consider the interactions between radon and tobacco. The exposure data come from measurements campaigns carried out since the beginning of the 1980 by the Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety and the Health General Directory in France. The French lung cancer mortality data are provided by the I.N.S.E.R.M.. Estimates of the number of attributable cancers are carried out for the whole country, stratified by 8 large regions (Z.E.A.T.) and by 96 departments for the year 1999 allowing to perform a sensibility analysis according to the geographical level of calculation. Uncertainties associated to risk coefficients and exposures have been quantified and it's impact on risk estimates is calculated. The estimated number of deaths attributable to domestic radon exposure ranges from 543 (90% uncertainty interval (U.I.): 75-1,097) to 3,108 (90% U.I.: 2,996-3,221). The corresponding risk fractions range from 2.2% (90% U.I.: 0.3%-4.4%) to 12.4% (90% U.I.: 11.9%-12.8%). The assessment of thyroid cancer risk in the most exposed area of France due to the

  5. Assessment of risks associated to ionizing radiations: lung cancers after domestic radon exposure and thyroid cancers after accidental exposure to radioactive iodines; Evaluation des risques associes aux rayonnements ionisants: cancers du poumon apres exposition domestique au radon et cancers de la thyroide apres exposition accidentelle aux iodes radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catelinois, O

    2004-09-15

    The aim of this work is to develop a critical analysis of quantitative risk assessment in the field of ionizing radiation and to provide new estimates of attributable risks for particular situations of environmental exposure to ionizing radiation. This work is based on knowledge about dose-response relationships and ionizing radiation exposure of the general population. The work focuses on two different situations that both present an important interest for public health: lung cancer associated with domestic radon exposures (natural situation) and thyroid cancer associated with the Chernobyl accident fallout (accidental situation). The assessment of lung cancer risk associated with domestic radon exposure considers 10 dose-response relationships resulting from miner cohorts and case-control studies in the general population. A critical review of available data on smoking habits has been performed and allowed to consider the interactions between radon and tobacco. The exposure data come from measurements campaigns carried out since the beginning of the 1980 by the Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety and the Health General Directory in France. The French lung cancer mortality data are provided by the I.N.S.E.R.M.. Estimates of the number of attributable cancers are carried out for the whole country, stratified by 8 large regions (Z.E.A.T.) and by 96 departments for the year 1999 allowing to perform a sensibility analysis according to the geographical level of calculation. Uncertainties associated to risk coefficients and exposures have been quantified and it's impact on risk estimates is calculated. The estimated number of deaths attributable to domestic radon exposure ranges from 543 (90% uncertainty interval (U.I.): 75-1,097) to 3,108 (90% U.I.: 2,996-3,221). The corresponding risk fractions range from 2.2% (90% U.I.: 0.3%-4.4%) to 12.4% (90% U.I.: 11.9%-12.8%). The assessment of thyroid cancer risk in the most exposed area of France due to

  6. Lung cancer following exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blot, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    A case-control study of lung cancer was conducted in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, to evaluate risk factors for this common neoplasm, with special attention given to assessing the potentially interactive roles of cigarette smoking and atomic radiation. The investigation involved interviews with 428 patients with primary lung cancer and 957 matched controls, or with their next of kin in the event of death or disability. The interview information was supplemented by data on atomic bomb radiation exposure for each individual and on smoking and other factors from prior surveys of subsets of the population studied. Separate effects of smoking and high dose (greater than 100 rad) radiation were found, with the two exposures combining to affect lung cancer risk in an approximate additive fashion. The additive rather than multiplicative model was favored whether the smoking variable was dichotomized (ever vs. never smoked), categorized into one of several groups based on amount smoked, or treated as a discrete variable. The findings are contrasted with those for Colorado uranium miners and other cohorts occupationally exposed to radon and its daughter products, where smoking and radiation have been reported to combine multiplicatively to enhance lung cancer risk

  7. Head and neck cancer due to heavy metal exposure via tobacco smoking and professional exposure: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlifi, Rim; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2010-01-01

    Chronic exposures to heavy metals via tobacco smoking and professional exposure may increase the risk of head and neck cancer, although the epidemiologic evidence is limited by problems of low study power and inadequate adjustment for tobacco and professional exposure use. Numerous scientific reviews have examined the association of various heavy metals exposure with respiratory cancer as well as other cancer types, but few have been published on head and neck cancer. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to review the head and neck tract cancer-related data on exposure to heavy metals via smoking and working exposure and to study the major mechanisms underlying some toxic metals carcinogenesis.

  8. Correction the Bias of Odds Ratio resulting from the Misclassification of Exposures in the Study of Environmental Risk Factors of Lung Cancer using Bayesian Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Abadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Inability to measure exact exposure in epidemiological studies is a common problem in many studies, especially cross-sectional studies. Depending on the extent of misclassification, results may be affected. Existing methods for solving this problem require a lot of time and money and it is not practical for some of the exposures. Recently, new methods have been proposed in 1:1 matched case–control studies that have solved these problems to some extent. In the present study we have aimed to extend the existing Bayesian method to adjust for misclassification in matched case–control Studies with 1:2 matching. Methods: Here, the standard Dirichlet prior distribution for a multinomial model was extended to allow the data of exposure–disease (OR parameter to be imported into the model excluding other parameters. Information that exist in literature about association between exposure and disease were used as prior information about OR. In order to correct the misclassification Sensitivity Analysis was accomplished and the results were obtained under three Bayesian Methods. Results: The results of naïve Bayesian model were similar to the classic model. The second Bayesian model by employing prior information about the OR, was heavily affected by these information. The third proposed model provides maximum bias adjustment for the risk of heavy metals, smoking and drug abuse. This model showed that heavy metals are not an important risk factor although raw model (logistic regression Classic detected this exposure as an influencing factor on the incidence of lung cancer. Sensitivity analysis showed that third model is robust regarding to different levels of Sensitivity and Specificity. Conclusion: The present study showed that although in most of exposures the results of the second and third model were similar but the proposed model would be able to correct the misclassification to some extent.

  9. Influence of diabetes mellitus type 2 and prolonged estrogen exposure on risk of breast cancer among women in Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, Lilit; Scharpf, Robert; Kagan, Sarah

    2011-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and breast cancer (BrCa) are prevalent in Armenia. We investigated DM2, reproductive factors, and BrCa in a case control study of 302 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed DM2 increased adjusted odds of BrCa by 5.53 (95% CI 1.34-22.81). Any birth was protective (adjusted OR=0.36, 95% CI 0.20-0.66). Each year delay in first pregnancy increased risk (adjusted OR=1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.27) as did induced abortions (adjusted OR=2.86, 95% CI 1.02-8.04). Odds ratios were adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI), which confounded associations between DM2 and BrCa. We suggest our findings imply the need for further investigation in Armenian and in other populations with similar characteristics.

  10. Risk-Based Management of Contaminated Groundwater: The Role of Geologic Heterogeneity, Exposure and Cancer Risk in Determining the Performance of Aquifer Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, R.M.; Carle, S.F.; Tompson, A.F.B.

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of aquifer remediation is typically expressed in terms of a reduction in contaminant concentrations relative to a regulated maximum contaminant level (MCL), and is usually confined by sparse monitoring data and/or simple model calculations. Here, the effectiveness of remediation is examined from a risk-based perspective that goes beyond the traditional MCL concept. A methodology is employed to evaluate the health risk to individuals exposed to contaminated household water that is produced from groundwater. This approach explicitly accounts for differences in risk arising from variability in individual physiology and water use, the uncertainty in estimating chemical carcinogenesis for different individuals, and the uncertainties and variability in contaminant concentrations within groundwater. A hypothetical contamination scenario is developed as a case study in a saturated, alluvial aquifer underlying a real Superfund site. A baseline (unremediated) human exposure and health risk scenario, as induced by contaminated groundwater pumped from this site, is predicted and compared with a similar estimate based upon pump-and-treat exposure intervention. The predicted reduction in risk in the remediation scenario is not an equitable one-that is, it is not uniform to all individuals within a population and varies according to the level of uncertainty in prediction. The importance of understanding the detailed hydrogeologic connections that are established in the heterogeneous geologic regime between the contaminated source, municipal receptors, and remediation wells, and its relationship to this uncertainty is demonstrated. Using two alternative pumping rates, we develop cost-benefit curves based upon reduced exposure and risk to different individuals within the population, under the presence of uncertainty

  11. Assessment of the Risk of Non-Cancerous Diseases under the Exposure of Heavy Element in Urban Areas and Troubleshooting Pollutant Sources (The Case of Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Moattar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heavy metals are the main air pollutants in cities. Therefore, assessment of the risk of exposure to these metals through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact on inhabitants of contaminated areas of the world is of great importance. Methods: A weekly sampling of air particles smaller than 10 microns was performed in a residential area of Zanjan for two years. Risk assessment in the face of heavy metals from inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact for were measured for two children and adults. After fingerprinting high-risk metals, the air pollutants of the region were analyzed according to the PMF5 model. Results: The results showed that children at risk assessment (1.40 × 1000 at the highest concentration of manganese. The PMF5 model results of fingerprinting 15 heavy metals showed that predominant pollutants in the region, included lead and zinc industries with 42.3%, suspended soil with 26.4%, industrial activities with 23.5%, and combustion and fuel with 7.8% of contamination. It was also found that 55.5 percent of manganese emission was associated with lead and zinc industries and 22.4 percent were related to suspended soil. Conclusion: Risk assessment showed that children were exposed to non-cancerous diseases due to inhalation of manganese particles.

  12. Exposure and risks from wearing asbestos mitts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tindall Matthew

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very high fibre inhalation exposure has been measured while people were wearing personal protective equipment manufactured from chrysotile asbestos. However, there is little data that relates specifically to wearing asbestos gloves or mitts, particularly when used in hot environments such as those found in glass manufacturing. The aim of this study was to assess the likely personal exposure to asbestos fibres when asbestos mitts were used. Results Three types of work activity were simulated in a small test room with unused mitts and artificially aged mitts. Neither pair of mitts were treated to suppress the dust emission. The measured respirable fibre exposure levels ranged from Conclusion People who wore asbestos mitts were likely to have been exposed to relatively low levels of airborne chrysotile asbestos fibres, certainly much lower than the standards that were accepted in the 1960's and 70's. The cancer risks from this type of use are likely to be very low.

  13. Cancer risks and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessey, M.P.; Gray, M.

    1985-01-01

    A series of essays in honour of Sir Richard Doll is presented. Chapters cover the preventability of cancer, geography, smoking, diet, occupation, radiation, infections and immune impairment, exogenous and endogenous hormones, other drugs, prevention through legislation and by education and cancer risks and prevention in the Third World. The chapter on radiation has been indexed separately. (UK)

  14. Childhood cancer and occupational radiation exposure in parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, N.; Zack, M.; Caldwell, G.G.; Fernbach, D.J.; Falletta, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a parent's job exposure to radiation affeOR). its his or her child's risk of cancer, the authors compared this exposure during the year before the child's birth for parents of children with and without cancer. Parents of children with cancer were no more likely to have worked in occupations, industries, or combined occupations and industries with potential ionizing radiation exposure. Bone cancer and Wilms' tumor occurred more frequently among children of fathers in all industries with moderate potential ionizing radiation exposure. Children with cancer more often had fathers who were aircraft mechanics (odds ratio (OR)) . infinity, one-sided 95% lower limit . 1.5; P . 0.04). Although four of these six were military aircraft mechanics, only children whose fathers had military jobs with potential ionizing radiation exposure had an increased cancer risk (OR . 2.73; P . 0.01). Four cancer types occurred more often among children of fathers in specific radiation-related occupations: rhabdomyosarcoma among children whose fathers were petroleum industry foremen; retinoblastoma among children whose fathers were radio and television repairmen; central nervous system cancers and other lymphatic cancers among children of Air Force fathers. Because numbers of case fathers are small and confidence limits are broad, the associations identified by this study need to be confirmed in other studies. Better identification and gradation of occupational exposure to radiation would increase the sensitivity to detect associations

  15. Contralateral breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnithan, Jaya; Macklis, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    The use of breast-conserving treatment approaches for breast cancer has now become a standard option for early stage disease. Numerous randomized studies have shown medical equivalence when mastectomy is compared to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy for the local management of this common problem. With an increased emphasis on patient involvement in the therapeutic decision making process, it is important to identify and quantify any unforeseen risks of the conservation approach. One concern that has been raised is the question of radiation- related contralateral breast cancer after breast radiotherapy. Although most studies do not show statistically significant evidence that patients treated with breast radiotherapy are at increased risk of developing contralateral breast cancer when compared to control groups treated with mastectomy alone, there are clear data showing the amount of scattered radiation absorbed by the contralateral breast during a routine course of breast radiotherapy is considerable (several Gy) and is therefore within the range where one might be concerned about radiogenic contralateral tumors. While radiation related risks of contralateral breast cancer appear to be small enough to be statistically insignificant for the majority of patients, there may exist a smaller subset which, for genetic or environmental reasons, is at special risk for scatter related second tumors. If such a group could be predicted, it would seem appropriate to offer either special counselling or special prevention procedures aimed at mitigating this second tumor risk. The use of genetic testing, detailed analysis of breast cancer family history, and the identification of patients who acquired their first breast cancer at a very early age may all be candidate screening procedures useful in identifying such at- risk groups. Since some risk mitigation strategies are convenient and easy to utilize, it makes sense to follow the classic 'ALARA' (as low as reasonably

  16. Maternal lung cancer and testicular cancer risk in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaijser, Magnus; Akre, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven; Ekbom, Anders

    2003-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that smoking during pregnancy could increase the offspring's risk for testicular cancer. This hypothesis is indirectly supported by both ecological studies and studies of cancer aggregations within families. However, results from analytical epidemiological studies are not consistent, possibly due to methodological difficulties. To further study the association between smoking during pregnancy and testicular cancer, we did a population-based cohort study on cancer risk among offspring of women diagnosed with lung cancer. Through the use of the Swedish Cancer Register and the Swedish Second-Generation Register, we identified 8,430 women who developed lung cancer between 1958 and 1997 and delivered sons between 1941 and 1979. Cancer cases among the male offspring were then identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Standardized incidence ratios were computed, using 95% confidence intervals. We identified 12,592 male offspring of mothers with a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer, and there were 40 cases of testicular cancer (standardized incidence ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.58). The association was independent of maternal lung cancer subtype, and the risk of testicular cancer increased stepwise with decreasing time interval between birth and maternal lung cancer diagnosis. Our results support the hypothesis that exposure to cigarette smoking in utero increases the risk of testicular cancer.

  17. Computed tomography in children: multicenter cohort study design for the evaluation of cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krille, L.; Jahnen, A.; Mildenberger, P.; Schneider, K.; Weisser, G.; Zeeb, H.; Blettner, M.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is a known risk factor for cancer. Cancer risk is highest after exposure in childhood. The computed tomography is the major contributor to the average, individual radiation exposure. Until now the association has been addressed only in statistical modeling. We present the first feasible study design on childhood cancer risk after exposure to computed tomography.

  18. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, K.

    2013-03-15

    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  19. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, K.

    2013-03-01

    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  20. A comparative assessment of PM2.5 exposures in light-rail, subway, freeway, and surface street environments in Los Angeles and estimated lung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Winnie; Delfino, Ralph J; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, C

    2013-01-01

    According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 570000+ commuters in Los Angeles travel for over 60 minutes to work. Studies have shown that a substantial portion of particulate matter (PM) exposure can occur during this commute. This study represents the integration of the results from five commute environments in Los Angeles. Personal PM exposures are discussed for the: (1) METRO gold line, a ground-level light-rail route, (2) METRO red line, a subway line, (3) the 110, a high volume freeway with low heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) fraction, (4) the 710, a major corridor for HDVs from the Port of Los Angeles, and (5) Wilshire/Sunset Boulevards, major surface streets. Chemical analysis including total and water-soluble metals and trace elements, elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was performed. The focus of this study is to compare the composition and estimated lung cancer risk of PM2.5 (dp subway), most likely from abrasion processes between the rail and brakes; elements associated with tire and brake wear and oil additives (Ca, Ti, Sn, Sb, and Pb) were elevated on roadways. Elemental concentrations on the gold line (light-rail) were the lowest. For water-solubility, metals observed on the red line (subway) were the least soluble. PAHs are primarily derived from vehicular emissions. Overall, the 710 exhibited high levels of PAHs (3.0 ng m−3), most likely due to its high volume of HDVs, while the red and gold lines exhibited low PAH concentrations (0.6 and 0.8 ng m−3 for red and gold lines, respectively). Lastly, lung cancer risk due to inhalation of PAHs was calculated based on a commuter lifetime (45 years for 2 hours per workday). Results showed that lung cancer risk for the 710 is 3.8 and 4.5 times higher than the light-rail (gold line) and subway (red line), respectively. With low levels of both metal and PAH pollutants, our results indicate that commuting on the light-rail (gold line) may have potential health benefits when

  1. Radiation doses and cancer risks in the Marshall Islands associated with exposure to radioactive fallout from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests: summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Land, Charles E; Beck, Harold L

    2010-08-01

    Nuclear weapons testing conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls during 1946-1958 resulted in exposures of the resident population of the present-day Republic of the Marshall Islands to radioactive fallout. This paper summarizes the results of a thorough and systematic reconstruction of radiation doses to that population, by year, age at exposure, and atoll of residence, and the related cancer risks. Detailed methods and results are presented in a series of companion papers in this volume. From our analysis, we concluded that 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in measurable fallout deposition on one or more of the inhabited atolls of the Marshall Islands. In this work, we estimated deposition densities (kBq m(-2)) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides at each of the 32 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Quantitative deposition estimates were made for 63 radionuclides from each test at each atoll. Those estimates along with reported measurements of exposure rates at various times after fallout were used to estimate radiation absorbed doses to the red bone marrow, thyroid gland, stomach wall, and colon wall of atoll residents from both external and internal exposure. Annual doses were estimated for six age groups ranging from newborns to adults. We found that the total deposition of 137Cs, external dose, internal organ doses, and cancer risks followed the same geographic pattern with the large population of the southern atolls receiving the lowest doses. Permanent residents of the southern atolls who were of adult age at the beginning of the testing period received external doses ranging from 5 to 12 mGy on average; the external doses to adults at the mid-latitude atolls ranged from 22 to 59 mGy on average, while the residents of the northern atolls received external doses in the hundreds to over 1,000 mGy. Internal doses varied significantly by age at exposure, location, and organ. Except

  2. Breast cancer induced by protracted radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkind, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    The experience at Hiroshima/Nagasaki demonstrated that breast cancer can be induced by single doses of ionizing radiation following latencies of 10-40 years. Several epidemiological studies, usually involving ancillary low-LET radiation to the breast, have demonstrated that breast cancer can be induced by protracted exposures, with similar latencies, and with similar dependencies on dose. Radiobiologically these results suggest that the target cells involved were deficient in repair of low-LET damage even when the protraction was over months to years. Since three-quarters of breast tumors originate in the ducts where their proliferation is controlled by menstrual-cycle timed estrogen/progesterone secretions, these cells periodically were in cycle. Thus, the two main elements of a conceptual model for radon-induced lung cancer -- kinetics and deficient repair -- are satisfied. The model indicates that breast cancer could be the cumulative effect of protracted small exposures, the risk from any one of which ordinarily would be quite small. (author)

  3. Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashner, B.A.; Epstein, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references

  4. Preliminary study on the rate of broncho-pulmonary cancer in a Romanian department (Bihor) for the estimation of radon risk exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaida, T.; Maghiar, F.; Cosma, C.; Ristoiu, D.; Ramboiu, S.; Pacurar, V.; Poffijn, A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is a retrospective estimation on the rate of lung cancer at the population in the Bihor district (Romania) in two years (1993 -1994) and the potential bronchopulmonary cancer risk from indoor radon. In this time were found 473 cases with primary bronchopulmonary cancer: 400 men (84.5%) and 73 women (15.4%). Most cases ( 64.4%) were from rural environment while the other 35.5% were from urban environment. Preliminary study on the potential lung cancer risk from indoor radon encompassed 40 cases and 66 non-cancer controls in the period March-July 1995. (author)

  5. Time trends in cancer risk and pesticide exposure, a long-term follow-up of Danish gardeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Eva Støttrup; Lander, Flemming; Lauritsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Occupational exposure to petrochemical pesticides was high during the first 10-15 years after their introduction in the late 1940s, and, during these years, many cases of intoxication occurred. In the 1960s, the use and marketing of pesticides was regulated to reduce exposure to these substances...

  6. No Decreased Risk of Gastrointestinal Cancers in Users of Metformin in The Netherlands; A Time-Varying Analysis of Metformin Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Roy G; Burden, Andrea M; de Kort, Sander; van Herk-Sukel, Myrthe P; Vissers, Pauline A; Janssen, Paddy K; Haak, Harm R; Masclee, Ad A; de Vries, Frank; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska L

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on metformin use and gastrointestinal (GI) cancer risk have yielded inconclusive results on metformin's chemoprotective effects. We aimed to evaluate GI cancer risk in users of metformin in The Netherlands using a time-varying approach in a large population-based database. A cohort

  7. Economic Exposure and Integrated Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Kent D.

    1994-01-01

    Most corporate risk management research focuses on particular risk exposures to the exclusion of other interrelated exposures. By contrast, this study models corporate risk exposures using a multivariate approach integrating the distinct exposures of interest to finance and strategy researchers. The paper addresses the implications of multivariate modeling for corporate risk management, some key methodological issues arising in empirical estimation of corporate economic exposrues, and direc...

  8. Breast cancer risks and risk prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Christoph; Fischer, Christine

    2015-02-01

    BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have a considerably increased risk to develop breast and ovarian cancer. The personalized clinical management of carriers and other at-risk individuals depends on precise knowledge of the cancer risks. In this report, we give an overview of the present literature on empirical cancer risks, and we describe risk prediction models that are currently used for individual risk assessment in clinical practice. Cancer risks show large variability between studies. Breast cancer risks are at 40-87% for BRCA1 mutation carriers and 18-88% for BRCA2 mutation carriers. For ovarian cancer, the risk estimates are in the range of 22-65% for BRCA1 and 10-35% for BRCA2. The contralateral breast cancer risk is high (10-year risk after first cancer 27% for BRCA1 and 19% for BRCA2). Risk prediction models have been proposed to provide more individualized risk prediction, using additional knowledge on family history, mode of inheritance of major genes, and other genetic and non-genetic risk factors. User-friendly software tools have been developed that serve as basis for decision-making in family counseling units. In conclusion, further assessment of cancer risks and model validation is needed, ideally based on prospective cohort studies. To obtain such data, clinical management of carriers and other at-risk individuals should always be accompanied by standardized scientific documentation.

  9. Risk-based indicators of Canadians' exposures to environmental carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setton, Eleanor; Hystad, Perry; Poplawski, Karla; Cheasley, Roslyn; Cervantes-Larios, Alejandro; Keller, C Peter; Demers, Paul A

    2013-02-12

    Tools for estimating population exposures to environmental carcinogens are required to support evidence-based policies to reduce chronic exposures and associated cancers. Our objective was to develop indicators of population exposure to selected environmental carcinogens that can be easily updated over time, and allow comparisons and prioritization between different carcinogens and exposure pathways. We employed a risk assessment-based approach to produce screening-level estimates of lifetime excess cancer risk for selected substances listed as known carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Estimates of lifetime average daily intake were calculated using population characteristics combined with concentrations (circa 2006) in outdoor air, indoor air, dust, drinking water, and food and beverages from existing monitoring databases or comprehensive literature reviews. Intake estimates were then multiplied by cancer potency factors from Health Canada, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, and the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment to estimate lifetime excess cancer risks associated with each substance and exposure pathway. Lifetime excess cancer risks in excess of 1 per million people are identified as potential priorities for further attention. Based on data representing average conditions circa 2006, a total of 18 carcinogen-exposure pathways had potential lifetime excess cancer risks greater than 1 per million, based on varying data quality. Carcinogens with moderate to high data quality and lifetime excess cancer risk greater than 1 per million included benzene, 1,3-butadiene and radon in outdoor air; benzene and radon in indoor air; and arsenic and hexavalent chromium in drinking water. Important data gaps were identified for asbestos, hexavalent chromium and diesel exhaust in outdoor and indoor air, while little data were available to assess risk for substances in dust, food and beverages. The ability to

  10. Cadmium and lung cancer mortality accounting for simultaneous arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Robert M; Stayner, Leslie T; Petersen, Martin R; Finley-Couch, Melissa; Hornung, Richard; Rice, Carol

    2012-05-01

    Prior investigations identified an association between airborne cadmium and lung cancer but questions remain regarding confounding by arsenic, a well-established lung carcinogen. A cadmium smelter population exhibiting excess lung cancer was re-analysed using a retrospective exposure assessment for arsenic (As), updated mortality (1940-2002), a revised cadmium (Cd) exposure matrix and improved work history information. Cumulative exposure metrics for both cadmium and arsenic were strongly associated making estimation of their independent effects difficult. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were modelled with Poisson regression with the contribution of arsenic to lung cancer risk constrained by exposure-response estimates previously reported. The results demonstrate (1) a statistically significant effect of Cd independent of As (SMR=3.2 for 10 mg-year/m(3) Cd, p=0.012), (2) a substantial healthy worker effect for lung cancer (for unexposed workers, SMR=0.69) and (3) a large deficit in lung cancer mortality among Hispanic workers (SMR=0.27, p=0.009), known to have low lung cancer rates. A supralinear dose-rate effect was observed (contribution to risk with increasing exposure intensity has declining positive slope). Lung cancer mortality was somewhat better predicted using a cadmium burden metric with a half-life of about 20-25 years. These findings support an independent effect for cadmium in risk of lung cancer mortality. 1/1000 excess lifetime risk of lung cancer death is predicted from an airborne exposure of about 2.4 μg/m(3) Cd.

  11. Quantifying Cancer Risk from Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Alexander P; Richardson, David B

    2017-12-06

    Complex statistical models fitted to data from studies of atomic bomb survivors are used to estimate the human health effects of ionizing radiation exposures. We describe and illustrate an approach to estimate population risks from ionizing radiation exposure that relaxes many assumptions about radiation-related mortality. The approach draws on developments in methods for causal inference. The results offer a different way to quantify radiation's effects and show that conventional estimates of the population burden of excess cancer at high radiation doses are driven strongly by projecting outside the range of current data. Summary results obtained using the proposed approach are similar in magnitude to those obtained using conventional methods, although estimates of radiation-related excess cancers differ for many age, sex, and dose groups. At low doses relevant to typical exposures, the strength of evidence in data is surprisingly weak. Statements regarding human health effects at low doses rely strongly on the use of modeling assumptions. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... 4 ). This risk reduction is limited to hormone receptor –positive breast cancer; age at first full-term ...

  13. Vitamin D Levels and Related Genetic Polymorphisms, Sun Exposure, Skin Color, and Risk of Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    for our specific aims. 15. SUBJECT TERMS vitamin D deficiency, prostate cancer, health disparities, African American 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...ler.reb (If - 0.43 wen aJECia6!d with ~ iota re.icleaa~ in tbe lropi.:. (~- 5.60, p- 114), &t:.ry vibnoio D iobsb @- 0.01, p- ,OJ); IIILd supplmu1Ji

  14. Radiation induced cancer: risk assessment and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A number of factors have to be considered in defining the cancer risk from ionizing radiation. These include the radiation sensitivity of the target tissue(s), the temporal pattern of risk, the shape of the dose-incidence curve, the effects of low dose rates, host susceptibility factors, and synergism with other environmental exposures. For the population as a whole the largest sources of radiation exposure are natural background radiation and medical/dental radiation. Radiation exposures in the medical field make up the largest volume of occupational exposures as well. Although new technologies offer opportunities to lower exposures, worker training, careful exposure monitoring with remedial feedback, and monitoring to prevent unnecessary radiodiagnostic procedures may be even more important means of reducing radiation exposure. Screening of irradiated populations can serve a useful preventive function, but only for those who have received very high doses

  15. Thyroid Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package thyroid implements a risk prediction model developed by NCI researchers to calculate the absolute risk of developing a second primary thyroid cancer (SPTC) in individuals who were diagnosed with a cancer during their childhood.

  16. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is small. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of breast cancer. Anything that increases your chance ... magnetic resonance imaging) in women with a high risk of breast cancer MRI is a procedure that ...

  17. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in women. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Anything that increases your chance ... been studied to see if they decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer. The following screening ...

  18. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health history and certain medicines can affect the risk of developing endometrial cancer. Anything that increases your ... have abnormal vaginal bleeding, check with your doctor. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  19. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol use, and Barrett esophagus can affect the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Anything that increases the ... tissue gives off less light than normal tissue. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  20. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major risk factor for cervical cancer. Although most women with ... clinical trials is available from the NCI website . Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  1. Risk from fast neutron exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1978-01-01

    The recommendations made by Rossi and Mays imply that the risk associated with the current annual dose equivalent limit of 5 rem for all radiations is unacceptably high, that this limit must be reduced by a factor of 10 or more, and that the conservative linear, no threshold hypothesis must be abandoned. It is shown here that these recommendations are not supported by the newly-analyzed neutron data, and certainly cannot be applied selectively to the annual absorbed dose limit for neutrons. In particular, the judgment that the risk of an annual exposure from 0.5 rad (5 rem) of neutrons is unacceptable high, although perhaps defensible as a personal opinion of the authors, does not follow either from the assumption of a linear-quadratic dose effect relation for low-LET radiation or from other radiobiological considerations. At issue is the level of risk that is to be considered acceptable, a question that is societal and thus not resolvable on purely technical or scientific grounds

  2. Combination antiretroviral therapy and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the newest research about the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV+ persons are at increased risk of cancer. As this risk is higher for malignancies driven by viral and bacterial coinfections, classifying malignanci......ART initiation in reducing cancer risk, understand the relationship between long-term cART exposure and cancer incidence and assess whether adjuvant anti-inflammatory therapies can reduce cancer risk during treated HIV infection.......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the newest research about the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV+ persons are at increased risk of cancer. As this risk is higher for malignancies driven by viral and bacterial coinfections, classifying malignancies...... into infection-related and infection-unrelated has been an emerging trend. Cohorts have detected major reductions in the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) following cART initiation among immunosuppressed HIV+ persons. However, recent randomized data indicate that cART reduces risk...

  3. THE NCI STUDIES ON RADIATION DOSES AND CANCER RISKS IN THE MARSHALL ISLANDS ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI, National Institutes of Health) was requested by the U.S. Congress in 2004 to assess the number of radiation-related illnesses to be expected among the people of the Marshall Islands from nuclear tests conducted there during 1946-1958. A thorough analysis conducted by the NCI concluded that 20 of the 66 nuclear devices tested in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in measurable fallout deposition on one or more of the inhabited atolls of the Marshall ...

  4. Occupational exposure to wood dust and risk of nasal and nasopharyngeal cancer: A case-control study among men in four nordic countries-With an emphasis on nasal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Sie Sie; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Sparén, Pär; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Pukkala, Eero

    2017-12-15

    The current study aims to provide stronger evidence to aid in our understanding of the role of cumulative occupational exposure to (softwood-dominated) mixed wood dust in aetiology of nasal cancer. We included broad exposure occurred in a range of wood-processing occupation across varied industries in four Nordic countries. A population-based case-control study was conducted on all male cases with nasal adenocarcinoma (393 cases), other types of nasal cancer (2,446) and nasopharyngeal cancer (1,747) diagnosed in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Iceland between 1961 and 2005. For each case, five male controls, who were alive at the time of diagnosis of the case (index date), were randomly selected, matched by birth-year and country. Cumulative exposures (CE)s to wood dust and formaldehyde before the index date were quantified based on a job-exposure matrix linked to occupational titles derived from population censuses. Hazard ratios (HRs) for the CE of wood dust were estimated by conditional logistic regression, adjusted for CE to formaldehyde and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. There was an increasing risk of nasal adenocarcinoma related to wood dust exposure. The HR in the highest CE category of wood dust (≥ 28.82 mg/m 3 -years) was 16.5 (95% CI 5.05-54.1). Neither nonadenocarcinoma of the nose nor nasopharyngeal cancer could be linked to wood dust exposure. CE to softwood-dominated mixed wood dusts is strongly linked with elevated risk in nasal adenocarcinoma but not with other types of nasal or nasopharyngeal cancer. © 2017 UICC.

  5. Cancer mortality and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and inhalable aerosols in rubber tire manufacturing in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vocht, Frank; Sobala, Wojciech; Wilczynska, Urszula; Kromhout, Hans; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Peplonska, Beata

    2009-08-01

    Most data on carcinogenic risk in the rubber industry are based on data from Western countries. This study assessed cancer risks in a retrospective cohort in a Polish tire manufacturing plant, relying on quantified exposure to inhalable aerosols and aromatic amines instead of job titles or external comparisons. Cumulative exposure for all exposures was assigned to cohort members based on estimates from a company-specific JEM. Cancer risks associated with cumulative exposure adjusted for co-exposures, gender and year of birth were calculated. Exposure levels were higher for women than for men. Aromatic amine exposure was significantly associated with increased urinary bladder cancer risk (RR=7.32-8.27), depending on exposure level, and prostate cancer at low levels only (RR=5.86). In women, increased risks were found for all cancers (RR=2.50) and of the digestive organs and peritoneum (RR=4.54) at low level only, while an exposure-response association with breast cancer risk was found. Inhalable aerosol exposure was associated with cancers of the liver and intrahepatic bile ducts in a dose-dependent manner, while dose-dependent reduced risks were found for respiratory cancers (most notably the larynx) and cancer of the colon. Increased risks for specific cancer sites in this rubber plant were similar to Western Europe and the US. However, several cancer risks were gender-specific which could relate to higher exposure levels in women or to differences in exposures to chemicals not assessed in this study.

  6. Fracture risk in Danish men with prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Nielsen, Morten F; Eskildsen, Peter Claes

    2007-01-01

    To assess the risk of fracture attributable to prostate cancer, and the impact of exposure to prescribed gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists and antiandrogens on this risk in a nationwide, population-based case-control study.......To assess the risk of fracture attributable to prostate cancer, and the impact of exposure to prescribed gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists and antiandrogens on this risk in a nationwide, population-based case-control study....

  7. PCOS and cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Issat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects approximately 5 to 10% of women of reproductive age. It is the most common reason of anovulation in infertile women. PCOS is accompanied by such conditions as oligo- or anovulation, hipertestosteronism, lower cell sensitivity to insulin, type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Each of the above-mentioned conditions is an approved risk factor proved to predispose towards cancer. However, PCOS is also a disease entity which differs in its clinical manifestation. For example not all patients suffer from obesity or hipertestosteronism related symptoms. From the analysis of literature it is possible to draw conclusions, that there is a possible correlation between PCOS and endometrial cancer, which emerges from clinical trials or research focused on molecular changes in endometrium patients with PCOS. On the other hand, correlation between PCOS and breast or ovary cancer is not so strong, in spite of single papers which are showing the link. The main problem in researching the correlation between PCOS and any cancer risk, is there is a very small group of women or the trial is imperfect (e.g. no control group. There is no meta-analysis focused on this correlation in literature. The change of criteria of PCOS in the past is also a big problem, because there was a number of definitions of PCOS, which results in inconsistent PCOS diagnoses over time. In this paper we would like to provide a description of studies that aimed at showing correlation between PCOS and cancer risk and underlying theoretical assumptions.

  8. Light pollution, reproductive function and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Vladimir N

    2006-01-01

    At present, light pollution (exposure to light-at-night) both in the form of occupational exposure during night work and as a personal choice and life style, is experienced by numerous night-active members of our society. Disruption of the circadian rhythms induced by light pollution has been associated with cancer in humans. There are epidemiological evidences of increased breast and colon cancer risk in shift workers. An inhibition of the pineal gland function with exposure to the constant light (LL) regimen promoted carcinogenesis whereas the light deprivation inhibits the carcinogenesis. Treatment with pineal indole hormone melatonin inhibits carcinogenesis in pinealectomized rats or animals kept at the standard light/dark regimen (LD) or at the LL regimen. These observations might lead to use melatonin for cancer prevention in groups of humans at risk of light pollution.

  9. Use of mobile phones and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanda, Olushola S; Baba, Alafara A; Ayanda, Omolola T

    2012-01-01

    Mobile phones work by transmitting and receiving radio frequency microwave radiation. The radio frequency (RF) emitted by mobile phones is stronger than FM radio signal which are known to cause cancer. Though research and evidence available on the risk of cancer by mobile phones does not provide a clear and direct support that mobile phones cause cancers. Evidence does not also support an association between exposure to radio frequency and microwave radiation from mobile phones and direct effects on health. It is however clear that lack of available evidence of cancer as regards the use of mobile phone should not be interpreted as proof of absence of cancer risk, so that excessive use of mobile phones should be taken very seriously and with caution to prevent cancer.

  10. PCOS and cancer risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeusz Issat; Artur J Jakimiuk

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects approximately 5 to 10% of women of reproductive age. It is the most common reason of anovulation in infertile women. PCOS is accompanied by such conditions as oligo- or anovulation, hipertestosteronism, lower cell sensitivity to insulin, type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Each of the above-mentioned conditions is an approved risk factor proved to predispose towards cancer. However, PCOS is also a disease entity which differs in its clinical ...

  11. On ionising radiation and breast cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, Anders

    1999-05-01

    A cohort of 3,090 women with clinical diagnosis of benign breast disease (BBD) was studied. Of these, 1,216 were treated with radiation therapy during 1925-54 (median age 40 years). The mean dose to the breasts was 5.8 Gy (range 0-50 Gy). Among other organs the lung received the highest scattered dose (0.75 Gy; range 0.004-8.98 Gy) and the rectum the lowest (0.008 Gy; range 0-0.06 Gy). A pooled analysis of eight breast cancer incidence cohorts was done, including: tumour registry data on breast cancer incidence among women in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors; women in Massachusetts who received repeated chest fluoroscopic during lung collapse treatment for tuberculosis; women who received x-ray therapy for acute post-partum mastitis; women who were irradiated in infancy for enlarged thymus glands ; two Swedish cohorts of women who received radiation treatments during infancy for skin hemangioma; and the BBD cohort. Together the cohorts included almost 78,000 women (-35,000 were exposed), around 1.8 million woman-years and 1500 cases. The breast cancer incidence rate as a function of breast dose was analysed using linear-quadratic Poisson regression models. Cell-killing effects and other modifying effects were incorporated through additional log-linear terms. Additive (EAR) and multiplicative (ERR) models were compared in estimating the age-at-exposure patterns and time related excess. The carcinogenic risks associated with radiation in mammographic mass screening is evaluated. Assessment was made in terms of breast cancer mortality and years of life. Effects were related to rates not influenced by a mammographic mass screening program and based on a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 40-year old women with no history of breast cancer being followed to 100 years of age. Two radiation risk assumptions were compared. The dose-response relationship is linear with little support in data for an upward curvature at low to medium doses. The competing effect

  12. On ionising radiation and breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattson, Anders

    1999-01-01

    A cohort of 3,090 women with clinical diagnosis of benign breast disease (BBD) was studied. Of these, 1,216 were treated with radiation therapy during 1925-54 (median age 40 years). The mean dose to the breasts was 5.8 Gy (range 0-50 Gy). Among other organs the lung received the highest scattered dose (0.75 Gy; range 0.004-8.98 Gy) and the rectum the lowest (0.008 Gy; range 0-0.06 Gy). A pooled analysis of eight breast cancer incidence cohorts was done, including: tumour registry data on breast cancer incidence among women in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors; women in Massachusetts who received repeated chest fluoroscopic during lung collapse treatment for tuberculosis; women who received x-ray therapy for acute post-partum mastitis; women who were irradiated in infancy for enlarged thymus glands ; two Swedish cohorts of women who received radiation treatments during infancy for skin hemangioma; and the BBD) cohort. Together the cohorts included almost 78,000 women (-35,000 were exposed), around 1.8 million woman-years and 1500 cases. The breast cancer incidence rate as a function of breast dose was analysed using linear-quadratic Poisson regression models. Cell-killing effects and other modifying effects were incorporated through additional log-linear terms. Additive (EAR) and multiplicative (ERR) models were compared in estimating the age-at-exposure patterns and time related excess. The carcinogenic risks associated with radiation in mammographic mass screening is evaluated. Assessment was made in terms of breast cancer mortality and years of life. Effects were related to rates not influenced by a mammographic mass screening program and based on a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 40-year old women with no history of breast cancer being followed to 100 years of age. Two radiation risk assumptions were compared. The dose-response relationship is linear with little support in data for an upward curvature at low to medium doses. The competing effect

  13. Diabetes, insulin and cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xi-Lin; Chan, Juliana CN

    2012-01-01

    There is a consensus that both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with a spectrum of cancers but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. On the other hand, there are ongoing debates about the risk association of insulin use with cancer. We have briefly reviewed recent related research on exploration of risk factors for cancer and pharmacoepidemiological investigations into drug use in diabetes on the risk of cancer, as well as the current understanding of metabolic pathways impl...

  14. Controlling radiation exposure during interventional procedures in childhood cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racadio, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Many pediatric cancer patients undergo multiple diagnostic and therapeutic radiologic procedures over the course of their illnesses and are therefore at high risk for radiation exposure. There are a variety of measures that radiologists can employ to reduce this risk. These include limiting the use of radiation whenever possible, using specific strategies to reduce radiation exposure during interventional procedures, using quality assurance programs to ensure compliance, and maintaining continuing staff radiation safety educational programs. Some of the diagnostic and therapeutic interventional radiologic procedures that are performed in pediatric oncology patients are discussed here, along with specific tips for managing radiation exposure. (orig.)

  15. Cancer risk among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Continued mortality surveillance and incidence studies have revealed the risk of cancer among the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to increase with increasing dose. Among the sites where the frequency of cancer can be clearly shown to be dose-related are the following: female breast, colon, esophagus, lung, ovary, stomach, thyroid, urinary bladder and leukemia. Although the evidence is less compelling, cancers of the liver, salivary glands, and skin as well as multiple myeloma appear increased too. This increase generally manifests itself when the survivors reach those ages where the natural incidence of cancer begins to rise. Risk is, however, related to the age of the individual at the time of the bombing; the highest risks are associated with individuals who were exposed in the first two decades of life. Current evidence suggests these higher risks decline with increasing time since exposure

  16. Estimated risks of radon-induced lung cancer by two-mutation model for different exposures in mines and in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, K.; Nikodemova, D.; Salat, D.; Drabova, D.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the two-mutation model has been applied and compared with BEIR VI models for a prediction of the radon risk in various environments. The obtained results can be summarised into several points. The values of risk from the radon exposure predicted by the two-mutation model are comparable with the results obtained by BEIR VI for the short-time as well as for the long-time exposures. In the range of low exposures is this agreement of the results closer to the risk values assessed by the exposure-age-concentration model. In the range of higher exposures the results are closer to the values based on the age- duration model. The two-mutation model predicts the increase of dRR/dC with the increase of the radon concentration in the range of low concentrations. According to our results the inverse effect occurs only when the radon concentrations reach the value of 1500 Bq/m 3 . The two-mutation model can be taken as an universal model for the risk calculation in different environments, and for various smoking status. This model makes possible to analyse the influence of the fractionalisation of the exposure on the resulting RR. (authors)

  17. Occurrence of nitro- and oxy-PAHs in agricultural soils in eastern China and excess lifetime cancer risks from human exposure through soil ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhe; Zhu, Ying; Zhuo, Shaojie; Liu, Weiping; Zeng, Eddy Y; Wang, Xilong; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2017-11-01

    The quality of agricultural soil is vital to human health, however soil contamination is a severe problem in China. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been found to be among the major soil contaminants in China. PAH derivatives could be more toxic but their measurements in soils are extremely limited. This study reports levels, spatial distributions and compositions of 11 nitrated (nPAHs) and 4 oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) in agricultural soils covering 26 provinces in eastern China to fill the data gap. The excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) from the exposure to them in addition to 21 parent PAHs (pPAHs) via soil ingestion has been estimated. The mean concentration of ∑nPAHs and ∑oPAHs in agricultural soils is 50±45μg/kg and 9±8μg/kg respectively. Both ∑nPAHs and ∑oPAHs follow a similar spatial distribution pattern with elevated concentrations found in Liaoning, Shanxi, Henan and Guizhou. However if taking account of pPAHs, the high ELCR by soil ingestion is estimated for Shanxi, Zhejiang, Liaoning, Jiangsu and Hubei. The maximum ELCR is estimated at ca.10 -5 by both deterministic and probabilistic studies with moderate toxic equivalent factors (TEFs). If maximum TEFs available are applied, there is a 0.2% probability that the ELCR will exceed 10 -4 in the areas covered. There is a great chance to underestimate the ELCR via soil ingestion for some regions if only the 16 priority PAHs in agricultural soils are considered. The early life exposure and burden are considered extremely important to ELCR. Emission sources are qualitatively predicted and for areas with higher ELCR such as Shanxi and Liaoning, new loadings of PAHs and derivatives are identified. This is the first large scale study on nPAHs and oPAHs contamination levels in agricultural soils in China. The risk assessment based on this underpins the policy making and is valuable for both scientists and policy makers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, H M; Zhang, Q F

    1994-01-01

    Recent progress in risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and its correlation with occupational lung cancer in nickel-exposed workers is reviewed. Epidemiological investigations provide reliable data indicating the close relation between nickel exposure and high lung cancer risk, especially in nickel refineries. The nickel species-specific effects and the dose-response relationship between nickel exposure and lung cancer are among the main questions that are explored extensively. It is als...

  19. Radiation-associated breast cancer and gonadal hormone exposure: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Chou, Joanne F.; Sklar, Charles A.; Barnea, Dana; Ronckers, Cécile M.; Friedman, Danielle Novetsky; Neglia, Joseph P.; Turcotte, Lucie; Howell, Rebecca M.; Henderson, Tara O.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Robison, Leslie L.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between hormone exposure and breast cancer risk in women treated with chest radiotherapy for childhood cancer is uncertain. Participants included 1108 females from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who were diagnosed with childhood cancer 1970-1986, treated with chest

  20. Bricklayers and lung cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article ‘Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case–control studies’ in the International Journal of Cancer publishes findings of an epidemiological study (in the frame of a SYNERGY-project) dedicated to the lung cancer risk among bricklayers. The authors conclude that a

  1. HIV Infection and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same age ( 1 ). The general term for these cancers is "HIV-associated cancers." Three of these cancers are known as " acquired ... also have an increased cumulative risk of developing HIV-associated cancers. What can people infected with HIV do to ...

  2. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  3. Environmental cancer risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In a long-awaited report (‘Assessment of Technologies for Determining Cancer Risks From the Environment’), the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) has evaluated the role of environmental factors in cancer diseases. Environment is interpreted broadly as encompassing anything that interacts with humans, including the natural environment, food, radiation, the workplace, etc. Geologic factors range from geographic location to radiation and specific minerals. The report, however, is based on an inadequate data base in most instances, and its major recommendations are related to the establishment of a national cancer registry to record cancer statistics, as is done for many other diseases. Presently, hard statistics are lacking in the establishment of some association between the cause-effect relationship of most environmental factors and most carcinogens. Of particular interest, but unfortunately based on unreliable data, are the effects of mineral substances such as ‘asbestos.’ USGS mineralogist Malcolm Ross will review asbestos and its effects on human health in the forthcoming Mineralogical Society of America's Short Course on the Amphiboles (Reviews in Mineralogy, 9, in press, 1981).

  4. Does occupational exposure to solvents and pesticides in association with glutathione S-transferase A1, M1, P1, and T1 polymorphisms increase the risk of bladder cancer? The Belgrade case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija G Matic

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of the glutathione S-transferase A1, M1, P1 and T1 gene polymorphisms and potential effect modification by occupational exposure to different chemicals in Serbian bladder cancer male patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A hospital-based case-control study of bladder cancer in men comprised 143 histologically confirmed cases and 114 age-matched male controls. Deletion polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 was identified by polymerase chain reaction method. Single nucleotide polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase A1 and P1 was identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism method. As a measure of effect size, odds ratio (OR with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI was calculated. RESULTS: The glutathione S-transferase A1, T1 and P1 genotypes did not contribute independently toward the risk of bladder cancer, while the glutathione S-transferase M1-null genotype was overrepresented among cases (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.1-4.2, p = 0.032. The most pronounced effect regarding occupational exposure to solvents and glutathione S-transferase genotype on bladder cancer risk was observed for the low activity glutathione S-transferase A1 genotype (OR = 9.2, 95% CI = 2.4-34.7, p = 0.001. The glutathione S-transferase M1-null genotype also enhanced the risk of bladder cancer among subjects exposed to solvents (OR = 6,5, 95% CI = 2.1-19.7, p = 0.001. The risk of bladder cancer development was 5.3-fold elevated among glutathione S-transferase T1-active patients exposed to solvents in comparison with glutathione S-transferase T1-active unexposed patients (95% CI = 1.9-15.1, p = 0.002. Moreover, men with glutathione S-transferase T1-active genotype exposed to pesticides exhibited 4.5 times higher risk in comparison with unexposed glutathione S-transferase T1-active subjects (95% CI = 0.9-22.5, p = 0.067. CONCLUSION: Null or low-activity genotypes of the

  5. Alpha-risk: a European project on the quantification of risks associated with multiple radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurier, D.; Monchaux, G.; Tirmarche, M.; Darby, S.; Cardis, E.; Binks, K.; Hofmann, W.; Muirhead, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha-Risk research project is being conducted within the Sixth European Framework Programme (EC-FP6, 2005 -2008). It aims to improve the quantification of risks associated with multiple exposures, taking into account the contribution of different radionuclides and external exposure using specific organ dose calculations. The Alpha-Risk Consortium involves 18 partners from 9 countries, and is coordinated by the IRSN. Its composition allows a multidisciplinary collaboration between researchers in epidemiology, dosimetry, statistics, modelling and risk assessment. Alpha-Risk brings together major epidemiological studies in Europe, which are able to evaluate long-term health effects of internal exposure from radionuclides. It includes large size cohort and case-control studies, with accurate registration of individual annual exposures: uranium miner studies, studies on lung cancer and indoor radon exposure, and studies of lung cancer and leukaemia among nuclear workers exposed to transuranic nuclides (mainly uranium and plutonium), for whom organ doses will be reconstructed individually. The contribution of experts in dosimetry will allow the calculation of organ doses in presence of multiple exposures (radon decay products, uranium dust and external gamma exposure). Expression of the risk per unit organ dose will make it possible to compare results with those from other populations exposed to external radiation. The multidisciplinary approach of Alpha-Risk promotes the development of coherent and improved methodological approaches regarding risk modelling. A specific work - package is dedicated to the integration of results and their use for risk assessment, especially for radon. Alpha-Risk will contribute to a better understanding of long-term health risks following chronic low doses from internal exposures. The project also has the great potential to help resolve major public health concerns about the effects of low and/or protracted exposures, especially

  6. Health Risks due to Exposure to Radon in Homes in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document summarises the evidence that links exposure to radon in homes with an increase in lung cancer. Using the most recent risk estimates derived from epidemiological studies carried out abroad, the risk associated with radon exposure in homes in Ireland is derived. The relationship between exposure to radon and cigarette smoking is also discussed

  7. Increased pancreatic cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Michael; Børge Johannesen, Tom; Gilbert, Ethel S; Stovall, Marilyn; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Rajaraman, Preetha; Smith, Susan A; Weathers, Rita E; Aleman, Berthe M P; Andersson, Michael; Curtis, Rochelle E; Dores, Graça M; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Hall, Per; Holowaty, Eric J; Joensuu, Heikki; Kaijser, Magnus; Kleinerman, Ruth A; Langmark, Frøydis; Lynch, Charles F; Pukkala, Eero; Storm, Hans H; Vaalavirta, Leila; van den Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W; Morton, Lindsay M; Fossa, Sophie D; Travis, Lois B

    2016-09-27

    Pancreatic cancer risk is elevated among testicular cancer (TC) survivors. However, the roles of specific treatments are unclear. Among 23 982 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1947-1991, doses from radiotherapy to the pancreas were estimated for 80 pancreatic cancer patients and 145 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs). Cumulative incidence of second primary pancreatic cancer was 1.1% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. Radiotherapy (72 (90%) cases and 115 (80%) controls) was associated with a 2.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-7.8) increased risk. The OR increased linearly by 0.12 per Gy to the pancreas (P-trendcancer risk, and persists for over 20 years. These excesses, although small, should be considered when radiotherapy with exposure to the pancreas is considered for newly diagnosed patients. Additional data are needed on the role of chemotherapy.

  8. Assessment of health risks from exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    Rapid development in the assessment of health risks from exposure to ionizing radiation has produced an impressive array of risk differentials of presumed biologic significance. In the human data these differentials involve: (1) the variety of cancer, especially its size; (2) host factors, especially age; (3) time following exposure; (4) magnitude of dose; and (5) type of radiation. From experimental work we may presume that dose-rate also plays a role, especially for sparsely ionizing radiation. Current research is extending the scope of differentials with respect to these and other variables, including cell type and concomitant environmental risk factors, and testing dose-response models suggested by experimental and theoretical work. As facts to be explained, differentials in risk may lead to hypotheses to be explored experimentally and improve our understanding of how ionizing radiation causes cancer. 74 references

  9. Risk of cardiovascular disease following radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Vlahovich, S.; Cornett, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Excess radiation-induced cardiac mortalities have been reported among radiotherapy patients. Many case reports describe the occurrence of atherosclerosis following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease and breast cancer. Some case reports describe the cerebral infarction following radiotherapy to neck region, and of peripheral vascular disease of the lower extremities following radiotherapy to the pelvic region. The association of atomic bomb radiation and cardiovascular disease has been examined recently by incidence studies and prevalence studies of various endpoints of atherosclerosis; all endpoints indicated an increase of cardiovascular disease in the exposed group. It is almost certain that the cardiovascular disease is higher among atomic bomb survivors. However, since a heavy exposure of 10-40 Gy is delivered in radiotherapy and the bomb survivors were exposed to radiation at high dose and dose-rate, the question is whether the results can be extrapolated to individuals exposed to lower levels of radiation. Some recent epidemiological studies on occupationally exposed workers and population living near Chernobyl have provided the evidence for cardiovascular disease being a significant late effect at relatively low doses of radiation. However, the issue of non-cancer mortality from radiation is complicated by lack of adequate information on doses, and many other confounding factors (e.g., smoking habits or socio-economic status). This presentation will evaluate possible radiobiological mechanisms for radiation-induced cardiovascular disease, and will address its relevance to radiation protection management at low doses and what the impact might be on future radiation risk assessments. (authors)

  10. Lung cancer risk of airborne particles for Italian population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonanno, G., E-mail: buonanno@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy); International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street 2, 4001 Brisbane, Qld. (Australia); Giovinco, G., E-mail: giovinco@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy); Morawska, L., E-mail: morawska@qut.edu.au [International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street 2, 4001 Brisbane, Qld. (Australia); Stabile, L., E-mail: stabile@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Airborne particles, including both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles, contain various carcinogens. Exposure and risk-assessment studies regularly use particle mass concentration as dosimetry parameter, therefore neglecting the potential impact of ultrafine particles due to their negligible mass compared to supermicrometric particles. The main purpose of this study was the characterization of lung cancer risk due to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals associated with particle inhalation by Italian non-smoking people. A risk-assessment scheme, modified from an existing risk model, was applied to estimate the cancer risk contribution from both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles. Exposure assessment was carried out on the basis of particle number distributions measured in 25 smoke-free microenvironments in Italy. The predicted lung cancer risk was then compared to the cancer incidence rate in Italy to assess the number of lung cancer cases attributed to airborne particle inhalation, which represents one of the main causes of lung cancer, apart from smoking. Ultrafine particles are associated with a much higher risk than supermicrometric particles, and the modified risk-assessment scheme provided a more accurate estimate than the conventional scheme. Great attention has to be paid to indoor microenvironments and, in particular, to cooking and eating times, which represent the major contributors to lung cancer incidence in the Italian population. The modified risk assessment scheme can serve as a tool for assessing environmental quality, as well as setting up exposure standards for particulate matter. - Highlights: • Lung cancer risk for non-smoking Italian population due to particle inhalation. • The average lung cancer risk for Italian population is equal to 1.90×10{sup −2}. • Ultrafine particle is the aerosol metric mostly contributing to lung cancer risk. • B(a)P is the main (particle-bounded) compound

  11. Lung cancer risk of airborne particles for Italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, G.; Giovinco, G.; Morawska, L.; Stabile, L.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne particles, including both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles, contain various carcinogens. Exposure and risk-assessment studies regularly use particle mass concentration as dosimetry parameter, therefore neglecting the potential impact of ultrafine particles due to their negligible mass compared to supermicrometric particles. The main purpose of this study was the characterization of lung cancer risk due to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals associated with particle inhalation by Italian non-smoking people. A risk-assessment scheme, modified from an existing risk model, was applied to estimate the cancer risk contribution from both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles. Exposure assessment was carried out on the basis of particle number distributions measured in 25 smoke-free microenvironments in Italy. The predicted lung cancer risk was then compared to the cancer incidence rate in Italy to assess the number of lung cancer cases attributed to airborne particle inhalation, which represents one of the main causes of lung cancer, apart from smoking. Ultrafine particles are associated with a much higher risk than supermicrometric particles, and the modified risk-assessment scheme provided a more accurate estimate than the conventional scheme. Great attention has to be paid to indoor microenvironments and, in particular, to cooking and eating times, which represent the major contributors to lung cancer incidence in the Italian population. The modified risk assessment scheme can serve as a tool for assessing environmental quality, as well as setting up exposure standards for particulate matter. - Highlights: • Lung cancer risk for non-smoking Italian population due to particle inhalation. • The average lung cancer risk for Italian population is equal to 1.90×10 −2 . • Ultrafine particle is the aerosol metric mostly contributing to lung cancer risk. • B(a)P is the main (particle-bounded) compound contributing

  12. Insights from Epidemiology into Dichloromethane and Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Siegel Scott

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Dichloromethane (methylene chloride is a widely used chlorinated solvent. We review the available epidemiology studies (five cohort studies, 13 case-control studies, including seven of hematopoietic cancers, focusing on specific cancer sites. There was little indication of an increased risk of lung cancer in the cohort studies (standardized mortality ratios ranging from 0.46 to 1.21. These cohorts are relatively small, and variable effects (e.g., point estimates ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 were seen for the rarer forms of cancers such as brain cancer and specific hematopoietic cancers. Three large population-based case-control studies of incident non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Europe and the United States observed odds ratios between 1.5 and 2.2 with dichloromethane exposure (ever exposed or highest category of exposure, with higher risk seen in specific subsets of disease. More limited indications of associations with brain cancer, breast cancer, and liver and biliary cancer were also seen in this collection of studies. Existing cohort studies, given their size and uneven exposure information, are unlikely to resolve questions of cancer risks and dichloromethane exposure. More promising approaches are population-based case-control studies of incident disease, and the combination of data from such studies, with robust exposure assessments that include detailed occupational information and exposure assignment based on industry-wide surveys or direct exposure measurements.

  13. Risk of ischemic heart disease in women after radiotherapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darby, Sarah C.; Ewertz, Marianne; McGale, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy for breast cancer often involves some incidental exposure of the heart to ionizing radiation. The effect of this exposure on the subsequent risk of ischemic heart disease is uncertain.......Radiotherapy for breast cancer often involves some incidental exposure of the heart to ionizing radiation. The effect of this exposure on the subsequent risk of ischemic heart disease is uncertain....

  14. Framework for human health risk assessment of non-cancer effects resulting from short-duration and intermittent exposures to chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Lynne T; Sandhu, Reena; Li-Muller, Angela; Mohapatra, Asish; Petrovic, Sanya; Meek, M E Bette

    2016-09-01

    Durations of exposure to chemicals, whether for single, repeated or intermittent periods, may vary from those upon which most guidance values are normally based. Because it is presently not feasible to conduct toxicity studies or develop toxicity reference values (TRVs) specific to each scenario of interest, methods are needed to address these various durations, drawing as much as possible on existing TRVs. A working framework was developed to address the potential for non-cancer effects resulting from continuous short-duration and intermittent exposures to chemicals. The framework presents an integrated, tiered approach that assists the user in identifying when existing TRVs can be applied directly, and the adaptations needed to assess the acceptability of short-duration or intermittent exposure scenarios. Descriptions of when and how toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic aspects need to be taken into consideration are also presented. The framework incorporates the use of TRVs based on exposure periods as similar as possible to the "actual" exposure periods and application of dose averaging under limited, specified conditions. This framework has been developed to aid in improving the scientific basis for the evaluation of short-duration and intermittent exposures in a variety of settings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Cancer risk factors in Korean news media: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kye, Su Yeon; Kwon, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Yong-Chan; Shim, Minsun; Kim, Jee Hyun; Cho, Hyunsoon; Jung, Kyu Won; Park, Keeho

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the news coverage of cancer risk factors in Korea. This study aimed to examine how the news media encompasses a wide array of content regarding cancer risk factors and related cancer sites, and investigate whether news coverage of cancer risk factors is congruent with the actual prevalence of the disease. A content analysis was conducted on 1,138 news stories covered during a 5-year period between 2008 and 2012. The news stories were selected from nationally representative media in Korea. Information was collected about cancer risk factors and cancer sites. Of various cancer risk factors, occupational and environmental exposures appeared most frequently in the news. Breast cancer was mentioned the most in relation to cancer sites. Breast, cervical, prostate, and skin cancer were overrepresented in the media in comparison to incidence and mortality cases, whereas lung, thyroid, liver, and stomach cancer were underrepresented. To our knowledge, this research is the first investigation dealing with news coverage about cancer risk factors in Korea. The study findings show occupational and environmental exposures are emphasized more than personal lifestyle factors; further, more prevalent cancers in developed countries have greater media coverage, not reflecting the realities of the disease. The findings may help health journalists and other health storytellers to develop effective ways to communicate cancer risk factors.

  16. Cancer risk among insulin users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    But, Anna; De Bruin, Marie L.; Bazelier, Marloes T.

    2017-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between use of certain insulins and risk for cancer, when addressing the limitations and biases involved in previous studies. Methods: National Health Registries from Denmark (1996–2010), Finland (1996–2011), Norway (2005......–2010) and Sweden (2007–2012) and the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink database (1987–2013) were used to conduct a cohort study on new insulin users (N = 327,112). By using a common data model and semi-aggregate approach, we pooled individual-level records from five cohorts and applied Poisson regression...... models. For each of ten cancer sites studied, we estimated the rate ratios (RRs) by duration (≤0.5, 0.5–1, 1–2, 2–3, 3–4, 4–5, 5–6 and >6 years) of cumulative exposure to insulin glargine or insulin detemir relative to that of human insulin. Results: A total of 21,390 cancer cases occurred during a mean...

  17. Aircrew radiation exposure: sources-risks-measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1994-05-01

    A short review is given on the actual aircrew exposure and its sources. The resulting risks for harmful effects to the health and discuss methods for in-flight measurements of exposure is evaluated. An idea for a fairly simple and economic approach to a practical, airborne active dosimeter for the assessment of individual crew exposure is presented. The exposure of civil aircrew to cosmic radiation, should not be considered a tremendous risk to the health, there is no reason for panic. However, being significantly higher than the average exposure to radiation workers, it can certainly not be neglected. As recommended by ICRP, aircrew exposure has to be considered occupational radiation exposure and aircrews are certainly entitled to the same degree of protection, as other ground-based radiation workers have obtained by law, since long time. (author)

  18. Asbestos Exposure and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for medical care, and, where necessary, medical and vocational rehabilitation assistance in returning to work. Benefits may ... asbestos Another EPA resource that may be of interest is the brochure titled Current Best Practices for ...

  19. Exposure to low-dose radiation and the risk of breast cancer among women with a familial or genetic predisposition : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen-van der Weide, Marijke C.; Greuter, Marcel J. W.; Jansen, Liesbeth; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; de Bock, Geertruida H.

    Women with familial or genetic aggregation of breast cancer are offered screening outside the population screening programme. However, the possible benefit of mammography screening could be reduced due to the risk of radiation-induced tumours. A systematic search was conducted addressing the

  20. Exposure to low-dose radiation and the risk of breast cancer among women with a familial or genetic predisposition : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen-van der Weide, Marijke C.; Greuter, Marcel J. W.; Jansen, Liesbeth; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; de Bock, Geertruida H.

    2010-01-01

    Women with familial or genetic aggregation of breast cancer are offered screening outside the population screening programme. However, the possible benefit of mammography screening could be reduced due to the risk of radiation-induced tumours. A systematic search was conducted addressing the

  1. Use of threshold-specific energy model for the prediction of effects of smoking and radon exposure on the risk of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, R.; Bulko, M.; Holy, K.; Sedlak, A.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women. Smoking causes 80-90 % of cases of lung cancer. In this study, an attempt was made to assess the impact of cigarette smoking on the risk of lung cancer by the so-called threshold-specific energy model. This model allows to analyse the biological effects of radon daughter products on the lung tissue, and is based on the assumption that the biological effect (i.e. cell inactivation) will manifest itself after the threshold-specific energy z0 deposited in the sensitive volume of the cell is exceeded. Cigarette smoking causes, among others, an increase in the synthesis of the surviving protein that protects cells from apoptosis and thereby reduces their radiosensitivity. Based on these facts, an attempt was made to estimate the shape of the curves describing the increase in the oncological effect of radiation as a function of daily cigarette consumption. (authors)

  2. Medical effects and risks of exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, Fred A

    2012-01-01

    Effects and risk from exposure to ionising radiation depend upon the absorbed dose, dose rate, quality of radiation, specifics of the tissue irradiated and other factors such as the age of the individual. Effects may be apparent almost immediately or may take decades to be manifest. Cancer is the most important stochastic effect at absorbed doses of less than 1 Gy. The risk of cancer induction varies widely across different tissues; however, the risk of fatal radiation-induced cancer for a general population following chronic exposure is about 5% Sv −1 . Quantification of cancer risk at doses of less than 0.1 Gy remains problematic. Hereditary risks from irradiation that might result in effects to offspring of humans appear to be much lower and any such potential risks can only be estimated from animal models. At high doses (over 1 Gy) cell killing and modification causes deterministic effects such as skin burns, and bone marrow depression, in which case immunosuppression becomes a critical issue. Acute whole body penetrating gamma irradiation at doses in excess of 2 Gy results in varying degrees of acute radiation sickness and doses over 10 Gy are usually lethal as a result of combined organ injury. (note)

  3. Supposed cancer risk from mammography. Reply to previous statements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeser, H; Koeppe, P; Rach, K [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Klinik fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Physikalische Therapie

    1976-12-01

    The view that exposure to diagnostic radiation presents a cancer risk to the female breast should be considered together with the fact that the major factor is ageing of the patient. This risk factor is hidden in experimental and statistical studies on cancer production by exongenous agents; for instance, in studies of radiation effects, it is inherent in the time taken. The assumption that mammography presents a cancer risk is unjustifiable and is denied.

  4. Exposure Data for Travel Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N O; Koornstra, Matthijs; Broughton, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    This report illustrates why risk and exposure data are critical for policymaking at local, national and EU levels.Conclusions are drawn about the evaluation and use of risk information for different modes and estimates are presented for the fatality risk of various travel modes in the EU....

  5. Cancer risks: Strategies for elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannasch, P.

    1987-01-01

    This book deals with the possibilities for identifying and eliminating cancer risk factors. The current state of knowledge on the detection, assessment and elimination of chemical, physical (radiation), and biological (viruses) risk factors are comprehensively presented in 15 contributions. Chemical risk factors resulting from smoking and environmental contamination are given special attention. The coverage of cancer risks by radiation includes some of the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. Finally, the discussion of the possible risks that certain viruses hold for cancer in man is intended to further the development of vaccinations against these viral infections. The information is directed not only at specialists, but also at a wider interested audience. Its primary aim is to convey established findings that are already being used for cancer prevention. Furthermore, the book aims to promote more intense research in the field of primary cancer prevention. Contents: General aspects; chemical carcinogens: Risk assessment; chemical carcinogens: Primary prevention; physical carcinogens - Oncogenic viruses and subject index

  6. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  7. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  8. Esophageal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing esophageal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  9. Bladder Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing bladder cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  10. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  11. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  12. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing pancreatic cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  13. Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing ovarian cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  14. Liver Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing liver cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  15. Testicular Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of testicular cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  16. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  17. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  18. Interbank exposures: quantifying the risk of contagion

    OpenAIRE

    C. H. Furfine

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the likelihood that failure of one bank would cause the subsequent collapse of a large number of other banks. Using unique data on interbank payment flows, the magnitude of bilateral federal funds exposures is quantified. These exposures are used to simulate the impact of various failure scenarios, and the risk of contagion is found to be economically small.

  19. Wood-related occupations, wood dust exposure, and sinonasal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, R B; Gerin, M; Raatgever, J W; de Bruyn, A

    1986-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the relations between type of woodworking and the extent of wood dust exposure to the risks for specific histologic types of sinonasal cancer. In cooperation with the major treatment centers in the Netherlands, 116 male patients newly diagnosed between 1978 and 1981 with primary malignancies of epithelial origin of this site were identified for study. Living controls were selected from the municipal registries, and deceased controls were selected from the national death registry. Interviews were completed for 91 (78%) cases and 195 (75%) controls. Job histories were coded by industry and occupation. An index of exposure was developed to classify the extent of occupational exposure to wood dust. When necessary, adjustment was made for age and usual cigarette use. The risk for nasal adenocarcinoma was elevated by industry for the wood and paper industry (odds ratio (OR) = 11.9) and by occupation for those employed in furniture and cabinet making (OR = 139.8), in factory joinery and carpentry work (OR = 16.3), and in association with high-level wood dust exposure (OR = 26.3). Other types of nasal cancer were not found to be associated with wood-related industries or occupations. A moderate excess in risk for squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.5) was associated with low-level wood dust exposure; however, no dose-response relation was evident. The association between wood dust and adenocarcinoma was strongest for those employed in wood dust-related occupations between 1930 and 1941. The risk of adenocarcinoma did not appear to decrease for at least 15 years after termination of exposure to wood dust. No cases of nasal adenocarcinoma were observed in men whose first exposure to wood dust occurred after 1941.

  20. Radiation cancer, safety standards and current levels of exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    Cancer can be induced by radiation in any tissue where cancer occurs naturally. The observation that antenatal diagnostic radiography causes a small but definite increase in childhood cancer is as good evidence as could be expected in support of the scientific expectation that there would be no threshold of dose for carcinogenesis. A linear relation between radiation dose and frequency of induced cancer is a necessary assumption for a system of radiological protection but is not necessarily a reasonable basis for realistic assessments of cancer risk. Indeed there are radiobiological and epidemiological reasons to the contrary. If the linear hypothesis is accepted then at the present time in the UK the routine practice of medicine is of about 2 orders of magnitude more important in causing cancer than environmental pollution by discharge of radio-activity. The acceptability of radiation safety standards for occupational exposure may be justified by comparison of radiation cancer risks with risks from fatal accidents in the safer industries. The acceptability of the corresponding standards for members of the public seems to require more public discussion of the concept of negligible risk. Emotional reactions to uncontrolled releases of radio-activity are based at least in part on a failure to appreciate the hypothesis of linearity

  1. Health effects and risks of radon exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1990-01-01

    In view of the current widespread concern about the risks associated with indoor radon exposures, this paper explores the evidence on risk from human epidemiology studies, particularly in reference to EPA's 4-pCi/L action level value and from animal studies. While the EPA 4-pCi/L level has no legal force and is not a standard per se, it is becoming a de facto standard as several states are considering the level in pending legislation. Although risk can also be related to radiation dose from radon exposure, this perspective on risk is not treated in this chapter

  2. Cancer risks from ingestion of radiostrontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, O. G.

    2004-07-01

    Studies have been conducted of the lifetime effects in 403 beagles of the skeletal uptake in seven logarithmically increasing dosage groups of ingested Sr-90. The Sr-90 was fed during skeletal developmental from mid-gestation to adulthood at age 540 days resulting in lifetime protracted beta radiation exposure of the skeleton and some adjacent tissues. Statistical analysis of all types of cancer deaths in the 403 exposed beagles and in 162 unexposed controls indicated that deaths caused by five types of cancer were significantly elevated by high level exposure to Sr-90; these were (1) myeloid leukemia, (2) bone sarcoma, (3) squamous cell carcinoma of periodontal origin, (4) nasal carcinoma, and (5) oral carcinoma. Dose response analysis of these radiation-induced cancer deaths showed non-linear relationships with marked thresholds. A mean lifetime skeletal absorbed dose of 22.5 +/-5.7 Gy SD (22.5 +/-5.7 Sv SD) was associated with the lowest dosage group in which any radiation induced cancer deaths were observed. Three-dimensional models of the observed dose-rate/time/response relationships were fir with maximum likelihood regression methods to describe the risks of death associated with the different types of radiation-induced cancer. The models show that a life-time virtual threshold for cancer risk occurs because the time required to induce cancer is longer at lower radiation dose rates and may exceed the natural life span. Scaling these results to predict human cancer risks from ingestion of Sr-90 shows negligible risks for people whose lifetime cumulative skeletal dose is less than 10 Sv. (Author)

  3. The bystander effect model of Brenner and Sachs fitted to lung cancer data in 11 cohorts of underground miners, and equivalence of fit of a linear relative risk model with adjustment for attained age and age at exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M P

    2004-01-01

    Bystander effects following exposure to α-particles have been observed in many experimental systems, and imply that linearly extrapolating low dose risks from high dose data might materially underestimate risk. Brenner and Sachs (2002 Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 78 593-604; 2003 Health Phys. 85 103-8) have recently proposed a model of the bystander effect which they use to explain the inverse dose rate effect observed for lung cancer in underground miners exposed to radon daughters. In this paper we fit the model of the bystander effect proposed by Brenner and Sachs to 11 cohorts of underground miners, taking account of the covariance structure of the data and the period of latency between the development of the first pre-malignant cell and clinically overt cancer. We also fitted a simple linear relative risk model, with adjustment for age at exposure and attained age. The methods that we use for fitting both models are different from those used by Brenner and Sachs, in particular taking account of the covariance structure, which they did not, and omitting certain unjustifiable adjustments to the miner data. The fit of the original model of Brenner and Sachs (with 0 y period of latency) is generally poor, although it is much improved by assuming a 5 or 6 y period of latency from the first appearance of a pre-malignant cell to cancer. The fit of this latter model is equivalent to that of a linear relative risk model with adjustment for age at exposure and attained age. In particular, both models are capable of describing the observed inverse dose rate effect in this data set

  4. Childhood cancer after low-level intrauterine exposure to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeford, Richard [BNFL, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: R.Wakeford@bnfl.com; Little, Mark P. [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-09-01

    Case-control studies of childhood cancer and foetal exposure to diagnostic x-rays suggest that doses as small as 10 mSv increase the risk of cancer to a detectable extent. A comparison of the risk coefficient derived from the largest such study with that obtained from the Japanese atomic bomb survivors irradiated in utero (average dose, {approx}300 mGy) shows that, once all sources of uncertainty are taken into account, these risk estimates are not incompatible. The absence of a discernible variation in the risk per unit dose over this dose range is consistent with a linear dose-response. However, uncertainties are such that definitive conclusions on the shape of the dose-response at low doses cannot be drawn from this epidemiological evidence alone. Nonetheless, the evidence does suggest that the risk is not zero at doses of the order of 10 mSv. (author)

  5. Infective Endocarditis and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Min; Wu, Jung-Nan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Day, Jen-Der; Liang, Ji-An; Liou, Li-Ren; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the possible relationship between endocarditis and overall and individual cancer risk among study participants in Taiwan. We used data from the National Health Insurance program of Taiwan to conduct a population-based, observational, and retrospective cohort study. The case group consisted of 14,534 patients who were diagnosed with endocarditis between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. For the control group, 4 patients without endocarditis were frequency matched to each endocarditis patient according to age, sex, and index year. Competing risks regression analysis was conducted to determine the effect of endocarditis on cancer risk. A large difference was noted in Charlson comorbidity index between endocarditis and nonendocarditis patients. In patients with endocarditis, the risk for developing overall cancer was significant and 119% higher than in patients without endocarditis (adjusted subhazard ratio = 2.19, 95% confidence interval = 1.98–2.42). Regarding individual cancers, in addition to head and neck, uterus, female breast and hematological malignancies, the risks of developing colorectal cancer, and some digestive tract cancers were significantly higher. Additional analyses determined that the association of cancer with endocarditis is stronger within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis. This population-based cohort study found that patients with endocarditis are at a higher risk for colorectal cancer and other cancers in Taiwan. The risk was even higher within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis. It suggested that endocarditis is an early marker of colorectal cancer and other cancers. The underlying mechanisms must still be explored and may account for a shared risk factor of infection in both endocarditis and malignancy. PMID:27015220

  6. Risk of cancer formation by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuji, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Described are the difference between exposures to radiation for medical purpose and to environmental radiation at low dose, estimation of carcinogenic risk by medical radiation, and notice for referring the risk at clinical practice. ICRP employs linear non-threshold (LNT) model for risk of cancer formation even at <200 mSv for safety, with a recognition that it is scientifically obscure. The model essentially stands on data of A-bomb survivors (the Gold Standard), where the relationship between 5-10% excess relative risk (ERR) of cancer formation and dose 0.05-2.5 Sv is linear. Analyses of the secondary carcinogenesis after radiotherapy have begun to be reported since around 2005: e.g., the secondary thyroid cancer risk in pediatric patients treated with radiotherapy has a peak at 20 Gy, suggesting the actual risk depends both on the linearity of carcinogenic increase and on the exponential probability of cell death increase. On this concept, the risk of cancer formation is not always linear to dose. At the practical radiotherapy, its secondary carcinogenic risk should be estimated not only on the dose but also on other factors such as the individual organ, patient's age and attainable age/time after the treatment. In treated teen-ager patients, ERRs of mortality/Gy are 2.28 for cancers of the skin of non-malignant melanoma, 1.32 of bladder and 1.21 of thyroid and in patients of fifties, 1.15 of bladder and lung. The EER tends to become lower as the treated age is older. Pediatric cancer patients to be treated with radiotherapy should be informed about the secondary cancer that the low dose risk given by ICRP is not always appropriate, a certain cancer risk has a peak dose, and ERR of cancer mortality is not a cancer risk of an organ. Many factors like anticancers and immuno-modifiers, modify the outcome of radiotherapy and should be carefully speculated for evaluating the outcome. (T.T.)

  7. A Cohort Study on Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Yunnan Tin Miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong JIANG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. Studies of lung cancer among miners have shown that occupational exposure also played an important role. The aim of this study is to investigate radon, cigarette use and other risk factors of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of occupational lung cancer. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among Yunnan tin miners, the associations between potential risk factors for lung cancer were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression model. Effects of age at first radon exposure and radon exposure rate on lung cancer risk were analyzed. The relationship between cumulative working level month and lung cancer was analyzed according to smoking status. The joint effect of tobacco use and cumulative radon exposure was analyzed based on additive and multiplicative models. Results Increased risk of lung cancer was associated with age at enrollment, tobacco use, prior bronchitis, and cumulative arsenic and radon exposure, while higher education level was associated with decreased lung cancer risk. An inverse effect of radon exposure rate was observed. There was no significant association between lung cancer risk and first radon exposure age. There was a significant additive interaction between tobacco use and radon exposure on lung cancer risk. Conclusion Several risk factors may contribute to the high incidence of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners. Further studies are warranted to evaluate joint effect of different risk factors.

  8. Myastenia and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Emil Arnspang; Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between having non-thymoma myasthenia and the risk of extra-thymic cancer in a population-based setting. METHODS: A nationwide case-control study was conducted in Denmark based on medical registries. The study included all cases with a first time...... diagnosis of cancer during 2000-2009. Each case was matched by birth year and gender with eight population controls using risk set sampling. Subjects with myasthenia were identified through a validated register-based algorithm. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute crude and adjusted odds...... risk of overall cancer (OR 1.1; 95% CI 0.9-1.4). Adjusted ORs for major cancer sites were also close to unity, whereas an elevated risk of lymphomas was observed (OR 2.0; 95% CI 0.8-5.5). Early-onset myasthenia was associated with a slightly increased OR for overall cancer (1.5; 95% CI 1...

  9. Prenatal x-ray exposure and childhood cancer in twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, E.B.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Honeyman, M.; Flannery, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to investigate the relation between prenatal exposure to x-rays and childhood cancer, including leukemia, in over 32,000 twins born in Connecticut from 1930 to 1969. Twins as opposed to single births were chosen for study to reduce the likelihood of medical selection bias, since twins were often exposed to x-rays to diagnose the twin pregnancy or to determine fetal positioning before delivery and not because of medical conditions that may conceivably pre-dispose to cancer. Each of 31 incident cases of cancer, identified by linking the Connecticut twin and tumor registries, was matched with four twin controls according to sex, year of birth, and race. Records of hospitals, radiologists, and private physicians were searched for histories of x-ray exposure and other potentially important risk factors. Documented prenatal x-ray exposures were found for 39 per cent of the cases (12 of 31) and for 26 per cent of the controls (28 of 109). No other pregnancy, delivery, or maternal conditions were associated with cancer risk except low birth weight: 38 per cent of the cases as compared with 25 per cent of the controls weighed under 2.27 kg at birth. When birth weight was adjusted for, twins in whom leukemia or other childhood cancer developed were twice as likely to have been exposed to x-rays in utero as twins who were free of disease (relative risk, 2.4; 95 per cent confidence interval, 1.0 to 5.9). The results, though based on small numbers, provide further evidence that low-dose prenatal irradiation may increase the risk of childhood cancer

  10. Occupational radiation exposure risks: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besar, Idris [PUSPATI, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1984-06-01

    This paper presents a review of the health risk as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. A comparison of occupational risk among workers exposed to radiological and nonradiological harms are also presented. This comparison shows that radiation workers exposed to the current nuclear industry average of 3.4 mSv. per year are among the safest of all industry groupings.

  11. Underestimation of risk due to exposure misclassification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Keiding, Niels

    2004-01-01

    Exposure misclassification constitutes a major obstacle when developing dose-response relationships for risk assessment. A non-differentional error results in underestimation of the risk. If the degree of misclassification is known, adjustment may be achieved by sensitivity analysis. The purpose...

  12. Occupational radiation exposure risks: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris Besar

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the health risk as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. A comparison of occupational risk among workers exposed to radiological and nonradiological harms are also presented. This comparison shows that radiation workers exposed to the current nuclear industry average of 3.4 mSv. per year are among the safest of all industry groupings. (author)

  13. Kidney Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NCI Cancer Information A to Z Treatment Roles Cancer Types Bladder Brain/Spine Breast Cervical Colorectal Esophageal Gallbladder Head/Neck Kidney Leukemia Liver Lung Lymphoma Multiple Myeloma Ovarian Pancreatic ...

  14. Estimation of the exposure and a risk-benefit analysis for a CT system designed for a lung cancer mass screening unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, K.; Matsumoto, T.; Sakashita, K.; Tateno, Y.; Miyamoto, T.; Iwai, K.; Shimura, A.; Takagi, H.

    1996-01-01

    Organ or tissue doses from examination by a computed tomography system called LSCT were determined by in-phantom measurement. LSCT has been developed for lung cancer screening, with spiral scanning capability. Dose measurements were performed under the actual screening conditions of the chest CT examination. The effective dose recommended by ICRP 60 was evaluated using the organ or tissue doses. Risk-benefit analysis in the LSCT screening was also performed. The resultant effective dose per LSCT examination was 3.6 mSv and surface dose was 7.6 mGy. It was half to a third lower than the doses by traditional CT systems. The risk-benefit analysis of LSCT showed that the benefit will exceed the risk for Japanese over forty years for men and over forty-five for women. (Author)

  15. Real and perceived risks of medical radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    After considering all the evidence related to the health effects of exposure to low levels of radiation, it is apparent that the risk is immeasurably small to any single person in a population exposed to small amounts of radiation. However, multiplying this immeasurably small estimate of risk by very large populations yields numbers that seem to imply that significant health effects (cancer, malformations, genetic effects) occur following exposure to small quantities of radiation. Although many advisory groups have cautioned against this procedure and conclusion, both continue to be used by some scientists and political action groups. In a public opinion poll conducted by Decision Research, Inc. of Eugene, Oregon, three groups were asked to rank the relative risks of various societal activities. Two of the three groups ranked nuclear power as the most hazardous of all societal activities, with a risk factor greater than that for smoking, automobiles, handguns and alcohol. Actually, nuclear power is the least hazardous of all 30 of the activities included in the poll. It is a conservative posture and probably a wise course of action to assume that exposure to any amount of radiation carries with it some element of risk. For example, requests for x-ray studies and nuclear medicine procedures should always be accompanied by an appreciation of the possibility of risk to the patient and to radiological personnel. At the same time, this element of risk should be placed in a realistic perspective by comparing it with other risks we assume every day

  16. Canadian Cancer Risk Management Model: evaluation of cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William K; Wolfson, Michael C; Flanagan, William M; Shin, Janey; Goffin, John; Miller, Anthony B; Asakawa, Keiko; Earle, Craig; Mittmann, Nicole; Fairclough, Lee; Oderkirk, Jillian; Finès, Philippe; Gribble, Stephen; Hoch, Jeffrey; Hicks, Chantal; Omariba, D Walter R; Ng, Edward

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a decision support tool to assess the potential benefits and costs of new healthcare interventions. The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer (CPAC) commissioned the development of a Cancer Risk Management Model (CRMM)--a computer microsimulation model that simulates individual lives one at a time, from birth to death, taking account of Canadian demographic and labor force characteristics, risk factor exposures, and health histories. Information from all the simulated lives is combined to produce aggregate measures of health outcomes for the population or for particular subpopulations. The CRMM can project the population health and economic impacts of cancer control programs in Canada and the impacts of major risk factors, cancer prevention, and screening programs and new cancer treatments on population health and costs to the healthcare system. It estimates both the direct costs of medical care, as well as lost earnings and impacts on tax revenues. The lung and colorectal modules are available through the CPAC Web site (www.cancerview.ca/cancerrriskmanagement) to registered users where structured scenarios can be explored for their projected impacts. Advanced users will be able to specify new scenarios or change existing modules by varying input parameters or by accessing open source code. Model development is now being extended to cervical and breast cancers.

  17. Modulating Cancer Risk: The Gut Takes Control | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer risk is influenced by a number of factors, including exposure to chemicals in food and drugs and other molecules in the environment. Some of these chemicals may increase risk of developing cancer, while others, including many chemicals in vegetables, may confer protection.

  18. Estimating lung cancer risks of indoor radon: applications for prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The epidemiologic evidence for a serious lung cancer hazard from radon exposure is very strong, and cumulative exposures accrued in residences may frequently overlap those accrued in underground miners. However, many uncertainties exist in extrapolating from mining to indoor risks because of differences in the populations, in radon exposure variables, and in other exposures. Risks are also considered for indoor radon exposures outside the home. There is already suggestive evidence of an association of lung cancer with radon levels in community settings, and several large-scale investigations are in progress. Some important questions regarding quantifying risk may not be approached, however; some further research needs are outlined including development of techniques for preventing or postponing lung cancer in individuals previously exposed to high radon levels. 31 references, 2 tables

  19. NASA Space Radiation Protection Strategies: Risk Assessment and Permissible Exposure Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z. S.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Permissible exposure limits (PELs) for short-term and career astronaut exposures to space radiation have been set and approved by NASA with the goal of protecting astronauts against health risks associated with ionizing radiation exposure. Short term PELs are intended to prevent clinically significant deterministic health effects, including performance decrements, which could threaten astronaut health and jeopardize mission success. Career PELs are implemented to control late occurring health effects, including a 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) from cancer, and dose limits are used to prevent cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases. For radiation protection, meeting the cancer PEL is currently the design driver for galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event shielding, mission duration, and crew certification (e.g., 1-year ISS missions). The risk of cancer development is the largest known long-term health consequence following radiation exposure, and current estimates for long-term health risks due to cardiovascular diseases are approximately 30% to 40% of the cancer risk for exposures above an estimated threshold (Deep Space one-year and Mars missions). Large uncertainties currently exist in estimating the health risks of space radiation exposure. Improved understanding through radiobiology and physics research allows increased accuracy in risk estimation and is essential for ensuring astronaut health as well as for controlling mission costs, optimization of mission operations, vehicle design, and countermeasure assessment. We will review the Space Radiation Program Element's research strategies to increase accuracy in risk models and to inform development and validation of the permissible exposure limits.

  20. Early life exposures and the risk of adult glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anic, Gabriella M; Madden, Melissa H; Sincich, Kelly; Thompson, Reid C; Nabors, L Burton; Olson, Jeffrey J; LaRocca, Renato V; Browning, James E; Pan, Edward; Egan, Kathleen M

    2013-09-01

    Exposure to common infections in early life may stimulate immune development and reduce the risk for developing cancer. Birth order and family size are proxies for the timing of exposure to childhood infections with several studies showing a reduced risk of glioma associated with a higher order of birth (and presumed younger age at infection). The aim of this study was to examine whether birth order, family size, and other early life exposures are associated with the risk of glioma in adults using data collected in a large clinic-based US case-control study including 889 glioma cases and 903 community controls. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on family structure, childhood exposures and other potential risk factors. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between early life factors and glioma risk. Persons having any siblings were at significantly lower risk for glioma when compared to those reporting no siblings (OR=0.64; 95% CI 0.44-0.93; p=0.020). Compared to first-borns, individuals with older siblings had a significantly lower risk (OR=0.75; 95% CI 0.61-0.91; p=0.004). Birth weight, having been breast fed in infancy, and season of birth were not associated with glioma risk. The current findings lend further support to a growing body of evidence that early exposure to childhood infections reduces the risk of glioma onset in children and adults.

  1. Review Article Exposure to biomass smoke as a risk factor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomass smoke exposure and upper GI cancers. © 2017 The College of .... with age- and sex-matched controls, revealed a significant association with biomass ..... Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2016 Mar ...

  2. Exposure to biomass smoke as a risk factor for oesophageal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to biomass smoke as a risk factor for oesophageal and gastric cancer in low-income populations: A systematic review. Violet Kayamba, Douglas C. Heimburger, Douglas R. Morgan, Masharip Atadzhanov, Paul Kelly ...

  3. Thyroid cancer from occupational exposures to iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of external irradiation, primarily of children, suggest that the thyroid gland is one of the most radiosensitive sites for carcinogenesis. However, it has generally been thought that 131 I confers much less risk (per rad) than external radiation because of its low dose-rate. A review of the epidemiologic literature indicates that age at irradiation is also an important variable in defining thyroid cancer risk, with a lesser risk at older ages. The available human studies are reasonably consistent in affirming that risks following 131 I are small. However, the data on 131 I exposure are too sparse, particularly for childhood exposure, to determine how much of the observed diminution in risk is due to older ages at exposure and how much is attributable to the characteristics of 131 I exposure per se, such as low dose-rate. Since most of the existing studies have inadequacies in design, dose levels, dosimetry or number of subjects, additional studies are needed before the risk assessment of 131 I at lower dose levels in adult workers can be regarded as definitive

  4. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for women and 2 drinks per day for men DO NOT smoke You can also have genetic testing done to assess your risk for colon cancer. If you have a strong family history of the disease, talk with your ...

  5. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... http://www.fda.gov/aboutfda/centersoffices/officeoffoods/cfsan/default.htm . Selected References Huncharek M, Kupelnick B. Personal use of hair dyes and the risk of bladder cancer: results of a meta-analysis. ...

  6. Cancer risk in systemic lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatsky, Sasha; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Labrecque, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update estimates of cancer risk in SLE relative to the general population. METHODS: A multisite international SLE cohort was linked with regional tumor registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated as the ratio of observed to expected cancers. RESULTS: Across 30 c...

  7. Mechanistic models for cancer development after short time radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottbauer, M. M.

    1997-12-01

    In this work two biological based models were developed. First the single-hit model for solid tumors (SHM-S) and second the single-hit model for leukemia (SHM-L). These models are a further development of the Armitage-Doll model for the special case of a short time radiation exposure. The basis of the models is the multistage process of carcinogeneses. The single-hit models provide simultaneously the age-dependent cancer-rate of spontaneous and radiation induced tumors as well as the dose-effect relationships at any age after exposure. The SHM-S leads to a biological based dose-effect relationship, which is similar to the relative risk model suggested by the ICRP 60. The SHM-S describes the increased mortality rate of the bomb survivors more accurate than the relative risk model. The SHM-L results in an additive dose-effect relationship. It is shown that only small differences in the derivation of the two models lead to the two dose-effect relationships. Beside the radiation exposure the new models consider the decrease of the cancer mortality rate at higher ages (age>75) which can be traced back mainly to three causes: competitive causes of death, reduction of cell proliferation and reduction of risk groups. The single-hit models also consider children cancer, the different rates of incidence and mortality, influence of the immune system and the cell-killing effect. (author)

  8. Non-medical exposure to radioiodines and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindie, Elif; Leenhardt, Laurence; Aurengo, Andre; Vitaux, Francoise; Colas-Linhart, Nicole; Bok, B.; Grosclaude, Pascale; Galle, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred 32 years after the accidental exposure of Marshall islanders, resulted in the exposure of neighbouring populations to a mixture of iodine isotopes and in an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. The highest thyroid doses were received by the youngest age groups. This review describes the existing evidence, and examines factors that may have increased the risk. It also stresses problems with contemporary thyroid measurements, and the lack of information on the sensitivity of the thyroid to short-lived iodine isotopes and iodine-131. Practical considerations for nuclear physicians, epidemiologists and thyroidologists are discussed in the light of this major accident. (orig.)

  9. Non-medical exposure to radioiodines and thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindie, Elif [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Saint-Antoine, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (France); Leenhardt, Laurence; Aurengo, Andre [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital de la Pitie-Salpetriere, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (France); Vitaux, Francoise [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, CHI Le Raincy-Montfermeil (France); Colas-Linhart, Nicole; Bok, B. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Beaujon, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, 100 avenue du General Leclerc, 92110 Clichy (France); Grosclaude, Pascale [Reseau Francais des Registres de Cancers, Toulouse (France); Galle, Pierre [Service de Physique et Chimie Biologiques, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire d' Alfort (France)

    2002-08-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred 32 years after the accidental exposure of Marshall islanders, resulted in the exposure of neighbouring populations to a mixture of iodine isotopes and in an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. The highest thyroid doses were received by the youngest age groups. This review describes the existing evidence, and examines factors that may have increased the risk. It also stresses problems with contemporary thyroid measurements, and the lack of information on the sensitivity of the thyroid to short-lived iodine isotopes and iodine-131. Practical considerations for nuclear physicians, epidemiologists and thyroidologists are discussed in the light of this major accident. (orig.)

  10. Radiation risk due to occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kargbo, A.A

    2012-04-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation occurs in many occupations. Workers can be exposed to both natural and artificial sources of radiation. Any exposure to ionizing radiation incurs some risk, either to the individual or to the individual's progeny. This dissertation investigated the radiation risk due to occupational exposure in industrial radiography. Analysis of the reported risk estimates to occupational exposure contained in the UNSCEAR report of 2008 in industrial radiography practice was done. The causes of accidents in industrial radiography include: Lack of or inadequate regulatory control, inadequate training, failure to follow operational procedures, human error, equipment malfunction or defect, inadequate maintenance and wilful violation have been identified as primary causes of accidents. To minimise radiation risks in industrial radiography exposure devices and facilities should be designed such that there is intrinsic safety and operational safety ensured by establishing a quality assurance programme, safety culture fostered and maintained among all workers, industrial radiography is performed in compliance with approved local rules, workers engaged have appropriate qualifications and training, available safe operational procedures are followed, a means is provided for detecting incidents and accidents and an analysis of the causes and lessons learned. (author)

  11. RISKAP, Risk Assessment of Radiation Exposure for Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: RISKAP estimates risk to a population exposed to radioactivity. Risk is measured in terms of the expected number of premature deaths resulting from radiogenic cancers, the number of years of life lost as a result of these deaths, and the average number of years of life lost per premature death. RISKAP accommodates latency and plateau periods that vary with age at exposure and risk functions that vary with age at exposure as well as time after exposure. 2 - Method of solution: The user defines a population by specifying its size and age distribution at reference time zero, its subsequent age-specific mortality rates assuming no radiogenic deaths, and its subsequent birth rates. Radiation doses that may vary with age and time are also assigned by the user. These doses are used to compute an annual, age-specific risk of premature cancer death, based on a dose-response function selected by the user. Calculations of premature radiation deaths, deaths from all causes, and new age distribution of the population are performed for one-year intervals. The population is tracked over any specified period. This version of RISKAP allows the use of a linear, quadratic, or linear-quadratic dose-response function. The user may substitute any preferred dose-response function by editing the code. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: None noted

  12. Bladder cancer incidence and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among asphalt pavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, Igor; Kromhout, Hans; Johansen, Christoffer; Langard, Sverre; Kauppinen, Timo; Shaham, Judith; Ferro, Gilles; Boffetta, Paolo

    2007-08-01

    To investigate the association between exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that arises during asphalt paving, and risk of bladder cancer. 7298 men included in the historical cohort were first employed between 1913 and 1999 in companies applying asphalt in Denmark, Norway, Finland and Israel. The minimal duration of employment for inclusion in the cohort was two seasons of work. Occupational histories were extracted from personnel files. A follow-up for cancer incidence was conducted through national cancer registries. The authors estimated exposures to benzo(a)pyrene as a marker for 4-6 ring PAH. Exposures were reconstructed by using information about changes in asphalt paving technology in each company over time, the modelled relation between production characteristics and exposure levels, and job histories. Relative risks and associated 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Poisson regression. 48 bladder cancers among asphalt paving workers were detected; of these, 39 cases were exposed at least 15 years before the diagnosis. Cumulative exposure to PAH was not associated with the incidence of bladder cancer. The association with average exposure became stronger when 15-year lag was considered, revealing a twofold increase in relative bladder cancer risk in the two higher exposure categories. There was an indication of exposure-response association with lagged averaged exposure. Risk estimates were adjusted for age, country, duration of employment and calendar period, did not show heterogeneity among countries and did not materially change when re-estimated after excluding non-primary cancers from follow-up. Previously conducted sensitivity analysis indicates that confounding by cigarette smoking is an unlikely explanation for the observed exposure-response trends. The authors were unable to control for all possible sources of confounding and bias. The results do not allow conclusion on the presence or absence of a causal link between

  13. Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer. Having hepatitis or cirrhosis can increase the risk of developing liver cancer. Anything that increases the ... clinical trials is available from the NCI website . Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening Key Points Screening ...

  14. Work stress and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Theorell, Töres

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, is associated with the overall risk of cancer and the risk of colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers.......To investigate whether work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, is associated with the overall risk of cancer and the risk of colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers....

  15. Low Dose Radiation Cancer Risks: Epidemiological and Toxicological Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David G. Hoel, PhD

    2012-04-19

    The basic purpose of this one year research grant was to extend the two stage clonal expansion model (TSCE) of carcinogenesis to exposures other than the usual single acute exposure. The two-stage clonal expansion model of carcinogenesis incorporates the biological process of carcinogenesis, which involves two mutations and the clonal proliferation of the intermediate cells, in a stochastic, mathematical way. The current TSCE model serves a general purpose of acute exposure models but requires numerical computation of both the survival and hazard functions. The primary objective of this research project was to develop the analytical expressions for the survival function and the hazard function of the occurrence of the first cancer cell for acute, continuous and multiple exposure cases within the framework of the piece-wise constant parameter two-stage clonal expansion model of carcinogenesis. For acute exposure and multiple exposures of acute series, it is either only allowed to have the first mutation rate vary with the dose, or to have all the parameters be dose dependent; for multiple exposures of continuous exposures, all the parameters are allowed to vary with the dose. With these analytical functions, it becomes easy to evaluate the risks of cancer and allows one to deal with the various exposure patterns in cancer risk assessment. A second objective was to apply the TSCE model with varing continuous exposures from the cancer studies of inhaled plutonium in beagle dogs. Using step functions to estimate the retention functions of the pulmonary exposure of plutonium the multiple exposure versions of the TSCE model was to be used to estimate the beagle dog lung cancer risks. The mathematical equations of the multiple exposure versions of the TSCE model were developed. A draft manuscript which is attached provides the results of this mathematical work. The application work using the beagle dog data from plutonium exposure has not been completed due to the fact

  16. Cancer risk in aluminum reduction plant workers (Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, J.J.; Demers, P.A.; Le, N.D.; Friesen, M.D.; Lorenzi, M.F.; Fang, R.; Gallagher, R.P. [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    A 14-year update to a previously published historical cohort study of aluminum reduction plant workers was conducted. All men with three or more years at an aluminum reduction plant in British Columbia (BC), Canada between the years 1954 and 1997 were included; a total of 6,423 workers. A total of 662 men were diagnosed with cancer, representing a 400% increase from the original study. Standardized mortality and incidence ratios were used to compare the cancer mortality and incidence of the cohort to that of the BC population. Poisson regression was used to examine risk by cumulative exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV) measured as benzene soluble materials (BSM) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The risk for bladder cancer was related to cumulative exposure to CTPV measured as BSM and BaP (p trends < 0.001), and the risk for stomach cancer was related to exposure measured by BaP (p trend BaP < 0.05). The risks for lung cancer (p trend < 0.001), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (p trend < 0.001), and kidney cancer (p trend < 0.01) also increased with increasing exposure, although the overall rates were similar to that of the general population. Analysis of the joint effect of smoking and CTPV exposure on cancer showed the observed dose-response relationships to be independent of smoking.

  17. Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monakhova Yulia B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1, with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has been focused on salivary acetaldehyde that is formed either from ethanol metabolism in the epithelia or from microbial oxidation of ethanol by the oral microflora. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of the acetaldehyde that is found as a component of alcoholic beverages as an additional factor in the aetiology of oral cancer. Methods Salivary acetaldehyde levels were determined in the context of sensory analysis of different alcoholic beverages (beer, cider, wine, sherry, vodka, calvados, grape marc spirit, tequila, cherry spirit, without swallowing, to exclude systemic ethanol metabolism. Results The rinsing of the mouth for 30 seconds with an alcoholic beverage is able to increase salivary acetaldehyde above levels previously judged to be carcinogenic in vitro, with levels up to 1000 μM in cases of beverages with extreme acetaldehyde content. In general, the highest salivary acetaldehyde concentration was found in all cases in the saliva 30 sec after using the beverages (average 353 μM. The average concentration then decreased at the 2-min (156 μM, 5-min (76 μM and 10-min (40 μM sampling points. The salivary acetaldehyde concentration depends primarily on the direct ingestion of acetaldehyde contained in the beverages at the 30-sec sampling, while the influence of the metabolic formation from ethanol becomes the major factor at the 2-min sampling point. Conclusions This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral

  18. Environmental carcinogenic agents and cancer prevention. Risk assessment and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2013-01-01

    Many agents in our environment have been established as being carcinogenic, and in most cases, the carcinogenic properties of these agents were identified because of high-dose occupational or accidental exposure. Risk characterization, taking into account the dose-response relationship, and exposure assessment are essential for risk assessment and subsequent cancer prevention. Based on scientific risk assessment, risk management should be conducted practically by considering the economic, social, political, and other technical issues and by balancing the risks and benefits. Asbestos and environmental tobacco smoke are typical examples of established carcinogenic agents in the general environment, contributing to low-dose exposure. Further epidemiological studies are required to investigate the carcinogenicity of low-dose exposure to known carcinogenic agents such as arsenic and cadmium through dietary intake, radiation via medical and natural exposure, and air pollution due to diesel exhaust. In contrast, occupational chemical exposure to 1,2-dichloropropane and/or dichloromethane, whose carcinogenicity had not been established, was suggested to cause cholangiocarcinoma among workers involved in offset color proof-printing only after a rare situation of high-dose exposure was unveiled. Continuous monitoring of unusual cancer occurrences in target populations such as workers in occupational and regional settings as well as exposure reduction to suspected carcinogenic agents to levels as low as reasonably achievable is essential for reducing the risk of cancer due to environmental carcinogens. (author)

  19. Low dose diagnostic radiation does not increase cancer risk in cancer prone mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boreham, D., E-mail: dboreham@nosm.ca [Northern Ontario School of Medicine, ON (Canada); Phan, N., E-mail: nghiphan13@yahoo.com [Univ. of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Lemon, J., E-mail: lemonja@mcmaster.ca [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The increased exposure of patients to low dose diagnostic ionizing radiation has created concern that these procedures will result in greater risk of carcinogenesis. However, there is substantial evidence that shows in many cases that low dose exposure has the opposite effect. We have investigated whether CT scans can modify mechanisms associated with carcinogenesis in cancer-prone mice. Cancer was induced in Trp53+/- mice with an acute high dose whole-body 4 Gy γ-radiation exposure. Four weeks following the cancer-inducing dose, weekly whole-body CT scans (10 mGy/scan, 75 kVp X-rays) were given for ten consecutive weeks adding an additional radiation burden of 0.1 Gy. Short-term biological responses and subsequent lifetime cancer risk were investigated. Five days following the last CT scan, there were no detectable differences in the spontaneous levels of DNA damage in blood cells (reticulocytes). In fact, CT scanned mice had significantly lower constitutive levels of oxidative DNA damage and cell death (apoptosis), compared to non-CT scanned mice. This shows that multiple low dose radiation exposures modified the radio response and indicates protective processes were induced in mice. In mice treated with the multiple CT scans following the high cancer-inducing 4 Gy dose, tumour latency was increased, significantly prolonging lifespan. We conclude that repeated CT scans can reduce the cancer risk of a prior high-dose radiation exposure, and delay the progression of specific types of radiation-induced cancers in Trp53+/-mice. This research shows for the first time that low dose exposure long after cancer initiation events alter risk and reduce cancer morbidity. Cancer induction following low doses does not follow a linear non-threshold model of risk and this model should not be used to extrapolate risk to humans following low dose exposure to ionizing radiation. (author)

  20. Obesity and colorectal cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hano Garcia, Olga Marina; Wood Rodriguez, Lisette; Villa Jimenez, Oscar Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic and multifactor disease characterized by presence of excess body fat harmful for health. Several studies have been conducted to assess the possible risk character of different factors for colorectal cancer including the following modifying factors: a diet rich in saturated fats, a diet low in vegetables, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption and obesity. A case-control study was conducted to include 276 adult patients (93 cases and 184 controls) consecutively seen from May, 2008 to May, 2009 in the Institute of Gastroenterology determining a possible association between obesity as risk factor and colorectal cancer. Variables measures included: sex, age, skin color, body mass index, hip-waist circumference and endoscopic location of cancer. We conclude that the colorectal cancer with predominance in female sex and in white people in both groups. Obesity according to a great relation hip-waist had an strong relation with colorectal cancer, which had predominance towards distal colon in both sexes

  1. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  2. Skin cancer as a marker of sun exposure associates with myocardial infarction, hip fracture and death from any cause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum-Jacobsen, Peter; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F

    2013-01-01

    Sun exposure is the single most important risk factor for skin cancer, but sun exposure may also have beneficial effects on health. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with skin cancer (non-melanoma skin cancer and cutaneous malignant melanoma) have less myocardial infarction, hip fracture...

  3. Risk of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A case study in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yanxin; Li, Qi; Wang, Hui; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xilong; Ren, Aiguo; Tao, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can cause adverse effects on human health. The relative contributions of their two major intake routes (diet and inhalation) to population PAH exposure are still unclear. We modeled the contributions of diet and inhalation to the overall PAH exposure of the population of Beijing in China, and assessed their human incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) using a Mont Carlo simulation approach. The results showed that diet accounted for about 85% of low-molecular-weight PAH (L-PAH) exposure, while inhalation accounted for approximately 57% of high-molecular-weight PAH (H-PAH) exposure of the Beijing population. Meat and cereals were the main contributors to dietary PAH exposure. Both gaseous- and particulate-phase PAHs contributed to L-PAH exposure through inhalation, whereas exposure to H-PAHs was mostly from the particulate-phase. To reduce the cancer incidence of the Beijing population, more attention should be given to inhaled particulate-phase PAHs with considerable carcinogenic potential. - Highlights: • We modeled the contributions of diet and inhalation to population PAH exposure. • Diet contributed 85% of population exposure to low molecular-weight PAHs. • Inhalation contributed 57% of population exposure to high molecular-weight PAHs. • The PAH exposure level with body-weight adjustment decreased with age increasing. • The population cancer risk of PAH exposure is lower than the serious risk level. - The exposure of the Beijing population to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was mainly from inhaled particulate matter

  4. Radiation risk from CT: implications for cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Jeffrey M

    2013-07-01

    The cancer risks associated with patient exposure to radiation from medical imaging have become a major topic of debate. The higher doses necessary for technologies such as CT and the increasing utilization of these technologies further increase medical radiation exposure to the population. Furthermore, the use of CT for population-based cancer screening continues to be explored for common malignancies such as lung cancer and colorectal cancer. Given the known carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, this warrants evaluation of the balance between the benefit of early cancer detection and the risk of screening-induced malignancy. This report provides a brief review of the process of radiation carcino-genesis and the literature evaluating the risk of malignancy from CT, with a focus on the risks and benefits of CT for cancer screening. The available data suggest a small but real risk of radiation-induced malignancy from CT that could become significant at the population level with widespread use of CT-based screening. However, a growing body of literature suggests that the benefits of CT screening for lung cancer in high-risk patients and CT colonography for colorectal cancer may significantly outweigh the radiation risk. Future studies evaluating the benefits of CT screening should continue to consider potential radiation risks.

  5. Organochlorine exposure and breast cancer risk in Colombian women Exposição a organoclorados e risco de câncer de mama em mulheres colombianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Olaya-Contreras

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological study was performed in Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia, with a total of 306 women enrolled, including 153 incident BC cases and 153 age-matched controls. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between BC risk and serum dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethene (DDE levels. Sociodemographic and reproductive data, diet, and past exposure to pesticides were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Chemical analysis of samples was performed by high resolution gas chromatography-ECD. Likelihood of developing BC by exposure to these substances was evaluated through odds ratios (OR adjusted for: first-child breast-feeding, family BC history, body mass index (BMI, parity, and menopausal status. Data analysis was performed by conditional logistic regression techniques. Adjusted OR for exposure to serum DDE and BC suggests an increase risk of BC in the higher category of DDE exposure (OR = 1.95; CI 1.10-3.52. The test for trend was not statistically significant (p = 0.09. We confirm that serum DDE levels bear a positive association to risk of BC and could support the association between risk of BC and burden of DDE exposure.Em estudo epidemiológico realizado em Santa Fé de Bogotá, Colômbia, 153 casos incidentes de câncer de mama (CM foram comparados com 153 controles, pareados por idade. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a associação entre o risco de CM e níveis séricos do pesticida DDT (DDE. Dados reprodutivos e sócio-demográficos, características da dieta e informação sobre exposição pregressa a pesticidas foram obtidos por meio de questionário. A análise química de amostras de sangue foi realizada através de cromatografia a gaz de alta resolução - ECD. A verossimelhança de desenvolver CM como decorrência de exposição a estas substâncias foi avaliada através de odds ratios (OR, obtidas por técnicas de regressão logística condicional, ajustadas para amamentação do primogênito, hist

  6. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or more than 14 drinks per week for men. What is the evidence that alcohol drinking is a cause of cancer? Based on extensive reviews of research studies , there is a strong scientific consensus of an association between alcohol drinking ...

  7. Exposure to magnetic field and brain cancer among child; Exposition au champ magnetique et cancer du cerveau chez l'enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mir, L

    2008-09-15

    The risk of childhood brain cancer as a function of magnetic field exposure has been studied less than the risk of leukemia. this updated meta-analysis of thirteen epidemiologic studies thus provides an important contribution to the literature. No increased risk of brain cancer was found, and there were no differences by method of exposure assessment. Doubt remains only for the highest exposure levels, for which very limited data are available. (author)

  8. Thinking through cancer risk: characterizing smokers' process of risk determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer; Shuk, Elyse; Cruz, Gustavo; Ostroff, Jamie

    2005-10-01

    The perception of cancer risk motivates cancer risk reduction behaviors. However, common measurement strategies for cancer risk perceptions, which involve numerical likelihood estimates, do not adequately capture individuals' thoughts and feelings about cancer risk. To guide the development of novel measurement strategies, the authors used semistructured interviews to examine the thought processes used by smokers (N = 15) as they considered their cancer risk. They used grounded theory to guide systematic data coding and develop a heuristic model describing smokers' risk perception process that includes a cognitive, primarily rational process whereby salient personal risk factors for cancer are considered and combined, and an affective/attitudinal process, which shifts risk perceptions either up or down. The model provides a tentative explanation concerning how people hold cancer risk perceptions that diverge from rational assessment of their risks and will be useful in guiding the development of non-numerical measurements strategies for cancer risk perceptions.

  9. Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Katherine A; Trabert, Britton

    2012-04-17

    The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past several decades in many developed countries. The reasons for the increases are unknown because the risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. Some research suggests that in utero exposures, or those in early childhood, are likely to be important in determining an individual's level of risk. However, other research suggests that exposure to various factors in adolescence and adulthood is also linked to the development of testicular cancer. Of these, two adult occupational exposures-fire fighting and aircraft maintenance--and one environmental exposure (to organochlorine pesticides) are likely to be associated with increased risk of developing testicular cancer. By contrast, seven of the identified factors--diet, types of physical activity, military service, police work as well as exposure to ionizing radiation, electricity and acrylamide--are unlikely to increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. Finally, seven further exposures--to heat, polyvinyl chloride, nonionizing radiation, heavy metals, agricultural work, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as marijuana use--require further study to determine their association with testicular cancer.

  10. Lung cancer in never smokers: disease characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallis, Athanasios G; Syrigos, Konstantinos N

    2013-12-01

    It is estimated that approximately 25% of all lung cancer cases are observed in never-smokers and its incidence is expected to increase due to smoking prevention programs. Risk factors for the development of lung cancer described include second-hand smoking, radon exposure, occupational exposure to carcinogens and to cooking oil fumes and indoor coal burning. Other factors reported are infections (HPV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis), hormonal and diatery factors and diabetes mellitus. Having an affected relative also increases the risk for lung cancer while recent studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with increased risk for lung cancer development in never smokers. Distinct clinical, pathology and molecular characteristics are observed in lung cancer in never smokers; more frequently is observed in females and adenocarcinoma is the predominant histology while it has a different pattern of molecular alterations. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of this disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Epigenetic: a molecular link between testicular cancer and environmental exposures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie eVega

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, studies in rodents have highlighted links between in utero and/or neonatal exposures to molecules that alter endocrine functions and the development of genital tract abnormalities, such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and impaired spermatogenesis. Most of these molecules, called endocrine disrupters (EDs exert estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activities. These data led to the hypothesis of the Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome which postulates that these disorders are one clinical entity and are linked by epidemiological and pathophysiological relations. Futhermore, infertility has been stated as a risk factor for testicular cancer. The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past decades. Most of testicular germ cell cancers develop through a pre-invasive carcinoma in situ (CIS from fetal germ cells (primordial germ cell or gonocyte. During their development, fetal germ cells undergo epigenetic modifications. Interestingly, several lines of evidence have shown that gene regulation through epigenetic mechanisms (DNA and histone modifications plays an important role in normal development as well as in various diseases, including testicular cancer.Here we will review chromatin modifications which can affect testicular physiology leading to the development of testicular cancer; and highlight potential molecular pathways involved in these alterations in the context of environmental exposures.

  12. Agent Orange exposure and cancer incidence in Korean Vietnam veterans: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul

    2014-12-01

    During the Vietnam War, US and allied military sprayed approximately 77 million liters of tactical herbicides including Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. To the authors' knowledge, few studies to date have examined the association between Agent Orange exposure and cancer incidence among Korean veterans who were exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. An Agent Orange exposure index, based on the proximity of the veteran's military unit to the area that was sprayed with Agent Orange, was developed using a geographic information system-based model. Cancer incidence was followed for 180,251 Vietnam veterans from 1992 through 2003. After adjustment for age and military rank, high exposure to Agent Orange was found to significantly increase the risk of all cancers combined (adjusted hazards ratio [aHR], 1.08). Risks for cancers of the mouth (aHR, 2.54), salivary glands (aHR, 6.96), stomach (aHR, 1.14), and small intestine (aHR, 2.30) were found to be significantly higher in the high-exposure group compared with the low-exposure group. Risks for cancers of all sites combined (aHR, 1.02) and for cancers of the salivary glands (aHR, 1.47), stomach (aHR, 1.03), small intestine (aHR, 1.24), and liver (aHR, 1.02) were elevated with a 1-unit increase in the exposure index. Exposure to Agent Orange several decades earlier may increase the risk of cancers in all sites combined, as well as several specific cancers, among Korean veterans of the Vietnam War, including some cancers that were not found to be clearly associated with exposure to Agent Orange in previous cohort studies primarily based on Western populations. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  13. A Study of the Frequency and Social Determinants of Exposure to Cancer-Related Direct-to-Consumer Advertising Among Breast, Prostate, and Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy S L

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-related direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) is controversial because cancer treatment is complex and entails more risks and costs than typical treatments that are advertised for other conditions. Drawing from the Structural Influence Model of Communication, this study explores communication inequalities in DTCA exposure across social determinants among a population-based sample of 2013 patients diagnosed with breast, prostate, or colorectal cancers. Three survey items assessed patients' frequency of encountering ads concerning treatment alternatives for cancer, dealing with side effects of treatment, and doctors or hospitals offering services for cancer following their diagnosis. The analysis showed that overall exposure to DTCA in this study population was modest (median was once per week). Breast cancer patients reported significantly higher exposure to all three ad categories and overall DTCA exposure than prostate and colorectal cancer patients. Older patients consistently reported lower overall exposure to DTCA across the three cancer types. Other significant correlates included ethnicity (higher exposures among African American prostate cancer patients vs. White; lower exposures in Hispanic colorectal cancer patients vs. White) and cancer stage (higher exposures in Stage IV prostate cancer patients vs. Stages 0-II). Education level did not predict patients' DTCA exposure. The implications of these observed inequalities in DTCA exposure on cancer outcomes are discussed.

  14. Cigarette smoking and radiation exposure in relation to cancer mortality, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prentice, R.L.; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Mason, M.W.

    1983-05-01

    Cancer mortality among 40,498 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents was examined in relation to cigarette smoking habits and estimated atomic bomb radiation exposure. Relative risk models that are either multiplicative or additive in the two exposures (smoking radiation) were emphasized. Most analyses were directed toward all nonhematologic cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, or digestive cancer other than stomach, for which there were, respectively, 1,725, 658, 281, and 338 deaths in the follow-up period of this study. Persons heavily exposed to both cigarette smoke and radiation were found to have significantly lower cancer mortality than multiplcative relative risk models would suggest for all nonhematologic cancer, stomach cancer, and digestive cancer other than stomach. Surprisingly, the relative risk function appeared not only to be submultiplicative for these cancer sites, but to be subadditive as well. The lung cancer relative risk function could not be distinguished from either a multiplicative or an additive form. The number of deaths was sufficient to permit some more detailed study of all nonhematologic cancer mortality: Relative risk functions appeared to be consistent between males and females though a paucity of heavy smoking females limits the precision of this comparison. (author)

  15. Radiation exposure and radiation risk of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.; Paretzke, H.G.; Ehling, U.H.

    1981-02-01

    The major scientifically founded results concerning the assessment of the radiation exposure and the analysis and evaluation of the radiationhazards for the population, particularly in the range of low doses, are presented. As to the risk analysis special attention is paid to the rays with low ionization density (X-, γ-, β- and electronrays). Contents: 1) Detailed survey of the results and conclusions; 2) Data on the radiation load of the population; 3) Results to epidemiological questioning on the risk of cancer; 4) Genetical radiation hazards of the population. For quantification purposes of the risk of cancer by γ-radiation the observations with the a-bomb survivors in Japan are taken as a basis, as the available dosimetrical data have to be revised. Appendices: 1) German translation of the UNSCEAR-Report (1977); 2) BEIR-Report (1980); 3) Comments from the SSK on the comparability of the risks of natural-artificial radiation exposure; 4) Comments from the SSK on the importance of synergistical influences for the radiation protection (23.9.1977). (HP) [de

  16. Preliminary survey for communicating risk in medical exposure. Perception of risk among nurses working in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Reiko; Tsuji, Satsuki; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted on radiation risk and medical exposure, particularly in applications involving children. The survey was targeted at nurses (170 females) engaged in important roles in communicating risk regarding medical exposure. The questionnaire survey yielded the following findings. A significant number of respondents associated the word radiation' with 'cancer treatment,' 'exposure,' and 'X-ray pictures.' Perceptions about 'food exposure' differed between respondents with children and those without. Among the potential health problems posed by radiation, effects on children,' 'cancer and leukemia,' and 'genetic effects' were perceived as the most worrisome. Significant differences in perception were noted regarding infertility between respondents with children and those without. Concerning the effects of medical exposure on fetuses/children, only 10 percent of all respondents replied that they were not anxious about negative effects in either case. Among the respondents who felt uneasy about these aspects, most tended to assess exposed parts, doses, damage potentially suffered, timing of occurrence, and uncertainty, based on their professional experience and knowledge, to rationally distinguish acceptable risks from unacceptable ones and to limit concern to the unacceptable aspects. (author)

  17. Cancer risk assessments and environmental regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scroggin, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Governmental regulation of toxic substances, such as carcinogens and radiation, prompts both legal and scientific controversies. Industry, environmental activist groups, government regulators, and the general public are all concerned with the question of how environmental risk to public health is to be measured and what level of risk warrants government action under the environmental laws. Several recent events shed light on the fundamental scientific and legal problems inherent in such regulation, and these events may affect the direction of future developments. These events include implementation of generic Risk Assessment Guidelines by the US EPA, litigation challenging EPA's regulation of carcinogenic substances, new scientific understanding of the relative risks from human exposure to natural and man-made sources, and the continuing growth of toxic tort litigation in which victims of cancer seek large damages from industrial emitters of pollution

  18. Lung cancer in never smokers Epidemiology and risk prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, William J.; Meza, Rafael; Jeon, Jihyoun; Moolgavkar, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we review the epidemiology of lung cancer incidence and mortality among never smokers/ nonsmokers and describe the never smoker lung cancer risk models used by CISNET modelers. Our review focuses on those influences likely to have measurable population impact on never smoker risk, such as secondhand smoke, even though the individual-level impact may be small. Occupational exposures may also contribute importantly to the population attributable risk of lung cancer. We examine the following risk factors in this chapter: age, environmental tobacco smoke, cooking fumes, ionizing radiation including radon gas, inherited genetic susceptibility, selected occupational exposures, preexisting lung disease, and oncogenic viruses. We also compare the prevalence of never smokers between the three CISNET smoking scenarios and present the corresponding lung cancer mortality estimates among never smokers as predicted by a typical CISNET model. PMID:22882894

  19. Engineered nanomaterials: exposures, hazards, and risk prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacPhail Robert C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanotechnology presents the possibility of revolutionizing many aspects of our lives. People in many settings (academic, small and large industrial, and the general public in industrialized nations are either developing or using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs or ENM-containing products. However, our understanding of the occupational, health and safety aspects of ENMs is still in its formative stage. A survey of the literature indicates the available information is incomplete, many of the early findings have not been independently verified, and some may have been over-interpreted. This review describes ENMs briefly, their application, the ENM workforce, the major routes of human exposure, some examples of uptake and adverse effects, what little has been reported on occupational exposure assessment, and approaches to minimize exposure and health hazards. These latter approaches include engineering controls such as fume hoods and personal protective equipment. Results showing the effectiveness - or lack thereof - of some of these controls are also included. This review is presented in the context of the Risk Assessment/Risk Management framework, as a paradigm to systematically work through issues regarding human health hazards of ENMs. Examples are discussed of current knowledge of nanoscale materials for each component of the Risk Assessment/Risk Management framework. Given the notable lack of information, current recommendations to minimize exposure and hazards are largely based on common sense, knowledge by analogy to ultrafine material toxicity, and general health and safety recommendations. This review may serve as an overview for health and safety personnel, management, and ENM workers to establish and maintain a safe work environment. Small start-up companies and research institutions with limited personnel or expertise in nanotechnology health and safety issues may find this review particularly useful.

  20. High body mass index and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Smith, George Davey

    2016-01-01

    of follow-up (range 0-37), 8002 developed non-skin cancer, 3347 non-melanoma skin cancer, 1396 lung cancer, 637 other smoking related cancers, 1203 colon cancer, 159 kidney cancer, 1402 breast cancer, 1062 prostate cancer, and 2804 other cancers. Participants were genotyped for five genetic variants...... with a BMI ≥ 30 versus 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2). Corresponding risk of breast cancer was 20 % (0-44 %) higher in postmenopausal women. BMI was not associated with risk of colon, kidney, other smoking related cancers, prostate cancer, or other cancers. In genetic analyses, carrying 7-10 versus 0-4 BMI increasing......High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with increased risk of some cancer. Whether these reflect causal associations is unknown. We examined this issue. Using a Mendelian randomisation approach, we studied 108,812 individuals from the general population. During a median of 4.7 years...

  1. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letašiová Silvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Results Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline, which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking, and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Conclusion Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline

  2. Most cancer in firefighters is due to radio-frequency radiation exposure not inhaled carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milham, S

    2009-11-01

    Recent reviews and reports of cancer incidence and mortality in firefighters conclude that they are at an increased risk of a number of cancers. These include leukemia, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, male breast cancer, malignant melanoma, and cancers of the brain, stomach, colon, rectum, prostate, urinary bladder, testes, and thyroid. Firefighters are exposed to a long list of recognized or probable carcinogens in combustion products and the presumed route of exposure to these carcinogens is by inhalation. Curiously, respiratory system cancers and diseases are usually not increased in firefighters as they are in workers exposed to known inhaled carcinogens. The list of cancers with increased risk in firefighters strongly overlaps the list of cancers at increased risk in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and radiofrequency radiation (RFR). Firefighters have increased exposure to RFR in the course of their work, from the mobile two-way radio communications devices which they routinely use while fighting fires, and at times from firehouse and fire vehicle radio transmitters. I suggest that some of the increased cancer risk in firefighters is caused by RFR exposure, and is therefore preventable. The precautionary principle should be applied to reduce the risk of cancer in firefighters, and workman's compensation rules will necessarily need to be modified.

  3. Assessing the risks of Rn exposure: the influence of cigarette smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginevan, M.E.; Mills, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The principal hazard associated with exposure to Rn progeny is lung cancer. However, most lung cancer is caused by smoking, which raises a dual problem of deriving Rn-progeny cancer risk estimates from miner populations who, in large part, are smokers and applying these estimates to the general population whose lung cancer risk, in large part, is determined by smoking habits. We examine current risk estimates for Rn-progeny-induced lung cancer using a cohort life table methodology. Estimates of lifetime probability of dying of lung cancer, average loss in life expectancy due to premature lung cancer death, and loss in life expectancy per premature lung cancer death are calculated for the general population for 1969 and 1978, nonsmokers, and smokers. These calculations demonstrate that such risk estimates are affected by smoking, and by trends in smoking habits, in several ways. Major smoking-related factors in this interaction are the proportion of smokers in the mining population used to derive lung cancer risk estimates, the proportion of smokers in the ''general'' population, and the assumed interaction (additive or multiplicative) between lung cancer risk, Rn-progeny exposure, and smoking history. At this time the data are not sufficient to recommend one particular modeling approach. However, our evaluation demonstrates that broad statements about Rn-progeny lung cancer risk such as x cancers/10(6) person working level month, while informative, are incomplete without further specification. Any risk assessment must clearly state the population assumed to be at risk and the risk model assumed to be operating. Finally, the caveats appropriate to these assumptions should also be enunciated

  4. Potential solar UVR exposure health risks in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, CY

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental effects of excess personal solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure include wrinkles, immunosuppression and skin cancer. Approximately 1 000 South Africans die each year from melanoma skin cancer and 30% of all histologically...

  5. Long working hours and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkila, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Madsen, Ida E. H.

    2016-01-01

    in 116 462 men and women who were free of cancer at baseline. Incident cancers were ascertained from national cancer, hospitalisation and death registers; weekly working hours were self-reported. Results: During median follow-up of 10.8 years, 4371 participants developed cancer (n colorectal cancer: 393......Background: Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. Methods: This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk......; n lung cancer: 247; n breast cancer: 833; and n prostate cancer: 534). We found no clear evidence for an association between working hours and the overall cancer risk. Working hours were also unrelated the risk of incident colorectal, lung or prostate cancers. Working greater than or equal to55 h...

  6. Radiological risk in case of potential exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiossi, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents basic theoretical aspects about the probabilistic conception of radiological risk in case of potential exposure associated with practices concerning installations such as nuclear power plants, research reactors or repositories for final disposal of radioactive waste. It is here shown how such conception helps in the decision-making process concerning people protection in the frame of the above mentioned situations. The question of risk is first analysed in a general sense- be it radiological risk or not- showing common concepts among the different technical definitions of risk. The subjects of individual risk an societal risk are then considered, as well as that of risk perception. Finally, some probabilistic safety criteria are described- corresponding to different schools which study radioactive and nuclear installations safety- putting emphasis in the way how such criteria are used in the decision-making process in order to accept or reject an installation from the point of view of safety. The criteria referred to are the 'Farmer Limit-Line', the 'Single-Dual Failure Criterion' and the 'Argentine Acceptation Criterion', in particular this last one is carefully detailed showing its origin as well as its practical application. (author)

  7. Air pollution and risk of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichmann, H.E.; Joeckel, K.H.; Molik, B.

    1991-01-01

    The pilot study among other things was intended to establish and to test a suitable sampling instrument, to develop quantification concepts in order to derive from the large amount of detailed sets of data the appropriate exposure measures, and to determine the distribution pattern of the main risk factors. The approach chosen for epidemiological screening was a case-control study covering a total each of 194 lung cancer cases, hospital controls, and population controls drawn in the Lands of North Rhine-Westfalia and northern Germany. This case-control approach proved to be feasible in principle. In particular, the sampling instrument for description of the risk factors 'occupation', 'smoker', and 'air pollution' proved to be suitable in combination with data in other potential influencing factors. The concepts chosen for a quantification of these factors yielded exposure measures appropriately reducing the large dimension of data of the questionnaire, without however completely exploiting it. The data ascertained within the framework of the pilot study allow to make a risk assessment for only two factors, namely 'smoker' and 'occupation'. For the index of the overall occupational exposure, covering contributions from exposure to asbestos, arsenic, nickel, chronium, PAH, and radionuclides, a relative risk of 1.8 was determined. The study indicated that there is a link between occupational exposure to asbestos or PAH, and the occurence of bronchial carcinoma. The pilot study did not give an answer to the question of whether air pollution contributes to the formation of bronchial carcinoma. This question will have to be solved by a more extensive study. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Is beryllium-induced lung cancer caused only by soluble forms and high exposure levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Couch, James R; Deddens, James A

    2017-08-01

    The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recently proposed a permissible exposure limit of 0.2 µg/m 3 for beryllium, based partly on extrapolated estimates of lung cancer risk from a pooled occupational cohort. The purpose of the present analysis was to evaluate whether cohort members exposed at lower levels to mainly insoluble forms of beryllium exhibit increased risk of lung cancer. We conducted Cox proportional hazards regression analyses among 75 lung cancer cases in age-based risk sets within two lower exposure plants in the pooled cohort followed from 1940 to 2005. We used categorical and power models to evaluate exposure-response patterns for mean and cumulative beryllium exposures in the two-plant cohort, comparing findings with the full pooled cohort. We also evaluated the distribution of exposure-years in each cohort by solubility class (soluble, insoluble and mixed). 98% of workers in the two-plant cohort were hired between 1955 and 1969. The mean beryllium exposure averaged 1.3 µg/m 3 and the predominant form was insoluble. Adjusting for confounders, we observed a monotonic increase in lung cancer mortality across exposure categories in the two-plant cohort. The exposure-response coefficients (per unit ln exposure) were 0.270 (p=0.061) for mean exposure and 0.170 (p=0.033) for cumulative exposure, compared with 0.155 and 0.094 (respectively) in the full cohort. The low-exposure levels at these two plants and the predominance of insoluble beryllium suggest that the overall pooled cohort findings on which OSHA's lung cancer risk assessment is based are relevant for current workers exposed to any form of beryllium. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Technical Overview of Ecological Risk Assessment - Analysis Phase: Exposure Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure Characterization is the second major component of the analysis phase of a risk assessment. For a pesticide risk assessment, the exposure characterization describes the potential or actual contact of a pesticide with a plant, animal, or media.

  10. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  11. A prospective three-dimensional analysis about the impact of differences in the clinical target volume in prostate cancer irradiation on normal-tissue exposure. A potential for increasing the benefit/risk ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, A.; Toews, N.; Schmidberger, H.; Hess, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: rectal toxicity following external-beam irradiation of prostate cancer correlates with the exposed percentage of rectal volume. Recently, it has been recommended to reduce the volume of the seminal vesicles that should be included in the clinical target volume (CTV). The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess the impact of this CTV reduction on the expected rectal and bladder dose sparing. Patients and methods: 14 patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing external-beam radiotherapy were investigated. The prostate, the prostate + entire seminal vesicles, or the prostate + proximal seminal vesicles were delineated as CTV. Treatment plans were generated and compared concerning rectum and bladder dose-volume histograms (DVHs). Results: the exposure of rectum and bladder volume was significantly lower in case of irradiation of the prostate only compared to inclusion of the proximal or entire seminal vesicles into the CTV. The reduction of the CTV from prostate + entire seminal vesicles to prostate + proximal seminal vesicles led to a significant reduction of the rectal and bladder dose exposure. Conclusion: reduction of the CTV to the prostate only, or to the prostate + proximal seminal vesicles led to significant rectal and bladder dose sparing compared to irradiation of the prostate + entire seminal vesicles. In patients with a higher risk for seminal vesicles involvement, irradiation of the prostate + proximal seminal vesicles should be preferred. In case of a need for irradiation of the entire seminal vesicles, patients should be informed about a higher risk for chronic rectal toxicity and, possibly, for bladder complications. (orig.)

  12. Cadmium exposure and health risks: Recent findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G. [Huddinge Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Renal Medicine; Jaerup, L. [Stockholm City Council (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Health

    1996-08-01

    Environmental and/or occupational exposure to cadmium give rise to a tubular kidney dysfunction which may proceed to more generalized renal damage and bone disease if exposure has been high and prolonged. Recent scientific work shows that early renal effects develop at lower levels of exposure than previously anticipated. Previous risk assessments for cadmium were mainly based on studies on healthy male workers. The general population, however, also include particularly susceptible groups such as elderly and individuals with illnesses (e.g. diabetes) that may predispose to cadmium-induced health effects. A significant proportion of the general population displays early signs of toxicity already at urinary cadmium concentrations around 3 nmol mmol{sup -1} creatinine. In addition to early tubular effects, cadmium may exert direct or indirect effects on mineral metabolism and the mineralization of the skeleton at relatively low levels of exposure. This may have important health implications, as poor and easily fractured bone is a major problem among the elderly in all industrialized countries. 41 refs, 4 figs

  13. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Schans, van de S.A.; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. Methods Data from the

  14. Cancer risk in men exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohsnitter, W C; Noller, K L; Hoover, R N; Robboy, S J; Palmer, J R; Titus-Ernstoff, L; Kaufman, R H; Adam, E; Herbst, A L; Hatch, E E

    2001-04-04

    An association between prenatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure and cancer in men, especially testicular cancer, has been suspected, but findings from case-control studies have been inconsistent. This study was conducted to investigate the association between prenatal DES exposure and cancer risk in men via prospective follow-up. A total of 3613 men whose prenatal DES exposure status was known were followed from 1978 through 1994. The overall and site-specific cancer incidence rates among the DES-exposed men were compared with those of the unexposed men in the study and with population-based rates. The relative rate (RR) was used to assess the strength of the association between prenatal DES exposure and cancer development. All statistical tests were two-sided. Overall cancer rates among DES-exposed men were similar to those among unexposed men (RR = 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.58 to 1.96) and to national rates (RR = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.65 to 1.44). Testicular cancer may be elevated among DES-exposed men, since the RRs for testicular cancer were 3.05 (95% CI = 0.65 to 22.0) times those of unexposed men in the study and 2.04 (95% CI = 0.82 to 4.20) times those of males in the population-based rates. The higher rate of testicular cancer in the DES-exposed men is, however, also compatible with a chance observation. To date, men exposed to DES in utero do not appear to have an increased risk of most cancers. It remains uncertain, however, whether prenatal DES exposure is associated with testicular cancer.

  15. Light deficiency confers breast cancer risk by endocrine disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suba, Zsuzsanna

    2012-09-01

    North-America and northern European countries exhibit the highest incidence rate of breast cancer, whereas women in southern regions are relatively protected. Immigrants from low cancer incidence regions to high-incidence areas might exhibit similarly higher or excessive cancer risk as compared with the inhabitants of their adoptive country. Additional cancer risk may be conferred by incongruence between their biological characteristics and foreign environment. Many studies established the racial/ethnic disparities in the risk and nature of female breast cancer in United States between African-American and Caucasian women. Mammary tumors in black women are diagnosed at earlier age, and are associated with higher rate of mortality as compared with cancers of white cases. Results of studies on these ethnic/racial differences in breast cancer incidence suggest that excessive pigmentation of dark skinned women results in a relative light-deficiency. Poor light exposure may explain the deleterious metabolic and hormonal alterations; such as insulin resistance, deficiencies of estrogen, thyroxin and vitamin-D conferring excessive cancer risk. The more northern the location of an adoptive country the higher the cancer risk for dark skinned immigrants. Recognition of the deleterious systemic effects of darkness and excessive melatonin synthesis enables cancer protection treatment for people living in light-deficient environment. Recent patents provide new methods for the prevention of hormonal and metabolic abnormities.

  16. Interaction between radiation and other breast cancer risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, J.D. Jr.; Stone, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    A follow-up study was conducted of 1764 women institutionalized for pulmonary tuberculosis between 1930 and 1954. Among 1047 women exposed to fluoroscopic chest X-rays during air collapse therapy of the lung, an excess of breast cancer was observed and previously reported (41 cases observed versus 23.3 expected). Among 717 comparison patients who received other treatments, no excess breast cancer risk was apparent (15 cases observed versus 14.1 expected). To determine whether breast cancer risk factors modify the carcinogenic effect of radiation, analyses were performed evaluating the interaction of radiation with indicators of breast cancer risk. The greatest radiation risk was found when radiation exposure occurred just before and during menarche. Similarly, exposures during first pregnancy appeared substantially more hazardous than exposures occurring before or after first pregnancy, suggesting that the condition of the breast at the time of pregnancy modifies the effect of radiation in such a way as to enhance the risk. Age at menopause did not appear to influence the risk of radiation exposure. Other than radiation, benign breast disease was the most significant breast cancer risk indicator. Benign breast disease was not seen to modify the effect of radiation exposure; however, excessive radiation exposure might have increased the incidence of benign breast disease, complicating the interaction analysis. Because of the uncertainty due to small-number sampling variation, these study results will require confirmation by a larger series. They do, however, suggest that stages when breast tissue undergoes high mitotic activity, e.g. menarche and pregnancy, are times of special vulnerability to the harmful effects of ionizing radiation

  17. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukheris, Houda [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel S. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stratton, Kayla L. [Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hammond, Sue [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Mertens, Ann C. [Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L. [Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Neglia, Joseph P. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Inskip, Peter D., E-mail: inskippe@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  18. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukheris, Houda; Stovall, Marilyn; Gilbert, Ethel S.; Stratton, Kayla L.; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita; Hammond, Sue; Mertens, Ann C.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies

  19. Estimating internal exposure risks by the relative risk and the National Institute of Health risk models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, S.K.; Sarangapani, R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents tabulations of risk (R) and person-years of life lost (PYLL) for acute exposures of individual organs at ages 20 and 40 yrs for the Indian and Japanese populations to illustrate the effect of age at exposure in the two models. Results are also presented for the organ wise nominal probability coefficients (NPC) and PYLL for individual organs for the age distributed Indian population by the two models. The results presented show that for all organs the estimates of PYLL and NPC for the Indian population are lower than those for the Japanese population by both models except for oesophagus, breast and ovary by the relative risk (RR) model, where the opposite trend is observed. The results also show that the Indian all-cancer values of NPC averaged over the two models is 2.9 x 10 -2 Sv -1 , significantly lower than the world average value of 5x10 -2 Sv -1 estimated by the ICRP. (author). 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Radiation exposure and risk assessment for critical female body organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwell, W.; Weyland, M.D.; Hardy, A.C.

    1991-07-01

    Space radiation exposure limits for astronauts are based on recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. These limits now include the age at exposure and sex of the astronaut. A recently-developed computerized anatomical female (CAF) model is discussed in detail. Computer-generated, cross-sectional data are presented to illustrate the completeness of the CAF model. By applying ray-tracing techniques, shield distribution functions have been computed to calculate absorbed dose and dose equivalent values for a variety of critical body organs (e.g., breasts, lungs, thyroid gland, etc.) and mission scenarios. Specific risk assessments, i.e., cancer induction and mortality, are reviewed. 13 refs

  1. Increased Cancer Mortality Risk for NASA's ISS Astronauts: The Contribution of Diagnostic Radiological Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, C.W.; Picco, C. E.; Gonzalez, S. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Van Baalen, M.; Shavers, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the radiation exposures and risks associated with long-term spaceflight on the International Space Station. NASA's risk model of cancer mortality is also presented.

  2. Czech miner studies of lung cancer risk from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence of lung cancer risk from radon is based mainly on studies of miners. Two such studies among Czech uranium miners were established in 1970 and 1980. A subcohort of 5002 miners and a nested-in case-control study contribute to a joint European project. In this paper, the subcohort of miners with 495 lung cancers is described. The excess relative risk depends linearly on cumulative exposure incurred more than 5 years before. The relative effect from exposures in the distant past decreases by 62% per decade. Simultaneously, the excess relative risk is lower by 43% per decade in dependence on age at exposure. The effect of smoking, partly analysed in the study, suggests a twofold elevation in the relative risk coefficient among non-smokers, but this difference is not significant. (author)

  3. Polymorphisms of Selected DNA Repair Genes and Lung Cancer in Chromium Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasova, E; Matakova, T; Skerenova, M; Krutakova, M; Slovakova, P; Dzian, A; Javorkova, S; Pec, M; Kypusova, K; Hamzik, J

    2016-01-01

    Chromium is a well-known mutagen and carcinogen involved in lung cancer development. DNA repair genes play an important role in the elimination of genetic changes caused by chromium exposure. In the present study, we investigated the polymorphisms of the following DNA repair genes: XRCC3, participating in the homologous recombination repair, and hMLH1 and hMSH2, functioning in the mismatch repair. We focused on the risk the polymo